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Sample records for synthetic sex pheromone

  1. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to traps in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D P; Bandi, K K; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G; Hamilton, J G C

    2009-05-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world's burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly because vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results show the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world's most important neglected diseases, AVL. We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (+/-)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. By formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, showing the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control.

  2. Synthetic Sex Pheromone Attracts the Leishmaniasis Vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to Traps in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D. P.; Bandi, K. K.; Brazil, R. P.; Oliveira, A. G.; Hamilton, J.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world’s burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly as vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of AVL, Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies, attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results demonstrate the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world’s most important neglected diseases, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. Then by formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, demonstrating the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control. PMID:19496409

  3. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

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    Brazil Reginaldo P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae. Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels, and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could

  4. Synthesis and field evaluation of synthetic blends of the sex pheromone of Crocidosema aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Andres; Altesor, Paula; Liberati, Paola; Rossini, Carmen [Laboratorio de Ecologia Quimica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Alves, Leticia; Ramos, Juan; Carrera, Ignacio; Gonzalez, David; Seoane, Gustavo; Gamenara, Daniela [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Silva, Horacio; Castiglioni, Enrique [Departamento de Proteccion Vegetal, Facultad de Agronomia, EEMAC, Universidad de la Republica, Paysandu (Uruguay)

    2012-11-15

    Crocidosema (= Epinotia) aporema (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a bud borer that feeds on soybean and forage legumes. Its economic importance is restricted to South America, where it can alternate throughout the year between forage and grain legumes. The sex pheromone of C. aporema females is composed of a 15:1 mixture of (7Z,9Z)-dodeca-7,9-dien-1-ol and (7Z,9Z)- dodeca-7,9-dienyl acetate. Aiming at the development of a monitoring tool, it was synthesized both components of the pheromone and evaluated male captures in pheromone traps baited with different blends of synthetic pheromone, in an experimental soybean field in Uruguay. The conjugated dienes were obtained from 2-pentyn-1-ol and 1,7-heptanediol, by oxidation of the former, Wittig coupling and Zn-catalyzed reduction of the triple bond. The 1:1 mixture was the most efficient in capturing males. The pheromone traps were attractive for up to 40 days, even with small septum loads (0.1 mg) and low population levels. (author)

  5. Female detection of the synthetic sex pheromone contributes to the efficacy of mating disruption of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Steinitz, Hadass

    2015-02-01

    Studies of the mechanisms by which mating-disruption techniques control insect pest populations have traditionally focused on the effects of the species-specific sex pheromone on the male moths, while neglecting possible direct effects of the pheromone on females. Here, the effects of exposure to synthetic species-specific sex-pheromone on Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth) females were tested. Females in vineyards that were treated with mating-disruption pheromone burst into short bouts of flying more frequently, but called significantly less frequently than females in untreated plots. Reduced calling caused by exposure to the species-specific sex-pheromone may increase the age at which females mate and thereby reduce female fecundity. Females that called in a pheromone-saturated environment experienced a decrease in number of oviposited eggs. A further decrease in reproductive success may occur if females delay oviposition when exposed to access of the synthetic pheromone. In addition to reducing the ability of males to locate females, the mating-disruption technique can suppress pest numbers as a consequence of its direct effects on females. The two mechanisms probably act synergistically. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Attraction of Chrysoperla carnea complex and Chrysopa spp. lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to aphid sex pheromone components and a synthetic blend of floral compounds in Hungary.

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    Koczor, Sándor; Szentkirályi, Ferenc; Birkett, Michael A; Pickett, John A; Voigt, Erzsébet; Tóth, Miklós

    2010-12-01

    The deployment of synthetic attractants for the manipulation of lacewing populations as aphid predators is currently used in integrated pest management. This study investigates a synthetic bait comprising floral compounds previously found to attract the Chrysoperla carnea complex, and, for the first time, the aphid sex pheromone components (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol and (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone, in field experiments in Hungary, for their ability to manipulate lacewing populations. The synthetic floral bait attracted both sexes of the Chrysoperla carnea complex, and Chrysopa formosa Brauer showed minimal attraction. The aphid sex pheromone compounds alone attracted males of C. formosa and C. pallens (Rambur). When the two baits were combined, Chrysopa catches were similar to those with aphid sex pheromone baits alone, but carnea complex catches decreased significantly (by 85-88%). As the floral bait alone attracted both sexes of the carnea complex, it showed potential to manipulate the location of larval density via altering the site of oviposition. Aphid sex pheromone compounds alone attracted predatory males of Chrysopa spp. and can potentially be used to enhance biological control of aphids. For the carnea complex, however, a combination of both baits is not advantageous because of the decrease in adults attracted. Assumptions of intraguild avoidance underlying this phenomenon are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Synthetic sex pheromone in a long-lasting lure attracts the visceral leishmaniasis vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, for up to 12 weeks in Brazil.

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    Daniel P Bray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current control methodologies have not prevented the spread of visceral leishmaniasis (VL across Brazil. Here, we describe the development of a new tool for controlling the sand fly vector of the disease: a long-lasting lure, which releases a synthetic male sex pheromone, attractive to both sexes of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This device could be used to improve the effectiveness of residual insecticide spraying as a means of sand fly control, attracting L. longipalpis to insecticide-treated animal houses, where they could be killed in potentially large numbers over a number of weeks. Different lure designs releasing the synthetic pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B (CAS 183158-38-5 were field-tested in Araçatuba, São Paulo (SP. Experiments compared numbers of sand flies caught overnight in experimental chicken sheds with pheromone lures, to numbers caught in control sheds without pheromone. Prototype lures, designed to last one night, were first used to confirm the attractiveness of the pheromone in SP, and shown to attract significantly more flies to test sheds than controls. Longer-lasting lures were tested when new, and at fortnightly intervals. Lures loaded with 1 mg of pheromone did not attract sand flies for more than two weeks. However, lures loaded with 10 mg of pheromone, with a releasing surface of 15 cm2 or 7.5 cm2, attracted female L. longipalpis for up to ten weeks, and males for up to twelve weeks. Approximately five times more sand flies were caught with 7.5 cm2 10 mg lures when first used than occurred naturally in non-experimental chicken resting sites. These results demonstrate that these lures are suitably long-lasting and attractive for use in sand fly control programmes in SP. To our knowledge, this is the first sex pheromone-based technology targeting an insect vector of a neglected human disease. Further studies should explore the general applicability of this approach for combating other insect-borne diseases.

  8. The evolution of female sex pheromones

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    Ally R. HARARI, Hadass STEINITZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of female sex pheromones in natural selection, particularly as a means for species recognition to avoid the generation of hybrid offspring with low fitness, has been widely explored and is generally accepted by scholars. However, the significance of sex pheromones in shaping mate choice (sexual selection and in competition over breeding resources (social selection has been largely ignored. The effect of sexual selection on sex pheromones as a sexually dimorphic signaling trait has been discounted because the amount of pheromone released by females is typically minute, while the role of sex pheromones in competition over breeding resources (other than mates has not yet been considered. As a result of natural selection, variation in sex pheromones among females is expected to be low, and males are not expected to choose their mates among pheromone-releasing conspecific females. Sexual selection, on the other hand, should drive the increase in pheromone variance among females, and males are expected to choose females based on this variation. Moreover, social selection resulting from more general social interactions, for example competition among females for breeding sites and food, should also promote variance among female sex pheromones. Here, we review the current evidence for each of the three selection processes acting on sex pheromones of female moths as an advertising trait. We suggest that the three selection types are not mutually exclusive but rather act together to promote different fitness components in diverse ecological situations [Current Zoology 59 (4: 569–578, 2013].

  9. A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi

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    Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

  10. Moth sex pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones.

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    Pingxi Xu

    Full Text Available The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this "lock-and-key" tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs. Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald, and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor. We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1 was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13 showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors.

  11. Sex in the night: fatty acid-derived sex pheromones and corresponding membrane pheromone receptors in insects.

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    Koutroumpa, Fotini A; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2014-12-01

    The moth sex pheromone communication is one of the most striking examples of chemical communication in the animal kingdom. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of pheromone biosynthesis in the female pheromone gland and of pheromone reception in the male antennae not only defines new concepts in signalling research but also opens new perspectives for insect control. In this mini-review, we use the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis as a guideline to illustrate the recent advances gained in the understanding of moth sex pheromone communication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors influencing capture of invasive sea lamprey in traps baited with a synthesized sex pheromone component

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    Johnson, Nicholas; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10−12 M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20–40 %) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  13. Sex Pheromone and Trail Pheromone of the Sand Termite Psammotermes hybostoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sillam-Dusses, David; Hanus, Robert; Abd El-Latif, A. O.; Jiroš, Pavel; Krasulová, Jana; Kalinová, Blanka; Valterová, Irena; Šobotník, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2011), s. 179-188 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sex pheromone * trail pheromone * Psammotermes hybostoma * termites * Rhinotermitidae Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.657, year: 2011

  14. Pheromones of milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) attract wayward plant bugs: Phytocoris mirid sex pheromone.

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    Zhang, Qing-He; Aldrich, Jeffrey R

    2003-08-01

    The synthetic aggregation pheromone of the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) (Lygaeinae), also attracted males of the plant bug, Phytocoris difficilis Knight (Miridae). Field testing partial blends against the six-component blend comprising the Oncopeltus pheromone showed that cross-attraction of P. difficilis males was due to synergism between (E)-2-octenyl acetate and (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate. Hexyl acetate was abundant in the metathoracic scent gland (MSG) secretion of P. difficilis males, but because female P. difficilis could not initially be found in the field, further combinatorial tests were guided by prior research on the pheromones of two Phytocoris species in the western United States. The combination of hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates was as attractive to P. difficilis males as the milkweed bug pheromone, yet no milkweed bugs were drawn to this blend. Gas chromatographic (GC)-electroantennographic detection (EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric (MS) analyses of female P. difficilis MSGs determined that their secretion contained predominantly hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (all strongly EAD-active)-the latter two compounds found only in trace amounts from males-plus five minor female-specific compounds, three of which were EAD-active. (E,E)-2,4-Hexadienyl acetate was not detected from P. difficilis females or males. The blend of the three major components, hexyl, (E)-2-hexenyl, and (E)-2-octenyl acetates (2:1.5:1 by volume), was as attractive as the blend of all six EAD-active compounds identified from females, indicating that this ternary blend constitutes the sex pheromone of P. difficilis. Hexyl acetate with (E)-2-octenyl acetate also attracted males of another species, P. breviusculus Reuter, but addition of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and/or (E,E)-2,4-hexadienyl acetate inhibited attraction of P. breviusculus males. Attraction of P. difficilis males occurred mainly during the first half of scotophase. The

  15. Differential arrestment of Trichogramma wasps to extreme sex pheromone types of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Huigens, M.E.; Orr, D.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    1. Chemical espionage in nature may occur when predators or parasitoids home in on animal or plant communication signals. Parasitoid wasps are known to use pheromones emitted by adults hosts to locate host eggs, larvae or pupae. The response of Trichogramma egg parasitoids to a synthetic sex

  16. Isolation, identification and field tests of the sex pheromone of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes.

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    Hung, C C; Hwang, J S; Hung, M D; Yen, Y P; Hou, R F

    2001-09-01

    Two components, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate (Z8-12:Ac) and (Z)-8-dodecenol (Z8-12:OH), were isolated from sex pheromone glands of the carambola fruit borer, Eucosma notanthes, and were identified by GC, and GC-MS, chemical derivatization, and comparison of retention times. The ratio of the alcohol to acetate in the sex pheromone extracts was 2.7. However, synthetic mixtures (1 mg) in ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 were more effective than other blends in trapping male moths in field tests.

  17. Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Four Stereoisomers of the Sex Pheromone of the Western Corn Rootworm

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    Zhi-Feng Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A convergent synthesis of four stereoisomers of the sex pheromone of the western corn rootworm (8-methyldecan-2-yl propionate, 1 from commercially available chiral starting materials is reported. The key step was Julia–Kocienski olefination between chiral BT-sulfone and chiral aldehyde. This synthetic route provided the four stereoisomers of 1 in 24–29% total yield via a six-step sequence. The simple scale-up strategy provides a new way to achieve the asymmetric synthesis of the sex pheromone.

  18. The male sex pheromone of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana: towards an evolutionary analysis.

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    Caroline M Nieberding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated behaviours, biosynthetic pathways, compounds, scent-releasing structures and receiving systems. Here we assess whether the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana, for which genetic, genomic, phylogenetic, ecological and ethological tools are available, represents a relevant model to contribute to such comparative studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a multidisciplinary approach, we determined the chemical composition of the male sex pheromone (MSP in the African butterfly B. anynana, and demonstrated its behavioural activity. First, we identified three compounds forming the presumptive MSP, namely (Z-9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH, hexadecanal (16:Ald and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol (6,10,14-trime-15-2-ol, and produced by the male secondary sexual structures, the androconia. Second, we described the male courtship sequence and found that males with artificially reduced amounts of MSP have a reduced mating success in semi-field conditions. Finally, we could restore the mating success of these males by perfuming them with the synthetic MSP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides one of the first integrative analyses of a MSP in butterflies. The toolkit it has developed will enable the investigation of the type of information about male quality that is conveyed by the MSP in intraspecific communication. Interestingly, the chemical structure of B. anynana MSP is similar to some sex pheromones of female moths making a direct comparison of pheromone biosynthesis between male butterflies and female moths relevant

  19. Analysis of the Agrotis segetum pheromone gland transcriptome in the light of sex pheromone biosynthesis.

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    Ding, Bao-Jian; Löfstedt, Christer

    2015-09-18

    Moths rely heavily on pheromone communication for mate finding. The pheromone components of most moths are modified from the products of normal fatty acid metabolism by a set of tissue-specific enzymes. The turnip moth, Agrotis segetum uses a series of homologous fatty-alcohol acetate esters ((Z)-5-decenyl, (Z)-7-dodecenyl, and (Z)-9 tetradecenyl acetate) as its sex pheromone components. The ratio of the components differs between populations, making this species an interesting subject for studies of the enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathway and their influence on sex pheromone variation. Illumina sequencing and comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the pheromone gland and abdominal epidermal tissue, enabled us to identify genes coding for putative key enzymes involved in the pheromone biosynthetic pathway, such as fatty acid synthase, β-oxidation enzymes, fatty-acyl desaturases (FAD), fatty-acyl reductases (FAR), and acetyltransferases. We functionally assayed the previously identified ∆11-desaturase [GenBank: ES583599, JX679209] and FAR [GenBank: JX679210] and candidate acetyltransferases (34 genes) by heterologous expression in yeast. The functional assay confirmed that the ∆11-desaturase interacts with palmitate and produces (Z)-11-hexadecenoate, which is the common unsaturated precursor of three homologous pheromone component acetates produced by subsequent chain-shortening, reduction and acetylation. Much lower, but still visible, activity on 14C and 12C saturated acids may account for minor pheromone compounds previously observed in the pheromone gland. The FAR characterized can operate on various unsaturated fatty acids that are the immediate acyl precursors of the different A. segetum pheromone components. None of the putative acetyltransferases that we expressed heterologously did acetylate any of the fatty alcohols tested as substrates. The massive sequencing technology generates enormous amounts of candidate genes potentially

  20. Pheromone binding proteins enhance the sensitivity of olfactory receptors to sex pheromones in Chilo suppressalis.

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    Chang, Hetan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Pelosi, Paolo; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-08-27

    Sexual communication in moths offers a simplified scenario to model and investigate insect sensory perception. Both PBPs (pheromone-binding proteins) and PRs (pheromone receptors) are involved in the detection of sex pheromones, but the interplay between them still remains largely unknown. In this study, we have measured the binding affinities of the four recombinant PBPs of Chilo suppressalis (CsupPBPs) to pheromone components and analogs and characterized the six PRs using the Xenopus oocytes expression system. Interestingly, when the responses of PRs were recorded in the presence of PBPs, we measured in several combinations a dramatic increase in signals as well as in sensitivity of such combined systems. Furthermore, the discrimination ability of appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs was improved compared with the performance of PBPs or PRs alone. Besides further supporting a role of PBPs in the pheromone detection and discrimination, our data shows for the first time that appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs improved the discrimination ability of PBPs or PRs alone. The variety of responses measured with different pairing of PBPs and PRs indicates the complexity of the olfaction system, which, even for the relatively simple task of detecting sex pheromones, utilises a highly sophisticated combinatorial approach.

  1. Identification of the pheromone biosynthesis genes from the sex pheromone gland transcriptome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

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    Chen, Da-Song; Dai, Jian-Qing; Han, Shi-Chou

    2017-11-24

    The diamondback moth was estimated to increase costs to the global agricultural economy as the global area increase of Brassica vegetable crops and oilseed rape. Sex pheromones traps are outstanding tools available in Integrated Pest Management for many years and provides an effective approach for DBM population monitoring and control. The ratio of two major sex pheromone compounds shows geographical variations. However, the limitation of our information in the DBM pheromone biosynthesis dampens our understanding of the ratio diversity of pheromone compounds. Here, we constructed a transcriptomic library from the DBM pheromone gland and identified genes putatively involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis, pheromones functional group transfer, and β-oxidation enzymes. In addition, odorant binding protein, chemosensory protein and pheromone binding protein genes encoded in the pheromone gland transcriptome, suggest that female DBM moths may receive odors or pheromone compounds via their pheromone gland and ovipositor system. Tissue expression profiles further revealed that two ALR, three DES and one FAR5 genes were pheromone gland tissue biased, while some chemoreception genes expressed extensively in PG, pupa, antenna and legs tissues. Finally, the candidate genes from large-scale transcriptome information may be useful for characterizing a presumed biosynthetic pathway of the DBM sex pheromone.

  2. Identification of the pheromone biosynthesis genes from the sex pheromone gland transcriptome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Da-Song; Dai, Jian-Qing; Han, Shi-Chou

    2017-01-01

    The diamondback moth was estimated to increase costs to the global agricultural economy as the global area increase of Brassica vegetable crops and oilseed rape. Sex pheromones traps are outstanding tools available in Integrated Pest Management for many years and provides an effective approach for DBM population monitoring and control. The ratio of two major sex pheromone compounds shows geographical variations. However, the limitation of our information in the DBM pheromone biosynthesis damp...

  3. Novel sex cells and evidence for sex pheromones in diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shinya; Beakes, Gordon; Idei, Masahiko; Nagumo, Tamotsu; Mann, David G

    2011-01-01

    Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss--whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after--is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the 'araphid' basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy) and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based 'threads', which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial 'random walk'. The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments are the first studies in which gametogenesis has been induced in diatoms by cell

  4. Novel sex cells and evidence for sex pheromones in diatoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Sato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss--whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after--is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the 'araphid' basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based 'threads', which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial 'random walk'. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments

  5. Genes involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis of Ephestia cautella, an important food storage pest, are determined by transcriptome sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Antony, Binu

    2015-07-18

    Background Insects use pheromones, chemical signals that underlie all animal behaviors, for communication and for attracting mates. Synthetic pheromones are widely used in pest control strategies because they are environmentally safe. The production of insect pheromones in transgenic plants, which could be more economical and effective in producing isomerically pure compounds, has recently been successfully demonstrated. This research requires information regarding the pheromone biosynthetic pathways and the characterization of pheromone biosynthetic enzymes (PBEs). We used Illumina sequencing to characterize the pheromone gland (PG) transcriptome of the Pyralid moth, Ephestia cautella, a destructive storage pest, to reveal putative candidate genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis, release, transport and degradation. Results We isolated the E. cautella pheromone compound as (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, and the major pheromone precursors 16:acyl, 14:acyl, E14-16:acyl, E12-14:acyl and Z9,E12-14:acyl. Based on the abundance of precursors, two possible pheromone biosynthetic pathways are proposed. Both pathways initiate from C16:acyl-CoA, with one involving ∆14 and ∆9 desaturation to generate Z9,E12-14:acyl, and the other involving the chain shortening of C16:acyl-CoA to C14:acyl-CoA, followed by ∆12 and ∆9 desaturation to generate Z9,E12-14:acyl-CoA. Then, a final reduction and acetylation generates Z9,E12-14:OAc. Illumina sequencing yielded 83,792 transcripts, and we obtained a PG transcriptome of ~49.5 Mb. A total of 191 PBE transcripts, which included pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptides, fatty acid transport proteins, acetyl-CoA carboxylases, fatty acid synthases, desaturases, β-oxidation enzymes, fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs) and fatty acetyltransferases (FATs), were selected from the dataset. A comparison of the E. cautella transcriptome data with three other Lepidoptera PG datasets revealed that 45 % of the sequences were shared

  6. Sex Pheromone Investigation of Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attraction of virgin females to odor of calling males was demonstrated. This sex pheromone mediated attraction occurred during the latter half of a 13-h photophase but not during the first half of the day. Two major components of emissions of calling males, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) and 2,5-dihyd...

  7. Effectiveness of Sex Pheromone in Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sulistyowati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella  nell. is a dangerous pest of cocoa which seriously reduce cocoa production mainly in Southeast Asia and Pasific. Prevention of CPB attack can be done by pod sleeving to prevent CPBs lay eggs on pod, or reduction of source of CPB infestation by using pheromone or kairomone as attractant in an insect trap. A preliminary research using sex pheromone has been conducted at endemic cocoa area infested by CPB in East Java. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sex pheromonesin controlling CPB. Trial was arranged by randomized completely block design in four treatments and four blocks as replication. Four densities trap/ha (0, 4, 8, and 12 traps/ha were used as a treatments. Sex pheromone trap consisted of synthetic pheromone (lure and sticky liner was hanged on 0.5 m above the cocoa canopy. The results showed that the number of CPB captured during four months was significantly decreased. The number of CPB captured per trap during the first two months in the treatment of 0, 4, 8 and 12 traps/ha were 0, 6.5, 4.72, and 5.58 CPBs, respectively. Four months after treatment, the number of CPB captured in the respective treatments was reduced to 0, 0.25, 0.6, and 0.96 CPBs. Estimate calculation on yield loss due to CPB attack showed that before treatment the yield loss ranged 37.4—45.6%, however six months after treatment, the yield loss in treatment plots decreased to 9.4—21%, whereas on control 38.47%. Use of sex pheromones to attract CPB at a density of 4 traps/ha reduced yield losses due to CPB damage by 67.7%. The significant correlation betweenthe number of CPB captured with the damage intensity followed regression equation of Y = - 0,00044X + 0,32059. Use of sex pheromone for monitoring or masstrapping of CPB, as a component in IPM of CPB is promising, due to its nature for specific target, environmentally friendly, effectiveness, and economic values

  8. Sex Pheromone of the Cotton Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, with an Unusual Cyclobutane Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T

    2016-11-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, the distribution of which was formerly limited to Nearctic and Neotropical regions, recently invaded many countries in various regions including Asia, Africa, and the Pacific. More recently, P. solenopsis was newly recorded in Japan and is currently an emerging pest of agricultural crops. In this study, we determined the structure of a sex pheromone of P. solenopsis in order to develop an effective lure for monitoring this pest. From volatiles emitted by virgin adult females, we isolated a compound attractive to males. By means of coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified this as (2,2-dimethyl-3-isopropylidenecyclobutyl)methyl 3-methylbut-2-enoate. This compound was synthesized and shown to be attractive to male P. solenopsis. Analysis by gas chromatography using an enantioselective stationary phase and polarimetry analyses of the natural pheromone and synthetic enantiomers showed the natural compound to be the (R)-(-)-enantiomer. This compound is an ester of maconelliol, which has an unusual cyclobutane structure found in sex pheromones of other mealybug species, and senecioic acid, also found in the pheromones of other mealybug species. However, this is the first example of the ester of maconelliol and senecioic acid as a natural product.

  9. Female Sex Pheromone in Trails of the Minute Pirate Bug, Orius minutus (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Taro; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yasui, Hiroe; Matsuyama, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    Orius minutus (L.) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is a natural enemy of agricultural pests such as thrips, aphids, and various newly hatched insect juveniles. In this study, we conducted 1) behavioral assays for evidence of contact sex pheromone activity in trails of O. minutus, and 2) chemical analysis to identify the essential chemical components of the trails. Males showed arrestment to trails of mature virgin females but not to trails from either conspecific nymphs or immature females. Females also showed arrestment to trails from conspecific males, although the response was weaker than that exhibited by males. The activity of female trails lasted for at least 46 h after deposition. Males showed a response irrespective of mating experience. Following confirmation that a contact sex pheromone was present in the trails of female O. minutus, we used a bioassay-driven approach to isolate the active chemicals. After fractionation on silica gel, the n-hexane fraction was found to be biologically active to males. A major compound in the active fraction was (Z)-9-nonacosene; this compound was found only in trail extracts of mature virgin females. Synthetic (Z)-9-nonacosene arrested O. minutus males, indicating that it is the major active component of the contact sex pheromone in the trails of female O. minutus.

  10. Kinetic properties of a sex pheromone-degrading enzyme: the sensillar esterase of Antheraea polyphemus.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, R G; Riddiford, L M; Prestwich, G D

    1985-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has suggested that sex pheromone is rapidly inactivated within the sensory hairs soon after initiation of the action-potential spike. We report the isolation and characterization of a sex-pheromone-degrading enzyme from the sensory hairs of the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus. In the presence of this enzyme at physiological concentration, the pheromone [(6E,11Z)-hexadecadienyl acetate] has an estimated half-life of 15 msec. Our findings suggest a mol...

  11. Sex pheromones of the southern armyworm moth: isolation, identification, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Jones, W A; Aldridge, M H

    1970-10-30

    Two sex pheromones have been isolated from the female southern armyworm moth, Prodenia eridania (Cramer), and identified as cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, identical with the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cis-9,trans-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate.

  12. Functional Studies of Sex Pheromone Receptors in Asian Corn Borer Ostrinia furnacalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Lepidopteran insects use sex pheromones for sexual communication. Pheromone receptors expressed on peripheral olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs are critical part to detect the sex pheromones. In genus Ostrinia, several pheromone receptors were functional analyzed in O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis but the knowledge in O. furnacalis was rare. In this study, seven pheromone receptors were deorphanized by heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes. Functional types of sensilla trichoidea were classified by single sensillum recordings to interpret the response pattern of olfactory sensory neurons to Ostrinia pheromone components. OfurOR4 and OfurOR6 responded to the major sex pheromone Z/E12-14:OAc. OfurOR4 is the main receptor for both Z/E12-14:OAc and OfurOR6 mainly responded to E12-14:OAc. Functional differentiation of gene duplication were found between OfurOR5a and OfurOR5b. OfurOR5b showed a broad response to most of the pheromone components in O. furnacalis, whereas OfurOR5a was found without ligands. OfurOR7 showed a specific response to Z9-14:OAc and OfurOR8 mainly responded to Z11-14:OAc and E11-14:OAc. OfurOR3 did not respond to any pheromone components. Our results improved the current knowledge of pheromone reception in Ostrinia species which may contribute to speciation.

  13. Identification of receptors of main sex-pheromone components of three Lepidopteran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Murai, Masatoshi; Yasuda, Tetsuya; Kugimiya, Soichi; Ozawa, Rika; Toyohara, Haruhiko; Takabayashi, Junji; Miyoshi, Hideto; Nishioka, Takaaki

    2008-09-01

    Male moths discriminate conspecific female-emitted sex pheromones. Although the chemical components of sex pheromones have been identified in more than 500 moth species, only three components in Bombyx mori and Heliothis virescens have had their receptors identified. Here we report the identification of receptors for the main sex-pheromone components in three moth species, Plutella xylostella, Mythimna separata and Diaphania indica. We cloned putative sex-pheromone receptor genes PxOR1, MsOR1 and DiOR1 from P. xylostella, M. separata and D. indica, respectively. Each of the three genes was exclusively expressed with an Or83b orthologous gene in male olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that are surrounded by supporting cells expressing pheromone-binding-protein (PBP) genes. By two-electrode voltage-clamp recording, we tested the ligand specificity of Xenopus oocytes co-expressing PxOR1, MsOR1 or DiOR1 with an OR83b family protein. Among the seven sex-pheromone components of the three moth species, the oocytes dose-dependently responded only to the main sex-pheromone component of the corresponding moth species. In our study, PBPs were not essential for ligand specificity of the receptors. On the phylogenetic tree of insect olfactory receptors, the six sex-pheromone receptors identified in the present and previous studies are grouped in the same subfamily but have no relation with the taxonomy of moths. It is most likely that sex-pheromone receptors have randomly evolved from ancestral sex-pheromone receptors before the speciation of moths and that their ligand specificity was modified by mutations of local amino acid sequences after speciation.

  14. A Single Sex Pheromone Receptor Determines Chemical Response Specificity of Sexual Behavior in the Silkmoth Bombyx mori

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Uchino, Keiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-01-01

    In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z...

  15. Synthetic Co-Attractants of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Date Palm Root Borer Oryctes agamemnon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasni, Narjes; Pinier, Centina; Imed, Cheraief; Ouhichi, Monêem; Couzi, Philippe; Chermiti, Brahim; Frérot, Brigitte; Saïd, Imen; Rochat, Didier

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory and field investigations to identify and evaluate plant co-attractants of the aggregation pheromone of the date palm pest Oryctes agamemnon are reported. Volatiles emitted by freshly cut palm core and palm core with feeding males, were collected, analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and evaluated in olfactometers alone or combined with synthetic pheromone. A collection of palm odor without male effluvia was attractive alone and enhanced attraction to synthetic pheromone in an olfactometer similar to that to a collection of palm odor emitted with feeding males and containing natural pheromone. Behavioral responses to collections of palm volatiles were correlated to the amount of volatiles material in them. Enhancement of the attractiveness of the pheromone was not correlated to chemicals specific to beetle feeding. The chemicals common to the active collections extracts were benzoate esters, mostly ethyl benzoate, anisole derivatives and sesquiterpenes. Blends of the most abundant components of the extracts were evaluated for enhancement of the attractiveness of pheromone (1 μg) in olfactometers at 1 or 10 μg doses. The mixtures were further evaluated by field trapping in Tunisia at 3-10 mg/day using reference (6 mg/day) or experimental pheromone formulations. A mixture of ethyl benzoate, 4-methylanisole and farnesol (1:1:1 w/w at 6.5 mg/day) enhanced captures in pheromone baited traps in 2014 and 2015 and this mixture was as active as the natural palm bait. The practical prospect of the result for the management for O. agamemnon, and other palm beetles is discussed.

  16. Geometric isomers of sex pheromone components do not affect attractancy of Conopomorpha cramerella in cocoa plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella, has previously been identified as a blend of (E,Z,Z)- and (E,E,Z)-4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetates and the corresponding alcohols. These pheromone components have been synthesized with modification of the existing method and relative at...

  17. Asymmetric total synthesis of a putative sex pheromone component from the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Danny; Buter, Jeffrey; van Beek, Teris A.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2014-01-01

    Virgin females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce minute amounts of a sex pheromone, the identity of which has not been fully established. The enantioselective synthesis of a putative component of this pheromone, (6S,8S,10S)-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2E,4E-dien-1-ol (2), is

  18. Functional specificity of sex pheromone receptors in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Male moths can accurately perceive the sex pheromone emitted from conspecific females by their highly accurate and specific olfactory sensory system. Pheromone receptors are of special importance in moth pheromone reception because of their central role in chemosensory signal transduction processes that occur in olfactory receptor neurons in the male antennae. There are a number of pheromone receptor genes have been cloned, however, only a few have been functionally characterized. Here we cloned six full-length pheromone receptor genes from Helicoverpa armigera male antennae. Real-time PCR showing all genes exhibited male-biased expression in adult antennae. Functional analyses of the six pheromone receptor genes were then conducted in the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes. HarmOR13 was found to be a specific receptor for the major sex pheromone component Z11-16:Ald. HarmOR6 was equally tuned to both of Z9-16: Ald and Z9-14: Ald. HarmOR16 was sensitively tuned to Z11-16: OH. HarmOR11, HarmOR14 and HarmOR15 failed to respond to the tested candidate pheromone compounds. Our experiments elucidated the functions of some pheromone receptor genes of H. armigera. These advances may provide remarkable evidence for intraspecific mating choice and speciation extension in moths at molecular level.

  19. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses

    OpenAIRE

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesi...

  20. Controlled release of insect sex pheromones from paraffin wax and emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterholt, C A; Delwiche, M J; Rice, R E; Krochta, J M

    1999-02-22

    Paraffin wax and aqueous paraffin emulsions can be used as controlled release carriers for insect sex pheromones for mating disruption of orchard pests. Paraffin can be applied at ambient temperature as an aqueous emulsion, adheres to tree bark or foliage, releases pheromone for an extended period of time, and will slowly erode from bark and biodegrade in soil. Pheromone emulsions can be applied with simple spray equipment. Pheromone release-rates from paraffin were measured in laboratory flow-cell experiments. Pheromone was trapped from an air stream with an adsorbent, eluted periodically, and quantified by gas chromatography. Pheromone release from paraffin was partition-controlled, providing a constant (zero-order) release rate. A typical paraffin emulsion consisted of 30% paraffin, 4% pheromone, 4% soy oil, 1% vitamin E, 2% emulsifier, and the balance water. Soy oil and vitamin E acted as volatility suppressants. A constant release of oriental fruit moth pheromone from paraffin emulsions was observed in the laboratory for more than 100 days at 27 degreesC, with release-rates ranging from 0.4 to 2 mg/day, depending on the concentration and surface area of the dried emulsion. The use of paraffin emulsions is a viable method for direct application of insect pheromones for mating disruption. Sprayable formulations can be designed to release insect pheromones to the environment at a rate necessary for insect control by mating disruption. At temperatures below 38 degreesC, zero-order release was observed. At 38 degreesC and higher, pheromone oxidation occurred. A partition-controlled release mechanism was supported by a zero-order pheromone release-rate, low air/wax partition coefficients, and pheromone solubility in paraffin.

  1. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  2. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy. PMID:27585907

  3. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-09-02

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy.

  4. Evidence for sex pheromones and inbreeding avoidance in select North America yellowjacket species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the roles of sex pheromones in mate-finding behavior of social wasps (Vespidae). Working with the aerial yellowjacket, Dolichovespula arenaria (Fabricius), baldfaced hornet, D. maculata (L.), western yellowjacket, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), southern yellowjacket, V. squam...

  5. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2017-08-04

    Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product was the (+)-enantiomer of borneol and the optical isomer was undetectable. Although (+)-borneol showed significant sex pheromone activity against males, the antipode (-)-borneol also induced sex pheromone activity, albeit only slightly. Males may not have a strict identification mechanism based on stereochemistry. To verify the origin of this sex pheromone, we analysed the components of the essential oil of the leaves of Solidago canadensis L. (Compositae: Asteraceae), a host plant; bornyl acetate was detected to be a major component. The plant-produced bornyl acetate had different stereochemistry from the sex pheromone. The results suggested that the adults do not utilise the secondary metabolites of plants but biosynthesise this sex pheromone themselves. This is the first report on sex pheromone identification in Tingidae.

  6. Sampling gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania with traps baited with synthetic oviposition pheromone and grass infusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Takken, W.; Mdira, K.Y.; Pickett, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of traps baited with (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (the synthetic oviposition pheromone) and grass infusions in sampling a population of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus Say was conducted in Muheza, Northeast Tanzania. A counterflow geometry (CFG) trap baited with pheromone and

  7. Putative pathway of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation by expression patterns of genes identified from female pheromone gland and adult antenna of Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhu, Jia-Yao; Li, Sheng-Yun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-05-01

    The general pathway of biosynthesis and degradation for Type-I sex pheromones in moths is well established, but some genes involved in this pathway remain to be characterized. The purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens, employs a pheromone blend containing components with three different terminal functional groups (Z11-16:OAc, Z11-16:OH, and Z11-16:Ald) of Type-I sex pheromones. Thus, it provides a good model to study the diversity of genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways. By analyzing previously obtained transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands and antennae, we identified 73 novel genes that are possibly related to pheromone biosynthesis (46 genes) or degradation (27 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that one desaturase (SinfDes4), one fatty acid reductase (SinfFAR2), and one fatty acid xtransport protein (SinfFATP1) genes were predominantly expressed in pheromone glands, and clustered with genes involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Ten genes including five carboxylesterases (SinfCXE10, 13, 14, 18, and 20), three aldehyde oxidases (SinfAOX1, 2 and 3), and two alcohol dehydrogenases (SinfAD1 and 3) were expressed specifically or predominantly in antennae, and could be candidate genes involved in pheromone degradation. SinfAD1 and 3 are the first reported alcohol dehydrogenase genes with antennae-biased expression. Based on these results we propose a pathway involving these potential enzyme-encoding gene candidates in sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation in S. inferens. This study provides robust background information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation, and ultimately provides potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. inferens for control purposes.

  8. Genes involved in sex pheromone biosynthesis of Ephestia cautella, an important food storage pest, are determined by transcriptome sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Antony, Binu; Soffan, Alan; Jakše, Jernej; Alfaifi, Sulieman; Sutanto, Koko D.; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Our study provides important background information on the enzymes involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This information will be useful for the in vitro production of E. cautella sex pheromones and may provide potential targets for disrupting the pheromone-based communication system of E. cautella to prevent infestations.

  9. Field dispersal ability and taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 male Asian corn borer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huasong; Liu Qiongru; Lu Daguang; Wang Endong; Kang Wen; Li Yongjun; He Qiulan; Hu Jianguo

    1998-01-01

    The dispersal ability of F-1 male Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy Separately in parental generation were tested by marking (with Calco oil red or Sudan blue internally)-releasing-recapturing (with synthesized sex pheromone) method in the field where the farthest distance from release point to pheromone trap was 550 m. The results showed that, as compared with the normal male moths, despite of the fact that a part of the irradiated F-1 males had lost dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone, there was no significant difference between the captured rates of irradiated F-1 males and normal males in the trap 550 m from release point, indicated that the dispersal ability or taxis to sex pheromone of irradiated F-1 males arrived at 550 m from release point are still well matched with the normal ones

  10. Stochasticity in the enterococcal sex pheromone response revealed by quantitative analysis of transcription in single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Rebecca J; Bandyopadhyay, Arpan; O'Brien, Sofie A; Barnes, Aaron M T; Hunter, Ryan C; Hu, Wei-Shou; Dunny, Gary M

    2017-07-01

    In Enterococcus faecalis, sex pheromone-mediated transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids can occur under unfavorable conditions, for example, when inducing pheromone concentrations are low and inhibiting pheromone concentrations are high. To better understand this paradox, we adapted fluorescence in situ hybridization chain reaction (HCR) methodology for simultaneous quantification of multiple E. faecalis transcripts at the single cell level. We present direct evidence for variability in the minimum period, maximum response level, and duration of response of individual cells to a specific inducing condition. Tracking of induction patterns of single cells temporally using a fluorescent reporter supported HCR findings. It also revealed subpopulations of rapid responders, even under low inducing pheromone concentrations where the overall response of the entire population was slow. The strong, rapid induction of small numbers of cells in cultures exposed to low pheromone concentrations is in agreement with predictions of a stochastic model of the enterococcal pheromone response. The previously documented complex regulatory circuitry controlling the pheromone response likely contributes to stochastic variation in this system. In addition to increasing our basic understanding of the biology of a horizontal gene transfer system regulated by cell-cell signaling, demonstration of the stochastic nature of the pheromone response also impacts any future efforts to develop therapeutic agents targeting the system. Quantitative single cell analysis using HCR also has great potential to elucidate important bacterial regulatory mechanisms not previously amenable to study at the single cell level, and to accelerate the pace of functional genomic studies.

  11. Identification of Sex Pheromones and Sex Pheromone Mimics for Two North American Click Beetle Species (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in the Genus Cardiophorus Esch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jacqueline M; Collignon, R Maxwell; Zou, Yunfan; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2018-04-01

    To date, all known or suspected pheromones of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) have been identified solely from species native to Europe and Asia; reports of identifications from North American species dating from the 1970s have since proven to be incorrect. While conducting bioassays of pheromones of a longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), we serendipitously discovered that males of Cardiophorus tenebrosus L. and Cardiophorus edwardsi Horn were specifically attracted to the cerambycid pheromone fuscumol acetate, (E)-6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9-dien-2-yl acetate, suggesting that this compound might also be a sex pheromone for the two Cardiophorus species. Further field bioassays and electrophysiological assays with the enantiomers of fuscumol acetate determined that males were specifically attracted by the (R)-enantiomer. However, subsequent analyses of extracts of volatiles from female C. tenebrosus and C. edwardsi showed that the females actually produced a different compound, which was identified as (3R,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-6,10-dodecadienoic acid methyl ester (methyl (3R,6E)-2,3-dihydrofarnesoate). In field trials, both the racemate and the (R)-enantiomer of the pheromone attracted similar numbers of male beetles, suggesting that the (S)-enantiomer was not interfering with responses to the insect-produced (R)-enantiomer. This report constitutes the first conclusive identification of sex pheromones for any North American click beetle species. Possible reasons for the strong and specific attraction of males to fuscumol acetate, which is markedly different in structure to the actual pheromone, are discussed.

  12. Factors Affecting sex pheromone production in female cotton leaf worm moth, Spodoptera littoralis (boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, H.A.; Hazaa, M.A.; Abd El-Rahman, H.A.; Hussein, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Factors influencing sex pheromone production in the cotton leaf worm female moth with emphasis on gamma radiation were investigated. To determine the effect of age on sex pheromone production, ether extracts of the female abdominal tips were prepared from virgin females of various ages in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. Each female extract was tested against 1-2 days-old males. The obtained results indicated that virgin females could secrete sex pheromone early at the beginning of their life. The pheromone production increased rapidly to reach its maximum on the second day. To study the effect of daytime on sex pheromone production, the ether extracts of 1-2 days old virgin female abdominal tips were prepared at 3 hour-intervals, throughout the photo phase and scotophase in a concentration of 0.01 FE/mu L. The obtained results indicated that pheromone production showed a minimum concentration at mid-day during the photo phase. It then increased to a moderate concentration from 7:0 p.m. to 10:0 p.m. and reached its maximum titer at almost mid-night. The obtained data on the effect of gamma irradiation indicated that irradiation of 3 and 6-day-old female pupae with doses of 60 and 120 Gy, respectively caused a reduction of 28.1 and 27.3 % in male response, respectively, to female sex pheromone extracts. When full-grown female pupae were irradiated with 200 and 350 Gy, a reduction of 15.6 and 75% in male response, respectively, was reached. Thus, an irradiation dose of 350 Gy applied to full-grown female pupae could severely affect pheromone production of the emerging female moths

  13. Short-chain alkanes synergise responses of moth pests to their sex pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurba, Alexandre; Guerin, Patrick M

    2016-05-01

    The use of sex pheromones for mating disruption of moth pests of crops is increasing worldwide. Efforts are under way to augment the efficiency and reliability of this control method by adding molecules derived from host plants to the sex attractants in dispensers. We show how attraction of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff., and the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., males to underdosed levels of their sex pheromones is increased by adding heptane or octane over a range of release rates. Pheromone-alkane mixtures enhance male recruitment by up to 30%, reaching levels induced by calling females, and shorten the flight time to the sex attractant by a factor of 2. The findings show the promise of using short-chain alkanes as pheromone synergists for mating disruption of insect pests of food crops. Alkane-pheromone combinations are expected to increase the competitiveness of dispensers with females, and to reduce the amount of pheromone needed for the control of these pests. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of natural and synthetic alarm pheromone and individual pheromone components on foraging behavior of the giant Asian honey bee, Apis dorsata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Wang, Zhengwei; Tan, Ken; Qu, Yufeng; Nieh, James C

    2014-10-01

    Social pollinators such as honey bees face attacks from predators not only at the nest, but also during foraging. Pollinating honey bees can therefore release alarm pheromones that deter conspecifics from visiting dangerous inflorescences. However, the effect of alarm pheromone and its chemical components upon bee avoidance of dangerous food sources remains unclear. We tested the responses of giant honey bee foragers, Apis dorsata, presented with alarm pheromone at a floral array. Foragers investigated the inflorescence with natural alarm pheromone, but 3.3-fold more foragers preferred to land on the 'safe' inflorescence without alarm pheromone. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, we identified eight chemical components in the alarm pheromone, of which three components (1-octanol, decanal and gamma-octanoic lactone) have not previously been reported in this species. We bioassayed six major compounds and found that a synthetic mixture of these compounds elicited behaviors statistically indistinguishable from responses to natural alarm pheromone. By testing each compound separately, we show that gamma-octanoic lactone, isopentyl acetate and (E)-2-decen-1-yl acetate are active compounds that elicit significant alarm responses. Gamma-octanoic lactone elicited the strongest response to a single compound and has not been previously reported in honey bee alarm pheromone. Isopentyl acetate is widely found in the alarm pheromones of sympatric Asian honey bee species, and thus alarmed A. dorsata foragers may produce information useful for conspecifics and heterospecifics, thereby broadening the effects of alarm information on plant pollination. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. The Lutzomyia longipalpis complex: a brief natural history of aggregation-sex pheromone communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Dias, Denise B Dos Santos; Araki, Alejandra S; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Jones, Théresa M

    2016-11-14

    In this paper we review the natural history of pheromone communication and the current diversity of aggregation-sex pheromones in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. This species complex is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. The identification of variation in pheromone chemotypes combined with molecular and sound analyses have all contributed to our understanding of the extent of divergence among cryptic members of this complex. The importance of chemical signals as pre-mating barriers and drivers of speciation is discussed. Moreover, the importance of aggregation-sex pheromones as sexually selected signals is highlighted with evidence from the literature suggesting their potential role in species and mate recognition as well as mate assessment. The distinct evolutionary forces possibly involved are briefly reviewed and discussed in the context of this intriguing insect.

  16. Male sex pheromone components in Heliconius butterflies released by the androconia affect female choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Darragh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sex-specific pheromones are known to play an important role in butterfly courtship, and may influence both individual reproductive success and reproductive isolation between species. Extensive ecological, behavioural and genetic studies of Heliconius butterflies have made a substantial contribution to our understanding of speciation. Male pheromones, although long suspected to play an important role, have received relatively little attention in this genus. Here, we combine morphological, chemical and behavioural analyses of male pheromones in the Neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene. First, we identify putative androconia that are specialized brush-like scales that lie within the shiny grey region of the male hindwing. We then describe putative male sex pheromone compounds, which are largely confined to the androconial region of the hindwing of mature males, but are absent in immature males and females. Finally, behavioural choice experiments reveal that females of H. melpomene, H. erato and H. timareta strongly discriminate against conspecific males which have their androconial region experimentally blocked. As well as demonstrating the importance of chemical signalling for female mate choice in Heliconius butterflies, the results describe structures involved in release of the pheromone and a list of potential male sex pheromone compounds.

  17. A sex pheromone receptor in the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Andersson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor Say (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, is a pest of wheat and belongs to a group of gall-inducing herbivores. This species has a unique life history and several ecological features that differentiate it from other Diptera such as Drosophila melanogaster and blood-feeding mosquitoes. These features include a short, non-feeding adult life stage (1-2 days and the use of a long-range sex pheromone produced and released by adult females. Sex pheromones are detected by members of the odorant receptor (OR family within the Lepidoptera, but no receptors for similar long-range sex pheromones have been characterized from the Diptera. Previously, 122 OR genes have been annotated from the Hessian fly genome, with many of them showing sex-biased expression in the antennae. Here we have expressed, in HEK293 cells, five MdesORs that display male-biased expression in antennae, and we have identified MdesOR115 as a Hessian fly sex pheromone receptor. MdesOR115 responds primarily to the sex pheromone component (2S,8E,10E-8,10-tridecadien-2-yl acetate, and secondarily to the corresponding Z,E-isomer. Certain sensory neuron membrane proteins (i.e., SNMP1 are important for responses of pheromone receptors in flies and moths. The Hessian fly genome is unusual in that it encodes six SNMP1 paralogues, of which five are expressed in antennae. We co-expressed each of the five antennal SNMP1 paralogues together with each of the five candidate sex pheromone receptors from the Hessian fly and found that they do not influence the response of MdesOR115, nor do they confer responsiveness in any of the non-responsive ORs to any of the sex pheromone components identified to date in the Hessian fly. Using Western blots, we detected protein expression of MdesOrco, all MdesSNMPs, and all MdesORs except for MdesOR113, potentially explaining the lack of response from this OR. In conclusion, we report the first functional characterization of an OR from the

  18. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  19. Effect of pheromone induction on transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 in intestinal mucus ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2001-01-01

    The effect of synthetic sex pheromone on pheromone-inducible conjugation between the isogenic Enterococcus faecalis strains OG1RF and OG1SS was investigated in (i) Todd-Hewitt broth medium and (ii) intestinal mucus isolated from germ-free rats. In broth, the presence of synthetic pheromone cCF10...

  20. Variation in courtship ultrasounds of three Ostrinia moths with different sex pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takanashi, Takuma; Nakano, Ryo; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    energy at 40 kHz, but distinctly different from the ultrasound produced by O. furnacalis, consisting of groups of pulses peaking at 50 kHz and with substantially more energy up to 80 kHz. Despite overall similarities, temporal features and patterns of amplitude modulation differed significantly among...... the geographic populations of O. nubilalis and O. scapulalis, which differed in pheromone type. In contrast, no significant difference in hearing was found among the three species with regard to the most sensitive frequencies and hearing threshold levels. The patterns of variations in the songs and pheromones...... well reflected those of the phylogenetic relationships, implying that ultrasound and pheromone communications have diverged concordantly. Our results suggest that concordant evolution in sexual signals such as courtship ultrasounds and sex pheromones occurs in moths....

  1. Sex Pheromone of the Almond Moth and the Indian Meal Moth: cis-9, trans-12-Tetradecadienyl Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Y; Kitamura, C; Takashi, S; Hara, H; Ishii, S; Fukami, H

    1971-02-26

    Female moths of different species but belonging to the same subfamily produce an identical compound as their sex pheromone. The sex pheromone of the almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker), and the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), has been isolated and identified as cis-9, trans-12-tetradecadienyl acetate.

  2. Age-dependent plasticity of sex pheromone response in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon: combined effects of octopamine and juvenile hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarriault, David; Barrozo, Romina B; de Carvalho Pinto, Carlos J

    2009-01-01

    Male moths use sex pheromones to find their mating partners. In the moth, Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral response and the neuron sensitivity within the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL), to sex pheromone increase with age and juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis. By manipulating...

  3. Heritable variation of sex pheromone composition and the potential for evolution of resistance to pheromone-based control of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Glenn P; Ryne, Camilla; Löfstedt, Christer

    2002-07-01

    The short-term evolutionary effect of pheromone-based mating disruption on the mating ability of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, was investigated. Three independent selection lines were established, and the mating ability of moths in plastic tents treated with high doses of pheromone and in control tents was compared for two consecutive generations. In addition, the heritability of the sex pheromone blend, measured as the ratio of two major pheromone components (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienol, was estimated. Based on a mother-daughter regression analysis including 21 families, the heritability of the pheromone blend was 0.65 +/- 0.14, indicating a potential for evolutionary change of the character. However, no increase in mating ability of females in pheromone-treated tents or alteration of the pheromone blend was observed in any selection line when compared with control lines, indicating no or weak selection on the pheromone blend as well as other traits influencing mating ability of this species under the created mating disruption conditions. Factors contributing to the lack of selection effects are discussed.

  4. Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, R.G.; Prestwich, G.D.; Riddiford, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-[ 3 H]hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant

  5. Transcriptome exploration of the sex pheromone gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Caballero, Natalia; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Ribeiro, José M C; Cuervo, Patricia; Brazil, Reginaldo P

    2013-03-07

    Molecules involved in pheromone biosynthesis may represent alternative targets for insect population control. This may be particularly useful in managing the reproduction of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum in Latin America. Besides the chemical identity of the major components of the L. longipalpis sex pheromone, there is no information regarding the molecular biology behind its production. To understand this process, obtaining information on which genes are expressed in the pheromone gland is essential. In this study we used a transcriptomic approach to explore the pheromone gland and adjacent abdominal tergites in order to obtain substantial general sequence information. We used a laboratory-reared L. longipalpis (one spot, 9-Methyl GermacreneB) population, captured in Lapinha Cave, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil for this analysis. From a total of 3,547 cDNA clones, 2,502 high quality sequences from the pheromone gland and adjacent tissues were obtained and assembled into 1,387 contigs. Through blast searches of public databases, a group of transcripts encoding proteins potentially involved in the production of terpenoid precursors were identified in the 4th abdominal tergite, the segment containing the pheromone gland. Among them, protein-coding transcripts for four enzymes of the mevalonate pathway such as 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate descarboxylase, and isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase were identified. Moreover, transcripts coding for farnesyl diphosphate synthase and NADP+ dependent farnesol dehydrogenase were also found in the same tergite. Additionally, genes potentially involved in pheromone transportation were identified from the three abdominal tergites analyzed. This study constitutes the first transcriptomic analysis exploring the repertoire of genes expressed in the tissue containing the L. longipalpis pheromone gland as well as the

  6. Functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y-N; Zhang, J; Yan, S-W; Chang, H-T; Liu, Y; Wang, G-R; Dong, S-L

    2014-10-01

    The sex pheromone communication system in moths is highly species-specific and extremely sensitive, and pheromone receptors (PRs) are thought to be the most important factors in males. In the present study, three full-length cDNAs encoding PRs were characterized from Sesamia inferens antennae. These three PRs were all male-specific in expression, but their relative expression levels were very different; SinfOR29 was 17- to 23-fold higher than the other two PRs. Phylogenetic and motif pattern analyses showed that these three PRs were allocated to different PR subfamilies with different motif patterns. Functional analysis using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that SinfOR29 specifically and sensitively responded to the major pheromone component, Z11-16:OAc [concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50 ) = 3.431 × 10(-7) M], while SinfOR21 responded robustly to a minor pheromone component Z11-16:OH (EC50  = 1.087 × 10(-6) M). SinfOR27, however, displayed no response to any of the three pheromone components, but, interestingly, it was sensitive to a non-sex pheromone component Z9,E12-14:OAc (EC50  = 1.522 × 10(-6) M). Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of specificity and sensitivity of the sex pheromone communication system in moths. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Pheromone Binding Protein EhipPBP1 Is Highly Enriched in the Male Antennae of the Seabuckthorn Carpenterworm and Is Binding to Sex Pheromone Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The seabuckthorn carpenterworm moth Eogystia hippophaecolus is a major threat to seabuckthorn plantations, causing considerable ecological and economic losses in China. Transcriptomic analysis of E. hippophaecolus previously identified 137 olfactory proteins, including three pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs. We investigated the function of E. hippophaecolus PBP1 by studying its mRNA and protein expression profiles and its binding ability with different compounds. The highest levels of expression were in the antennae, particularly in males, with much lower levels of expression in the legs and external genitals. Recombinant PBP1 showed strong binding to sex-pheromone components, suggesting that antennal EhipPBP1 is involved in binding sex-pheromone components during pheromone communication.

  8. Differential interactions of sex pheromone and plant odour in the olfactory pathway of a male moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Deisig

    Full Text Available Most animals rely on olfaction to find sexual partners, food or a habitat. The olfactory system faces the challenge of extracting meaningful information from a noisy odorous environment. In most moth species, males respond to sex pheromone emitted by females in an environment with abundant plant volatiles. Plant odours could either facilitate the localization of females (females calling on host plants, mask the female pheromone or they could be neutral without any effect on the pheromone. Here we studied how mixtures of a behaviourally-attractive floral odour, heptanal, and the sex pheromone are encoded at different levels of the olfactory pathway in males of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. In addition, we asked how interactions between the two odorants change as a function of the males' mating status. We investigated mixture detection in both the pheromone-specific and in the general odorant pathway. We used a recordings from individual sensilla to study responses of olfactory receptor neurons, b in vivo calcium imaging with a bath-applied dye to characterize the global input response in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe and c intracellular recordings of antennal lobe output neurons, projection neurons, in virgin and newly-mated males. Our results show that heptanal reduces pheromone sensitivity at the peripheral and central olfactory level independently of the mating status. Contrarily, heptanal-responding olfactory receptor neurons are not influenced by pheromone in a mixture, although some post-mating modulation occurs at the input of the sexually isomorphic ordinary glomeruli, where general odours are processed within the antennal lobe. The results are discussed in the context of mate localization.

  9. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Uchino, Keiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishioka, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2011-06-01

    In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald), in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species-specific behavioral sequence.

  10. A single sex pheromone receptor determines chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sakurai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In insects and other animals, intraspecific communication between individuals of the opposite sex is mediated in part by chemical signals called sex pheromones. In most moth species, male moths rely heavily on species-specific sex pheromones emitted by female moths to identify and orient towards an appropriate mating partner among a large number of sympatric insect species. The silkmoth, Bombyx mori, utilizes the simplest possible pheromone system, in which a single pheromone component, (E, Z-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol, is sufficient to elicit full sexual behavior. We have previously shown that the sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 mediates specific detection of bombykol in the antennae of male silkmoths. However, it is unclear whether the sex pheromone receptor is the minimally sufficient determination factor that triggers initiation of orientation behavior towards a potential mate. Using transgenic silkmoths expressing the sex pheromone receptor PxOR1 of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in BmOR1-expressing neurons, we show that the selectivity of the sex pheromone receptor determines the chemical response specificity of sexual behavior in the silkmoth. Bombykol receptor neurons expressing PxOR1 responded to its specific ligand, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald, in a dose-dependent manner. Male moths expressing PxOR1 exhibited typical pheromone orientation behavior and copulation attempts in response to Z11-16:Ald and to females of P. xylostella. Transformation of the bombykol receptor neurons had no effect on their projections in the antennal lobe. These results indicate that activation of bombykol receptor neurons alone is sufficient to trigger full sexual behavior. Thus, a single gene defines behavioral selectivity in sex pheromone communication in the silkmoth. Our findings show that a single molecular determinant can not only function as a modulator of behavior but also as an all-or-nothing initiator of a complex species

  11. Stylopsal: The First Identified Female-produced Sex Pheromone of Strepsiptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvačka, Josef; Jiroš, Pavel; Kalinová, Blanka; Straka, J.; Černá, K.; Šebesta, Petr; Tomčala, Aleš; Vašíčková, Soňa; Jahn, Ullrich; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 12 (2012), s. 1483-1491 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1466 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : strepsiptera * stylops * sex pheromone * aldehyde * trimethyldodecanal * fat body Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  12. Identification and field and laboratory tests of the sex pheromone of Cerconota anonella Sepp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pires, E. V.; Mendonca, A. L.; Vaníčková, Lucie; Serra, M. S. J.; da Silva, R. C. C.; dos Santos, D. C.; Campos, R. S.; Santana, A. E. G.; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, 1/2 (2016), s. 72-80 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Annona fruit borer * GC x GC-TOFMS * GC-EAD * sex pheromone Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  13. Change in sex pheromone expression by nutritional shift in male cockroaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Shearman, Melanie; Rapkin, James

    2017-01-01

    affected by dietary nutrient composition with higher values on carbohydrate-biased diet, and males had significantly higher and lower levels of consumption, lipid reserves, and sex pheromones when shifted to a carbohydrate-biased and a protein-biased diet, respectively, compared with males maintained...

  14. Identification and functional characterization of a sex pheromone receptor in the silkmoth Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Mori, Hajime; Endo, Yasuhisa; Tanoue, Shintarou; Yasukochi, Yuji; Touhara, Kazushige; Nishioka, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    Sex pheromones released by female moths are detected with high specificity and sensitivity in the olfactory sensilla of antennae of conspecific males. Bombykol in the silkmoth Bombyx mori was the first sex pheromone to be identified. Here we identify a male-specific G protein-coupled olfactory receptor gene, B. mori olfactory receptor 1 (BmOR-1), that appears to encode a bombykol receptor. The BmOR-1 gene is located on the Z sex chromosome, has an eight-exon/seven-intron structure, and exhibits male-specific expression in the pheromone receptor neurons of male moth antenna during late pupal and adult stages. Bombykol stimulation of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing BmOR-1 and BmGαq elicited robust dose-dependent inward currents on two-electrode voltage clamp recordings, demonstrating that the binding of bombykol to BmOR-1 leads to the activation of a BmGαq-mediated signaling cascade. Antennae of female moths infected with BmOR-1-recombinant baculovirus showed electrophysiological responses to bombykol but not to bombykal. These results provide evidence that BmOR-1 is a G protein-coupled sex pheromone receptor that recognizes bombykol. PMID:15545611

  15. Attraction of spathius agrili yang (Hymenoptera: eulophidae) to male-produced "aggregation-sex pheromone:" differences between the sexes and mating status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male and female Spathius agrili Yang were tested for attraction to the synthetic male pheromone. Lures consisting of a 3-component pheromone blend were placed in the center of a white filter paper target used to activate upwind flight in the wind tunnel. When virgin males and females were tested for...

  16. A study of the female produced sex pheromone of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Jaswinder

    regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in mature mated and virgin beetles. Further work is required to elucidate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis. Understanding the regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in this model organism will enhance our understanding of the process in beetles in general, and may (in the long term) lead to new pest control strategies.

  17. Identification of the female-produced sex pheromone of the leafminer Holocacista capensis infesting grapevine in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.-L.; Geertsema, H.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Löfstedt, C.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first identification of a sex pheromone in a heliozelid moth, Holocacista capensis van Nieukerken & Geertsema. This leafminer recently infested grapevine in South Africa. Compared to solvent extraction of pheromone glands, solid phase microextraction (SPME) proved to be highly

  18. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, P.; Vogel, H.; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weissflog, J.; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 41 (2015), s. 12586-12591 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fatty acid desaturase * Manduca sexta * sex pheromone biosynthesis * pheromone evolution * substrate specificity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015

  19. Impact of Gamma Radiation on Sex Pheromone Gland of Female and Male Response of Ephestia calidella (Guen.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.M.; Alm El-Din, M. M. S.; Mikhaiel, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The sex pheromone gland of female oases date moth, Ephestia calidella is located inter segmentally between eight and nine abdominal segment. Effect of three sub sterilizing doses 75, 100 and 125 Gy of gamma radiation on pheromone production and on male response were studied. The results obtained revealed that gamma irradiation reduce the pheromone production by female and the responsiveness of male. The effect was increased by increasing the radiation dose. Histological studies of pheromone gland also, indicated that gamma irradiation disturb epithelial cells of the gland and becoming thin at certain parts. Also, gland hairs ruptured or completely disappeared at the highest dose of 125 Gy.

  20. [Sex pheromone secondary components of Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella in China. HU wenlil 2, DU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenli; Du, Jiawei

    2005-09-01

    Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is considered as an important insect pest infesting stored grains and other products in China. The major sex pheromone component of P. interpunctella, Z9, E12-14: OAc (TDA), has already been identified. Though the efficiency of male capture by using the bait with this component alone is quite good, the pheromone system is far from fully understood. The identification with capillary chromatographic analysis and GC-MS methods showed that there were four main components, i. e., Z9, E12-14: OAc(A), Z9, E12-14: OH (B), Z9, E12-14: Ald(C), and Z9-14: OAc(D), in the sex pheromone gland of female P. interpunctella, and the ratio of these four components was A: B: C:D= 100:22: 12:9. Wind tunnel experimental results suggested that the response of male P. interpunctella to a blend (A: B: C: D = 8:2:1:0.8) was not significantly different from that to female sex pheromone gland extracts.

  1. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  2. Different roles suggested by sex-biased expression and pheromone binding affinity among three pheromone binding proteins in the pink rice borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Yan; Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Liu, Nai-Yong; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-07-01

    Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to bind and transport hydrophobic sex pheromone molecules across the aqueous sensillar lymph to specific pheromone receptors on the dendritic membrane of olfactory neurons. A maximum of 3 PBP genes have been consistently identified in noctuid species, and each of them shares high identity with its counterparts in other species within the family. The functionality differences of the 3 proteins are poorly understood. In the present study, 3 PBP cDNAs (SinfPBP1, 2, 3) were identified from the pink rice borer, Sesamia inferens, for the first time. The quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the 3 PBPs displayed similar temporal but very different sex related expression profiles. Expression of SinfPBP1 and SinfPBP2 were highly and moderately male biased, respectively, while SinfPBP3 was slightly female biased, as SinfPBPs were expressed at very different levels (PBP1>PBP2≫PBP3) in male antennae, but at similar levels in female antennae. Furthermore, the 3 SinfPBPs displayed different ligand binding profiles in fluorescence competitive binding assays. SinfPBP1 exhibited high and similar binding affinities to all 3 sex pheromone components (Ki=0.72-1.60 μM), while SinfPBP2 showed selective binding to the alcohol and aldehyde components (Ki=0.78-1.71 μM), and SinfPBP3 showed no obvious binding to the 3 sex pheromone components. The results suggest that SinfPBP1 plays a major role in the reception of female sex pheromones in S. inferens, while SinfPBP3 plays a least role (if any) and SinfPBP2 functions as a recognizer of alcohol and aldehyde components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. RNA interference of pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor suppresses mating behavior by inhibiting sex pheromone production in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Weon; Shrestha, Sony; Kim, A Young; Park, Seok Joo; Yang, Chang Yeol; Kim, Yonggyun; Koh, Young Ho

    2011-04-01

    Sex pheromone production is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) in many lepidopteran species. We cloned a PBAN receptor (Plx-PBANr) gene from the female pheromone gland of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Plx-PBANr encodes 338 amino acids and has conserved structural motifs implicating in promoting G protein coupling and tyrosine-based sorting signaling along with seven transmembrane domains, indicating a typical G protein-coupled receptor. The expression of Plx-PBANr was found only in the pheromone gland of female adults among examined tissues and developmental stages. Heterologous expression in human uterus cervical cancer cells revealed that Plx-PBANr induced significant calcium elevation when challenged with Plx-PBAN. Female P. xylostella injected with double-stranded RNA specific to Plx-PBANr showed suppression of the receptor gene expression and exhibited significant reduction in pheromone biosynthesis, which resulted in loss of male attractiveness. Taken together, the identified PBAN receptor is functional in PBAN signaling via calcium secondary messenger, which leads to activation of pheromone biosynthesis and male attraction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneously hermaphroditic shrimp use lipophilic cuticular hydrocarbons as contact sex pheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available Successful mating is essentially a consequence of making the right choices at the correct time. Animals use specific strategies to gain information about a potential mate, which is then applied to decision-making processes. Amongst the many informative signals, odor cues such as sex pheromones play important ecological roles in coordinating mating behavior, enabling mate and kin recognition, qualifying mate choice, and preventing gene exchange among individuals from different populations and species. Despite overwhelming behavioral evidence, the chemical identity of most cues used in aquatic organisms remains unknown and their impact and omnipresence have not been fully recognized. In many crustaceans, including lobsters and shrimps, reproduction happens through a cascade of events ranging from initial attraction to formation of a mating pair eventually leading to mating. We examined the hypothesis that contact pheromones on the female body surface of the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata boggessi are of lipophilic nature, and resemble insect cuticular hydrocarbon contact cues. Via chemical analyses and behavioural assays, we show that newly molted euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp contain a bouquet of odor compounds. Of these, (Z-9-octadecenamide is the key odor with hexadecanamide and methyl linoleate enhancing the bioactivity of the pheromone blend. Our results show that in aquatic systems lipophilic, cuticular hydrocarbon contact sex pheromones exist; this raises questions on how hydrocarbon contact signals evolved and how widespread these are in the marine environment.

  5. Pheromones in sex and reproduction: Do they have a role in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pheromones are found throughout the living world and are a primal form of communication. These chemical messengers are transported outside the body and have a direct developmental effect on hormone levels and/or behaviour. This review article aims to highlight the role of human pheromones in sex and reproduction. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and the Scopus engine. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations, were; olfaction; sex; pheromones; libido; behaviour; reproduction; humans; and smell. Although there are studies to support this phenomenon, they are weak because they were not controlled; others have proposed that human olfactory communication is able to perceive certain pheromones that may play a role in behavioural as well as reproductive biology. Unfolding the mysteries of smells and the way they are perceived requires more time and effort as humans are not systems that instinctively fall into a behaviour in response to an odour, they are thinking individuals that exercise judgment and subjected to different motivations.

  6. Simultaneously hermaphroditic shrimp use lipophilic cuticular hydrocarbons as contact sex pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Terschak, John A; Harley, Maggy A; Lin, Junda; Hardege, Jörg D

    2011-04-20

    Successful mating is essentially a consequence of making the right choices at the correct time. Animals use specific strategies to gain information about a potential mate, which is then applied to decision-making processes. Amongst the many informative signals, odor cues such as sex pheromones play important ecological roles in coordinating mating behavior, enabling mate and kin recognition, qualifying mate choice, and preventing gene exchange among individuals from different populations and species. Despite overwhelming behavioral evidence, the chemical identity of most cues used in aquatic organisms remains unknown and their impact and omnipresence have not been fully recognized. In many crustaceans, including lobsters and shrimps, reproduction happens through a cascade of events ranging from initial attraction to formation of a mating pair eventually leading to mating. We examined the hypothesis that contact pheromones on the female body surface of the hermaphroditic shrimp Lysmata boggessi are of lipophilic nature, and resemble insect cuticular hydrocarbon contact cues. Via chemical analyses and behavioural assays, we show that newly molted euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp contain a bouquet of odor compounds. Of these, (Z)-9-octadecenamide is the key odor with hexadecanamide and methyl linoleate enhancing the bioactivity of the pheromone blend. Our results show that in aquatic systems lipophilic, cuticular hydrocarbon contact sex pheromones exist; this raises questions on how hydrocarbon contact signals evolved and how widespread these are in the marine environment.

  7. A Background of a Volatile Plant Compound Alters Neural and Behavioral Responses to the Sex Pheromone Blend in a Moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Fabienne; Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Bourgeois, Thomas; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Anton, Sylvia; Renou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of intra-specific olfactory signals within a complex environment of plant-related volatiles is crucial for reproduction in male moths. Sex pheromone information is detected by specific olfactory receptor neurons (Phe-ORNs), highly abundant on the male antenna. The information is then transmitted to the pheromone processing macroglomerular complex (MGC) within the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe, where it is processed by local interneurons and projection neurons. Ultimately a behavioral response, orientation toward the pheromone source, is elicited. Volatile plant compounds (VPCs) are detected by other functional types of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) projecting in another area of the antennal lobe. However, Phe-ORNs also respond to some VPCs. Female-produced sex pheromones are emitted within a rich environment of VPCs, some of which have been shown to interfere with the detection and processing of sex pheromone information. As interference between the different odor sources might depend on the spatial and temporal features of the two types of stimuli, we investigated here behavioral and neuronal responses to a brief sex pheromone blend pulse in a VPC background as compared to a control background in the male noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon . We observed male orientation behavior in a wind tunnel and recorded responses of Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons to a brief sex pheromone pulse within a background of individual VPCs. We also recorded the global input signal to the MGC using in vivo calcium imaging with the same stimulation protocol. We found that VPCs eliciting a response in Phe-ORNs and MGC neurons masked responses to the pheromone and decreased the contrast between background odor and the sex pheromone at both levels, whereas α-pinene did not interfere with first order processing. The calcium signal produced in response to a VPC background was tonic, lasting longer than the VPC stimulus duration, and masked entirely the pheromone response

  8. Synthesis of the Sex Pheromone of the Tea Tussock Moth Based on a Resource Chemistry Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of the sex pheromone of the tea tussock moth in 33% overall yield over 10 steps was achieved. Moreover, the chiral pool concept was applied in the asymmetric synthesis. The synthesis used a chemical available on a large-scale from recycling of wastewater from the steroid industry. The carbon skeleton was constructed using the C4+C5+C8 strategy. Based on this strategy, the original chiral center was totally retained.

  9. Simultaneously Hermaphroditic Shrimp Use Lipophilic Cuticular Hydrocarbons as Contact Sex Pheromones

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dong; Terschak, John A.; Harley, Maggy A.; Lin, Junda; Hardege, Jörg D.

    2011-01-01

    Successful mating is essentially a consequence of making the right choices at the correct time. Animals use specific strategies to gain information about a potential mate, which is then applied to decision-making processes. Amongst the many informative signals, odor cues such as sex pheromones play important ecological roles in coordinating mating behavior, enabling mate and kin recognition, qualifying mate choice, and preventing gene exchange among individuals from different populations and ...

  10. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Mating Behavior and Male Sex Pheromones in Nasonia Wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Diao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation. Behavioral analysis showed that N. oneida females had consistently higher latency times, and broke off the mating sequence more often in the mounting stage when confronted with N. giraulti males compared with males of their own species. N. oneida males produce a lower quantity of the long-range male sex pheromone (4R,5S-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS-HDL. Crosses between the two species yielded hybrid males with various pheromone quantities, and these males were used in mating trials with females of either species to measure female mate discrimination rates. A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis involving 475 recombinant hybrid males (F2, 2148 reciprocally backcrossed females (F3, and a linkage map of 52 equally spaced neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers plus SNPs in 40 candidate mating behavior genes revealed four QTL for male pheromone amount, depending on partner species. Our results demonstrate that the RS-HDL pheromone plays a role in the mating system of N. giraulti and N. oneida, but also that additional communication cues are involved in mate choice. No QTL were found for female mate discrimination, which points at a polygenic architecture of female choice with strong environmental influences.

  11. Sex-linked pheromone receptor genes of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, are in tandem arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yasukochi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuning of the olfactory system of male moths to conspecific female sex pheromones is crucial for correct species recognition; however, little is known about the genetic changes that drive speciation in this system. Moths of the genus Ostrinia are good models to elucidate this question, since significant differences in pheromone blends are observed within and among species. Odorant receptors (ORs play a critical role in recognition of female sex pheromones; eight types of OR genes expressed in male antennae were previously reported in Ostrinia moths. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened an O. nubilalis bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library by PCR, and constructed three contigs from isolated clones containing the reported OR genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis using these clones as probes demonstrated that the largest contig, which contained eight OR genes, was located on the Z chromosome; two others harboring two and one OR genes were found on two autosomes. Sequence determination of BAC clones revealed the Z-linked OR genes were closely related and tandemly arrayed; moreover, four of them shared 181-bp direct repeats spanning exon 7 and intron 7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of tandemly arrayed sex pheromone receptor genes in Lepidoptera. The localization of an OR gene cluster on the Z chromosome agrees with previous findings for a Z-linked locus responsible for O. nubilalis male behavioral response to sex pheromone. The 181-bp direct repeats might enhance gene duplications by unequal crossovers. An autosomal locus responsible for male response to sex pheromone in Heliothis virescens and H. subflexa was recently reported to contain at least four OR genes. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that generation of additional copies of OR genes can increase the potential for male moths to acquire altered specificity for pheromone components, and accordingly

  12. A novel mechanism regulating a sexual signal: the testosterone-based inhibition of female sex pheromone expression in garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2014-08-01

    Vertebrates communicate their sex to conspecifics through the use of sexually dimorphic signals, such as ornaments, behaviors and scents. Furthermore, the physiological connection between hormones and secondary sexual signal expression is key to understanding their dimorphism, seasonality and evolution. The red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is the only reptile for which a described pheromone currently exists, and because garter snakes rely completely on the sexual attractiveness pheromone for species identification and mate choice, they constitute a unique model species for exploring the relationship between pheromones and the endocrine system. We recently demonstrated that estrogen can activate female pheromone production in male garter snakes. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) acting to prevent female pheromone production in males. We found that castrated males (GX) are courted by wild males in the field and produce appreciable amounts of female sex pheromone. Furthermore, pheromone production is inhibited in castrates given testosterone implants (GX+T), suggesting that pheromone production is actively inhibited by the presence of testosterone. Lastly, testosterone supplementation alone (T) increased the production of several saturated methyl ketones in the pheromone but not the unsaturated ketones; this may indicate that saturated ketones are testosterone-activated components of the garter snake's skin lipid milieu. Collectively, our research has shown that pheromone expression in snakes results from two processes: activation by the feminizing steroid estradiol and inhibition by testosterone. We suggest that basal birds and garter snakes share common pathways of activation that modulate crucial intraspecific signals that originate from skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  14. General odorant-binding proteins and sex pheromone guide larvae of Plutella xylostella to better food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiao; Ban, Liping; Song, Li-Mei; Liu, Yang; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Guirong

    2016-05-01

    Olfaction of Lepidopteran larvae has received little attention, compared to the damage to crops done by insects at this stage. We report that larvae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella are attracted to their natural sex pheromone and to their major component (Z)-11-hexadecenal, but only in a food context. For such task they use two general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), abundantly expressed in the three major sensilla basiconica of the larval antenna, as shown by whole-mount immunostaining and immunocytochemistry experiments. None of the three genes encoding pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are expressed at this stage. Both recombinant GOBPs bind (Z)-11-hexadecenal and the corresponding alcohol, but not the acetate. Binding experiments performed with five mutants of GOBP2, where aromatic residues in the binding pocket were replaced with leucine showed that only one or two amino acid substitutions can completely abolish binding to the pheromone shifting the affinity to plant-derived compounds. We hypothesise that detection of their species-specific pheromone may direct larvae to the sites of foraging chosen by their mother when laying eggs, to find better food, as well as to reduce competition with individuals of the same or other species sharing the same host plant. We also provide evidence that GOBP2 is a narrowly tuned binding protein, whose affinity can be easily switched from linear pheromones to branched plants terpenoids, representing a tool better suited for the simple olfactory system of larvae, as compared to the more sophisticated organ of adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Different bioassays for investigating orientation responses of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, show additive effects of host plant volatiles and a synthetic male-produced aggregation pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.A.; Gold, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Three different bioassay methods to investigate the orientation behaviour of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to host plant volatiles and a synthetic pheromone (cosmolure+) were compared. A locomotion compensator was used to separately record walking

  16. Existence of a sex pheromone in Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduvidae: II. Electrophysiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. de Brito Sanchez

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The stimulus provided by a copulating pair of Triatoma infestans significantly affects the electrical activity of the nervous system of Triatoma infestans. Electrophysiological recordings were perfomed on stationary adult males presented with stimuli of an air current carrying odors from males, females, non-copulating pairs and mating pairs. The electrophysiological response was characterized by the low frequency occurrence of biphasic compound impulses. A significant increase in the frequency of the impulses occurred in stationary males when exposed to air currents of mating pairs, when compared to that evoked by a clean air stream. Analysis of the time course of the assays, showed that the electrophisiological activity during the copula was higher than prior to or after copula. The electrophysiological evidence presented here strongly supports the existence of pheromone(s released by one or both sexes during mating and which is perceived by male chemoreceptors located on the antennae.

  17. An Insecticide Further Enhances Experience-Dependent Increased Behavioural Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrieux, Antoine; Mhamdi, Amel; Rabhi, Kaouther K; Egon, Julie; Debernard, Stéphane; Duportets, Line; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction. As male moth behaviour depends also on its physiological state and previous experience with sensory signals, we wondered if insecticide effects would be dependent on plasticity of olfactory-guided behaviour. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, whether a brief pre-exposure to the sex pheromone could enhance the behavioural response to this important signal in the moth A. ipsilon at different ages (sexually immature and mature males) and after different delays (2 h and 24 h), and if the insecticide clothianidin would interfere with age effects or the potential pre-exposure-effects. Brief pre-exposure to the pheromone induced an age-independent significant increase of sex pheromone responses 24 h later, whereas sex pheromone responses did not increase significantly 2 h after exposure. However, response delays were significantly shorter compared to naïve males already two hours after exposure. Oral treatment with clothianidin increased sex pheromone responses in sexually mature males, confirming previous results, but did not influence responses in young immature males. Males treated with clothianidin after pre-exposure at day 4 responded significantly more to the sex pheromone at day 5 than males treated with clothianidin only and than males pre-exposed only, revealing an additive effect of experience and the insecticide. Plasticity of sensory systems has thus to be taken into account when investigating the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides

  18. An Insecticide Further Enhances Experience-Dependent Increased Behavioural Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect.

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    Antoine Abrieux

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction. As male moth behaviour depends also on its physiological state and previous experience with sensory signals, we wondered if insecticide effects would be dependent on plasticity of olfactory-guided behaviour. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, whether a brief pre-exposure to the sex pheromone could enhance the behavioural response to this important signal in the moth A. ipsilon at different ages (sexually immature and mature males and after different delays (2 h and 24 h, and if the insecticide clothianidin would interfere with age effects or the potential pre-exposure-effects. Brief pre-exposure to the pheromone induced an age-independent significant increase of sex pheromone responses 24 h later, whereas sex pheromone responses did not increase significantly 2 h after exposure. However, response delays were significantly shorter compared to naïve males already two hours after exposure. Oral treatment with clothianidin increased sex pheromone responses in sexually mature males, confirming previous results, but did not influence responses in young immature males. Males treated with clothianidin after pre-exposure at day 4 responded significantly more to the sex pheromone at day 5 than males treated with clothianidin only and than males pre-exposed only, revealing an additive effect of experience and the insecticide. Plasticity of sensory systems has thus to be taken into account when investigating the effects of sublethal doses

  19. Identification and behavioral evaluation of sex pheromone components of the Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis.

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    Xiang-Bo Kong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai and Liu (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae is the most important defoliator of coniferous trees in northern China. Outbreaks occur over enormous areas and often lead to the death of forests during 2-3 successive years of defoliation. The sex pheromone of D. tabulaeformis was investigated to define its chemistry and behavioral activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sex pheromone was collected from calling female D. tabulaeformis by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME and by solvent extraction of pheromone glands. Extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS and coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD, using antennae from male moths. Five components from the extracts elicited antennal responses. These compounds were identified by a combination of retention indices, electron impact mass spectral matches, and derivatization as (Z-5-dodecenyl acetate (Z5-12:OAc, (Z-5-dodecenyl alcohol (Z5-12:OH, (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,E7-12:OAc, (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl propionate (Z5,E7-12:OPr, and (5Z,7E-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (Z5,E7-12:OH. Behavioral assays showed that male D. tabulaeformis strongly discriminated against incomplete and aberrant blend ratios. The correct ratio of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,E7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr was essential for optimal upwind flight and source contact. The two monoenes, Z5-12:OAc and Z5-12:OH, alone or binary mixtures, had no effect on behavioral responses when added to the optimal three-component blend. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The fact that deviations from the optimal ratio of 100:100:4.5 of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,EZ7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr resulted in marked decreases in male responses suggests that biosynthesis of the pheromone components is precisely controlled. The optimal blend of the sex pheromone components of D. tabulaeformis worked out in this study should find immediate use in monitoring

  20. Identification of the sex pheromone of the tree infesting Cossid Moth Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Marc Clement; Slippers, Bernard; Degefu, Dawit; Wingfield, Michael John; Lawson, Simon; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2015-01-01

    The cossid moth (Coryphodema tristis) has a broad range of native tree hosts in South Africa. The moth recently moved into non-native Eucalyptus plantations in South Africa, on which it now causes significant damage. Here we investigate the chemicals involved in pheromone communication between the sexes of this moth in order to better understand its ecology, and with a view to potentially develop management tools for it. In particular, we characterize female gland extracts and headspace samples through coupled gas chromatography electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD) and two dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS). Tentative identities of the potential pheromone compounds were confirmed by comparing both retention time and mass spectra with authentic standards. Two electrophysiologically active pheromone compounds, tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc) and Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc) were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and an additional compound (Z9-14:OH) from headspace samples. We further determined dose response curves for the identified compounds and six other structurally similar compounds that are common to the order Cossidae. Male antennae showed superior sensitivity toward Z9-14:OAc, Z7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:OAc), E9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-14:OAc), Z9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH) and Z9-tetradecenal (Z9-14:Ald) when compared to female antennae. While we could show electrophysiological responses to single pheromone compounds, behavioral attraction of males was dependent on the synergistic effect of at least two of these compounds. Signal specificity is shown to be gained through pheromone blends. A field trial showed that a significant number of males were caught only in traps baited with a combination of Z9-14:OAc (circa 95% of the ratio) and Z9-14:OH. Addition of 14:OAc to this mixture also improved the number of males caught, although not significantly. This study represents a major step towards developing a useful

  1. Identification of the sex pheromone of the tree infesting Cossid Moth Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae.

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    Marc Clement Bouwer

    Full Text Available The cossid moth (Coryphodema tristis has a broad range of native tree hosts in South Africa. The moth recently moved into non-native Eucalyptus plantations in South Africa, on which it now causes significant damage. Here we investigate the chemicals involved in pheromone communication between the sexes of this moth in order to better understand its ecology, and with a view to potentially develop management tools for it. In particular, we characterize female gland extracts and headspace samples through coupled gas chromatography electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD and two dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS. Tentative identities of the potential pheromone compounds were confirmed by comparing both retention time and mass spectra with authentic standards. Two electrophysiologically active pheromone compounds, tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc and Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and an additional compound (Z9-14:OH from headspace samples. We further determined dose response curves for the identified compounds and six other structurally similar compounds that are common to the order Cossidae. Male antennae showed superior sensitivity toward Z9-14:OAc, Z7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:OAc, E9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-14:OAc, Z9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH and Z9-tetradecenal (Z9-14:Ald when compared to female antennae. While we could show electrophysiological responses to single pheromone compounds, behavioral attraction of males was dependent on the synergistic effect of at least two of these compounds. Signal specificity is shown to be gained through pheromone blends. A field trial showed that a significant number of males were caught only in traps baited with a combination of Z9-14:OAc (circa 95% of the ratio and Z9-14:OH. Addition of 14:OAc to this mixture also improved the number of males caught, although not significantly. This study represents a major step towards developing a

  2. Identification of volatile sex pheromone components released by the southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, P E; Mitchell, E R; Tumlinson, J H; Heath, R R; Sugie, H

    1985-06-01

    Analysis of sex pheromone gland extracts and volatile pheromone components collected from the calling female southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy indicated that a number of 14-carbon mono- and diunsaturated acetates and a monounsaturated 16-carbon acetate were produced. Gland extracts also indicated the presence of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol. However, this compound was not found in collections of volatiles. Field trapping studies indicated that the volatile blend composed of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (60%), (Z)-9-(E)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (17%), (Z)-9-(Z)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (15%), (Z)-9-(E)-11-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (5%), and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate (3 %) was an effective trap bait for males of this species. The addition of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol to the acetate blends tested resulted in the capture of beet armyworm,S. exigua (Hubner), males which provides further evidence that the alcohol is a pheromone component of this species.

  3. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  4. Factors Influencing Male Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) Capture Rates in Sex Pheromone-Baited Traps on Canola in Western Canada.

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    Miluch, C E; Dosdall, L M; Evenden, M L

    2014-12-01

    Optimization of male moth trapping rates in sex pheromone-baited traps plays a key role in managing Plutella xylostella (L.). We investigated various ways to increase the attractiveness of pheromone-baited traps to P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems in AB, Canada. Factors tested included pheromone blend and dose, addition of a green leaf volatile to the pheromone at different times during the season, lure type, trap color, and height. The industry standard dose of 100 μg of pheromone (four-component blend) per lure (ConTech Enterprises Inc., Delta, British Columbia [BC], Canada) captured the most moths in the two lure types tested. Traps baited with pheromone released from gray rubber septa captured more males than those baited with red rubber septa. Traps baited with lures in which Z11-16: Ac is the main component attracted significantly more moths than those in which Z11-16: Ald is the main component. The addition of the green leaf volatile, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, to pheromone at a range of doses, did not increase moth capture at any point during the canola growing season. Unpainted white traps captured significantly more male moths than pheromone-baited traps that were painted yellow. Trap height had no significant effect on moth capture. Recommendations for monitoring P. xylostella in canola agroecosystems of western Canada include using a pheromone blend with Z11-16: Ac as the main component released from gray rubber septa at a dose of 100 μg. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  5. Sex pheromone component ratios and mating isolation among three Lygus plant bug species of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A.; Fefer, Daniela; Levi-Zada, Anat

    2013-12-01

    The plant bugs Lygus hesperus, Lygus lineolaris, and Lygus elisus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are major pests of many agricultural crops in North America. Previous studies suggested that females release a sex pheromone attractive to males. Other studies showed that males and females contain microgram amounts of ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, hexyl butyrate, and ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that are emitted as a defense against predators. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that female L. lineolaris and L. elisus have a 4:10 ratio of hexyl butyrate to ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that is reversed from the 10:1 ratio in female L. hesperus (males of the three species have ~10:1 ratio). These reversed ratios among females of the species suggest a behavioral role. Because both sexes have nearly equal amounts of the major volatiles, females should release more to attract males. This expectation was supported because L. hesperus females released more hexyl butyrate (mean of 86 ng/h) during the night (1800-0700 hours) than did males (pheromone component for all three species, ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate is essential for L. elisus and L. lineolaris, and hexyl butyrate is essential for L. hesperus. However, all three components are recognized by each species since ratios of the butyrate esters are critical for conspecific attraction and heterospecific avoidance by males and thus play a role in reproductive isolation among the three species. Because L. hesperus males and females are known to emit these major volatiles for repelling ant predators, our study links defensive allomones in Lygus bugs with an additional use as sex pheromones.

  6. Detection of Cocoa Pod Borer Infestation Using Sex Pheromone Trap and its Control by Pod Wrapping

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    Dian Rahmawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod borer (CPB, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae is a major pest of cocoa. Detection of the pest infestation using sex pheromone traps in the early growth and development of cocoa pods is important for an early warning system programme. In order to prevent the pest infestation the young pods were wrapped with plastic bags. A research to study the CPB incidence was conducted at cocoa plantations in Banjarharjo and Banjaroya villages, District of Kalibawang; Hargotirto and Hargowilis villages, District of Kokap; and Pagerharjo village, District of Samigaluh, Yogyakarta. The experiments design used RCBD with four treatments (sex pheromone trap, combination of sex pheromone trap and pod wrapping, pod wrapping, and control and five replications. As many as 6 units/ha pheromone traps were installed with a distance of 40 m in between. Results showed that one month prior to the trap installation in the experimental plots there were ripen cocoa pods as many as 9-13%, which were mostly infested by CPB. During the time period of introducting research on August to Desember 2016 there was not rambutan fruits as the CPB host, hence the CPB resource was from infested cocoa pods. The CPB moth trapped as many as 0−7 (1.13 ± 0.14 moths/6 traps/12 observations. The seed damage due to CPB larvae in the pheromone trap treatments (23.98% was relatively similar with the control (20.25%. Seed damage rate in combination treatment of pheromone trap and pod wrapping (0.59% was relatively the same with the pod wrapping (0.20%. The pheromone trap was more usefull for monitoring tool rather than for control, meanwhile pod wrapping was an effective control measure of CPB.   Intisari Penggerek Buah Kakao (PBK, Conopomorpha cramerella Snellen (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae merupakan salah satu hama utama kakao. Deteksi serangan hama PBK dengan perangkap feromon seks pada awal pertumbuhan dan perkembangan buah kakao penting dilakukan sebagai

  7. How to make a sexy snake: estrogen activation of female sex pheromone in male red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2012-03-01

    Vertebrates indicate their genetic sex to conspecifics using secondary sexual signals, and signal expression is often activated by sex hormones. Among vertebrate signaling modalities, the least is known about how hormones influence chemical signaling. Our study species, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), is a model vertebrate for studying hormonal control of chemical signals because males completely rely on the female sex pheromone to identify potential mates among thousands of individuals. How sex hormones can influence the expression of this crucial sexual signal is largely unknown. We created two groups of experimental males for the first experiment: Sham (blank implants) and E2 (17β-estradiol implants). E2 males were vigorously courted by wild males in outdoor bioassays, and in a Y-maze E2 pheromone trails were chosen by wild males over those of small females and were indistinguishable from large female trails. Biochemically, the E2 pheromone blend was similar to that of large females, and it differed significantly from Shams. For the second experiment, we implanted males with 17β-estradiol in 2007 but removed the implants the following year (2008; Removal). That same year, we implanted a new group of males with estrogen implants (Implant). Removal males were courted by wild males in 2008 (implant intact) but not in 2009 (removed). Total pheromone quantity and quality increased following estrogen treatment, and estrogen removal re-established male-typical pheromone blends. Thus, we have shown that estrogen activates the production of female pheromone in adult red-sided garter snakes. This is the first known study to quantify both behavioral and biochemical responses in chemical signaling following sex steroid treatment of reptiles in the activation/organization context. We propose that the homogametic sex (ZZ, male) may possess the same targets for activation of sexual signal production, and the absence of the activator (17

  8. Enterococcus faecalis Sex Pheromone cCF10 Enhances Conjugative Plasmid Transfer In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Helmut; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E; Karau, Melissa J; Till, Lisa M; Kashyap, Purna C; Patel, Robin; Dunny, Gary M

    2018-02-13

    not examine how the enterococcal sex pheromone response impacts the efficiency of transfer. Our study demonstrates for the first time pheromone-enhanced, high-frequency plasmid transfer of E. faecalis plasmid pCF10 in a mouse model in the absence of antibiotic or bacteriocin selection. Pheromone production by recipients dramatically increased plasmid transfer in germfree mice colonized initially with recipients, followed by donors. The presence of a coresident community of common gut microbes did not significantly reduce in vivo plasmid transfer between enterococcal donors and recipients. In mice colonized with enterococcal recipients, we detected plasmid transfer in the intestinal tract within 5 h of addition of donors, before transconjugants could be cultured from feces. Surprisingly, pCF10 carriage provided a competitive fitness advantage unrelated to antibiotic resistance or bacteriocin production. Copyright © 2018 Hirt et al.

  9. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae from Asunción, Paraguay

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    Caballero Norath

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L. infantum (Nicolle, the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-α-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America.

  10. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

    2009-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-α-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2. In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America. PMID:19883505

  11. Identification of the sex pheromone of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Asunción, Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Reginaldo P; Caballero, Norath Natalia; Hamilton, James Gordon C

    2009-11-02

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum (Nicolle), the causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in the New World. Male Lu. longipalpis have secretory glands which produce sex pheromones in either abdominal tergites 4 or 3 and 4. These glands are sites of sex pheromone production and each pheromone type may represent true sibling species. In Latin America, apart from Lu. pseudolongipalpis Arrivillaga and Feliciangeli from Venezuela, populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. can be identified by their male-produced sex pheromones: (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, 3-methyl-alpha-himachalene and the two cembrenes, 1 and 2.In this study, we present the results of a coupled gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of the pheromones of males Lu. longipalpis captured in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Asunción, Paraguay. Our results show that Lu. longipalpis from this site produce (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B which has also been found in Lu. longipalpis from different areas of Brazil, Colombia and Central America.

  12. The Dynamics of Pheromone Gland Synthesis and Release: a Paradigm Shift for Understanding Sex Pheromone Quantity in Female Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Casas, Jérôme

    2018-05-10

    Moths are exemplars of chemical communication, especially with regard to specificity and the minute amounts they use. Yet, little is known about how females manage synthesis and storage of pheromone to maintain release rates attractive to conspecific males and why such small amounts are used. We developed, for the first time, a quantitative model, based on an extensive empirical data set, describing the dynamical relationship among synthesis, storage (titer) and release of pheromone over time in a moth (Heliothis virescens). The model is compartmental, with one major state variable (titer), one time-varying (synthesis), and two constant (catabolism and release) rates. The model was a good fit, suggesting it accounted for the major processes. Overall, we found the relatively small amounts of pheromone stored and released were largely a function of high catabolism rather than a low rate of synthesis. A paradigm shift may be necessary to understand the low amounts released by female moths, away from the small quantities synthesized to the (relatively) large amounts catabolized. Future research on pheromone quantity should focus on structural and physicochemical processes that limit storage and release rate quantities. To our knowledge, this is the first time that pheromone gland function has been modeled for any animal.

  13. Attraction of Cerambycid Beetles to Their Aggregation-Sex Pheromones Is Influenced by Volatiles From Host Plants of Their Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J C H; Zou, Y; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M

    2017-06-01

    Here, we describe a field experiment that tested for attraction of cerambycid beetles to odors from angiosperm hosts, and whether plant volatiles also serve to enhance attraction of beetles to their aggregation-sex pheromones. Traps were baited with a blend of synthesized chemicals that are common pheromone components of species in the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae. The source of plant volatiles was chipped wood from trees of three angiosperm species, as well as from one nonhost, gymnosperm species. Bioassays were conducted in wooded areas of east-central Illinois. Traps were baited with the pheromone blend alone, the blend + wood chips from one tree species, wood chips alone, or a solvent control lure. Seven species of cerambycids were significantly attracted to the pheromone blend, with or without wood chips. In two cases, wood chips from angiosperms appeared to enhance attraction to pheromones, whereas they inhibited attraction in another three cases. Pine chips did not strongly influence attraction of any species. Overall, our results suggest that host plant volatiles from wood chips may improve trap catch with synthesized pheromones for some cerambycid species, but the effect is not general, necessitating case-by-case testing to determine how individual target species are affected. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C(25)), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with (n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C(25), which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C(25) had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

  15. Beyond 9-ODA: sex pheromone communication in the European honey bee Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Axel; Dietz, Daniel; Spaethe, Johannes; Tautz, Jürgen

    2006-03-01

    The major component of the mandibular gland secretion of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera L.), 9-ODA ((2E)-9-oxodecenoic acid), has been known for more than 40 yr to function as a long-range sex pheromone, attracting drones at congregation areas and drone flyways. Tests of other mandibular gland components failed to demonstrate attraction. It remained unclear whether these components served any function in mating behavior. We performed dual-choice experiments, using a rotating drone carousel, to test the attractiveness of 9-ODA compared to mixtures of 9-ODA with three other most abundant components in virgin queen mandibular gland secretions: (2E)-9-hydroxydecenoic acid (9-HDA), (2E)-10-hydroxydecenoic acid (10-HDA), and p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB). We found no differences in the number of drones attracted to 9-ODA or the respective mixtures over a distance. However, adding 9-HDA and 10-HDA, or 9-HDA, 10-HDA, and HOB to 9-ODA increased the number of drones making contact with the baited dummy. On the basis of these results, we suggest that at least 9-HDA and 10-HDA are additional components of the sex pheromone blend of A. mellifera.

  16. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles—a combination of laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  17. Variation in sex pheromone emission does not reflect immunocompetence but affects attractiveness of male burying beetles-a combination of laboratory and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.

  18. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes in various adult tissues in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious vegetable pest worldwide. A massive transcriptome data (at least 39.04 Gb) was generated by sequencing 6 adult tissues including male antennae, female antennae, heads, legs, abdomen and female pheromone glands from DBM by using Illumina 4000 next-generation sequencing and mapping to a published DBM genome. Bioinformatics analysis yielded a total of 89,332 unigenes among which 87 transcripts were putatively related to seven gene families in the sex pheromone biosynthesis pathway. Among these, seven [two desaturases (DES), three fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) one acetyltransferase (ACT) and one alcohol dehydrogenase (AD)] were mainly expressed in the pheromone glands with likely function in the three essential sex pheromone biosynthesis steps: desaturation, reduction, and esterification. We also identified 210 odorant-degradation related genes (including sex pheromone-degradation related genes) from seven major enzyme groups. Among these genes, 100 genes are new identified and two aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), one aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), five carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs), five UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), eight cytochrome P450 (CYP) and three glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) displayed more robust expression in the antennae, and thus are proposed to participate in the degradation of sex pheromone components and plant volatiles. To date, this is the most

  19. Activity of male pheromone of Melanesian rhinoceros beetle Scapanes australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Didier; Morin, Jean-Paul; Kakul, Titus; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence; Prior, Robert; Renou, Michel; Malosse, Isabelle; Stathers, Tanya; Embupa, Sebastian; Laup, Samson

    2002-03-01

    Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to investigate the nature and role of the male pheromone emitted by the Dynast beetle Scapanes australis and to develop a mass trapping technique against this major coconut pest in Papua New Guinea. We report the biological data obtained from natural and synthetic pheromone, previously described as an 84:12:4 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanol (1), 3-hydoxy-2-butanone (2), and 2,3-butanediol (3). EAG recordings from natural and synthetic pheromone and a pitfall olfactometer were poorly informative. In contrast, extensive field trapping trials with various synthetic pheromone mixtures and doses showed that 1 and 2 (formulated in polyethylene sachets in 90:5 v/v ratio) were necessary and sufficient for optimum long-range attraction. Beetles were captured in traps baited with racemic 1 plus 2, with or without a stereoisomer mixture of 3 (2.5- to 2500-mg/day doses). Plant pieces, either sugarcane or coconut, enhanced captures by the synthetic pheromone, which was active alone. Traps with the pheromone caught both sexes in a 3:2 female-male ratio. A pheromone-based mass trapping led to the capture of 2173 beetles in 14 traps surrounding 40 ha of a cocoa-coconut plantation. The captures followed a log-linear decrease during the 125-week trapping program. The role of the male pheromone and its potential for crop protection are discussed.

  20. A Biologically Active Analog of the Sex Pheromone of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J

    2015-03-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ω-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption.

  1. Identification of two components of the female sex pheromone of the sugarcane-borer Diatraea flavipennella (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalinová, Blanka; do Nascimento, R. R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Mendonca, A. L.; Silva, E. L.; De Freitas, M. R. T.; Cabral Jr, C. R.; Silva, C. E.; Santana, A. E. G.; Svatoš, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 3 (2012), s. 203-211 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Diatraea flavipennella * sex pheromone * GCxGC-TOFMS * GC-EAD Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.560, year: 2012

  2. Synthesis of tritiated sex pheromones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Angel; Feixas, Joan

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of tritiated sex phenomones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis has been accomplished by a simple route involving tritiated sodium borohydride reduction of the corresponding aldehyde followed by acetylation of the resulting radiolabelled alcohol. The process occurs with high chemical and radiochemical yields and the compounds have been used in pheromone catabolism studies. (author)

  3. Gamma radiation effects on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in the female Trogoderma Granarium Everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, O.H.; Elnaggar, S.E.M.; Abdelkawy, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on the structure of the sex pheromone producing gland in 2-day-old females, Trogoderma Granarium Everts was investigated. With the sub sterilizing doses 20 and 40 Gray, the structure started to be destroyed and became undistinguished as well as the sterilizing dose 60 Gray caused complete damage and the glandular tissue appeared as a narrow ribbon. 4 fig

  4. Interspecific sex in grass smuts and the genetic diversity of their pheromone-receptor system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Kellner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The grass smuts comprise a speciose group of biotrophic plant parasites, so-called Ustilaginaceae, which are specifically adapted to hosts of sweet grasses, the Poaceae family. Mating takes a central role in their life cycle, as it initiates parasitism by a morphological and physiological transition from saprobic yeast cells to pathogenic filaments. As in other fungi, sexual identity is determined by specific genomic regions encoding allelic variants of a pheromone-receptor (PR system and heterodimerising transcription factors. Both operate in a biphasic mating process that starts with PR-triggered recognition, directed growth of conjugation hyphae, and plasmogamy of compatible mating partners. So far, studies on the PR system of grass smuts revealed diverse interspecific compatibility and mating type determination. However, many questions concerning the specificity and evolutionary origin of the PR system remain unanswered. Combining comparative genetics and biological approaches, we report on the specificity of the PR system and its genetic diversity in 10 species spanning about 100 million years of mating type evolution. We show that three highly syntenic PR alleles are prevalent among members of the Ustilaginaceae, favouring a triallelic determination as the plesiomorphic characteristic of this group. Furthermore, the analysis of PR loci revealed increased genetic diversity of single PR locus genes compared to genes of flanking regions. Performing interspecies sex tests, we detected a high potential for hybridisation that is directly linked to pheromone signalling as known from intraspecies sex. Although the PR system seems to be optimised for intraspecific compatibility, the observed functional plasticity of the PR system increases the potential for interspecific sex, which might allow the hybrid-based genesis of newly combined host specificities.

  5. Cuticular hydrocarbons of Glossina austeni and Glossina pallidipes: Similarities between populations and activity as sex pheromones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.A.; Bernier, U.R.; Sutton, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    Tsetse flies are a hazard to the health of humans and domestic animals because they spread trypanosomiasis, also known as nagana. Glossina austeni Newstead and Glossina pallidipes Austen are important vectors of this disease in East Africa. Sex pheromones were shown to be present in the surface or cuticular hydrocarbon waterproofing waxes of female of several species of the tsetse fly (Huyton et al. 1980). The pheromones identified in Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Carlson et al. 1978) and G. pallidipes (Carlson et al. 1984, McDowell et al. 1985) have been shown to consist of species-specific, long-chain, high molecular weight hydrocarbons with several methyl branches, present with at least 20 other hydrocarbon compounds in the surface waxes (Nelson and Carlson 1986, Nelson et al. 1988, Sutton and Carlson 1997). The assignment of KI (Kovacx Index) narrows the range of possible methyl-branch configurations in cases of ambiguous or insufficient EI (electron impact) spectra (Carlson et al. 1998). We used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to demonstrate that different populations of tsetse flies (Carlson et al. 1993) are closely related by investigating these patterns of surface hydrocarbons

  6. A short and efficient enantioselective synthesis of (+) and (-)-(Z)-7,15-hexadecadien-4-olide. The sex pheromone of the yellowish elongate chafer, Heptophylla picea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clososki, Giuliano C.; Ricci, Luis C.; Costa, Carlos E.; Comasseto, Joao V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: jvcomass@iq.usp.br

    2004-12-01

    The (R) and the (S) enantiomers of the Z-7,15-hexadecadien-4-olide (4), the sex pheromone of Heptophylla picea, were synthesized. A known lipase-catalysed enantiolactonization in the key step afforded a common precursor for both enantiomers of the pheromone in 92% e.e. (author)

  7. A short and efficient enantioselective synthesis of (+) and (-)-(Z)-7,15-hexadecadien-4-olide. The sex pheromone of the yellowish elongate chafer, Heptophylla picea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clososki, Giuliano C.; Ricci, Luis C.; Costa, Carlos E.; Comasseto, Joao V.

    2004-01-01

    The (R) and the (S) enantiomers of the Z-7,15-hexadecadien-4-olide (4), the sex pheromone of Heptophylla picea, were synthesized. A known lipase-catalysed enantiolactonization in the key step afforded a common precursor for both enantiomers of the pheromone in 92% e.e. (author)

  8. Changes of sex pheromone communication systems associated with tebufenozide and abamectin resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Cao, Guang-Chun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2010-05-01

    Many insect pests have evolved resistance to insecticides. Along with this evolution, the sex pheromone communication system of insects also may change, and subsequently reproductive isolation may occur between resistant and susceptible populations. In this study of the diamondback moth, we found that resistant females (especially Abamectin resistant females) produced less sex pheromone and displayed a lower level of calling behavior. Resistant males showed higher EAG responsiveness to the sex pheromone mixture of females, and responded to a broader range of ratios between the two major components compared to the responses of susceptible moths. In addition, wind tunnel experiments indicated that changes associated with insecticide resistance in the Abamectin resistant strain (Aba-R) significantly reduced female attractiveness to susceptible males. Furthermore, mating choice experiments confirmed that non-random mating occurred between the two different strains. Aba-R females with an abnormal pheromone production and blend ratio exhibited significantly lower mating percentages with males from either their own strain or other strains, which corroborates the results obtained by the wind tunnel experiments. The implications of this non-random mating for insect speciation and insecticide resistance management are discussed.

  9. Sex pheromone in the moth Heliothis virescens is produced as a mixture of two pools: de novo and via precursor storage in glycerolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Casas, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Most species of moths use a female-produced volatile sex pheromone, typically produced via de novo fatty acid synthesis in a specialized gland, for communication among mates. While de novo biosynthesis of pheromone (DNP) is rapid, suggesting transient precursor acids, substantial amounts of pheromone precursor (and other) acids are stored, predominantly in triacylglycerols in the pheromone gland. Whether these stored acids are converted to pheromone later or not has been the subject of some debate. Using a tracer/tracee approach, in which we fed female Heliothis virescens U- 13 C-glucose, we were able to distinguish two pools of pheromone, in which precursors were temporally separated (after and before feeding on labeled glucose): DNP synthesized from a mixed tracer/tracee acetyl CoA pool after feeding, and pheromone made from precursor acids primarily synthesized before feeding, which we call recycled precursor fat pheromone (RPP). DNP titer varied from high (during scotophase) to low (photophase) and with presence/absence of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), in accord with native pheromone titer previously observed. By contrast, RPP was constant throughout the photoperiod and did not change with PBAN presence/absence. The amount of RPP (6.3-10.3 ng/female) was typically much lower than that of DNP, especially during the scotophase (peak DNP, 105 ng/female). We propose an integral role for stored fats in pheromone biosynthesis, in which they are hydrolyzed and re-esterified throughout the photoperiod, with a small proportion of liberated precursor acyl CoAs being converted to pheromone. During the sexually active period, release of PBAN results in increased flux of glucose (from trehalose) and hydrolyzed acids entering the mitochondria, producing acetyl CoA precursor for de novo fat and pheromone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male Bactrocera papayae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Tan, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    Amongst at least 52 sibling species complexes in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), B. papayae (formerly Mal B) Drew and Hancock (Drew and Hancock 1994) is beginning to emerge as an economically important insect pest which poses a severe threat to the fruit cultivation in both subtropical and tropical countries. In Malaysia, B. papayae is one of the most damaging pests which infests many commercially grown fruits (Tan and Lee 1982). Like the Oriental fruit fly and its sibling species complex, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae is also strongly attracted to, and compulsively feeds on, methyl eugenol (ME) (Tan 1993). Chemical analyses revealed that in B. papayae males, ME is converted to phenylpropanoids which are then selectively accumulated in the rectal gland. Of the three major volatile substances, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoyphenol (allyl-DMP) was detected in higher quantities relative to the trans-coniferyl alcohol (4-(3-hydroxy-E-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol) (CF) and cis-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (cis-DMC) (Nishida et al. 1988a, 1988b). Behavioural studies have also shown that allyl-DMP and CF function as male sex and aggregation pheromone in B. papayae (Tan and Nishida 1996, Hee and Tan 1998). Allyl-DMP was found to be the most attractive compound and cis-DMC the least attractive to the males (Tan 1996). Consumption of ME enhances the mating competitiveness of males. This is demonstrated by the strong attraction of females to conspecific ME-fed males in wind tunnel experiments (Hee and Tan 1998). In male-male mating competition for virgin females, males that fed on ME performed significantly better (Shelly and Dewire 1994, Tan and Nishida 1996). Thus it appears that ME-fed males produced signals that were more attractive. However, the characterisation and understanding of the functions of these phenylpropanoids have not been accompanied by studies of their physiological mode of transport in male flies. The current

  11. Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L. (Lep.:Tortricidae Control by Mating Disruption Method by Synthetic Pheromones in Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Kamali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella is one of the key pests of apple in Khorasan Razavi province which annually causes severe fruit damage to apple crop. There are several ways that are used to control and prevent injury to apple products in the world. The most successful and widespread use of pheromones has been in monitoring traps. Mating disruption method by pheromones takes place when enough artificial sources of pheromone are placed in the area that the chance of finding a female by a male is high. Mating, and laying viable eggs is reduced below the point where economically significant damage occurs. Large-scale mating disruption implementation trials have yielded significant reduction in pesticide use while keeping crop damage levels acceptably low. Mating disruption works best if large areas are treated with the pheromones. Currently, chemical control is the most common method of the pest control by using insecticides. In this research, with the goal of eliminating codling moth and minimizing the use of chemical compounds on the apple fruits, the ability of artificial sex pheromones in controlling the codling moth based on mating disruption method was investigated and compared with chemical control in Ghochan County, Khorasan-e-Razavi Province, Iran, in 2013. Materials and Methods: The experiments were conducted in 20 replicates based on a CRB design. The treatments were mating disruption with pheromone dispensers mating disruption + chemical control and chemical control based on the local method. Adult moth was sampled using Delta traps with a sticky insert. 1000 pheromone, which is a two-strand wire rod was produced has been installed on trees per hectare. Pheromones were installed before the first appearance of male moths. 20 to 25 days after each pest generation, randomly 25 fruits were selected and recorded from different directions and heights base on healthy and infected fruits. Results and Discussion: The mating disruption

  12. Presence of Putative Male-Produced Sex Pheromone in Lutzomyia cruciata (Diptera: Psychodidae), Vector of Leishmania mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, A K; Rojas, J C; Cruz-López, L C; Malo, Edi A; Mikery, O F; Castillo, A

    2016-11-01

    Lutzomyia cruciata (Coquillet) is a vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico and Central America. However, several aspects of its ecology and behavior are unknown, including whether a male pheromone partially mediates the sexual behavior of this sand fly. In this study, we evaluated the behavioral response of females to male abdominal extracts in a Y-tube olfactometer. The volatile compounds from male abdominal extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with those of female abdominal extracts. Finally, the disseminating structures of the putative sex pheromone were examined by scanning electron microscopy in the male abdomen. Females were more attracted to male abdominal extract than to the hexane control, suggesting the presence of male-produced sex pheromone. The male abdominal extracts were characterized by the presence of 12 sesquiterpene compounds. The major component, an unknown sesquiterpene with an abundance of 60%, had a mass spectrum with molecular ion of m/z 262. In contrast, the abdominal female extracts contained saturated fatty acids. Finally, we detected the presence of small "papules" with a mammiform morphology distributed on the abdominal surface of tergites IV-VII of male Lu. cruciata These structures are not present in females. We conclude that Lu. cruciata males likely produce a pheromone involved in attracting or courting females. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The adipokinetic hormone receptor modulates sexual behavior, pheromone perception and pheromone production in a sex-specific and starvation-dependent manner in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eLebreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food availability and nutritional status shape the reproductive activity of many animals. In rodents, hormones such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, restore energy homeostasis not only through regulating e.g. caloric intake and energy housekeeping, but also through modulating sex drive. We investigated whether the insect homologue of the GnRH receptor, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR modulates sexual behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster depending on nutritional status. We found that AKHR regulates male, but not female sexual behavior in a starvation-dependent manner. Males lacking AKHR showed a severe decrease in their courtship activity when starved, as well as an increase in mating duration when fed. AKHR expression is particularly strong in the subesophageal zone (SEZ, Ito et al. 2014. We found axonal projections from AKHR-expressing neurons to higher brain centers including specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe. Among the glomeruli that received projections were those dedicated to detecting the male specific pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA. Accordingly, responses to cVA were dependent on the nutritional status of flies. AKHR was also involved in the regulation of the production of cuticular pheromones, 7,11-heptacosadiene and 7-tricosene. This effect was observed only in females and depended on their feeding state. AKHR has therefore a dual role on both pheromone perception and production. For the first time our study shows an effect of AKHR on insect sexual behavior and physiology. Our results support the hypothesis of a conserved role of the GnRH/AKH pathway on a nutritional state-dependent regulation of reproduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  14. Sex pheromone and period gene characterization of Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Posadas, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar D; Araki, Alejandra S; Hamilton, James Gc; Acardi, Soraya A; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2010-11-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the primary vector of Leishmania (L.) infantum in the New World. In this study, male Lutzomyia longipalpis specimens from Posadas, Argentina were characterized for two polymorphic markers: the male sex pheromone and the period (per) gene. The male sex pheromone was identified as (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B, the same compound produced by Lu. longipalpis from Paraguay and many populations from Brazil. The analysis of per gene sequences revealed that the population from Argentina is significantly differentiated from previously studied Brazilian populations. Marker studies could contribute to the understanding of the distribution and spread of urban American visceral leishmaniasis, thus aiding in the design of regional surveillance and control strategies.

  15. Characterization of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Takeout Genes and Their Differential Responses to Insecticides and Sex Pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Jiang, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Spodoptera litura (S. litura) is one of the most serious agricultural insect pests worldwide. Takeout (TO) is involved in a variety of physiological and biochemical pathways and performs various biological functions. We characterized 18 S. litura TO genes and investigated their differential responses to insecticides and sex pheromones. All predicted TO proteins have two Cysteines that are unique to the N-terminal of the TO family proteins and contain four highly conserved Prolines, two Glycines, and one Tyrosine. The expression levels of seven TO genes in the male antennae were higher than those in the female antennae, although the expression levels of 10 TO genes in the female were higher than those in the male. We investigated the effects of the sex pheromone and three insecticides, that is, chlorpyrifos (Ch), emamectin benzoate (EB), and fipronil (Fi), on the expression levels of the TO genes in the antennae. The results showed that the insecticides and sex pheromone affect the expression levels of the TO genes. One day after the treatment, the expression levels of SlTO15 and SlTO4 were significantly induced by the Ch/EB treatment. Two days after the S. litura moths were treated with Fi, the expression of SlTO4 was significantly induced (28.35-fold). The expression of SlTO10 changed significantly after the Ch and EB treatment, although the expression of SlTO12 and SlTO15 was inhibited by the three insecticides after two days of treatment. Our results lay a foundation for studying the role of TO genes in the interaction between insecticides and sex pheromone. PMID:28973484

  16. Synthesis and Field Evaluation of the Sex Pheromone of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tacain, Jimena; Parpal, Florencia; Abbate, Silvana; Silva, Horacio; Ribeiro, Adela; Heguaburu, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L.) is known to cause economic damage to rapeseed, cabbage, and other cruciferous crops worldwide. Sex pheromone components of P. xylostella, including (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenol, and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, were synthesized in a concise and divergent fashion in yields appropriate to develop field tests. Two blends were prepared from these three components (8:18:100 and 10:1:90), and they were used to evaluate the number of P. xylostel...

  17. Optimum timing of insecticide applications against diamondback moth Plutella xylostella in cole crops using threshold catches in sex pheromone traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V; Guerrero, A

    2001-01-01

    Field trials were conducted in cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata), cauliflower (B oleracea var botrytis) and knol khol (B oleracea gongylodes) crops at two different locations in Karnataka State (India) to optimize the timing of insecticide applications to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, using sex pheromone traps. Our results indicate that applications of cartap hydrochloride as insecticide during a 12-24 h period after the pheromone traps had caught on average 8, 12 and 16 males per trap per night in cabbage, cauliflower and knol khol, respectively, were significantly more effective than regular insecticide sprays at 7, 9, 12 or 15 days after transplantation. This was demonstrated by estimation of the mean number of eggs and larvae per plant, the percentage of holes produced, as well as the marketable yield of the three crops at each location. A good correlation between the immature stages, infestation level, the estimated crop yield and the number of moths caught in pheromone traps was also found, indicating the usefulness of pheromone-based monitoring traps to predict population densities of the pest.

  18. Monitoring the population dynamics of the horse chestnut leafminer .I.Cameraria ohridella./I. with a synthetic pheromone in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindl, Jiří; Kalinová, Blanka; Freise, J.; Heitland, W.; Augustin, S.; Guichard, S.; Avtzis, N.; Svatoš, Aleš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2002), s. 131-138 ISSN 1212-2580 Grant - others:CONTROCAM(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : .I.Cameraria ohridella./I. * female sex pheromone traps Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  19. Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  20. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther K Rabhi

    Full Text Available In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress.

  1. Sex Pheromone Dosages and Release Point Densities for Mating Disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in NE China Corn Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Jow, Chung-Kuang; Klein, Michael G; Jia, Yu-di; Zhang, Da-Yu; Li, Lan-Bing

    2017-08-01

    Mating disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with its sex pheromone has not been commonly used in NE China due to a lack of information about optimal sex pheromone dosages and the density of release points required in the field. During 2014-2016, first, the two active pheromone ingredients were evaluated in the laboratory alone at ca. 2.5-5.0 mg, or in combination at 0.2-6.0 mg, to disrupt male O. furnacalis mating behaviors. Then, mating disruption areas, with radii of disruption treatments. Finally, 6.0 (F30) and 0.2 mg (Fs) dosages were used in fields at 20-640 and 200-6,400 release points/ha. We found that ≧6.0 mg of the binary pheromone mixture, or ca. 5.0 mg of either of the two single components, completely disrupted mating behaviors, and F30 of the binary mixture provided a 200-m2 disruption area, with at least 50% capture reductions. At a density of 60-640 and 600-6,400 points/ha in a corn field, F30 and Fs dosages provided >90% mating disruption, leaf protection, and ear protection. The dispenser densities and inverse male catches in traps tended to follow a noncompetitive mechanism of mating disruption. Since 85% disruption of mating with 200-400 0.02 mg release points/ha was obtained, that level is recommended as the choice in future NE China O. furnacalis IPM programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Queen pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Group-living species produce signals that alter the behavior and even the physiology of their social partners. Social insects possess especially sophisticated chemical communication systems that govern every aspect of colony life, including the defining feature of eusociality: reproductive division of labor. Current evidence hints at the central importance of queen pheromones, but progress has been hindered by the fact that such pheromones have only been isolated in honeybees. In a pair of papers on the ant Lasius niger, we identified and investigated a queen pheromone regulating worker sterility. The cuticular hydrocarbon 3-methylhentriacontane (3-MeC31) is correlated with queen maturity and fecundity and workers are also more likely to execute surplus queens that have low amounts of this chemical. Experiments with synthetic 3-MeC31 found that it inhibits ovarian development in queenless workers and lowers worker aggression towards objects coated with it. Production of 3-MeC31 by queens was depressed by an experimental immune challenge, and the same chemical was abundant on queenlaid eggs, suggesting that the workers' responses to the queen are conditional on her health and fecundity. Together with other studies, these results indicate that queen pheromones are honest signals of quality that simultaneously regulate multiple social behaviors. PMID:21331238

  3. Inhibition of the Responses to Sex Pheromone of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Edi A.; Rojas, Julio C.; Gago, Rafael; Guerrero, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Trifluoromethyl ketones reversibly inhibit pheromone-degrading esterases in insect olfactory tissues, affecting pheromone detection and behavior of moth males. In this work, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (Z9-14:TFMK), a closely-related analogue of the pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was prepared and tested in electroantennogram and field tests as possible inhibitors of the pheromone action. The electroantennogram parameters, amplitude, and the repolarization time of the antennal responses of S. frugiperda males were affected by Z9-14:TFMK vapors. Exposure of male antennae to a stream of air passing through 100 ìg of the ketone produced a significant reduction of the amplitude and an increase of 2/3 repolarization time signals to the pheromone. The effect was reversible and dose-dependent. In the field, the analogue significantly decreased the number of males caught when mixed with the pheromone in 10:1 ratio. The results suggest that Z9-14:TFMK is a mating disruptant of S. frugiperda and may be a good candidate to consider in future strategies to control this pest. PMID:24766416

  4. Sex Attractant Pheromones of Virgin Queens of Sympatric Slave-Making Ant Species in the Genus Polyergus, and their Possible Roles in Reproductive Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Les; Johnson, Christine A; Trager, James C; McElfresh, J Steven; Rodstein, Joshua; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2018-06-01

    Species of the ant genus Polyergus are social parasites that steal brood from colonies of their hosts in the closely related genus Formica. Upon emergence as adults in a mixed population, host Formica workers carry out all the normal worker functions within the Polyergus colony, including foraging, feeding, grooming, and rearing brood of the parasitic Polyergus ants. Some unmated Polyergus gynes (queens) run in the raiding columns of their colonies and attract males by releasing a pheromone from their mandibular glands. There are two Polyergus species groups in North America: an eastern P. lucidus group and a western P. breviceps group. One species of each of these groups, P. lucidus Mayr and P. mexicanus Emery, are sympatric in Missouri. In this study, we characterized the sex pheromones of virgin queens of two species of the P. lucidus group (P. lucidus sensu stricto and P. sanwaldi) and one species of the P. breviceps group (P. mexicanus), and compared these with the previously identified sex pheromone of P. topoffi of the P. breviceps group. We then used sex pheromone blends reconstructed from synthesized components of the two groups to test their efficacy at reproductively isolating these species. We found that methyl 6-methylsalicylate is conserved as the major component of the pheromone blends for both Polyergus species groups; however, methyl (R)-3-ethyl-4-methylpentanoate is the species-specific minor component produced by P. lucidus group queens, and (R)-3-ethyl-4-methylpentan-1-ol is the crucial minor component for P. breviceps group queens. The optimal ratio of the major and minor components for P. lucidus group queens was about 100:1 salicylate to ester. In concurrent field trials in Missouri, males of P. lucidus sensu stricto and P. mexicanus (a member of the P. breviceps group) were attracted almost exclusively to their particular blends of sex pheromone components. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a possible sex-pheromone

  5. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Morphology and Histology of Sex Pheromone Gland of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) Female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Degwi, M.S.; Salem, H.M.; El-Maasarawy, S.A.S.; Ismail, I.I.

    2008-01-01

    The pheromone gland in normal adult female of C. maculatus consists of an internal lobe composed of glandular epithelia cells, connected dorsally with the abdominal tip. It has many tubule opening dorsally in large sets which have a groove. The size of pheromone gland of 4-day old females increased than 2-day old females. There is no difference between the gland size of 6-day old females and 4-day ones, but it decreased in females of 8-day old. In this age the gland divided into two separate parts. When females 4-day old irradiated with 100 Gy the glandular cells were separated and the nuclei were not clear. The fat bodies were less in numbers than in unirradiated ones and the glandular cell membrane is irregular. After increasing the radiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular cells destroyed and become undistinguished. All the tubule were closed. The glandular cells in the irradiated 6-day old females with 100 Gy were compact. The nuclei and cytoplasm are very difficult to distinguished, the cytoplasm is deteriorated. As increasing the irradiation dose to 200 Gy, the glandular tissue completely damaged and appeared as narrow ribbon. Scanning electron micrographs of the abdominal tip of C.maculatus showed that the sex pheromone releasing area contains a mammiform, also it has a large number of large setae which has groove

  6. Sex Pheromones of C. elegans Males Prime the Female Reproductive System and Ameliorate the Effects of Heat Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Z Aprison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay.

  7. Sex Pheromones of C. elegans Males Prime the Female Reproductive System and Ameliorate the Effects of Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprison, Erin Z.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay. PMID:26645097

  8. Characterization of Odorant Receptors from a Non-ditrysian Moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella Sheds Light on the Origin of Sex Pheromone Receptors in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, Jothi Kumar; Corcoran, Jacob A; Andersson, Martin N; Newcomb, Richard D; Anderbrant, Olle; Löfstedt, Christer

    2017-11-01

    Pheromone receptors (PRs) are essential in moths to detect sex pheromones for mate finding. However, it remains unknown from which ancestral proteins these specialized receptors arose. The oldest lineages of moths, so-called non-ditrysian moths, use short-chain pheromone components, secondary alcohols, or ketones, so called Type 0 pheromones that are similar to many common plant volatiles. It is, therefore, possible that receptors for these ancestral pheromones evolved from receptors detecting plant volatiles. Hence, we identified the odorant receptors (ORs) from a non-ditrysian moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella (Eriocraniidae, Lepidoptera), and performed functional characterization of ORs using HEK293 cells. We report the first receptors that respond to Type 0 pheromone compounds; EsemOR3 displayed highest sensitivity toward (2S, 6Z)-6-nonen-2-ol, whereas EsemOR5 was most sensitive to the behavioral antagonist (Z)-6-nonen-2-one. These receptors also respond to plant volatiles of similar chemical structures, but with lower sensitivity. Phylogenetically, EsemOR3 and EsemOR5 group with a plant volatile-responding receptor from the tortricid moth Epiphyas postvittana (EposOR3), which together reside outside the previously defined lepidopteran PR clade that contains the PRs from more derived lepidopteran families. In addition, one receptor (EsemOR1) that falls at the base of the lepidopteran PR clade, responded specifically to β-caryophyllene and not to any other additional plant or pheromone compounds. Our results suggest that PRs for Type 0 pheromones have evolved from ORs that detect structurally-related plant volatiles. They are unrelated to PRs detecting pheromones in more derived Lepidoptera, which, in turn, also independently may have evolved a novel function from ORs detecting plant volatiles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Isolation and Identification of 9-methylgermacrene-B as the Putative Sex Pheromone of Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938 (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazil Reginaldo P

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia cruzi has been named as a probable vector of Leishmania chagasi in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Taxonomically L. cruzi is closely related to the L. longipalpis species complex. Females of L. cruzi and L. longipalpis are morphologically indistinguishable and associated males must be examined carefully to confirm identifications. Chemical analysis hexane extracts of male L. cruzi has revealed the presence of a 9-methylgermacrene-B (C16, a homosesquiterpene (mw 218 previously shown to be the sex pheromone of one of the members of the L. longipalpis species complex.

  10. Pheromone Autodetection: Evidence and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdcraft, Robert; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory communication research with insects utilizing sex pheromones has focused on the effects of pheromones on signal receivers. Early pheromone detection studies using the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori L., and Saturniids led to the assumption that emitters, especially females, are unable to detect their own pheromone. Pheromone anosmia, i.e., the inability of females to detect their conspecific sex pheromone, was often assumed, and initially little attention was paid to female behaviors that may result from autodetection, i.e., the ability of females to detect their sex pheromone. Detection of conspecific pheromone plumes from nearby females may provide information to improve chances of mating success and progeny survival. Since the first documented example in 1972, numerous occurrences of autodetection have been observed and verified in field and laboratory studies. We summarize here a significant portion of research relating to autodetection. Electrophysiological and behavioral investigations, as well as expression patterns of proteins involved in pheromone autodetection are included. We discuss problems inherent in defining a boundary between sex and aggregation pheromones considering the occurrence of autodetection, and summarize hypothesized selection pressures favoring autodetection. Importance of including autodetection studies in future work is emphasized by complications arising from a lack of knowledge combined with expanding the use of pheromones in agriculture. PMID:27120623

  11. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying sex- and maturation-related variation in pheromone responses in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Gabriel; Baker, Thomas C; Patch, Harland M; Grozinger, Christina M

    2015-07-01

    In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), social organization is primarily mediated by pheromones. Queen-produced 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA) functions as both a social and sex pheromone, eliciting attraction in both female workers and male drones, but also affecting other critical aspects of worker physiology and behavior. These effects are also maturation related, as younger workers and sexually mature drones are most receptive to 9-ODA. While changes in the peripheral nervous system drive sex-related differences in sensitivity to 9-ODA, the mechanisms driving maturation-related shifts in receptivity to 9-ODA remain unknown. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that changes at the peripheral nervous system may be mediating plastic responses to 9-ODA by characterizing expression levels of AmOR11 (the olfactory receptor tuned to 9-ODA) and electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA. We find that receptor expression correlates significantly with behavioral receptivity to 9-ODA, with nurses and sexually mature drones exhibiting higher levels of expression than foragers and immature drones, respectively. Electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA were not found to correlate with behavioral receptivity or receptor expression, however. Thus, while receptor expression at the periphery exhibits a level of plasticity that correlates with behavior, the mechanisms driving maturation-dependent responsiveness to 9-ODA appear to function primarily in the central nervous system.

  12. Sex versus sweet: opposite effects of opioid drugs on the reward of sucrose and sexual pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2008-04-01

    Endogenous opioids mediate some reward processes involving both natural (food, sweet taste) and artificial (morphine, heroin) rewards. In contrast, sexual behavior (which is also reinforcing) is generally inhibited by opioids. To establish the role of endogenous opioids for a newly described natural reinforcer, namely male sexual pheromones for female mice, we checked the effects of systemic injections of the general opioid antagonist naloxone (1-10 mg/kg) and the agonist fentanyl (0.1- 0.5 mg/kg) in a number of behavioral tests. Naloxone affected neither the innate preference for male-soiled bedding (vs. female-soiled bedding) in 2-choice tests nor the induction of place conditioning using male pheromones as rewarding stimuli, although it effectively blocked the preference for consuming a sucrose solution. In contrast, fentanyl inhibited the preference for male chemosignals without altering sucrose preference. These results suggest that, in macrosmatic animals such as rodents, opioidergic inhibition of sexual behavior might be due, at least partially, to an impaired processing of pheromonal cues and that the hedonic value of sweet-tasting solutions and sexual pheromones are under different opioid modulation.

  13. Enterococcus faecalis Sex Pheromone cCF10 Enhances Conjugative Plasmid Transfer In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Hirt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell communication mediated by peptide pheromones (cCF10 [CF] is essential for high-frequency plasmid transfer in vitro in Enterococcus faecalis. To examine the role of pheromone signaling in vivo, we established either a CF-producing (CF+ recipient or a recipient producing a biologically inactive variant of CF (CF− recipient in a germfree mouse model 3 days before donor inoculation and determined transfer frequencies of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10. Plasmid transfer was detected in the upper and middle sections of the intestinal tract 5 h after donor inoculation and was highly efficient in the absence of antibiotic selection. The transconjugant/donor ratio reached a maximum level approaching 1 on day 4 in the upper intestinal tract. Plasmid transfer was significantly lower with the CF− recipient. While rescue of the CF− mating defect by coculture with CF+ recipients is easily accomplished in vitro, no extracellular complementation occurred in vivo. This suggests that most pheromone signaling in the gut occurs between recipient and donor cells in very close proximity. Plasmid-bearing cells (donors plus transconjugants steadily increased in the population from 0.1% after donor inoculation to about 10% at the conclusion of the experiments. This suggests a selective advantage of pCF10 carriage distinct from antibiotic resistance or bacteriocin production. Our results demonstrate that pheromone signaling is required for efficient pCF10 transfer in vivo. In the absence of CF+ recipients, a low level of transfer to CF− recipients occurred in the gut. This may result from low-level host-mediated induction of the donors in the gastrointestinal (GI tract, similar to that previously observed in serum.

  14. Effect of synthetic and plant-extracted aphid pheromones on the behaviour of Aphidius colemani

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ameixa, Olga; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 4 (2012), s. 292-301 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : (E)-b-farnesene * Aphidius colemani * Nepeta cataria oil * synthetic nepetalactone Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.560, year: 2012

  15. Female-induced increase of host-plant volatiles enhance specific attraction of aphid male Dysaphis plantaginea (Homoptera: Aphididae) to the sex pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2009-01-01

    All aphid species studied so far share the same sex pheromone components, nepetalactol and nepetalactone. Variation by different enantiomers and blends of the two components released by different aphid species are limited and can only partially explain species-specific attraction of males to

  16. Female sex pheromone and male behavioral responses of the bombycid moth Trilocha varians: comparison with those of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daimon, Takaaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Nakajima, Yumiko; Fujii, Tsuguru; Katsuma, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shimada, Toru

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of female sex pheromone components and subsequent field trap experiments demonstrated that the bombycid moth Trilocha varians uses a mixture of ( E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal (bombykal) and ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienyl acetate (bombykyl acetate) as a sex pheromone. Both of these components are derivatives of ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), the sex pheromone of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori. This finding prompted us to compare the antennal and behavioral responses of T. varians and B. mori to bombykol, bombykal, and bombykyl acetate in detail. The antennae of T. varians males responded to bombykal and bombykyl acetate but not to bombykol, and males were attracted only when lures contained both bombykal and bombykyl acetate. In contrast, the antennae of B. mori males responded to all the three components. Behavioral analysis showed that B. mori males responded to neither bombykal nor bombykyl acetate. Meanwhile, the wing fluttering response of B. mori males to bombykol was strongly inhibited by bombykal and bombykyl acetate, thereby indicating that bombykal and bombykyl acetate act as behavioral antagonists for B. mori males. T. varians would serve as a reference species for B. mori in future investigations into the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of sex pheromone communication systems in bombycid moths.

  17. 2-Methyl-(Z)-7-Octadecene - the sex pheromone of allopatric Lymantria serva and Lymantria lucescens: two potential invasive species in the Orient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul W. Schaefer; Gerhard Gries; Regine Gries; Yasutomo Higashiura; Yi-Bin Fan

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to identify the sex pheromones of two allopatric Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): (1) L. serva (Fabricius) in Taiwan whose larvae attack and occasionally defoliate Ficus spp. and (2) L. lucescens (Fabricius) in Honshu, Japan, whose larvae feed on Quercus...

  18. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  19. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affe...

  20. Histological Changes in Sex Pheromone Gland of the Black Cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.) Females Induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.M.; Abd El Hamid, W.A.; Elbolok, M.M.; Elshabrawy, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The pheromone gland of Agrotis ipsilon(Hufn.) untreated adult female is simple closed ring shaped where the glandular epithelium of the abdomen of abdominal fold between the 8th and 9th segment is slightly investigate inside the body cavity. The scent gland as a characteristic tuft of modified scales or hairs which are thin and smooth covering the whole surface of the 9th of the abdominal segment in which the scent gland is located. The histological study of gamma irradiated sex pheromone of the black cut worm female showed that: 1. When 50 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be separated from each other, vacuoles where appeared among them. 2. When 100 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium began to be irregular in shape and some vacuoles were found, the cuticle was also ruptured in some parts. 3. When 150 Gy was applied, the glandular epithelium was irregular and vacuoles were obviously found. The cuticle appeared abnormal in some parts and oil drops were decreased

  1. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Sex Pheromones and Food Attractants Used to Monitor and Control Synanthedon Myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae

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    František Kocourek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synanthedon myopaeformis (Borkhausen, 1789 (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae is a prominent pest of commercial apple orchards in Europe. the sex pheromones of S. myopaeformis and food attractants based on apple juice, beer and red wine were evaluated as tools for monitoring and control the populations of S. myopaeformis in apple orchards in the Czech Republic. For monitoring S. myopaeformis flight activity, trap designs were also evaluated, and the results indicated that wing traps were more suitable than delta traps because of their high efficacy even at low population densities of S. myopaeformis. The flight activity patterns of S. myopaeformis showed high intrapopulation variability and variability between years. The use of pheromones as a mating disruption technique led to a decrease of tree injury in comparison to untreated controls during the three years of the experiment. The reduction of the number of S. myopaeformis larvae per tree on a 14-ha plot treated subjected to the mating disruption technique reached 56 % in the third year of the experiment. In the three-year experiment using food attractants for the mass trapping of S. myopaeformis, catches of S. myopaeformis in traps using a combination of beer and apple juice (50:50 at a density of 4 traps/ha on a 4-ha plot increased more than 4-fold.

  2. Combined action of sex pheromone and wasp Apanteles gelechiidivoris in greenhouse Tomato crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Jessica; Munoz, Laura; Rodriguez, Daniel; Cantor, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The Tomato budworm, Tuta absoluta, is considered main pest of Tomato crops. Control of this pest is performed with hemicals, although, there are other strategies such as biological and ethological control. In Colombia there is not precedent that combines both strategies: ethological control with sexual pheromone and biological control with Apanteles gelechiidivoris, for the control of this pest in Tomato crops. In this work four different treatments under greenhouse conditions were evaluated including biological control with A. gelechiidivoris, ethological control with sexual pheromone traps, and combined action of both controls and traditional control (chemicals). The experiments aimed to developing a control strategy to reduce populations of T. absoluta. This was done sampling a plant every to 2 meters. From each plant a sample composed by one leaf by stratum was taken and the variables number of total larvae of third instar and parasited and number of captured adults for trap. The maximum parasitism in the population of susceptible larvae was 86.38 % and for total population of larvae was 68.75 %. The combined action of pheromone traps and A. gelechiidivoris presented a greater efficiency and permanence on the control of larvae of T. absoluta.

  3. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled dopamine/ecdysteroid receptor DopEcR in the behavioral response to sex pheromone in an insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Abrieux

    Full Text Available Most animals including insects rely on olfaction to find their mating partners. In moths, males are attracted by female-produced sex pheromones inducing stereotyped sexual behavior. The behaviorally relevant olfactory information is processed in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL. Evidence is now accumulating that modulation of sex-linked behavioral output occurs through neuronal plasticity via the action of hormones and/or catecholamines. A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR binding to 20-hydroxyecdysone, the main insect steroid hormone, and dopamine, has been identified in Drosophila (DmDopEcR, and was suggested to modulate neuronal signaling. In the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, the behavioral and central nervous responses to pheromone are age-dependent. To further unveil the mechanisms of this olfactory plasticity, we searched for DopEcR and tested its potential role in the behavioral response to sex pheromone in A. ipsilon males. Our results show that A. ipsilon DopEcR (named AipsDopEcR is predominantly expressed in the nervous system. The corresponding protein was detected immunohistochemically in the ALs and higher brain centers including the mushroom bodies. Moreover, AipsDopEcR expression increased with age. Using a strategy of RNA interference, we also show that silencing of AipsDopEcR inhibited the behavioral response to sex pheromone in wind tunnel experiments. Altogether our results indicate that this GPCR is involved in the expression of sexual behavior in the male moth, probably by modulating the central nervous processing of sex pheromone through the action of one or both of its ligands.

  4. Antenna-predominant and male-biased CSP19 of Sesamia inferens is able to bind the female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Yang, Ke; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-02-25

    Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals across the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptors (ORs), but this has not been clarified in moths. In this study, we built on our previously reported segment sequence work and cloned the full length CSP19 gene (SinfCSP19) from the antennae of Sesamia inferens by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) assays indicated that the gene was expressed in a unique profile, i.e. predominant in antennae and significantly higher in male than in female. To explore the function, recombinant SinfCSP19 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and purified by Ni-ion affinity chromatography. Binding affinities of the recombinant SinfCSP19 with 39 plant volatiles, 3 sex pheromone components and 10 pheromone analogs were measured using fluorescent competitive binding assays. The results showed that 6 plant volatiles displayed high binding affinities to SinfCSP19 (Ki = 2.12-8.75 μM), and more interesting, the 3 sex pheromone components and analogs showed even higher binding to SinfCSP19 (Ki = 0.49-1.78 μM). Those results suggest that SinfCSP19 plays a role in reception of female sex pheromones of S. inferens and host plant volatiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pheromone Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Adam G.

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated. For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the…

  6. The GPCR membrane receptor, DopEcR, mediates the actions of both dopamine and ecdysone to control sex pheromone perception in an insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eAbrieux

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory information mediating sexual behavior is crucial for reproduction in many animals, including insects. In male moths, the macroglomerular complex of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL is specialized in the treatment of information on the female-emitted sex pheromone. Evidence is accumulating that modulation of behavioral pheromone responses occurs through neuronal plasticity via the action of hormones and/or catecholamines. We recently showed that a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, AipsDopEcR, with its homologue known in Drosophila for its double affinity to the main insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, and dopamine (DA, present in the ALs, is involved in the behavioral response to pheromone in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon. Here we tested the role of AipsDopEcR as compared to nuclear 20E receptors in central pheromone processing combining receptor inhibition with intracellular recordings of AL neurons. We show that the sensitivity of AL neurons for the pheromone in males decreases strongly after AipsDopEcR-dsRNA injection but also after inhibition of nuclear 20E receptors. Moreover we tested the involvement of 20E and DA in the receptor-mediated behavioral modulation in wind tunnel experiments, using ligand applications and receptor inhibition treatments. We show that both ligands are necessary and act on AipsDopEcR-mediated behavior. Altogether these results indicate that the GPCR membrane receptor, AipsDopEcR, controls sex pheromone perception through the action of both 20E and DA in the central nervous system, probably in concert with 20E action through nuclear receptors.

  7. Chemical communication in termites: syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol as trail-following pheromone, syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal and (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal as the respective male and female sex pheromones in Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Isoptera, Archotermopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Michael J; Sémon, Etienne; Krasulová, Jana; Sillam-Dussès, David; Robert, Alain; Cornette, Richard; Hoskovec, Michal; Záček, Petr; Valterová, Irena; Bordereau, Christian

    2011-12-01

    The trail-following pheromone and sex pheromones were investigated in the Indomalayan termite Hodotermopsis sjoestedti belonging to the new family Archotermopsidae. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after solid phase microextraction (SPME) of the sternal gland secretion of pseudergates and trail-following bioassays demonstrated that the trail-following pheromone of H. sjoestedti was syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol, a new chemical structure for termite pheromones. GC-MS after SPME of the sternal gland secretion of alates also allowed the identification of sex-specific compounds. In female alates, the major sex-specific compound was identified as (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal, a compound previously identified as the female sex pheromone of the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. In male alates, the major sex-specific compound was identified as syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal, a homolog of syn-4,6-dimethyldodecanal, which has previously been confirmed as the male sex pheromone of Z. nevadensis. The presence of sex-specific compounds in alates of H. sjoestedti strongly suggests for this termite the presence of sex-specific pairing pheromones which were only known until now in Z. nevadensis. Our results showed therefore a close chemical relationship between the pheromones of the taxa Hodotermopsis and Zootermopsis and, in contrast, a clear difference with the taxa Stolotermes and Porotermes, which is in total agreement with the recent creation of the families Archotermopsidae and Stolotermitidae as a substitute for the former family Termopsidae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sprayable microencapsulated sex pheromone formulations for mating disruption of four tortricid species: effects of application height, rate, frequency, and sticker adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelinski, L L; McGhee, P; Haas, M; Il'ichev, A L; Gut, L J

    2007-08-01

    Several application parameters of microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulations were manipulated to determine their impact on efficacy of disruption for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck); obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris); and redbanded leafroller, Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker). Depending on the experiment, the formulations evaluated were those formerly manufactured by 3M Canada (London, ON, Canada) or those that are currently available from Suterra LLC (Bend, OR). The efficacy of MEC formulations applied by air-blast sprayer evenly throughout the entire canopy of 2-3-m-tall apple (Malus spp.) trees was equivalent to treatments in which targeted applications of MECs were made to the lower or upper 1.5 m of the canopy (at equivalent overall rates) for oriental fruit moth and both leafroller species. The realized distribution of deposited microcapsules within the tree canopy corresponded well with the intended heights of application within the canopy. The additional coapplication of the pine resin sticker Nu-Film 17 increased efficacy but not longevity of MEC formulations for oriental fruit moth; this adjuvant had no added effects for codling moth or leafroller formulations. Increasing the rate of active ingredient (AI) per hectare by 20-30-fold (range 2.5-75.0 g/ha) did not improve the disruption efficacy of MECs for codling moth or either leafroller species when both low and high rates were applied at equivalent frequencies per season. A low-rate, high-frequency (nine applications per season) application protocol was compared with a standard protocol in which two to three applications were made per season, once before each moth generation for each species. The low-rate, high-frequency protocol resulted in equivalent or better disruption efficacy for each moth species, despite using two-fold less total AI per hectare per season with the former treatment. The low-rate, frequent

  9. Effect of endogenous factors on the chemical perception of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to sex pheromone; Efeito de fatores endogenos na percepcao quimica de Grapholita molesta(Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) ao feromonio sexual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altafini, Deisi L.; Sant' Ana, Josue; Redaelli, Luiza R., E-mail: deisila@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fitossanidade. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Fitotecnia

    2010-06-15

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), stands out as one of the most important pest in Rosaceae orchards in Brazil. During feeding, caterpillars bore into shoots, branches and fruits, impairing the commercial production. This work aimed to study the effect of endogenous factors in the chemical perception and in the species chemotactic behavior, seeking to optimize monitoring and the behavioral control of this pest. We evaluated male electroantennographical (EAG) and chemotactical (olfactometry) responses to the synthetic sex pheromone in different ages, virgins or mated and fed or unfed. The EAG responses of males did not differ for all evaluated factors. Nevertheless, the chemotactical behavior of males seems to decrease with age, not varying as a function of mating or feeding conditions. The knowledge about the interference of these factors in G. molesta may help with the interpretation of fi eld results, allowing the development of suitable and reliable control measures based on infochemicals for behavioral control. (author)

  10. Studies towards the identification of the sex pheromone of Thyrinteina arnobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jardel A.; Neppe, Tiago; Paiva, Marcelo M. de; Deobald, Anna M.; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G.; Paixao, Marcio W.; Correa, Arlene G., E-mail: agcorrea@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2013-12-01

    The eucalyptus brown-looper Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is considered an important pest in Brazilian native plants, e.g. Psidium guajava, and exotic plants, such as Eucalyptus species. In this work we describe the isolation of the pheromone components of T. arnobia, using glands extract and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) of virgin females. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD), and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two reproducible electroantennographic responses were elicited in the male antenna of T. arnobia and one of them was identified as 3,4-epoxy-6,9-heneicosadiene by CG-MS. The racemic synthesis of this epoxydiene was carried out in 10 steps and 28% overall yield. The four stereoisomers of the epoxydiene were also synthesized employing the corresponding enantiomeric enriched epoxyalcohols. (author)

  11. Studies towards the identification of the sex pheromone of Thyrinteina arnobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Jardel A.; Neppe, Tiago; Paiva, Marcelo M. de; Deobald, Anna M.; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G.; Paixao, Marcio W.; Correa, Arlene G.

    2013-01-01

    The eucalyptus brown-looper Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is considered an important pest in Brazilian native plants, e.g. Psidium guajava, and exotic plants, such as Eucalyptus species. In this work we describe the isolation of the pheromone components of T. arnobia, using glands extract and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) of virgin females. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD), and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two reproducible electroantennographic responses were elicited in the male antenna of T. arnobia and one of them was identified as 3,4-epoxy-6,9-heneicosadiene by CG-MS. The racemic synthesis of this epoxydiene was carried out in 10 steps and 28% overall yield. The four stereoisomers of the epoxydiene were also synthesized employing the corresponding enantiomeric enriched epoxyalcohols. (author)

  12. A temporal comparison of sex-aggregation pheromone gland content and dynamics of release in three members of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel A González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis is the South American vector of Leishmania infantum, the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Male L. longipalpis produce a sex-aggregation pheromone that is critical in mating, yet very little is known about its accumulation over time or factors involved in release. This laboratory study aimed to compare accumulation of pheromone over time and determine factors that might influence release in three members of the L. longipalpis species complex.We investigated male sex-aggregation pheromone gland content at different ages and the release rate of pheromone in the presence or absence of females under different light conditions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Pheromone gland content was determined by extraction of whole males and pheromone release rate was determined by collection of headspace volatiles. Pheromone gland content appeared age-related and pheromone began to accumulate between 6 to 12 h post eclosion and gradually increased until males were 7-9 days old. The greatest amount was detected in 9-day old Campo Grande males ((S-9-methylgermacrene-B; X ± SE: 203.5 ± 57.4 ng/male followed by Sobral 2S males (diterpene; 199.9 ± 34.3 and Jacobina males ((1S,3S,7R-3-methyl-α-himachalene; 128.8 ± 30.3 at 7 days old. Pheromone release was not continuous over time. During a 4-hour period, the greatest quantities of pheromone were released during the first hour, when wing beating activity was most intense. It was then substantially diminished for the remainder of the time. During a 24 h period, 4-5 day old male sand flies released approximately 63 ± 11% of the pheromone content of their glands, depending on the chemotype. The presence of females significantly increased pheromone release rate. The light regime under which the sand flies were held had little influence on pheromone release except on Sobral 2S chemotype.Accumulation of pheromone appears to occur at different rates in the different

  13. A temporal comparison of sex-aggregation pheromone gland content and dynamics of release in three members of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mikel A; Bandi, Krishna K; Bell, Melissa J; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Dilger, Erin; Guerrero, Angel; Courtenay, Orin; Hamilton, James G C

    2017-12-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the South American vector of Leishmania infantum, the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Male L. longipalpis produce a sex-aggregation pheromone that is critical in mating, yet very little is known about its accumulation over time or factors involved in release. This laboratory study aimed to compare accumulation of pheromone over time and determine factors that might influence release in three members of the L. longipalpis species complex. We investigated male sex-aggregation pheromone gland content at different ages and the release rate of pheromone in the presence or absence of females under different light conditions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pheromone gland content was determined by extraction of whole males and pheromone release rate was determined by collection of headspace volatiles. Pheromone gland content appeared age-related and pheromone began to accumulate between 6 to 12 h post eclosion and gradually increased until males were 7-9 days old. The greatest amount was detected in 9-day old Campo Grande males ((S)-9-methylgermacrene-B; X ± SE: 203.5 ± 57.4 ng/male) followed by Sobral 2S males (diterpene; 199.9 ± 34.3) and Jacobina males ((1S,3S,7R)-3-methyl-α-himachalene; 128.8 ± 30.3) at 7 days old. Pheromone release was not continuous over time. During a 4-hour period, the greatest quantities of pheromone were released during the first hour, when wing beating activity was most intense. It was then substantially diminished for the remainder of the time. During a 24 h period, 4-5 day old male sand flies released approximately 63 ± 11% of the pheromone content of their glands, depending on the chemotype. The presence of females significantly increased pheromone release rate. The light regime under which the sand flies were held had little influence on pheromone release except on Sobral 2S chemotype. Accumulation of pheromone appears to occur at different rates in the different chemotypes

  14. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  15. Identification and Behavioral Evaluation of Sex Pheromone in Xanthopimpla pedator (Fabricius—A Serious Pupal Parasitoid of Tropical Tasar Silkworm Anthereae mylitta Drury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Marepally

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Xanthopimpla is a major parasitoid of silk worm cocoons. The female Xanthopimpla pedator (Fabricius lays the eggs in male cocoons. Control of this infestation with pesticides is not recommended because of its concealed behavior. Various control methods were found to be inefficient. Ecofriendly management is the best strategy that can be applied. We have studied the sex communication in Xanthopimpla pedator (Fabricius, which helps to develop management strategy. Bioassays were done in the laboratory by using olfactometer and pheromone extraction chambers. It was found that female Xanthopimpla produces sex pheromones. The results show a strong attraction of male by female Xanthopimpla. Present results with male and female volatiles also show that female volatiles attract male Xanthopimpla. Fractionation of female volatiles by column chromatography has proven that 20% fraction has highest attraction of males by females.

  16. Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of 5,9-Dimethylpentadecane and 5,9-Dimethylhexadecane – the Sex Pheromones of Leucoptera coffeella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Duus

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Racemic 5,9-dimethylpentadecane and 5,9-dimethylhexadecane, the major and minor constituents, respectively, of the sex pheromone of Leucoptera coffeella, have been synthesized from citronellol in 56-58% overall yield through six steps. Ultrasound irradiation efficiently supported tosylation of alcohols (two steps as well as the subsequent cross coupling reactions with the pertinent Grignard reagents (also two steps.

  17. Biological and Histological Studies on The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland of Female Spiny Bollworm Earias Insulana Boisd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohhamed, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of sex pheromone extraction and bioassay production male attractiveness to alive females on male response and the histological structure of pheromone glands in normal and irradiated females of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. with 100 and 150 Gy. Reproduction of adults irradiated as moths less than 24 hours old or three days was also investigated. Sex pheromone extracts from 1 day old females were less active than those from 3 day old females. The percentage of male moths response to alive female moths at 1 day old was lower than at 3 days old. The sex pheromone production by females was increased as the females became older (from 3 days old to up). The gland of normal female moths is found between 8th and 9th abdominal segments travelling deep inside the body cavity and has large, darkly stained and well defined epithelial cells. The scent gland is of the well developed, tubular and closed ring shaped type. In parental females less than 24 hours old irradiated with 100 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells became loose, rupture, disappeared, shrink, irregular, abnormal or broken and were separated from each other and their nuclei were not clear. The scales were abnormal or loose and there are many vacuoles. The histological effects following gamma irradiation were also noticed in case of parental moths irradiated with 150 Gy. The glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape with the appearance of some vacuoles between them, broken and disappeared in another place and also many secretory cells disappeared and the glands showed increasing. The effects of radiation were continued among females of F1 , generation moths less than 24 hours old descendant of irradiated parental male with 100 and 150 Gy and decreased the fecundity and egg hatch ability significantly. The effect was dose dependent

  18. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland and Reproduction of Female Cotton Leaf Worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Rahman, H.A.; Sallam, H.; El-Shall, S.S.A.; Hazaa, M.A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Female pupae of the cotton leaf worm were gamma irradiated at different ages with different doses to study the histology of the female sex pheromone gland in normal and irradiated produced moths. Reproduction of adult produced from irradiated full grown pupae was also investigated. The gland of normal female moth is found in the ninth abdominal segment, which is usually invaginated in the 8 th segment. It is formed of enlarged glandular epithelial cells under the cuticle. These epithelial cells are deeply invaginated in side the body cavity to form paired pouches and a sac-like structure. From each glandular cell there grows one long hair. in females emerging from 3 day-old pupae irradiated with 60 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells, became loose and were separated from each other, their nuclei were not clear. The pouches were randomly distributed. Gamma radiation effects were also noticed in case of 6 day-old pupae irradiated with 120 Gy. In addition, the glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape, with the appearance of some vacuoles between them. When full grown pupae were irradiated with 200 or 350 Gy the glands of emerged adult showed increasing vacuoles, cytoplasm deterioration and more destruction of pouches. Irradiating full-grown female pupae with 200 and 350 Gy decreased significantly the fecundity and egg hatch ability of the emerging adult females. The effect was dose dependent and the dose of 350 Gy almost prevented egg hatching

  19. Alterations in premating behavior and pheromone biology of gamma-irradiated Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szentesi, A.; McLaughlin, J.R.; Coffelt, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Exposure of female cabbage looper pupae, Trichoplusia ni, to gamma irradiation at 0 to 72 hr before eclosion resulted in significantly reduced moving and calling activity of the adults. The effects were dose-related from 10 to 40 kR. Generally, irradiation in a nitrogen atmosphere slightly reduced deleterious effects, but fractionation of the radiation dose did not. Four-day-old irradiated females contained significantly more sex pheromone than untreated females, indicating that loss of pheromone is positively correlated to the amount of calling activity. Males exposed to 20 kR or 40 kR in nitrogen were not affected in their flight response in an olfactometer to a level of synthetic pheromone ca. equal to that released by a calling female or to 0.1 x this level. The response of males exposed to 40 kR in air, however, was significantly decreased at the lower pheromone concentration

  20. Synthetic sex pheromone use for field trapping of diamondback moth males

    OpenAIRE

    MICHEREFF, MIRIAN FERNANDES FURTADO; VILELA, EVALDO FERREIRA; MICHEREFF FILHO, MIGUEL; MAFRA-NETO, AGENOR

    2000-01-01

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a atração dos machos da traça-das-crucíferas (Plutella xylostella L., Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) por diferentes formulações do feromônio sexual sintético. Os tratamentos consistiram em: 1) formulação comercial; 2) Z11,16:Ald; 3) Z11,16:Ac; 4) mistura 7:3 de 2+3; 5) mistura 5:5 de 2+3; 6) septos de borracha com hexano (testemunha); e 7) cinco fêmeas virgens. A formulação comercial do feromônio sexual sintético propiciou maior captura de machos, não dif...

  1. Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic...

  2. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Kisaki; Shimizu, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the nymphs of Corythucha marmorata form clusters on the undersides of host plant leaves, as frequently observed for Hemiptera, the adults are scattered in the vicinity of the nymph population. By investigating the biological activities of volatile secretions from the adult, we found that the secretions activated male mounting behaviour. A chemical analysis revealed that borneol was a common component of the secretions from both sexes. The absolute configuration of the natural product...

  3. Response of Aphidius colemani to aphid sex pheromone varies depending on plant synergy and prior experience

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Grandon, G. Mandela; Poppy, Guy M.

    2015-01-01

    A critical stage in the success of a parasitoid is the ability to locate a host within its habitat. It is hypothesized that a series of olfactory cues may be involved in altering the parasitoid's movement patterns at this stage of foraging. This paper focuses specifically on host habitat location and host location and the olfactory stimuli necessary to mediate the transition between these stages. Firstly, we confirm the ability of the parasitoid Aphidius colemani to detect the aphid sex phero...

  4. Mating type gene homologues and putative sex pheromone-sensing pathway in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a presumably asexual plant root symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Halary

    Full Text Available The fungal kingdom displays a fascinating diversity of sex-determination systems. Recent advances in genomics provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of sex, mating type determination, and evolution of sexual reproduction in many fungal species in both ancient and modern phylogenetic lineages. All major fungal groups have evolved sexual differentiation and recombination pathways. However, sexuality is unknown in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF of the phylum Glomeromycota, an ecologically vital group of obligate plant root symbionts. AMF are commonly considered an ancient asexual lineage dating back to the Ordovician, approximately 460 M years ago. In this study, we used genomic and transcriptomic surveys of several AMF species to demonstrate the presence of conserved putative sex pheromone-sensing mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases, comparable to those described in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We also find genes for high mobility group (HMG transcription factors, homologous to SexM and SexP genes in the Mucorales. The SexM genes show a remarkable sequence diversity among multiple copies in the genome, while only a single SexP sequence was detected in some isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis. In the Mucorales and Microsporidia, the sexM gene is flanked by genes for a triosephosphate transporter (TPT and a RNA helicase, but we find no evidence for synteny in the vicinity of the Sex locus in AMF. Nonetheless, our results, together with previous observations on meiotic machinery, suggest that AMF could undergo a complete sexual reproduction cycle.

  5. Semi-selective fatty acyl reductases from four heliothine moths influence the specific pheromone composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagström, Å.K; Liénard, M.A.; Groot, A.T.; Hedenström, E; Löfstedt, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sex pheromones are essential in moth mate communication. Information on pheromone biosynthetic genes and enzymes is needed to comprehend the mechanisms that contribute to specificity of pheromone signals. Most heliothine moths use sex pheromones with (Z)-11-hexadecenal as the major

  6. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  7. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  8. (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one is a major pheromone component of Anelaphus inflaticollis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A M; Swift, I P; Moreira, J A; Millar, J G; Hanks, L M

    2009-10-01

    We report the identification and field bioassays of a major component of the male-produced aggregation pheromone of Anelaphus inflaticollis Chemsak, an uncommon desert cerambycine beetle. Male A. inflaticollis produced a sex-specific blend of components that included (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, (S)-2-hydroxyhexan-3-one, 2,3-hexanedione, and (2R,3R)- and (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediols. Field trials with baited bucket traps determined that the reconstructed synthetic pheromone blend and (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one alone attracted adult A. inflaticollis of both sexes, with significantly more beetles being attracted to the blend. We conclude that (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one is a major pheromone component of A. inflaticollis, and our results suggest that one or more of the minor components may further increase attraction of conspecifics. Scanning electron microscopy showed that male A. inflaticollis have pores on the prothorax that are consistent in structure with sex-specific pheromone gland pores in related species. Males also displayed stereotyped calling behavior similar to that observed in other cerambycine species. This study represents the first report of volatile pheromones for a cerambycine species in the tribe Elaphidiini.

  9. Chemical communication in termites: syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol as trail-following pheromone, syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal and (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal as the respective male and female sex pheromones in Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Isoptera, Archotermopsidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacey, M. J.; Sémon, E.; Krasulová, Jana; Sillam-Dusses, David; Robert, A.; Cornette, R.; Hoskovec, Michal; Žáček, Petr; Valterová, Irena; Bordereau, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2011), s. 1585-1591 ISSN 0022-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sex-specific pheromone s * basal termites * classification * phylogenetic relationships * zootermopsis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.236, year: 2011

  10. Total Synthesis, Proof of Absolute Configuration, and Biosynthetic Origin of Stylopsal, the First Isolated Sex Pheromone of Strepsiptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lagoutte, Roman; Šebesta, Petr; Jiroš, Pavel; Kalinová, Blanka; Jirošová, Anna; Straka, J.; Černá, K.; Šobotník, Jan; Cvačka, Josef; Jahn, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 26 (2013), s. 8515-8524 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1466 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : asymmetric synthesis * configuration determination * pheromones * total synthesis * Wittig reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.696, year: 2013

  11. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  12. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Blend chemistry and field attraction of commercial sex pheromone lures to grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and a nontarget tortricid in vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T A; Zhang, A; Pfeiffer, D G

    2013-06-01

    Anecdotal reports by scientists and growers suggested commercial sex pheromone lures were ineffective with monitoring field populations of grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), in vineyards. This study addressed the need to evaluate commercial sex pheromone lures for chemical purity and efficacy of attracting grape berry moth and a nontarget tortricid, the sumac moth, Episumus argutanus (Clemens). The percentage of chemical components from a set of eight lures from each manufacturer was found using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirmed by chemical standards. No lures adhered to the 9:1 blend of (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate (Z9-12:Ac) to (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:Ac), though Suterra (9.1:1), ISCA (5.7:1), and Trécé (5.4:1) lures were closest. The Trécé lures contained ≍98 μg Z9-12:Ac, which is 3-51 times more than the other lures. The Suterra and ISCA lures were loaded with ≍29 and 33 μg Z9-12:Ac, and the Alpha Scents lures only contained ≍2 μg Z9-12:Ac. An antagonistic impurity, (E)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-12:Ac), was found in all manufacturer lures at concentrations from 3.2 to 4.8%. Field attraction studies were done in summer 2010, and again in 2011, to evaluate commercial lures for their potential to attract P. viteana and E. argutanus in the presence of lures from other manufacturers. Separate experiments were established in two vineyards in Augusta County, VA, one with open and the other with wooded surroundings. In field experiments, Suterra lures detected P. viteana most often, Trécé lures detected more E. argutanus, and ISCA lures detected P. viteana in the open vineyard the least, while Alpha Scents lures were least attractive to E. argutanus in both environments. Fewer P. viteana were captured in the wooded versus open vineyard, which may limit the potential for sex pheromone monitoring of P. viteana in wooded vineyards.

  14. Tissue localization and partial characterization of pheromone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Female sex pheromone production in certain moth species have been shown to be regulated by a cephalic endo- crine peptidic .... A nitrogen laser (659 nm) was used as the desorption/ .... from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.

  15. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  16. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah Musa

    Full Text Available The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  17. Identification of the Female-Produced Sex Pheromone of an Invasive Greenhouse Pest, the European Pepper Moth (Duponchelia fovealis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Péter Béla; Bognár, Csengele; Erdei, Anna Laura; Fujii, Takeshi; Vági, Pál; Jósvai, Júlia Katalin; Kárpáti, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    The European pepper moth (Duponchelia fovealis, Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) is an invasive pest of greenhouses in many countries, causing serious damages to horticultural plants. Coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection analysis of the female gland extract revealed two antennally active peaks. Using coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), one was identified as (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald); however, further analysis on different types of capillary columns indicated that the second active compound has two different isomers, (E)-13-octadecenal (E13-18:Ald) and (Z)-13-octadecenal (Z13-18:Ald). The approximate ratio of E13-18:Ald, Z13-18:Ald and Z11-16:Ald in the crude pheromone gland extract was 10:1:0.1, respectively. Single sensillum recordings showed that there was one sensory neuron that responded with a high amplitude spike to both E13-18:Ald and Z13-18:Ald, while another neuron housed in the same sensillum responded to Z11-16:Ald. Field evaluation of the identified compounds indicated that the E13-18:Ald was necessary to evoke the attraction of males; although the presence of Z13-18:Ald and Z11-16:Ald increased the catches in traps. The highest number of caught males was achieved when E13-18:Ald, Z13-18:Ald and Z11-16:Ald were present in baits in the same ratio as in the female gland extract. This pheromone can be used in a monitoring strategy and could potentially lead to the development of mating disruption.

  18. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eHoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20, a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for seven days to male urine containing at least 0.5µg/µl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over seven days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While seven days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially

  19. Enhanced attraction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to pheromone-baited traps with the addition of green leaf volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyan; Zhu, Junwei; Qin, Yuchuan

    2012-08-01

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most serious pests of Brassicaceae crops worldwide. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of P. xylostella to green leaf volatiles (GLVs) alone or together with its female sex pheromone were investigated in laboratory and field. GLVs 1-hexanol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol elicited strong electroantennographic responses from unmated male and female P. xylostella, whereas (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate only produced a relatively weak response. The behavioral responses of unmated moths to GLVs were further tested in Y-tube olfactometer experiments. (E)-2-Hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate induced attraction of males, reaching up to 50%, significantly higher than the response to the unbaited control arm. In field experiments conducted in 2008 and 2009, significantly more moths were captured in traps baited with synthetic sex pheromone with either (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate alone or a blend of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal compared with sex pheromone alone and other blend mixtures. These results demonstrated that GLVs could be used to enhance the attraction of P. xylostella males to sex pheromone-baited traps.

  20. Field optimization of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae): evaluation of lure types, trap height, male flight distances, and number of traps needed per avocado orchard for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, M S; Millar, J G; Hoddle, C D; Zou, Y; McElfresh, J S; Lesch, S M

    2011-04-01

    The sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer was evaluated in commercial avocado orchards in Guatemala to determine operational parameters, such as optimal lure type, trap height, trap density and estimates of the distances that male moths fly. Of four pheromone dispensers tested, gray and white rubber septa were of equal efficacy, whereas 1-ml low-density polyethylene vials and 2×3-cm polyethylene ziplock bags were least efficacious. The height at which wing traps were hung did not significantly affect the number of adult male S. catenifer captured. For monitoring S. catenifer, these data suggest that the pheromone should be dispensed from gray rubber septa in wing traps hung inside the tree canopy at 1.75 m, a height convenient for trap placement and monitoring. Mark-recapture studies of male S. catenifer indicated that, on average, males flew 67 m in one night. However, it is likely that this is an underestimate of the distance that male moths are capable of flying in a single night. Probabilistic modeling of S. catenifer capture data from different numbers of pheromone traps deployed in seven commercial avocado orchards of varying sizes and infestation levels suggested that 10-13 randomly deployed traps per orchard for a 7-day period are needed to detect at least one male S. catenifer with 90% confidence. These data provide sufficient information to develop effective protocols for using the S. catenifer pheromone to detect and monitor this pest in countries with endemic populations that are exporting fresh avocados, and for quarantine detection and incursion monitoring in countries receiving avocado imports from high risk areas.

  1. Elucidating Structure-Bioactivity Relationships of Methyl-Branched Alkanes in the Contact Sex Pheromone of the Parasitic Wasp Lariophagus distinguendus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Kühbandner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The exoskeletons of insects are covered by complex mixtures of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs which are involved in social and sexual communication. However, little is known about the relationship between the structures of CHCs and their behavioral activity. The key component of the contact sex pheromone of the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus is 3-methylheptacosane (3-MeC27, which is present in CHC profiles of both females and newly emerged males. The CHCs of females and young males elicit wing-fanning behavior in older males. However, as young males age, 3-MeC27 disappears from their CHC profiles and they no longer elicit wing-fanning responses from other males. We applied enantiopure 3-MeC27 and structurally related CHCs (with respect to chain length or methyl-branch position to the cuticle of aged male dummies and recorded the wing-fanning behavior of responding males. Only the two enantiomers of 3-MeC27 restored the dummies’ attractiveness. The addition of structurally related CHCs or various n-alkanes to bioactive dummies of young males and females significantly decreased wing-fanning by test males. Hence, L. distinguendus males respond specifically but not enantioselectively to 3-MeC27, and perceive the CHC profiles as a whole. Both removal (as is the case with 3-MeC27 in aging males and addition of individual compounds may disrupt the behavioral response.

  2. A Concise Li/liq. NH{sub 3} Mediated Synthesis of (4E,10Z)-Tetradeca-4,10-dienyl Acetate: The Major Sex Pheromone of Apple Leafminer Moth, Phyllonorycter ringoniella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prem Kumar, B.; Vijaykumar, B. V. D.; Harshavardhan, S. J.; Jung, Haedong; Xie, Yongsheng; Shin, Dongsoo; Jang, Kiwan [Changwon National Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ha [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yongjin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    We have accomplished a protection free, concise, Li/liq. NH3 mediated and gram scale synthesis of (4E,10Z)-tetradeca-4,10-dienyl acetate (1), the major sex pheromone of apple leafminer moth, Phyllonorycter ringoniella starting from commercially available 1-pentyne, 1,4- dibromobutane and 4-petyne-1-ol in 24% overall yield. The Li/liq. NH3 based mono-alkynylation of dibromobutane has been introduced for the first time. The stereoselective formation of 10(Z) and 4(E) olefins are accomplished by partial hydrogenation (Lindlar's catalyst) and birch reduction respectively. The economy, efficiency, simplicity and high stereo chemical purity of this synthesis allow the potential use of pheromone 1 in integrated field studies to understand the behavioral responses of male apple leaf miner moth.

  3. Pheromone reception in moths: from molecules to behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Walker, William B; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths detect and find their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. Olfaction plays a vital role in this behavior. Since the first discovery of an insect sex pheromone from the silkmoth Bombyx mori, great efforts have been spent on understanding the sensing of the pheromones in vivo. Much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects in the past few decades. In this review, we focus on pheromone reception and detection in moths, from the molecular to the behavioral level. We trace the information pathway from the capture of pheromone by male antennae, binding and transportation to olfactory receptor neurons, receptor activation, signal transduction, molecule inactivation, through brain processing and behavioral response. We highlight the impact of recent studies and also provide our insights into pheromone processing. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A moth pheromone brewery: production of (Z)-11-hexadecenol by heterologous co-expression of two biosynthetic genes from a noctuid moth in a yeast cell factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Åsa K; Wang, Hong-Lei; Liénard, Marjorie A; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Johansson, Tomas; Löfstedt, Christer

    2013-12-13

    Moths (Lepidoptera) are highly dependent on chemical communication to find a mate. Compared to conventional unselective insecticides, synthetic pheromones have successfully served to lure male moths as a specific and environmentally friendly way to control important pest species. However, the chemical synthesis and purification of the sex pheromone components in large amounts is a difficult and costly task. The repertoire of enzymes involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis in insecta can be seen as a library of specific catalysts that can be used to facilitate the synthesis of a particular chemical component. In this study, we present a novel approach to effectively aid in the preparation of semi-synthetic pheromone components using an engineered vector co-expressing two key biosynthetic enzymes in a simple yeast cell factory. We first identified and functionally characterized a ∆11 Fatty-Acyl Desaturase and a Fatty-Acyl Reductase from the Turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. The ∆11-desaturase produced predominantly Z11-16:acyl, a common pheromone component precursor, from the abundant yeast palmitic acid and the FAR transformed a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding alcohols which may serve as pheromone components in many moth species. Secondly, when we co-expressed the genes in the Brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a set of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols that are not naturally occurring in yeast were produced from inherent yeast fatty acids, and the presence of (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), demonstrated that both heterologous enzymes were active in concert. A 100 ml batch yeast culture produced on average 19.5 μg Z11-16:OH. Finally, we demonstrated that oxidized extracts from the yeast cells containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal and other aldehyde pheromone compounds elicited specific electrophysiological activity from male antennae of the Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, supporting the idea that genes from different

  5. With or without pheromone habituation: possible differences between insect orders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Walter, Gimme H; Sullivan, Nicola; El-Sayed, Ashraf M

    2018-06-01

    Habituation to sex pheromones is one of the key mechanisms in mating disruption, an insect control tactic. Male moths often show reduced sexual response after pre-exposure to female sex pheromone. Mating disruption is relatively rare in insect orders other than Lepidoptera. As a positive control we confirmed habituation in a moth (Epiphyas postvittana) using 24 h pre-exposure to sex pheromone to reduce subsequent activation behaviour. We then tested the impact of pre-exposure to sex or trail pheromone on subsequent behavioural response with insects from three other orders. Similar pre-exposure for 24 h to either sex pheromone [Pseudococcus calceolariae (Homoptera) and apple leaf curling midge Dasineura mali (Diptera), or trail pheromone of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera)], followed by behavioural assay in clean air provided no evidence of habituation after pre-exposure in these latter cases. The moths alone were affected by pre-exposure to pheromone. For pests without habituation, sustained attraction to a point source may make lure and kill more economical. Improved knowledge of behavioural processes should lead to better success in pest management and mechanisms should be investigated further to inform studies and practical efforts generally enhancing effectiveness of pheromone-based management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Influence of climatic conditions on the distribution, abundance and activity of Agriotes lineatus L. adults in sex pheromone traps in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozina, Antonela; Čačija, Maja; Igrc Barčić, Jasminka; Bažok, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the distribution and abundance of Agriotes lineatus, (ii) correlate the abundance with the prevailing climatic conditions to establish how temperature and rainfall are influencing the dominance, and (iii) to determine the activity characteristics of the adults. Investigations were conducted in 17 fields grouped in four regions characterized by different climatic conditions. Using sex pheromone traps the most important Agriotes species ( A. lineatus L., A. sputator L., A. obscurus L., A. brevis Cand. and A. ustulatus Schall.) were collected. The monitoring period for A. brevis, A. sputator, A. lineatus and A. obscurus was from the 18th to the 32nd, and for A. ustulatus from the 23rd to the 32nd week of the year. A total of 61,247 individuals Agriotes were captured, of which 24,916 individuals were A. lineatus. Abundance and dominance of A. lineatus were significantly higher in the region of Zagreb compared to other regions. Moving east, rainfall decreased and temperatures increased and associated with that the abundance and dominance indices were lower. It was determined that the abundance of A. lineatus was negatively correlated with average air temperature ( r = -0.5201; p < 0.0001). Compared to earlier data from the region of Zagreb the dominance index decreased. This might be a result of climate change as established average yearly temperature in these regions increased for 1.04 °C compared to the average data for the period 1961-1990. Other potentially damaging Agriotes species ( A. brevis and A. ustulatus) were also present in high abundances in some micro-regions.

  7. Geographic Variation in Sexual Attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda Corn- and Rice-Strain Males to Pheromone Lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unbehend, Melanie; Hänniger, Sabine; Vásquez, Gissella M.; Juárez, María Laura; Reisig, Dominic; McNeil, Jeremy N.; Meagher, Robert L.; Jenkins, David A.; Heckel, David G.; Groot, Astrid T.

    2014-01-01

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this could have been due to inter-strain and/or geographic differences. Therefore, we investigated whether corn- and rice-strain males differed in their response to different synthetic pheromone blends in different regions in North America, the Caribbean and South America. All trapped males were strain-typed by two strain-specific mitochondrial DNA markers. In the first experiment, we found a nearly similar response of corn- and rice-strain males to two different 4-component blends, resembling the corn- and rice-strain female blend we previously described from females in Florida. This response showed some geographic variation in fields in Canada, North Carolina, Florida, Puerto Rico, and South America (Peru, Argentina). In dose-response experiments with the critical secondary sex pheromone component (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:OAc), we found some strain-specific differences in male attraction. While the response to Z7-12:OAc varied geographically in the corn-strain, rice-strain males showed almost no variation. We also found that the minor compound (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc) did not increase attraction of both strains in Florida and of corn-strain males in Peru. In a fourth experiment, where we added the stereo-isomer of the critical sex pheromone component, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate, to the major pheromone component (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc), we found that this compound was attractive to males in North Carolina, but not to males in Peru. Overall, our results suggest that both strains show rather geographic than strain-specific differences in their response to pheromone lures, and that regional sexual communication differences might cause geographic

  8. Pheromone dispensers, including organic polymer fibers, described in the crop protection literature: comparison of their innovation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S; Eisinger, M-T

    2013-01-01

    parameters, they hold considerable promise for future pest control against a variety of pest insects. In combination with well known synthetic sex pheromones, they can be used for communication disruption studies. One example, the pheromone of the European grape vine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in combination with Ecoflex fibers, has been thoroughly tested in vineyards of Freiburg, Southwest Germany, with promising results. Seven weeks of communication disruption have been achieved, long enough to cover any one of several flights of this multivoltine grape pest. Disruption effects of around 95% have been achieved which are statistically indistinguishable from positive controls tested simultaneously with Isonet LE fibers, while an untreated negative control is significantly different. Ecoflex is a cheap organic co-polyester and completely biodegradable within half a year. Thus, an extra recovery step as with some other dispensers is unnecessary. This co-polyester is also of proven non-toxicity. The extension of the seven week disruption period towards half a year (the entire duration of all 3 Lobesia flights combined) is desirable and is under additional investigation in the near future. The discovery of suitable mesofibers is protected by European and US patents. The pheromone literature appearing between 1959 and today contains more than 25,000 references. This wealth of information is immediately applicable to pest management. It has major impacts on chemical ecology and IPM. In this paper, an attempt is made to compare the systems described in the literature and to derive some predictions about their prospective innovation potential. Special emphasis is given to the new development of organic biodegradable microfibers. To this end, a new electronic searching algorithm is introduced for reviewing the entries to be found in 4 specific databases. Its prominent features will be described. Surprisingly we found no previous entries in the literature linking

  9. Cerambycid Beetle Species with Similar Pheromones are Segregated by Phenology and Minor Pheromone Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert F; Reagel, Peter F; Wong, Joseph C H; Meier, Linnea R; Silva, Weliton Dias; Mongold-Diers, Judith; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2015-05-01

    Recent research has shown that volatile sex and aggregation-sex pheromones of many species of cerambycid beetles are highly conserved, with sympatric and synchronic species that are closely related (i.e., congeners), and even more distantly related (different subfamilies), using the same or similar pheromones. Here, we investigated mechanisms by which cross attraction is averted among seven cerambycid species that are native to eastern North America and active as adults in spring: Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), Cyrtophorus verrucosus (Olivier), Euderces pini (Olivier), Neoclytus caprea (Say), and the congeners Phymatodes aereus (Newman), P. amoenus (Say), and P. varius (F.). Males of these species produce (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as their dominant or sole pheromone component. Our field bioassays support the hypothesis that cross attraction between species is averted or at least minimized by differences among species in seasonal phenology and circadian flight periods of adults, and/or by minor pheromone components that act as synergists for conspecifics and antagonists for heterospecifics.

  10. Expression of the mevalonate pathway enzymes in the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sex pheromone gland demonstrated by an integrated proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Caballero, Natalia; Rodríguez-Vega, Andrés; Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Valente, Richard H; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Cuervo, Patricia

    2014-01-16

    In Latin America, Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. This insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition. Elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulation may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, the vector's population management. Motivated by our recent results of the transcriptomic characterization of the L. longipalpis pheromone gland, we performed a proteomic analysis of this tissue combining SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry followed by an integrative data analysis. Considering that annotated genome sequences of this sand fly are not available, we designed an alternative workflow searching MS/MS data against two customized databases using three search engines: Mascot, OMSSA and ProLuCID. A total of 542 proteins were confidently characterized, 445 of them using a Uniref100-insect protein database, and 97 using a transcript translated database. In addition, use of PEAKS for de novo peptide sequencing of MS/MS data confirmed ~90% identifications made with the combination of the three search engines. Our results include the identification of six of the seven enzymes of the mevalonate-pathway, plus the enzymes involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, all of which are proposed to be involved in pheromone production in L. longipalpis. L. longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite L. infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. One of the control measures of such disease is focused on vector population control. As this insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition, the elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulating process may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, this vector's population management. On this regard, in this manuscript we report expression evidence, at the protein level, of several molecules potentially

  11. HONEY BEE COLONY PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dražić

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pheromones are chemicals produced as liquids by specialised cells or glands and transmitted into the environment as liquids or gases. In contrary to hormones, which are excreted in organism and have effect exclusively on organism that produced them, pheromones are excreted outside organism and effect on different individuals of the same species. Pheromones mediate nearly all aspects of honeybee colony life including social defence, brood care, mating, orientation, foraging and reproduction. Pheromone investigation has high economic importance. With use of pheromones it is possible to manipulate with pest insects on crops or to direct honeybees during pollination on target plants.

  12. Characterisation of Acetyl-CoA Thiolase: The First Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of Terpenic Sex Pheromone Components in the Labial Gland of Bombus terrestris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabcová, Jana; Demianová, Z.; Kindl, Jiří; Pichová, Iva; Valterová, Irena; Zarevúcka, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 7 (2015), s. 1047-1051 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020969 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acetyl-CoA thiolase * biosynthesis * Bombus terrestris * labial gland * pheromones * terpenoids Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2015

  13. Use of Mixture Designs to Investigate Contribution of Minor Sex Pheromone Components to Trap Catch of the Carpenterworm Moth, Chilecomadia valdiviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Stephen L; Barros-Parada, Wilson; Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Herrera, Heidy; Kinsho, Takeshi; Miyake, Yuki; Niedz, Randall P; Bergmann, Jan

    2017-12-01

    Field experiments were carried out to study responses of male moths of the carpenterworm, Chilecomadia valdiviana (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), a pest of tree and fruit crops in Chile, to five compounds previously identified from the pheromone glands of females. Previously, attraction of males to the major component, (7Z,10Z)-7,10-hexadecadienal, was clearly demonstrated while the role of the minor components was uncertain due to the use of an experimental design that left large portions of the design space unexplored. We used mixture designs to study the potential contributions to trap catch of the four minor pheromone components produced by C. valdiviana. After systematically exploring the design space described by the five pheromone components, we concluded that the major pheromone component alone is responsible for attraction of male moths in this species. The need for appropriate experimental designs to address the problem of assessing responses to mixtures of semiochemicals in chemical ecology is described. We present an analysis of mixture designs and response surface modeling and an explanation of why this approach is superior to commonly used, but statistically inappropriate, designs.

  14. Peripheral, central and behavioral responses to the cuticular pheromone bouquet in Drosophila melanogaster males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Inoshita

    Full Text Available Pheromonal communication is crucial with regard to mate choice in many animals including insects. Drosophila melanogaster flies produce a pheromonal bouquet with many cuticular hydrocarbons some of which diverge between the sexes and differently affect male courtship behavior. Cuticular pheromones have a relatively high weight and are thought to be -- mostly but not only -- detected by gustatory contact. However, the response of the peripheral and central gustatory systems to these substances remains poorly explored. We measured the effect induced by pheromonal cuticular mixtures on (i the electrophysiological response of peripheral gustatory receptor neurons, (ii the calcium variation in brain centers receiving these gustatory inputs and (iii the behavioral reaction induced in control males and in mutant desat1 males, which show abnormal pheromone production and perception. While male and female pheromones induced inhibitory-like effects on taste receptor neurons, the contact of male pheromones on male fore-tarsi elicits a long-lasting response of higher intensity in the dedicated gustatory brain center. We found that the behavior of control males was more strongly inhibited by male pheromones than by female pheromones, but this difference disappeared in anosmic males. Mutant desat1 males showed an increased sensitivity of their peripheral gustatory neurons to contact pheromones and a behavioral incapacity to discriminate sex pheromones. Together our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbons induce long-lasting inhibitory effects on the relevant taste pathway which may interact with the olfactory pathway to modulate pheromonal perception.

  15. Pheromone gland development and pheromone production in lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Bretas, Jorge A C; Eiras, Alvaro E; Hooper, Antony M; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Soares, Maurilio J

    2011-05-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Adult males produce a terpenoid sex pheromone that in some cases also acts as male aggregation pheromone. We have analyzed the correlation between male pheromone production levels and pheromone gland cell morphogenesis after adult emergence from pupae. The abdominal tergites of L. longipalpis males were dissected and fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy, or the pheromone was extracted in analytical grade hexane. Pheromone chemical analysis was carried out at 3- to 6-h intervals during the first 24 h after emergence and continued daily until the seventh day. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. For the morphological analysis, we used insects collected at 0-6, 9-12, 12-14, and 96 h after emergence. Ultrastructural data from 0- to 6-h-old adult males revealed smaller pheromone gland cells with small microvilli at the end apparatus. Lipid droplets and peroxisomes were absent or very rare, but a large number of mitochondria could be seen. Lipid droplets started to appear in the gland cells cytoplasm approximately 9 h after adult emergence, and their number and size increased with age, together with the presence of several peroxisomes, suggesting a role for these organelles in pheromone biosynthesis. At 12-15 h after emergence, the lipid droplets were mainly distributed near the microvilli but were smaller than those in mature older males (4 d old). Pheromone biosynthesis started around 12 h after emergence and increased continuously during the first 3 d, stabilizing thereafter, coinciding with the period when males are more able to attract females.

  16. The effects of a synthetic analogue of the Bovine Appeasing Pheromone on milk yield and composition in Valdostana dairy cows during the move from winter housing to confined lowland pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osella, Maria Cristina; Cozzi, Alessandro; Spegis, Claudio; Turille, Germano; Barmaz, Andrea; Lecuelle, Céline Lafont; Teruel, Eva; Bienboire-Frosini, Cécile; Chabaud, Camille; Bougrat, Laurent; Pageat, Patrick

    2018-05-01

    This Research Communication describes the effects of a synthetic analogue of the Bovine Appeasing Pheromone (BAP) on milk parameters in Valdostana dairy cows during the first turning out from tie-stalls to confined lowland pastures around the farms. Thirty healthy lactating Valdostana cows were enroled in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group (EG, n = 15) and control group (CG, n = 15). The two groups were separately housed in the same farm and managed outside in two different pens. Treatment (BAP and solution) and control (solution only) were poured on the nuchal skin area between the horns when the animals were inside the farm at the feeding rack every 7 d for 28 d (T0-T4). Milk samples were evaluated at the same time points (T0-T4). Daily milk production (kg/day) was higher in the EG than in the CG, particularly during the first day after the turning out to pasture (T1). Somatic Cell Count (103 cells/ml) was higher in the placebo group than in the EG, especially at T1. Proteins, fat, fat-free dry matter and casein (g/100 g) were not affected by the treatment. In T1 urea (mg/dl) content was higher in CG vs. EG, suggesting a more correct metabolic balance in the group treated with BAP. The use of BAP appears to modulate adaptation in ways that may improve dairy cow performance in the context of changes in management routines.

  17. Re-evaluation of the PBAN receptor molecule: characterization of PBANR variants expressed in the pheromone glands of moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex pheromone production in most moths is initiated following pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR) activation. PBANR was initially cloned from pheromone glands (PGs) of Helicoverpa zea and Bombyx mori. The B. mori PBANR is characterized by a relatively long C-terminus that...

  18. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  19. Functionality of the Paracoccidioides mating α-pheromone-receptor system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica A Gomes-Rezende

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that Paracoccidioides species have the potential to undergo sexual reproduction, although no sexual cycle has been identified either in nature or under laboratory conditions. In the present work we detected low expression levels of the heterothallic MAT loci genes MAT1-1 and MAT1-2, the α-pheromone (PBα gene, and the α- and a-pheromone receptor (PREB and PREA genes in yeast and mycelia forms of several Paracoccidioides isolates. None of the genes were expressed in a mating type dependent manner. Stimulation of P. brasiliensis MAT1-2 strains with the synthetic α-pheromone peptide failed to elicit transcriptional activation of MAT1-2, PREB or STE12, suggesting that the strains tested are insensitive to α-pheromone. In order to further evaluate the biological functionality of the pair α-pheromone and its receptor, we took advantage of the heterologous expression of these Paracoccidioides genes in the corresponding S. cerevisiae null mutants. We show that S. cerevisiae strains heterologously expressing PREB respond to Pbα pheromone either isolated from Paracoccidioides culture supernatants or in its synthetic form, both by shmoo formation and by growth and cell cycle arrests. This allowed us to conclude that Paracoccidioides species secrete an active α-pheromone into the culture medium that is able to activate its cognate receptor. Moreover, expression of PREB or PBα in the corresponding null mutants of S. cerevisiae restored mating in these non-fertile strains. Taken together, our data demonstrate pheromone signaling activation by the Paracoccidioides α-pheromone through its receptor in this yeast model, which provides novel evidence for the existence of a functional mating signaling system in Paracoccidioides.

  20. The response to selection for broad male response to female sex pheromone and its implications for divergence in close-range mating behavior in the European corn borer moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droney, David C; Musto, Callie J; Mancuso, Katie; Roelofs, Wendell L; Linn, Charles E

    2012-12-01

    Coordinated sexual communication systems, seen in many species of moths, are hypothesized to be under strong stabilizing natural selection. Stabilized communication systems should be resistant to change, but there are examples of species/populations that show great diversification. A possible solution is that it is directional sexual selection on variation in male response that drives evolution. We tested a component of this model by asking whether 'rare' males (ca. 5 % of all males in a population) of the European corn borer moth (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, that respond to the sex pheromones of both ECB and a different Ostrinia species (O. furnacalis, the Asian corn borer, ACB), might play an important role in diversification. We specifically tested, via artificial selection, whether this broad male response has an evolvable genetic component. We increased the frequency of broad male response from 5 to 70 % in 19 generations, showing that broad-responding males could be important for the evolution of novel communication systems in ECB. We did not find a broader range of mating acceptance of broad males by females of the base population, however, suggesting that broad response would be unlikely to increase in frequency without the involvement of other factors. However, we found that ECB selection-line females accepted a broader range of courting males, including those of ACB, than did females of the base population. Thus, a genetic correlation exists between broad, long-range response to female sex pheromone and the breadth of female acceptance of males at close range. These results are discussed in the context of evolution of novel communication systems in Ostrinia.

  1. Range of Attraction of Pheromone Lures and Dispersal Behavior of Cerambycid Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Dunn; J. Hough-Goldstein; L. M. Hanks; J. G. Millar; V. D' Amico

    2016-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) can locate suitable hosts and mates by sensing pheromones and plant volatiles. Many cerambycid pheromone components have been identified and are now produced synthetically for trap lures. The range over which these lures attract cerambycids within a forest, and the tendency for cerambycids to move out of a forest in...

  2. Do perfume additives termed human pheromones warrant being termed pheromones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winman, Anders

    2004-09-30

    Two studies of the effects of perfume additives, termed human pheromones by the authors, have conveyed the message that these substances can promote an increase in human sociosexual behaviour [Physiol. Behav. 75 (2003) R1; Arch. Sex. Behav. 27 (1998) R2]. The present paper presents an extended analysis of this data. It is shown that in neither study is there a statistically significant increase in any of the sociosexual behaviours for the experimental groups. In the control groups of both studies, there are, however, moderate but statistically significant decreases in the corresponding behaviour. Most notably, there is no support in data for the claim that the substances increase the attractiveness of the wearers of the substances to the other sex. It is concluded that more research using matched homogenous groups of participants is needed. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  3. CRISPR/Cas9-based knockouts reveal that CpRLP1 is a negative regulator of the sex pheromone PR-IP in the Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Naho; Ichikawa, Machiko; Ono, Ayaka; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Abe, Jun; Tsuchikane, Yuki; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-19

    Heterothallic strains of the Closterium peracerosum-strigosum-littorale (C. psl.) complex have two sexes, mating-type plus (mt + ) and mating-type minus (mt - ). Conjugation between these two sexes is regulated by two sex pheromones, protoplast-release-inducing protein (PR-IP) and PR-IP Inducer, which are produced by mt + and mt - cells, respectively. PR-IP mediates the release of protoplasts from mt - cells during mating. In this study, we examined the mechanism of action of CpRLP1 (receptor-like protein 1), which was previously identified in a cDNA microarray analysis as one of the PR-IP-inducible genes. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we generated CpRLP1 knockout mutants in mt - cells of the C. psl. complex. When the knockout mt - cells were mixed with wild-type mt + cells, conjugation was severely reduced. Many cells released protoplasts without pairing, suggesting a loss of synchronization between the two mating partners. Furthermore, the knockout mutants were hypersensitive to PR-IP. We conclude that CpRLP1 is a negative regulator of PR-IP that regulates the timing of protoplast release in conjugating C. psl. cells. As the first report of successful gene knockout in the class Charophyceae, this study provides a basis for research aimed at understanding the ancestral roles of genes that are indispensable for the development of land plants.

  4. Male Sexual Behavior and Pheromone Emission Is Enhanced by Exposure to Guava Fruit Volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E Bachmann

    Full Text Available Plant chemicals can affect reproductive strategies of tephritid fruit flies by influencing sex pheromone communication and increasing male mating competitiveness.We explored whether exposure of Anastrepha fraterculus males to guava fruit volatiles and to a synthetic blend of volatile compounds released by this fruit affects the sexual performance of wild and laboratory flies. By means of bioassays and pheromone collection we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.Guava volatile exposure enhanced male mating success and positively affected male calling behavior and pheromone release in laboratory and wild males. Changes in male behavior appear to be particularly important during the initial phase of the sexual activity period, when most of the mating pairs are formed. Exposure of laboratory males to a subset of guava fruit volatiles enhanced mating success, showing that the response to the fruit might be mimicked artificially.Volatiles of guava seem to influence male mating success through an enhancement of chemical and physical signals related to the communication between sexes. This finding has important implications for the management of this pest species through the Sterile Insect Technique. We discuss the possibility of using artificial blends to improve the sexual competitiveness of sterile males.

  5. Male Sexual Behavior and Pheromone Emission Is Enhanced by Exposure to Guava Fruit Volatiles in Anastrepha fraterculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Guillermo E.; Segura, Diego F.; Devescovi, Francisco; Juárez, M. Laura; Ruiz, M. Josefina; Vera, M. Teresa; Cladera, Jorge L.; Fernández, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plant chemicals can affect reproductive strategies of tephritid fruit flies by influencing sex pheromone communication and increasing male mating competitiveness. Objective and Methodology We explored whether exposure of Anastrepha fraterculus males to guava fruit volatiles and to a synthetic blend of volatile compounds released by this fruit affects the sexual performance of wild and laboratory flies. By means of bioassays and pheromone collection we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Results Guava volatile exposure enhanced male mating success and positively affected male calling behavior and pheromone release in laboratory and wild males. Changes in male behavior appear to be particularly important during the initial phase of the sexual activity period, when most of the mating pairs are formed. Exposure of laboratory males to a subset of guava fruit volatiles enhanced mating success, showing that the response to the fruit might be mimicked artificially. Conclusions Volatiles of guava seem to influence male mating success through an enhancement of chemical and physical signals related to the communication between sexes. This finding has important implications for the management of this pest species through the Sterile Insect Technique. We discuss the possibility of using artificial blends to improve the sexual competitiveness of sterile males. PMID:25923584

  6. System of forest insect pheromone communication: stability of «information» molecules to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Soukhovolsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Features of external environmental factors (such as electromagnetic radiation in certain spectral bands influencing pheromone molecules, which are carriers of information for forest insects in the search of the opposite sex, were examined. Stability of pheromone molecules for external influences has been studied for siberian moth Dendrolimus superans sibiricus Tschetv., pine moth Dendrilimus pini L., gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L., for xylophages Ips typographus L., Monochamus urussovi Fish. and Monochamus galloprovincialis Oliv. Properties of pheromone molecules were evaluated by calculations using quantum-chemical method B3LYP. Existing methods of quantum-chemical calculations are useful for analyzing the properties of quite small and uncomplicated molecules of forest insect pheromones. The calculations showed that the molecules of insect pheromones are able to absorb light in the ultraviolet range and move into an excited state. The values of dipole moments, the wavelengths of the absorption, atomic and molecular electronic properties of pheromones in the ground and excited states were calculated. The calculations showed that for the reaction of pheromones with oxygen an energy barrier is somewhat higher than for reactions of pheromones with water vapor. The worst reaction of pheromones with water molecules likely to pheromones such molecules whose dipole moment is comparable to the dipole moment of water. Quantum-chemical characteristics of the pheromone molecules can be linked to specific behavior of the insects.

  7. Synthetic analogues of natural semiochemicals as promising insect control agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujvary, Istvan; Toth, Miklos; Guerin, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    After decades of research and development, insect pheromones and other semiochemicals became indispensable tools of ecologically based agricultural pest and disease vector management programmes with main uses as: 1) detection and population monitoring of emerging and migrating insects, 2) mass trapping of insects, 3) combined formulation of semiochemicals and insecticides ('lure-and-kill'), and 4) mating disruption with specially formulated pheromone components. In spite of their demonstrated safety and biodegradability, the direct application of these semiochemicals for pest control has not fulfilled initial expectations. Nonetheless considerable field experience has been accumulated (Carde and Minks 1995). Evidently, two important factors limit the practical potential of these substances: 1) inherent in their particular mode of action, semiochemicals, especially pheromones, are effectively cleared by specific enzymes in the insect antennae, and 2) some of these compounds contain labile functional moieties that are prone to degradation (oxidation, isomerisation and polymerisation) under field conditions. Appropriate chemical modifications of these natural compounds, however, can circumvent these problems by providing synthetic analogues (sometimes also called parapheromones or antipheromones; for early studies, see Roelofs and Comeau 1971, Payne et al. 1973) which in ideal cases are not only more potent and environmentally acceptable but more economical as well. It should also be mentioned that many effective attractants have been discovered through the empirical screening of synthetic chemicals, some of which have actually turned out to be structural relatives of natural semiochemicals of the particular insect. In this paper, selected case studies of analogues of sex pheromones and kairomones will be presented. The examples from our work include nitrile bioisosteres of labile aldehyde pheromone components of the cranberry girdler moth, Chrysoteuchia topiaria

  8. Molecular characterization of pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Weon; Boo, Kyung Saeng

    2005-12-01

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) produced in the subesophageal ganglion stimulates pheromone production in the pheromone gland. A cDNA isolated from female adult heads of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L.)) encodes 193 amino acids including PBAN, designated as Plx-PBAN, and four other neuropeptides (NPs): diapause hormone (DH) homologue, alpha-NP, beta-NP and gamma-NP. All of the peptides are amidated in their C-termini and shared a conserved motif, FXPR(or K)L structure, as reported from other PBAN cDNAs. Plx-PBAN consists of 30 amino acids, the shortest PBAN so far reported. Plx-PBAN exhibited below 50% homology, compared with other known PBANs. The Plx-DH homologue is structurally different from DH of Bombyx mori. The length of Plx-beta-NP (16 amino acids) was the shortest and showed relatively low similarity, whereas gamma-NP (10 amino acids in length) was the longest among examined gamma-NPs. When female adults were injected with synthetic Plx-PBAN, pheromone production showed a maximal increase 1h post-injection. RT-PCR screening revealed that Plx-PBAN cDNA was expressed in all examined body parts, with the highest expression level in the head of female adults. Analysis of RT-PCR products indicated the Plx-PBAN sequence was identical in all examined body parts of both sexes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Plx-PBAN gene is distantly related to other PBANs, demonstrated by the relatively low similarity.

  9. Collection of pheromone from atmosphere surrounding boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J F; Benedict, J H; Payne, T L; Camp, B J; Vinson, S B

    1989-02-01

    An effluvial method was developed to collect the pheromone, grandlure from actively calling male boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis Boheman. The adsorbant, Porapak Q (ethylvinylbenzene-divinylbenzene), was utilized to trap and concentrate the pheromone. Captured pheromone was desorbed from columns packed with Porapak Q by elution withn-pentane and quantified by capillary column gas-liquid chromatography. In recovery studies with known amounts of synthetic grandlure, we found that the amount of each pheromone component collected was a function of collection duration, elution volume, and initial concentration. This effluvial method was capable of recovering as much as 94.9% of a known quantity (80 μg) of grandlure. The chromatograms were free of extraneous peaks. In studies of insect-produced pheromone, the effluvial method was used to collect pheromone from the air space surrounding male boll weevils as they fed on flower buds from CAMD-E cotton. The quantity and quality of boll-weevil-produced pheromone was determined for days 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 of boll weevil adulthood. The maximum quantity of natural pheromone was produced on day 13 (4.2 μg/weevil) with a pheromone component ratio of 2.41∶2.29∶0.95∶1 for components I, II, III, and IV, respectively. The effluvial method described in this report is an efficient method to collect and quantify boll weevil pheromone from the atmosphere surrounding actively calling insects. Other applications of this method are suggested.

  10. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the ...

  11. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angéla eRouyar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior towards the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e. single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone.

  12. Recent development in insect pheromone research, in particular in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.; Persoons, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of recent pheromone work carried out in the Netherlands on Lepidoptera, cockroaches, pharaoh's ants and termites, special emphasis being given to isolation and identification aspects. The sex pheromones of three leaf roller moths (Tortricidae) have been isolated, identified and

  13. Investigating a novel pathway by which pheromone-based mating disruption may protect crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption has been a successful, relatively new technology that growers use to reduce key insect populations. Mating disruption systems function by sending out false plumes of the insect sex pheromones – this interferes with the insect’s ability to find a mate, preempting egg...

  14. Custom synthesis of isotope-labelled Apis mellifera Pheromone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conanan, Aida P.; Cortes, Nicole Marie A.; Daguno, Cristel Lyn R.; Templonuevo, Jose Angelo A.; Sucgang, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the optimum conditions for the synthesis of the isotope-labelled isopentyl acetate. Isopentyl acetate is widely used as a raw material in industries, in syntheses, and is utilized as a sex attractant (pheromone) by the bee species, Apis mellifera. The isotope labelling of isopentyl acetate will allow tracking of the fate and movement of the isopentyl acetate in the environment, in chemical transformations, and in biological systems. Esterification by alcoholysis of acetic acid was optimized for the preparation of Carbon-14( 14 C)-labelled isopentyl acetate from 14 C-labelled acetic acid and isoamyl alcohol. The different conditions studied were: (1) The effects of acid catalysis and/or reflux on the incorporation and retention of the isotope label on the product. The efficiency of label incorporation and retention was determined through the beta radioactivity of Carbon 14 in each of the synthetic constructs. Determination of the beta radioactivity concentration of 14 C in the isopentyl acetate product was done using low level liquid scintillation spectrometry. Each of the synthetic products was mixed with Ultima Gold scintillation cocktail in a low potassium glass scintillation vial, and analysed in a low-level Wallac 1414 scintillation counter. The application of catalysis without reflux resulted in the highest yield (35%). The same condition also resulted in the highest abundance of carbon isotope label with 2.40 Bequerels per cubic centimetre, Bq/cc (measurement unit for radioactivity). (author)

  15. Olfactory responses of Plutella xylostella natural enemies to host pheromone, larval frass, and green leaf cabbage volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Holopainen, J K; Guerrero, A

    2002-01-01

    The parasitoids Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) and Cotesia plutellae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), and the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), are potential biological control agents for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). We present studies on the interactions between these bioagents and various host-associated volatiles using a Y olfactometer. T chilonis was attracted to a synthetic pheromone blend (Z11-16:Ald, Z11-16:Ac, and Z11-16:OH in a 1:1:0.01 ratio), to Z11-16:Ac alone, and to a 1:1 blend of Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. C. plutellae responded to the blend and to Z11-16:Ac and Z11-16:Ald. Male and female C. carnea responded to the blend and to a 1:1 blend of the major components of the pheromone, although no response was elicited by single compounds. Among the four host larval frass volatiles tested (dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, and dimethyl trisulfide), only allyl isothiocyanate elicited significant responses in the parasitoids and predator, but C. plutellae and both sexes of C. carnea did respond to all four volatiles. Among the green leaf volatiles of cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata), only Z3-6:Ac elicited significant responses from T. chilonis, C. plutellae, and C. carnea, but C. plutellae also responded to E2-6:Ald and Z3-6:OH. When these volatiles were blended with the pheromone, the responses were similar to those elicited by the pheromone alone, except for C. carnea males, which had an increased response. The effect of temperature on the response of the biological agents to a mixture of the pheromone blend and Z3-6:Ac was also studied. T. chilonis was attracted at temperatures of 25-35 degrees C, while C. plutellae and C. carnea responded optimally at 30-35 degrees C and 20-25 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate that the sex pheromone and larval frass volatiles from the diamondback moth, as well as volatile compounds from

  16. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Unbehend

    Full Text Available The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this could have been due to inter-strain and/or geographic differences. Therefore, we investigated whether corn- and rice-strain males differed in their response to different synthetic pheromone blends in different regions in North America, the Caribbean and South America. All trapped males were strain-typed by two strain-specific mitochondrial DNA markers. In the first experiment, we found a nearly similar response of corn- and rice-strain males to two different 4-component blends, resembling the corn- and rice-strain female blend we previously described from females in Florida. This response showed some geographic variation in fields in Canada, North Carolina, Florida, Puerto Rico, and South America (Peru, Argentina. In dose-response experiments with the critical secondary sex pheromone component (Z-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:OAc, we found some strain-specific differences in male attraction. While the response to Z7-12:OAc varied geographically in the corn-strain, rice-strain males showed almost no variation. We also found that the minor compound (Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc did not increase attraction of both strains in Florida and of corn-strain males in Peru. In a fourth experiment, where we added the stereo-isomer of the critical sex pheromone component, (E-7-dodecenyl acetate, to the major pheromone component (Z-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc, we found that this compound was attractive to males in North Carolina, but not to males in Peru. Overall, our results suggest that both strains show rather geographic than strain-specific differences in their response to pheromone lures, and that regional sexual communication differences might cause

  17. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weliton D Silva

    Full Text Available We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard, a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini.

  18. Courtship pheromones in parasitic wasps: comparison of bioactive and inactive hydrocarbon profiles by multivariate statistical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, S.; Mumm, R.; Ruther, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons play a significant role in the regulation of cuticular permeability and also in the chemical communication of insects. In the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), male courtship behavior is mediated by a female-produced sex pheromone. Previous

  19. Pigment-dispersing factor modulates pheromone production in clock cells that influence mating in Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krupp, Joshua J.; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Wong, Amy; Choi, Charles; Nitabach, Michael N.; Levine, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Social cues contribute to the circadian entrainment of physiological and behavioral rhythms. These cues supplement the influence of daily and seasonal cycles in light and temperature. In Drosophila, the social environment modulates circadian mechanisms that regulate sex pheromone production and

  20. Ready for a fight? The physiological effects of detecting an opponent's pheromone cues prior to a contest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mark J; Williams, John; Sinderman, Benjamin; Earley, Ryan L

    2015-10-01

    Reception of pheromone cues can elicit significant physiological (e.g. steroid hormone levels) changes in the recipient. These pheromone-induced physiological changes have been well documented for male-female interactions, but scarcely in same-sex interactions (male-male and female-female). We sought to address this dearth in the current literature and examine whether mangrove rivulus fish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) could detect and, ultimately, mount a physiological response to the pheromone signature of a potential, same-sex competitor. We examined steroid hormone levels in mangrove rivulus exposed to one of three treatments: 1) isolation, 2) exposure to pheromones of a size-matched partner, and 3) pheromone exposure to a size-matched opponent followed by a physical encounter with the opponent. We found that exposure to a competitor's pheromone cues elicited a significant increase in testosterone levels. Increases in testosterone were similar across genetically distinct lineages derived from geographically distinct populations. Further, testosterone levels were similar between individuals only exposed to pheromone cues and individuals exposed to both pheromone cues and a subsequent physical encounter. Our findings led us to generate a number of testable predictions regarding how mangrove rivulus utilize pheromone signals in social interactions, the molecular mechanisms linking social stimuli and hormonal responses, and the possible adaptive benefits of hormonal responsiveness to receiving a potential competitor's pheromone cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chiral synthesis of (Z)-3-cis-6,7-cis-9,10-diepoxyhenicosenes, sex pheromone components of the satin moth, Leucoma salicis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Priyantha D C; Slessor, Keith N

    2004-06-01

    major pheromone component(s) of Leucoma salicis.

  2. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L.M. Steidle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897, the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies.

  3. Do pheromones reveal male immunocompetence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Markus J; Jokinen, Ilmari; Kortet, Raine; Vainikka, Anssi; Suhonen, Jukka

    2002-01-01

    Pheromones function not only as mate attractors, but they may also relay important information to prospective mates. It has been shown that vertebrates can distinguish, via olfactory mechanisms, major histocompatibility complex types in their prospective mates. However, whether pheromones can transmit information about immunocompetence is unknown. Here, we show that female mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor) prefer pheromones from males with better immunocompetence, indicated by a faster encapsulation rate against a novel antigen, and higher levels of phenoloxidase in haemolymph. Thus, the present study indicates that pheromones could transmit information about males' parasite resistance ability and may work as a reliable sexual ornament for female choice. PMID:12204128

  4. Identification and Behavioral Evaluation of Sex Pheromone in Xanthopimpla pedator (Fabricius)—A Serious Pupal Parasitoid of Tropical Tasar Silkworm Anthereae mylitta Drury

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Marepally; Gaddam Benarjee

    2016-01-01

    Xanthopimpla is a major parasitoid of silk worm cocoons. The female Xanthopimpla pedator (Fabricius) lays the eggs in male cocoons. Control of this infestation with pesticides is not recommended because of its concealed behavior. Various control methods were found to be inefficient. Ecofriendly management is the best strategy that can be applied. We have studied the sex communication in Xanthopimpla pedator (Fabricius), which helps to develop management strategy. Bioassays were done in the la...

  5. Gqalpha-linked PLCbeta and PLCgamma are essential components of the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex pheromone production for most moths is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN). In Bombyx mori, PBAN binding triggers the opening of store-operated Ca2+ channels, suggesting the involvement of a receptor-activated phospholipase C (PLC). In this study, we found that P...

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on scent gland development and pheromone production in Spodoptera Littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazaa, M.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd) is one of the important pests of cotton and many other crops in egypt. Several methods have been tried for its control. Among these, the sterile insect technique and the application of sex attractant pheromones appeared to be promissing in an integrated programme for the control of this and other serious insect pests. The high doses of gamma radiation required in such technique may affect some physiological and biological aspects of the insect as well; specially its reproductive potential. This effect may disturb the intraspecific communication between males and females by adversely affecting pheromone glands and hence pheromone production (Stimman et al., 1972; abdu et al., 1985 and El - Degwi, 1990). Insect sex pheromones are chemical substances secreted by either sex to attract the other sex and get them together for copulation. Trials to seek some of the factors that can prevent such communication in the cotton leaf worm may be of importance in its integrated control programme. This stimulated the present study to investigate the effect of gamma radiation doses on sex pheromone gland and pheromone production in this economically important insect pest.8 tabs., 14 figs., 92 refs

  7. Pheromone biosynthesis in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    Pine bark beetles rely on aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass attacks and thus reproduce in host trees. The structural similarity between many pheromone components and those of defensive tree resin led to early suggestions that pheromone components are metabolic derivatives of ingested precursors. This model has given way to our current understanding that most pheromone components are synthesized de novo. Their synthesis involves enzymes that modify products from endogenous metabolic pathways; some of these enzymes have been identified and characterized. Pheromone production is regulated in a complex way involving multiple signals, including JH III. This brief review summarizes progress in our understanding of this highly specialized metabolic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. POSSIBILITIES FOR MONITORING GUATEMALAN POTATO TUBER MOTH TECIA SOLANIVORA (POVOLNY AND POTATO TUBERWORM PHTHORIMAEA OPERCULELLA (ZELLER BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Guatemalan moth (GTPM, Tecia solanivora Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, was first registered in Guatemala and most recently invaded and became a key pest of the potato, Solanum tuberosum L., in Central and South America. Larvae feed exclusively on potato tubers, in the field and in store. Tuber quality is much reduced and heavily infested tubers can no longer be used for human or animal consumption. Stocks can be totally destroyed in less than 3 months. The potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the most damaging pests of potatoes in field and storage and is generally of greatest importance in warmer climates. After pest detection, synthetic sex pheromones are principally used to monitor population levels and trigger applications of chemicals or other control methods. In this article we described our results for using pheromone traps Delta VI of the company of Trécé Inc. USA for monitoring of the both pests in a Carchi province in Zona 1 in Ecuador. We give conclusions and recommendation for using these pheromone traps for detection and monitoring of these very important pests on Solanaceae crops.

  9. Interference of plant volatiles on pheromone receptor neurons of male Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammagarahalli, Byrappa; Gemeno, César

    2015-10-01

    In moths, sex pheromone components are detected by pheromone-specific olfactory receptor neurons (ph-ORNs) housed in sensilla trichodea in the male antennae. In Grapholita molesta, ph-ORNs are highly sensitive and specific to the individual sex pheromone components, and thus help in the detection and discrimination of the unique conspecific pheromone blend. Plant odors interspersed with a sub-optimal pheromone dose are reported to increase male moth attraction. To determine if the behavioral synergism of pheromone and plant odors starts at the ph-ORN level, single sensillum recordings were performed on Z8-12:Ac and E8-12:Ac ph-ORNs (Z-ORNs and E-ORNs, respectively) stimulated with pheromone-plant volatile mixtures. First, biologically meaningful plant-volatile doses were determined by recording the response of plant-specific ORNs housed in sensilla auricillica and trichodea to several plant odorants. This exploration provided a first glance at plant ORNs in this species. Then, using these plant volatile doses, we found that the spontaneous activity of ph-ORNs was not affected by the stimulation with plant volatiles, but that a binary mixture of sex pheromone and plant odorants resulted in a small (about 15%), dose-independent, but statistically significant, reduction in the spike frequency of Z-ORNs with respect to stimulation with Z8-12:Ac alone. The response of E-ORNs to a combination of E8-12:Ac and plant volatiles was not different from E8-12:Ac alone. We argue that the small inhibition of Z-ORNs caused by physiologically realistic plant volatile doses is probably not fully responsible for the observed behavioral synergism of pheromone and plant odors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Components of male aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi herbst. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, P J; Hall, D R; Cross, J V

    2001-06-01

    The strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi, is a major pest of strawberries in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. As part of a project to develop noninsecticidal control methods, the pheromone system of this species was investigated. Comparison of volatiles produced by field-collected, overwintering individuals of each sex led to identification of three male-specific compounds--(Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (cis)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)cyclobutaneethanol, and 2-(1-methylethenyl)-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-ol (lavandulol)--in amounts of 6.1, 1.2, and 0.82 microg/day/ male. The first two compounds are components of the aggregation pheromone of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, grandlure II and grandlure I, respectively. Grandlure I was the (1R,2S)-(+) enantiomer and lavandulol was a single enantiomer, although the absolute configuration was not determined. Trace amounts of the other two grandlure components (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure III) and (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure IV) were also detected. (E,E)-1-(1-Methylethyl)-4-methylene-8-methyl-2,7-cyclo-decadiene (germacrene-D), a known volatile from strawberry plants, Fragaria ananassa, was collected in increased amounts in the presence of pheromone-producing weevils. Male weevils only produced pheromone on F. ananassa and not on scented mayweed, Matracaria recutita, or cow parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris, although these are known food sources. In field trials using various combinations of synthetic grandlures I, II, III, and IV and lavandulol, significantly more weevils were caught in traps baited with blends containing grandlure I and II and lavandulol than in those baited with blends without lavandulol or unbaited controls. Addition of grandlure III and IV had no significant effect on attractiveness. Horizontal sticky traps were found to be more effective than vertical sticky traps or standard boll weevil traps. In mid-season females

  11. Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

    2011-06-01

    A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Allelic exchange of pheromones and their receptors reprograms sexual identity in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynne C Stanton

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell type specification is a fundamental process that all cells must carry out to ensure appropriate behaviors in response to environmental stimuli. In fungi, cell identity is critical for defining "sexes" known as mating types and is controlled by components of mating type (MAT loci. MAT-encoded genes function to define sexes via two distinct paradigms: 1 by controlling transcription of components common to both sexes, or 2 by expressing specially encoded factors (pheromones and their receptors that differ between mating types. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has two mating types (a and alpha that are specified by an extremely unusual MAT locus. The complex architecture of this locus makes it impossible to predict which paradigm governs mating type. To identify the mechanism by which the C. neoformans sexes are determined, we created strains in which the pheromone and pheromone receptor from one mating type (a replaced the pheromone and pheromone receptor of the other (alpha. We discovered that these "alpha(a" cells effectively adopt a new mating type (that of a cells; they sense and respond to alpha factor, they elicit a mating response from alpha cells, and they fuse with alpha cells. In addition, alpha(a cells lose the alpha cell type-specific response to pheromone and do not form germ tubes, instead remaining spherical like a cells. Finally, we discovered that exogenous expression of the diploid/dikaryon-specific transcription factor Sxi2a could then promote complete sexual development in crosses between alpha and alpha(a strains. These data reveal that cell identity in C. neoformans is controlled fully by three kinds of MAT-encoded proteins: pheromones, pheromone receptors, and homeodomain proteins. Our findings establish the mechanisms for maintenance of distinct cell types and subsequent developmental behaviors in this unusual human fungal pathogen.

  13. Allelic exchange of pheromones and their receptors reprograms sexual identity in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Brynne C; Giles, Steven S; Staudt, Mark W; Kruzel, Emilia K; Hull, Christina M

    2010-02-26

    Cell type specification is a fundamental process that all cells must carry out to ensure appropriate behaviors in response to environmental stimuli. In fungi, cell identity is critical for defining "sexes" known as mating types and is controlled by components of mating type (MAT) loci. MAT-encoded genes function to define sexes via two distinct paradigms: 1) by controlling transcription of components common to both sexes, or 2) by expressing specially encoded factors (pheromones and their receptors) that differ between mating types. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has two mating types (a and alpha) that are specified by an extremely unusual MAT locus. The complex architecture of this locus makes it impossible to predict which paradigm governs mating type. To identify the mechanism by which the C. neoformans sexes are determined, we created strains in which the pheromone and pheromone receptor from one mating type (a) replaced the pheromone and pheromone receptor of the other (alpha). We discovered that these "alpha(a)" cells effectively adopt a new mating type (that of a cells); they sense and respond to alpha factor, they elicit a mating response from alpha cells, and they fuse with alpha cells. In addition, alpha(a) cells lose the alpha cell type-specific response to pheromone and do not form germ tubes, instead remaining spherical like a cells. Finally, we discovered that exogenous expression of the diploid/dikaryon-specific transcription factor Sxi2a could then promote complete sexual development in crosses between alpha and alpha(a) strains. These data reveal that cell identity in C. neoformans is controlled fully by three kinds of MAT-encoded proteins: pheromones, pheromone receptors, and homeodomain proteins. Our findings establish the mechanisms for maintenance of distinct cell types and subsequent developmental behaviors in this unusual human fungal pathogen.

  14. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley S. Higbee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae, in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management.

  15. Neurotoxicology of insecticides and pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narahashi, Toshio

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum where a variety of scientists who were interested in the interactions of insecticides and pheromones with the nervous system got together to exchange their views...

  16. Queen pheromones: The chemical crown governing insect social life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Luke

    2010-11-01

    Group-living species produce signals that alter the behavior and even the physiology of their social partners. Social insects possess especially sophisticated chemical communication systems that govern every aspect of colony life, including the defining feature of eusociality: reproductive division of labor. Current evidence hints at the central importance of queen pheromones, but progress has been hindered by the fact that such pheromones have only been isolated in honeybees. In a pair of papers on the ant Lasius niger, we identified and investigated a queen pheromone regulating worker sterility. The cuticular hydrocarbon 3-methylhentriacontane (3-MeC(31)) is correlated with queen maturity and fecundity and workers are also more likely to execute surplus queens that have low amounts of this chemical. Experiments with synthetic 3-MeC(31) found that it inhibits ovarian development in queenless workers and lowers worker aggression towards objects coated with it. Production of 3-MeC(31) by queens was depressed by an experimental immune challenge, and the same chemical was abundant on queenlaid eggs, suggesting that the workers' responses to the queen are conditional on her health and fecundity. Together with other studies, these results indicate that queen pheromones are honest signals of quality that simultaneously regulate multiple social behaviors.

  17. Cloning and functional characterization of three new pheromone receptors from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yipeng; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Xingchuan; Wang, Guirong

    The highly specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae of male moths can recognize blends of several pheromone components. In previous studies, a total of six candidate pheromone receptor (PR) genes were cloned and functionally characterized in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. In the present work, we report on three novel candidate pheromone receptor genes: PxylOR8, PxylOR41, and PxylOR45 in the same species. Gene expression analysis revealed that PxylOR8 is specifically expressed in female adult antennae, while PxylOR41 and PxylOR45 are expressed in antennae in both sexes, but with a male bias. In situ hybridization revealed that PxylOR8, PxylOR41 and PxylOR45 are localized in long trichoid sensilla. Functional analyses on the three pheromone receptor genes were then performed using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes. PxylOR41 was tuned to two minor pheromone components Z9-14:Ac, Z9-14:OH, and their analog Z9-14:Ald. PxylOR8 and PxylOR45 did not respond to any tested pheromone components and analogs. These results may contribute to clarifying how pheromone detection works in P. xylostella. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. THE USE OF GRIGNARD REAGENT IN PHEROMONE SYNTHESIS FOR PALM WEEVIL (Rhynchorus, Sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsito Warsito

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In an integrated controlling system of palm weevil, using of synthetic feromoid is strickly needed. The research is aimed to synthesize pheromone which secreted by the weevil, e.g. 4-methyl-5-nonanol (R. ferrugineus and 3-methyl-4-octanol (R. schach through Grignard reagent which formed in situ. The synthesis was proceded by retrosynthesis to determine the precursor, valeraldehyde. The precursor was reacted with Grignard reagent of sec-amyl magnesium bromide (R. ferrugenieus and sec-butyl magnesium bromide (R. shach which made in situ. Characterization of the synthetic molecular pheromone was performed by Gas Chromatography-mass spectroscopy and Fourier Transformed Infra Red. The bioassay of the molecule was carried out by olfactometer. The result showed that the conversion of the reactions were 51.28% (4-methyl-5-nonanol and 85.90% (3-methyl-4-octanol. The character of physico-chemical and bioactivity of the synthetic pheromone are identic with natural pheromones.   Keywords: palm weevil, pheromone, grignard reagent

  19. Functional characterization of an alpha-factor-like Sordaria macrospora peptide pheromone and analysis of its interaction with its cognate receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Severine; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2005-04-01

    The homothallic filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora possesses genes which are thought to encode two pheromone precursors and two seven-transmembrane pheromone receptors. The pheromone precursor genes are termed ppg1 and ppg2. The putative products derived from the gene sequence show structural similarity to the alpha-factor precursors and a-factor precursors of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Likewise, sequence similarity has been found between the putative products of the pheromone receptor genes pre2 and pre1 and the S. cerevisiae Ste2p alpha-factor receptor and Ste3p a-factor receptor, respectively. To investigate whether the alpha-factor-like pheromone-receptor pair of S. macrospora is functional, a heterologous yeast assay was used. Our results show that the S. macrospora alpha-factor-like pheromone precursor PPG1 is processed into an active pheromone by yeast MATalpha cells. The S. macrospora PRE2 protein was demonstrated to be a peptide pheromone receptor. In yeast MATa cells lacking the endogenous Ste2p receptor, the S. macrospora PRE2 receptor facilitated all aspects of the pheromone response. Using a synthetic peptide, we can now predict the sequence of one active form of the S. macrospora peptide pheromone. We proved that S. macrospora wild-type strains secrete an active pheromone into the culture medium and that disruption of the ppg1 gene in S. macrospora prevents pheromone production. However, loss of the ppg1 gene does not affect vegetative growth or fertility. Finally, we established the yeast assay as an easy and useful system for analyzing pheromone production in developmental mutants of S. macrospora.

  20. Identification of lipases involved in PBAN stimulated pheromone production in Bombyx mori using the DGE and RNAi approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengfang Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN is a neurohormone that regulates sex pheromone synthesis in female moths. Bombyx mori is a model organism that has been used to explore the signal transduction pattern of PBAN, which is mediated by a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR. Although significant progress has been made in elucidating PBAN-regulated lipolysis that releases the precursor of the sex pheromone, little is known about the molecular components involved in this step. To better elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PBAN-stimulated lipolysis of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs, the associated lipase genes involved in PBAN- regulated sex pheromone biosynthesis were identified using digital gene expression (DGE and subsequent RNA interference (RNAi. RESULTS: Three DGE libraries were constructed from pheromone glands (PGs at different developed stages, namely, 72 hours before eclosion (-72 h, new emergence (0 h and 72 h after eclosion (72 h, to investigate the gene expression profiles during PG development. The DGE evaluated over 5.6 million clean tags in each PG sample and revealed numerous genes that were differentially expressed at these stages. Most importantly, seven lipases were found to be richly expressed during the key stage of sex pheromone synthesis and release (new emergence. RNAi-mediated knockdown confirmed for the first time that four of these seven lipases play important roles in sex pheromone synthesis. CONCLUSION: This study has identified four lipases directly involved in PBAN-stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis, which improve our understanding of the lipases involved in releasing bombykol precursors from triacylglycerols (TAGs within the cytoplasmic LDs.

  1. Structure-Activity Relationship of α Mating Pheromone from the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Stefania; Partida-Hanon, Angélica; Serrano, Soraya; Martínez-Del-Pozo, Álvaro; Di Pietro, Antonio; Turrà, David; Bruix, Marta

    2017-03-03

    During sexual development ascomycete fungi produce two types of peptide pheromones termed a and α. The α pheromone from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , a 13-residue peptide that elicits cell cycle arrest and chemotropic growth, has served as paradigm for the interaction of small peptides with their cognate G protein-coupled receptors. However, no structural information is currently available for α pheromones from filamentous ascomycetes, which are significantly shorter and share almost no sequence similarity with the S. cerevisiae homolog. High resolution structure of synthetic α-pheromone from the plant pathogenic ascomycete Fusarium oxysporum revealed the presence of a central β-turn resembling that of its yeast counterpart. Disruption of the-fold by d-alanine substitution of the conserved central Gly 6 -Gln 7 residues or by random sequence scrambling demonstrated a crucial role for this structural determinant in chemoattractant activity. Unexpectedly, the growth inhibitory effect of F. oxysporum α-pheromone was independent of the cognate G protein-coupled receptors Ste2 and of the central β-turn but instead required two conserved Trp 1 -Cys 2 residues at the N terminus. These results indicate that, despite their reduced size, fungal α-pheromones contain discrete functional regions with a defined secondary structure that regulate diverse biological processes such as polarity reorientation and cell division. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the 'female calling plus male seduction' system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae ("butterfly-moths"), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is usually done in many moths.

  3. Drosophila pheromone-sensing neurons expressing the ppk25 ion channel subunit stimulate male courtship and female receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vinoy; Thistle, Rob; Liu, Tong; Starostina, Elena; Pikielny, Claudio W

    2014-03-01

    As in many species, gustatory pheromones regulate the mating behavior of Drosophila. Recently, several ppk genes, encoding ion channel subunits of the DEG/ENaC family, have been implicated in this process, leading to the identification of gustatory neurons that detect specific pheromones. In a subset of taste hairs on the legs of Drosophila, there are two ppk23-expressing, pheromone-sensing neurons with complementary response profiles; one neuron detects female pheromones that stimulate male courtship, the other detects male pheromones that inhibit male-male courtship. In contrast to ppk23, ppk25, is only expressed in a single gustatory neuron per taste hair, and males with impaired ppk25 function court females at reduced rates but do not display abnormal courtship of other males. These findings raised the possibility that ppk25 expression defines a subset of pheromone-sensing neurons. Here we show that ppk25 is expressed and functions in neurons that detect female-specific pheromones and mediates their stimulatory effect on male courtship. Furthermore, the role of ppk25 and ppk25-expressing neurons is not restricted to responses to female-specific pheromones. ppk25 is also required in the same subset of neurons for stimulation of male courtship by young males, males of the Tai2 strain, and by synthetic 7-pentacosene (7-P), a hydrocarbon normally found at low levels in both males and females. Finally, we unexpectedly find that, in females, ppk25 and ppk25-expressing cells regulate receptivity to mating. In the absence of the third antennal segment, which has both olfactory and auditory functions, mutations in ppk25 or silencing of ppk25-expressing neurons block female receptivity to males. Together these results indicate that ppk25 identifies a functionally specialized subset of pheromone-sensing neurons. While ppk25 neurons are required for the responses to multiple pheromones, in both males and females these neurons are specifically involved in stimulating

  4. Allelic exchange of pheromones and their receptors reprograms sexual identity in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    OpenAIRE

    Brynne C Stanton; Steven S Giles; Mark W Staudt; Emilia K Kruzel; Christina M Hull

    2010-01-01

    Cell type specification is a fundamental process that all cells must carry out to ensure appropriate behaviors in response to environmental stimuli. In fungi, cell identity is critical for defining "sexes" known as mating types and is controlled by components of mating type (MAT) loci. MAT-encoded genes function to define sexes via two distinct paradigms: 1) by controlling transcription of components common to both sexes, or 2) by expressing specially encoded factors (pheromones and their rec...

  5. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar V S Akella

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  6. Identification of the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips, Thrips palmi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Sudhakar V S; Kirk, William D J; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F A; Hamilton, James G C

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis.

  7. A pheromone analogue affects the evaporation rate of (+)-disparlure in Lymantria dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollai, Giorgia; Murgia, Sergio; Secci, Francesco; Frongia, Angelo; Cerboneschi, Anna; Masala, Carla; Liscia, Anna; Crnjar, Roberto; Solari, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. is a widespread pest that causes economic damage to cork oak forests. Females produce the sex pheromone (+)-(7R,8S)-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane, known as (+)-disparlure [(+)D], for long-distance attraction of conspecific males. A (+)D analogue, 2-decyl-1-oxaspiro[2.2]pentane (OXP-01), neither stimulating nor attractive by itself, causes short-time inhibition of male response in a 1:1 blend with (+)D. The authors investigated whether and how the biological activity of the natural pheromone is affected by OXP-01 on a long-time basis (up to 16 days), also by looking at possible physicochemical reciprocal interactions. Blending of (+)D with OXP-01 decreased, under low evaporation rate, the pheromone effectiveness, as assessed by electroantennogram recordings. In male trappings, within the first 24 h, OXP-01 decreased and later enhanced the blend attractiveness, but only under high evaporation rate. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicates that quantitative retrieval of (+)D from blend cartridges is higher than for pure pheromone, and nuclear magnetic resonance measurements show that OXP-01 produces, possibly by Van der Waals interactions, a bimolecular entity with pheromone causing retention and lengthening of its attractiveness over time. The biological and physicochemical interactions between (+)D and OXP-01 may provide valuable information for the optimisation of pheromone-based control strategies for gypsy moths. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Degradation of pheromone and plant volatile components by a same odorant-degrading enzyme in the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durand

    Full Text Available Odorant-Degrading Enzymes (ODEs are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly removing odorant molecules from the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Only three ODEs have been both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized: two were specialized in the degradation of pheromone compounds and the last one was shown to degrade a plant odorant.Previous work has shown that the antennae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a worldwide pest of agricultural crops, express numerous candidate ODEs. We focused on an esterase overexpressed in males antennae, namely SlCXE7. We studied its expression patterns and tested its catalytic properties towards three odorants, i.e. the two female sex pheromone components and a green leaf volatile emitted by host plants.SlCXE7 expression was concomitant during development with male responsiveness to odorants and during adult scotophase with the period of male most active sexual behaviour. Furthermore, SlCXE7 transcription could be induced by male exposure to the main pheromone component, suggesting a role of Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme. Interestingly, recombinant SlCXE7 was able to efficiently hydrolyze the pheromone compounds but also the plant volatile, with a higher affinity for the pheromone than for the plant compound. In male antennae, SlCXE7 expression was associated with both long and short sensilla, tuned to sex pheromones or plant odours, respectively. Our results thus suggested that a same ODE could have a dual function depending of it sensillar localisation. Within the pheromone-sensitive sensilla, SlCXE7 may play a role in pheromone signal termination and in reduction of odorant background noise, whereas it could be involved in plant odorant inactivation within the short sensilla.

  9. Diel periodicity of pheromone release by females of Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus and the temporal flight activity of their conspecific males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Zada, Anat; Fefer, Daniela; David, Maayan; Eliyahu, Miriam; Franco, José Carlos; Protasov, Alex; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-08-01

    The diel periodicity of sex pheromone release was monitored in two mealybug species, Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae), using sequential SPME/GCMS analysis. A maximal release of 2 ng/h pheromone by 9-12-day-old P. citri females occurred 1-2 h before the beginning of photophase. The highest release of pheromone by P. ficus females was 1-2 ng/2 h of 10-20-day-old females, approximately 2 h after the beginning of photophase. Mating resulted in termination of the pheromone release in both mealybug species. The temporal flight activity of the males was monitored in rearing chambers using pheromone baited delta traps. Males of both P. citri and P. ficus displayed the same flight pattern and began flying at 06:00 hours when the light was turned on, reaching a peak during the first and second hour of the photophase. Our results suggest that other biparental mealybug species display also diel periodicities of maximal pheromone release and response. Direct evaluation of the diel periodicity of the pheromone release by the automatic sequential analysis is convenient and will be very helpful in optimizing the airborne collection and identification of other unknown mealybug pheromones and to study the calling behavior of females. Considering this behavior pattern may help to develop more effective pheromone-based management strategies against mealybugs.

  10. Flutuação populacional de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (MEYRICK, 1909 (Lep: Tortricidae com emprego de feromônio sexual sintético na cultura da videira easonal fluctuation of the adults of Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (MEYRICK, 1909 (Lep: Tortricidae using synthetic sexual pheromone in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson José Morandi Filho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-das-fruteiras, Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick, 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, é uma espécie freqüentemente encontrada danificando a cultura da videira e outras frutíferas de clima temperado na região Sul do Brasil e no Uruguai. Estudou-se a flutuação populacional de A. sphaleropa na cultura da videira com emprego do feromônio sexual sintético. Com base na avaliação semanal de machos de A. sphaleropa capturados em armadilha Delta contendo o feromônio sexual sintético (Z11,13-14Ac + Z11,13-14Al + Z11-14Al na proporção 4:4:1, impregnada em liberadores de borracha na dose de 1.000µg/septo, durante a safra 2003-2004, foram observados quatro picos populacionais na cultura da videira cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon. O primeiro pico populacional ocorreu no início do mês de outubro, o segundo no início de fevereiro, o terceiro teve o acme em meados do mês de março e o quarto no mês de junho. A temperatura média diária e a precipitação pluviométrica não exerceram influência sobre a captura dos insetos nas armadilhas. As informações deste trabalho permitem direcionar as táticas de controle para os períodos em que a população do inseto é mais elevada nos parreirais.The South American Tortricid Moth (Meyrick, 1909 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is often found damaging vineyards and other temperate fruit orchards, in Southern Brazil and Uruguay. This work was conducted to study the seasonal occurrence of A. sphaleropa adults in vineyards using sexual synthetic pheromone. Based on weekly evaluation of A. sphaleropa adults caught in Delta trap baited with synthetic sexual pheromone (Z11, 13-14Ac + Z11, 13-14Al + Z11-14Al in a ratio of 4:4:1, 1000µg/septum, during 2003/2004 season, it was observed four populational peaks in a Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard. The first populational peak occurred in the beginning of October, the second in the beginning of February, the third occurred in middle of March and the forth in June

  11. Sublethal Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Calling Behavior and Pheromone Production of Tortricid Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Roldán, Miguel A; Gemeno, César

    2017-09-01

    In moths, sexual behavior combines female sex pheromone production and calling behavior. The normal functioning of these periodic events requires an intact nervous system. Neurotoxic insecticide residues in the agroecosystem could impact the normal functioning of pheromone communication through alteration of the nervous system. In this study we assess whether sublethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid, that competitively modulates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the dendrite, affect pheromone production and calling behavior in adults of three economically important tortricid moth pests; Cydia pomonella (L.), Grapholita molesta (Busck), and Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller). Thiacloprid significantly reduced the amount of calling in C. pomonella females at LC 0.001 (a lethal concentration that kills only 1 in 10 5 individuals), and altered its calling period at LC 1 , and in both cases the effect was dose-dependent. In the other two species the effect was similar but started at higher LCs, and the effect was relatively small in L. botrana. Pheromone production was altered only in C. pomonella, with a reduction of the major compound, codlemone, and one minor component, starting at LC 10 . Since sex pheromones and neonicotinoids are used together in the management of these three species, our results could have implications regarding the interaction between these two pest control methods.

  12. Courtship Pheromone Use in a Model Urodele, the Mexican Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maex, Margo; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Mortier, Anneleen; Proost, Paul; Bossuyt, Franky

    2016-02-04

    Sex pheromones have been shown to constitute a crucial aspect of salamander reproduction. Until now, courtship pheromones of Salamandridae and Plethodontidae have been intensively studied, but information on chemical communication in other urodelan families is essentially lacking. The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum, Ambystomatidae) has a courtship display that suggests a key role for chemical communication in the orchestration of its sexual behavior, but no sex pheromones have yet been characterized from this species. Here we combined whole transcriptome analyses of the male cloaca with proteomic analyses of water in which axolotls were allowed to court to show that male axolotls secrete multiple ca. 20 kDa glycosylated sodefrin precursor-like factor (SPF) proteins during courtship. In combination with phylogenetic analyses, our data show that the male cloaca essentially secretes a courtship-specific clade of SPF proteins that is orthologous to salamandrid courtship pheromones. In addition, we identified an SPF protein for which no orthologs have been described from other salamanders so far. Overall, our study advocates a central role for SPF proteins during the courtship display of axolotls and adds knowledge on pheromone use in a previously unexplored deep evolutionary branch of salamander evolution.

  13. Pheromone produced by the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, K; Hegeman, G D; White, D

    1982-01-01

    An extracellular, diffusible signaling molecule (pheromone) was produced by Stigmatella aurantiaca during fruiting body formation. The pheromone decreased the aggregation period in both the light and the dark and substituted for light in stimulating the maturation of aggregates into fruiting bodies. The cells were more sensitive to lower concentrations of pheromone in the light than in the dark, possibly explaining the stimulation of aggregation and fruiting body formation by light. The phero...

  14. Re: The Search for Human Pheromones: The Lost Decades and the Necessity of Returning to First Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi Narter

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL COMMENT Pheromones are chemical signals that have evolved for communication with other members of the same species. We do not know yet if humans have pheromones. Over the last 45 years, some scientists have claimed that a number of molecules are human pheromones, but these claims have little scientific validity. The first chemical identification of a pheromone, the silk moth’s female sex pheromone (bombykol, achieved by the German chemist Adolf Butenandt and after this finding, four steroid molecules have been described as human pheromones: androstenone, androstenol, androstadienone and estratetraenol. The possibility of human pheromones has been downplayed in part because in the past, it has been assumed erroneously that we have a poor sense of smell. Humans have a “main olfactory system” but they do not have a functional vomeronasal organ (or “second nose”; Jacobson’s organ, is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ that is found in many animals. It lies close to the vomer and nasal bones. In the near future, researches will be focused on identification and synthesis of these bioactive molecule(s, followed by bioassay techniques, again. Especially, comparison of secretions from adult and pre-pubertal humans may highlight potential molecules involved in sexual behaviour. Further search will benefit from the techniques developed by olfactory researchers including those who have worked on the steroids previously.

  15. Pheromones in White Pine Cone Beetle, Conophthorus coniperdu (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Birgersson; Gary L. DeBarr; Peter de Groot; Mark J. Dalusky; Harold D. Pierce; John H. Borden; Holger Meyer; Wittko Francke; Karl E. Espelie; C. Wayne Berisford

    1995-01-01

    Female white pine cone beetles, Conophrhorus coniperda, attacking second-year cones of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., produced a sex-specific pheromone that attracted conspecific males in laboratory bioassays and to field traps. Beetle response was enhanced by host monoterpenes. The female-produced compound was identified in...

  16. [Blockade of the pheromonal effects in rat by central deafferentation of the accessory olfactory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Criado, J E

    1979-06-01

    Female rats reared without sex odours from male rats have a five day stral cycle. With exposure to male odour the estral cycle is shortened from five to four days. This pheromonal effect is blocked on deafferenting the vomeronasal system by electrolytically damaging both accessory olfactory bulbs.

  17. Identification and Isolation of Human Alarm Pheromones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Strey, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    .... Task I, Optimization of Sample Collection, focused on the collection of the putative alarm pheromone via axillary sweat samples obtained during reference (physical exercise) and arousal (skydive) conditions...

  18. Synthesis and metabolism of pheromones and pheromone analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.S.

    1987-01-01

    [9, 10- 3 H 2 ]Z9-14:Ac was synthesized at high specific activity ( 3 H, 58 Ci/mmole) by partial tritiation of the corresponding alkyne and was converted to the labeled Z9-14:OH and Z9-14:Al to study tissue specificity of acetate esterase (E), alcohol oxidase (OX), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in male and female Heliothis virescens. Soluble and membrane-associated enzyme activities were determined by radio-TLC assays. Compounds of the tritium-labeled Z11-16 series were synthesized and their in vitro fates examined as well. In order to achieve an alternative approach in which (1) pheromone receptor proteins would be stoichiometrically and irreversibly modified, or (2) pheromone-catabolizing enzymes are inactivated by tight-binding or irreversible inhibitors, we have designed analogues of pheromones of lepidopterous insect pests and assayed their biological activity in vitro and in vivo. Various fluorinated molecules such as acyl fluorides, fluoroolefins, 2-fluoro aldehydes, 2,2-difluoro aldehydes and trifluoromethyl ketones were synthesized. The synthesis of some other functional groups such as cyclopropanones, cyclopropanols, cyclopropyl carbinols, cyclopropyl aldehydes and Michael acceptors will also be discussed

  19. Pheromones and pheromone receptors are required for proper sexual development in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Severine; Weber, Jan M; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-03-01

    The homothallic, filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora is self-fertile and produces sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) without a mating partner. Even so, S. macrospora transcriptionally expresses two pheromone-precursor genes (ppg1 and ppg2) and two pheromone-receptor genes (pre1 and pre2). The proteins encoded by these genes are similar to alpha-factor-like and a-factor-like pheromones and to G-protein-coupled pheromone receptors of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been suggested that in S. macrospora, PPG1/PRE2 and PPG2/PRE1 form two cognate pheromone-receptor pairs. To investigate their function, we deleted (delta) pheromone-precursor genes (delta ppg1, delta ppg2) and receptor genes (delta pre1, delta pre2) and generated single- as well as double-knockout strains. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body, and ascospore development was seen in the single pheromone-mutant and receptor-mutant strains, respectively. However, double-knockout strains lacking any compatible pheromone-receptor pair (delta pre2/delta ppg2, delta pre1/delta ppg1) and the double-pheromone mutant (delta ppg1/delta ppg2) displayed a drastically reduced number of perithecia and sexual spores, whereas deletion of both receptor genes (delta pre1/delta pre2) completely eliminated fruiting-body and ascospore formation. The results suggest that pheromones and pheromone receptors are required for optimal sexual reproduction of the homothallic S. macrospora.

  20. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  1. Monitoring Pseudococcus calceolariae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Fruit Crops Using Pheromone-Baited Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, M Fernanda; Romero, Alda; Oyarzun, M Soledad; Bergmann, Jan; Zaviezo, Tania

    2015-10-01

    The citrophilus mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), is an important pest of fruit crops in many regions of the world. Recently, its sex pheromone has been identified and synthesized. We carried out field experiments with the goal of developing monitoring protocols for P. calceolariae using pheromone-baited traps. Traps checked hourly for 24 hours showed a distinct diel pattern of male flight, between 18:00 and 21:00 h. The presence of unnatural stereoisomers did not affect trap captures, with isomeric mixtures capturing similar amounts of males as the biological active isomer. Dose of isomeric mixture pheromone (0-100 µg) had a nonlinear effect on male captures, with 10, 30, and 50 µg capturing similar amounts. The effective range of pheromone traps was determined by placing traps at different distances (15, 40, and 80 m) from an infested blueberry field, loaded with 0, 1 and 25 µg of the pheromone. For all distances, 25 µg dose captured more males, and was highly attractive up to 40 m. There was a significant effect of lure age on male captures (0-150 d), with similar amount of males captured up to 90-day-old lure, and lower captures in the 150-day-old lure compared with fresh ones. We found significant positive correlations between P. calceolariae males caught in pheromone traps with female abundance and fruit infestation at harvest. Our results show the usefulness of P. calceolariae pheromones for monitoring at field level and provide information for the design of monitoring protocols. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Post-mating Switch in the Pheromone Response of Nasonia Females Is Mediated by Dopamine and Can Be Reversed by Appetitive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lenschow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory sense is of crucial importance for animals, but their response to chemical stimuli is plastic and depends on their physiological state and prior experience. In many insect species, mating status influences the response to sex pheromones, but the underlying neuromodulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. After mating, females of the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis are no longer attracted to the male sex pheromone. Here we show that this post-mating behavioral switch is mediated by dopamine (DA. Females fed a DA-receptor antagonist prior to mating maintained their attraction to the male pheromone after mating while virgin females injected with DA became unresponsive. However, the switch is reversible as mated females regained their pheromone preference after appetitive learning. Feeding mated N. vitripennis females with antagonists of either octopamine- (OA or DA-receptors prevented relearning of the pheromone preference suggesting that both receptors are involved in appetitive learning. Moreover, DA injection into mated females was sufficient to mimic the oviposition reward during odor conditioning with the male pheromone. Our data indicate that DA plays a key role in the plastic pheromone response of N. vitripennis females and reveal some striking parallels between insects and mammals in the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying olfactory plasticity.

  3. Pheromone discrimination by a pH-tuned polymorphism of the Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein

    OpenAIRE

    Damberger, Fred F.; Michel, Erich; Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S.; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Pheromone recognition by insect olfactory organs is critical for the ability of insects to locate mates. The silkworm moth Bombyx mori has long served as a model organism for studies of this process. Key components in the sensory organs have been identified, including the pheromone bombykol, pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP), ligand-degrading enzymes, and the pheromone receptor, but many details of the mechanism allowing highly sensitive and selective pheromone detection are still elusive. ...

  4. Old maids have more appeal: effects of age and pheromone source on mate attraction in an orb-web spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Anna-Lena; Schneider, Jutta M

    2016-01-01

    Background. In many insects and spider species, females attract males with volatile sex pheromones, but we know surprisingly little about the costs and benefits of female pheromone emission. Here, we test the hypothesis that mate attraction by females is dynamic and strategic in the sense that investment in mate attraction is matched to the needs of the female. We use the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi in which females risk the production of unfertilised egg clutches if they do not receive a copulation within a certain time-frame. Methods. We designed field experiments to compare mate attraction by recently matured (young) females with females close to oviposition (old). In addition, we experimentally separated the potential sources of pheromone transmission, namely the female body and the web silk. Results. In accordance with the hypothesis of strategic pheromone production, the probability of mate attraction and the number of males attracted differed between age classes. While the bodies and webs of young females were hardly found by males, the majority of old females attracted up to two males within two hours. Old females not only increased pheromone emission from their bodies but also from their webs. Capture webs alone spun by old females were significantly more efficient in attracting males than webs of younger females. Discussion. Our results suggest that females modulate their investment in signalling according to the risk of remaining unmated and that they thereby economize on the costs associated with pheromone production and emission.

  5. Old maids have more appeal: effects of age and pheromone source on mate attraction in an orb-web spider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Cory

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. In many insects and spider species, females attract males with volatile sex pheromones, but we know surprisingly little about the costs and benefits of female pheromone emission. Here, we test the hypothesis that mate attraction by females is dynamic and strategic in the sense that investment in mate attraction is matched to the needs of the female. We use the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi in which females risk the production of unfertilised egg clutches if they do not receive a copulation within a certain time-frame. Methods. We designed field experiments to compare mate attraction by recently matured (young females with females close to oviposition (old. In addition, we experimentally separated the potential sources of pheromone transmission, namely the female body and the web silk. Results. In accordance with the hypothesis of strategic pheromone production, the probability of mate attraction and the number of males attracted differed between age classes. While the bodies and webs of young females were hardly found by males, the majority of old females attracted up to two males within two hours. Old females not only increased pheromone emission from their bodies but also from their webs. Capture webs alone spun by old females were significantly more efficient in attracting males than webs of younger females. Discussion. Our results suggest that females modulate their investment in signalling according to the risk of remaining unmated and that they thereby economize on the costs associated with pheromone production and emission.

  6. Pest repellent properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    of ant pheromones may be sufficient to repel pest insects from ant territories. The study of ant semiochemicals is in its infancy, yet, evidence for their potential use in pest management is starting to build up. Pheromones from four of five tested ant species have been shown to deter herbivorous insect...... prey and competing ant species are also deterred by ant deposits, whereas ant symbionts may be attracted to them. Based on these promising initial findings, it seems advisable to further elucidate the signaling properties of ant pheromones and to test and develop their use in future pest management....

  7. Pheromone communication in amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Lynne D

    2009-01-01

    This selective review considers herpetological papers that feature the use of chemical cues, particularly pheromones involved in reproductive interactions between potential mates. Primary examples include garter snake females that attract males, lacertid lizards and the effects of their femoral gland secretions, aquatic male newts that chemically attract females, and terrestrial salamander males that chemically persuade a female to mate. Each case study spans a number of research approaches (molecular, biochemical, behavioral) and is related to sensory processing and the physiological effects of pheromone delivery. These and related studies show that natural pheromones can be identified, validated with behavioral tests, and incorporated in research on vomeronasal functional response.

  8. Orientation of boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to pheromone and volatile host compound in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J C

    1986-01-01

    Behavioral responses of male and female boll weevils to the aggregation pheromone, grandlure, and the major volatile of cotton, β-bisabolol, were investigated using a new dual-choice olfactometer. Dosage-response experiments revealed both males and females to be attracted by the aggregation pheromone at the 1.0 μg dosage. However, only males were attracted to β-bisabolol (1.0 μg). Both sexes were repelled by the highest dosage ofβ-bisabolol tested (10 μg). In preference experiment, males chose grandlure over β-bisabolol, while both sexes chose the combination of grandlure + β-bisabolol over β-bisabolol alone. There was some evidence for synergism between pheromone and plant odor for the females. The results correlate well with previous electrophysiological and behavioral experiments.

  9. Pheromonal Cues Deposited by Mated Females Convey Social Information about Egg-Laying Sites in Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duménil, Claire; Woud, David; Pinto, Francesco; Alkema, Jeroen T; Jansen, Ilse; Van Der Geest, Anne M; Roessingh, Sanne; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Individuals can make choices based on information learned from others, a phenomenon called social learning. How observers differentiate between which individual they should or should not learn from is, however, poorly understood. Here, we showed that Drosophila melanogaster females can influence the choice of egg-laying site of other females through pheromonal marking. Mated females mark territories of high quality food by ejecting surplus male sperm containing the aggregation pheromone cis-11-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) and, in addition, deposit several sex- and species-specific cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) pheromones. These pheromonal cues affect the choices of other females, which respond by preferentially laying eggs on the marked food. This system benefits both senders and responders, as communal egg laying increases offspring survival. Virgin females, however, do not elicit a change in the egg-laying decision of mated females, even when food has been supplemented with ejected sperm from mated females, thus indicating the necessity for additional cues. Genetic ablation of either a female's CHC pheromones or those of their mate results in loss of ability of mated females to attract other females. We conclude that mated females use a pheromonal marking system, comprising cVA acquired from male ejaculate with sex- and species-specific CHCs produced by both mates, to indicate egg-laying sites. This system ensures information reliability because mated, but not virgin, females have both the ability to generate the pheromone blend that attracts other flies to those sites and a direct interest in egg-laying site quality.

  10. Hidden in Plain sight: synthetic pheromone misleads beetles, protects trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Meznarich; Robert Progar

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, pine forests throughout much of the western United States have been ravaged by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). This bark beetle is native to the United States and has been responsible for massive tree kills in the past. The current outbreak, however, has been notably severe and wide ranging and the effects have been more dramatic...

  11. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  12. Sexual communication in the termite Prorhinotermes simplex (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae) mediated by a pheromone from female tergal glands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanus, Robert; Luxová, Anna; Šobotník, Jan; Kalinová, Blanka; Jiroš, Pavel; Křeček, J.; Bourguignon, T.; Bordereau, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2009), s. 111-118 ISSN 0020-1812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sex pheromone * Prorhinotermes * GC-EAD * tergal glands * dodecatrienol Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.480, year: 2009

  13. (.I.S./I.)-(+)-linalool, a mate attractant pheromone component in the bee .I.Colletes cunicularius./I..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borg-Karlson, A. K.; Tengö, J.; Valterová, Irena; Unelius, C. R.; Taghizadeh, T.; Tolasch, T.; Francke, W.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2003), s. 1-14 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : pheromone * sex attraction * solitary bee Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.673, year: 2003

  14. The effect of queen pheromone status on Varroa mite removal from honey bee colonies with different grooming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different grooming ability and queen pheromone status on mortality rates of Varroa mites (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman), mite damage, and mortality rates of honey bees. Twenty-four small queenless colonies containing either stock selected for high rates of mite removal (n = 12) or unselected stock (n = 12) were maintained under constant darkness at 5 °C. Colonies were randomly assigned to be treated with one of three queen pheromone status treatments: (1) caged, mated queen, (2) a synthetic queen mandibular pheromone lure (QMP), or (3) queenless with no queen substitute. The results showed overall mite mortality rate was greater in stock selected for grooming than in unselected stock. There was a short term transitory increase in bee mortality rates in selected stock when compared to unselected stock. The presence of queen pheromone from either caged, mated queens or QMP enhanced mite removal from clusters of bees relative to queenless colonies over short periods of time and increased the variation in mite mortality over time relative to colonies without queen pheromone, but did not affect the proportion of damaged mites. The effects of source of bees on mite damage varied with time but damage to mites was not reliably related to mite mortality. In conclusion, this study showed differential mite removal of different stocks was possible under low temperature. Queen status should be considered when designing experiments using bioassays for grooming response.

  15. Optimization of pheromone lure and trap design for monitoring the fire coneworm, Dioryctria abietivorella

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Strong; J. G. Millar; G. G. Grant; J. A. Moreira; J. M. Chong; C. Rodolph

    2008-01-01

    The major components of the sex pheromone of Dioryctria abietivorella (Groté) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were recently identified as (9Z,11E)-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate (9Z,11E-14:Ac) and a polyunsaturated, long-chain hydrocarbon (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-pentacosapentaene (C25 pentaene). The optimal ratio of these components and the role of potential minor components were not...

  16. Pheromones enhance somatosensory processing in newt brains through a vasotocin-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R R; Dickinson, P S; Rose, J D; Dakin, K A; Civiello, G M; Segerdahl, A; Bartlett, R

    2008-07-22

    We tested whether the sex pheromones that stimulate courtship clasping in male roughskin newts do so, at least in part, by amplifying the somatosensory signals that directly trigger the motor pattern associated with clasping and, if so, whether that amplification is dependent on endogenous vasotocin (VT). Female olfactory stimuli increased the number of action potentials recorded in the medulla of males in response to tactile stimulation of the cloaca, which triggers the clasp motor reflex, as well as to tactile stimulation of the snout and hindlimb. That enhancement was blocked by exposing the medulla to a V1a receptor antagonist before pheromone exposure. However, the antagonist did not affect medullary responses to tactile stimuli in the absence of pheromone exposure, suggesting that pheromones amplify somatosensory signals by inducing endogenous VT release. The ability of VT to couple sensory systems together in response to social stimulation could allow this peptide to induce variable behavioural outcomes, depending on the immediate context of the social interaction and thus on the nature of the associated stimuli that are amplified. If widespread in vertebrates, this mechanism could account for some of the behavioural variability associated with this and related peptides both within and across species.

  17. Aggregation pheromones for monitoring the coconut rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) in Jerukwangi Village, Jepara, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, D. R.; Lutfiana, J. E.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Susilowati, E.; Slamet, M.

    2018-03-01

    Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is the most serious pest of coconut plantations in Indonesia. Jerukwangi Village is O. rhinoceros attacked one of the coconuts producing villages with more than 75% of the coconut plant population O. rhinoceros. The study aimed to monitor the population and analyze the sex ratio of O. rhinoceros that were attracted to aggregation pheromones in the field. Aggregation pheromones is a chemical compound containing Ethyl 4-methyl octanoate. The pheromone compounds were placed in traps (buckets), hung 2 meters above the ground. The traps were observed, and the beetles trapped were counted every week. In 12 weeks of monitoring, the traps captured 101 insects consist of 90.1% O. rhinoceros and 9.9% other insect species (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Xylotrupes gideon). This result indicates the high population of O. rhinoceros in the field. Aggregation pheromone is useful for attracting females. Rhinoceros by 61% and the males by 39%. The advantage of research is it can be used in integrated pest management (IPM) packages for monitoring of beetle population, and removal of beetles.

  18. Sex stimulant and attractant in the Indian meal moth and in the almond moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, U E; Tumlinson, J H; Brownlee, R G; Silverstein, R M

    1971-02-26

    cis-9, trans-12-Tetradecadien-1-yl acetate was isolated from the female Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and the female almond moth, Cadra cautella (Walker). It is the major if not the sole component of the sex stimulatory and attractant pheromone of female Plodia. It is present in the pheromone of the female Cadra along with at least one synergist.

  19. Pheromone communication in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Davey, William John; Nielsen, Olaf

    1995-01-01

    Conjugation between two haploid yeast cells is generally controlled by the reciprocal action of diffusible mating pheromones, cells of each mating type releasing pheromones that induce mating-specific changes in cells of the opposite type. Recent studies into pheromone signalling in the fission...

  20. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Laura C.; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways. PMID:24118108

  1. Changes in pheromone production, release, mating behaviour and reproductive ability of the gamma-irradiated cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.

    1978-01-01

    Mature males of Nauphoeta cinerea produce a sex pheromone 'seducin' which has short-range effects in attracting mature females of the same species. Exposure of newly-emerged adult males to 3.5, 7, 14 or 21 krad of gamma-radiation decreased their life expectancy and affected their mating behaviour. Bioassay of dichloromethane extracts of males showed that radiation doses (14 krad) sufficient to induce sterility did not affect the ability to produce pheromone but significantly reduced the release of pheromone by inhibiting wing-raising. The sterile-male technique using males sterilized by ionizing radiation in air may not be the method of choice for control of Nauphoeta cinerea. (author)

  2. Pest repelling properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini-review sh......-review shows that four out of five tested ant species deposit pheromones that repel herbivorous prey from their host plants.......Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini...

  3. Pheromones: a new ergogenic aid in sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaloucas, Marios; Kyriazi, Kyriaki; Kouloulias, Vassilis

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods to confirm the use of forbidden substances. These tests are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein, or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics, or metabolomics). The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) officially monitors anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. However, several other substances are under review by WADA. Pheromones accomplish the structure and function of life from its first step, while they have an impact on the body's performance. Both testosterone and pheromones have an ergogenic effect that could potentially affect an athlete's performance. The authors share their questions concerning the potential impact of pheromones in sports.

  4. PHEROMONAL MODULATION OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN MAMMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Keller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Social olfactory signals, often known as pheromones, are powerful regulators of reproductive function. These chemosignals can be detected by two olfactory systems, namely the main or the accessory olfactory systems. While initially anatomically segregated, both systems converge functionally as they can detect and process overlapping sets of chemosignals. This convergence also takes place at the level of their central projections in the hypothalamus. It is probably at this level that future investigations will be needed. Indeed, if the physiology of both olfactory system and reproductive function are now quite well characterized, the interrelation between both systems is unclear. Among the many cell populations that can serve as targets or relays for the pheromonal information in the hypothalamus are GnRH cells or the recently discovered Kispeptin population which have been showed to be activated after pheromonal activation. However, many works will be needed before having a definitive picture.

  5. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated

  6. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah A; Simpson, Deborah M; Armstrong, Stuart D; Davidson, Amanda J; Robertson, Duncan H; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2010-06-03

    Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals.See associated Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/71.

  7. Evaluation of the antiaggregation pheromone, 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH), to protect live spruce from spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infestation in sourthern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell W. Ross; Gary E. Daterman; A. Steven Munson

    2004-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), produces the antiaggregation pheromone 3-methylcyclohex-2-en- 1-one (MCH) (Rudinsky et al. 1974). MCH has reduced the numbers of spruce beetles attracted to infested logs and synthetic semiochemical lures or reduced colonization rates throughout the beetles range (Kline

  8. Effects of brood pheromone (SuperBoost) on consumption of protein supplement and growth of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies during fall in a northern temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Ramesh R; Breece, Carolyn R

    2012-08-01

    Honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), nutrition is vital for colony growth and maintenance of a robust immune system. Brood rearing in honey bee colonies is highly dependent on protein availability. Beekeepers in general provide protein supplement to colonies during periods of pollen dearth. Honey bee brood pheromone is a blend of methyl and ethyl fatty acid esters extractable from cuticle of honey bee larvae that communicates the presence of larvae in a colony. Honey bee brood pheromone has been shown to increase protein supplement consumption and growth of honey bee colonies in a subtropical winter climate. Here, we tested the hypothesis that synthetic brood pheromone (SuperBoost) has the potential to increase protein supplement consumption during fall in a temperate climate and thus increase colony growth. The experiments were conducted in two locations in Oregon during September and October 2009. In both the experiments, colonies receiving brood pheromone treatment consumed significantly higher protein supplement and had greater brood area and adult bees than controls. Results from this study suggest that synthetic brood pheromone may be used to stimulate honey bee colony growth by stimulating protein supplement consumption during fall in a northern temperate climate, when majority of the beekeepers feed protein supplement to their colonies.

  9. Methodology in structural determination and synthesis of insect pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Lin

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of ethereal washing of insect pheromone glands of female moths, GC-MS detection along with microchemical reactions and electroantennogram (EAG survey, six economically important insect species were targeted for pheromone identification. The discovery of a natural pheromone inhibitor, chemo-selectivity and species isolation by pheromone will be described. The modified triple bond migration and triethylamine liganded vinyl cuprate were applied for achiral pheromone synthesis in double bond formation. Some optically active pheromones and their stereoisomers were synthesized through chiral pool or asymmetric synthesis. Some examples of chiral recognition of insects towards their chiral pheromones will be discussed. A CaH2 and silica gel catalyzed Sharpless Expoxidation Reaction was found in shortening the reaction time.

  10. NMR structure of navel orangeworm moth pheromone-binding protein (AtraPBP1): implications for pH-sensitive pheromone detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianzhong; Xu, Wei; Rayo, Josep; Ishida, Yuko; Leal, Walter S; Ames, James B

    2010-02-23

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is an agricultural insect pest that can be controlled by disrupting male-female communication with sex pheromones, a technique known as mating disruption. Insect pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) provide fast transport of hydrophobic pheromones through the aqueous sensillar lymph and promote sensitive delivery of pheromones to receptors. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of a PBP from A. transitella (AtraPBP1) in solution at pH 4.5 determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments, multiangle light scattering, and (15)N NMR relaxation analysis indicate that AtraPBP1 forms a stable monomer in solution at pH 4.5 in contrast to forming mostly dimers at pH 7. The NMR structure of AtraPBP1 at pH 4.5 contains seven alpha-helices (alpha1, L8-L23; alpha2, D27-F36; alpha3, R46-V62; alpha4, A73-M78; alpha5, D84-S100; alpha6, R107-L125; alpha7, M131-E141) that adopt an overall main-chain fold similar to that of PBPs found in Antheraea polyphemus and Bombyx mori. The AtraPBP1 structure is stabilized by three disulfide bonds formed by C19/C54, C50/C108, and C97/C117 and salt bridges formed by H69/E60, H70/E57, H80/E132, H95/E141, and H123/D40. All five His residues are cationic at pH 4.5, whereas H80 and H95 become neutral at pH 7.0. The C-terminal helix (alpha7) contains hydrophobic residues (M131, V133, V134, V135, V138, L139, and A140) that contact conserved residues (W37, L59, A73, F76, A77, I94, V111, and V115) suggested to interact with bound pheromone. Our NMR studies reveal that acid-induced formation of the C-terminal helix at pH 4.5 is triggered by a histidine protonation switch that promotes rapid release of bound pheromone under acidic conditions.

  11. Saproxylic community, guild and species responses to varying pheromone components of a pine bark beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebeste, Iñaki; Lencina, José L; Pajares, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Some bark beetle species (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) produce aggregation pheromones that allow coordinated attack on their conifer hosts. As a new saproxylic habitat is founded, an assemblage of associated beetles kairomonally respond to bark beetle infochemicals. Ips sexdentatus is one of the major damaging insects of Pinus spp. in Southern Europe. Its response to varying ipsenol (Ie) percentages in relation to ipsdienol (Id) was studied in northwestern Spain, along with the entire saproxylic beetle assemblage captured at multiple-funnel traps. Response profile modeling was undertaken for I. sexdentatus sexes and sex-ratios, associated species and for selected trophic groups using a reference Gaussian model. In addition, the effects on the saproxylic assemblages were analyzed. I. sexdentatus response curve peaked at 22.7% Ie content, while remaining taxa that could be modeled, peaked above ca. 40% Ie. Predator guilds showed a linear relationship with Ie proportion, while competitors showed a delayed response peak. Consequently, species assemblages differed markedly between varying pheromone component mixtures. Given that the evaluated pheromonal proportions mimicked that of logs being colonized by I. sexdentatus, results suggested that the registered differential responses at different levels might provide I. sexdentatus with a temporal window that maximizes conspecific attraction while reducing interference with competitor and predatory guilds. Described responses might help improve the monitoring of the population status of target bark beetles and their associates, but also point toward the by-catch of many natural enemies, as well as rare saproxylic beetle species, interfering with the aims of sustainable forest management.

  12. The sex specific metabolic footprint of Oithona davisae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Nemming, Louise; Tolstrup, Lea

    2016-01-01

    and behaviour in several phytoplankton species. Here we tested whether the sexual dimorphism in morphology and behaviour is mirrored in the exudate composition of males and females. We find differences in the exudate composition, with females seemingly producing more compounds. While we were able to remove...... the sex pheromones from the water by filtration through reverse phase solid phase extraction columns, we were not able to recover the active pheromone from the solid phase....

  13. Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons, to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive projection neurons are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system.

  14. Chiral separation of a diketopiperazine pheromone from marine diatoms using supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Johannes; Wess, Carsten; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-03-01

    The proline derived diketopiperazine has been identified in plants, insects and fungi with unknown function and was recently also reported as the first pheromone from a diatom. Nevertheless the stereochemistry and enantiomeric excess of this natural product remained inaccessible using direct analytical methods. Here we introduce a chiral separation of this metabolite using supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several chromatographic methods for chiral analysis of the diketopiperazine from the diatom Seminavis robusta and synthetic enantiomers have been evaluated but neither gas chromatography nor high performance liquid chromatography on different chiral cyclodextrin phases were successful in separating the enantiomers. In contrast, supercritical fluid chromatography achieved baseline separation within four minutes of run time using amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) as stationary phase and 2-propanol/CO2 as mobile phase. This very rapid chromatographic method in combination with ESI mass spectrometry allowed the direct analysis of the cyclic dipeptide out of the complex sea water matrix after SPE enrichment. The method could be used to determine the enantiomeric excess of freshly released pheromone and to follow the rapid degradation observed in diatom cultures. Initially only trace amounts of c(d-Pro-d-Pro) were found besides the dominant c(l-Pro-l-Pro) in the medium. However the enantiomeric excess decreased upon pheromone degradation within few hours indicating that a preferential conversion and thus inactivation of the l-proline derived natural product takes place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Responses of Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) to Aphid Alarm Pheromone

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, P. A.; Pickett, J. A.; Vandenberg, J. D.

    2017-01-01

    In a series of laboratory tests, Russian wheat aphids, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), responded to synthetic aphid alarm pheromone, (E)-β-farnesene, by removing stylets and leaving feeding sites or by crawling out of test arenas. Late instars and adults were more responsive than early instars. In dose-response assays, EC50 estimates ranged from 0.94 to 8.95 mg/ml among 3 experiments. In arenas, D. noxia also responded to the proximity of cornicle-damaged nymphs of either the green peach aphid, ...

  16. Propheromones that release pheromonal carbonyl compounds in light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Macaulay, E D; Pickett, J A

    1984-05-01

    Pheromonal carbonyl compounds; (Z)-11-hexadecanal, (E)-citral, and 2-heptanone were treated with six alcohols to give acetals or ketals, some of which acted as propheromones by releasing the pheromonal carbonyl compounds in ultraviolet or simulated sunlight. Highest yields of pheromone were obtained from adducts prepared witho-nitrobenzyl alcohol ando-nitrophenylethane-1,2-diol. Adducts from (Z)-11-hexadecenal and these two alcohols were employed in lures to catch diamondback moths,Plutella xylostella (L.).

  17. Molecular switches for pheromone release from a moth pheromone-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wei; Leal, Walter S.

    2008-01-01

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are involved in the uptake of pheromones from pores on the antennae, transport through an aqueous environment surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons, and fast delivery to pheromone receptors. We tested the hypothesis that a C-terminal segment and a flexible loop are involved in the release of pheromones to membrane-bound receptors. We expressed in Escherichia coli 11 mutants of the PBP from the silkworm moth, BmorPBP, taking into consideration structural differences between the forms with high and low binding affinity. The N-terminus was truncated and His-69, His-70 and His-95 at the base of a flexible loop, and a cluster of acidic residues at the C-terminus were mutated. Binding assays and circular dichroism analyses support a mechanism involving protonation of acidic residues Asp-132 and Glu-141 at the C-terminus and histidines, His-70 and His-95, in the base of a loop covering the binding pocket. The former leads to the formation of a new α-helix, which competes with pheromone for the binding pocket, whereas positive charge repulsion of the histidines opens the opposite side of the binding pocket

  18. Dual role of preputial gland secretion and its major components in sex recognition of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Liu, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Sun, Lixing

    2008-10-20

    This study was aimed at validating the sexual attractiveness of hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate, two putative pheromone compounds, from preputial gland secretion of mice. These two compounds have been reported to be among the major components of preputial gland secretion in both sexes but higher in quantity in males than females. In this study, we show that castration suppressed the production of the two compounds, further suggesting their association with maleness. Adding preputial gland secretion and the synthetic analogs of the two compounds to castrated male urine at their physiological levels in intact males increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to female mice, showing that the two compounds were indeed male pheromones. Furthermore, their sexual attractiveness disappeared upon removing the vomeronasal organs (VNOs) from female recipients. Replenishing castrated male urine with preputial gland secretion and the two compounds at their physiological levels in females increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to males. Such a reversal of sexual attractiveness for hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate suggests that they had opposing dual effects in sexual attractiveness in a dosage-dependent manner.

  19. A yeast pheromone-based inter-species communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Stefan; Clemens, André; Rödel, Gerhard; Ostermann, Kai

    2015-02-01

    We report on a pheromone-based inter-species communication system, allowing for a controlled cell-cell communication between the two species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a proof of principle. It exploits the mating response pathways of the two yeast species employing the pheromones, α- or P-factor, as signaling molecules. The authentic and chimeric pheromone-encoding genes were engineered to code for the P-factor in S. cerevisiae and the α-factor in S. pombe. Upon transformation of the respective constructs, cells were enabled to express the mating pheromone of the opposite species. The supernatant of cultures of S. pombe cells expressing α-factor were able to induce a G1 arrest in the cell cycle, a change in morphology to the typical shmoo effect and expression driven by the pheromone-responsive FIG1 promoter in S. cerevisiae. The supernatant of cultures of S. cerevisiae cells expressing P-factor similarly induced cell cycle arrest in G1, an alteration in morphology typical for mating as well as the activation of the pheromone-responsive promoters of the rep1 and sxa2 genes in a pheromone-hypersensitive reporter strain of S. pombe. Apparently, both heterologous pheromones were correctly processed and secreted in an active form by the cells of the other species. Our data clearly show that the species-specific pheromone systems of yeast species can be exploited for a controlled inter-species communication.

  20. Queen pheromones: The chemical crown governing insect social life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Group-living species produce signals that alter the behavior and even the physiology of their social partners. Social insects possess especially sophisticated chemical communication systems that govern every aspect of colony life, including the defining feature of eusociality: reproductive division...... of labor. Current evidence hints at the central importance of queen pheromones, but progress has been hindered by the fact that such pheromones have only been isolated in honeybees. In a pair of papers on the ant Lasius niger, we identified and investigated a queen pheromone regulating worker sterility...... with other studies, these results indicate that queen pheromones are honest signals of quality that simultaneously regulate multiple social behaviors....

  1. Characteristic odor of Osmoderma eremita identified as a male-released pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Mattias C; Hedin, Jonas; Svensson, Glenn P; Tolasch, Till; Francke, Wittko

    2003-03-01

    Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli) is an endangered scarab beetle living in hollow trees. It has mainly been known for its characteristic odor, typically described as a fruity, peachlike or plumlike aroma. The odor emanating from a single beetle can sometimes be perceived from a distance of several meters. In this paper, we show that the characteristic odor from O. eremita is caused by the compound (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone, released in large quantities mainly or exclusively by male beetles. Antennae from male and female beetles responded in a similar way to (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone in electroantennographic recordings. Field trapping experiments showed that (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone is a pheromone attracting female beetles. Lactones similar to (R)-(+)-gamma-decalactone are frequently used as female-released sex pheromones by phytophagous scarabs. This is, however, the first evidence of a lactone used as a male-produced pheromone in scarab beetles. We propose that the strong signal from males is a sexually selected trait used to compete for females and matings. The signal could work within trees but also act as a guide to tree hollows, which are an essential resource for O. eremita. Males may, thus, attract females dispersing from their natal tree by advertising a suitable habitat. This signal could also be exploited by other males searching for tree hollows or for females, which would explain the catch of several males in our traps.

  2. Aggregation pheromone of coconut rhinoceros beetle,Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) (coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, R H; Perez, A L; Gries, G; Gries, R; Pierce, H D; Yue, J; Oehlschlager, A C; Gonzalez, L M; Borden, J H

    1995-10-01

    Male coconut rhinoceros beetles,Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), produce three sex-specific compounds, ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, ethyl 4-methylheptanoate, and 4-methyloctanoic acid, the first of which is an aggregation pheromone. Synthesis of these compounds involving conjugate addition of organocuprates to ethyl acrylate is reported. In field trapping experiments, (4S)-ethyl 4-methyloctanoate and the racemic mixture were equally attractive and 10 times more effective in attracting beetles than ethyl chrysanthemumate, a previously recommended attractant. Ethyl 4-methylheptanoate was as attractive as ethyl chrysanthemumate and more attractive than 4-methyloctanoic acid, but further studies are required before it can be classed as an aggregation pheromone. Compared to ethyl 4-methyloctanoate alone, combinations of the three male-produced compounds did not increase attraction, whereas addition of freshly rotting oil palm fruit bunches to pheromone-baited traps significantly enhanced attraction. With increasing dose, captures ofO. rhinoceros increased, but doses of 6, 9, and 18 mg/day were competitive with 30 mg/day lures. Newly designed vane traps were more effective in capturing beetles than were barrier or pitfall traps. Results of this study indicate that there is potential for using ethyl 4-methyloctanoate in operational programs to controlO. rhinoceros in oil palm plantations.

  3. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  4. Studies towards the sex pheromone of the green capsid bug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, F.P.

    2001-01-01

    The green capsid bug, Lygocoris pabulinus (L.) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a serious pest in fruit orchards, which is difficult to control. Because it is difficult to determine the actual population density, fruit growers apply insecticides against the green capsid bug on

  5. Novel, male-produced aggregation pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Rosalia alpina, a priority species of European conservation concern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žunič Kosi, A.; Zou, Y.; Hoskovec, Michal; Vrezec, A.; Stritih, N.; Millar, J. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e0183279. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 1758 Coleoptera Cerambycidae * host plant volatiles * sex pheromone Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183279

  6. A new method for the preparation of 1, 3-dilithium propyne and their applications in synthesis: I. Regioselective synthesis of mono and disubstituted homopropargylic alcohols. II. A new method of synthesis of ethyl (2E, 13Z)-2,13-octadecadienyl. Sex pheromone of the Zeuzera pyrine moth. III. A new method for the preparation of 1,5 diynes. Synthesis of (4E, 6Z, 10Z) -4,6,10-Hexadecatrien-1-ol, the pheromone component of the cocoa moth Conopomorpha cramellera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Badilla, Alban Roberto

    2002-01-01

    A new method for obtaining 1,3-dilithium propyne has developed from propargyl bromide and regioselective synthesis of mono and disubstituted homopropargylic alcohols by addition of the same dianion to carbonyl compounds. The procedure has shown high versatility and yields above 80%, being more economical to allene and propyne used in previous methods; both in drilling Sanninoidea tipuliformis as other common pests of timber and fruit trees, Zeuzera pyrine (Cossidea) and Vitacea polistiformis (Sesiidea). Acetate (2E, 13Z) octadecadienyl was synthesized, whose biological activity has been an alternative for the biological control of these insects. The (Z)-1-iodinetetraceden-9-ene has been approved with 1,3 dilithium propyne and paraformaldehyde followed by stereoselective reduction procedures and acetylation with a total performance of 31%. The predecessors synthesis were surpassed in the simplicity of chemical transformations, relative ease of purification stages, so as requirements for equipment, reagents and minimal skill. A new method was developed for the preparation of linear and functionalized 1,5-diynes by propargylation with acceptable yields (50-80%) of various propargylic halides with 1,3 dilithium propyne obtained by dilithiation of allene with n-BuLi at low temperature. Also certain experimental cares were identified for the purification and isolation of 1,5 diynes not functionalized, compounds considerably volatile and sensitive to atmospheric oxygen and moisture. The 1,5 undecadiyne has been used as precursor in a synthesis of new route for the (4E, 6Z, 10Z)-4, 6, 10-hexadecatrien-1-ol, the main component of the sex pheromone of cocoa moth Conopomorpha cramellera (Lepidoptera : Gracillariidae). The same was prepared in a total yield of 51% in just 5 steps, through a strategy of coupling C11 + C5 to generate the precursor enin. Two different approaches have yielded to get such enin in yields close to 90%: the first has been the coupling of 1

  7. Multiple length peptide-pheromone variants produced by Streptococcus pyogenes directly bind Rgg proteins to confer transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Nanavati, Dhaval; Federle, Michael J

    2014-08-08

    Streptococcus pyogenes, a human-restricted pathogen, accounts for substantial mortality related to infections worldwide. Recent studies indicate that streptococci produce and respond to several secreted peptide signaling molecules (pheromones), including those known as short hydrophobic peptides (SHPs), to regulate gene expression by a quorum-sensing mechanism. Upon transport into the bacterial cell, pheromones bind to and modulate activity of receptor proteins belonging to the Rgg family of transcription factors. Previously, we reported biofilm regulation by the Rgg2/3 quorum-sensing circuit in S. pyogenes. The aim of this study was to identify the composition of mature pheromones from cell-free culture supernatants that facilitate biofilm formation. Bioluminescent reporters were employed to detect active pheromones in culture supernatants fractionated by reverse-phase chromatography, and mass spectrometry was used to characterize their properties. Surprisingly, multiple SHPs that varied by length were detected. Synthetic peptides of each variant were tested individually using bioluminescence reporters and biofilm growth assays, and although activities differed widely among the group, peptides comprising the C-terminal eight amino acids of the full-length native peptide were most active. Direct Rgg/SHP interactions were determined using a fluorescence polarization assay that utilized FITC-labeled peptide ligands. Peptide receptor affinities were seen to be as low as 500 nm and their binding affinities directly correlated with observed bioactivity. Revelation of naturally produced pheromones along with determination of their affinity for cognate receptors are important steps forward in designing compounds whose purpose is positioned for future therapeutics aimed at treating infections through the interference of bacterial communication. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Evidence for a Nest Defense Pheromone in Bald-Faced Hornets, Dolichovespula Maculata, and Identification of Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Sebastian Ibarra; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Derstine, Nathan; McCann, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-01

    In eusocial insects like Bald-faced hornets, Dolichovespula maculata, nest defense is essential because nests contain a large number of protein-rich larvae and pupae, and thus are attractive to nest predators. Our objectives were to investigate whether D. maculata exhibit pheromone-mediated nest defense, and to identify and field test any pheromone components. We tested for pheromone-mediated nest defense behavior of D. maculata by placing a paired box-apparatus near the entrance of D. maculata nests, and treating both boxes with a solvent control, or one of the two boxes with a solvent control and the other with either venom sac extract, the putative source of nest defense pheromone, or synthetic pheromone. The sound impulses caused by nest mates attempting to sting or strike the boxes were recorded for 3 min. Compared to the double-control treatment, the number of strikes increased 27-fold when one of the two boxes was treated with venom sac extract, providing evidence for an alarm response. The box treated with venom sac extract also induced a significantly greater proportion of strikes than the corresponding control box, providing evidence for a target-oriented response. Analyzing venom sac extract by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of seven candidate pheromone components: (a) dimethylaminoethanol, (b) dimethylamino ethyl acetate, (c) 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, (d) N-3-methylbutylacetamide, (e) 2-heptadecanone, (f) (Z)-8-heptadecen-2-one, and (g) (Z)-10-nonadecen-2-one. Testing in paired-box bioassays blends of the nitrogen-containing volatile components a-d, the less volatile ketones e-g, or both (a-g), indicated that a-d primarily have an alarm function. The ketones e-g, in contrast, induced target-oriented responses, possibly marking the box, or potential nest predators, for guided and concerted attacks, or enhancing the alarm-inducing effect of the volatile pheromone components

  9. Irradiated boll weevils: pheromone production determined by GLC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, W.L.; McKibben, G.H.; Gueldner, R.C.; Cross, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The production of pheromone by Anthonomus grandis Boheman when treated with 10,000 rad of 60 Co gamma irradiation compared favorably with that of control weevils for 5 days; however, feeding (determined by frass collection) was reduced from day one. No direct correlation was found between production of pheromone and elimination of frass

  10. Pheromone and Animal Reproducton: Speciation in Response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While humans are highly dependent upon visual cues when in close proximity, smell also play a big role in sociosexual behaviours. There is an inherent difficulty in studying human pheromones because of the need for cleanliness and odourlessness in human participants. Pheromones are often divided by function into two: ...

  11. A Predictive Model for Yeast Cell Polarization in Pheromone Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicolas; Piel, Matthieu; Calvez, Vincent; Voituriez, Raphaël; Gonçalves-Sá, Joana; Guo, Chin-Lin; Jiang, Xingyu; Murray, Andrew; Meunier, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Budding yeast cells exist in two mating types, a and α, which use peptide pheromones to communicate with each other during mating. Mating depends on the ability of cells to polarize up pheromone gradients, but cells also respond to spatially uniform fields of pheromone by polarizing along a single axis. We used quantitative measurements of the response of a cells to α-factor to produce a predictive model of yeast polarization towards a pheromone gradient. We found that cells make a sharp transition between budding cycles and mating induced polarization and that they detect pheromone gradients accurately only over a narrow range of pheromone concentrations corresponding to this transition. We fit all the parameters of the mathematical model by using quantitative data on spontaneous polarization in uniform pheromone concentration. Once these parameters have been computed, and without any further fit, our model quantitatively predicts the yeast cell response to pheromone gradient providing an important step toward understanding how cells communicate with each other.

  12. Low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide modify pheromone response thresholds of central but not peripheral olfactory neurons in a pest insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Deisig, Nina; Demondion, Elodie; Le Corre, Julie; Robert, Guillaume; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2016-02-10

    Insect pest management relies mainly on neurotoxic insecticides, including neonicotinoids, leaving residues in the environment. There is now evidence that low doses of insecticides can have positive effects on pest insects by enhancing various life traits. Because pest insects often rely on sex pheromones for reproduction, and olfactory synaptic transmission is cholinergic, neonicotinoid residues could modify chemical communication. We recently showed that treatments with different sublethal doses of clothianidin could either enhance or decrease behavioural sex pheromone responses in the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon. We investigated now effects of the behaviourally active clothianidin doses on the sensitivity of the peripheral and central olfactory system. We show with extracellular recordings that both tested clothianidin doses do not influence pheromone responses in olfactory receptor neurons. Similarly, in vivo optical imaging does not reveal any changes in glomerular response intensities to the sex pheromone after clothianidin treatments. The sensitivity of intracellularly recorded antennal lobe output neurons, however, is upregulated by a lethal dose 20 times and downregulated by a dose 10 times lower than the lethal dose 0. This correlates with the changes of behavioural responses after clothianidin treatment and suggests the antennal lobe as neural substrate involved in clothianidin-induced behavioural changes. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Silent genes and rare males: A fresh look at pheromone blend response specificity in the European corn borer moth, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Linn Jr.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The response of male moths from two pheromone races of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, was measured in a flight tunnel assay to different ratios of structurally different compounds that comprise the sex pheromone of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis. For both O. nubilalis races, between 1 and 5% of the males completed upwind flights to two different blends of the O. furnacalis pheromone components (the 2:1 Z/E12-14:OAc female-produced blend, and a 97:3 Z/E mix, confirming that rare males exist in the O. nubilalis populations that can detect and respond to mixtures of the O. furnacalis pheromone components. Rare males that responded to the O. furnacalis blends also responded to their own O. nubilalis blends (97:3 or 1:99 Z/E11-14:OAc, indicating that rare O. nubilalis males are not preferentially sensitive to mixtures of the O. furnacalis compounds, but rather that they have a broad range of response specificity, which includes recognition of a wide range of conspecific female-produced ratios, and also recognition of heterospecific mixtures. The results support the hypothesis that saltational shifts in pheromone blend composition (Roelofs et al., 2002 can lead to the evolution of a new species-specific communication system, in part because the broad response specificity of some males includes the ability to respond in an agonistic manner to novel mixtures of compounds.

  14. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  15. A pheromone outweighs temperature in influencing migration of sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Cory O.; Li, Ke; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Organisms continuously acquire and process information from surrounding cues. While some cues complement one another in delivering more reliable information, others may provide conflicting information. How organisms extract and use reliable information from a multitude of cues is largely unknown. We examined movement decisions of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus L.) exposed to a conspecific and an environmental cue during pre-spawning migration. Specifically, we predicted that the mature male-released sex pheromone 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS) will outweigh the locomotor inhibiting effects of cold stream temperature (less than 15°C). Using large-scale stream bioassays, we found that 3kPZS elicits an increase (more than 40%) in upstream movement of pre-spawning lampreys when the water temperatures were below 15°C. Both warming temperatures and conspecific cues increase upstream movement when the water temperature rose above 15°C. These patterns define an interaction between abiotic and conspecific cues in modulating animal decision-making, providing an example of the hierarchy of contradictory information.

  16. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  17. Insectivorous birds eavesdrop on the pheromones of their prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Irene; Amo, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Chemical cues play a fundamental role in mate attraction and mate choice. Lepidopteran females, such as the winter moth (Operophtera brumata), emit pheromones to attract males in the reproductive period. However, these chemical cues could also be eavesdropped by predators. To our knowledge, no studies have examined whether birds can detect pheromones of their prey. O. brumata adults are part of the winter diet of some insectivorous tit species, such as the great tit (Parus major) and blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We performed a field experiment aimed to disentangle whether insectivorous birds can exploit the pheromones emitted by their prey for prey location. We placed artificial larvae and a dispenser on branches of Pyrenean oak trees (Quercus pyrenaica). In half of the trees we placed an O. brumata pheromone dispenser and in the other half we placed a control dispenser. We measured the predation rate of birds on artificial larvae. Our results show that more trees had larvae with signs of avian predation when they contained an O. brumata pheromone than when they contained a control dispenser. Furthermore, the proportion of artificial larvae with signs of avian predation was greater in trees that contained the pheromone than in control trees. Our results indicate that insectivorous birds can exploit the pheromones emitted by moth females to attract males, as a method of prey detection. These results highlight the potential use of insectivorous birds in the biological control of insect pests.

  18. Genomewide identification of pheromone-targeted transcription in fission yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Anthony

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fission yeast cells undergo sexual differentiation in response to nitrogen starvation. In this process haploid M and P cells first mate to form diploid zygotes, which then enter meiosis and sporulate. Prior to mating, M and P cells communicate with diffusible mating pheromones that activate a signal transduction pathway in the opposite cell type. The pheromone signalling orchestrates mating and is also required for entry into meiosis. Results Here we use DNA microarrays to identify genes that are induced by M-factor in P cells and by P-factor in M-cells. The use of a cyr1 genetic background allowed us to study pheromone signalling independently of nitrogen starvation. We identified a total of 163 genes that were consistently induced more than two-fold by pheromone stimulation. Gene disruption experiments demonstrated the involvement of newly discovered pheromone-induced genes in the differentiation process. We have mapped Gene Ontology (GO categories specifically associated with pheromone induction. A direct comparison of the M- and P-factor induced expression pattern allowed us to identify cell-type specific transcripts, including three new M-specific genes and one new P-specific gene. Conclusion We found that the pheromone response was very similar in M and P cells. Surprisingly, pheromone control extended to genes fulfilling their function well beyond the point of entry into meiosis, including numerous genes required for meiotic recombination. Our results suggest that the Ste11 transcription factor is responsible for the majority of pheromone-induced transcription. Finally, most cell-type specific genes now appear to be identified in fission yeast.

  19. Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Vaughn Kohl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prenatal migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurosecretory neurons allows nutrients and human pheromones to alter GnRH pulsatility, which modulates the concurrent maturation of the neuroendocrine, reproductive, and central nervous systems, thus influencing the development of ingestive behavior, reproductive sexual behavior, and other behaviors. Methods: This model details how chemical ecology drives adaptive evolution via: (1 ecological niche construction, (2 social niche construction, (3 neurogenic niche construction, and (4 socio-cognitive niche construction. This model exemplifies the epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal conditioning, which alters genetically predisposed, nutrient-dependent, hormone-driven mammalian behavior and choices for pheromones that control reproduction via their effects on luteinizing hormone (LH and systems biology. Results: Nutrients are metabolized to pheromones that condition behavior in the same way that food odors condition behavior associated with food preferences. The epigenetic effects of olfactory/pheromonal input calibrate and standardize molecular mechanisms for genetically predisposed receptor-mediated changes in intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression in GnRH neurosecretory neurons of brain tissue. For example, glucose and pheromones alter the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH and LH. A form of GnRH associated with sexual orientation in yeasts links control of the feedback loops and developmental processes required for nutrient acquisition, movement, reproduction, and the diversification of species from microbes to man. Conclusion: An environmental drive evolved from that of nutrient ingestion in unicellular organisms to that of pheromone-controlled socialization in insects. In mammals, food odors and pheromones cause changes in hormones such as LH, which has developmental affects on pheromone-controlled sexual behavior in nutrient-dependent reproductively

  20. Increasing Valid Profiles in Phallometric Assessment of Sex Offenders with Child Victims: Combining the Strengths of Audio Stimuli and Synthetic Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall-Lévesque, Shawn; Rouleau, Joanne-Lucine; Renaud, Patrice

    2018-02-01

    Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a measure of sexual interests that relies heavily on the stimuli it uses to generate valid results. Ethical considerations surrounding the use of real images in PPG have further limited the content admissible for these stimuli. To palliate this limitation, the current study aimed to combine audio and visual stimuli by incorporating computer-generated characters to create new stimuli capable of accurately classifying sex offenders with child victims, while also increasing the number of valid profiles. Three modalities (audio, visual, and audiovisual) were compared using two groups (15 sex offenders with child victims and 15 non-offenders). Both the new visual and audiovisual stimuli resulted in a 13% increase in the number of valid profiles at 2.5 mm, when compared to the standard audio stimuli. Furthermore, the new audiovisual stimuli generated a 34% increase in penile responses. All three modalities were able to discriminate between the two groups by their responses to the adult and child stimuli. Lastly, sexual interest indices for all three modalities could accurately classify participants in their appropriate groups, as demonstrated by ROC curve analysis (i.e., audio AUC = .81, 95% CI [.60, 1.00]; visual AUC = .84, 95% CI [.66, 1.00], and audiovisual AUC = .83, 95% CI [.63, 1.00]). Results suggest that computer-generated characters allow accurate discrimination of sex offenders with child victims and can be added to already validated stimuli to increase the number of valid profiles. The implications of audiovisual stimuli using computer-generated characters and their possible use in PPG evaluations are also discussed.

  1. Discovery and characterization of natural products that act as pheromones in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J; Li, Weiming

    2018-06-20

    Covering: up to 2018 Fish use a diverse collection of molecules to communicate with conspecifics. Since Karlson and Lüscher termed these molecules 'pheromones', chemists and biologists have joined efforts to characterize their structures and functions. In particular, the understanding of insect pheromones developed at a rapid pace, set, in part, by the use of bioassay-guided fractionation and natural product chemistry. Research on vertebrate pheromones, however, has progressed more slowly. Initially, biologists characterized fish pheromones by screening commercially available compounds suspected to act as pheromones based upon their physiological function. Such biology-driven screening has proven a productive approach to studying pheromones in fish. However, the many functions of fish pheromones and diverse metabolites that fish release make predicting pheromone identity difficult and necessitate approaches led by chemistry. Indeed, the few cases in which pheromone identification was led by natural product chemistry indicated novel or otherwise unpredicted compounds act as pheromones. Here, we provide a brief review of the approaches to identifying pheromones, placing particular emphasis on the promise of using natural product chemistry together with assays of biological activity. Several case studies illustrate bioassay-guided fractionation as an approach to pheromone identification in fish and the unexpected diversity of pheromone structures discovered by natural product chemistry. With recent advances in natural product chemistry, bioassay-guided fractionation is likely to unveil an even broader collection of pheromone structures and enable research that spans across disciplines.

  2. Advances in Attract-and-Kill for Agricultural Pests: Beyond Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Peter C; Del Socorro, Alice P; Landolt, Peter J

    2018-01-07

    Attract-and-kill has considerable potential as a tactic in integrated management of pests of agricultural crops, but the use of sex pheromones as attractants is limited by male multiple mating and immigration of mated females into treated areas. Attractants for both sexes, and particularly females, would minimize these difficulties. Volatile compounds derived from plants or fermentation of plant products can attract females and have been used in traps for monitoring and control, and in sprayable attract-and-kill formulations or bait stations. Recent advances in fundamental understanding of insect responses to plant volatiles should contribute to the development of products that can help manage a wide range of pests with few impacts on nontarget organisms, but theory must be tempered with pragmatism in the selection of volatiles and toxicants and in defining their roles in formulations. Market requirements and regulatory factors must be considered in parallel with scientific constraints if successful products are to be developed.

  3. De novo analysis of the Adelphocoris suturalis Jakovlev metathoracic scent glands transcriptome and expression patterns of pheromone biosynthesis-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Liu, Xiangyang; Liu, Lang; Zhang, Poyao; Chen, Longjia; Gao, Qiao; Ma, Weihua; Chen, Lizhen; Lei, Chaoliang

    2014-11-10

    Adelphocoris suturalis Jakovlev is a major cotton pest in Southern China. Metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) produced pheromones that play an important role in survival and population propagation of this species, and also show great potential for pest control. Up to the present, there is little information that underlined the molecular basis of the pheromone biosynthesis of this bug. It is essential to clarify genes involved in the production of pheromone components, and also in the regulation of the variation of the blend ratio. We sequenced the transcriptome of metathoracic scent glands (MTGs) of A. suturalis. A total of 52 million 91-bp-long reads were obtained and assembled into 70,296 unigenes with a mean length of 691bp. Of these unigenes, a total of 26,744 (38%) unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in the NCBI database (E-valuepheromone biosynthesis were selected, and the gene expression patterns were verified by qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results indicated that Asdelta9-DES, AsFAR, AsAOX, Ascarboxylesterase, AsNT-ES and AsATFs have a higher expression level in the period when female A. suturalis release sex pheromones. These data constitutes the first transcriptomic analysis exploring the repertoire of genes expressed in insect MTGs. We identified a large number of potential pheromone biosynthetic pathway genes. In this context, our study provides an invaluable resource for future exploration of molecular mechanisms of pheromone biosynthesis in A. suturalis, as well as other hemipteran species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Directional Bias and Pheromone for Discovery and Coverage on Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2012-09-11

    Natural multi-agent systems often rely on “correlated random walks” (random walks that are biased toward a current heading) to distribute their agents over a space (e.g., for foraging, search, etc.). Our contribution involves creation of a new movement and pheromone model that applies the concept of heading bias in random walks to a multi-agent, digital-ants system designed for cyber-security monitoring. We examine the relative performance effects of both pheromone and heading bias on speed of discovery of a target and search-area coverage in a two-dimensional network layout. We found that heading bias was unexpectedly helpful in reducing search time and that it was more influential than pheromone for improving coverage. We conclude that while pheromone is very important for rapid discovery, heading bias can also greatly improve both performance metrics.

  5. Structure elucidation and chemical synthesis of stigmolone, a novel type of prokaryotic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, W E; Berkessel, A; Plaga, W

    1998-09-15

    Approximately 2 micromol of a novel prokaryotic pheromone, involved in starvation-induced aggregation and formation of fruiting bodies by the myxobacterium Stigmatella aurantiaca, were isolated by a large-scale elution procedure. The pheromone was purified by HPLC, and high-resolution MS, IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR were used to identify the active substance as the hydroxy ketone 2,5, 8-trimethyl-8-hydroxy-nonan-4-one, which has been named stigmolone. The analysis was complicated by a solvent-dependent equilibrium between stigmolone and the cyclic enol-ether 3,4-dihydro-2,2, 5-trimethyl-6-(2-methylpropyl)-2H-pyran formed by intramolecular nucleophilic attack of the 8-OH group at the ketone C4 followed by loss of H2O. Both compounds were synthesized chemically, and their structures were confirmed by NMR analysis. Natural and synthetic stigmolone have the same biological activity at ca. 1 nM concentration.

  6. A Multi-Attribute Pheromone Ant Secure Routing Algorithm Based on Reputation Value for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless sensor networks, certain network problems have become more prominent, such as limited node resources, low data transmission security, and short network life cycles. To solve these problems effectively, it is important to design an efficient and trusted secure routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Traditional ant-colony optimization algorithms exhibit only local convergence, without considering the residual energy of the nodes and many other problems. This paper introduces a multi-attribute pheromone ant secure routing algorithm based on reputation value (MPASR. This algorithm can reduce the energy consumption of a network and improve the reliability of the nodes’ reputations by filtering nodes with higher coincidence rates and improving the method used to update the nodes’ communication behaviors. At the same time, the node reputation value, the residual node energy and the transmission delay are combined to formulate a synthetic pheromone that is used in the formula for calculating the random proportion rule in traditional ant-colony optimization to select the optimal data transmission path. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm can increase both the security of data transmission and the quality of routing service.

  7. A Multi-Attribute Pheromone Ant Secure Routing Algorithm Based on Reputation Value for Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yin, Na; Fu, Xiong; Lin, Qiaomin; Wang, Ruchuan

    2017-01-01

    With the development of wireless sensor networks, certain network problems have become more prominent, such as limited node resources, low data transmission security, and short network life cycles. To solve these problems effectively, it is important to design an efficient and trusted secure routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Traditional ant-colony optimization algorithms exhibit only local convergence, without considering the residual energy of the nodes and many other problems. This paper introduces a multi-attribute pheromone ant secure routing algorithm based on reputation value (MPASR). This algorithm can reduce the energy consumption of a network and improve the reliability of the nodes’ reputations by filtering nodes with higher coincidence rates and improving the method used to update the nodes’ communication behaviors. At the same time, the node reputation value, the residual node energy and the transmission delay are combined to formulate a synthetic pheromone that is used in the formula for calculating the random proportion rule in traditional ant-colony optimization to select the optimal data transmission path. Simulation results show that the improved algorithm can increase both the security of data transmission and the quality of routing service. PMID:28282894

  8. Fungal Sex: The Basidiomycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marco A; Bakkeren, Guus; Sun, Sheng; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2017-06-01

    Fungi of the Basidiomycota, representing major pathogen lineages and mushroom-forming species, exhibit diverse means to achieve sexual reproduction, with particularly varied mechanisms to determine compatibilities of haploid mating partners. For species that require mating between distinct genotypes, discrimination is usually based on both the reciprocal exchange of diffusible mating pheromones, rather than sexes, and the interactions of homeodomain protein signals after cell fusion. Both compatibility factors must be heterozygous in the product of mating, and genetic linkage relationships of the mating pheromone/receptor and homeodomain genes largely determine the complex patterns of mating-type variation. Independent segregation of the two compatibility factors can create four haploid mating genotypes from meiosis, referred to as tetrapolarity. This condition is thought to be ancestral to the basidiomycetes. Alternatively, cosegregation by linkage of the two mating factors, or in some cases the absence of the pheromone-based discrimination, yields only two mating types from meiosis, referred to as bipolarity. Several species are now known to have large and highly rearranged chromosomal regions linked to mating-type genes. At the population level, polymorphism of the mating-type genes is an exceptional aspect of some basidiomycete fungi, where selection under outcrossing for rare, intercompatible allelic variants is thought to be responsible for numbers of mating types that may reach several thousand. Advances in genome sequencing and assembly are yielding new insights by comparative approaches among and within basidiomycete species, with the promise to resolve the evolutionary origins and dynamics of mating compatibility genetics in this major eukaryotic lineage.

  9. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  10. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  11. Olfactory receptor neuron responses of a longhorned beetle, Tetropium fuscum (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), to pheromone, host, and non-host volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Colin A; Sweeney, Jon D; Hillier, N Kirk

    2015-12-01

    Longhorn wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) use olfactory cues to find mates and hosts for oviposition. Tetropium fuscum (Fabr.) is an invasive longhorned wood-boring beetle originating from Europe that has been established in Nova Scotia, Canada, since at least 1990. This study used single sensillum recordings (SSR) to determine the response of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antennal sensilla of male and female T. fuscum to different kinds of olfactory cues, namely host volatiles, non-host volatiles, the aggregation pheromone of T. fuscum (fuscumol), and an aggregation pheromone emitted by other species of longhorn beetles (3-hydroxyhexan-2-one). Each compound had been previously shown to elicit antennal activity in T. fuscum using electroantennography or had been shown to elicit behavioral activity in T. fuscum or other cerambycids. There have been very few SSR studies done on cerambycids, and ours is the first to compare response profiles of pheromone components as well as host and non-host volatiles. Based on SSR studies with other insects, we predicted we would find ORNs that responded to the pheromone alone (pheromone-specialists), as well as ORNs that responded only to host or non-host volatiles, i.e., separation of olfactory cue perception at the ORN level. Also, because male T. fuscum emerge earlier than females and are the pheromone-emitting sex, we predicted that the number of pheromone-sensitive ORNs would be greater in females than males. We found 140 ORNs housed within 97 sensilla that responded to at least one of the 13 compounds. Fuscumol-specific ORNs made up 15% (21/140) of all recordings, but contrary to our prediction, an additional 22 ORNs (16%) responded to fuscumol plus at least one other compound; in total, fuscumol elicited a response from 43/140 (31%) of ORNs with fuscumol-specific ORNs accounting for half of these. Thus, our prediction that pheromone reception would be segregated on specialist ORNs was only partially

  12. Conditional deletion of ERK5 MAP kinase in the nervous system impairs pheromone information processing and pheromone-evoked behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Zou

    Full Text Available ERK5 MAP kinase is highly expressed in the developing nervous system but absent in most regions of the adult brain. It has been implicated in regulating the development of the main olfactory bulb and in odor discrimination. However, whether it plays an essential role in pheromone-based behavior has not been established. Here we report that conditional deletion of the Mapk7 gene which encodes ERK5 in mice in neural stem cells impairs several pheromone-mediated behaviors including aggression and mating in male mice. These deficits were not caused by a reduction in the level of testosterone, by physical immobility, by heightened fear or anxiety, or by depression. Using mouse urine as a natural pheromone-containing solution, we provide evidence that the behavior impairment was associated with defects in the detection of closely related pheromones as well as with changes in their innate preference for pheromones related to sexual and reproductive activities. We conclude that expression of ERK5 during development is critical for pheromone response and associated animal behavior in adult mice.

  13. Receptor chirality and behavioral specificity of the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), for its pheromone, (+)-grandisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J C; Mori, K

    1989-02-01

    Electrophysiological recordings from antennal olfactory receptors and field behavioral experiments showed both male and female boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to respond specifically to (+)-grandisol, an enantiomer of compound I of the boll weevil aggregation pheromone. Single-cell recordings revealed antennal olfactory neurons in both male and female weevils keyed to (+)-grandisol. Electroantennograms in response to serial dilutions of the grandisol enaniiomers showed a threshold 100 to 1000 times lower for (+)-grandisol relative to its antipode. In field behavioral experiments, both sexes were significantly more attracted to (+)-grandisol in combination with the three other pheromone components than the combination with (-)-grandisol. When (-)-grandisol was placed with the (+)-enantiomer at equal dosages, a slight although statistically insignificant inhibition occurred. Subsequent field tests showed that the low level of attraction exhibited by (-)-grandisol in combination with the other three pheromone components could be attributed to the other three components alone. These results are in contrast with an earlier study, which found (-)-grandisol to be as attractive as the (+)-enantiomer.

  14. Evaluating the binding efficiency of pheromone binding protein with its natural ligand using molecular docking and fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilayaraja, Renganathan; Rajkumar, Ramalingam; Rajesh, Durairaj; Muralidharan, Arumugam Ramachandran; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2014-06-01

    Chemosignals play a crucial role in social and sexual communication among inter- and intra-species. Chemical cues are bound with protein that is present in the pheromones irrespective of sex are commonly called as pheromone binding protein (PBP). In rats, the pheromone compounds are bound with low molecular lipocalin protein α2u-globulin (α2u). We reported farnesol is a natural endogenous ligand (compound) present in rat preputial gland as a bound volatile compound. In the present study, an attempt has been made through computational method to evaluating the binding efficiency of α2u with the natural ligand (farnesol) and standard fluorescent molecule (2-naphthol). The docking analysis revealed that the binding energy of farnesol and 2-naphthol was almost equal and likely to share some binding pocket of protein. Further, to extrapolate the results generated through computational approach, the α2u protein was purified and subjected to fluorescence titration and binding assay. The results showed that the farnesol is replaced by 2-naphthol with high hydrophobicity of TYR120 in binding sites of α2u providing an acceptable dissociation constant indicating the binding efficiency of α2u. The obtained results are in corroboration with the data made through computational approach.

  15. Behavioural plasticity in support of a benefit for aggregation pheromone use in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2002-01-01

    We explored behavioural plasticity in the use of aggregation pheromone in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Based on previous field observations, we formulated two hypotheses on a benefit of using aggregation pheromone for aggregated oviposition. One hypothesis

  16. Behavioural plasticity in support of a benefit for aggregation pheromone use in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, LEM

    We explored behavioural plasticity in the use of aggregation pheromone in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Based on previous field observations, we formulated two hypotheses on a benefit of using aggregation pheromone for aggregated oviposition. One hypothesis

  17. Promising new technology for managing diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in cabbage with pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Everett R

    2002-05-01

    Experiments were conducted in plantings of cabbage in spring 1999 and 2000 to evaluate a novel, new matrix system for delivering sex pheromone to suppress sexual communication by diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The liquid, viscous, slow-release formulation contained a combination of diamondback moth pheromone, a blend of Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate, 27%:Z-11-hexadecen-1-ol, 1%:Z-11-tetradecen-1-ol, 9%:Z-11-hexadecenal, 63%, and the insecticide permethrin (0.16% and 6% w/w of total formulated material, respectively). Field trapping experiments showed that the lure-toxicant combination was highly attractive to male moths for at least four weeks using as little as a 0.05 g droplet of formulated material per trap; and the permethrin insecticide had no apparent influence on response of moths to lure baited traps. Small field plots of cabbage were treated with the lure-toxicant-matrix combination using droplets of 0.44 and 0.05 g each applied to cabbage in a grid pattern at densities ranging from 990 to 4396 droplets/ha to evaluate the potential for disrupting sexual communication of diamondback moth. There was no significant difference in the level of suppression of sexual communication of diamondback moth, as measured by captures of males in pheromone-baited traps located in the treated plots, versus moths captured in untreated control plots, among the treatments regardless of droplet size (0.05 or 0.44 g) or number of droplets applied per ha. Plots treated with the smallest droplet size (0.05 g) and with the fewest number of droplets per ha (990) suppressed captures of male diamondback moths > 90% for up to 3 weeks post treatment. Although laboratory assays showed that the lure-toxicant combination was 100% effective at killing the diamondback moth, the mode of action in the field trials was not determined. The results indicate that the liquid, viscous, slow release formulation containing diamondback moth pheromone could be used to effectively suppress sexual

  18. Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim

    2011-12-01

    In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.

  19. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  20. 40 CFR 180.1064 - Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tomato pinworm insect pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1064 Tomato pinworm insect pheromone; exemption from the... residues of both components of the tomato pinworm insect pheromone (E)-4-tridecen-1-yl acetate and (Z)-4...

  1. Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Choi, Man-Yeon

    2010-02-01

    Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first examples of animal pheromones identified, primarily because of the large amount of chemical produced and the distinctive responses of ants to the pheromone. However, the alarm pheromone of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eluded identification for over four decades. We identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of S. invicta. Worker fire ants detect the pyrazine alarm pheromone at 30 pg/ml, which is comparable to alarm pheromone sensitivities reported for other ant species. The source of this alarm pheromone are the mandibular glands, which, in fire ants, are not well developed and contain only about 300 pg of the compound, much less than the microgram quantities of alarm pheromones reported for several other ant species. Female and male sexuals and workers produce the pyrazine, which suggests that it may be involved in fire ant mating flight initiation, as well as the typical worker alarm response. This is the first report of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine from a Solenopsis species and the first example of this alkaloid functioning as an alarm pheromone.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the... pheromone Z-2-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclobutaneethanol; Z-3,3-dimethyl-Δ1,β-cyclohexaneethanol; Z-3,3-dimethyl...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1124 - Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arthropod pheromones; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1124 Arthropod pheromones; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Arthropod pheromones, as described in § 152.25(b) of this chapter, when used in retrievably sized...

  4. Multivariate calibration-assisted high-performance liquid chromatography with dual UV and fluorimetric detection for the analysis of natural and synthetic sex hormones in environmental waters and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Rocío L.; Escandar, Graciela M.

    2016-01-01

    A green method is reported based on non-sophisticated instrumental for the quantification of seven natural and synthetic estrogens, three progestagens and one androgen in the presence of real interferences. The method takes advantage of: (1) chromatography, allowing total or partial resolution of a large number of compounds, (2) dual detection, permitting selection of the most appropriate signal for each analyte and, (3) second-order calibration, enabling mathematical resolution of incompletely resolved chromatographic bands and analyte determination in the presence of interferents. Consumption of organic solvents for cleaning, extraction and separation are markedly decreased because of the coupling with MCR-ALS (multivariate curve resolution/alternating least-squares) which allows the successful resolution in the presence of other co-eluting matrix constituents. Rigorous IUPAC detection limits were obtained: 6–24 ng L"−"1 in water, and 0.1–0.9 ng g"−"1 in sediments. Relative prediction errors were 2–10% (water) and 1–8% (sediments). - Highlights: • A green and simple chromatographic method for endocrine disruptors is proposed. • Diode array and fluorescence detectors are simultaneously used. • Eleven sex hormones are determined in water and sediment samples. • Outstanding selectivity is attained with MCR-ALS second-order algorithm. - Liquid chromatography coupled to chemometrics allows one to selectively and sensitively quantitate eleven endocrine disruptors in challenging scenarios using a green analytical approach.

  5. The sex specific metabolic footprint of Oithona davisae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuschele, Jan; Nemming, Louise; Tolstrup, Lea; Kiørboe, Thomas; Nylund, Göran M.; Selander, Erik

    2016-11-01

    In pelagic copepods, the group representing the highest animal abundances on earth, males and females have distinct morphological and behavioural differences. In several species female pheromones are known to facilitate the mate finding process, and copepod exudates induce changes in physiology and behaviour in several phytoplankton species. Here we tested whether the sexual dimorphism in morphology and behaviour is mirrored in the exudate composition of males and females. We find differences in the exudate composition, with females seemingly producing more compounds. While we were able to remove the sex pheromones from the water by filtration through reverse phase solid phase extraction columns, we were not able to recover the active pheromone from the solid phase.

  6. Pheromones cause disease: the exocrinology of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, B

    2000-03-01

    The aetiology of anorexia nervosa is exocrinological. This notion is supported by physical evidence in animal models with directly comparable symptomatology. Anorexia nervosa (AN) syndrome would be a puberty delay caused by reception and autoreception of conspecific pheromone emissions: a pheromone-induced puberty delay (PIPD). As such, it would be amenable to medical treatment drawing from forty years of research in animals. This hypothesis is testable. For instance, since food ad libitum is a prerequisite for PIPD, occasional supervised fasting in healthy peripuberal subjects should prevent AN. Besides, tolerating an untestable thought disease (1,2) with symptoms of a curable well-understood animal condition would be anti-scientific and perpetuates medical disaster. Even their endocrinologies are identical. Pheromone feedback tunes animal appetites and immunity to available resources and prospects. In addition to timing puberty, pheromones regulate fertility. Pheromones will probably be implicated in the aetiology of the psychiatric and autoimmune diseases. This is the second in a series of twelve papers to explore this contention systematically. (c) 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. Refining the dual olfactory hypothesis: pheromone reward and odour experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Fernando; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-Hernández, Jose; Novejarque, Amparo; Lanuza, Enrique

    2009-06-25

    In rodents, sexual advertisement and gender recognition are mostly (if not exclusively) mediated by chemosignals. Specifically, there is ample evidence indicating that female mice are 'innately' attracted by male sexual pheromones that have critical non-volatile components and are detected by the vomeronasal organ. These pheromones can only get access to the vomeronasal organ by active pumping mechanisms that require close contact with the source of the stimulus (e.g. urine marks) during chemoinvestigation. We have hypothesised that male sexual pheromones are rewarding to female mice. Indeed, male-soiled bedding can be used as a reinforcer to induce conditioned place preference, provided contact with the bedding is allowed. The neural mechanisms of pheromone reward seem, however, different from those employed by other natural reinforcers, such as the sweetness or postingestive effects of sucrose. In contrast to vomeronasal-detected male sexual pheromones, male-derived olfactory stimuli (volatiles) are not intrinsically attractive to female mice. However, after repeated exposure to male-soiled bedding, intact female mice develop an acquired preference for male odours. On the contrary, in females whose accessory olfactory bulbs have been lesioned, exposure to male-soiled bedding induces aversion to male odorants. These considerations, together with data on the different properties of olfactory and vomeronasal receptors, lead us to make a proposal for the complementary roles that the olfactory and vomeronasal systems play in intersexual attraction and in other forms of intra- or inter-species communication.

  8. Evidence for volatile male-produced pheromone in banana weevilCosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenberg, W J; Ndiege, I O; Karago, F W

    1993-09-01

    Females of the banana weevil,Cosmopolites sordidus, were attracted to and made longer visits to live conspecific males, trapped volatiles from males, and dissected male hindguts in a still-air olfactometer. Male weevils were attracted to volatiles trapped from males and made longer visits to live males and volatiles from males. Live females, collected volatiles from females and female hindguts, elicited small or no behavioral responses from either sex. Electroantennogram (EAG) responses from both male and female antennae were elicited by collected volatiles from males and by dichloromethane extracts of male hindguts and bodies but not by surface washes of males. No significant EAG responses were given to equivalent material from females. It is therefore suggested that male banana weevils release an aggregation pheromone via their hindgut.

  9. Assessment of pheromone production and response in fission yeast by a halo test of induced sporulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, R; Willer, M; Kjaerulff, S

    1994-01-01

    We describe a rapid, sensitive and semi-quantitative plate assay for monitoring pheromone activity in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. It is based on the observation that meiosis requires stimulation by pheromone and exploits diploid strains that will only sporulate after addition...... of exogenous pheromone. The tester strains are heterozygous for mating type, are non-switching, and are mutated in one of the early subfunctions (either mat1-Mc or mat1-Pc), so that meiosis is only induced after exposure to exogenous pheromone (M-factor or P-factor, respectively). Pheromone activity...

  10. Role of polarized G protein signaling in tracking pheromone gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Allison W.; Minakova, Maria; Dyer, Jayme M.; Zyla, Trevin R.; Elston, Timothy C.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Yeast cells track gradients of pheromones to locate mating partners. Intuition suggests that uniform distribution of pheromone receptors over the cell surface would yield optimal gradient sensing. However, yeast cells display polarized receptors. The benefit of such polarization was unknown. During gradient tracking, cell growth is directed by a patch of polarity regulators that wanders around the cortex. Patch movement is sensitive to pheromone dose, with wandering reduced on the up-gradient side of the cell, resulting in net growth in that direction. Mathematical modeling suggests that active receptors and associated G proteins lag behind the polarity patch and act as an effective drag on patch movement. In vivo, the polarity patch is trailed by a G protein-rich domain, and this polarized distribution of G proteins is required to constrain patch wandering. Our findings explain why G protein polarization is beneficial, and illuminate a novel mechanism for gradient tracking. PMID:26609960

  11. Two odorant-binding proteins mediate the behavioural response of aphids to the alarm pheromone (E-ß-farnesene and structural analogues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Aphids are agricultural pests of great economical interest. Alternatives to insecticides, using semiochemicals, are of difficult applications. In fact, sex pheromones are of little use as aphids reproduce partenogenetically most of the time. Besides, the alarm pheromone, (E-ß-farnesene for a great number of species, is difficult to synthesize and unstable in the environment. The search for novel semiochemicals to be used in population control can be efficiently approached through the study of the olfactory system at the biochemical level. Recently odorant-binding proteins (OBPs have been shown to play a central role in olfactory recognition, thus becoming the target of choice for designing new semiochemicals.To address the question of how the alarm message is recognised at the level of OBPs, we have tested 29 compounds, including (E-ß-farnesene, in binding assays with 6 recombinant proteins and in behaviour experiments. We have found that good repellents bind OBP3 and/or OBP7, while non repellents present different spectra of binding. These results have been verified with two species of aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, both using (E-ß-farnesene as the alarm pheromone.Our results represent further support to the idea (so far convincingly demonstrated only in Drosophila that OBPs are involved in decoding the chemical information of odorants and pheromones, and for the first time provide such evidence in other insect species and using wild-type insects. Moreover, the data offer guidelines and protocols for the discovery of potential alarm pheromones, using ligand-binding assays as a preliminary screening before subjecting selected compounds to behaviour tests.

  12. Pheromone use for insect control: present status and prospect in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Azharul Islam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The insect’s world is filled with many odors. Insects use these odors to cue them in a variety of complex social behaviors, including courtship, mating, and egg laying. Scientists and pest control specialists have known about these complex communication systems for decades. The main aim of this study was to visualize the availability, trends and differences in the sources of pheromone control in agricultural growth of Bangladesh. It also concerned on constrains and present use of pheromone and their possible recommendation on behalf of Bangladesh agriculture. It concentrated on the data during last three decades (1980-2010, comprising status of pheromone use in Bangladesh agriculture and its future. Review revealed that Bangladesh has been enormously successful in increasing pheromone use in agricultural production (especially for vegetables. Understanding of the nature of pheromones and their potential for pest control along with the future prospective of pheromone technique in agriculture were stated. Since the pheromone, technologies for control of major crop pests in Bangladesh are still limited. So that this review emphasized on more attention to the authority to increase the research works and project facilities related to develop and promote pheromone techniques. It is highly recommended to increase availability of pheromone in market, more investment in research and development, introduction of newly identified pheromone for specific pest, to assist government and non-government organizations to work with farmers to reduce harmful insecticide use and promote pheromone tactics as one part of integrated crop management (ICM.

  13. An End-to-End Model of Plant Pheromone Channel for Long Range Molecular Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unluturk, Bige D; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2017-01-01

    A new track in molecular communication is using pheromones which can scale up the range of diffusion-based communication from μm meters to meters and enable new applications requiring long range. Pheromone communication is the emission of molecules in the air which trigger behavioral or physiological responses in receiving organisms. The objective of this paper is to introduce a new end-to-end model which incorporates pheromone behavior with communication theory for plants. The proposed model includes both the transmission and reception processes as well as the propagation channel. The transmission process is the emission of pheromones from the leaves of plants. The dispersion of pheromones by the flow of wind constitutes the propagation process. The reception process is the sensing of pheromones by the pheromone receptors of plants. The major difference of pheromone communication from other molecular communication techniques is the dispersion channel acting under the laws of turbulent diffusion. In this paper, the pheromone channel is modeled as a Gaussian puff, i.e., a cloud of pheromone released instantaneously from the source whose dispersion follows a Gaussian distribution. Numerical results on the performance of the overall end-to-end pheromone channel in terms of normalized gain and delay are provided.

  14. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  15. Two pheromone precursor genes are transcriptionally expressed in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöggeler, S

    2000-06-01

    In order to analyze the involvement of pheromones in cell recognition and mating in a homothallic fungus, two putative pheromone precursor genes, named ppg1 and ppg2, were isolated from a genomic library of Sordaria macrospora. The ppg1 gene is predicted to encode a precursor pheromone that is processed by a Kex2-like protease to yield a pheromone that is structurally similar to the alpha-factor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ppg2 gene encodes a 24-amino-acid polypeptide that contains a putative farnesylated and carboxy methylated C-terminal cysteine residue. The sequences of the predicted pheromones display strong structural similarity to those encoded by putative pheromones of heterothallic filamentous ascomycetes. Both genes are expressed during the life cycle of S. macrospora. This is the first description of pheromone precursor genes encoded by a homothallic fungus. Southern-hybridization experiments indicated that ppg1 and ppg2 homologues are also present in other homothallic ascomycetes.

  16. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  17. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  18. White cells facilitate opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1 impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans.

  19. Development of a pheromone elution rate physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Teske; H.W. Thistle; B.L. Strom; H. Zhu

    2015-01-01

    A first principle modeling approach has been applied to available data describing the elution of semiochemicals from pheromone dispensers. These data included field data for 27 products developed by several manufacturers, including homemade devices, as well as environmental chamber data collected on three semiochemical products. The goal of this effort was to...

  20. Optimization of Pheromone Traps for Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Marc Clement; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael John; Allison, Jeremy Dean; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2017-08-01

    The Coryphodema tristis (Drury) is an important pest of Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) plantations in South Africa. The gregarious larvae of this pest cause damage by feeding on the tree sapwood, and adults emerge in spring each year. The aim of this study was to optimize pheromone traps for operational use in management programs. This was achieved by investigating different pheromone blend combinations and trap types for efficacy under field conditions. Our results confirm that the cross vane bucket funnel trap baited with a 95:2.5:2.5 volumetric blend of Z9-14:OAc, Z9-14:OH, and 14Ac was superior to similarly baited standard bucket funnel and delta traps. We also estimated the release rate and ratios of the pheromone compounds loaded into an artificial permeation dispenser through solid-phase microextraction sampling. Results showed that the released blend of pheromone compounds mirrored the dispensed ratios relatively accurately and that release rates are affected by temperature. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Counter-perfume: using pheromones to prevent female remating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouines, Clara

    2017-08-01

    Strong selection to secure paternity in polyandrous species leads to the evolution of numerous chemicals in the male's seminal content. These include antiaphrodisiac pheromones, which are transmitted from the male to the female during mating to render her unattractive to subsequent males. An increasing number of species have been shown to use these chemicals. Herein, I examine the taxonomic distribution of species using antiaphrodisiac pheromones, the selection pressures driving their evolution in both males and females, and the ecological interactions in which these pheromones are involved. The literature review shows a highly skewed distribution of antiaphrodisiac use; all species currently known to use them are insects with the exception of the garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis and T. radix. Nonetheless, many taxa have not yet been tested for the presence of antiaphrodisiacs, in groups both closely and distantly related to species known to express them. Within the Insecta, there have been multiple cases of convergent evolution of antiaphrodisiac pheromones using different chemical compounds and methods of transmission. Antiaphrodisiacs usually benefit males, but their effect on females is variable as they can either prevent them from mating multiple times or help them reduce male harassment when they are unreceptive. Some indirect costs of antiaphrodisiacs also impact both males and females, but more research is needed to determine how general this pattern is. Additional research is also important to understand how antiaphrodisiacs interact with the reproductive biology and sexual communication in different species. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Regulation of Isoprenoid Pheromone Biosynthesis in Bumblebee Males

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchalová, Darina; Buček, Aleš; Brabcová, Jana; Žáček, Petr; Kindl, Jiří; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2016), s. 260-267 ISSN 1439-4227 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1302; GA ČR GA15-06569S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biosynthesis * Bombus spp. * gene expression * isoprenoid s * pheromones * transcriptional regulation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016

  3. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  4. The evolution of honest queen pheromones in insect societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn

    2010-01-01

    of their ovaries and by preventing other workers from reproducing (worker policing). However, what maintains the honesty of such queen pheromones is still under discussion. The explanation that an honest queen signal evolves simply because it serves the interest of all colony members does not seem to hold, since...

  5. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  6. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Shifts in sensory neuron identity parallel differences in pheromone preference in the European corn borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini A Koutroumpa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pheromone communication relies on highly specific signals sent and received between members of the same species. However, how pheromone specificity is determined in moth olfactory circuits remains unknown. Here we provide the first glimpse into the mechanism that generates this specificity in Ostrinia nubilalis. In Ostrinia nubilalis it was found that a single locus causes strain-specific, diametrically opposed preferences for a 2-component pheromone blend. Previously we found pheromone preference to be correlated with the strain and hybrid-specific relative antennal response to both pheromone components. This led to the current study, in which we detail the underlying mechanism of this differential response, through chemotopically mapping of the pheromone detection circuit in the antenna. We determined that both strains and their hybrids have swapped the neuronal identity of the pheromone-sensitive neurons co-housed within a single sensillum. Furthermore, neurons that mediate behavioral antagonism surprisingly co-express up to five pheromone receptors, mirroring the concordantly broad tuning to heterospecific pheromones. This appears as possible evolutionary adaptation that could prevent cross attraction to a range of heterospecific signals, while keeping the pheromone detection system to its simplest tripartite setup.

  8. The role of pheromone receptors for communication and mating in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Christian; Tisch, Doris; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of sexual development in the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) as well as detection of a novel class of peptide pheromone precursors in this fungus indicates promising insights into its physiology and lifestyle. Here we investigated the role of the two pheromone receptors HPR1 and HPR2 in the H. jecorina pheromone-system. We found that these pheromone receptors show an unexpectedly high genetic variability among H. jecorina strains. HPR1 and HPR2 confer female fertility in their cognate mating types (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2, respectively) and mediate induction of fruiting body development. One compatible pheromone precursor–pheromone receptor pair (hpr1–hpp1 or hpr2–ppg1) in mating partners was sufficient for sexual development. Additionally, pheromone receptors were essential for ascospore development, hence indicating their involvement in post-fertilisation events. Neither pheromone precursor genes nor pheromone receptor genes of H. jecorina were transcribed in a strictly mating type dependent manner, but showed enhanced expression levels in the cognate mating type. In the presence of a mating partner under conditions favoring sexual development, transcript levels of pheromone precursors were significantly increased, while those of pheromone receptor genes do not show this trend. In the female sterile T. reesei strain QM6a, transcriptional responses of pheromone precursor and pheromone receptor genes to a mating partner were clearly altered compared to the female fertile wild-type strain CBS999.97. Consequently, a delayed and inappropriate response to the mating partner may be one aspect causing female sterility in QM6a. PMID:22884620

  9. How flies respond to honey bee pheromone: the role of the foraging gene on reproductive response to queen mandibular pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiletti, Alison L.; Awde, David N.; Thompson, Graham J.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we test one central prediction from sociogenomic theory—that social and non-social taxa share common genetic toolkits that regulate reproduction in response to environmental cues. We exposed Drosophila females of rover ( for R) and sitter ( for s) genotypes to an ovary-suppressing pheromone derived from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Surprisingly, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) affected several measures of fitness in flies, and in a manner comparable to the pheromone's normal effect on bee workers. QMP-treated sitter flies had smaller ovaries that contained fewer eggs than did untreated controls. QMP-treated rover flies, by contrast, showed a more variable pattern that only sometimes resulted in ovary inhibition, while a third strain of fly that contains a sitter mutant allele in a rover background ( for s2) showed no ovarian response to QMP. Taken together, our results suggest that distinctly non-social insects have some capacity to respond to social cues, but that this response varies with fly genotype. In general, the interspecific response is consistent with a conserved gene set affecting reproductive physiology. The differential response among strains in particular suggests that for is itself important for modulating the fly's pheromonal response.

  10. Binding interaction between a queen pheromone component HOB and pheromone binding protein ASP1 of Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chen; Fu, Yuxia; Jiang, Hongtao; Zhuang, Shulin; Li, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    The honeybee's social behavior is closely related to the critical response to pheromone, while pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) play an important role in binding and transferring those pheromones. Here we report one known PBP, antennal special protein 1(ASP1), which has high affinity with a queen mandibular pheromone component, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB). In this study, multiple fluorescent spectra, UV absorption spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and molecular docking analysis were combined to clarify the binding process. Basically, fluorescence intensity of ASP1 could be considerably quenched by HOB with an appropriate interaction distance (3.1 nm), indicating that a complex, which is more stable in lower temperature, was formed. The fact ΔH < 0, ΔS < 0, by thermodynamic analysis, indicated the van der Waals and hydrogen bond as main driving force. Moreover, synchronous fluorescence spectra and CD spectra analysis showed the change of partial hydrophilicity of ASP1 and the increase of α-helix after HOB addition. In conclusion, ASP1 can strongly and spontaneously interact with HOB. But the binding ability decreases with the rise of temperature, which may be necessary for sufficient social stability of hives. This study provides elucidation of the detailed binding mechanism and potential physicochemical basis of thermal stability to the social behavior of honeybee. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A carboxylesterase, Esterase-6, modulates sensory physiological and behavioral response dynamics to pheromone in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chertemps Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects respond to the spatial and temporal dynamics of a pheromone plume, which implies not only a strong response to 'odor on', but also to 'odor off'. This requires mechanisms geared toward a fast signal termination. Several mechanisms may contribute to signal termination, among which odorant-degrading enzymes. These enzymes putatively play a role in signal dynamics by a rapid inactivation of odorants in the vicinity of the sensory receptors, although direct in vivo experimental evidences are lacking. Here we verified the role of an extracellular carboxylesterase, esterase-6 (Est-6, in the sensory physiological and behavioral dynamics of Drosophila melanogaster response to its pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA. Est-6 was previously linked to post-mating effects in the reproductive system of females. As Est-6 is also known to hydrolyze cVA in vitro and is expressed in the main olfactory organ, the antenna, we tested here its role in olfaction as a putative odorant-degrading enzyme. Results We first confirm that Est-6 is highly expressed in olfactory sensilla, including cVA-sensitive sensilla, and we show that expression is likely associated with non-neuronal cells. Our electrophysiological approaches show that the dynamics of olfactory receptor neuron (ORN responses is strongly influenced by Est-6, as in Est-6° null mutants (lacking the Est-6 gene cVA-sensitive ORN showed increased firing rate and prolonged activity in response to cVA. Est-6° mutant males had a lower threshold of behavioral response to cVA, as revealed by the analysis of two cVA-induced behaviors. In particular, mutant males exhibited a strong decrease of male-male courtship, in association with a delay in courtship initiation. Conclusions Our study presents evidence that Est-6 plays a role in the physiological and behavioral dynamics of sex pheromone response in Drosophila males and supports a role of Est-6 as an odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE in male

  12. Influence of Pheromone Trap Color and Placement on Catch of Male Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Potato Tuber Moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is one of the damaging pests of potatoes in both field crops and storage worldwide. Larvae develop in the foliage and tubers of potatoes and cause direct losses of product. Mass trapping application of synthetic pheromone has been found to be effective to control P. operculella; however, several factors have to be optimized for improving its efficiency. This experiment was carried out during the 2012 season, Ardabil province, Iran to evaluate the effectiveness of pheromone trap to capture males for future development of a mass trapping technique, and a subsequent decrease in insect reproduction. Particularly, in this experiment the influence of color (yellow, red and green, and height (ground level, 0.3 and 0.6 m of water-pan trap on males captures was tested. The results showed that green traps captured significantly (P < 0.05 more males than red and yellow traps. Water-pan traps placed at 0.6 above plant canopy captured significantly (P < 0.05 the highest number of the moths in comparison to traps placed at ground level and 0.3 m.

  13. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  14. Modeling the cellular mechanisms and olfactory input underlying the triphasic response of moth pheromone-sensitive projection neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Gu

    Full Text Available In the antennal lobe of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon, most pheromone-sensitive projection neurons (PNs exhibit a triphasic firing pattern of excitation (E1-inhibition (I-excitation (E2 in response to a pulse of the sex pheromone. To understand the mechanisms underlying this stereotypical discharge, we developed a biophysical model of a PN receiving inputs from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs via nicotinic cholinergic synapses. The ORN is modeled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process whose firing rate is a function of time and is fitted to extracellular data recorded in response to pheromone stimulations at various concentrations and durations. The PN model is based on the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism with realistic ionic currents whose parameters were derived from previous studies. Simulations revealed that the inhibitory phase I can be produced by a SK current (Ca2+-gated small conductance K+ current and that the excitatory phase E2 can result from the long-lasting response of the ORNs. Parameter analysis further revealed that the ending time of E1 depends on some parameters of SK, Ca2+, nACh and Na+ currents; I duration mainly depends on the time constant of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics, conductance of Ca2+ currents and some parameters of nACh currents; The mean firing frequency of E1 and E2 depends differentially on the interaction of various currents. Thus it is likely that the interplay between PN intrinsic currents and feedforward synaptic currents are sufficient to generate the triphasic firing patterns observed in the noctuid moth A. ipsilon.

  15. Trapping Phyllophaga spp. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) in the United States and Canada using sex attractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. Robbins; Steven R. Alm; Charles D. Armstrong; Anne L. Averill; Thomas C. Baker; Robert J. Bauernfiend; Frederick P. Baxendale; S. Kris Braman; Rick L. Brandenburg; Daniel B. Cash; Gary J. Couch; Richard S. Cowles; Robert L. Crocker; Zandra D. DeLamar; Timothy G. Dittl; Sheila M. Fitzpatrick; Kathy L. Flanders; Tom Forgatsch; Timothy J. Gibb; Bruce D. Gill; Daniel O. Gilrein; Clyde S. Gorsuch; Abner M. Hammond; Patricia D. Hastings; David W. Held; Paul R. Heller; Rose T. Hiskes; James L. Holliman; William G. Hudson; Michael G. Klein; Vera L. Krischik; David J. Lee; Charles E. Linn; Nancy J. Luce; Kenna E. MacKenzie; Catherine M. Mannion; Sridhar Polavarapu; Daniel A. Potter; Wendell L. Roelofs; Brian M. Rovals; Glenn A. Salsbury; Nathan M. Schiff; David J. Shetlar; Margaret Skinner; Beverly L. Sparks; Jessica A. Sutschek; Timothy P. Sutschek; Stanley R. Swier; Martha M. Sylvia; Niel J. Vickers; Patricia J. Vittum; Richard Weidman; Donald C. Weber; R. Chris Williamson; Michael G. Villani

    2006-01-01

    The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera...

  16. REDUCING THE THREAT TO CONTROL INVASIVE SIGNAL CRAYFISH REDUCING: THE POTENTIAL USE OF PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEBBING P. D.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for an effective method of controlling invasive species of crayfish is of utmost importance given the plight of Europe’s native crayfish species. Many techniques have been applied to the growing problem with little success. Pheromones have been used to control terrestrial insect pests for a number of years with many success stories. The concept of applying pheromone control methods to the aquatic environment is by no means new, but has not been previously developed. This paper discusses the preliminary results from field trials testing traps baited with Pacifastacus leniusculus pheromones, and the potential application of the pheromones in controlling P. leniusculus populations.

  17. Healthy Adult Male Facial Skin Surface Lipid Pheromone p.o. to Treat Opioid Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-20

    Opioid Addiction; Opioid Abuse, Continuous Use; Opioid Use; Opioid-Related Disorders; Paternal Pheromone Deficiency; Opioid Dependence; Opioid Abuse; Opioid-use Disorder; Opioid Intoxication; Opioid Abuse, Episodic

  18. Pheromone modulates two phenotypically plastic traits - adult reproduction and larval diapause - in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharam, Barney; Weldon, Laura; Viney, Mark

    2017-08-22

    Animals use information from their environment to make decisions, ultimately to maximize their fitness. The nematode C. elegans has a pheromone signalling system, which hitherto has principally been thought to be used by worms in deciding whether or not to arrest their development as larvae. Recent studies have suggested that this pheromone can have other roles in the C. elegans life cycle. Here we demonstrate a new role for the C. elegans pheromone, showing that it accelerates hermaphrodites' reproductive rate, a phenomenon which we call pheromone-dependent reproductive plasticity (PDRP). We also find that pheromone accelerates larval growth rates, but this depends on a live bacterial food source, while PDRP does not. Different C. elegans strains all show PDRP, though the magnitude of these effects differ among the strains, which is analogous to the diversity of arrested larval phenotypes that this pheromone also induces. Using a selection experiment we also show that selection for PDRP or for larval arrest affects both the target and the non-target trait, suggesting that there is cross-talk between these two pheromone-dependent traits. Together, these results show that C. elegans' pheromone is a signal that acts at two key life cycle points, controlling alternative larval fates and affecting adult hermaphrodites' reproduction. More broadly, these results suggest that to properly understand and interpret the biology of pheromone signalling in C. elegans and other nematodes, the life-history biology of these organisms in their natural environment needs to be considered.

  19. Sexy DEG/ENaC channels involved in gustatory detection of fruit fly pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikielny, Claudio W

    2012-11-06

    Hydrocarbon pheromones on the cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster modulate the complex courtship behavior of males. Recently, three members of the degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel (DEG/ENaC) family of sodium channel subunits, Ppk25, Ppk23, and Ppk29 (also known as Nope), have been shown to function in gustatory perception of courtship-modulating contact pheromones. All three proteins are required for the activation of male courtship by female pheromones. Specific interactions between two of them have been demonstrated in cultured cells, suggesting that, in a subset of cells where they are coexpressed, these three subunits function within a common heterotrimeric DEG/ENaC channel. Such a DEG/ENaC channel may be gated by pheromones, either directly or indirectly, or alternatively may control the excitability of pheromone-sensing cells. In addition, these studies identify taste neurons that respond specifically to courtship-modulating pheromones and mediate their effects on male behavior. Two types of pheromone-sensing taste neurons, F and M cells, have been defined on the basis of their specific response to either female or male pheromones. These reports set the stage for the dissection of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate gustatory detection of contact pheromones.

  20. Fungal Sex: The Mucoromycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Idnurm, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Although at the level of resolution of genes and molecules most information about mating in fungi is from a single lineage, the Dikarya, many fundamental discoveries about mating in fungi have been made in the earlier branches of the fungi. These are nonmonophyletic groups that were once classified into the chytrids and zygomycetes. Few species in these lineages offer the potential of genetic tractability, thereby hampering the ability to identify the genes that underlie those fundamental insights. Research performed during the past decade has now established the genes required for mating type determination and pheromone synthesis in some species in the phylum Mucoromycota, especially in the order Mucorales. These findings provide striking parallels with the evolution of mating systems in the Dikarya fungi. Other discoveries in the Mucorales provide the first examples of sex-cell type identity being driven directly by a gene that confers mating type, a trait considered more of relevance to animal sex determination but difficult to investigate in animals. Despite these discoveries, there remains much to be gleaned about mating systems from these fungi.

  1. Chemical compounds of the foraging recruitment pheromone in bumblebees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Angeles Mena; Sanz, José M. Guerra; Gonzalez, Francisco J. Egea; Vidal, José L. Martinez; Dornhaus, Anna; Ghani, Junaid; Serrano, Ana Roldán; Chittka, Lars

    2005-08-01

    When the frenzied and irregular food-recruitment dances of bumblebees were first discovered, it was thought that they might represent an evolutionary prototype to the honeybee waggle dance. It later emerged that the primary function of the bumblebee dance was the distribution of an alerting pheromone. Here, we identify the chemical compounds of the bumblebee recruitment pheromone and their behaviour effects. The presence of two monoterpenes and one sesquiterpene (eucalyptol, ocimene and farnesol) in the nest airspace and in the tergal glands increases strongly during foraging. Of these, eucalyptol has the strongest recruitment effect when a bee nest is experimentally exposed to it. Since honeybees use terpenes for marking food sources rather than recruiting foragers inside the nest, this suggests independent evolutionary roots of food recruitment in these two groups of bees.

  2. Field Bioassays of Synthetic Pheromones and Host Monoterpenes for Conophthorus coniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter de Groot; Gary L. DeBarr; Goran Birgersson

    1998-01-01

    Four major monoterpenes, (±)-a-pinene,1 (S)-(-)-ß-pinene,(R)-(+)-limonene, and myrcene are found in the cones of eastern white pines, Pinus strobus L. Mixtures ofthese, as well as. a-pinene or ß-pinene alone. increased catches of male white pine cone...

  3. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and

  4. Enzymatic oxidations of alcohols in biosynthesis of bumblebee pheromones

    OpenAIRE

    Bártová, Adéla

    2016-01-01

    Secretion of cephalic labial gland of Buff-tailed bumblebee males (Bombus terrestris) contains a mixture of terpene alcohols, aliphatic alcohols, esters and alkanes with small amount of aldehydes potentially biosynthetized of (S)-2,3-dihydrofarnesol and geranylcitronellol (major alcoholic compounds). This secretion acts as a marking and luring pheromone during patrolling. This study is focused on oxidation of terpene alcohols using enzymes of cephalic labial gland of a bumblebee. In vitro inc...

  5. Of pheromones and kairomones: what receptors mediate innate emotional responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Marco, Lluis; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Some chemicals elicit innate emotionally laden behavioral responses. Pheromones mediate sexual attraction, parental care or agonistic confrontation, whereas predators' kairomones elicit defensive behaviors in their preys. This essay explores the hypothesis that the detection of these semiochemicals relies on highly specific olfactory and/or vomeronasal receptors. The V1R, V2R, and formyl-peptide vomeronasal receptors bind their ligands in highly specific and sensitive way, thus being good candidates for pheromone- or kairomone-detectors (e.g., secreted and excreted proteins, peptides and lipophilic volatiles). The olfactory epithelium also expresses specific receptors, for example trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) and guanylyl cyclase receptors (GC-D and other types), some of which bind kairomones and putative pheromones. However, most of the olfactory neurons express canonical olfactory receptors (ORs) that bind many ligands with different affinity, being not suitable for mediating responses to pheromones and kairomones. In this respect, trimethylthiazoline (TMT) is considered a fox-derived kairomone for mice and rats, but it seems to be detected by canonical ORs. Therefore, we have reassessed the kairomonal nature of TMT by analyzing the behavioral responses of outbred (CD1) and inbred mice (C57BL/J6) to TMT. Our results confirm that both mouse strains avoid TMT, which increases immobility in C57BL/J6, but not CD1 mice. However, mice of both strains sniff at TMT throughout the test and show no trace of TMT-induced contextual conditioning (immobility or avoidance). This suggests that TMT is not a kairomone but, similar to a loud noise, in high concentrations it induces aversion and stress as unspecific responses to a strong olfactory stimulation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A simple, cost-effective emitter for controlled release of fish pheromones: development, testing, and application to management of the invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael C.; Hanson, James E.; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Bals, Jason D.

    2018-01-01

    Semiochemicals that elicit species-specific attraction or repulsion have proven useful in the management of terrestrial pests and hold considerable promise for control of nuisance aquatic species, particularly invasive fishes. Because aquatic ecosystems are typically large and open, use of a semiochemical to control a spatially dispersed invader will require the development of a cost-effective emitter that is easy to produce, environmentally benign, inexpensive, and controls the release of the semiochemical without altering its structure. We examined the release properties of five polymers, and chose polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the best alternative. In a series of laboratory and field experiments, we examined the response of the invasive sea lamprey to PEG, and to a partial sex pheromone emitted from PEG that has proven effective as a trap bait to capture migrating sea lamprey prior to spawning. Our findings confirm that the sea lamprey does not behaviorally respond to PEG, and that the attractant response to the pheromone component was conserved when emitted from PEG. Further, we deployed the pheromone-PEG emitters as trap bait during typical control operations in three Great Lakes tributaries, observing similar improvements in trap performance when compared to a previous study using mechanically pumped liquid pheromone. Finally, the polymer emitters tended to dissolve unevenly in high flow conditions. We demonstrate that housing the emitter stabilizes the dissolution rate at high water velocity. We conclude the performance characteristics of PEG emitters to achieve controlled-release of a semiochemical are sufficient to recommend its use in conservation and management activities related to native and invasive aquatic organisms.

  7. Do aphid colonies amplify their emission of alarm pheromone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Eduardo; Kunert, Grit; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2008-09-01

    When aphids are attacked by natural enemies, they emit alarm pheromone to alert conspecifics. For most aphids tested, (E)-beta-farnesene (EBF) is the main, or only, constituent of the alarm pheromone. In response to alarm pheromone, alerted aphids drop off the plant, walk away, or attempt to elude predators. However, under natural conditions, EBF concentration might be low due to the low amounts emitted, to rapid air movement, or to oxidative degradation. To ensure that conspecifics are warned, aphids might conceivably amplify the alarm signal by emitting EBF in response to EBF emitted by other aphids. To examine whether such amplification occurs, we synthesized deuterated EBF (DEBF), which allowed us to differentiate between applied and aphid-derived chemical. Colonies of Acyrthosiphon pisum were treated with DEBF, and headspace volatiles were collected and analyzed for evidence of aphid-derived EBF. No aphid-derived EBF was detected, suggesting that amplification of the alarm signal does not occur. We discuss the disadvantages of alarm signal reinforcement.

  8. Ratiometric Decoding of Pheromones for a Biomimetic Infochemical Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfen Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthetic infochemical communication is an emerging scientific field employing molecular compounds for information transmission, labelling, and biochemical interfacing; having potential application in diverse areas ranging from pest management to group coordination of swarming robots. Our communication system comprises a chemoemitter module that encodes information by producing volatile pheromone components and a chemoreceiver module that decodes the transmitted ratiometric information via polymer-coated piezoelectric Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator (SAWR sensors. The inspiration for such a system is based on the pheromone-based communication between insects. Ten features are extracted from the SAWR sensor response and analysed using multi-variate classification techniques, i.e., Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA, Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN, and Multilayer Perception Neural Network (MLPNN methods, and an optimal feature subset is identified. A combination of steady state and transient features of the sensor signals showed superior performances with LDA and MLPNN. Although MLPNN gave excellent results reaching 100% recognition rate at 400 s, over all time stations PNN gave the best performance based on an expanded data-set with adjacent neighbours. In this case, 100% of the pheromone mixtures were successfully identified just 200 s after they were first injected into the wind tunnel. We believe that this approach can be used for future chemical communication employing simple mixtures of airborne molecules.

  9. Genetic Control of Conventional and Pheromone-Stimulated Biofilm Formation in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Kabrawala, Shail; Fox, Emily P.; Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans can stochastically switch between two phenotypes, white and opaque. Opaque cells are the sexually competent form of C. albicans and therefore undergo efficient polarized growth and mating in the presence of pheromone. In contrast, white cells cannot mate, but are induced – under a specialized set of conditions – to form biofilms in response to pheromone. In this work, we compare the genetic regulation of such “pheromone-stimulated” biofilms with that of “conventional” C. albicans biofilms. In particular, we examined a network of six transcriptional regulators (Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Tec1, Ndt80, and Rob1) that mediate conventional biofilm formation for their potential roles in pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. We show that four of the six transcription factors (Bcr1, Brg1, Rob1, and Tec1) promote formation of both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilms, indicating they play general roles in cell cohesion and biofilm development. In addition, we identify the master transcriptional regulator of pheromone-stimulated biofilms as C. albicans Cph1, ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste12. Cph1 regulates mating in C. albicans opaque cells, and here we show that Cph1 is also essential for pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in white cells. In contrast, Cph1 is dispensable for the formation of conventional biofilms. The regulation of pheromone- stimulated biofilm formation was further investigated by transcriptional profiling and genetic analyses. These studies identified 196 genes that are induced by pheromone signaling during biofilm formation. One of these genes, HGC1, is shown to be required for both conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation. Taken together, these observations compare and contrast the regulation of conventional and pheromone-stimulated biofilm formation in C. albicans, and demonstrate that Cph1 is required for the latter, but not the former. PMID:23637598

  10. Effects of two pheromone trap densities against banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, populations and their impact on plant damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Kagezi, G.H.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    An on-farm study to evaluate the effect of pheromone trap density on the population of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Col., Curculionidae) was conducted in Masaka district, Uganda. The pheromone used was Cosmolure+, a commercially available weevil aggregation pheromone. Forty-two

  11. Pheromone-modulated behavioral suites influence colony growth in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiw, Tanya; Roman, Roman; Sagili, Ramesh R.; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2004-12-01

    The success of a species depends on its ability to assess its environment and to decide accordingly which behaviors are most appropriate. Many animal species, from bacteria to mammals, are able to communicate using interspecies chemicals called pheromones. In addition to exerting physiological effects on individuals, for social species, pheromones communicate group social structure. Communication of social structure is important to social insects for the allocation of its working members into coordinated suites of behaviors. We tested effects of long-term treatment with brood pheromone on suites of honey bee brood rearing and foraging behaviors. Pheromone-treated colonies reared significantly greater brood areas and more adults than controls, while amounts of stored pollen and honey remained statistically similar. Brood pheromone increased the number of pollen foragers and the pollen load weights they returned. It appeared that the pheromone-induced increase in pollen intake was directly canalized into more brood rearing. A two-way pheromone priming effect was observed, such that some workers from the same age cohorts showed an increased and extended capacity to rear larvae, while others were recruited at significantly younger ages into pollen-specific foraging. Brood pheromone affected suites of nursing and foraging behaviors allocating worker and pollen resources associated with an important fitness trait, colony growth.

  12. The ras1 function of Schizosaccharomyces pombe mediates pheromone-induced transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Davey, William John; Egel, R

    1992-01-01

    Loss of ras1+ function renders fission yeast cells unable to undergo morphological changes in response to mating pheromones, whereas cells carrying activated mutations in ras1 are hyper-responsive. This has led to the suggestion that the ras1 gene product plays a role in mating pheromone signal...

  13. Alarm pheromone does not modulate 22-kHz calls in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyama, Hiromi; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Inagaki, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-03-15

    Rats are known to emit a series of ultrasonic vocalizations, termed 22-kHz calls, when exposed to distressing stimuli. Pharmacological studies have indicated that anxiety mediates 22-kHz calls in distressed rats. We previously found that exposure to the rat alarm pheromone increases anxiety in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the alarm pheromone would increase 22-kHz calls in pheromone-exposed rats. Accordingly, we tested whether exposure to the alarm pheromone induced 22-kHz calls, as well as whether the alarm pheromone increased 22-kHz calls in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS). Rats were first fear-conditioned to an auditory and contextual CS. On the following day, the rats were either exposed to the alarm pheromone or a control odor that was released from the neck region of odor-donor rats. Then, the rats were re-exposed to the aversive CS. The alarm pheromone neither induced 22-kHz calls nor increased 22-kHz calls in response to the aversive CS. In contrast, the control odor unexpectedly reduced the total number and duration of 22-kHz calls elicited by the aversive CS, as well as the duration of freezing. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone does not affect 22-kHz calls in rats. However, we may have found evidence for an appeasing olfactory signal, released from the neck region of odor-donor rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of aggregation pheromone on individual behaviour and food web interactions: a field study on Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B.; Allemand, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of an aggregation pheromone on individual behaviour and food web interactions were investigated in two ecological communities, using Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans as focal species. 2. Fruit substrates with aggregation pheromone were significantly more attractive to adult D.

  15. Effects of aggregation pheromone on individual behaviour and food web interactions : A field study on Drosophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, Bregje; Allemand, Roland; Vet, Louise E. M.; Dicke, Marcel

    1. The effects of an aggregation pheromone on individual behaviour and food web interactions were investigated in two ecological communities, using Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulatis as focal species. 2. Fruit substrates with aggregation pheromone were significantly more attractive to adult D.

  16. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Modulates Vomeronasal Neuron Response to Male Salamander Pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste R. Wirsig-Wiechmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies have shown that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH modifies chemosensory neurons responses to odors. We have previously demonstrated that male Plethodon shermani pheromone stimulates vomeronasal neurons in the female conspecific. In the present study we used agmatine uptake as a relative measure of the effects of GnRH on this pheromone-induced neural activation of vomeronasal neurons. Whole male pheromone extract containing 3 millimolar agmatine with or without 10 micromolar GnRH was applied to the nasolabial groove of female salamanders for 45 minutes. Immunocytochemical procedures were conducted to visualize and quantify relative agmatine uptake as measured by labeling density of activated vomeronasal neurons. The relative number of labeled neurons did not differ between the two groups: pheromone alone or pheromone-GnRH. However, vomeronasal neurons exposed to pheromone-GnRH collectively demonstrated higher labeling intensity, as a percentage above background (75% as compared with neurons exposed to pheromone alone (63%, P < 0.018. Since the labeling intensity of agmatine within neurons signifies the relative activity levels of the neurons, these results suggest that GnRH increases the response of female vomeronasal neurons to male pheromone.

  17. Proteinaceous Pheromone Homologs Identified from the Cloacal Gland Transcriptome of a Male Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin W Hall

    Full Text Available Pheromones play an important role in modifying vertebrate behavior, especially during courtship and mating. Courtship behavior in urodele amphibians often includes female exposure to secretions from the cloacal gland, as well as other scent glands. The first vertebrate proteinaceous pheromone discovered, the decapeptide sodefrin, is a female attracting pheromone secreted by the cloacal gland of male Cynops pyrrhogaster. Other proteinaceous pheromones in salamanders have been shown to elicit responses from females towards conspecific males. The presence and levels of expression of proteinaceous pheromones have not been identified in the family Ambystomatidae, which includes several important research models. The objective of this research was therefore to identify putative proteinaceous pheromones from male axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum, as well as their relative expression levels. The results indicate that axolotls possess two different forms of sodefrin precursor-like factor (alpha and beta, as well as a putative ortholog of plethodontid modulating factor. The beta form of sodefrin precursor-like factor was amongst the most highly expressed transcripts within the cloacal gland. The ortholog of plethodontid modulating factor was expressed at a level equivalent to the beta sodefrin precursor-like factor. The results are from a single male axolotl; therefore, we are unable to assess how representative our results may be. Nevertheless, the presence of these highly expressed proteinaceous pheromones suggests that male axolotls use multiple chemical cues to attract female conspecifics. Behavioral assays would indicate whether the putative protein pheromones elicit courtship activity from female axolotls.

  18. Proteinaceous Pheromone Homologs Identified from the Cloacal Gland Transcriptome of a Male Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin W; Eisthen, Heather L; Williams, Barry L

    2016-01-01

    Pheromones play an important role in modifying vertebrate behavior, especially during courtship and mating. Courtship behavior in urodele amphibians often includes female exposure to secretions from the cloacal gland, as well as other scent glands. The first vertebrate proteinaceous pheromone discovered, the decapeptide sodefrin, is a female attracting pheromone secreted by the cloacal gland of male Cynops pyrrhogaster. Other proteinaceous pheromones in salamanders have been shown to elicit responses from females towards conspecific males. The presence and levels of expression of proteinaceous pheromones have not been identified in the family Ambystomatidae, which includes several important research models. The objective of this research was therefore to identify putative proteinaceous pheromones from male axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum, as well as their relative expression levels. The results indicate that axolotls possess two different forms of sodefrin precursor-like factor (alpha and beta), as well as a putative ortholog of plethodontid modulating factor. The beta form of sodefrin precursor-like factor was amongst the most highly expressed transcripts within the cloacal gland. The ortholog of plethodontid modulating factor was expressed at a level equivalent to the beta sodefrin precursor-like factor. The results are from a single male axolotl; therefore, we are unable to assess how representative our results may be. Nevertheless, the presence of these highly expressed proteinaceous pheromones suggests that male axolotls use multiple chemical cues to attract female conspecifics. Behavioral assays would indicate whether the putative protein pheromones elicit courtship activity from female axolotls.

  19. Structure elucidation of some insect pheromones : a contribution to the development of selective pest control agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoons, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of pheromones is one of the methods currently being investigated intensively as an alternative method of insect control. The various ways in which pheromones might be used in insect control programmes are briefly discussed in Chapter 1.

    Chapter 2 gives a detailed description of the

  20. Pheromone-mediated aggregation in nonsocial arthropods: an evolutionary ecological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, B.; van Baalen, E-J.A.; Dicke, M.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Although the use of aggregation pheromones has been reported for hundreds of nonsocial arthropod species, the evolutionary ecological aspects of this behavior have received little attention. Despite the elaborate literature on mechanisms, robust data on costs and benefits of aggregation pheromones

  1. Genetic dissection of pheromone processing reveals main olfactory system-mediated social behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuya; Asaba, Akari; Inoue, Naokazu; Kanomata, Nobuhiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko

    2015-01-20

    Most mammals have two major olfactory subsystems: the main olfactory system (MOS) and vomeronasal system (VNS). It is now widely accepted that the range of pheromones that control social behaviors are processed by both the VNS and the MOS. However, the functional contributions of each subsystem in social behavior remain unclear. To genetically dissociate the MOS and VNS functions, we established two conditional knockout mouse lines that led to either loss-of-function in the entire MOS or in the dorsal MOS. Mice with whole-MOS loss-of-function displayed severe defects in active sniffing and poor survival through the neonatal period. In contrast, when loss-of-function was confined to the dorsal MOB, sniffing behavior, pheromone recognition, and VNS activity were maintained. However, defects in a wide spectrum of social behaviors were observed: attraction to female urine and the accompanying ultrasonic vocalizations, chemoinvestigatory preference, aggression, maternal behaviors, and risk-assessment behaviors in response to an alarm pheromone. Functional dissociation of pheromone detection and pheromonal induction of behaviors showed the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON)-regulated social behaviors downstream from the MOS. Lesion analysis and neural activation mapping showed pheromonal activation in multiple amygdaloid and hypothalamic nuclei, important regions for the expression of social behavior, was dependent on MOS and AON functions. Identification of the MOS-AON-mediated pheromone pathway may provide insights into pheromone signaling in animals that do not possess a functional VNS, including humans.

  2. Identifying Possible Pheromones of Cerambycid Beetles by Field Testing Known Pheromone Components in Four Widely Separated Regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Mitchell, Robert F; Mongold-Diers, Judith A; Zou, Yunfan; Bográn, Carlos E; Fierke, Melissa K; Ginzel, Matthew D; Johnson, Crawford W; Meeker, James R; Poland, Therese M; Ragenovich, Iral; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2018-02-09

    The pheromone components of many cerambycid beetles appear to be broadly shared among related species, including species native to different regions of the world. This apparent conservation of pheromone structures within the family suggests that field trials of common pheromone components could be used as a means of attracting multiple species, which then could be targeted for full identification of their pheromones. Here, we describe the results of such field trials that were conducted in nine states in the northeastern, midwestern, southern, and western United States. Traps captured 12,742 cerambycid beetles of 153 species and subspecies. Species attracted in significant numbers to a particular treatment (some in multiple regions) included 19 species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, 15 species in the Lamiinae, one species in the Prioninae, and two species in the Spondylidinae. Pheromones or likely pheromones for many of these species, such as 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one and syn- and anti-2,3-hexanediols for cerambycine species, and fuscumol and/or fuscumol acetate for lamiine species, had already been identified. New information about attractants (in most cases likely pheromone components) was found for five cerambycine species (Ancylocera bicolor [Olivier], Elaphidion mucronatum [Say], Knulliana cincta cincta [Drury], Phymatodes aeneus LeConte, and Rusticoclytus annosus emotus [Brown]), and five lamiine species (Ecyrus dasycerus dasycerus [Say], Lepturges symmetricus [Haldeman], Sternidius misellus [LeConte], Styloleptus biustus biustus [LeConte], and Urgleptes signatus [LeConte]). Consistent attraction of some species to the same compounds in independent bioassays demonstrated the utility and reliability of pheromone-based methods for sampling cerambycid populations across broad spatial scales. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Improved synthesis of (3E,6Z,9Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene, attraction inhibitor of bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata, to pheromone traps for monitoring winter moth, Operophtera brumata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrimian, Ashot; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C; Elkinton, Joseph S

    2010-02-10

    The winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), is an early-season defoliator that attacks a wide variety of hardwoods and, in some cases, conifers. The insect is native to Europe but has become established in at least three areas of North America including southeastern New England. The female-produced sex attractant pheromone of the winter moth was identified as (3Z,6Z,9Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene (1), which also attracts a native congener, the Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata . Dissection, or (for certainty) DNA molecular testing, is required to differentiate between males of the two species. Thus, a trapping method that is selective for winter moth would be desirable. A geometric isomer of the pheromone, (3E,6Z,9Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene (2), can reportedly inhibit attraction of Bruce spanworm to traps without affecting winter moth catch, but use of the pheromone and inhibitor together has not been optimized, nor has the synthesis of the inhibitor. This paper presents two new syntheses of the inhibitor (3E,6Z,9Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene based on the intermediate (3Z,6Z)-3,6-hexadecadien-1-ol (4), which has also been utilized in the synthesis of the pheromone. The syntheses combine traditional acetylenic chemistry and Wittig olefination reactions. In one approach, 2 was synthesized in 80% purity (20% being pheromone 1), and in the second, tetraene 2 of 96% purity (and free of 1) was produced in 25% overall yield from dienol 4. The last method benefitted from a refined TEMPO-mediated PhI(OAc)(2) oxidation of 4 and a two-carbon homologation of the corresponding aldehyde 7.

  4. Jump-starting urban rat research: Conspecific pheromones recruit wild rats into a behavioral and pathogen-monitoring assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Parsons

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild rats, Rattus spp, have adapted so well to urbanization that humans may be obligatory to their survival. Consequently, rats foul human food sources, predate threatened fauna and serve as reservoirs for disease, costing the US economy $19 billion in losses year -1. Urban rat ecology however, remains vastly unexplored because these animals are cryptic, crepuscular, difficult to identify, and hazardous to handle. Additionally, the high-rise buildings that block satellite link-ups, underground sewers and subway tunnels, and rebar enforced concrete covered landscape make it difficult—if not impossible— to track urban animals using traditional radio telemetry. Consequently, there are few ecological studies with free-ranging urban rats. Therefore, we set out to monitor the behaviors and health of free-ranging rats in metropolitan New York. Recognizing that wild rats are attracted to live laboratory-reared conspecifics and that they are sensitive to pheromones, we used soiled rat bedding to repeatedly attract animals to a Remote Frequency Identification (RFID- based antenna with camera-trap and load cell (scale for collecting weights. We captured and micro-chipped 13 rats within 50, 30 and 10 m from our antenna and followed their movements. Seven of the 8 animals released within 10 m of the antenna, visited the RFID antenna lure 398 times over 41 standardized days. Males (2.7 visits day-1 visited the antenna at the same frequency as females (2.7 visits day-1; P>0.5, and both sexes spent similar time dwelling at the pheromones (M, 2.9±0.9 sec; F, 2.4.±0.4 sec; P>0.05. The passive integrated transponder (PIT-tag worked free on the lone individual that did not participate. Within our population, female activity peaked between 6am and 7pm, while males visited throughout the day. Our results demonstrate the potential to safely overcome the primary barriers that have impeded urban rat ecological studies. We used pheromone-based lures to attract

  5. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  7. Odour-mediated foraging by yellowjacket wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): predation on leks of pheromone-calling Mediterranean fruit fly males (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichs, J; Katsoyannos, B I; Wornoayporn, V; Hendrichs, M A

    1994-09-01

    Predation is probably the most important male mortality factor in insect species with courtship displays that render males performing them conspicuous targets of predators. Sexually active Mediterranean fruit fly males, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), aggregate in leks, where they participate in agonistic encounters and engage in visual, acoustic and pheromone-calling displays to attract receptive females. The objective of this study was to assess: a) whether sexually displaying C. capitata males in leks inside host and non-host foliage are subject to predation by the most prominent predators yellow-jacket wasps, Vespula germanica (F.), and if so, b) whether olfactory, visual or auditive stimuli are used by foraging wasps in locating male C. capitata prey. Studies were carried out in a citrus orchard and surroundings on the island of Chios, Greece. Observations were conducted using perforated containers hung within mulberry, fig or citrus foliage. Living C. capitata flies of different sex and either mature or immature were placed inside. Our results show that the yellowjacket wasps have learned to associate the presence of sexually active medfly males aggregated in leks with their prey's pheromone (kairomone). Foraging wasps, flying through the crowns of host trees, responded to the odour source of C. capitata male pheromone by approaching from downwind. Even inside dense citrus tree foliage, wasps keyed in on aggregations of pheromone-calling males using olfactory stimuli. Stimuli of visual and acoustic male signalling were only used at close range, after having followed the pheromone plume close to its source. Visual cues played a greater role in directing wasp foraging under more open and exposed host foliage conditions. Odour-based foraging of wasps inside host foliage in the mid-morning hours, when medfly male lekking activities peak, shifted gradually to a more visual-based host fruit patrolling in the afternoons to capture ovipositing and feeding medfly females

  8. Are queen ants inhibited by their own pheromone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holman, L.; Leroy, C.; Jørgensen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    . Communication in social insects is predominantly chemical, and the mechanisms regulating processes such as reproductive division of labor are becoming increasingly well understood. Recently, a queen cuticular hydrocarbon (3-MeC31) that inhibits worker reproduction and aggression was isolated in the ant Lasius...... niger. Here, we find that this pheromone also has a weak negative effect on queen productivity and oogenesis. Because 3-MeC31 is present on both queens and their brood, we suggest that it is used by ants of both castes to adjust their fecundity to the amount of developing brood and the presence of other...

  9. Regulation of glycoprotein synthesis in yeast by mating pheromones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, W.

    1984-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycosylated proteins amount to less than 2% of the cell protein. Two intensively studied examples of yeast glycoproteins are the external cell wall - associated invertase and the vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y. Recently, it was shown that the mating pheromone, alpha factor, specifically and strongly inhibits the synthesis of N-glycosylated proteins in haploid a cells, whereas O-glycosylated proteins are not affected. In this paper, the pathways of glycoprotein biosynthesis are summarized briefly, and evidence is presented that mating pheomones have a regulatory function in glycoprotein synthesis

  10. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  12. A Forward Genetic Screen for Molecules Involved in Pheromone-Induced Dauer Formation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Neal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals must constantly assess their surroundings and integrate sensory cues to make appropriate behavioral and developmental decisions. Pheromones produced by conspecific individuals provide critical information regarding environmental conditions. Ascaroside pheromone concentration and composition are instructive in the decision of Caenorhabditis elegans to either develop into a reproductive adult or enter into the stress-resistant alternate dauer developmental stage. Pheromones are sensed by a small set of sensory neurons, and integrated with additional environmental cues, to regulate neuroendocrine signaling and dauer formation. To identify molecules required for pheromone-induced dauer formation, we performed an unbiased forward genetic screen and identified phd (pheromone response-defective dauer mutants. Here, we describe new roles in dauer formation for previously identified neuronal molecules such as the WD40 domain protein QUI-1 and MACO-1 Macoilin, report new roles for nociceptive neurons in modulating pheromone-induced dauer formation, and identify tau tubulin kinases as new genes involved in dauer formation. Thus, phd mutants define loci required for the detection, transmission, or integration of pheromone signals in the regulation of dauer formation.

  13. Natural variation in dauer pheromone production and sensing supports intraspecific competition in nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Neelanjan; Meyer, Jan M; Yim, Joshua J; Mayer, Melanie G; Markov, Gabriel V; Ogawa, Akira; Schroeder, Frank C; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-07-07

    Dauer formation, a major nematode survival strategy, represents a model for small-molecule regulation of metazoan development [1-10]. Free-living nematodes excrete dauer-inducing pheromones that have been assumed to target conspecifics of the same genotype [9, 11]. However, recent studies in Pristionchus pacificus revealed that the dauer pheromone of some strains affects conspecifics of other genotypes more strongly than individuals of the same genotype [12]. To elucidate the mechanistic basis for this intriguing cross-preference, we compared six P. pacificus wild isolates to determine the chemical composition of their dauer-inducing metabolomes and responses to individual pheromone components. We found that these isolates produce dauer pheromone blends of different composition and respond differently to individual pheromone components. Strikingly, there is no correlation between production of and dauer response to a specific compound in individual strains. Specifically, pheromone components that are abundantly produced by one genotype induce dauer formation in other genotypes, but not necessarily in the abundant producer. Furthermore, some genotypes respond to pheromone components they do not produce themselves. These results support a model of intraspecific competition in nematode dauer formation. Indeed, we observed intraspecific competition among sympatric strains in a novel experimental assay, suggesting a new role of small molecules in nematode ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling of pheromone communication system of forest Lepidopterous insects. II. Model of female searching by male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an agent­based simulation model search. This model allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of different males­females pheromone search strategies for Lepidoptera. In the model, we consider the simplest case of the search, when the pheromone has only one chemical component. It is assumed that the insects are able to detect the pheromone molecules and the sensory cells generate action potentials in contact with the pheromone for some time. Thereafter pheromone molecule is inactivated. This behavior can be regarded as a memory of individual. Proportion of individuals who have reached the source is selected as an integral indicator of the search efficiency. To evaluate the effectiveness, numeric experiments were performed in different conditions: random walk, search algorithm without memory, and algorithm with memory and return mechanism. The resulting effectiveness of source localization by insects for flight in turbulent flows is ~ 70 %, which corresponds to experiments with live specimens in literature. In this case, proposed pheromone search algorithm is quite simple, which makes it biologically correct. Conducted modeling calculations can be the starting point for planning of field observations and pest monitoring systems using pheromone traps.

  15. Avoidance and contextual learning induced by a kairomone, a pheromone and a common odorant in female CD1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís eFortes-Marco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemosignals mediate both intra- and inter-specific communication in most mammals. Pheromones elicit stereotyped reactions in conspecifics, whereas kairomones provoke a reaction in an allospecific animal. For instance, predator kairomones elicit anticipated defensive responses in preys. The aim of this work was to test the behavioral responses of female mice to two chemosignals: 2-heptanone (2-HP, a putative alarm pheromone, and 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT, a fox-derived putative kairomone, widely used to investigate fear and anxiety in rodents. The banana-like odorant isoamyl acetate (IA, unlikely to act as a chemosignal, served as a control odorant. We first presented increasing amounts of these odorants in consecutive days, in a test box in which mice could explore or avoid them. Female mice avoided the highest amounts of all three compounds, with TMT and IA eliciting avoidance at lower amounts (3.8 pmol and 0.35 μmol, respectively than 2-HP (35 μmol. All three compounds induced minimal effects in global locomotion and immobility in this set up. Further, mice detected 3.5 pmol of TMT and IA in a habituation-dishabituation test, so avoidance of IA started well beyond the detection threshold. Finally, both TMT and IA, but not 2-HP, induced conditioned place avoidance and increased immobility in the neutral compartment during a contextual memory test. These data suggest that intense odors can induce contextual learning irrespective of their putative biological significance. Our results support that synthetic predator-related compounds (like TMT or other intense odorants are useful to investigate the neurobiological basis of emotional behaviors in rodents. Since intense odorants unlikely to act as chemosignals can elicit similar behavioral reactions than chemosignals, we stress the importance of using behavioral measures in combination with other physiological (e.g. hormonal levels or neural measures (e.g. immediate early gene expression to

  16. Avoidance and contextual learning induced by a kairomone, a pheromone and a common odorant in female CD1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Marco, Lluís; Lanuza, Enrique; Martínez-García, Fernando; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Chemosignals mediate both intra- and inter-specific communication in most mammals. Pheromones elicit stereotyped reactions in conspecifics, whereas kairomones provoke a reaction in an allospecific animal. For instance, predator kairomones elicit anticipated defensive responses in preys. The aim of this work was to test the behavioral responses of female mice to two chemosignals: 2-heptanone (2-HP), a putative alarm pheromone, and 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), a fox-derived putative kairomone, widely used to investigate fear and anxiety in rodents. The banana-like odorant isoamyl acetate (IA), unlikely to act as a chemosignal, served as a control odorant. We first presented increasing amounts of these odorants in consecutive days, in a test box in which mice could explore or avoid them. Female mice avoided the highest amounts of all three compounds, with TMT and IA eliciting avoidance at lower amounts (3.8 pmol and 0.35 μmol, respectively) than 2-HP (35 μmol). All three compounds induced minimal effects in global locomotion and immobility in this set up. Further, mice detected 3.5 pmol of TMT and IA in a habituation-dishabituation test, so avoidance of IA started well beyond the detection threshold. Finally, both TMT and IA, but not 2-HP, induced conditioned place avoidance and increased immobility in the neutral compartment during a contextual memory test. These data suggest that intense odors can induce contextual learning irrespective of their putative biological significance. Our results support that synthetic predator-related compounds (like TMT) or other intense odorants are useful to investigate the neurobiological basis of emotional behaviors in rodents. Since intense odorants unlikely to act as chemosignals can elicit similar behavioral reactions than chemosignals, we stress the importance of using behavioral measures in combination with other physiological (e.g., hormonal levels) or neural measures (e.g., immediate early gene expression) to establish

  17. Ejaculate of sneaker males is pheromonally inconspicuous in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, L; Mazzoldi, C; Rasotto, M B

    2002-11-01

    The black goby, Gobius niger, shows alternative male mating tactics, i.e., parental and sneaker males. Males release a sexual pheromone that attracts females and stimulates aggressive displays in males. This pheromone is produced by the mesorchial gland, a structure well developed in parental males but markedly undeveloped in sneakers. We measured the behavioral response of parental males to the ejaculates of males performing different reproductive tactics. Parental males reacted to the ejaculate of other parental males, with stereotypic aggressive behaviors, but not to the ejaculate of sneakers; consequently sneaker male ejaculate appears to be pheromonally inconspicuous. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The water-borne protein signals (pheromones) of the Antarctic ciliated protozoan Euplotes nobilii: structure of the gene coding for the En-6 pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Terza, Antonietta; Dobri, Nicoleta; Alimenti, Claudio; Vallesi, Adriana; Luporini, Pierangelo

    2009-01-01

    The marine Antarctic ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, secretes a family of water-borne signal proteins, denoted as pheromones, which control vegetative proliferation and mating in the cell. Based on the knowledge of the amino acid sequences of a set of these pheromones isolated from the culture supernatant of wild-type strains, we designed probes to identify their encoding genes in the cell somatic nucleus (macronucleus). The full-length gene of the pheromone En-6 was determined and found to contain an open-reading frame specific for the synthesis of the En-6 cytoplasmic precursor (pre-pro-En-6), which requires 2 proteolytic cleavages to remove the signal peptide (pre) and the prosegment before secretion of the mature protein. In contrast to the sequence variability that distinguishes the secreted pheromones, the pre- and pro-sequences appear to be tightly conserved and useful for the construction of probes to clone every other E. nobilii pheromone gene. Potential intron sequences in the coding region of the En-6 gene imply the synthesis of more En-6 isoforms.

  19. Selective breeding for increased pheromone production in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.R.; Wright, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The male boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, uses an aggregating pheromone to attract females, after which mating often occurs. Sterile boll weevil release programs depend upon this phenomenon to produce sterile matings with feral females. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the individual sterile male and thereby reduce the number of sterile males required per hectare, a selective-breeding system was used to increase the total pheromone produced by individual male boll weevils. This breeding program increased the total pheromone production by individual male boll weevils to 4.5 times that of the parent population. After irradiation-induced sterilization, there remained 2.2 times more pheromone produced by the selected strain. Therefore, these sterile weevils should be about 2.2 times more attractive to feral females than the parent weevils now in use, and they have the potential to reduce the number of sterile males required in a sterile release program

  20. Tracking of Fluid-Advected Odor Plumes: Strategies Inspired by Insect Orientation to Pheromone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Wei

    2002-01-01

    .... These strategies are inspired by the maneuvers of moths flying upwind along a pheromone plume. Although moth maneuvers are well documented, the mechanisms underlying sensory perception and navigation are not fully understood...

  1. Pheromone application in prevention and therapy of domestic animal behavioral disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review-type paper presents the latest knowledge on pheromone therapy. Pheromone therapy does not imply merely the use of structural analogues of pheromones in therapy, but also in the prevention of behavioral disorders in domestic animals. Their application is induced in all cases in which the effects of stressors are expected and their negative effect on the health condition, welfare and production results of domestic animals. Structural analogues of pheromones can successfully be applied in the prevention and therapy of behavioral disorders in horses, swine, dogs, and cats. Recent investigations have confirmed that structural analogues of semiochemicals exert a positive effect also on the production results and meat quality of broilers. They realize their therapeutic and preventive effect on the behavior of domestic animals through the stabilization of the emotional state, relaxation, and calming the animals that are disturbed, or could become disturbed due to the effect of stressors.

  2. Trail pheromone of the leaf-cutting ant,Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich), (Formicidae: Myrmicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J H; West, J R; Silverstein, R M; Jutsum, A R; Cherrett, J M

    1982-08-01

    The most active component of the trail pheromone of the leafcutting ant,Acromyrmex octospinosus, is methyl 4-methylpyrrole-2-carboxylate (I). Two pyrazine isomers (II) and (III) are present but inactive.

  3. Phylogenetic distribution of a male pheromone that may exploit a nonsexual preference in lampreys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchinger, T J; Bussy, U; Li, K; Wang, H; Huertas, M; Baker, C F; Jia, L; Hayes, M C; Li, W; Johnson, N S

    2017-12-01

    Pheromones are among the most important sexual signals used by organisms throughout the animal kingdom. However, few are identified in vertebrates, leaving the evolutionary mechanisms underlying vertebrate pheromones poorly understood. Pre-existing biases in receivers' perceptual systems shape visual and auditory signalling systems, but studies on how receiver biases influence the evolution of pheromone communication remain sparse. The lamprey Petromyzon marinus uses a relatively well-understood suite of pheromones and offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of vertebrate pheromone communication. Previous studies indicate that male signalling with the mating pheromone 3-keto petromyzonol sulphate (3kPZS) may exploit a nonsexual attraction to juvenile-released 3kPZS that guides migration into productive rearing habitat. Here, we infer the distribution of male signalling with 3kPZS using a phylogenetic comparison comprising six of 10 genera and two of three families. Our results indicate that only P. marinus and Ichthyomyzon castaneus release 3kPZS at high rates. Olfactory and behavioural assays with P. marinus, I. castaneus and a subset of three other species that do not use 3kPZS as a sexual signal indicate that male signalling might have driven the evolution of female adaptations to detect 3kPZS with specific olfactory mechanisms and respond to 3kPZS with targeted attraction relevant during mate search. We postulate that 3kPZS communication evolved independently in I. castaneus and P. marinus, but cannot eliminate the alternative that other species lost 3kPZS communication. Regardless, our results represent a rare macroevolutionary investigation of a vertebrate pheromone and provide insight into the evolutionary mechanisms underlying pheromone communication. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  5. Stage-dependent and temperature-controlled expression of the gene encoding the precursor protein of diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W H; Sato, Y; Ikeda, M; Yamashita, O

    1995-02-24

    Embryonic diapause and sex pheromone biosynthesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, are, respectively, induced by diapause hormone (DH) and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN), which are produced in the subesophageal ganglion from a common polyprotein precursor (DH-PBAN precursor) encoded by a single gene (DH-PBAN gene). Using DH-PBAN cDNA as a probe, we quantitatively measured DH-PBAN mRNA content throughout embryonic and postembryonic development and observed the effects of incubation temperature, which is a key factor for determination of diapause, on DH-PBAN gene expression. The silkworm, which is programmed to lay diapause eggs by being incubated at 25 degrees C, showed peaks of DH-PBAN mRNA content at five different stages throughout the life cycle: at the late embryonic stage, at the middle of the fourth and the fifth larval instars, and at early and late stages of pupal-adult development. In the non-diapause type silkworms programmed by a 15 degrees C incubation, only the last peak of DH-PBAN mRNA in pupal-adult development was found, and the other peaks were absent. Furthermore, interruption of the incubation period at 25 degrees C by incubation at 15 degrees C decreased both DH-PBAN mRNA content in mature embryos and in subesophageal ganglia of day 3 pupae and the incidence of diapause eggs. Thus, there were two types of regulatory mechanisms for DH-PBAN gene expression. One is a temperature-controlled expression that is responsible for diapause induction, and the other is a temperature-independent, stage-dependent expression related to pheromone production.

  6. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKobayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions. This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division, anterior lateral division and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Fos expression decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via the opioidergic pathway.

  7. Attraction Pheromone of The Benthic Diatom Seminavis robusta: Studies on Structure-Activity Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke, Christine; Stettin, Daniel; Speck, Franziska; Ueberschaar, Nico; De Decker, Sam; Vyverman, Wim; Pohnert, Georg

    2018-04-01

    Recently the first pheromone of a marine diatom was identified to be the diketopiperazine (S,S)-diproline. This compound facilitates attraction between mating partners in the benthic diatom Seminavis robusta. Interestingly, sexualized S. robusta cells are attracted to both the natural pheromone (S,S)-diproline as well as to its enantiomer (R,R)-diproline. Usually stereospecificity is a prerequisite for successful substrate-receptor interactions, and especially pheromone perception is often highly enantioselective. Here we introduce a structure-activity relationship study, to learn more about the principles of pheromone reception in diatoms. We analyzed the activity of nine different diketopiperazines in attraction and interference assays. The pheromone diproline itself, as well as a pipecolic acid derived diketopiperazine with two expanded aliphatic ring systems, showed the highest attractivity. Hydroxylatoin of the aliphatic rings abolished any bioactivity. Diketopiperazines derived from acyclic amino acids were not attrative as well. All stereoisomers of both the diproline and the pipecolic acid derived diketopiperazine were purified by enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography, and application in bioactivity tests confirmed that attraction pheromone perception in this diatom is indeed not stereospecific. However, the lack of activity of diketopiperazines derived from acyclic amino acids suggests a specificity that prevents misguidance to sources of other naturally occurring diketopiperazines.

  8. Aggressive reproductive competition among hopelessly queenless honeybee workers triggered by pheromone signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, O.; Shnieor, S.; Katzav-Gozansky, T.; Hefetz, A.

    2008-06-01

    In the honeybee, Apis mellifera, the queen monopolizes reproduction, while the sterile workers cooperate harmoniously in nest maintenance. However, under queenless (QL) conditions, cooperation collapses and reproductive competition among workers ensues. This is mediated through aggression and worker oviposition, as well as shifts in pheromones, from worker to queen-like composition. Many studies suggest a dichotomy between conflict resolution through aggression or through pheromonal signaling. In this paper, we demonstrate that both phenomena comprise essential components of reproductive competition and that pheromone signaling actually triggers the onset of aggression. We kept workers as QL groups until first aggression was observed and subsequently determined the contestants’ reproductive status and content of the mandibular (MG) and Dufour’s glands (DG). In groups in which aggression occurred early, the attacked bee had consistently more queen-like pheromone in both the MG and DG, although both contestants had undeveloped ovaries. In groups with late aggression, the attacked bee had consistently larger oocytes and more queen-like pheromone in the DG, but not the MG. We suggest that at early stages of competition, the MG secretion is utilized to establish dominance and that the DG provides an honest fertility signal. We further argue that it is the higher amount of DG pheromone that triggers aggression.

  9. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Trail Pheromone and Path Confinement on Learning of Complex Routes in the Ant Lasius niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Weichselgartner, Tobias; Bernadou, Abel; Heinze, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Route learning is key to the survival of many central place foragers, such as bees and many ants. For ants which lay pheromone trails, the presence of a trail may act as an important source of information about whether an error has been made. The presence of trail pheromone has been demonstrated to support route learning, and the effect of pheromones on route choice have been reported to persist even after the pheromones have been removed. This could be explained in two ways: the pheromone may constrain the ants onto the correct route, thus preventing errors and aiding learning. Alternatively, the pheromones may act as a 'reassurance', signalling that the learner is on the right path and that learning the path is worthwhile. Here, we disentangle pheromone presence from route confinement in order to test these hypotheses, using the ant Lasius niger as a model. Unexpectedly, we did not find any evidence that pheromones support route learning. Indeed, there was no evidence that ants confined to the correct route learned at all. Thus, while we cannot support the 'reassurance' hypothesis, we can rule out the 'confinement' hypothesis. Other findings, such as a reduction in pheromone deposition in the presence of trail pheromones, are remarkably consistent with previous experiments. As previously reported, ants which make errors on their outward journey upregulate pheromone deposition on their return. Surprisingly, ants which would go on to make an error down-regulate pheromone deposition on their outward journey, hinting at a capacity for ants to gauge the quality of their own memories.

  11. The Effect of Trail Pheromone and Path Confinement on Learning of Complex Routes in the Ant Lasius niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer J Czaczkes

    Full Text Available Route learning is key to the survival of many central place foragers, such as bees and many ants. For ants which lay pheromone trails, the presence of a trail may act as an important source of information about whether an error has been made. The presence of trail pheromone has been demonstrated to support route learning, and the effect of pheromones on route choice have been reported to persist even after the pheromones have been removed. This could be explained in two ways: the pheromone may constrain the ants onto the correct route, thus preventing errors and aiding learning. Alternatively, the pheromones may act as a 'reassurance', signalling that the learner is on the right path and that learning the path is worthwhile. Here, we disentangle pheromone presence from route confinement in order to test these hypotheses, using the ant Lasius niger as a model. Unexpectedly, we did not find any evidence that pheromones support route learning. Indeed, there was no evidence that ants confined to the correct route learned at all. Thus, while we cannot support the 'reassurance' hypothesis, we can rule out the 'confinement' hypothesis. Other findings, such as a reduction in pheromone deposition in the presence of trail pheromones, are remarkably consistent with previous experiments. As previously reported, ants which make errors on their outward journey upregulate pheromone deposition on their return. Surprisingly, ants which would go on to make an error down-regulate pheromone deposition on their outward journey, hinting at a capacity for ants to gauge the quality of their own memories.

  12. Potential Nematode Alarm Pheromone Induces Acute Avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Loeza-Cabrera, Mario; Liu, Zheng; Aleman-Meza, Boanerges; Nguyen, Julie K; Jung, Sang-Kyu; Choi, Yuna; Shou, Qingyao; Butcher, Rebecca A; Zhong, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    It is crucial for animal survival to detect dangers such as predators. A good indicator of dangers is injury of conspecifics. Here we show that fluids released from injured conspecifics invoke acute avoidance in both free-living and parasitic nematodes. Caenorhabditis elegans avoids extracts from closely related nematode species but not fruit fly larvae. The worm extracts have no impact on animal lifespan, suggesting that the worm extract may function as an alarm instead of inflicting physical harm. Avoidance of the worm extract requires the function of a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated channel TAX-2/TAX-4 in the amphid sensory neurons ASI and ASK. Genetic evidence indicates that the avoidance behavior is modulated by the neurotransmitters GABA and serotonin, two common targets of anxiolytic drugs. Together, these data support a model that nematodes use a nematode-specific alarm pheromone to detect conspecific injury. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Small-molecule pheromones and hormones controlling nematode development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Rebecca A

    2017-05-17

    The existence of small-molecule signals that influence development in Caenorhabditis elegans has been known for several decades, but only in recent years have the chemical structures of several of these signals been established. The identification of these signals has enabled connections to be made between these small molecules and fundamental signaling pathways in C. elegans that influence not only development but also metabolism, fertility, and lifespan. Spurred by these important discoveries and aided by recent advances in comparative metabolomics and NMR spectroscopy, the field of nematode chemistry has the potential to expand dramatically in the coming years. This Perspective will focus on small-molecule pheromones and hormones that influence developmental events in the nematode life cycle (ascarosides, dafachronic acids, and nemamides), will cover more recent work regarding the biosynthesis of these signals, and will explore how the discovery of these signals is transforming our understanding of nematode development and physiology.

  14. A rearrangement of the Z chromosome topology influences the sex-linked gene display in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sex determination system of Lepidoptera is comprised of heterogametic females (ZW) and homogametic males (ZZ), where voltinism (Volt) and the male pheromone response traits (Resp) are controlled by genes housed on the Z-chromosome. Volt and Resp determine traits that lead to ecotype differentia...

  15. Larval salivary glands are a source of primer and releaser pheromone in honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Yves Le; Bécard, Jean-Marc; Costagliola, Guy; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Maâtaoui, Mohamed El; Crauser, Didier; Plettner, Erika; Slessor, Keith N.

    2006-05-01

    A brood pheromone identified in honeybee larvae has primer and releaser pheromone effects on adult bees. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate fatty acid esters—the pheromonal compounds—in different parts of the larvae, we have localized the source of the esters as the larval salivary glands. A histochemical study describes the glands and confirms the presence of lipids in the glands. Epithelial cells of the gland likely secrete the fatty acids into the lumen of the gland. These results demonstrate the salivary glands to be a reservoir of esters, components of brood pheromone, in honeybee larvae.

  16. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex headaches Overview Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice a dull ache in your head ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  17. Sex-specific trail pheromone mediates complex mate finding behavior in Anoplophora glabripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Melody Keena; Maya Nehme; Shifa Wang; Peter Meng; Aijun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) is a polyphagous member of the Cerambycidae, and is considered, worldwide, to be one of the most serious quarantine pests of deciduous trees. We isolated four chemicals from the trail of A. glabripennis virgin and mated females that were not present in trails of mature males. These compounds were...

  18. A weevil sex pheromone serves as an attractant for its entomopathogenic nematode predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaprepes abbreviatus is an invasive pest of citrus in the United States originating from the Caribbean. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are used as biological control agents in the citrus agroecosystems against D. abbreviatus. EPNs respond to herbivore-induced volatiles from citrus roots to assis...

  19. Combined Action of Sex Pheromone and Wasp Apanteles gelechiidivoris in Greenhouse Tomato Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Andrea Morales

    2014-05-01

    una planta cada 2 m. En cada planta se tomó una hoja por estrato, semanalmente se registró el número de larvas totales, de tercer instar y parasitadas, y número de adultos capturados por trampa. El máximo parasitismo en la población de larvas susceptibles fue del 86,38 % y de la población de larvas totales 68,75 %. Se encontró que la acción combinada presenta una mayor efectividad y permanencia a través del tiempo para el control de larvas de T. absoluta.

  20. Quantitative trait locus analysis of mating behavior and male sex pheromones in Nasonia wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Wenwen; Mousset, Mathilde; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Vermeulen, Cornelis J.; Johannes, Frank; van de Zande, Louis; Ritchie, Michael G.; Schmitt, Thomas; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation.

  1. Monitoring oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with sticky traps baited with terpinyl acetate and sex pheromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies in Argentina and Chile during 2010-11 evaluated a new trap (Ajar) for monitoring the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The Ajar trap was delta-shaped with a jar filled with a terpinyl acetate plus brown sugar bait attached to the bottom center of the trap. The screened lid of ...

  2. Sex Pheromone of Conophthorus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in a Coastal Stand of Western White Pine (Pinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Harold D. Pierce; Peter de Groot; Nicole Jeans-Williams; Robb Bennett; John H. Borden

    2000-01-01

    An isolated stand of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don, on Texada Island (49°40'N, 124°10'W), British Columbia, is extremely valuable as a seed-production area for progeny resistant to white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch. (Cronartiaceae). During the past 5 years, cone beetles, ...

  3. Sex-pairing pheromones and reproductive isolation in three sympatric Cornitermes species (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bordereau, Ch.; Cancello, E. M.; Sillam-Dusses, David; Sémon, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2011), s. 469-474 ISSN 0022-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : species recognition * (E)-Nerolidol * (3Z,6Z,8E)-Dodeca-3,6,8-trien-1-ol * (Z)-Dodec-3-en-1-ol Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.236, year: 2011

  4. Functional role of STIM1 and Orai1 in silkmoth (Bombyx mori) sex pheromone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Store-operated Ca2+ influx has recently been shown to require the activation of two proteins, stromal interaction molecule 1(STIM1) and Orai1. In mammals the putative channel ion selectivity filter is thought to comprise conserved charged residues in the first and third transmembrane domains of Ora...

  5. Putative sex pheromone of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, breaks down into an attractant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Odimar Z; Volpe, Haroldo X L; Favaris, Arodi P; Silva, Weliton D; Luvizotto, Rejane A G; Magnani, Rodrigo F; Esperança, Victoria; Delfino, Jennifer Y; de Freitas, Renato; Miranda, Marcelo P; Parra, José Roberto P; Bento, José Mauricio S; Leal, Walter S

    2018-01-11

    Under laboratory conditions, mating activity in Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) started 4 days after emergence, peaked at day 7, and showed a clear window of activity starting 8 h into the photophase and extending through the first hour of the scotophase. We confirmed that ACP males are attracted to emanations from conspecific females. Traps loaded with a candidate compound enriched with female extract, lignoceryl acetate (24Ac), at various doses were active only after being deployed for several weeks in the field, suggesting that a degradation product, not the test compound, was the active ingredient(s). Lignocerol, a possible product of 24Ac degradation, was not active, whereas acetic acid, another possible degradation product, was found in the airborne volatile collections from lures matured under field conditions and detected in higher amounts in volatiles collected from females at the peak of mating activity than in male samples. Acetic acid elicited dose-dependent electroantennographic responses and attracted ACP males, but not females, in Y-type and 4-way olfactometers. Field tests showed that acetic acid-baited traps captured significantly more males than control traps. Surprisingly, captures of females in acetic acid-baited traps were also higher than in control traps, possibly because of physical stimuli emitted by captured males.

  6. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  7. The antibacterial protein lysozyme identified as the termite egg recognition pheromone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Matsuura

    Full Text Available Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus 'termite-ball' and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP, which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence

  8. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  9. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  10. Sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    West, Stuart A; Reece, S E; Sheldon, Ben C

    2002-01-01

    Sex ratio theory attempts to explain variation at all levels (species, population, individual, brood) in the proportion of offspring that are male (the sex ratio). In many cases this work has been extremely successful, providing qualitative and even quantitative explanations of sex ratio variation. However, this is not always the situation, and one of the greatest remaining problems is explaining broad taxonomic patterns. Specifically, why do different organisms show so ...

  11. Blends of Pheromones, With and Without Host Plant Volatiles, Can Attract Multiple Species of Cerambycid Beetles Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.M. Hanks; J.A. Mongold-Diers; T.H. Atkinson; M.K. Fierke; M.D. Ginzel; E.E. Graham; T.M. Poland; A.B. Richards; M.L. Richardson; J.G. Millar

    2018-01-01

    Pheromone components of cerambycid beetles are often conserved, with a given compound serving as a pheromone component for multiple related species, including species native to different continents. Consequently, a single synthesized compound may attract multiple species to a trap simultaneously. Furthermore, our previous research in east-central Illinois had...

  12. Mimicking Insect Communication: Release and Detection of Pheromone, Biosynthesized by an Alcohol Acetyl Transferase Immobilized in a Microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz, L.; Dimov, N.G.; Carot-Sans, G.; Bula, W.P.; Guerrero, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Infochemical production, release and detection of (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate, the major component of the pheromone of the moth Spodoptera littoralis, is achieved in a novel microfluidic system designed to mimic the final step of the pheromone biosynthesis by immobilized recombinant alcohol

  13. Intra-annual variation in responses by flying southern pine beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to pheromone component endo-brevicomin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Cavell Brownie; JoAnne P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endobrevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component...

  14. Spatial displacement of release point can enhance activity of an attractant pheromone synergist of a bark beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Sullivan; Kenji Mori

    2009-01-01

    Flight responses of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to widely-spaced (>130 m) traps baited with pine volatiles (in turpentine) and the female-produced pheromone component frontalin were enhanced when a bait containing the male pheromone component (+)-endo-brevicomin was attached...

  15. Gβ promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Amber; Tian, Wei; Waszczak, Nicholas; Wang, Xin; Cao, Youfang; Suchkov, Dmitry; Bar, Eli; Metodiev, Metodi V; Liang, Jie; Arkowitz, Robert A; Stone, David E

    2016-04-12

    Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are processes that are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptors on the plasma membrane polarize to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus. Although receptor polarization occurs before and independently of actin cable-dependent delivery of vesicles to the plasma membrane (directed secretion), it requires receptor internalization. Phosphorylation of pheromone receptors by yeast casein kinase 1 or 2 (Yck1/2) stimulates their internalization. We showed that the pheromone-responsive Gβγ dimer promotes the polarization of the pheromone receptor by interacting with Yck1/2 and locally inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. We also found that receptor phosphorylation is essential for chemotropism, independently of its role in inducing receptor internalization. A mathematical model supports the idea that the interaction between Gβγ and Yck1/2 results in differential phosphorylation and internalization of the pheromone receptor and accounts for its polarization before the initiation of directed secretion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Multiphasic on/off pheromone signalling in moths as neural correlates of a search strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Martinez

    Full Text Available Insects and robots searching for odour sources in turbulent plumes face the same problem: the random nature of mixing causes fluctuations and intermittency in perception. Pheromone-tracking male moths appear to deal with discontinuous flows of information by surging upwind, upon sensing a pheromone patch, and casting crosswind, upon losing the plume. Using a combination of neurophysiological recordings, computational modelling and experiments with a cyborg, we propose a neuronal mechanism that promotes a behavioural switch between surge and casting. We show how multiphasic On/Off pheromone-sensitive neurons may guide action selection based on signalling presence or loss of the pheromone. A Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron model with a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK channel reproduces physiological On/Off responses. Using this model as a command neuron and the antennae of tethered moths as pheromone sensors, we demonstrate the efficiency of multiphasic patterning in driving a robotic searcher toward the source. Taken together, our results suggest that multiphasic On/Off responses may mediate olfactory navigation and that SK channels may account for these responses.

  17. Multiphasic on/off pheromone signalling in moths as neural correlates of a search strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Dominique; Chaffiol, Antoine; Voges, Nicole; Gu, Yuqiao; Anton, Sylvia; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lucas, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Insects and robots searching for odour sources in turbulent plumes face the same problem: the random nature of mixing causes fluctuations and intermittency in perception. Pheromone-tracking male moths appear to deal with discontinuous flows of information by surging upwind, upon sensing a pheromone patch, and casting crosswind, upon losing the plume. Using a combination of neurophysiological recordings, computational modelling and experiments with a cyborg, we propose a neuronal mechanism that promotes a behavioural switch between surge and casting. We show how multiphasic On/Off pheromone-sensitive neurons may guide action selection based on signalling presence or loss of the pheromone. A Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron model with a small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channel reproduces physiological On/Off responses. Using this model as a command neuron and the antennae of tethered moths as pheromone sensors, we demonstrate the efficiency of multiphasic patterning in driving a robotic searcher toward the source. Taken together, our results suggest that multiphasic On/Off responses may mediate olfactory navigation and that SK channels may account for these responses.

  18. Mixtures of Two Bile Alcohol Sulfates Function as a Proximity Pheromone in Sea Lamprey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory O Brant

    Full Text Available Unique mixtures of pheromone components are commonly identified in insects, and have been shown to increase attractiveness towards conspecifics when reconstructed at the natural ratio released by the signaler. In previous field studies of pheromones that attract female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, L., putative components of the male-released mating pheromone included the newly described bile alcohol 3,12-diketo-4,6-petromyzonene-24-sulfate (DkPES and the well characterized 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3kPZS. Here, we show chemical evidence that unequivocally confirms the elucidated structure of DkPES, electrophysiological evidence that each component is independently detected by the olfactory epithelium, and behavioral evidence that mature female sea lamprey prefer artificial nests activated with a mixture that reconstructs the male-released component ratio of 30:1 (3kPZS:DkPES, molar:molar. In addition, we characterize search behavior (sinuosity of swim paths of females approaching ratio treatment sources. These results suggest unique pheromone ratios may underlie reproductive isolating mechanisms in vertebrates, as well as provide utility in pheromone-integrated control of invasive sea lamprey in the Great Lakes.

  19. Age-related and Individual Variation in Male Piezodorus hybneri (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Pheromones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Endo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of the Piezodorus hybneri stink bug produce a pheromone comprising β-sesquiphellandrene (Sesq, (R-15-hexadecanolide (R15, and methyl (Z-8-hexadecenoate (Z8. We collected airborne volatiles from individual P. hybneri males and analyzed them by GC-MS. Daily analysis from 1 to 16 days after adult emergence showed that pheromone emission started around 3 to 6 days after adult emergence and peaked (~1 μg/male/day on day 11. The proportion of Sesq tended to increase with age to about 80% on days 12 to 16. On the other hand, the proportion of R15 tended to decrease with age. The proportion of Z8 reached a maximum of about 34% on day 9 but otherwise remained below 20%. The total amount of pheromone emitted by individual males varied considerably: three males emitted more than 10 μg, whereas another three males emitted little or no pheromone and failed to survive by the end of the experiment. These results suggest that the amount of P. hybneri pheromone and its blend ratio could be affected by the male’s physical conditions, such as vitality and age.

  20. Case Study: Trap Crop with Pheromone Traps for Suppressing Euschistus servus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say, can disperse from source habitats, including corn, Zea mays L., and peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., into cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Therefore, a 2-year on-farm experiment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench spp. bicolor trap crop, with or without Euschistus spp. pheromone traps, to suppress dispersal of this pest to cotton. In 2004, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops (with or without pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Similarly, in 2006, density of E. servus was lower in cotton fields with sorghum trap crops and pheromone traps compared to control cotton fields. Thus, the combination of the sorghum trap crop and pheromone traps effectively suppressed dispersal of E. servus into cotton. Inclusion of pheromone traps with trap crops potentially offers additional benefits, including: (1 reducing the density of E. servus adults in a trap crop, especially females, to possibly decrease the local population over time and reduce the overwintering population, (2 reducing dispersal of E. servus adults from the trap crop into cotton, and (3 potentially attracting more dispersing E. servus adults into a trap crop during a period of time when preferred food is not prevalent in the landscape.

  1. Multimodal stimulation of Colorado potato beetle reveals modulation of pheromone response by yellow light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available Orientation of insects to host plants and conspecifics is the result of detection and integration of chemical and physical cues present in the environment. Sensory organs have evolved to be sensitive to important signals, providing neural input for higher order multimodal processing and behavioral output. Here we report experiments to determine decisions made by Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in response to isolated stimuli and multimodal combinations of signals on a locomotion compensator. Our results show that in complete darkness and in the absence of other stimuli, pheromonal stimulation increases attraction behavior of CPB as measured in oriented displacement and walking speed. However, orientation to the pheromone is abolished when presented with the alternative stimulation of a low intensity yellow light in a dark environment. The ability of the pheromone to stimulate these diurnal beetles in the dark in the absence of other stimuli is an unexpected but interesting observation. The predominance of the phototactic response over that to pheromone when low intensity lights were offered as choices seems to confirm the diurnal nature of the insect. The biological significance of the response to pheromone in the dark is unclear. The phototactic response will play a key role in elucidating multimodal stimulation in the host-finding process of CPB, and perhaps other insects. Such information might be exploited in the design of applications to attract and trap CPB for survey or control purposes and other insect pests using similar orientation mechanisms.

  2. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  3. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  4. Technical Assessment: Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pfizer, Bausch & Lomb, Coca - Cola , and other Fortune 500 companies 8 Data estimated by the... financial prize for ideas to drive forward the production of a sensor relying on synthetic organisms that can detect exposure to 500 specific chemicals

  5. The distribution of weaver ant pheromones on host trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The visible anal spots deposited by Oecophylla smaragdina ants have been suggested to deter ant prey, affect interspecific competition and facilitate mutualists and parasites in tracking down Oecophylla ants. I measured the density of anal spots on host trees with and without ants and tested for ...... to leaves. Also there was a positive correlation between spot density and the likelihood of being detected by ants. Anal spots may thus function as reliable cues to interacting species and be an important factor in shaping the community around Oecophylla colonies.......The visible anal spots deposited by Oecophylla smaragdina ants have been suggested to deter ant prey, affect interspecific competition and facilitate mutualists and parasites in tracking down Oecophylla ants. I measured the density of anal spots on host trees with and without ants and tested...... for correlations between spot density, ant activity and the likelihood of being detected by an ant. Spots were only found on trees with ants. On ant-trees, spots were distributed throughout the trees but with higher densities in areas with high ant activity and pheromone densities were higher on twigs compared...

  6. Olfaction and Pheromones: Uncanonical Sensory Influences and Bulbar Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Vargas-Barroso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rodent main and accessory olfactory systems (AOS are considered functionally and anatomically segregated information-processing pathways. Each system is devoted to the detection of volatile odorants and pheromones, respectively. However, a growing number of evidences supports a cooperative interaction between them. For instance, at least four non-canonical receptor families (i.e., different from olfactory and vomeronasal receptor families have been recently discovered. These atypical receptor families are expressed in the sensory organs of the nasal cavity and furnish parallel processing-pathways that detect specific stimuli and mediate specific behaviors as well. Aside from the receptor and functional diversity of these sensory modalities, they converge into a poorly understood bulbar area at the intersection of the main- main olfactory bulb (MOB and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB that has been termed olfactory limbus (OL. Given the intimate association the OL with specialized glomeruli (i.e., necklace and modified glomeruli receiving uncanonical sensory afferences and its interactions with the MOB and AOB, the possibility that OL is a site of non-olfactory and atypical vomeronasal sensory decoding is discussed.

  7. Creating Sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Laqueur’s influential yet controversial study Making Sex has, in many ways, revolutionized our understanding of sexuality in antiquity. Yet, most of Laqueur’s critics and supporters stressed the one-sex body, while the crux of his argument is the primacy of gender. Moreover, a systematic...

  8. Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sex-determining system differs considerably among organisms. Even among insect species, the genetic system for sex-determination is highly diversified. In Drosophila melanogaster, somatic sexual differentiation is regulated by a well characterized genetic hierarchy X : A > Sxl > tra/tra2 > dsx and fru. This cascade ...

  9. Food collection and response to pheromones in an ant species exposed to electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Rachidi, Zoheir; Bellens, François; De Doncker, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology.

  10. Genome-wide identification of pheromone-targeted transcrption in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue-Franzen, Y.; Kjærulff, S.; Holmberg, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background Fission yeast cells undergo sexual differentiation in response to nitrogen starvation. In this process haploid M and P cells first mate to form diploid zygotes, which then enter meiosis and sporulate. Prior to mating, M and P cells communicate with diffusible mating pheromones that act......Background Fission yeast cells undergo sexual differentiation in response to nitrogen starvation. In this process haploid M and P cells first mate to form diploid zygotes, which then enter meiosis and sporulate. Prior to mating, M and P cells communicate with diffusible mating pheromones...... transcription factor is responsible for the majority of pheromone-induced transcription. Finally, most cell-type specific genes now appear to be identified in fission yeast....

  11. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Chang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3 have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG, and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp and a metalloprotease (eep, supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1. These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide

  12. The mating type locus (MAT and sexual reproduction of Cryptococcus heveanensis: insights into the evolution of sex and sex-determining chromosomal regions in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Metin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mating in basidiomycetous fungi is often controlled by two unlinked, multiallelic loci encoding homeodomain transcription factors or pheromones/pheromone receptors. In contrast to this tetrapolar organization, Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii have a bipolar mating system, and a single biallelic locus governs sexual reproduction. The C. neoformans MAT locus is unusually large (>100 kb, contains >20 genes, and enhances virulence. Previous comparative genomic studies provided insights into how this unusual MAT locus might have evolved involving gene acquisitions into two unlinked loci and fusion into one contiguous locus, converting an ancestral tetrapolar system to a bipolar one. Here we tested this model by studying Cryptococcus heveanensis, a sister species to the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex. An extant sexual cycle was discovered; co-incubating fertile isolates results in the teleomorph (Kwoniella heveanensis with dikaryotic hyphae, clamp connections, septate basidia, and basidiospores. To characterize the C. heveanensis MAT locus, a fosmid library was screened with C. neoformans/C. gattii MAT genes. Positive fosmids were sequenced and assembled to generate two large probably unlinked MAT gene clusters: one corresponding to the homeodomain locus and the other to the pheromone/receptor locus. Strikingly, two divergent homeodomain genes (SXI1, SXI2 are present, similar to the bE/bW Ustilago maydis paradigm, suggesting one or the other homeodomain gene was recently lost in C. neoformans/C. gattii. Sequencing MAT genes from other C. heveanensis isolates revealed a multiallelic homeodomain locus and at least a biallelic pheromone/receptor locus, similar to known tetrapolar species. Taken together, these studies reveal an extant C. heveanensis sexual cycle, define the structure of its MAT locus consistent with tetrapolar mating, and support the proposed evolutionary model for the bipolar Cryptococcus MAT locus revealing

  13. Aphrodisiac Pheromone and its role in mating behaviour of Gamma irradiated SPODOPTERA LITTORALIS (BOISD.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALM EL-DIN, M.M.S.; HAZAA, M.A.M.; EL-SHALL, S.S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The aphrodisiac pheromone in male moth of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, is secreted from a scent gland that lies in the fore wings and hair pencils. The damage of the gland by gamma irradiation or elimination of the fore wings reduced mating percentage and the other related mating aspects. Multiple mating seldom was occurred in the eliminated wing males and this mean that the wing gland was effective in mating behaviour. The knowledge on pheromone glands and their role in mating behaviour have been appeared to be essential in the integrated control programmes

  14. Evidence of an aggregation pheromone in the flea beetle,Phyllotreta Cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C; Weiss, M J

    1992-06-01

    Laboratory olfactometer bioassays and field trapping experiments showed that the flea beetle,Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), was highly attracted by oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) when flea beetles were on the plant. This attraction was mediated by a flea beetle-produced aggregation pheromone based upon: (1) Oilseed rape damaged mechanically, or byP. cruciferae, or by diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.), did not attractP. cruciferae. (2) Contact with the plants or feeding was required for the production of aggregation pheromone because oilseed rape alone was not attractive when separated from flea beetles by a screen. (3) Equal numbers of males and females were attracted.

  15. A synergistic aggregation pheromone component in the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus Germar 1824 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, H; Mori, K; Nakayama, T; Jaffe, K

    1998-01-01

    Cosmopolites sordidus is an important pest on banana plantations worldwide. The chemistry of the aggregation pheromone of this insect has been recently resolved and here we present the first evidence from field trails that sordidin, a compound from the male released aggregation pheromone, attracts significant number of weevils only if host plant odors are also present. Sordidin attracts few insects when it is presented without the host plant tissue. However, the attractiveness of host plant tissue increases more than tenfold when it is presented simultaneously with sordidin in field traps. We confirm experimentally that sordidin may be used as part of a system for mass trapping and monitoring this insect.

  16. Male scent-marking pheromone of Bombus ardens ardens (Hymenoptera; Apidae) attracts both conspecific queens and males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Ryohei; Harano, Ken-ichi; Ono, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To explore the role of the volatiles emitted from male labial gland (LG) of the bumblebee Bombus ardens ardens, we investigated the responses of virgin queens and males to volatiles using a gas chromatography-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) system and Y-tube olfactometer. GC-EAD analysis revealed that citronellol, the main compound detected in the male LG, caused clear electrophysiological responses in the antennae of B. a. ardens virgin queens and males although two minor compounds elicited antennal responses when applied in a high concentration. Behavioral tests using a Y-tube olfactometer showed that queens and males were significantly attracted to both LG extracts and citronellol more than to the solvent alone. This is the first study to demonstrate that citronellol as a major compound of male scent-marking pheromone in B. a. ardens functions as a sex attractant for queens. The results also suggest that this compound has another function as a trail marker used by males.

  17. Sex pheromones and trail-following pheromone in the basal termites Zootermopsis nevadensis (Hagen) and Z. angusticollis (Hagen) (Isoptera: Termopsidae: Termopsinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bordereau, Ch.; Lacey, M. J.; Sémon, E.; Braekman, J. C.; Ghostin, J.; Robert, A.; Shellman Sherman, J.; Sillam-Dusses, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 3 (2010), s. 519-530 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : chemical communication * dampwood termite * dimethyldodecanal * phylogeny * solid phase microextraction Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.166, year: 2010

  18. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  19. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  20. Primer and short-range releaser pheromone properties of premolt female urine from the shore crab Carcinus maenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerholm, Mattias; Hallberg, Eric

    2005-08-01

    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas is considered to rely on a female pheromone when mating. Evidence, however, is scarce on how the urine pheromone in itself affects males. We investigated male primer and releaser responses to female pheromones with methods that minimized effects from females, delivering female urine either as a pump-generated plume or deposited on a polyurethane sponge. We delivered the pheromone at different concentrations in far, near, and close/contact range to get a picture of how distance affects behavioral response. Our results show that substances in premolt female urine (PMU) function as primer and potent short-range releaser pheromones. Based on the olfactometer and sponge tests, we conclude that PMU stimulus in itself is sufficient to elicit increased search and mating-specific behaviors such as posing, posing search, cradle carrying, and stroking. Pheromone concentrations do not seem to be important for attenuating search and posing as long as the level is above a certain threshold concentration. Instead, pheromone levels seem to play a role in male acceptance of females, recruiting more males to respond, and generating better responses with increasing concentration.