WorldWideScience

Sample records for synthetic lethality networks

  1. Genetic interaction motif finding by expectation maximization – a novel statistical model for inferring gene modules from synthetic lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ping

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic lethality experiments identify pairs of genes with complementary function. More direct functional associations (for example greater probability of membership in a single protein complex may be inferred between genes that share synthetic lethal interaction partners than genes that are directly synthetic lethal. Probabilistic algorithms that identify gene modules based on motif discovery are highly appropriate for the analysis of synthetic lethal genetic interaction data and have great potential in integrative analysis of heterogeneous datasets. Results We have developed Genetic Interaction Motif Finding (GIMF, an algorithm for unsupervised motif discovery from synthetic lethal interaction data. Interaction motifs are characterized by position weight matrices and optimized through expectation maximization. Given a seed gene, GIMF performs a nonlinear transform on the input genetic interaction data and automatically assigns genes to the motif or non-motif category. We demonstrate the capacity to extract known and novel pathways for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast. Annotations suggested for several uncharacterized genes are supported by recent experimental evidence. GIMF is efficient in computation, requires no training and automatically down-weights promiscuous genes with high degrees. Conclusion GIMF effectively identifies pathways from synthetic lethality data with several unique features. It is mostly suitable for building gene modules around seed genes. Optimal choice of one single model parameter allows construction of gene networks with different levels of confidence. The impact of hub genes the generic probabilistic framework of GIMF may be used to group other types of biological entities such as proteins based on stochastic motifs. Analysis of the strongest motifs discovered by the algorithm indicates that synthetic lethal interactions are depleted between genes within a motif, suggesting that synthetic

  2. Annotating novel genes by integrating synthetic lethals and genomic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faty Mahamadou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large scale screening for synthetic lethality serves as a common tool in yeast genetics to systematically search for genes that play a role in specific biological processes. Often the amounts of data resulting from a single large scale screen far exceed the capacities of experimental characterization of every identified target. Thus, there is need for computational tools that select promising candidate genes in order to reduce the number of follow-up experiments to a manageable size. Results We analyze synthetic lethality data for arp1 and jnm1, two spindle migration genes, in order to identify novel members in this process. To this end, we use an unsupervised statistical method that integrates additional information from biological data sources, such as gene expression, phenotypic profiling, RNA degradation and sequence similarity. Different from existing methods that require large amounts of synthetic lethal data, our method merely relies on synthetic lethality information from two single screens. Using a Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Model, we determine the best subset of features that assign the target genes to two groups. The approach identifies a small group of genes as candidates involved in spindle migration. Experimental testing confirms the majority of our candidates and we present she1 (YBL031W as a novel gene involved in spindle migration. We applied the statistical methodology also to TOR2 signaling as another example. Conclusion We demonstrate the general use of Multivariate Gaussian Mixture Modeling for selecting candidate genes for experimental characterization from synthetic lethality data sets. For the given example, integration of different data sources contributes to the identification of genetic interaction partners of arp1 and jnm1 that play a role in the same biological process.

  3. Synthetic Lethal Therapeutic Approaches for ARID1A-Mutated Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0496 TITLE: Synthetic lethal therapeutic approaches for ARID1A-mutated ovarian cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rugang...AND SUBTITLE Synthetic lethal therapeutic approaches for ARID1A-mutated ovarian cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0496 5c...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death among gynecological

  4. The population genetics of X-autosome synthetic lethals and steriles.

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    Lachance, Joseph; Johnson, Norman A; True, John R

    2011-11-01

    Epistatic interactions are widespread, and many of these interactions involve combinations of alleles at different loci that are deleterious when present in the same individual. The average genetic environment of sex-linked genes differs from that of autosomal genes, suggesting that the population genetics of interacting X-linked and autosomal alleles may be complex. Using both analytical theory and computer simulations, we analyzed the evolutionary trajectories and mutation-selection balance conditions for X-autosome synthetic lethals and steriles. Allele frequencies follow a set of fundamental trajectories, and incompatible alleles are able to segregate at much higher frequencies than single-locus expectations. Equilibria exist, and they can involve fixation of either autosomal or X-linked alleles. The exact equilibrium depends on whether synthetic alleles are dominant or recessive and whether fitness effects are seen in males, females, or both sexes. When single-locus fitness effects and synthetic incompatibilities are both present, population dynamics depend on the dominance of alleles and historical contingency (i.e., whether X-linked or autosomal mutations occur first). Recessive synthetic lethality can result in high-frequency X-linked alleles, and dominant synthetic lethality can result in high-frequency autosomal alleles. Many X-autosome incompatibilities in natural populations may be cryptic, appearing to be single-locus effects because one locus is fixed. We also discuss the implications of these findings with respect to standing genetic variation and the origins of Haldane's rule.

  5. Synthetic dosage lethality in the human metabolic network is highly predictive of tumor growth and cancer patient survival.

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    Megchelenbrink, Wout; Katzir, Rotem; Lu, Xiaowen; Ruppin, Eytan; Notebaart, Richard A

    2015-09-29

    Synthetic dosage lethality (SDL) denotes a genetic interaction between two genes whereby the underexpression of gene A combined with the overexpression of gene B is lethal. SDLs offer a promising way to kill cancer cells by inhibiting the activity of SDL partners of activated oncogenes in tumors, which are often difficult to target directly. As experimental genome-wide SDL screens are still scarce, here we introduce a network-level computational modeling framework that quantitatively predicts human SDLs in metabolism. For each enzyme pair (A, B) we systematically knock out the flux through A combined with a stepwise flux increase through B and search for pairs that reduce cellular growth more than when either enzyme is perturbed individually. The predictive signal of the emerging network of 12,000 SDLs is demonstrated in five different ways. (i) It can be successfully used to predict gene essentiality in shRNA cancer cell line screens. Moving to clinical tumors, we show that (ii) SDLs are significantly underrepresented in tumors. Furthermore, breast cancer tumors with SDLs active (iii) have smaller sizes and (iv) result in increased patient survival, indicating that activation of SDLs increases cancer vulnerability. Finally, (v) patient survival improves when multiple SDLs are present, pointing to a cumulative effect. This study lays the basis for quantitative identification of cancer SDLs in a model-based mechanistic manner. The approach presented can be used to identify SDLs in species and cell types in which "omics" data necessary for data-driven identification are missing.

  6. Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery Using Synthetic Lethal Chemogenetic (SLC) Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellows, David S

    2004-01-01

    I am developing a novel cell-based small-molecule screening approach that can identify inhibitors of any non-essential protein function through a surrogate synthetic lethal phenotype in the baker's...

  7. Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery Using Synthetic Lethal Chemogenetic (SLC) Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bellows, David S

    2006-01-01

    I am developing a novel cell-based small-molecule screening approach that can identify inhibitors of any non-essential protein function through a surrogate synthetic lethal phenotype in the baker's...

  8. Inactivation of CDK2 is synthetically lethal to MYCN over-expressing cancer cells

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    Molenaar, Jan J.; Ebus, Marli E.; Geerts, Dirk; Koster, Jan; Lamers, Fieke; Valentijn, Linda J.; Westerhout, Ellen M.; Versteeg, Rogier; Caron, Huib N.

    2009-01-01

    Two genes have a synthetically lethal relationship when the silencing or inhibiting of 1 gene is only lethal in the context of a mutation or activation of the second gene. This situation offers an attractive therapeutic strategy, as inhibition of such a gene will only trigger cell death in tumor cells with an activated second oncogene but spare normal cells without activation of the second oncogene. Here we present evidence that CDK2 is synthetically lethal to neuroblastoma cells with MYCN amplification and over-expression. Neuroblastomas are childhood tumors with an often lethal outcome. Twenty percent of the tumors have MYCN amplification, and these tumors are ultimately refractory to any therapy. Targeted silencing of CDK2 by 3 RNA interference techniques induced apoptosis in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines, but not in MYCN single copy cells. Silencing of MYCN abrogated this apoptotic response in MYCN-amplified cells. Inversely, silencing of CDK2 in MYCN single copy cells did not trigger apoptosis, unless a MYCN transgene was activated. The MYCN induced apoptosis after CDK2 silencing was accompanied by nuclear stabilization of P53, and mRNA profiling showed up-regulation of P53 target genes. Silencing of P53 rescued the cells from MYCN-driven apoptosis. The synthetic lethality of CDK2 silencing in MYCN activated neuroblastoma cells can also be triggered by inhibition of CDK2 with a small molecule drug. Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with roscovitine, a CDK inhibitor, at clinically achievable concentrations induced MYCN-dependent apoptosis. The synthetically lethal relationship between CDK2 and MYCN indicates CDK2 inhibitors as potential MYCN-selective cancer therapeutics. PMID:19525400

  9. Metformin is synthetically lethal with glucose withdrawal in cancer cells.

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    Menendez, Javier A; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Cufí, Sílvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Joven, Jorge; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro

    2012-08-01

    Glucose deprivation is a distinctive feature of the tumor microecosystem caused by the imbalance between poor supply and an extraordinarily high consumption rate. The metabolic reprogramming from mitochondrial respiration to aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells (the "Warburg effect") is linked to oncogenic transformation in a manner that frequently implies the inactivation of metabolic checkpoints such as the energy rheostat AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Because the concept of synthetic lethality in oncology can be applied not only to genetic and epigenetic intrinsic differences between normal and cancer cells but also to extrinsic ones such as altered microenvironment, we recently hypothesized that stress-energy mimickers such as the AMPK agonist metformin should produce metabolic synthetic lethality in a glucose-starved cell culture milieu imitating the adverse tumor growth conditions in vivo. Under standard high-glucose conditions, metformin supplementation mostly caused cell cycle arrest without signs of apoptotic cell death. Under glucose withdrawal stress, metformin supplementation circumvented the ability of oncogenes (e.g., HER2) to protect breast cancer cells from glucose-deprivation apoptosis. Significantly, representative cell models of breast cancer heterogeneity underwent massive apoptosis (by >90% in some cases) when glucose-starved cell cultures were supplemented with metformin. Our current findings may uncover crucial issues regarding the cell-autonomous metformin's anti-cancer actions: (1) The offently claimed clinically irrelevant, non-physiological concentrations needed to observe the metformin's anti-cancer effects in vitro merely underlie the artifactual interference of erroneous glucose-rich experimental conditions that poorly reflect glucose-starved in vivo conditions; (2) the preferential killing of cancer stem cells (CSC) by metformin may simply expose the best-case scenario for its synthetically lethal activity because an increased

  10. Human synthetic lethal inference as potential anti-cancer target gene detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solé Ricard V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two genes are called synthetic lethal (SL if mutation of either alone is not lethal, but mutation of both leads to death or a significant decrease in organism's fitness. The detection of SL gene pairs constitutes a promising alternative for anti-cancer therapy. As cancer cells exhibit a large number of mutations, the identification of these mutated genes' SL partners may provide specific anti-cancer drug candidates, with minor perturbations to the healthy cells. Since existent SL data is mainly restricted to yeast screenings, the road towards human SL candidates is limited to inference methods. Results In the present work, we use phylogenetic analysis and database manipulation (BioGRID for interactions, Ensembl and NCBI for homology, Gene Ontology for GO attributes in order to reconstruct the phylogenetically-inferred SL gene network for human. In addition, available data on cancer mutated genes (COSMIC and Cancer Gene Census databases as well as on existent approved drugs (DrugBank database supports our selection of cancer-therapy candidates. Conclusions Our work provides a complementary alternative to the current methods for drug discovering and gene target identification in anti-cancer research. Novel SL screening analysis and the use of highly curated databases would contribute to improve the results of this methodology.

  11. Synthetic lethality between gene defects affecting a single non-essential molecular pathway with reversible steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Zinovyev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Systematic analysis of synthetic lethality (SL constitutes a critical tool for systems biology to decipher molecular pathways. The most accepted mechanistic explanation of SL is that the two genes function in parallel, mutually compensatory pathways, known as between-pathway SL. However, recent genome-wide analyses in yeast identified a significant number of within-pathway negative genetic interactions. The molecular mechanisms leading to within-pathway SL are not fully understood. Here, we propose a novel mechanism leading to within-pathway SL involving two genes functioning in a single non-essential pathway. This type of SL termed within-reversible-pathway SL involves reversible pathway steps, catalyzed by different enzymes in the forward and backward directions, and kinetic trapping of a potentially toxic intermediate. Experimental data with recombinational DNA repair genes validate the concept. Mathematical modeling recapitulates the possibility of kinetic trapping and revealed the potential contributions of synthetic, dosage-lethal interactions in such a genetic system as well as the possibility of within-pathway positive masking interactions. Analysis of yeast gene interaction and pathway data suggests broad applicability of this novel concept. These observations extend the canonical interpretation of synthetic-lethal or synthetic-sick interactions with direct implications to reconstruct molecular pathways and improve therapeutic approaches to diseases such as cancer.

  12. Novel synthetic lethality screening method identifies TIP60-dependent radiation sensitivity in the absence of BAF180.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Suzanna R; McGregor, Grant A; Murray, Johanne M; Downs, Jessica A; Savic, Velibor

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, research into synthetic lethality and how it can be exploited in cancer treatments has emerged as major focus in cancer research. However, the lack of a simple to use, sensitive and standardised assay to test for synthetic interactions has been slowing the efforts. Here we present a novel approach to synthetic lethality screening based on co-culturing two syngeneic cell lines containing individual fluorescent tags. By associating shRNAs for a target gene or control to individual fluorescence labels, we can easily follow individual cell fates upon siRNA treatment and high content imaging. We have demonstrated that the system can recapitulate the functional defects of the target gene depletion and is capable of discovering novel synthetic interactors and phenotypes. In a trial screen, we show that TIP60 exhibits synthetic lethality interaction with BAF180, and that in the absence of TIP60, there is an increase micronuclei dependent on the level of BAF180 loss, significantly above levels seen with BAF180 present. Moreover, the severity of the interactions correlates with proxy measurements of BAF180 knockdown efficacy, which may expand its usefulness to addressing synthetic interactions through titratable hypomorphic gene expression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The organisational structure of protein networks: revisiting the centrality-lethality hypothesis.

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    Raman, Karthik; Damaraju, Nandita; Joshi, Govind Krishna

    2014-03-01

    Protein networks, describing physical interactions as well as functional associations between proteins, have been unravelled for many organisms in the recent past. Databases such as the STRING provide excellent resources for the analysis of such networks. In this contribution, we revisit the organisation of protein networks, particularly the centrality-lethality hypothesis, which hypothesises that nodes with higher centrality in a network are more likely to produce lethal phenotypes on removal, compared to nodes with lower centrality. We consider the protein networks of a diverse set of 20 organisms, with essentiality information available in the Database of Essential Genes and assess the relationship between centrality measures and lethality. For each of these organisms, we obtained networks of high-confidence interactions from the STRING database, and computed network parameters such as degree, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality and pairwise disconnectivity indices. We observe that the networks considered here are predominantly disassortative. Further, we observe that essential nodes in a network have a significantly higher average degree and betweenness centrality, compared to the network average. Most previous studies have evaluated the centrality-lethality hypothesis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli; we here observe that the centrality-lethality hypothesis hold goods for a large number of organisms, with certain limitations. Betweenness centrality may also be a useful measure to identify essential nodes, but measures like closeness centrality and pairwise disconnectivity are not significantly higher for essential nodes.

  14. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  15. ATM inhibition induces synthetic lethality and enhances sensitivity of PTEN-deficient breast cancer cells to cisplatin.

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    Li, Ke; Yan, Huaying; Guo, Wenhao; Tang, Mei; Zhao, Xinyu; Tong, Aiping; Peng, Yong; Li, Qintong; Yuan, Zhu

    2018-05-01

    PTEN deficiency often causes defects in DNA damage repair. Currently, effective therapies for breast cancer are lacking. ATM is an attractive target for cancer treatment. Previous studies suggested a synthetic lethality between PTEN and PARP. However, the synthetically lethal interaction between PTEN and ATM in breast cancer has not been reported. Moreover, the mechanism remains elusive. Here, using KU-60019, an ATM kinase inhibitor, we investigated ATM inhibition as a synthetically lethal strategy to target breast cancer cells with PTEN defects. We found that KU-60019 preferentially sensitizes PTEN-deficient MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells to cisplatin, though it also slightly enhances sensitivity of PTEN wild-type breast cancer cells. The increased cytotoxic sensitivity is associated with apoptosis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and PARP cleavage. Additionally, the increase of DNA damage accumulation due to the decreased capability of DNA repair, as indicated by γ-H2AX and Rad51 foci, also contributed to this selective cytotoxicity. Mechanistically, compared with PTEN wild-type MDA-MB-231 cells, PTEN-deficient MDA-MB-468 cells have lower level of Rad51, higher ATM kinase activity, and display the elevated level of DNA damage. Moreover, these differences could be further enlarged by cisplatin. Our findings suggest that ATM is a promising target for PTEN-defective breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Suppression of AKT phosphorylation restores rapamycin-based synthetic lethality in SMAD4-defective pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gendre, Onica; Sookdeo, Ayisha; Duliepre, Stephie-Anne; Utter, Matthew; Frias, Maria; Foster, David A

    2013-05-01

    mTOR has been implicated in survival signals for many human cancers. Rapamycin and TGF-β synergistically induce G1 cell-cycle arrest in several cell lines with intact TGF-β signaling pathway, which protects cells from the apoptotic effects of rapamycin during S-phase of the cell cycle. Thus, rapamycin is cytostatic in the presence of serum/TGF-β and cytotoxic in the absence of serum. However, if TGF-β signaling is defective, rapamycin induced apoptosis in both the presence and absence of serum/TGF-β in colon and breast cancer cell lines. Because genetic dysregulation of TGF-β signaling is commonly observed in pancreatic cancers-with defects in the Smad4 gene being most prevalent, we hypothesized that pancreatic cancers would display a synthetic lethality to rapamycin in the presence of serum/TGF-β. We report here that Smad4-deficient pancreatic cancer cells are killed by rapamycin in the absence of serum; however, in the presence of serum, we did not observe the predicted synthetic lethality with rapamycin. Rapamycin also induced elevated phosphorylation of the survival kinase Akt at Ser473. Suppression of rapamycin-induced Akt phosphorylation restored rapamycin sensitivity in Smad4-null, but not Smad4 wild-type pancreatic cancer cells. This study shows that the synthetic lethality to rapamycin in pancreatic cancers with defective TGF-β signaling is masked by rapamycin-induced increases in Akt phosphorylation. The implication is that a combination of approaches that suppress both Akt phosphorylation and mTOR could be effective in targeting pancreatic cancers with defective TGF-β signaling. ©2013 AACR.

  17. Paper-based synthetic gene networks.

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    Pardee, Keith; Green, Alexander A; Ferrante, Tom; Cameron, D Ewen; DaleyKeyser, Ajay; Yin, Peng; Collins, James J

    2014-11-06

    Synthetic gene networks have wide-ranging uses in reprogramming and rewiring organisms. To date, there has not been a way to harness the vast potential of these networks beyond the constraints of a laboratory or in vivo environment. Here, we present an in vitro paper-based platform that provides an alternate, versatile venue for synthetic biologists to operate and a much-needed medium for the safe deployment of engineered gene circuits beyond the lab. Commercially available cell-free systems are freeze dried onto paper, enabling the inexpensive, sterile, and abiotic distribution of synthetic-biology-based technologies for the clinic, global health, industry, research, and education. For field use, we create circuits with colorimetric outputs for detection by eye and fabricate a low-cost, electronic optical interface. We demonstrate this technology with small-molecule and RNA actuation of genetic switches, rapid prototyping of complex gene circuits, and programmable in vitro diagnostics, including glucose sensors and strain-specific Ebola virus sensors.

  18. Paper-based Synthetic Gene Networks

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    Pardee, Keith; Green, Alexander A.; Ferrante, Tom; Cameron, D. Ewen; DaleyKeyser, Ajay; Yin, Peng; Collins, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene networks have wide-ranging uses in reprogramming and rewiring organisms. To date, there has not been a way to harness the vast potential of these networks beyond the constraints of a laboratory or in vivo environment. Here, we present an in vitro paper-based platform that provides a new venue for synthetic biologists to operate, and a much-needed medium for the safe deployment of engineered gene circuits beyond the lab. Commercially available cell-free systems are freeze-dried onto paper, enabling the inexpensive, sterile and abiotic distribution of synthetic biology-based technologies for the clinic, global health, industry, research and education. For field use, we create circuits with colorimetric outputs for detection by eye, and fabricate a low-cost, electronic optical interface. We demonstrate this technology with small molecule and RNA actuation of genetic switches, rapid prototyping of complex gene circuits, and programmable in vitro diagnostics, including glucose sensors and strain-specific Ebola virus sensors. PMID:25417167

  19. Rechecking the Centrality-Lethality Rule in the Scope of Protein Subcellular Localization Interaction Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Peng

    Full Text Available Essential proteins are indispensable for living organisms to maintain life activities and play important roles in the studies of pathology, synthetic biology, and drug design. Therefore, besides experiment methods, many computational methods are proposed to identify essential proteins. Based on the centrality-lethality rule, various centrality methods are employed to predict essential proteins in a Protein-protein Interaction Network (PIN. However, neglecting the temporal and spatial features of protein-protein interactions, the centrality scores calculated by centrality methods are not effective enough for measuring the essentiality of proteins in a PIN. Moreover, many methods, which overfit with the features of essential proteins for one species, may perform poor for other species. In this paper, we demonstrate that the centrality-lethality rule also exists in Protein Subcellular Localization Interaction Networks (PSLINs. To do this, a method based on Localization Specificity for Essential protein Detection (LSED, was proposed, which can be combined with any centrality method for calculating the improved centrality scores by taking into consideration PSLINs in which proteins play their roles. In this study, LSED was combined with eight centrality methods separately to calculate Localization-specific Centrality Scores (LCSs for proteins based on the PSLINs of four species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and Drosophila melanogaster. Compared to the proteins with high centrality scores measured from the global PINs, more proteins with high LCSs measured from PSLINs are essential. It indicates that proteins with high LCSs measured from PSLINs are more likely to be essential and the performance of centrality methods can be improved by LSED. Furthermore, LSED provides a wide applicable prediction model to identify essential proteins for different species.

  20. A Unifying Mathematical Framework for Genetic Robustness, Environmental Robustness, Network Robustness and their Trade-offs on Phenotype Robustness in Biological Networks. Part III: Synthetic Gene Networks in Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Lin, Ying-Po

    2013-01-01

    Robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are ubiquitous systematic properties that are observed in biological systems at many different levels. The underlying principles for robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are universal to both complex biological systems and sophisticated engineering systems. In many biological networks, network robustness should be large enough to confer: intrinsic robustness for tolerating intrinsic parameter fluctuations; genetic robustness for buffering genetic variations; and environmental robustness for resisting environmental disturbances. Network robustness is needed so phenotype stability of biological network can be maintained, guaranteeing phenotype robustness. Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine; it is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of functioning of complex biological systems. This paper presents a unifying mathematical framework for investigating the principles of both robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation for synthetic gene networks in synthetic biology. Further, from the unifying mathematical framework, we found that the phenotype robustness criterion for synthetic gene networks is the following: if intrinsic robustness + genetic robustness + environmental robustness ≦ network robustness, then the phenotype robustness can be maintained in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental disturbances. Therefore, the trade-offs between intrinsic robustness, genetic robustness, environmental robustness, and network robustness in synthetic biology can also be investigated through corresponding phenotype robustness criteria from the systematic point of view. Finally, a robust synthetic design that involves network evolution algorithms with desired behavior under intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental

  1. Designing synthetic networks in silico: a generalised evolutionary algorithm approach.

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    Smith, Robert W; van Sluijs, Bob; Fleck, Christian

    2017-12-02

    Evolution has led to the development of biological networks that are shaped by environmental signals. Elucidating, understanding and then reconstructing important network motifs is one of the principal aims of Systems & Synthetic Biology. Consequently, previous research has focused on finding optimal network structures and reaction rates that respond to pulses or produce stable oscillations. In this work we present a generalised in silico evolutionary algorithm that simultaneously finds network structures and reaction rates (genotypes) that can satisfy multiple defined objectives (phenotypes). The key step to our approach is to translate a schema/binary-based description of biological networks into systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The ODEs can then be solved numerically to provide dynamic information about an evolved networks functionality. Initially we benchmark algorithm performance by finding optimal networks that can recapitulate concentration time-series data and perform parameter optimisation on oscillatory dynamics of the Repressilator. We go on to show the utility of our algorithm by finding new designs for robust synthetic oscillators, and by performing multi-objective optimisation to find a set of oscillators and feed-forward loops that are optimal at balancing different system properties. In sum, our results not only confirm and build on previous observations but we also provide new designs of synthetic oscillators for experimental construction. In this work we have presented and tested an evolutionary algorithm that can design a biological network to produce desired output. Given that previous designs of synthetic networks have been limited to subregions of network- and parameter-space, the use of our evolutionary optimisation algorithm will enable Synthetic Biologists to construct new systems with the potential to display a wider range of complex responses.

  2. Cell line name recognition in support of the identification of synthetic lethality in cancer from text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewphan, Suwisa; Van Landeghem, Sofie; Ohta, Tomoko; Van de Peer, Yves; Ginter, Filip; Pyysalo, Sampo

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The recognition and normalization of cell line names in text is an important task in biomedical text mining research, facilitating for instance the identification of synthetically lethal genes from the literature. While several tools have previously been developed to address cell line recognition, it is unclear whether available systems can perform sufficiently well in realistic and broad-coverage applications such as extracting synthetically lethal genes from the cancer literature. In this study, we revisit the cell line name recognition task, evaluating both available systems and newly introduced methods on various resources to obtain a reliable tagger not tied to any specific subdomain. In support of this task, we introduce two text collections manually annotated for cell line names: the broad-coverage corpus Gellus and CLL, a focused target domain corpus. Results: We find that the best performance is achieved using NERsuite, a machine learning system based on Conditional Random Fields, trained on the Gellus corpus and supported with a dictionary of cell line names. The system achieves an F-score of 88.46% on the test set of Gellus and 85.98% on the independently annotated CLL corpus. It was further applied at large scale to 24 302 102 unannotated articles, resulting in the identification of 5 181 342 cell line mentions, normalized to 11 755 unique cell line database identifiers. Availability and implementation: The manually annotated datasets, the cell line dictionary, derived corpora, NERsuite models and the results of the large-scale run on unannotated texts are available under open licenses at http://turkunlp.github.io/Cell-line-recognition/. Contact: sukaew@utu.fi PMID:26428294

  3. Distributed detection of communities in complex networks using synthetic coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, H; Fragopoulou, P; Panagiotakis, C

    2014-01-01

    Various applications like finding Web communities, detecting the structure of social networks, and even analyzing a graph’s structure to uncover Internet attacks are just some of the applications for which community detection is important. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that finds the entire community structure of a network, on the basis of local interactions between neighboring nodes and an unsupervised distributed hierarchical clustering algorithm. The novelty of the proposed approach, named SCCD (standing for synthetic coordinate community detection), lies in the fact that the algorithm is based on the use of Vivaldi synthetic network coordinates computed by a distributed algorithm. The current paper not only presents an efficient distributed community finding algorithm, but also demonstrates that synthetic network coordinates could be used to derive efficient solutions to a variety of problems. Experimental results and comparisons with other methods from the literature are presented for a variety of benchmark graphs with known community structure, derived from varying a number of graph parameters and real data set graphs. The experimental results and comparisons to existing methods with similar computation cost on real and synthetic data sets demonstrate the high performance and robustness of the proposed scheme. (paper)

  4. Synthetic Genetic Targeting of Genome Instability in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajesh, Babu V.; Guppy, Brent J.; McManus, Kirk J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death throughout the World. A limitation of many current chemotherapeutic approaches is that their cytotoxic effects are not restricted to cancer cells, and adverse side effects can occur within normal tissues. Consequently, novel strategies are urgently needed to better target cancer cells. As we approach the era of personalized medicine, targeting the specific molecular defect(s) within a given patient’s tumor will become a more effective treatment strategy than traditional approaches that often target a given cancer type or sub-type. Synthetic genetic interactions are now being examined for their therapeutic potential and are designed to target the specific genetic and epigenetic phenomena associated with tumor formation, and thus are predicted to be highly selective. In general, two complementary approaches have been employed, including synthetic lethality and synthetic dosage lethality, to target aberrant expression and/or function associated with tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, respectively. Here we discuss the concepts of synthetic lethality and synthetic dosage lethality, and explain three general experimental approaches designed to identify novel genetic interactors. We present examples and discuss the merits and caveats of each approach. Finally, we provide insight into the subsequent pre-clinical work required to validate novel candidate drug targets

  5. Application of improved PSO-RBF neural network in the synthetic ammonia decarbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei LI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic ammonia decarbonization is a typical complex industrial process, which has the characteristics of time variation, nonlinearity and uncertainty, and the on-line control model is difficult to be established. An improved PSO-RBF neural network control algorithm is proposed to solve the problems of low precision and poor robustness in the complex process of the synthetic ammonia decarbonization. The particle swarm optimization algorithm and RBF neural network are combined. The improved particle swarm algorithm is used to optimize the RBF neural network's hidden layer primary function center, width and the output layer's connection value to construct the RBF neural network model optimized by the improved PSO algorithm. The improved PSO-RBF neural network control model is applied to the key carbonization process and compared with the traditional fuzzy neural network. The simulation results show that the improved PSO-RBF neural network control method used in the synthetic ammonia decarbonization process has higher control accuracy and system robustness, which provides an effective way to solve the modeling and optimization control of a complex industrial process.

  6. Adaptive logical stochastic resonance in time-delayed synthetic genetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Wenbin; Song, Aiguo

    2018-04-01

    In the paper, the concept of logical stochastic resonance is applied to implement logic operation and latch operation in time-delayed synthetic genetic networks derived from a bacteriophage λ. Clear logic operation and latch operation can be obtained when the network is tuned by modulated periodic force and time-delay. In contrast with the previous synthetic genetic networks based on logical stochastic resonance, the proposed system has two advantages. On one hand, adding modulated periodic force to the background noise can increase the length of the optimal noise plateau of obtaining desired logic response and make the system adapt to varying noise intensity. On the other hand, tuning time-delay can extend the optimal noise plateau to larger range. The result provides possible help for designing new genetic regulatory networks paradigm based on logical stochastic resonance.

  7. A Method to Design Synthetic Cell-Cycle Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke-Ke, Miao

    2009-01-01

    The interactions among proteins, DNA and RNA in an organism form elaborate cell-cycle networks which govern cell growth and proliferation. Understanding the common structure of cell-cycle networks will be of great benefit to science research. Here, inspired by the importance of the cell-cycle regulatory network of yeast which has been studied intensively, we focus on small networks with 11 nodes, equivalent to that of the cell-cycle regulatory network used by Li et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101(2004)4781] Using a Boolean model, we study the correlation between structure and function, and a possible common structure. It is found that cascade-like networks with a great number of interactions between nodes are stable. Based on these findings, we are able to construct synthetic networks that have the same functions as the cell-cycle regulatory network. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  8. Targeting Synthetic Lethal Interactions between Myc and the eIF4F Complex Impedes Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ju Lin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The energetically demanding process of translation is linked to multiple signaling events through mTOR-mediated regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF4F complex assembly. Disrupting mTOR constraints on eIF4F activity can be oncogenic and alter chemotherapy response, making eIF4F an attractive antineoplastic target. Here, we combine a newly developed inducible RNAi platform and pharmacological targeting of eIF4F activity to define a critical role for endogenous eIF4F in Myc-dependent tumor initiation. We find elevated Myc levels are associated with deregulated eIF4F activity in the prelymphomatous stage of the Eμ-Myc lymphoma model. Inhibition of eIF4F is synthetic lethal with elevated Myc in premalignant pre-B/B cells resulting in reduced numbers of cycling pre-B/B cells and delayed tumor onset. At the organismal level, eIF4F suppression affected a subset of normal regenerating cells, but this was well tolerated and rapidly and completely reversible. Therefore, eIF4F is a key Myc client that represents a tumor-specific vulnerability.

  9. LSD1 activates a lethal prostate cancer gene network independently of its demethylase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrawat, Archana; Gao, Lina; Wang, Yuliang; Bankhead, Armand; McWeeney, Shannon K; King, Carly J; Schwartzman, Jacob; Urrutia, Joshua; Bisson, William H; Coleman, Daniel J; Joshi, Sunil K; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Sampson, David A; Weinmann, Sheila; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Berry, Deborah L; Haque, Reina; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Sharma, Sunil; Bearss, Jared; Beer, Tomasz M; Thomas, George V; Heiser, Laura M; Alumkal, Joshi J

    2018-05-01

    Medical castration that interferes with androgen receptor (AR) function is the principal treatment for advanced prostate cancer. However, clinical progression is universal, and tumors with AR-independent resistance mechanisms appear to be increasing in frequency. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new treatments targeting molecular pathways enriched in lethal prostate cancer. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a histone demethylase and an important regulator of gene expression. Here, we show that LSD1 promotes the survival of prostate cancer cells, including those that are castration-resistant, independently of its demethylase function and of the AR. Importantly, this effect is explained in part by activation of a lethal prostate cancer gene network in collaboration with LSD1's binding protein, ZNF217. Finally, that a small-molecule LSD1 inhibitor-SP-2509-blocks important demethylase-independent functions and suppresses castration-resistant prostate cancer cell viability demonstrates the potential of LSD1 inhibition in this disease.

  10. Radiation synthesis and characterization of network structure of natural/synthetic double-network superabsorbent polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, M.; Hayrabolulu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are moderately cross linked, 3-D, hydrophilic network polymers that can absorb and conserve considerable amounts of aqueous fluids even under certain heat or pressure. Because of the unique properties superior to conventional absorbents, SAPs have found potential application in many fields such as hygienic products, disposable diapers, horticulture, gel actuators, drug-delivery systems, as well as water-blocking tapes coal dewatering, water managing materials for the renewal of arid and desert environment, etc. In recent years, naturally available resources, such as polysaccharides have drawn considerable attention for the preparation of SAPs. Since the mechanical properties of polysaccharide based natural polymers are low, researchers have mostly focused on natural/synthetic polymer/monomer mixtures to obtain novel SAPs. The aim of this study is to synthesize and characterization of network structure of novel double-network (DN) hydrogels as a SAP. Hydrogels with high mechanical strength have been prepared by radiation induced polymerization and crosslink of acrylic acid sodium salt in the presence of natural polymer locust bean gum. Liquid retention capacities and absorbency under load (AUL) analysis of synthesized SAPs was performed at different temperatures in water and synthetic urine solution, in order to determine their SAP character. For the characterization of network structure of the semi-IPN hydrogels, the average molecular weight between cross links (M c ) were evaluated by using uniaxial compression and oscillatory dynamical mechanical analyses and the advantage and disadvantage of these two technique for the characterization of network structures were compared.

  11. Alisertib added to rituximab and vincristine is synthetic lethal and potentially curative in mice with aggressive DLBCL co-overexpressing MYC and BCL2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruka Mahadevan

    Full Text Available Pearson correlation coefficient for expression analysis of the Lymphoma/Leukemia Molecular Profiling Project (LLMPP demonstrated Aurora A and B are highly correlated with MYC in DLBCL and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL, while both Auroras correlate with BCL2 only in DLBCL. Auroras are up-regulated by MYC dysregulation with associated aneuploidy and resistance to microtubule targeted agents such as vincristine. Myc and Bcl2 are differentially expressed in U-2932, TMD-8, OCI-Ly10 and Granta-519, but only U-2932 cells over-express mutated p53. Alisertib [MLN8237 or M], a highly selective small molecule inhibitor of Aurora A kinase, was synergistic with vincristine [VCR] and rituximab [R] for inhibition of cell proliferation, abrogation of cell cycle checkpoints and enhanced apoptosis versus single agent or doublet therapy. A DLBCL (U-2932 mouse model showed tumor growth inhibition (TGI of ∼ 10-20% (p = 0.001 for M, VCR and M-VCR respectively, while R alone showed ∼ 50% TGI (p = 0.001. M-R and VCR-R led to tumor regression [TR], but relapsed 10 days after discontinuing therapy. In contrast, M-VCR-R demonstrated TR with no relapse >40 days after stopping therapy with a Kaplan-Meier survival of 100%. Genes that are modulated by M-VCR-R (CENP-C, Auroras play a role in centromere-kinetochore function in an attempt to maintain mitosis in the presence of synthetic lethality. Together, our data suggest that the interaction between alisertib plus VCR plus rituximab is synergistic and synthetic lethal in Myc and Bcl-2 co-expressing DLBCL. Alisertib plus vincristine plus rituximab [M-VCR-R] may represent a new strategy for DLBCL therapy.

  12. Alisertib added to rituximab and vincristine is synthetic lethal and potentially curative in mice with aggressive DLBCL co-overexpressing MYC and BCL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Daruka; Morales, Carla; Cooke, Laurence S; Manziello, Ann; Mount, David W; Persky, Daniel O; Fisher, Richard I; Miller, Thomas P; Qi, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    Pearson correlation coefficient for expression analysis of the Lymphoma/Leukemia Molecular Profiling Project (LLMPP) demonstrated Aurora A and B are highly correlated with MYC in DLBCL and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), while both Auroras correlate with BCL2 only in DLBCL. Auroras are up-regulated by MYC dysregulation with associated aneuploidy and resistance to microtubule targeted agents such as vincristine. Myc and Bcl2 are differentially expressed in U-2932, TMD-8, OCI-Ly10 and Granta-519, but only U-2932 cells over-express mutated p53. Alisertib [MLN8237 or M], a highly selective small molecule inhibitor of Aurora A kinase, was synergistic with vincristine [VCR] and rituximab [R] for inhibition of cell proliferation, abrogation of cell cycle checkpoints and enhanced apoptosis versus single agent or doublet therapy. A DLBCL (U-2932) mouse model showed tumor growth inhibition (TGI) of ∼ 10-20% (p = 0.001) for M, VCR and M-VCR respectively, while R alone showed ∼ 50% TGI (p = 0.001). M-R and VCR-R led to tumor regression [TR], but relapsed 10 days after discontinuing therapy. In contrast, M-VCR-R demonstrated TR with no relapse >40 days after stopping therapy with a Kaplan-Meier survival of 100%. Genes that are modulated by M-VCR-R (CENP-C, Auroras) play a role in centromere-kinetochore function in an attempt to maintain mitosis in the presence of synthetic lethality. Together, our data suggest that the interaction between alisertib plus VCR plus rituximab is synergistic and synthetic lethal in Myc and Bcl-2 co-expressing DLBCL. Alisertib plus vincristine plus rituximab [M-VCR-R] may represent a new strategy for DLBCL therapy.

  13. Synthetic lethality between murine DNA repair factors XLF and DNA-PKcs is rescued by inactivation of Ku70

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Mengtan; Bjørås, Magnar; Daniel, Jeremy A

    2017-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are recognized and repaired by the Classical Non-Homologous End-Joining (C-NHEJ) and Homologous Recombination pathways. C-NHEJ includes the core Ku70 and Ku80 (or Ku86) heterodimer that binds DSBs and thus promotes recruitment of accessory downstream NHEJ factors XLF......, PAXX, DNA-PKcs, Artemis and other core subunits, XRCC4 and DNA Ligase 4 (Lig4). In the absence of core C-NHEJ factors, DNA repair can be performed by Alternative End-Joining, which likely depends on DNA Ligase 1 and DNA Ligase 3. Genetic inactivation of C-NHEJ factors, such as Ku70, Ku80, XLF, PAXX...... with severe apoptosis in the central nervous system. Here, we demonstrate that inactivation of the Ku70 gene rescues the synthetic lethality between XLF and DNA-PKcs, resulting in triple knockout mice that are indistinguishable from Ku70-deficient littermates by size or levels of genomic instability. Moreover...

  14. Mitochondrial uncoupler exerts a synthetic lethal effect against β-catenin mutant tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikata, Yuki; Kiga, Masaki; Futamura, Yushi; Aono, Harumi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kawada, Manabu; Osada, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Masaya

    2017-04-01

    The wingless/int-1 (Wnt) signal transduction pathway plays a central role in cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and apoptosis. When β-catenin: a component of the Wnt pathway, is mutated into an active form, cell growth signaling is hyperactive and drives oncogenesis. As β-catenin is mutated in a wide variety of tumors, including up to 10% of all sporadic colon carcinomas and 20% of hepatocellular carcinomas, it has been considered a promising target for therapeutic interventions. Therefore, we screened an in-house natural product library for compounds that exhibited synthetic lethality towards β-catenin mutations and isolated nonactin, an antibiotic mitochondrial uncoupler, as a hit compound. Nonactin, as well as other mitochondrial uncouplers, induced apoptosis selectively in β-catenin mutated tumor cells. Significant tumor regression was observed in the β-catenin mutant HCT 116 xenograft model, but not in the β-catenin wild type A375 xenograft model, in response to daily administration of nonactin in vivo. Furthermore, we found that expression of an active mutant form of β-catenin induced a decrease in the glycolysis rate. Taken together, our results demonstrate that tumor cells with mutated β-catenin depend on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for survival. Therefore, they undergo apoptosis in response to mitochondrial dysfunction following the addition of mitochondrial uncouplers, such as nonactin. These results suggest that targeting mitochondria is a potential chemotherapeutic strategy for tumor cells that harbor β-catenin mutations. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Synthetic bootstrapping of convolutional neural networks for semantic plant part segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.; IJsselmuiden, J.; Hemming, J.; Henten, Van E.J.

    2017-01-01

    A current bottleneck of state-of-the-art machine learning methods for image segmentation in agriculture, e.g. convolutional neural networks (CNNs), is the requirement of large manually annotated datasets on a per-pixel level. In this paper, we investigated how related synthetic images can be used to

  16. A Comparison of Real-Time and Endpoint Cell Viability Assays for Improved Synthetic Lethal Drug Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, Andrew; Beetham, Henry; Telford, Bryony J; Guilford, Parry; Chen, Augustine

    2015-12-01

    Cell viability assays fulfill a central role in drug discovery studies. It is therefore important to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the wide variety of available assay methodologies. In this study, we compared the performance of three endpoint assays (resazurin reduction, CellTiter-Glo, and nuclei enumeration) and two real-time systems (IncuCyte and xCELLigence). Of the endpoint approaches, both the resazurin reduction and CellTiter-Glo assays showed higher cell viabilities when compared directly to stained nuclei counts. The IncuCyte and xCELLigence real-time systems were comparable, and both were particularly effective at tracking the effects of drug treatment on cell proliferation at sub-confluent growth. However, the real-time systems failed to evaluate contrasting cell densities between drug-treated and control-treated cells at full growth confluency. Here, we showed that using real-time systems in combination with endpoint assays alleviates the disadvantages posed by each approach alone, providing a more effective means to evaluate drug toxicity in monolayer cell cultures. Such approaches were shown to be effective in elucidating the toxicity of synthetic lethal drugs in an isogenic pair of MCF10A breast cell lines. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. Parallel logic gates in synthetic gene networks induced by non-Gaussian noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Jin, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Huiqing

    2013-11-01

    The recent idea of logical stochastic resonance is verified in synthetic gene networks induced by non-Gaussian noise. We realize the switching between two kinds of logic gates under optimal moderate noise intensity by varying two different tunable parameters in a single gene network. Furthermore, in order to obtain more logic operations, thus providing additional information processing capacity, we obtain in a two-dimensional toggle switch model two complementary logic gates and realize the transformation between two logic gates via the methods of changing different parameters. These simulated results contribute to improve the computational power and functionality of the networks.

  18. Subsidence feature discrimination using deep convolutional neral networks in synthetic aperture radar imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 23-28 July 2017, Fort Worth, TX, USA SUBSIDENCE FEATURE DISCRIMINATION USING DEEP CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR IMAGERY Schwegmann, Colin P Kleynhans, Waldo...

  19. Generation of hourly irradiation synthetic series using the neural network multilayer perceptron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hontoria, L.; Aguilera, J. [Universidad de Jaen, Linares-Jaen (Spain). Dpto. de Electronica; Zufiria, P. [Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid (Spain). Grupo de Redes Neuronales

    2002-05-01

    In this work, a methodology based on the neural network model called multilayer perceptron (MLP) to solve a typical problem in solar energy is presented. This methodology consists of the generation of synthetic series of hourly solar irradiation. The model presented is based on the capacity of the MLP for finding relations between variables for which interrelation is unknown explicitly. The information available can be included progressively at the series generator at different stages. A comparative study with other solar irradiation synthetic generation methods has been done in order to demonstrate the validity of the one proposed. (author)

  20. Rad51 expression levels predict synthetic lethality and metastatic potential in high grade breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegmans, A.P.; Al-Ejeh, F.; Khanna, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Among women with breast cancer, 30-40% will develop metastatic disease and only achieve an overall survival of less than 5 years. Despite new-targeted therapy, breast tumors that harbour similar histology or molecular phenotype differ in their response to treatment. To uncover potential new therapeutic targets and improve outcome, we performed data mining of cancer micro array databases. We found that high expression of the homologous recombination protein, RAD51, was significantly associated with high-grade breast cancer, aggressive subtypes and increased risk of metastasis. We confirmed using immunohistochemistry that RAD5 1 was highly expressed in metastatic tumours and high-grade triple negative, HER2+ and luminal-B tumours. This provided a rationale for targeting RAD5 1 in high-grade, therapy-resistant breast cancers. Here, we report for the first time preclinical evaluation of RAD5 1 as a therapeutic target. We found that, in-vitro high RAD5 expressing cell lines were resistant to PARP inhibitor while knockdown reversed this resistance. In-vivo, knockdown of RAD5 1 inhibited metastatic progression using a syngeneic breast cancer model and the seeding of human xenografts to distant sites, including brain and lung. Concurrent PARP inhibition reduced primary tumor growth and delayed metastasis supporting synthetic lethality in-vivo. Together these insights provide pre-clinical data demonstrating RAD5 1 as a new biomarker and potential therapeutic target against aggressive metastatic breast cancer. (author)

  1. Synthetic aperture radar ship discrimination, generation and latent variable extraction using information maximizing generative adversarial networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available such as Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery. To aid in the creation of improved machine learning-based ship detection and discrimination methods this paper applies a type of neural network known as an Information Maximizing Generative Adversarial Network. Generative...

  2. Characterization and metabolic synthetic lethal testing in a new model of SDH-loss familial pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, John; Hamidi, Oksana; Wang, Lin; Holte, Molly Nelson; Khazal, Fatimah Al; Erber, Luke; Chen, Yue; Maher, L James

    2018-01-19

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-loss pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are tumors driven by metabolic derangement. SDH loss leads to accumulation of intracellular succinate, which competitively inhibits dioxygenase enzymes, causing activation of pseudohypoxic signaling and hypermethylation of histones and DNA. The mechanisms by which these alterations lead to tumorigenesis are unclear, however. In an effort to fundamentally understand how SDH loss reprograms cell biology, we developed an immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line with conditional disruption of Sdhc and characterize the kinetics of Sdhc gene rearrangement, SDHC protein loss, succinate accumulation, and the resultant hypoproliferative phenotype. We further perform global transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic characterization of changes resulting from SDHC loss, identifying specific perturbations at each biological level. We compare the observed patterns of epigenomic derangement to another previously-described immortalized mouse chromaffin cell model of SDHB loss, and compare both models to human SDH-loss tumors. Finally, we perform analysis of SDHC synthetic lethality with lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and pyruvate carboxylase (PCX), which are important for regeneration of NAD+ and aspartate biosynthesis, respectively. Our data show that SDH-loss cells are selectively vulnerable to LDH genetic knock-down or chemical inhibition, suggesting that LDH inhibition may be an effective therapeutic strategy for SDH-loss PPGL.

  3. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  4. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  5. Natural and Synthetic Biohydrogels Design, Characterization, Network Structure Imaging and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorat, Clement

    Biocompatible hydrogels can be derived from materials that are naturally obtained, such as proteins or polysaccharides, or synthetic, such as poloxamers. In order to be classified as biocompatible, these water-swollen networks can not trigger a toxic response once introduced into a biological or physiological environment and, therefore, must be immunoneutral. Hyaluronic acid hydrogels can be great candidates for tissue engineering applications as long as the cross-linking chemistry and process does not affect the biocompatibility of the natural protein matrix. Thermoreversible hydrogels have the advantage of undergoing a sol/gel phase transition at specific temperatures. Thus, they are excellent candidates for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, wound healing coatings or cellular scaffolds. Although these hydrogels can be used in their natural form without further modification or chemical alteration, the original protein or polymer matrix is often strengthened by the use of a crosslinking agent to achieve a specific set of properties. In the case of gelatin fibril formation at low temperatures or the micellization of triblock copolymers in solution with temperature increase, the natural phase transition is modified when crosslinkers are introduced to alter the biohydrogels properties and, ultimately, disturb the system's equilibrium. By using spectroscopy techniques, rheology and cryo-imaging we investigated several biocompatible polymeric networks in their natural form as well as their engineered structures to better understand the mechanisms of gelation and artificial internal re-organization of the networks. Natural and synthetic biohydrogels were designed and their mechanical properties were characterized before imaging. Models that better describe the relationship between network configuration and resulting mechanical properties showed great agreement with experimental mesh size observations. Finally, a novel set of hybrid gels was developed

  6. Robust synthetic biology design: stochastic game theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Chang, Chia-Hung; Lee, Hsiao-Ching

    2009-07-15

    Synthetic biology is to engineer artificial biological systems to investigate natural biological phenomena and for a variety of applications. However, the development of synthetic gene networks is still difficult and most newly created gene networks are non-functioning due to uncertain initial conditions and disturbances of extra-cellular environments on the host cell. At present, how to design a robust synthetic gene network to work properly under these uncertain factors is the most important topic of synthetic biology. A robust regulation design is proposed for a stochastic synthetic gene network to achieve the prescribed steady states under these uncertain factors from the minimax regulation perspective. This minimax regulation design problem can be transformed to an equivalent stochastic game problem. Since it is not easy to solve the robust regulation design problem of synthetic gene networks by non-linear stochastic game method directly, the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is proposed to approximate the non-linear synthetic gene network via the linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique through the Robust Control Toolbox in Matlab. Finally, an in silico example is given to illustrate the design procedure and to confirm the efficiency and efficacy of the proposed robust gene design method. http://www.ee.nthu.edu.tw/bschen/SyntheticBioDesign_supplement.pdf.

  7. Impulsivity, aggression and brain structure in high and low lethality suicide attempters with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul; White, Richard; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2014-06-30

    Impulsivity and aggressiveness are trait dispositions associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior across diagnoses. They are associated with structural and functional abnormalities in brain networks involved in regulation of mood, impulse and behavior. They are also core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), a disorder defined, in part, by recurrent suicidal behavior. We assessed the relationships between personality traits, brain structure and lethality of suicide attempts in 51 BPD attempters using multiple regression analyses on structural MRI data. BPD was diagnosed by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients-revised, impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), aggression by the Brown-Goodwin Lifetime History of Aggression (LHA), and high lethality by a score of 4 or more on the Lethality Rating Scale (LRS). Sixteen High Lethality attempters were compared to 35 Low Lethality attempters, with no significant differences noted in gender, co-morbidity, childhood abuse, BIS or LHA scores. Degree of medical lethality (LRS) was negatively related to gray matter volumes across multiple fronto-temporal-limbic regions. Effects of impulsivity and aggression on gray matter volumes discriminated High from Low Lethality attempters and differed markedly within lethality groups. Lethality of suicide attempts in BPD may be related to the mediation of these personality traits by specific neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multivariate synthetic streamflow generation using a hybrid model based on artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Ochoa-Rivera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for multivariate streamflow generation is presented, based on a multilayer feedforward neural network. The structure of the model results from two components, the neural network (NN deterministic component and a random component which is assumed to be normally distributed. It is from this second component that the model achieves the ability to incorporate effectively the uncertainty associated with hydrological processes, making it valuable as a practical tool for synthetic generation of streamflow series. The NN topology and the corresponding analytical explicit formulation of the model are described in detail. The model is calibrated with a series of monthly inflows to two reservoir sites located in the Tagus River basin (Spain, while validation is performed through estimation of a set of statistics that is relevant for water resources systems planning and management. Among others, drought and storage statistics are computed and compared for both the synthetic and historical series. The performance of the NN-based model was compared to that of a standard autoregressive AR(2 model. Results show that NN represents a promising modelling alternative for simulation purposes, with interesting potential in the context of water resources systems management and optimisation. Keywords: neural networks, perceptron multilayer, error backpropagation, hydrological scenario generation, multivariate time-series..

  9. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Krams, Rob

    2015-05-06

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON-OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. A platform for rapid prototyping of synthetic gene networks in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duportet, Xavier; Wroblewska, Liliana; Guye, Patrick; Li, Yinqing; Eyquem, Justin; Rieders, Julianne; Rimchala, Tharathorn; Batt, Gregory; Weiss, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian synthetic biology may provide novel therapeutic strategies, help decipher new paths for drug discovery and facilitate synthesis of valuable molecules. Yet, our capacity to genetically program cells is currently hampered by the lack of efficient approaches to streamline the design, construction and screening of synthetic gene networks. To address this problem, here we present a framework for modular and combinatorial assembly of functional (multi)gene expression vectors and their efficient and specific targeted integration into a well-defined chromosomal context in mammalian cells. We demonstrate the potential of this framework by assembling and integrating different functional mammalian regulatory networks including the largest gene circuit built and chromosomally integrated to date (6 transcription units, 27kb) encoding an inducible memory device. Using a library of 18 different circuits as a proof of concept, we also demonstrate that our method enables one-pot/single-flask chromosomal integration and screening of circuit libraries. This rapid and powerful prototyping platform is well suited for comparative studies of genetic regulatory elements, genes and multi-gene circuits as well as facile development of libraries of isogenic engineered cell lines. PMID:25378321

  11. Lethality of patients with rheumatoid arthritis depending on adalimumab administration: imitation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D V Goryachev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lethality of pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA exceeds mortality values in general population. Possibility of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD influence on RA pts lethality has been widely discussed lately in scientific works. Objective. To determine possible lethality diminishment in Russian population of RA pts with one of biological drugs TNFα antagonist adalimumab. Material and methods. Model construction is based on the fact of lethality dependence on pt functional state assessed by HAQ. Model simulating progression of functional disability in pts with RA visiting medical institutions of Russia was made (RAISER study. 3 model variants for imitation of consecutive change of DMARDs including adalimumab were done. First consecution assessed DMARD change in the next chain: adalimumab-methotrexate-sulfasalazine-leflunomide-azathioprine-cyclosporine-palliative therapy. Second consecution: adalimumab administration after failure of first 3 DMARDs. Third consecution considered only change of synthetic DMARDs without adalimumab inclusion. Model imitated participation of 3000 pts in every consecution. Prognosis horizon was 12 years. Age of pts and initial HAQ distribution were get from results of epidemiological RAISER study. Calculation was done on the base of elevation of standardized lethality level (SLL in population of RA pts in average from 135% to 300%. SLL values from 80 to 320% were used depending on functional disability degree with converting to Russian values of age-specific lethality coefficient for 1999. Results. Lethality in treatment consecutions including adalimumab was significantly lower. To the end of 12th year in group not using adalimumab, using it at once and using it after 376 DMARDs respectively 65,1%, 71,6% and 71,1% of pts were still alive. Conclusion. Significant decrease of lethality with adalimumab inclusion in consecution of DMARD change during treatment of RA pts was demonstrated with imitation modeling

  12. A Small-Molecule Inducible Synthetic Circuit for Control of the SOS Gene Network without DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Jeffrey M; Culyba, Matthew J; Liu, Monica Yun; Mo, Charlie Y; Goulian, Mark; Kohli, Rahul M

    2017-11-17

    The bacterial SOS stress-response pathway is a pro-mutagenic DNA repair system that mediates bacterial survival and adaptation to genotoxic stressors, including antibiotics and UV light. The SOS pathway is composed of a network of genes under the control of the transcriptional repressor, LexA. Activation of the pathway involves linked but distinct events: an initial DNA damage event leads to activation of RecA, which promotes autoproteolysis of LexA, abrogating its repressor function and leading to induction of the SOS gene network. These linked events can each independently contribute to DNA repair and mutagenesis, making it difficult to separate the contributions of the different events to observed phenotypes. We therefore devised a novel synthetic circuit to unlink these events and permit induction of the SOS gene network in the absence of DNA damage or RecA activation via orthogonal cleavage of LexA. Strains engineered with the synthetic SOS circuit demonstrate small-molecule inducible expression of SOS genes as well as the associated resistance to UV light. Exploiting our ability to activate SOS genes independently of upstream events, we further demonstrate that the majority of SOS-mediated mutagenesis on the chromosome does not readily occur with orthogonal pathway induction alone, but instead requires DNA damage. More generally, our approach provides an exemplar for using synthetic circuit design to separate an environmental stressor from its associated stress-response pathway.

  13. An Event-Driven Classifier for Spiking Neural Networks Fed with Synthetic or Dynamic Vision Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Stromatias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel methodology for training an event-driven classifier within a Spiking Neural Network (SNN System capable of yielding good classification results when using both synthetic input data and real data captured from Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS chips. The proposed supervised method uses the spiking activity provided by an arbitrary topology of prior SNN layers to build histograms and train the classifier in the frame domain using the stochastic gradient descent algorithm. In addition, this approach can cope with leaky integrate-and-fire neuron models within the SNN, a desirable feature for real-world SNN applications, where neural activation must fade away after some time in the absence of inputs. Consequently, this way of building histograms captures the dynamics of spikes immediately before the classifier. We tested our method on the MNIST data set using different synthetic encodings and real DVS sensory data sets such as N-MNIST, MNIST-DVS, and Poker-DVS using the same network topology and feature maps. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by achieving the highest classification accuracy reported on the N-MNIST (97.77% and Poker-DVS (100% real DVS data sets to date with a spiking convolutional network. Moreover, by using the proposed method we were able to retrain the output layer of a previously reported spiking neural network and increase its performance by 2%, suggesting that the proposed classifier can be used as the output layer in works where features are extracted using unsupervised spike-based learning methods. In addition, we also analyze SNN performance figures such as total event activity and network latencies, which are relevant for eventual hardware implementations. In summary, the paper aggregates unsupervised-trained SNNs with a supervised-trained SNN classifier, combining and applying them to heterogeneous sets of benchmarks, both synthetic and from real DVS chips.

  14. An Event-Driven Classifier for Spiking Neural Networks Fed with Synthetic or Dynamic Vision Sensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromatias, Evangelos; Soto, Miguel; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel methodology for training an event-driven classifier within a Spiking Neural Network (SNN) System capable of yielding good classification results when using both synthetic input data and real data captured from Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS) chips. The proposed supervised method uses the spiking activity provided by an arbitrary topology of prior SNN layers to build histograms and train the classifier in the frame domain using the stochastic gradient descent algorithm. In addition, this approach can cope with leaky integrate-and-fire neuron models within the SNN, a desirable feature for real-world SNN applications, where neural activation must fade away after some time in the absence of inputs. Consequently, this way of building histograms captures the dynamics of spikes immediately before the classifier. We tested our method on the MNIST data set using different synthetic encodings and real DVS sensory data sets such as N-MNIST, MNIST-DVS, and Poker-DVS using the same network topology and feature maps. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by achieving the highest classification accuracy reported on the N-MNIST (97.77%) and Poker-DVS (100%) real DVS data sets to date with a spiking convolutional network. Moreover, by using the proposed method we were able to retrain the output layer of a previously reported spiking neural network and increase its performance by 2%, suggesting that the proposed classifier can be used as the output layer in works where features are extracted using unsupervised spike-based learning methods. In addition, we also analyze SNN performance figures such as total event activity and network latencies, which are relevant for eventual hardware implementations. In summary, the paper aggregates unsupervised-trained SNNs with a supervised-trained SNN classifier, combining and applying them to heterogeneous sets of benchmarks, both synthetic and from real DVS chips.

  15. Biophysical Constraints Arising from Compositional Context in Synthetic Gene Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Enoch; Dy, Aaron J; Martin, Kyle B; Ng, Andrew H; Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Beck, James L; Collins, James J; Murray, Richard M

    2017-07-26

    Synthetic gene expression is highly sensitive to intragenic compositional context (promoter structure, spacing regions between promoter and coding sequences, and ribosome binding sites). However, much less is known about the effects of intergenic compositional context (spatial arrangement and orientation of entire genes on DNA) on expression levels in synthetic gene networks. We compare expression of induced genes arranged in convergent, divergent, or tandem orientations. Induction of convergent genes yielded up to 400% higher expression, greater ultrasensitivity, and dynamic range than divergent- or tandem-oriented genes. Orientation affects gene expression whether one or both genes are induced. We postulate that transcriptional interference in divergent and tandem genes, mediated by supercoiling, can explain differences in expression and validate this hypothesis through modeling and in vitro supercoiling relaxation experiments. Treatment with gyrase abrogated intergenic context effects, bringing expression levels within 30% of each other. We rebuilt the toggle switch with convergent genes, taking advantage of supercoiling effects to improve threshold detection and switch stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo toxic and lethal cardiovascular effects of a synthetic polymeric 1,3-dodecylpyridinium salt in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandic, Marjana; Sepcic, Kristina; Turk, Tom; Juntes, Polona; Frangez, Robert

    2011-01-01

    APS12-2 is one in a series of synthetic analogs of the polymeric alkylpyridinium salts isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai. As it is a potential candidate for treating non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we have studied its possible toxic and lethal effects in vivo. The median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of APS12-2 in mice was determined to be 11.5 mg/kg. Electrocardiograms, arterial blood pressure and respiratory activity were recorded under general anesthesia in untreated, pharmacologically vagotomized and artificially ventilated rats injected with APS12-2. In one group, the in vivo effects of APS12-2 were studied on nerve-evoked muscle contraction. Administration of APS12-2 at a dose of 8 mg/kg caused a progressive reduction of arterial blood pressure to a mid-circulatory value, accompanied by bradycardia, myocardial ischemia, ventricular extrasystoles, and second degree atrio-ventricular block. Similar electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure changes caused by APS12-2 (8 mg/kg) were observed in animals pretreated with atropine and in artificially ventilated animals, indicating that hypoxia and cholinergic effects do not play a crucial role in the toxicity of APS12-2. Application of APS12-2 at sublethal doses (4 and 5.5 mg/kg) caused a decrease of arterial blood pressure, followed by an increase slightly above control values. We found that APS12-2 causes lysis of rat erythrocytes in vitro, therefore it is reasonable to expect the same effect in vivo. Indeed, hyperkalemia was observed in the blood of experimental animals. Hyperkalemia probably plays an important role in APS12-2 cardiotoxicity since no evident changes in histopathology of the heart were found. However, acute lesions were observed in the pulmonary vessels of rats after application of 8 mg/kg APS12-2. Predominant effects were dilation of interalveolar blood vessels and lysis of aggregated erythrocytes within their lumina. - Highlights: → LD 50 estimated in mice (11.5 mg/kg) revealed that

  17. Effect of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of tobacco (Nicotiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lethal and sub-lethal bioassays on Clarias gariepinus were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum) leaf dust on weight gain and haematological indices of Clarias gariepinus (mean weight 10.5±0.70g) in glass aquaria with aeration system. The concentrations used during the lethal exposure are: ...

  18. ATM loss leads to synthetic lethality in BRCA1 BRCT mutant mice associated with exacerbated defects in homology-directed repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chin; Kass, Elizabeth M; Yen, Wei-Feng; Ludwig, Thomas; Moynahan, Mary Ellen; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Jasin, Maria

    2017-07-18

    BRCA1 is essential for homology-directed repair (HDR) of DNA double-strand breaks in part through antagonism of the nonhomologous end-joining factor 53BP1. The ATM kinase is involved in various aspects of DNA damage signaling and repair, but how ATM participates in HDR and genetically interacts with BRCA1 in this process is unclear. To investigate this question, we used the Brca1 S1598F mouse model carrying a mutation in the BRCA1 C-terminal domain of BRCA1. Whereas ATM loss leads to a mild HDR defect in adult somatic cells, we find that ATM inhibition leads to severely reduced HDR in Brca1 S1598F cells. Consistent with a critical role for ATM in HDR in this background, loss of ATM leads to synthetic lethality of Brca1 S1598F mice. Whereas both ATM and BRCA1 promote end resection, which can be regulated by 53BP1, 53bp1 deletion does not rescue the HDR defects of Atm mutant cells, in contrast to Brca1 mutant cells. These results demonstrate that ATM has a role in HDR independent of the BRCA1-53BP1 antagonism and that its HDR function can become critical in certain contexts.

  19. Lethality Index 2008-2014: Less shootings, same lethality, more opacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva Forné

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the use of lethal force by Mexican federal security forces during shootings with presumed members of organized crime from 2008-2014. The authors use official data and press reports on deaths and wounded in shootings to construct indicators such as the number of dead civilians over the number of dead officials from the federal security forces and the number of dead civilians over the number of wounded civilians. In a context where certain factors that contribute to an excessive use of force become more common, the results of the study show a growing use of lethal force. This raises questions over the possible excessive use of lethal force as a normal or systematic practice. The study also shows a growing context of opacity in the information available to evaluate the use of lethal force and the general lack of a legal framework to regulate the use of lethal force in Mexico.

  20. A Synthetic Lethality Screen Using a Focused siRNA Library to Identify Sensitizers to Dasatinib Therapy for the Treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh B Pathak

    Full Text Available Molecular targeted therapies have been the focus of recent clinical trials for the treatment of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. The majority have not fared well as monotherapies for improving survival of these patients. Poor bioavailability, lack of predictive biomarkers, and the presence of multiple survival pathways can all diminish the success of a targeted agent. Dasatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the Src-family kinases (SFK and in preclinical studies shown to have substantial activity in EOC. However, when evaluated in a phase 2 clinical trial for patients with recurrent or persistent EOC, it was found to have minimal activity. We hypothesized that synthetic lethality screens performed using a cogently designed siRNA library would identify second-site molecular targets that could synergize with SFK inhibition and improve dasatinib efficacy. Using a systematic approach, we performed primary siRNA screening using a library focused on 638 genes corresponding to a network centered on EGFR, HER2, and the SFK-scaffolding proteins BCAR1, NEDD9, and EFS to screen EOC cells in combination with dasatinib. We followed up with validation studies including deconvolution screening, quantitative PCR to confirm effective gene silencing, correlation of gene expression with dasatinib sensitivity, and assessment of the clinical relevance of hits using TCGA ovarian cancer data. A refined list of five candidates (CSNK2A1, DAG1, GRB2, PRKCE, and VAV1 was identified as showing the greatest potential for improving sensitivity to dasatinib in EOC. Of these, CSNK2A1, which codes for the catalytic alpha subunit of protein kinase CK2, was selected for additional evaluation. Synergistic activity of the clinically relevant inhibitor of CK2, CX-4945, with dasatinib in reducing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis was observed across multiple EOC cell lines. This overall approach to improving drug efficacy can be applied to other

  1. Generation of dTALEs and Libraries of Synthetic TALE-Activated Promoters for Engineering of Gene Regulatory Networks in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Tom; Tissier, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factors with programmable DNA-binding specificity constitute valuable tools for the design of orthogonal gene regulatory networks for synthetic biology. Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), as natural transcription regulators, were used to design, build, and test libraries of synthetic TALE-activated promoters (STAPs) that show a broad range of expression levels in plants. In this chapter, we present protocols for the construction of artificial TALEs and corresponding STAPs.

  2. A systematic design method for robust synthetic biology to satisfy design specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chih-Hung

    2009-06-30

    Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine, and is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of the functioning of complex biological systems. However, the development of synthetic gene networks is still difficult and most newly created gene networks are non-functioning due to intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations of intra- and extra-cellular environments. The design method for a robust synthetic gene network that works properly in a host cell under these intrinsic parameter uncertainties and external disturbances is the most important topic in synthetic biology. In this study, we propose a stochastic model that includes parameter fluctuations and external disturbances to mimic the dynamic behaviors of a synthetic gene network in the host cell. Then, based on this stochastic model, four design specifications are introduced to guarantee that a synthetic gene network can achieve its desired steady state behavior in spite of parameter fluctuations, external disturbances and functional variations in the host cell. We propose a systematic method to select a set of appropriate design parameters for a synthetic gene network that will satisfy these design specifications so that the intrinsic parameter fluctuations can be tolerated, the external disturbances can be efficiently filtered, and most importantly, the desired steady states can be achieved. Thus the synthetic gene network can work properly in a host cell under intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations. Finally, a design procedure for the robust synthetic gene network is developed and a design example is given in silico to confirm the performance of the proposed method. Based on four design specifications, a systematic design procedure is developed for designers to engineer a robust synthetic biology network that can achieve its desired steady state behavior

  3. Radiation synthesis and characterisation of the network structure of natural/synthetic double-network superabsorbent polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şen, Murat; Hayrabolulu, Hande

    2012-01-01

    In this study radiation synthesis and characterisation of the network structure of acrylic acid sodium salt/locust bean gum, (AAcNa/LBG) natural/synthetic double-network super absorbent polymers were investigated. Quartet systems composed of acrylic acid sodium salt/locust bean gum/N,N methylene bis acrylamide/water (AAcNa/LBG/MBAAm/water) were prepared at varying degree of neutralisations (DN) by controlling the DN value of AAc and irradiated with gamma rays at ambient temperature at a very low dose rate. The influences of the DN on the swelling and network properties were examined. It was observed that the DN strongly affected the gelation and super absorption properties of the gels. Molecular weight between crosslinks (M ¯ c ), effective crosslink density (ν e ) and mesh size (ξ) of SAPs were calculated from swelling and shear modules data obtained from compression and oscillatory frequency sweep tests. M ¯ c values obtained from the uniaxial deformation experiments were very close to those obtained from the oscillatory shear experiments excluding the completely neutralised gel system. It was concluded that the uniaxial compression technique could be used for the characterisation of the network structure of a hydrogel as along with the rheological analyses; however, a very precise control of the gel size was also needed. - Highlights: ► Radiation synthesis and characterisation of AAcNa/LBG super absorbent polymers described. ► Influences of the DN on the swelling and network properties were examined. ► Molecular weight between crosslinks and effective crosslink density of SAPs were calculated. ► Suitability of rheology technique for the characterisation of hydrogels were demonstrated.

  4. Histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histopathological effects of lethal and sub-lethal concentrations of glyphosate on African catfish Clarias gariepinus were investigated. C. gariepinus juveniles were assessed in a static renewal bioassay for 96 hours (acute toxicity) and 28 days (chronic toxicity) using varying concentrations (0.0 mg/l 20.0 mg/l, 30.0 mg/l, ...

  5. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen E.; Bonheyo, George T.; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    2017-08-01

    In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology. The team analyzes selected interactions within that network to better understand the risks raised by synthetic biology and identifies opportunities for risk mitigation. To introduce the concept, the article will briefly describe how an understanding of supply chains has been important in promoting nuclear nonproliferation objectives. The article concludes by assessing the structure and networks identified in the supply chains to reveal potential opportunities for future biodefense research and development; options for additional information exchange; and means to interdict, detect, or deter suspicious activity.

  6. Combined Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Variability for Computational Network Design with Application to Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Tina; Tidor, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems are inherently variable, with their dynamics influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic sources. These systems are often only partially characterized, with large uncertainties about specific sources of extrinsic variability and biochemical properties. Moreover, it is not yet well understood how different sources of variability combine and affect biological systems in concert. To successfully design biomedical therapies or synthetic circuits with robust performance, it is crucial to account for uncertainty and effects of variability. Here we introduce an efficient modeling and simulation framework to study systems that are simultaneously subject to multiple sources of variability, and apply it to make design decisions on small genetic networks that play a role of basic design elements of synthetic circuits. Specifically, the framework was used to explore the effect of transcriptional and post-transcriptional autoregulation on fluctuations in protein expression in simple genetic networks. We found that autoregulation could either suppress or increase the output variability, depending on specific noise sources and network parameters. We showed that transcriptional autoregulation was more successful than post-transcriptional in suppressing variability across a wide range of intrinsic and extrinsic magnitudes and sources. We derived the following design principles to guide the design of circuits that best suppress variability: (i) high protein cooperativity and low miRNA cooperativity, (ii) imperfect complementarity between miRNA and mRNA was preferred to perfect complementarity, and (iii) correlated expression of mRNA and miRNA – for example, on the same transcript – was best for suppression of protein variability. Results further showed that correlations in kinetic parameters between cells affected the ability to suppress variability, and that variability in transient states did not necessarily follow the same principles as variability in the steady

  7. Network Support for Social 3-D Immersive Tele-Presence with Highly Realistic Natural and Synthetic Avatar Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Mekuria (Rufael); A. Frisiello (Antonella); M Pasin (Marco); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe next generation in 3D tele-presence is based on modular systems that combine live captured object based 3D video and synthetically authored 3D graphics content. This paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a network solution for multi-party real-time communication

  8. Theories of Lethal Mutagenesis: From Error Catastrophe to Lethal Defection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Héctor; Montero, Francisco; Nuño, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses get extinct in a process called lethal mutagenesis when subjected to an increase in their mutation rate, for instance, by the action of mutagenic drugs. Several approaches have been proposed to understand this phenomenon. The extinction of RNA viruses by increased mutational pressure was inspired by the concept of the error threshold. The now classic quasispecies model predicts the existence of a limit to the mutation rate beyond which the genetic information of the wild type could not be efficiently transmitted to the next generation. This limit was called the error threshold, and for mutation rates larger than this threshold, the quasispecies was said to enter into error catastrophe. This transition has been assumed to foster the extinction of the whole population. Alternative explanations of lethal mutagenesis have been proposed recently. In the first place, a distinction is made between the error threshold and the extinction threshold, the mutation rate beyond which a population gets extinct. Extinction is explained from the effect the mutation rate has, throughout the mutational load, on the reproductive ability of the whole population. Secondly, lethal defection takes also into account the effect of interactions within mutant spectra, which have been shown to be determinant for the understanding the extinction of RNA virus due to an augmented mutational pressure. Nonetheless, some relevant issues concerning lethal mutagenesis are not completely understood yet, as so survival of the flattest, i.e. the development of resistance to lethal mutagenesis by evolving towards mutationally more robust regions of sequence space, or sublethal mutagenesis, i.e., the increase of the mutation rate below the extinction threshold which may boost the adaptability of RNA virus, increasing their ability to develop resistance to drugs (including mutagens). A better design of antiviral therapies will still require an improvement of our knowledge about lethal

  9. Genetic interaction network of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 1 phosphatase Glc7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neszt Michael

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein kinases and phosphatases regulate protein phosphorylation, a critical means of modulating protein function, stability and localization. The identification of functional networks for protein phosphatases has been slow due to their redundant nature and the lack of large-scale analyses. We hypothesized that a genome-scale analysis of genetic interactions using the Synthetic Genetic Array could reveal protein phosphatase functional networks. We apply this approach to the conserved type 1 protein phosphatase Glc7, which regulates numerous cellular processes in budding yeast. Results We created a novel glc7 catalytic mutant (glc7-E101Q. Phenotypic analysis indicates that this novel allele exhibits slow growth and defects in glucose metabolism but normal cell cycle progression and chromosome segregation. This suggests that glc7-E101Q is a hypomorphic glc7 mutant. Synthetic Genetic Array analysis of glc7-E101Q revealed a broad network of 245 synthetic sick/lethal interactions reflecting that many processes are required when Glc7 function is compromised such as histone modification, chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, nutrient sensing and DNA damage. In addition, mitochondrial activity and inheritance and lipid metabolism were identified as new processes involved in buffering Glc7 function. An interaction network among 95 genes genetically interacting with GLC7 was constructed by integration of genetic and physical interaction data. The obtained network has a modular architecture, and the interconnection among the modules reflects the cooperation of the processes buffering Glc7 function. Conclusion We found 245 genes required for the normal growth of the glc7-E101Q mutant. Functional grouping of these genes and analysis of their physical and genetic interaction patterns bring new information on Glc7-regulated processes.

  10. Lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides in the management of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) on Capsicum annuum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Mariana O; Oliveira, José V; Esteves Filho, Alberto B; Barbosa, Douglas Rs; Santos, Andrezo A

    2017-10-01

    The evaluation of lethal and sublethal effects is of great importance for a complete assessment of the total impact of chemical compounds upon pest populations and the development of management strategies. In this study, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of different synthetic and botanical products on the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), a major pest of Capsicum annuum L. and other crops. Abamectin had the highest lethal effect on P. latus, followed by spiromesifen, azadirachtin, neem oil and nitrogen fertiliser + citric acid. The sublethal effects of the products were indicated by the influence on mite population growth, affecting the numbers of females, males, larvae, pupae and eggs. Furthermore, a negative instantaneous rate of increase in P. latus and repellent effects were observed. The lethal and sublethal effects of abamectin, spiromesifen, azadirachtin and neem oil significantly affect P. latus population growth, as well as causing repellence to this mite on C. annuum, and they should be considered in the integrated pest management of this mite. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. From noise to synthetic nucleoli: can synthetic biology achieve new insights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechonska, Marta; Grob, Alice; Isalan, Mark

    2016-04-18

    Synthetic biology aims to re-organise and control biological components to make functional devices. Along the way, the iterative process of designing and testing gene circuits has the potential to yield many insights into the functioning of the underlying chassis of cells. Thus, synthetic biology is converging with disciplines such as systems biology and even classical cell biology, to give a new level of predictability to gene expression, cell metabolism and cellular signalling networks. This review gives an overview of the contributions that synthetic biology has made in understanding gene expression, in terms of cell heterogeneity (noise), the coupling of growth and energy usage to expression, and spatiotemporal considerations. We mainly compare progress in bacterial and mammalian systems, which have some of the most-developed engineering frameworks. Overall, one view of synthetic biology can be neatly summarised as "creating in order to understand."

  12. The membrane stress response buffers lethal effects of lipid disequilibrium by reprogramming the protein homeostasis network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Guillaume; Shui, Guanghou; Kim, Woong; McAlister, Graeme C; Ismail, Nurzian; Gygi, Steven P; Wenk, Markus R; Ng, Davis T W

    2012-10-12

    Lipid composition can differ widely among organelles and even between leaflets of a membrane. Lipid homeostasis is critical because disequilibrium can have disease outcomes. Despite their importance, mechanisms maintaining lipid homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we establish a model system to study the global effects of lipid imbalance. Quantitative lipid profiling was integral to monitor changes to lipid composition and for system validation. Applying global transcriptional and proteomic analyses, a dramatically altered biochemical landscape was revealed from adaptive cells. The resulting composite regulation we term the "membrane stress response" (MSR) confers compensation, not through restoration of lipid composition, but by remodeling the protein homeostasis network. To validate its physiological significance, we analyzed the unfolded protein response (UPR), one facet of the MSR and a key regulator of protein homeostasis. We demonstrate that the UPR maintains protein biogenesis, quality control, and membrane integrity-functions otherwise lethally compromised in lipid dysregulated cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A New Processing Method Combined with BP Neural Network for Francis Turbine Synthetic Characteristic Curve Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A BP (backpropagation neural network method is employed to solve the problems existing in the synthetic characteristic curve processing of hydroturbine at present that most studies are only concerned with data in the high efficiency and large guide vane opening area, which can hardly meet the research requirements of transition process especially in large fluctuation situation. The principle of the proposed method is to convert the nonlinear characteristics of turbine to torque and flow characteristics, which can be used for real-time simulation directly based on neural network. Results show that obtained sample data can be extended successfully to cover working areas wider under different operation conditions. Another major contribution of this paper is the resampling technique proposed in the paper to overcome the limitation to sample period simulation. In addition, a detailed analysis for improvements of iteration convergence of the pressure loop is proposed, leading to a better iterative convergence during the head pressure calculation. Actual applications verify that methods proposed in this paper have better simulation results which are closer to the field and provide a new perspective for hydroturbine synthetic characteristic curve fitting and modeling.

  14. TinkerCell: modular CAD tool for synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Deepak; Bergmann, Frank T; Sauro, Herbert M

    2009-01-01

    Background Synthetic biology brings together concepts and techniques from engineering and biology. In this field, computer-aided design (CAD) is necessary in order to bridge the gap between computational modeling and biological data. Using a CAD application, it would be possible to construct models using available biological "parts" and directly generate the DNA sequence that represents the model, thus increasing the efficiency of design and construction of synthetic networks. Results An application named TinkerCell has been developed in order to serve as a CAD tool for synthetic biology. TinkerCell is a visual modeling tool that supports a hierarchy of biological parts. Each part in this hierarchy consists of a set of attributes that define the part, such as sequence or rate constants. Models that are constructed using these parts can be analyzed using various third-party C and Python programs that are hosted by TinkerCell via an extensive C and Python application programming interface (API). TinkerCell supports the notion of a module, which are networks with interfaces. Such modules can be connected to each other, forming larger modular networks. TinkerCell is a free and open-source project under the Berkeley Software Distribution license. Downloads, documentation, and tutorials are available at . Conclusion An ideal CAD application for engineering biological systems would provide features such as: building and simulating networks, analyzing robustness of networks, and searching databases for components that meet the design criteria. At the current state of synthetic biology, there are no established methods for measuring robustness or identifying components that fit a design. The same is true for databases of biological parts. TinkerCell's flexible modeling framework allows it to cope with changes in the field. Such changes may involve the way parts are characterized or the way synthetic networks are modeled and analyzed computationally. TinkerCell can readily

  15. TinkerCell: modular CAD tool for synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology brings together concepts and techniques from engineering and biology. In this field, computer-aided design (CAD is necessary in order to bridge the gap between computational modeling and biological data. Using a CAD application, it would be possible to construct models using available biological "parts" and directly generate the DNA sequence that represents the model, thus increasing the efficiency of design and construction of synthetic networks. Results An application named TinkerCell has been developed in order to serve as a CAD tool for synthetic biology. TinkerCell is a visual modeling tool that supports a hierarchy of biological parts. Each part in this hierarchy consists of a set of attributes that define the part, such as sequence or rate constants. Models that are constructed using these parts can be analyzed using various third-party C and Python programs that are hosted by TinkerCell via an extensive C and Python application programming interface (API. TinkerCell supports the notion of a module, which are networks with interfaces. Such modules can be connected to each other, forming larger modular networks. TinkerCell is a free and open-source project under the Berkeley Software Distribution license. Downloads, documentation, and tutorials are available at http://www.tinkercell.com. Conclusion An ideal CAD application for engineering biological systems would provide features such as: building and simulating networks, analyzing robustness of networks, and searching databases for components that meet the design criteria. At the current state of synthetic biology, there are no established methods for measuring robustness or identifying components that fit a design. The same is true for databases of biological parts. TinkerCell's flexible modeling framework allows it to cope with changes in the field. Such changes may involve the way parts are characterized or the way synthetic networks are modeled

  16. Suicide Lethality: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBastiani, Summer; De Santis, Joseph P

    2018-02-01

    Suicide is a significant health problem internationally. Those who complete suicide may have different behaviors and risk factors than those who attempt a non-fatal suicide. The purpose of this article is to analyze the concept of suicide lethality and propose a clear definition of the concept through the identification of antecedents, attributes, and consequences. A literature search for articles published in the English language between 1970 and 2016 was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Psychlit, Ovid, PsycINFO, and Proquest. The bibliographies of all included studies were also reviewed to identify additional relevant citations. A concept analysis was conducted on the literature findings using six stages of Walker and Avant's method. The concept analysis differentiated between suicide, lethality, suicidal behavior, and suicide lethality. Presence of a suicide plan or a written suicide note was not found to be associated with the majority of completed suicides included in the definition of suicide lethality. There are a few scales that measure the lethality of a suicide attempt, but none that attempt to measure the concept of suicide lethality as described in this analysis. Clarifying the concept of suicide lethality encourages awareness of the possibility of different suicidal behaviors associated with different suicide outcomes and will inform the development of future nursing interventions. A clearer definition of the concept of suicide lethality will guide clinical practice, research, and policy development aimed at suicide prevention.

  17. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  18. Application of Deep Networks to Oil Spill Detection Using Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guandong Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR remote sensing provides an outstanding tool in oil spill detection and classification, for its advantages in distinguishing mineral oil and biogenic lookalikes. Various features can be extracted from polarimetric SAR data. The large number and correlated nature of polarimetric SAR features make the selection and optimization of these features impact on the performance of oil spill classification algorithms. In this paper, deep learning algorithms such as the stacked autoencoder (SAE and deep belief network (DBN are applied to optimize the polarimetric feature sets and reduce the feature dimension through layer-wise unsupervised pre-training. An experiment was conducted on RADARSAT-2 quad-polarimetric SAR image acquired during the Norwegian oil-on-water exercise of 2011, in which verified mineral, emulsions, and biogenic slicks were analyzed. The results show that oil spill classification achieved by deep networks outperformed both support vector machine (SVM and traditional artificial neural networks (ANN with similar parameter settings, especially when the number of training data samples is limited.

  19. Gene interactions in the DNA damage-response pathway identified by genome-wide RNA-interference analysis of synthetic lethality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaften, Gijs; Vastenhouw, Nadine L; Nollen, Ellen A A; Plasterk, Ronald H A; Tijsterman, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    Here, we describe a systematic search for synthetic gene interactions in a multicellular organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We established a high-throughput method to determine synthetic gene interactions by genome-wide RNA interference and identified genes that are required to protect

  20. Toward Synthetic Biology Strategies for Adipic Acid Production: An in Silico Tool for Combined Thermodynamics and Stoichiometric Analysis of Metabolic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Averesch, Nils J. H.; Martínez, Verónica S.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2018-01-01

    Adipic acid, a nylon-6,6 precursor, has recently gained popularity in synthetic biology. Here, 16 different production routes to adipic acid were evaluated using a novel tool for network-embedded thermodynamic analysis of elementary flux modes. The tool distinguishes between thermodynamically...

  1. A non-homogeneous dynamic Bayesian network with sequentially coupled interaction parameters for applications in systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Husmeier, Dirk

    2012-07-12

    An important and challenging problem in systems biology is the inference of gene regulatory networks from short non-stationary time series of transcriptional profiles. A popular approach that has been widely applied to this end is based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs), although traditional homogeneous DBNs fail to model the non-stationarity and time-varying nature of the gene regulatory processes. Various authors have therefore recently proposed combining DBNs with multiple changepoint processes to obtain time varying dynamic Bayesian networks (TV-DBNs). However, TV-DBNs are not without problems. Gene expression time series are typically short, which leaves the model over-flexible, leading to over-fitting or inflated inference uncertainty. In the present paper, we introduce a Bayesian regularization scheme that addresses this difficulty. Our approach is based on the rationale that changes in gene regulatory processes appear gradually during an organism's life cycle or in response to a changing environment, and we have integrated this notion in the prior distribution of the TV-DBN parameters. We have extensively tested our regularized TV-DBN model on synthetic data, in which we have simulated short non-homogeneous time series produced from a system subject to gradual change. We have then applied our method to real-world gene expression time series, measured during the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster, under artificially generated constant light condition in Arabidopsis thaliana, and from a synthetically designed strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to a changing environment.

  2. Synthetic Biology Platform for Sensing and Integrating Endogenous Transcriptional Inputs in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Bartolomeo; Mailand, Erik; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2016-08-30

    One of the goals of synthetic biology is to develop programmable artificial gene networks that can transduce multiple endogenous molecular cues to precisely control cell behavior. Realizing this vision requires interfacing natural molecular inputs with synthetic components that generate functional molecular outputs. Interfacing synthetic circuits with endogenous mammalian transcription factors has been particularly difficult. Here, we describe a systematic approach that enables integration and transduction of multiple mammalian transcription factor inputs by a synthetic network. The approach is facilitated by a proportional amplifier sensor based on synergistic positive autoregulation. The circuits efficiently transduce endogenous transcription factor levels into RNAi, transcriptional transactivation, and site-specific recombination. They also enable AND logic between pairs of arbitrary transcription factors. The results establish a framework for developing synthetic gene networks that interface with cellular processes through transcriptional regulators. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  4. Philosophy of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This entry aims to clarify how systems and synthetic biology contribute to and extend discussions within philosophy of science. Unlike fields such as developmental biology or molecular biology, systems and synthetic biology are not easily demarcated by a focus on a specific subject area or level...... of organization. Rather, they are characterized by the development and application of mathematical, computational, and synthetic modeling strategies in response to complex problems and challenges within the life sciences. Proponents of systems and synthetic biology often stress the necessity of a perspective...... that goes beyond the scope of molecular biology and genetic engineering, respectively. With the emphasis on systems and interaction networks, the approaches explicitly engage in one of the oldest philosophical discussions on the relationship between parts and wholes, or between reductionism and holism...

  5. A Synthetic Biology Framework for Programming Eukaryotic Transcription Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmad S.; Lu, Timothy K.; Bashor, Caleb J.; Ramirez, Cherie L.; Pyenson, Nora C.; Joung, J. Keith; Collins, James J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) perform complex and combinatorial functions within transcriptional networks. Here, we present a synthetic framework for systematically constructing eukaryotic transcription functions using artificial zinc fingers, modular DNA-binding domains found within many eukaryotic TFs. Utilizing this platform, we construct a library of orthogonal synthetic transcription factors (sTFs) and use these to wire synthetic transcriptional circuits in yeast. We engineer complex functions, such as tunable output strength and transcriptional cooperativity, by rationally adjusting a decomposed set of key component properties, e.g., DNA specificity, affinity, promoter design, protein-protein interactions. We show that subtle perturbations to these properties can transform an individual sTF between distinct roles (activator, cooperative factor, inhibitory factor) within a transcriptional complex, thus drastically altering the signal processing behavior of multi-input systems. This platform provides new genetic components for synthetic biology and enables bottom-up approaches to understanding the design principles of eukaryotic transcriptional complexes and networks. PMID:22863014

  6. Synthetic biology: Novel approaches for microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Vaca, Felipe; Anaya-Velázquez, Fernando; Franco, Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    In the past twenty years, molecular genetics has created powerful tools for genetic manipulation of living organisms. Whole genome sequencing has provided necessary information to assess knowledge on gene function and protein networks. In addition, new tools permit to modify organisms to perform desired tasks. Gene function analysis is speed up by novel approaches that couple both high throughput data generation and mining. Synthetic biology is an emerging field that uses tools for generating novel gene networks, whole genome synthesis and engineering. New applications in biotechnological, pharmaceutical and biomedical research are envisioned for synthetic biology. In recent years these new strategies have opened up the possibilities to study gene and genome editing, creation of novel tools for functional studies in virus, parasites and pathogenic bacteria. There is also the possibility to re-design organisms to generate vaccine subunits or produce new pharmaceuticals to combat multi-drug resistant pathogens. In this review we provide our opinion on the applicability of synthetic biology strategies for functional studies of pathogenic organisms and some applications such as genome editing and gene network studies to further comprehend virulence factors and determinants in pathogenic organisms. We also discuss what we consider important ethical issues for this field of molecular biology, especially for potential misuse of the new technologies. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  7. Factors influencing circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, R C; Bozigian, H P; Davies, M H; Merrick, B A; Park, K S; McMillan, D A

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of changes in lighting schedules and food consumption on circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels in male mice. Under a normal lighting schedule (light: 06.00-18.00 h), male mice exhibited a circadian rhythm in acetaminophen lethality (peak: 18.00 h; nadir: 06.00, 10.00 h) and an inverse rhythm in hepatic glutathione concentrations (peak: 06.00, 10.00 h; nadir: 18.00 h). Under a reversed lighting schedule (light: 18.00-06.00 h) the glutathione rhythm was reversed and the rhythm in acetaminophen lethality was altered showing greater sensitivity to the drug. Under continuous light, there was a shift in the acetaminophen lethality and the hepatic glutathione rhythms. Under continuous dark, both rhythms were abolished. Under a normal lighting regimen, hepatic glutathione levels were closely correlated with food consumption; i.e., both were increased during the dark phase and decreased during the light phase. Fasting the mice for 12 h abolished the rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels; moreover, the lethality was increased and the hepatic glutathione levels were decreased. These experiments show that both lighting schedules and feeding can alter the circadian rhythms in acetaminophen lethality and hepatic glutathione levels in male mice.

  8. Convolutional neural networks based on augmented training samples for synthetic aperture radar target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yue

    2018-03-01

    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) automatic target recognition (ATR) method based on the convolutional neural networks (CNN) trained by augmented training samples is proposed. To enhance the robustness of CNN to various extended operating conditions (EOCs), the original training images are used to generate the noisy samples at different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), multiresolution representations, and partially occluded images. Then, the generated images together with the original ones are used to train a designed CNN for target recognition. The augmented training samples can contrapuntally improve the robustness of the trained CNN to the covered EOCs, i.e., the noise corruption, resolution variance, and partial occlusion. Moreover, the significantly larger training set effectively enhances the representation capability for other conditions, e.g., the standard operating condition (SOC), as well as the stability of the network. Therefore, better performance can be achieved by the proposed method for SAR ATR. For experimental evaluation, extensive experiments are conducted on the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition dataset under SOC and several typical EOCs.

  9. Post-synthetic transformation of a Zn(ii) polyhedral coordination network into a new supramolecular isomer of HKUST-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ma, Shengqian; Zaworotko, Michael J; Zhang, Zhenjie

    2017-08-03

    A Zn-based porphyrin containing metal-organic material (porphMOM-1) was transformed into a novel Cu-based porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material (porph@HKUST-1-β) via a one-pot post-synthetic modification (PSM) process involving both metal ion exchange and linker installation of trimesic acid. HKUST-1-β is the first example of yao topology and is to our knowledge the first supramolecular isomer of the archetypal coordination network HKUST-1.

  10. Biomimetic oral mucin from polymer micelle networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authimoolam, Sundar Prasanth

    Mucin networks are formed by the complexation of bottlebrush-like mucin glycoprotein with other small molecule glycoproteins. These glycoproteins create nanoscale strands that then arrange into a nanoporous mesh. These networks play an important role in ensuring surface hydration, lubricity and barrier protection. In order to understand the functional behavior in mucin networks, it is important to decouple their chemical and physical effects responsible for generating the fundamental property-function relationship. To achieve this goal, we propose to develop a synthetic biomimetic mucin using a layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition approach. In this work, a hierarchical 3-dimensional structures resembling natural mucin networks was generated using affinity-based interactions on synthetic and biological surfaces. Unlike conventional polyelectrolyte-based LBL methods, pre-assembled biotin-functionalized filamentous (worm-like) micelles was utilized as the network building block, which from complementary additions of streptavidin generated synthetic networks of desired thickness. The biomimetic nature in those synthetic networks are studied by evaluating its structural and bio-functional properties. Structurally, synthetic networks formed a nanoporous mesh. The networks demonstrated excellent surface hydration property and were able capable of microbial capture. Those functional properties are akin to that of natural mucin networks. Further, the role of synthetic mucin as a drug delivery vehicle, capable of providing localized and tunable release was demonstrated. By incorporating antibacterial curcumin drug loading within synthetic networks, bacterial growth inhibition was also demonstrated. Thus, such bioactive interfaces can serve as a model for independently characterizing mucin network properties and through its role as a drug carrier vehicle it presents exciting future opportunities for localized drug delivery, in regenerative applications and as bio

  11. A Review of Power Distribution Test Feeders in the United States and the Need for Synthetic Representative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E. Postigo Marcos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the increasing penetration of distributed energy resources and new smart network technologies, distribution utilities face new challenges and opportunities to ensure reliable operations, manage service quality, and reduce operational and investment costs. Simultaneously, the research community is developing algorithms for advanced controls and distribution automation that can help to address some of these challenges. However, there is a shortage of realistic test systems that are publically available for development, testing, and evaluation of such new algorithms. Concerns around revealing critical infrastructure details and customer privacy have severely limited the number of actual networks published and that are available for testing. In recent decades, several distribution test feeders and US-featured representative networks have been published, but the scale, complexity, and control data vary widely. This paper presents a first-of-a-kind structured literature review of published distribution test networks with a special emphasis on classifying their main characteristics and identifying the types of studies for which they have been used. This both aids researchers in choosing suitable test networks for their needs and highlights the opportunities and directions for further test system development. In particular, we highlight the need for building large-scale synthetic networks to overcome the identified drawbacks of current distribution test feeders.

  12. Understanding Biological Regulation Through Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashor, Caleb J; Collins, James J

    2018-03-16

    Engineering synthetic gene regulatory circuits proceeds through iterative cycles of design, building, and testing. Initial circuit designs must rely on often-incomplete models of regulation established by fields of reductive inquiry-biochemistry and molecular and systems biology. As differences in designed and experimentally observed circuit behavior are inevitably encountered, investigated, and resolved, each turn of the engineering cycle can force a resynthesis in understanding of natural network function. Here, we outline research that uses the process of gene circuit engineering to advance biological discovery. Synthetic gene circuit engineering research has not only refined our understanding of cellular regulation but furnished biologists with a toolkit that can be directed at natural systems to exact precision manipulation of network structure. As we discuss, using circuit engineering to predictively reorganize, rewire, and reconstruct cellular regulation serves as the ultimate means of testing and understanding how cellular phenotype emerges from systems-level network function. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biophysics Volume 47 is May 20, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  13. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of five pesticides used in rice farming on the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Sabater, Consuelo; Castillo, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of five pesticides typically used in rice farming (trichlorfon, dimethoate, carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz) was evaluated on different lethal and sub-lethal endpoints of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. The evaluated endpoints included: avoidance behaviour after an exposure

  14. Lethal Epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-09-01

    Epistaxis or nosebleed refers to bleeding from the nostrils, nasal cavity, or nasopharynx. Occasional cases may present with torrential lethal hemorrhage. Three cases are reported to demonstrate particular features: Case 1: A 51-year-old woman with lethal epistaxis with no obvious bleeding source; Case 2: A 77-year-old man with treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma who died from epistaxis arising from a markedly neovascularized tumor bed; Case 3: A 2-year-old boy with hemophilia B who died from epistaxis with airway obstruction in addition to gastrointestinal bleeding. Epistaxis may be associated with trauma, tumors, vascular malformations, bleeding diatheses, infections, pregnancy, endometriosis, and a variety of different drugs. Careful dissection of the nasal cavity is required to locate the site of hemorrhage and to identify any predisposing conditions. This may be guided by postmortem computerized tomographic angiography (PCTA). Despite careful dissection, however, a source of bleeding may never be identified. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Expansion of the role of web-based social networks related to synthetic mesh/tape complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Caroline; Zimmern, Philippe E

    2015-07-01

    To update a prior report on web-based networks and frequently visited forums used by patients affected by synthetic mesh and/or tape (SMT) complications and to present the new developments in this dynamic SMT field following recent FDA notifications. A review of available blogs and forums on SMT complications was conducted using the terms "mesh complications", "mesh blogs", and "polypropylene mesh removal" in Internet search engines for the United States and several other countries. Forums from a prior report were analyzed for updates, and new forums with their founders were identified using same search methodology. The number of posts and new fields from 07/2011 to 10/2013 was recorded, and then divided into categories based on broad content (personal stories, supportive replies to complaints, patients recommending physicians, legal stories, newspaper/article stories with reactions, other). Although four social networks became inactive, four expanded and at least five new major ones surfaced. While personal stories and support remained a prominent topic of discussion, other categories increased, such as the number of posts discussing physician referrals and reactions to news stories. Additionally, the number of posts designated to personal stories decreased. Finally, discussion about the topic expanded internationally. Web-based social networks for women suffering from SMT have expanded and the contents have broadened with new domains being introduced. Patient networking remains a dynamic force in the current debate on the future of these procedures.

  16. Synthetic Lethal Metabolic Targeting of Senescent Cells after Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Department of the Army position , policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188...Xenograft tumors from the 2A will be sectioned and immunofluorescence will be used and quantitated using the automated Vectra™ system for Hsp27...targets the global PSR network, not just one of its many downstream mediators. Notably, metformin is an inexpensive drug with documented safety, even

  17. Lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) and other lethal arthrogryposes in Finland--an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkasjärvi, Niklas; Ritvanen, Annukka; Herva, Riitta; Peltonen, Leena; Kestilä, Marjo; Ignatius, Jaakko

    2006-09-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by multiple contractures with an estimated frequency of 1 in 3,000 births. With improving diagnostic methods, increasing numbers of fetuses with arthrogryposis are found. The pathogenetic mechanisms are relatively well known but the epidemiology and genetics of the prenatally lethal forms of arthrogryposis are less well known. In this study we collected all cases of a multiple contractures diagnosed in Finland during 1987-2002 including live born infants, stillbirths, and terminated pregnancies. Ninety-two cases of 214 suffered intrauterine demise (68 selective pregnancy terminations and 24 stillbirths) and 58 died in infancy. In 141 out of these cases the diagnosis could be included within lethal arthrogryposes, with a prevalence of 1 in 6,985 (1.43/10,000) births. Of these, 59 had spinal cord pathology at autopsy and thus were of neurogenic origin. Thirty-nine cases had lethal congenital contracture syndrome (LCCS) clinically characterized by total immobility of the fetus at all ultrasound examinations (12 weeks or later), multiple joint contractures in both upper and lower limbs, hydrops, and fetal death before the 32nd week of pregnancy. LCCS is noted as a unique Finnish disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 25,250 (0.40/10,000) births and is a major cause of lethal arthrogryposis in Finland.

  18. Chronic Exposure of Corals to Fine Sediments: Lethal and Sub-Lethal Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Florita; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Smith, Luke D.; Cooper, Timothy F.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS) for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata) more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora). The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l−1 TSS (25 mg cm−2 day−1) for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l−1 TSS (83 mg cm−2 day−1) for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue. PMID:22662225

  19. Chronic exposure of corals to fine sediments: lethal and sub-lethal impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florita Flores

    Full Text Available Understanding the sedimentation and turbidity thresholds for corals is critical in assessing the potential impacts of dredging projects in tropical marine systems. In this study, we exposed two species of coral sampled from offshore locations to six levels of total suspended solids (TSS for 16 weeks in the laboratory, including a 4 week recovery period. Dose-response relationships were developed to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal thresholds of sedimentation and turbidity for the corals. The sediment treatments affected the horizontal foliaceous species (Montipora aequituberculata more than the upright branching species (Acropora millepora. The lowest sediment treatments that caused full colony mortality were 30 mg l(-1 TSS (25 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for M. aequituberculata and 100 mg l(-1 TSS (83 mg cm(-2 day(-1 for A. millepora after 12 weeks. Coral mortality generally took longer than 4 weeks and was closely related to sediment accumulation on the surface of the corals. While measurements of damage to photosystem II in the symbionts and reductions in lipid content and growth indicated sub-lethal responses in surviving corals, the most reliable predictor of coral mortality in this experiment was long-term sediment accumulation on coral tissue.

  20. How to turn a genetic circuit into a synthetic tunable oscillator, or a bistable switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Marucci

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems and Synthetic Biology use computational models of biological pathways in order to study in silico the behaviour of biological pathways. Mathematical models allow to verify biological hypotheses and to predict new possible dynamical behaviours. Here we use the tools of non-linear analysis to understand how to change the dynamics of the genes composing a novel synthetic network recently constructed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for In-vivo Reverse-engineering and Modelling Assessment (IRMA. Guided by previous theoretical results that make the dynamics of a biological network depend on its topological properties, through the use of simulation and continuation techniques, we found that the network can be easily turned into a robust and tunable synthetic oscillator or a bistable switch. Our results provide guidelines to properly re-engineering in vivo the network in order to tune its dynamics.

  1. SCScore: Synthetic Complexity Learned from a Reaction Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Connor W; Rogers, Luke; Green, William H; Jensen, Klavs F

    2018-02-26

    Several definitions of molecular complexity exist to facilitate prioritization of lead compounds, to identify diversity-inducing and complexifying reactions, and to guide retrosynthetic searches. In this work, we focus on synthetic complexity and reformalize its definition to correlate with the expected number of reaction steps required to produce a target molecule, with implicit knowledge about what compounds are reasonable starting materials. We train a neural network model on 12 million reactions from the Reaxys database to impose a pairwise inequality constraint enforcing the premise of this definition: that on average, the products of published chemical reactions should be more synthetically complex than their corresponding reactants. The learned metric (SCScore) exhibits highly desirable nonlinear behavior, particularly in recognizing increases in synthetic complexity throughout a number of linear synthetic routes.

  2. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  3. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  4. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  5. Rewiring cells: synthetic biology as a tool to interrogate the organizational principles of living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashor, Caleb J; Horwitz, Andrew A; Peisajovich, Sergio G; Lim, Wendell A

    2010-01-01

    The living cell is an incredibly complex entity, and the goal of predictively and quantitatively understanding its function is one of the next great challenges in biology. Much of what we know about the cell concerns its constituent parts, but to a great extent we have yet to decode how these parts are organized to yield complex physiological function. Classically, we have learned about the organization of cellular networks by disrupting them through genetic or chemical means. The emerging discipline of synthetic biology offers an additional, powerful approach to study systems. By rearranging the parts that comprise existing networks, we can gain valuable insight into the hierarchical logic of the networks and identify the modular building blocks that evolution uses to generate innovative function. In addition, by building minimal toy networks, one can systematically explore the relationship between network structure and function. Here, we outline recent work that uses synthetic biology approaches to investigate the organization and function of cellular networks, and describe a vision for a synthetic biology toolkit that could be used to interrogate the design principles of diverse systems.

  6. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Nonrigid synthetic aperture radar and optical image coregistration by combining local rigid transformations using a Kohonen network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, Mehdi; Behrad, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a new algorithm for nonrigid coregistration of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical images. The proposed algorithm employs point features extracted by the binary robust invariant scalable keypoints algorithm and a new method called weighted bidirectional matching for initial correspondence. To refine false matches, we assume that the transformation between SAR and optical images is locally rigid. This property is used to refine false matches by assigning scores to matched pairs and clustering local rigid transformations using a two-layer Kohonen network. Finally, the thin plate spline algorithm and mutual information are used for nonrigid coregistration of SAR and optical images.

  8. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i) system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii) system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii) system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv) systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering. PMID:24709875

  9. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering.

  10. Mining of lethal recessive genetic variation in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...... lethal or semi-lethal recessive gentic variation...

  11. Exploring the impact of big data in economic geology using cloud-based synthetic sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    In a market demanding lower resource prices and increasing efficiencies, resources companies are increasingly looking to the realm of real-time, high-frequency data streams to better measure and manage their minerals processing chain, from pit to plant to port. Sensor streams can include real-time drilling engineering information, data streams from mining trucks, and on-stream sensors operating in the plant feeding back rich chemical information. There are also many opportunities to deploy new sensor streams - unlike environmental monitoring networks, the mine environment is not energy- or bandwidth-limited. Although the promised efficiency dividends are inviting, the path to achieving these is difficult to see for most companies. As well as knowing where to invest in new sensor technology and how to integrate the new data streams, companies must grapple with risk-laden changes to their established methods of control to achieve maximum gains. What is required is a sandbox data environment for the development of analysis and control strategies at scale, allowing companies to de-risk proposed changes before actually deploying them to a live mine environment. In this presentation we describe our approach to simulating real-time scaleable data streams in a mine environment. Our sandbox consists of three layers: (a) a ground-truth layer that contains geological models, which can be statistically based on historical operations data, (b) a measurement layer - a network of RESTful synthetic sensor microservices which can simulate measurements of ground-truth properties, and (c) a control layer, which integrates the sensor streams and drives the measurement and optimisation strategies. The control layer could be a new machine learner, or simply a company's existing data infrastructure. Containerisation allows rapid deployment of large numbers of sensors, as well as service discovery to form a dynamic network of thousands of sensors, at a far lower cost than physically

  12. SYNTHETIC EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT – A FOOTPACE TO NEW EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga P. Pinchuk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the problems of introducing a synthetic learning environment in the practice of education. The modern views on the essence of the learning environment and its new forms based on information and communication technologies are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to a range of issues that are united in the English-language publications as a "synthetic environment", which is considered in two aspects – artificial environment and synthetic as is formed due to the synthesis of the real physical world and the results of simulation and modeling. There are considered issues of trends in usage of game-based learning and modeling as cognitive technologies, as well as of social networks as a synthetic environment of social development. Conclusions are drawn: synthetic learning environment becomes an independent subject of learning through the expansion of its content and didactic power, transformation of the individual as a recipient of knowledge into the synthesizing element of the educational process in the metaverse.

  13. Toxic influence of silver and uranium salts on activated sludge of wastewater treatment plants and synthetic activated sludge associates modeled on its pure cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyupa, Dmitry V; Kalenov, Sergei V; Skladnev, Dmitry A; Khokhlachev, Nikolay S; Baurina, Marina M; Kuznetsov, Alexander Ye

    2015-01-01

    Toxic impact of silver and uranium salts on activated sludge of wastewater treatment facilities has been studied. Some dominating cultures (an active nitrogen fixer Agrobacterium tumifaciens (A.t) and micromyces such as Fusarium nivale, Fusarium oxysporum, and Penicillium glabrum) have been isolated and identified as a result of selection of the activated sludge microorganisms being steadiest under stressful conditions. For these cultures, the lethal doses of silver amounted 1, 600, 50, and 300 µg/l and the lethal doses of uranium were 120, 1,500, 1,000, and 1,000 mg/l, respectively. A.tumifaciens is shown to be more sensitive to heavy metals than micromyces. Synthetic granular activated sludge was formed on the basis of three cultures of the isolated micromyces steadiest against stress. Its granules were much more resistant to silver than the whole native activated sludge was. The concentration of silver causing 50 % inhibition of synthetic granular activated sludge growth reached 160-170 μg/l as far as for the native activated sludge it came only to 100-110 μg/l.

  14. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehli, Tore; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    in synthetic biology. A number of tools exist to manipulate the steps in between gene sequence and functional protein in living cells, but out of these the most straight-forward approach is to alter the gene expression level by manipulating the promoter sequence. Some of the promoter tuning tools available......Synthetic and systems biologists need standardized, modular and orthogonal tools yielding predictable functions in vivo. In systems biology such tools are needed to quantitatively analyze the behavior of biological systems while the efficient engineering of artificial gene networks is central...... for accomplishing such altered gene expression levels are discussed here along with examples of their use, and ideas for new tools are described. The road ahead looks very promising for synthetic and systems biologists as tools to achieve just about anything in terms of tuning and timing multiple gene expression...

  15. Lethality of Rendang packaged in multilayer retortable pouch with sterilization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharasti, A. S.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Frediansyah, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Khasanah, Y.; Suprapedi

    2017-01-01

    Retort Pouch had become a choice to preserve foods nowadays, besides the used of the can. Both had their own advantages, and Retort Pouch became more popular for the reason of cheaper and easier to recycle. General Method usually used to estimate the lethality of commercial heat sterilization process. Lethality value wa s used for evaluating the efficacy of the thermal process. This study aimed to find whether different layers of pouch materials affect the lethality value and to find differences lethality in two types of multilayer retort pouch, PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP and PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP. The result showed that the different layer arrangement was resulted different Sterilization Value (SV). PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had better heat penetration, implied by the higher value of lethality. PET/Nylon/Modified Aluminum/CPP had the lethality value of 6,24 minutes, whereas the lethality value of PET/Aluminum Foil/Nylon/RCPP was 3,54 minutes.

  16. WISB: Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology promises to create high-impact solutions to challenges in the areas of biotechnology, human/animal health, the environment, energy, materials and food security. Equally, synthetic biologists create tools and strategies that have the potential to help us answer important fundamental questions in biology. Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology (WISB) pursues both of these mutually complementary 'build to apply' and 'build to understand' approaches. This is reflected in our research structure, in which a core theme on predictive biosystems engineering develops underpinning understanding as well as next-generation experimental/theoretical tools, and these are then incorporated into three applied themes in which we engineer biosynthetic pathways, microbial communities and microbial effector systems in plants. WISB takes a comprehensive approach to training, education and outreach. For example, WISB is a partner in the EPSRC/BBSRC-funded U.K. Doctoral Training Centre in synthetic biology, we have developed a new undergraduate module in the subject, and we have established five WISB Research Career Development Fellowships to support young group leaders. Research in Ethical, Legal and Societal Aspects (ELSA) of synthetic biology is embedded in our centre activities. WISB has been highly proactive in building an international research and training network that includes partners in Barcelona, Boston, Copenhagen, Madrid, Marburg, São Paulo, Tartu and Valencia. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. The use of social networking sites: A risk factor for using alcohol, marijuana, and synthetic cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Kevin M; Cooper, Theodore V

    2016-06-01

    The use of social networking sites (SNS) has become a central aspect of youth culture allowing individuals to explore and assert their identities. A commonly portrayed online identity is an "alcohol identity," and past research suggests such identities may contribute to one's risk of using alcohol. The present study builds on past research by examining the relationship between alcohol, marijuana, and synthetic cannabinoid use (e.g., Spice, K2) and time spent on SNS in a sample of college students. Six hundred ninety nine undergraduates (62.4% female; Mage=21.0, SD=8.56) were recruited from a university on the U.S./Mexico border for an online study. Participants completed measures assessing demographics, substance use history, and amount of time spent on SNS. Participants reported spending 46h per month on SNS. Seventy-one percent, 14%, and 3% of the sample reported past month use of alcohol, marijuana, and synthetic cannabinoids, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that hours spent on SNS in the past month were significantly associated with frequency of alcohol (psynthetic cannabinoid use (pmarijuana use in the past month (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). These findings suggest that assessment of time spent on SNS is warranted in studies investigating drug use among college students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Bladder tumor lethality. Results in the autonomous community of Rioja between 1975-1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, A; Gil Fabra, J; Fernández Ruíz, M; Angulo Castellanos, M G; Blanco Martín, E; Otero Mauricio, G

    1998-01-01

    Between 1975-1991, a total of 557 cases of bladder carcinoma were identified in the Autonomous Community of La Rioja (CAR) which were followed up to December 1994. The overall lethality was 21.9%. 492 cases with 22.35% lethality were identified in males. In females, however, there was 65 cases with 18.46% lethality. The comparison of males and females lethality resulted in p = 0.525. Lethality between cases diagnosed within each 5-year period analyzed is: 1975-1981: 177 cases, lethality 23.72%. 1982-1986: 168 cases, lethality 30.95%. 1987-1991: 212 cases, lethality 13.20%. Between the first and the second 5-year periods, p = 0.132; between the first and third 5-year periods p = 0.007 and between the second and third 5-year periods p CAR for a 22.35% lethality. Lethality is higher in males that in females but the difference is not statistically significant. In the last 5-year period assessed, 1987-1991, a reduction of lethality from bladder neoplasms has been documented.

  19. Synchronous long-term oscillations in a synthetic gene circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin-Trottier, Laurent; Lord, Nathan D; Vinnicombe, Glenn; Paulsson, Johan

    2016-10-27

    Synthetically engineered genetic circuits can perform a wide variety of tasks but are generally less accurate than natural systems. Here we revisit the first synthetic genetic oscillator, the repressilator, and modify it using principles from stochastic chemistry in single cells. Specifically, we sought to reduce error propagation and information losses, not by adding control loops, but by simply removing existing features. We show that this modification created highly regular and robust oscillations. Furthermore, some streamlined circuits kept 14 generation periods over a range of growth conditions and kept phase for hundreds of generations in single cells, allowing cells in flasks and colonies to oscillate synchronously without any coupling between them. Our results suggest that even the simplest synthetic genetic networks can achieve a precision that rivals natural systems, and emphasize the importance of noise analyses for circuit design in synthetic biology.

  20. Reverse engineering validation using a benchmark synthetic gene circuit in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Taek; White, Jacob T; Xie, Zhen; Benenson, Yaakov; Sontag, Eduardo; Bleris, Leonidas

    2013-05-17

    Multicomponent biological networks are often understood incompletely, in large part due to the lack of reliable and robust methodologies for network reverse engineering and characterization. As a consequence, developing automated and rigorously validated methodologies for unraveling the complexity of biomolecular networks in human cells remains a central challenge to life scientists and engineers. Today, when it comes to experimental and analytical requirements, there exists a great deal of diversity in reverse engineering methods, which renders the independent validation and comparison of their predictive capabilities difficult. In this work we introduce an experimental platform customized for the development and verification of reverse engineering and pathway characterization algorithms in mammalian cells. Specifically, we stably integrate a synthetic gene network in human kidney cells and use it as a benchmark for validating reverse engineering methodologies. The network, which is orthogonal to endogenous cellular signaling, contains a small set of regulatory interactions that can be used to quantify the reconstruction performance. By performing successive perturbations to each modular component of the network and comparing protein and RNA measurements, we study the conditions under which we can reliably reconstruct the causal relationships of the integrated synthetic network.

  1. Partial Information Community Detection in a Multilayer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    26 3 Methodology 33 3.1 Topology of the Noordin Top Terrorist Network . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.2 Partial Information... Topology of Synthetic Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4.4 Four Discovery Algorithms Discovering Red Vertices in a Synthetic Network 72 4.5...without their expertise and analysis. I have been lucky enough to have learned from the wonderful faculty of Applied Mathe - matics Department at the Naval

  2. Synthetic mast-cell granules as adjuvants to promote and polarize immunity in lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Ashley L.; Chan, Cheryl Y.; Staats, Herman F.; Leong, Kam W.; Abraham, Soman N.

    2012-03-01

    Granules of mast cells (MCs) enhance adaptive immunity when, on activation, they are released as stable particles. Here we show that submicrometre particles modelled after MC granules augment immunity when used as adjuvants in vaccines. The synthetic particles, which consist of a carbohydrate backbone with encapsulated inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor, replicate attributes of MCs in vivo including the targeting of draining lymph nodes and the timed release of the encapsulated mediators. When used as an adjuvant during vaccination of mice with haemagglutinin from the influenza virus, the particles enhanced adaptive immune responses and increased survival of mice on lethal challenge. Furthermore, differential loading of the particles with the cytokine IL-12 directed the character of the response towards Th1 lymphocytes. The synthetic MC adjuvants replicate and enhance the functions of MCs during vaccination, and can be extended to polarize the resulting immunity.

  3. Synthetic biology approaches in cancer immunotherapy, genetic network engineering, and genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, Deboki; Cho, Jang Hwan; Weinberg, Benjamin H; Wong, Nicole M; Wong, Wilson W

    2016-04-18

    Investigations into cells and their contents have provided evolving insight into the emergence of complex biological behaviors. Capitalizing on this knowledge, synthetic biology seeks to manipulate the cellular machinery towards novel purposes, extending discoveries from basic science to new applications. While these developments have demonstrated the potential of building with biological parts, the complexity of cells can pose numerous challenges. In this review, we will highlight the broad and vital role that the synthetic biology approach has played in applying fundamental biological discoveries in receptors, genetic circuits, and genome-editing systems towards translation in the fields of immunotherapy, biosensors, disease models and gene therapy. These examples are evidence of the strength of synthetic approaches, while also illustrating considerations that must be addressed when developing systems around living cells.

  4. Humanitarian Algorithms : A Codified Key Safety Switch Protocol for Lethal Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    With the deployment of lethal autonomous weapons, there is the requirement that any such platform complies with the precepts of International Humanitarian Law. Humanitarian Algorithms[9: p. 9] ensure that lethal autonomous weapon systems perform military/security operations, within the confines of International Humanitarian Law. Unlike other existing techniques of regulating lethal autonomy this scheme advocates for an approach that enables Machine Learning. Lethal autonomous weapons must be ...

  5. Epistemic uncertainty in California-wide synthetic seismicity simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred F.

    2011-01-01

    The generation of seismicity catalogs on synthetic fault networks holds the promise of providing key inputs into probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis, for example, the coefficient of variation, mean recurrence time as a function of magnitude, the probability of fault-to-fault ruptures, and conditional probabilities for foreshock–mainshock triggering. I employ a seismicity simulator that includes the following ingredients: static stress transfer, viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and mantle, and vertical stratification of elastic and viscoelastic material properties. A cascade mechanism combined with a simple Coulomb failure criterion is used to determine the initiation, propagation, and termination of synthetic ruptures. It is employed on a 3D fault network provided by Steve Ward (unpublished data, 2009) for the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Earthquake Simulators Group. This all-California fault network, initially consisting of 8000 patches, each of ∼12 square kilometers in size, has been rediscretized into Graphic patches, each of ∼1 square kilometer in size, in order to simulate the evolution of California seismicity and crustal stress at magnitude M∼5–8. Resulting synthetic seismicity catalogs spanning 30,000 yr and about one-half million events are evaluated with magnitude-frequency and magnitude-area statistics. For a priori choices of fault-slip rates and mean stress drops, I explore the sensitivity of various constructs on input parameters, particularly mantle viscosity. Slip maps obtained for the southern San Andreas fault show that the ability of segment boundaries to inhibit slip across the boundaries (e.g., to prevent multisegment ruptures) is systematically affected by mantle viscosity.

  6. Non-Lethal Weapons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets Frequently Asked Questions Non-Lethal Weapons FAQs Active Denial System FAQs Human Electro -Muscular Incapacitation FAQs Related Links Business Opportunities Contact JNLWD Congressional Engagement , Wednesday, Sept 20, 2017. The Active Denial System, blunt-impact munitions, dazzling lasers, LRAD 100X

  7. Mammalian synthetic biology for studying the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Melina; Xiang, Joy S; Smolke, Christina D

    2017-01-02

    Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes. Continued development of quantitative standards and computational tools will expand capacities to probe cellular mechanisms with genetic devices to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the cell. In this study, we review synthetic biology tools that are being applied to effectively investigate diverse cellular processes, regulatory networks, and multicellular interactions. We also discuss current challenges and future developments in the field that may transform the types of investigation possible in cell biology. © 2017 Mathur et al.

  8. Engineering emergent multicellular behavior through synthetic adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, David; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar

    In over a decade, synthetic biology has developed increasingly robust gene networks within single cells, but constructed very few systems that demonstrate multicellular spatio-temporal dynamics. We are filling this gap in synthetic biology's toolbox by developing an E. coli self-assembly platform based on modular cell-cell adhesion. We developed a system in which adhesive selectivity is provided by a library of outer membrane-displayed peptides with intra-library specificities, while affinity is provided by consistent expression across the entire library. We further provide a biophysical model to help understand the parameter regimes in which this tool can be used to self-assemble into cellular clusters, filaments, or meshes. The combined platform will enable future development of synthetic multicellular systems for use in consortia-based metabolic engineering, in living materials, and in controlled study of minimal multicellular systems. Stanford Bio-X Bowes Fellowship.

  9. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-Lethal Weapons: Opportunities for R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    during the Vietnam War. US; emulsifying agents are used in food processing, drilling fluids, cosmetics , pharmaceuticals, heavy- duty cleaners, textile...conducted in a professional manner, with no threat to public safety or the environment. 11 References [1] Fenton , G., (2001). NLW Technology Taxonomy...W.A., Mason, R.L., Collins, K.R., (2000). Non-Lethal Applicants of Slippery Substances. NDIA Non-Lethal Defense IV. [24] Fenton , G., (2000). Overview

  11. Programming Morphogenesis through Systems and Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Jeremy J; Su, Emily; Cahan, Patrick; Ebrahimkhani, Mo R

    2018-04-01

    Mammalian tissue development is an intricate, spatiotemporal process of self-organization that emerges from gene regulatory networks of differentiating stem cells. A major goal in stem cell biology is to gain a sufficient understanding of gene regulatory networks and cell-cell interactions to enable the reliable and robust engineering of morphogenesis. Here, we review advances in synthetic biology, single cell genomics, and multiscale modeling, which, when synthesized, provide a framework to achieve the ambitious goal of programming morphogenesis in complex tissues and organoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Smart-DS: Synthetic Models for Advanced, Realistic Testing: Distribution Systems and Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hale, Elaine T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgindy, Tarek [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bugbee, Bruce [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rossol, Michael N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vergara, Claudio [MIT; Domingo, Carlos Mateo [IIT Comillas; Postigo, Fernando [IIT Comillas; de Cuadra, Fernando [IIT Comillas; Gomez, Tomas [IIT Comillas; Duenas, Pablo [MIT; Luke, Max [MIT; Li, Vivian [MIT; Vinoth, Mohan [GE Grid Solutions; Kadankodu, Sree [GE Grid Solutions

    2017-08-09

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Universidad Pontificia Comillas (Comillas-IIT, Spain) and GE Grid Solutions, is working on an ARPA-E GRID DATA project, titled Smart-DS, to create: 1) High-quality, realistic, synthetic distribution network models, and 2) Advanced tools for automated scenario generation based on high-resolution weather data and generation growth projections. Through these advancements, the Smart-DS project is envisioned to accelerate the development, testing, and adoption of advanced algorithms, approaches, and technologies for sustainable and resilient electric power systems, especially in the realm of U.S. distribution systems. This talk will present the goals and overall approach of the Smart-DS project, including the process of creating the synthetic distribution datasets using reference network model (RNM) and the comprehensive validation process to ensure network realism, feasibility, and applicability to advanced use cases. The talk will provide demonstrations of early versions of synthetic models, along with the lessons learnt from expert engagements to enhance future iterations. Finally, the scenario generation framework, its development plans, and co-ordination with GRID DATA repository teams to house these datasets for public access will also be discussed.

  13. Enumeration of smallest intervention strategies in genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel von Kamp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One ultimate goal of metabolic network modeling is the rational redesign of biochemical networks to optimize the production of certain compounds by cellular systems. Although several constraint-based optimization techniques have been developed for this purpose, methods for systematic enumeration of intervention strategies in genome-scale metabolic networks are still lacking. In principle, Minimal Cut Sets (MCSs; inclusion-minimal combinations of reaction or gene deletions that lead to the fulfilment of a given intervention goal provide an exhaustive enumeration approach. However, their disadvantage is the combinatorial explosion in larger networks and the requirement to compute first the elementary modes (EMs which itself is impractical in genome-scale networks. We present MCSEnumerator, a new method for effective enumeration of the smallest MCSs (with fewest interventions in genome-scale metabolic network models. For this we combine two approaches, namely (i the mapping of MCSs to EMs in a dual network, and (ii a modified algorithm by which shortest EMs can be effectively determined in large networks. In this way, we can identify the smallest MCSs by calculating the shortest EMs in the dual network. Realistic application examples demonstrate that our algorithm is able to list thousands of the most efficient intervention strategies in genome-scale networks for various intervention problems. For instance, for the first time we could enumerate all synthetic lethals in E.coli with combinations of up to 5 reactions. We also applied the new algorithm exemplarily to compute strain designs for growth-coupled synthesis of different products (ethanol, fumarate, serine by E.coli. We found numerous new engineering strategies partially requiring less knockouts and guaranteeing higher product yields (even without the assumption of optimal growth than reported previously. The strength of the presented approach is that smallest intervention strategies can be

  14. Genome Editing in Escherichia coli with Cas9 and synthetic CRISPRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ze; Richardson, Sarah; Robinson, David; Deutsch, Samuel; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2014-03-14

    Recently, the Cas9-CRISPR system has proven to be a useful tool for genome editing in eukaryotes, which repair the double stranded breaks made by Cas9 with non-homologous end joining or homologous recombination. Escherichia coli lacks non-homologous end joining and has a very low homologous recombination rate, effectively rendering targeted Cas9 activity lethal. We have developed a heat curable, serializable, plasmid based system for selectionless Cas9 editing in arbitrary E. coli strains that uses synthetic CRISPRs for targeting and -red to effect repairs of double stranded breaks. We have demonstrated insertions, substitutions, and multi-target deletions with our system, which we have tested in several strains.

  15. Lethal synergy involving bicyclomycin: an approach for reviving old antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad; Li, Liping; Zhao, Xilin; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Drlica, Karl

    2014-12-01

    One way to address the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance is to revive old compounds that may have intrinsic lethal activity that is obscured by protective factors. Bicyclomycin is an old inhibitor of the Rho transcription terminator that by itself shows little rapid lethal activity. However, bicyclomycin participates in bacteriostatic synergy, which raises the possibility that conditions for lethal synergy may exist, perhaps through a suppression of protective factors. Bicyclomycin was combined with bacteriostatic inhibitors of gene expression, and bactericidal activity was measured with several cultured Gram-negative pathogens. When used alone, bicyclomycin failed to rapidly kill growing cultures of Escherichia coli; however, the additional presence of bacteriostatic concentrations of tetracycline, chloramphenicol or rifampicin led to rapid killing. Four other pathogen species, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Shigella dysenteriae, also exhibited enhanced killing when bicyclomycin was combined with tetracycline or rifampicin. This lethal synergy was achieved at low concentrations (slightly above the MIC) for all agents tested in combinations. Follow-up work with E. coli indicated that lethal synergy arose from a blockage of transcription elongation. Moreover, lethal synergy was reduced when bicyclomycin was added 60 min before tetracycline, suggesting that bicyclomycin induces a protective factor. The action of bicyclomycin illustrates the potential present in a largely abandoned antibacterial agent; it exhibits lethal synergy when coadministered with known, bacteriostatic inhibitors of gene expression. The identification of protective factors, which are currently uncharacterized, may reveal new ways to promote the lethal action of some old antibiotics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved

  16. Assessment of synthetic image fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin D.; Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Watson, Graham H.; Thomson, Mitch; Yates, T.; Troscianko, Tomasz; Tolhurst, David J.

    2000-07-01

    Computer generated imagery is increasingly used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from computer games to flight simulators to camouflage and sensor assessment. The fidelity required for this imagery is dependent on the anticipated use - for example when used for camouflage design it must be physically correct spectrally and spatially. The rendering techniques used will also depend upon the waveband being simulated, spatial resolution of the sensor and the required frame rate. Rendering of natural outdoor scenes is particularly demanding, because of the statistical variation in materials and illumination, atmospheric effects and the complex geometric structures of objects such as trees. The accuracy of the simulated imagery has tended to be assessed subjectively in the past. First and second order statistics do not capture many of the essential characteristics of natural scenes. Direct pixel comparison would impose an unachievable demand on the synthetic imagery. For many applications, such as camouflage design, it is important that nay metrics used will work in both visible and infrared wavebands. We are investigating a variety of different methods of comparing real and synthetic imagery and comparing synthetic imagery rendered to different levels of fidelity. These techniques will include neural networks (ICA), higher order statistics and models of human contrast perception. This paper will present an overview of the analyses we have carried out and some initial results along with some preliminary conclusions regarding the fidelity of synthetic imagery.

  17. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools......, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex...... regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal...

  18. Influence Analysis of Shell Material and Charge on Shrapnel Lethal Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the shrapnel lethal power with different shell material and charge, LS-DYNA was used to numerically simulate four kinds of shrapnel lethal power. The shell material was 58SiMn, 50SiMnVB or 40Cr, whereas the charge was RL-F. And the shell material was 58SiMn, whereas the charge was TNT. The shell rupture process and lethal power test were analyzed. The results show that, the lethal power of RL-F charge increase by 25%, 45%, 14% compared with the TNT charge, whereas the shell material was 58SiMn, 50SiMnVB, 40Cr. And then the guarantee range and lethal power can be improved by using the high explosive and changing shell material, whereas the projectile shape coefficient is invariable.

  19. Inhibitory action of chlorophyllin of autosome recessive lethals induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salceda, V.M.; Pimentel, P.A.E.; Cruces, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    The chlorophyllin is a sodium salt of the chlorophyll that has a strong protective action of the damage induced by different agents so much physical as chemical. In Drosophila there is reported this effect in somatic cells. In contrast, in germinal cells using tests with the sexual chromosomes has not been found such inhibitory action. For this reason, in this occasion we will refer to the effect of the lethality induced in autosome chromosomes, in particular to the chromosome II of this species. For such effect groups of males of the line Canton-S its were pre-treated for 24h with or without 69 mm of CCS and later on treaties with or without 40 Gy of gamma irradiation. The males were then subjected to the technical Cy L / Pm for the detection of recessive lethals. In the third generation the respective counts of the descendant of each one of them to determine the corresponding categories for each extracted chromosome were made. To be mendelian crosses it is expected for a normal chromosome a proportion 2:1 of individuals with genotype Cy L / +: +/+. The absence of individuals +/+ it is indicative of a lethal gene, until 10% of these individuals of each male's total descendant, it is considered that is carrying of a semi lethal gene. The sum of lethal and semi lethals constitutes the category detrimental. The obtained results indicated that the pre-treatment with CCS reduces in a significant way the frequency of induced lethals by 40 Gy of gamma rays. The fact that an effect inhibitor has not been observed in the test of recessive lethal bound to the sex obtained previously, it contrasts with the effect observed in the chromosome II, results of this study and with the one observed in the chromosome III in somatic cells. The above-mentioned shows a differential action of the CCS between sexual chromosomes and autosomal before the effect of the gamma radiation. At the moment we don't have an explanation to these evidences. To evaluate the action of the chlorophyllin

  20. Lethal and Sub-lethal Effects of Four Insecticides on the Aphidophagous Coccinellid Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Masetti, Antonio; Pasqualini, Edison; Burgio, Giovanni

    2017-12-05

    Conventional insecticide assays, which measure the effects of insecticide exposure on short-term mortality, overlook important traits, including persistence of toxicity or sub-lethal effects. Therefore, such approaches are especially inadequate for prediction of the overall impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods. In this study, the side effects of four modern insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and spirotetramat) on Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions by exposition on treated potted plants. In addition to investigation of acute toxicity and persistence of harmful activity in both larvae and adults of A. bipunctata, demographic parameters were evaluated, to provide a comprehensive picture of the nontarget effects of these products. Field doses of the four insecticides caused detrimental effects to A. bipunctata; but in different ways. Overall, spinosad showed the best toxicological profile among the products tested. Emamectin benzoate could be considered a low-risk insecticide, but had high persistence. Chlorantraniliprole exhibited lethal effects on early instar larvae and adults, along with a long-lasting activity, instead spirotetramat showed a low impact on larval and adult mortality and can be considered a short-lived insecticide. However, demographic analysis demonstrated that chlorantraniliprole and spirotetramat caused sub-lethal effects. Our findings highlight that sole assessment of mortality can lead to underestimation of the full impact of pesticides on nontarget insects. Demographic analysis was demonstrated to be a sensitive method for detection of the sub-lethal effects of insecticides on A. bipunctata, and this approach should be considered for evaluation of insecticide selectivity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Experiences in therapy for lethal midline granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaka, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Takeru

    1982-01-01

    Four cases of the lethal midline granuloma or malignant granuloma of the nose were treated by irradiation and chemotherapy, which are generally prescribed for malignant lymphomas. Clinical, histological and laboratory examination indicated that they were the lethal midline granuloma and clearly differentiated from Wegener's granulomatosis or malignant lymphoma. All of the cases exhibited primary remission. The four cases were observed up to 38, 22, 14, and 10 months since the beginning of the therapy, showing no local or general recurrence. (author)

  2. Synthetic social support: Theorizing lay health worker interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nicola K; Kenyon, Sara; MacArthur, Christine; Jolly, Kate; Hope, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    Levels of social support are strongly associated with health outcomes and inequalities. The use of lay health workers (LHWs) has been suggested by policy makers across the world as an intervention to identify risks to health and to promote health, particularly in disadvantaged communities. However, there have been few attempts to theorize the work undertaken by LHWs to understand how interventions work. In this article, the authors present the concept of 'synthetic socialsupport' and distinguish it from the work of health professionals or the spontaneous social support received from friends and family. The authors provide new empirical data to illustrate the concept based on qualitative, observational research, using a novel shadowing method involving clinical and non-clinical researchers, on the everyday work of 'pregnancy outreach workers' (POWs) in Birmingham, UK. The service was being evaluated as part of a randomized controlled trial. These LHWs provided instrumental, informational, emotional and appraisal support to the women they worked with, which are all key components of social support. The social support was 'synthetic' because it was distinct from the support embedded in spontaneous social networks: it was non-reciprocal; it was offered on a strictly time-limited basis; the LHWs were accountable for the relationship, and the social networks produced were targeted rather than spontaneous. The latter two qualities of this synthetic form of social support may have benefits over spontaneous networks by improving the opportunities for the cultivation of new relationships (both strong and weak ties) outside the women's existing spontaneous networks that can have a positive impact on them and by offering a reliable source of health information and support in a chaotic environment. The concept of SSS can help inform policy makers about how deploying lay workers may enable them to achieve desired outcomes, specify their programme theories and evaluate

  3. Back to the future: revisiting HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, Michael J.; Patterson, Steven E.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of eliminating HIV-1 infectivity by elevating the viral mutation rate was first proposed over a decade ago, even though the general concept had been conceived earlier for RNA viruses. Lethal mutagenesis was originally viewed as a novel chemotherapeutic approach for treating HIV-1 infection in which use of a viral mutagen would over multiple rounds of replication lead to the lethal accumulation of mutations, rendering the virus population non infectious – known as the slow mutation accumulation model. There have been limitations in obtaining good efficacy data with drug leads, leaving some doubt into clinical translation. More recent studies of the APOBEC3 proteins as well as new progress in the use of nucleoside analogs for inducing lethal mutagenesis have helped to refocus attention on rapid induction of HIV-1 lethal mutagenesis in a single or limited number of replication cycles leading to a rapid mutation accumulation model. PMID:23195922

  4. Basic science through engineering? Synthetic modeling and the idea of biology-inspired engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, Tarja; Loettgers, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a sophisticated epistemic dimension, as shown by the recent practice of synthetic modeling. Synthetic models are engineered genetic networks that are implanted in a natural cell environment. Their construction is typically combined with experiments on model organisms as well as mathematical modeling and simulation. What is especially interesting about this combinational modeling practice is that, apart from greater integration between these different epistemic activities, it has also led to the questioning of some central assumptions and notions on which synthetic biology is based. As a result synthetic biology is in the process of becoming more "biology inspired." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic biology in the UK - An outline of plans and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L J; Kitney, R I

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic biology is capable of delivering new solutions to key challenges spanning the bioeconomy, both nationally and internationally. Recognising this significant potential and the associated need to facilitate its translation and commercialisation the UK government commissioned the production of a national Synthetic Biology Roadmap in 2011, and subsequently provided crucial support to assist its implementation. Critical infrastructural investments have been made, and important strides made towards the development of an effectively connected community of practitioners and interest groups. A number of Synthetic Biology Research Centres, DNA Synthesis Foundries, a Centre for Doctoral Training, and an Innovation Knowledge Centre have been established, creating a nationally distributed and integrated network of complementary facilities and expertise. The UK Synthetic Biology Leadership Council published a UK Synthetic Biology Strategic Plan in 2016, increasing focus on the processes of translation and commercialisation. Over 50 start-ups, SMEs and larger companies are actively engaged in synthetic biology in the UK, and inward investments are starting to flow. Together these initiatives provide an important foundation for stimulating innovation, actively contributing to international research and development partnerships, and helping deliver useful benefits from synthetic biology in response to local and global needs and challenges.

  6. Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease presenting as hydrops fetalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenHamida, Emira; Ayadi, Imene; Ouertani, Ines; Chammem, Maroua; Bezzine, Ahlem; BenTmime, Riadh; Attia, Leila; Mrad, Ridha; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease is very rare and is considered a variant of type 2 Gaucher disease that occurs in the neonatal period. The most distinct features of perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease are non-immune hydrops fetalis. Less common signs of the disease are hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis and arthrogryposis. We report a case of Gaucher's disease (type 2) diagnosed in a newborn who presented with Hydrops Fetalis.

  7. Mapping the Emergence of Synthetic Biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Raimbault

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply an original scientometric analyses to a corpus comprising synthetic biology (SynBio publications in Thomson Reuters Web of Science to characterize the emergence of this new scientific field. Three results were drawn from this empirical investigation. First, despite the exponential growth of publications, the study of population level statistics (newcomers proportion, collaboration network structure shows that SynBio has entered a stabilization process since 2010. Second, the mapping of textual and citational networks shows that SynBio is characterized by high heterogeneity and four different approaches: the central approach, where biobrick engineering is the most widespread; genome engineering; protocell creation; and metabolic engineering. We suggest that synthetic biology acts as an umbrella term allowing for the mobilization of resources, and also serves to relate scientific content and promises of applications. Third, we observed a strong intertwinement between epistemic and socio-economic dynamics. Measuring scientific production and impact and using structural analysis data, we identified a core set of mostly American scientists. Biographical analysis shows that these central and influential scientists act as "boundary spanners," meaning that their importance to the field lies not only in their academic contributions, but also in their capacity to interact with other social spaces that are outside the academic sphere.

  8. Lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Yim, Chung Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    We have detailed our experiences on 6 cases of neonatal lethal short-limbed dwarfism and reviewed the articles. They include, achondrogenesis, thanatophoric dysplasia, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfect a congenita, and hypophosphatasia lethals. Five babies were born alive but died soon after birth and one was a stillbirth. The main cause of failure to thrive was respiratory insufficiency. Each case was having quite characteristic radiologic findings, even if the general appearances were similar to the achondroplasts clinically. Precise diagnosis is very important for genetic counselling of the parents and alarm to them the possibility of bone dysplasias to the next offsprings. For this purpose, the radiologists play major role for the correct diagnosis. We stress that when the baby is born with short-limbed dwarfism, whole body radiogram should be taken including lateral view and postmortem radiogram is also very precious.

  9. Lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Yim, Chung Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    We have detailed our experiences on 6 cases of neonatal lethal short-limbed dwarfism and reviewed the articles. They include, achondrogenesis, thanatophoric dysplasia, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfect a congenita, and hypophosphatasia lethals. Five babies were born alive but died soon after birth and one was a stillbirth. The main cause of failure to thrive was respiratory insufficiency. Each case was having quite characteristic radiologic findings, even if the general appearances were similar to the achondroplasts clinically. Precise diagnosis is very important for genetic counselling of the parents and alarm to them the possibility of bone dysplasias to the next offsprings. For this purpose, the radiologists play major role for the correct diagnosis. We stress that when the baby is born with short-limbed dwarfism, whole body radiogram should be taken including lateral view and postmortem radiogram is also very precious.

  10. Synthetic strategies for plant signalling studies: molecular toolbox and orthogonal platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Braguy, Justine

    2016-05-26

    Plants deploy a wide array of signalling networks integrating environmental cues with growth, defence and developmental responses. The high level of complexity, redundancy and connection between several pathways hampers a comprehensive understanding of involved functional and regulatory mechanisms. The implementation of synthetic biology approaches is revolutionizing experimental biology in prokaryotes, yeasts and animal systems and can likewise contribute to a new era in plant biology. This review gives an overview on synthetic biology approaches for the development and implementation of synthetic molecular tools and techniques to interrogate, understand and control signalling events in plants, ranging from strategies for the targeted manipulation of plant genomes up to the spatiotemporally resolved control of gene expression using optogenetic approaches. We also describe strategies based on the partial reconstruction of signalling pathways in orthogonal platforms, like yeast, animal and in vitro systems. This allows a targeted analysis of individual signalling hubs devoid of inter-connectivity with endogenous interacting components. Implementation of the interdisciplinary synthetic biology tools and strategies is not exempt of challenges and hardships but simultaneously most rewarding in terms of the advances in basic and applied research. As witnessed in other areas, these original theoretical-experimental avenues will lead to a breakthrough in the ability to study and comprehend plant signalling networks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks

  12. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, Danielle S., E-mail: dsb@seas.upenn.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sage Center for the Study of the Mind, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T. [Department of Psychology and UCSB Brain Imaging Center, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Porter, Mason A. [Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); CABDyN Complexity Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 1HP (United Kingdom); Mucha, Peter J. [Carolina Center for Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.

  13. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohemi Sala

    Full Text Available Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  14. Lethal interpersonal violence in the Middle Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-Pérez, Ana; Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force trauma. The type of injuries, their location, the strong similarity of the fractures in shape and size, and the different orientations and implied trajectories of the two fractures suggest they were produced with the same object in face-to-face interpersonal conflict. Given that either of the two traumatic events was likely lethal, the presence of multiple blows implies an intention to kill. This finding shows that the lethal interpersonal violence is an ancient human behavior and has important implications for the accumulation of bodies at the site, supporting an anthropic origin.

  15. MR-based synthetic CT generation using a deep convolutional neural network method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    Interests have been rapidly growing in the field of radiotherapy to replace CT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to superior soft tissue contrast offered by MRI and the desire to reduce unnecessary radiation dose. MR-only radiotherapy also simplifies clinical workflow and avoids uncertainties in aligning MR with CT. Methods, however, are needed to derive CT-equivalent representations, often known as synthetic CT (sCT), from patient MR images for dose calculation and DRR-based patient positioning. Synthetic CT estimation is also important for PET attenuation correction in hybrid PET-MR systems. We propose in this work a novel deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) method for sCT generation and evaluate its performance on a set of brain tumor patient images. The proposed method builds upon recent developments of deep learning and convolutional neural networks in the computer vision literature. The proposed DCNN model has 27 convolutional layers interleaved with pooling and unpooling layers and 35 million free parameters, which can be trained to learn a direct end-to-end mapping from MR images to their corresponding CTs. Training such a large model on our limited data is made possible through the principle of transfer learning and by initializing model weights from a pretrained model. Eighteen brain tumor patients with both CT and T1-weighted MR images are used as experimental data and a sixfold cross-validation study is performed. Each sCT generated is compared against the real CT image of the same patient on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Comparison is also made with respect to an atlas-based approach that involves deformable atlas registration and patch-based atlas fusion. The proposed DCNN method produced a mean absolute error (MAE) below 85 HU for 13 of the 18 test subjects. The overall average MAE was 84.8 ± 17.3 HU for all subjects, which was found to be significantly better than the average MAE of 94.5 ± 17.8 HU for the atlas-based method. The DCNN

  16. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  17. Predictive lethal proarrhythmic risk evaluation using a closed-loop-circuit cell network with human induced pluripotent stem cells derived cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Fumimasa; Hattori, Akihiro; Terazono, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyonchol; Odaka, Masao; Sugio, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2016-06-01

    For the prediction of lethal arrhythmia occurrence caused by abnormality of cell-to-cell conduction, we have developed a next-generation in vitro cell-to-cell conduction assay, i.e., a quasi in vivo assay, in which the change in spatial cell-to-cell conduction is quantitatively evaluated from the change in waveforms of the convoluted electrophysiological signals from lined-up cardiomyocytes on a single closed loop of a microelectrode of 1 mm diameter and 20 µm width in a cultivation chip. To evaluate the importance of the closed-loop arrangement of cardiomyocytes for prediction, we compared the change in waveforms of convoluted signals of the responses in the closed-loop circuit arrangement with that of the response of cardiomyocyte clusters using a typical human ether a go-go related gene (hERG) ion channel blocker, E-4031. The results showed that (1) waveform prolongation and fluctuation both in the closed loops and clusters increased depending on the E-4031 concentration increase. However, (2) only the waveform signals in closed loops showed an apparent temporal change in waveforms from ventricular tachycardia (VT) to ventricular fibrillation (VF), which is similar to the most typical cell-to-cell conductance abnormality. The results indicated the usefulness of convoluted waveform signals of a closed-loop cell network for acquiring reproducible results acquisition and more detailed temporal information on cell-to-cell conduction.

  18. A Network of Multi-Tasking Proteins at the DNA Replication Fork Preserves Genome Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the network that maintains high fidelity genome replication, we have introduced two conditional mutant alleles of DNA2, an essential DNA replication gene, into each of the approximately 4,700 viable yeast deletion mutants and determined the fitness of the double mutants. Fifty-six DNA2-interacting genes were identified. Clustering analysis of genomic synthetic lethality profiles of each of 43 of the DNA2-interacting genes defines a network (consisting of 322 genes and 876 interactions whose topology provides clues as to how replication proteins coordinate regulation and repair to protect genome integrity. The results also shed new light on the functions of the query gene DNA2, which, despite many years of study, remain controversial, especially its proposed role in Okazaki fragment processing and the nature of its in vivo substrates. Because of the multifunctional nature of virtually all proteins at the replication fork, the meaning of any single genetic interaction is inherently ambiguous. The multiplexing nature of the current studies, however, combined with follow-up supporting experiments, reveals most if not all of the unique pathways requiring Dna2p. These include not only Okazaki fragment processing and DNA repair but also chromatin dynamics.

  19. Transporting Patients with Lethal Contagious Infections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swartz, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    .... The AIT is a unique military medical team capable of worldwide air evacuation and management of a limited number of patients who are potentially exposed to known and unknown lethal communicable...

  20. The PLOS ONE Synthetic Biology Collection: Six Years and Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoud, Jean; Isalan, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Since it was launched in 2006, PLOS ONE has published over fifty articles illustrating the many facets of the emerging field of synthetic biology. This article reviews these publications by organizing them into broad categories focused on DNA synthesis and assembly techniques, the development of libraries of biological parts, the use of synthetic biology in protein engineering applications, and the engineering of gene regulatory networks and metabolic pathways. Finally, we review articles that describe enabling technologies such as software and modeling, along with new instrumentation. In order to increase the visibility of this body of work, the papers have been assembled into the PLOS ONE Synthetic Biology Collection (www.ploscollections.org/synbio). Many of the innovative features of the PLOS ONE web site will help make this collection a resource that will support a lively dialogue between readers and authors of PLOS ONE synthetic biology papers. The content of the collection will be updated periodically by including relevant articles as they are published by the journal. Thus, we hope that this collection will continue to meet the publishing needs of the synthetic biology community. PMID:22916228

  1. A bacterial cocaine esterase protects against cocaine-induced epileptogenic activity and lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkiewicz, Emily M; Baladi, Michelle G; Cooper, Ziva D; Narasimhan, Diwahar; Sunahara, Roger K; Woods, James H

    2009-09-01

    Cocaine toxicity results in cardiovascular complications, seizures, and death and accounts for approximately 20% of drug-related emergency department visits every year. Presently, there are no treatments to eliminate the toxic effects of cocaine. The present study hypothesizes that a bacterial cocaine esterase with high catalytic efficiency would provide rapid and robust protection from cocaine-induced convulsions, epileptogenic activity, and lethality. Cocaine-induced paroxysmal activity and convulsions were evaluated in rats surgically implanted with radiotelemetry devices (N=6 per treatment group). Cocaine esterase was administered 1 minute after a lethal dose of cocaine or after cocaine-induced convulsions to determine the ability of the enzyme to prevent or reverse, respectively, the effects of cocaine. The cocaine esterase prevented all cocaine-induced electroencephalographic changes and lethality. This effect was specific for cocaine because the esterase did not prevent convulsions and death induced by a cocaine analog, (-)-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-phenyltropane. The esterase prevented lethality even after cocaine-induced convulsions occurred. In contrast, the short-acting benzodiazepine, midazolam, prevented cocaine-induced convulsions but not the lethal effects of cocaine. The data showed that cocaine esterase successfully degraded circulating cocaine to prevent lethality and that cocaine-induced convulsions alone are not responsible for the lethal effects of cocaine in this model. Therefore, further investigation into the use of cocaine esterase for treating cocaine overdose and its toxic effects is warranted.

  2. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  3. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed

  4. Can Cultural Worldviews Influence Network Composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisey, Stephen; Lizardo, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Most sociological research assumes that social network composition shapes individual beliefs. Network theory and research has not adequately considered that internalized cultural worldviews might affect network composition. Drawing on a synthetic, dual-process theory of culture and two waves of nationally-representative panel data, this article…

  5. A lethal ovitrap-based mass trapping scheme for dengue control in Australia: I. Public acceptability and performance of lethal ovitraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, S A; Rapley, L P; Williams, C; Johnson, P H; Larkman, M; Silcock, R M; Long, S A; Russell, R C

    2009-12-01

    We report on the first field evaluation of the public acceptability and performance of two types of lethal ovitrap (LO) in three separate trials in Cairns, Australia. Health workers were able to set standard lethal ovitraps (SLOs) in 75 and 71% of premise yards in the wet and dry season, respectively, and biodegradable lethal ovitraps (BLOs) in 93% of yards. Public acceptance, measured as retention of traps by residents, was high for both trap types, with porous (grass, soil and mulch) versus solid (tiles, concrete, wood and stone) substrates. The SLOs and the BLOs were readily acceptable to ovipositing Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae); the mean number of eggs/trap was 6 and 15, for the dry season and wet season SLO trial, respectively, and 15 for the BLO wet season trial. Indeed, 84-94% of premise yards had egg positive SLOs or BLOs. A high percentage of both wet and dry season SLOs (29 and 70%, respectively) and BLOs (62%) that were dry after 4 weeks were egg positive, indicating the traps had functioned. Lethal strips from SLOs and BLOs that had been exposed for 4 weeks killed 83 and 74%, respectively, of gravid Ae. aegypti in laboratory assays. These results indicate that mass trapping schemes using SLOs and BLOs are not rejected by the public and effectively target gravid Ae. aegypti. The impact of the interventions on mosquito populations is described in a companion paper.

  6. Lanthanide-Based Metal Organic Frameworks: Synthetic Strategies and Catalytic Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagis, C.; Ferbinteanu, M.; Rothenberg, G.; Grecea, S.

    2016-01-01

    This short critical review outlines the main synthetic strategies used in the designed synthesis of lanthanide-based metal organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs). It explains the impact of the choice of organic linker on the final network topology, and it highlights the applications of Ln-MOFs in the

  7. Lethal mechanisms in gastric volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omond, Kimberley J; Byard, Roger W

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old wheelchair-bound woman with severe cerebral palsy was found at autopsy to have marked distention of the stomach due to a volvulus. The stomach was viable, and filled with air and fluid and had pushed the left dome of the diaphragm upwards causing marked compression of the left lung with a mediastinal shift to the right (including the heart). There was no evidence of gastric perforation, ischaemic necrosis or peritonitis. Removal of the organ block revealed marked kyphoscoliosis. Histology confirmed the viability of the stomach and biochemistry showed no dehydration. Death in cases of acute gastric volvulus usually occurs because of compromise of the gastric blood supply resulting in ischaemic necrosis with distention from swallowed air and fluid resulting in perforation with lethal peritonitis. Hypovolaemic shock may also occur. However, the current case demonstrates an alternative lethal mechanism, that of respiratory compromise due to marked thoracic organ compression.

  8. The lethal injection quandary: how medicine has dismantled the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denno, Deborah W

    2007-10-01

    On February 20, 2006, Michael Morales was hours away from execution in California when two anesthesiologists declined to participate in his lethal injection procedure, thereby halting all state executions. The events brought to the surface the long-running schism between law and medicine, raising the question of whether any beneficial connection between the professions ever existed in the execution context. History shows it seldom did. Decades of botched executions prove it. This Article examines how states ended up with such constitutionally vulnerable lethal injection procedures, suggesting that physician participation in executions, though looked upon with disdain, is more prevalent--and perhaps more necessary--than many would like to believe. The Article also reports the results of this author's unique nationwide study of lethal injection protocols and medical participation. The study demonstrates that states have continued to produce grossly inadequate protocols that severely restrict sufficient understanding of how executions are performed and heighten the likelihood of unconstitutionality. The analysis emphasizes in particular the utter lack of medical or scientific testing of lethal injection despite the early and continuous involvement of doctors but ongoing detachment of medical societies. Lastly, the Article discusses the legal developments that led up to the current rush of lethal injection lawsuits as well as the strong and rapid reverberations that followed, particularly with respect to medical involvement. This Article concludes with two recommendations. First, much like what occurred in this country when the first state switched to electrocution, there should be a nationwide study of proper lethal injection protocols. An independent commission consisting of a diverse group of qualified individuals, including medical personnel, should conduct a thorough assessment of lethal injection, especially the extent of physician participation. Second, this

  9. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal of developing improved yeast cell factories. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1164-1170. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Empirical complexities in the genetic foundations of lethal mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James J; Joyce, Paul; Gladstone, Eric; Molineux, Ian J

    2013-10-01

    From population genetics theory, elevating the mutation rate of a large population should progressively reduce average fitness. If the fitness decline is large enough, the population will go extinct in a process known as lethal mutagenesis. Lethal mutagenesis has been endorsed in the virology literature as a promising approach to viral treatment, and several in vitro studies have forced viral extinction with high doses of mutagenic drugs. Yet only one empirical study has tested the genetic models underlying lethal mutagenesis, and the theory failed on even a qualitative level. Here we provide a new level of analysis of lethal mutagenesis by developing and evaluating models specifically tailored to empirical systems that may be used to test the theory. We first quantify a bias in the estimation of a critical parameter and consider whether that bias underlies the previously observed lack of concordance between theory and experiment. We then consider a seemingly ideal protocol that avoids this bias-mutagenesis of virions-but find that it is hampered by other problems. Finally, results that reveal difficulties in the mere interpretation of mutations assayed from double-strand genomes are derived. Our analyses expose unanticipated complexities in testing the theory. Nevertheless, the previous failure of the theory to predict experimental outcomes appears to reside in evolutionary mechanisms neglected by the theory (e.g., beneficial mutations) rather than from a mismatch between the empirical setup and model assumptions. This interpretation raises the specter that naive attempts at lethal mutagenesis may augment adaptation rather than retard it.

  11. Optimising Realism of Synthetic Agricultural Images using Cycle Generative Adversarial Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.; IJsselmuiden, J.M.M.; Hemming, J.; Henten, van E.J.

    2017-01-01

    A bottleneck of state-of-the-art machine learning methods, e.g. deep learning, for plant part image segmentation in agricultural robotics is the requirement of large manually annotated datasets. As a solution, large synthetic datasets including ground truth can be rendered that realistically reflect

  12. Calcium-Sensing Receptor Tumor Expression and Lethal Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Thomas U; Tchrakian, Nairi; Wilson, Kathryn M; Lis, Rosina; Nuttall, Elizabeth; Sesso, Howard D; Loda, Massimo; Giovannucci, Edward; Mucci, Lorelei A; Finn, Stephen; Shui, Irene M

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer metastases preferentially target bone, and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) may play a role in promoting this metastatic progression. We evaluated the association of prostate tumor CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. A validated CaSR immunohistochemistry assay was performed on tumor tissue microarrays. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and phosphatase and tensin homolog tumor status were previously assessed in a subset of cases by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and body mass index at diagnosis, Gleason grade, and pathological tumor node metastasis stage were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. The investigation was conducted in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Physicians' Health Study. We studied 1241 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2009. Participants were followed up or cancer-specific mortality or development of metastatic disease. On average, men were followed up 13.6 years, during which there were 83 lethal events. High CaSR expression was associated with lethal prostate cancer independent of clinical and pathological variables (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3). Additionally, there was evidence of effect modification by VDR expression; CaSR was associated with lethal progression among men with low tumor VDR expression (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.4-7.3) but not in cases with high tumor VDR expression (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-3.0). Tumor CaSR expression is associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer, particularly in tumors with low VDR expression. These results support further investigating the mechanism linking CaSR with metastases.

  13. RegnANN: Reverse Engineering Gene Networks using Artificial Neural Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grimaldi

    Full Text Available RegnANN is a novel method for reverse engineering gene networks based on an ensemble of multilayer perceptrons. The algorithm builds a regressor for each gene in the network, estimating its neighborhood independently. The overall network is obtained by joining all the neighborhoods. RegnANN makes no assumptions about the nature of the relationships between the variables, potentially capturing high-order and non linear dependencies between expression patterns. The evaluation focuses on synthetic data mimicking plausible submodules of larger networks and on biological data consisting of submodules of Escherichia coli. We consider Barabasi and Erdös-Rényi topologies together with two methods for data generation. We verify the effect of factors such as network size and amount of data to the accuracy of the inference algorithm. The accuracy scores obtained with RegnANN is methodically compared with the performance of three reference algorithms: ARACNE, CLR and KELLER. Our evaluation indicates that RegnANN compares favorably with the inference methods tested. The robustness of RegnANN, its ability to discover second order correlations and the agreement between results obtained with this new methods on both synthetic and biological data are promising and they stimulate its application to a wider range of problems.

  14. Effect of lethality on the extinction and on the error threshold of quasispecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Hector; Marín, Arturo; Montero, Francisco

    2010-02-21

    In this paper the effect of lethality on error threshold and extinction has been studied in a population of error-prone self-replicating molecules. For given lethality and a simple fitness landscape, three dynamic regimes can be obtained: quasispecies, error catastrophe, and extinction. Using a simple model in which molecules are classified as master, lethal and non-lethal mutants, it is possible to obtain the mutation rates of the transitions between the three regimes analytically. The numerical resolution of the extended model, in which molecules are classified depending on their Hamming distance to the master sequence, confirms the results obtained in the simple model and shows how an error catastrophe regime changes when lethality is taken in account. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural and synthetic biomaterials for controlled drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang Kyoung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Chung, Jee-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Young, Seok-Beom; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of delivery systems have been developed and many products based on the drug delivery technology are commercially available. The development of controlled-release technologies accelerated new dosage form design by altering pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles of given drugs, resulting in improved efficacy and safety. Various natural or synthetic polymers have been applied to make matrix, reservoir or implant forms due to the characteristics of polymers, especially ease of control for modifications of biocompatibility, biodegradation, porosity, charge, mechanical strength and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity. Hydrogel is a hydrophilic, polymeric network capable of imbibing large amount of water and biological fluids. This review article introduces various applications of natural and synthetic polymer-based hydrogels from pharmaceutical, biomedical and bioengineering points of view.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Plant-Derived Antifungal Compounds on FUSARIA Growth and Mycotoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Morcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi can lead to significant cereal yield losses, also producing mycotoxins dangerous for human and animal health. The fungal control based on the use of synthetic fungicides can be complemented by "green" methods for crop protection, based on the use of natural products. In this frame, the antifungal activities of bergamot and lemon essential oils and of five natural compounds recurrent in essential oils (citronellal, citral, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde and limonene have been evaluated against three species of mycotoxigenic fungi (Fusarium sporotrichioides, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae responsible for Fusarium Head Blight in small-grain cereals. The natural products concentrations effective for reducing or inhibiting the in vitro fungal growth were determined for each fungal species and the following scale of potency was found: cinnamaldehyde > cuminaldehyde > citral > citronellal > bergamot oil > limonene > lemon oil. Moreover, the in vitro mycotoxin productions of the three Fusaria strains exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of the seven products was evaluated. The three fungal species showed variability in response to the treatments, both in terms of inhibition of mycelial growth and in terms of modulation of mycotoxin production that can be enhanced by sub-lethal concentrations of some natural products. This last finding must be taken into account in the frame of an open field application of some plant-derived fungicides.

  17. A multivariate model of stakeholder preference for lethal cat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Dara M; Jacobson, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Identifying stakeholder beliefs and attitudes is critical for resolving management conflicts. Debate over outdoor cat management is often described as a conflict between two groups, environmental advocates and animal welfare advocates, but little is known about the variables predicting differences among these critical stakeholder groups. We administered a mail survey to randomly selected stakeholders representing both of these groups (n=1,596) in Florida, where contention over the management of outdoor cats has been widespread. We used a structural equation model to evaluate stakeholder intention to support non-lethal management. The cognitive hierarchy model predicted that values influenced beliefs, which predicted general and specific attitudes, which in turn, influenced behavioral intentions. We posited that specific attitudes would mediate the effect of general attitudes, beliefs, and values on management support. Model fit statistics suggested that the final model fit the data well (CFI=0.94, RMSEA=0.062). The final model explained 74% of the variance in management support, and positive attitudes toward lethal management (humaneness) had the largest direct effect on management support. Specific attitudes toward lethal management and general attitudes toward outdoor cats mediated the relationship between positive (pstakeholder intention to support non-lethal cat management. Our findings suggest that stakeholders can simultaneously perceive both positive and negative beliefs about outdoor cats, which influence attitudes toward and support for non-lethal management.

  18. Acute and sub-lethal response to mercury in Arctic and boreal calanoid copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overjordet, Ida Beathe; Altin, Dag; Berg, Torunn; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2014-10-01

    Acute lethal toxicity, expressed as LC50 values, is a widely used parameter in risk assessment of chemicals, and has been proposed as a tool to assess differences in species sensitivities to chemicals between climatic regions. Arctic Calanus glacialis and boreal Calanus finmarchicus were exposed to mercury (Hg(2+)) under natural environmental conditions including sea temperatures of 2° and 10°C, respectively. Acute lethal toxicity (96 h LC50) and sub-lethal molecular response (GST expression; in this article gene expression is used as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression is also regulated, e.g., at translation and protein stability level) were studied. The acute lethal toxicity was monitored for 96 h using seven different Hg concentrations. The sub-lethal experiment was set up on the basis of nominal LC50 values for each species using concentrations equivalent to 50, 5 and 0.5% of their 96 h LC50 value. No significant differences were found in acute lethal toxicity between the two species. The sub-lethal molecular response revealed large differences both in response time and the fold induction of GST, where the Arctic species responded both faster and with higher mRNA levels of GST after 48 h exposure. Under the natural exposure conditions applied in the present study, the Arctic species C. glacialis may potentially be more susceptible to mercury exposure on the sub-lethal level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Suicide Intent and Accurate Expectations of Lethality: Predictors of Medical Lethality of Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory K.; Henriques, Gregg R.; Sosdjan, Daniella; Beck, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    The degree of intent to commit suicide and the severity of self-injury were examined in individuals (N = 180) who had recently attempted suicide. Although a minimal association was found between the degree of suicide intent and the degree of lethality of the attempt, the accuracy of expectations about the likelihood of dying was found to moderate…

  20. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distinct configurations of protein complexes and biochemical pathways revealed by epistatic interaction network motifs

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Fergal

    2011-08-22

    Abstract Background Gene and protein interactions are commonly represented as networks, with the genes or proteins comprising the nodes and the relationship between them as edges. Motifs, or small local configurations of edges and nodes that arise repeatedly, can be used to simplify the interpretation of networks. Results We examined triplet motifs in a network of quantitative epistatic genetic relationships, and found a non-random distribution of particular motif classes. Individual motif classes were found to be associated with different functional properties, suggestive of an underlying biological significance. These associations were apparent not only for motif classes, but for individual positions within the motifs. As expected, NNN (all negative) motifs were strongly associated with previously reported genetic (i.e. synthetic lethal) interactions, while PPP (all positive) motifs were associated with protein complexes. The two other motif classes (NNP: a positive interaction spanned by two negative interactions, and NPP: a negative spanned by two positives) showed very distinct functional associations, with physical interactions dominating for the former but alternative enrichments, typical of biochemical pathways, dominating for the latter. Conclusion We present a model showing how NNP motifs can be used to recognize supportive relationships between protein complexes, while NPP motifs often identify opposing or regulatory behaviour between a gene and an associated pathway. The ability to use motifs to point toward underlying biological organizational themes is likely to be increasingly important as more extensive epistasis mapping projects in higher organisms begin.

  2. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  3. Loads Bias Genetic and Signaling Switches in Synthetic and Natural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, June; Prasad, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Biological protein interactions networks such as signal transduction or gene transcription networks are often treated as modular, allowing motifs to be analyzed in isolation from the rest of the network. Modularity is also a key assumption in synthetic biology, where it is similarly expected that when network motifs are combined together, they do not lose their essential characteristics. However, the interactions that a network module has with downstream elements change the dynamical equations describing the upstream module and thus may change the dynamic and static properties of the upstream circuit even without explicit feedback. In this work we analyze the behavior of a ubiquitous motif in gene transcription and signal transduction circuits: the switch. We show that adding an additional downstream component to the simple genetic toggle switch changes its dynamical properties by changing the underlying potential energy landscape, and skewing it in favor of the unloaded side, and in some situations adding loads to the genetic switch can also abrogate bistable behavior. We find that an additional positive feedback motif found in naturally occurring toggle switches could tune the potential energy landscape in a desirable manner. We also analyze autocatalytic signal transduction switches and show that a ubiquitous positive feedback switch can lose its switch-like properties when connected to a downstream load. Our analysis underscores the necessity of incorporating the effects of downstream components when understanding the physics of biochemical network motifs, and raises the question as to how these effects are managed in real biological systems. This analysis is particularly important when scaling synthetic networks to more complex organisms. PMID:24676102

  4. Impact of acute alcohol consumption on lethality of suicide methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C Hyung Keun; Yoo, Seong Ho; Lee, Jaewon; Cho, Sung Joon; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Ham, Keunsoo; Ahn, Yong Min

    2017-05-01

    The influence of acute alcohol consumption on the factors related to suicide remains understudied. Thus, the present study investigated the relationship between blood alcohol content (BAC) and the lethality of suicide methods. Autopsy data on 315 South Korean suicide completers with a positive BAC were collected from a nationwide pool between May 2015 and November 2015, and the methods were dichotomised as suicide methods of low lethality (SMLL; drug/chemical overdose and sharp objects, n=67) and suicide methods of high lethality (SMHL; everything else, n=243). BAC at the time of autopsy and various suicide-related factors of these two groups were compared with logistic regression analyses. Compared to suicide completers with a BAC in the lowest range of 0.011-0.049%, suicide completers with a BAC in the range of 0.150-0.199% were more likely to use SMHL (odds ratio [OR]: 3.644, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.221-10.874). Additionally, the adoption of SMHL was significantly associated with the absence of a psychiatric illness (OR: 0.433, 95% CI: 0.222-0.843) and a younger age; the OR for high BAC among subjects in their 40s was 0.266 (95% CI: 0.083-0.856); in their 50s, 0.183 (95% CI: 0.055-0.615); and in their 60s, 0.057 (95% CI: 0.015-0.216). The relationship between BAC and suicide method lethality was represented by a bell-shaped pattern in which suicide methods of high lethality were more likely to be used by suicide completers with mid-range BAC levels. The increased impulsivity and impairments in particular executive functions, including planning and organization, associated with acute alcohol use may influence the selection of a particular suicide method based on its lethality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early events of lethal action by tobramycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raulston, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The immediate activities of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, tobramycin, were investigated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The influence of carbon growth substate and the antibiotic exposure environment in the magnitude of activity were examined. Lethality by 8 μg/ml tobramycin occurred rapidly (1 to 3 minutes). The release of specific cellular components into the supernatant was associated with lethality. This material was initially detected as an increase in UV-absorbance. Magnesium in the reaction mixture provided protection against lethality and leakage, but did not reverse lethal damage after a 3 minute tobramycin treatment. Also, uptake of 3 H-tobramycin was reduced in the presence of magnesium. Cells grown with glucose as a carbon source were more susceptible than organic acid grown cells as was the rapidity and amount of cell damage. Analyses of the leakage material revealed a 2-fold increase of protein in the supernatant after a 1-3 minute treatment which paralleled lethality. A prominent 29 kDa protein was observed by SDS-PAGE in the released material, which has been identified as the periplasmic enzyme, β-lactamase. The immediate activities of tobramycin did not involve (i) release of overall cell protein, (ii) massive loss of total pool amino acids, (iii) cell lysis, (iv) inhibition of proline uptake, (v) release of lipopolysaccharide, or (vi) leakage of ATP. Electron microscopy showed no apparent damage after a 3 minute exposure. 40% inhibition of protein synthesis had occurred by 3 minutes of exposure, while release of UV-absorbing material and lethality were detectable after only 1 minute. Resistant cystic fibrosis isolates of P. aeruginosa did not leak under the same experimental conditions, but one of two susceptible strains examined did show increased UV-absorbance following treatment

  6. Reproductive-phase and interphase lethal cell damage after irradiation and treatment with cytostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G.

    1979-01-01

    After X-ray irradiation of manual cells, two lethal fractions occur due to reproductive and interphase death under low and high radiation doses. The damage kinetics on which this fact is based is compared with hypothetical tumour frequencies and leucemia induction caused in experiments. The reproductive-lethal damage can be manifested by means of colony size spectrometry, with the median colony size class differences (MCD) serving as measure for the damage found. The simultaneous effects of the cytostatics BLEOMYCIN or ICRF 159 and X-rays on reproductive lethal and interphase-lethal damage are measured by means of MCD and survival fraction, and the additive and intensifying effect' is judged with the help of suitably defined terms. This shows that the clinically used ICRF 159 has an additive effect on interphase-lethal and a sub-additive effect on reproductive-lethal cell damage. Thus, favourable results may be expected for the electivity factor in fractionated irradiation and with regard to delayed damage in healthy tissue. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RDG [de

  7. Modular design of artificial tissue homeostasis: robust control through synthetic cellular heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Miller

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology efforts have largely focused on small engineered gene networks, yet understanding how to integrate multiple synthetic modules and interface them with endogenous pathways remains a challenge. Here we present the design, system integration, and analysis of several large scale synthetic gene circuits for artificial tissue homeostasis. Diabetes therapy represents a possible application for engineered homeostasis, where genetically programmed stem cells maintain a steady population of β-cells despite continuous turnover. We develop a new iterative process that incorporates modular design principles with hierarchical performance optimization targeted for environments with uncertainty and incomplete information. We employ theoretical analysis and computational simulations of multicellular reaction/diffusion models to design and understand system behavior, and find that certain features often associated with robustness (e.g., multicellular synchronization and noise attenuation are actually detrimental for tissue homeostasis. We overcome these problems by engineering a new class of genetic modules for 'synthetic cellular heterogeneity' that function to generate beneficial population diversity. We design two such modules (an asynchronous genetic oscillator and a signaling throttle mechanism, demonstrate their capacity for enhancing robust control, and provide guidance for experimental implementation with various computational techniques. We found that designing modules for synthetic heterogeneity can be complex, and in general requires a framework for non-linear and multifactorial analysis. Consequently, we adapt a 'phenotypic sensitivity analysis' method to determine how functional module behaviors combine to achieve optimal system performance. We ultimately combine this analysis with Bayesian network inference to extract critical, causal relationships between a module's biochemical rate-constants, its high level functional behavior in

  8. Modular design of artificial tissue homeostasis: robust control through synthetic cellular heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Miles; Hafner, Marc; Sontag, Eduardo; Davidsohn, Noah; Subramanian, Sairam; Purnick, Priscilla E M; Lauffenburger, Douglas; Weiss, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology efforts have largely focused on small engineered gene networks, yet understanding how to integrate multiple synthetic modules and interface them with endogenous pathways remains a challenge. Here we present the design, system integration, and analysis of several large scale synthetic gene circuits for artificial tissue homeostasis. Diabetes therapy represents a possible application for engineered homeostasis, where genetically programmed stem cells maintain a steady population of β-cells despite continuous turnover. We develop a new iterative process that incorporates modular design principles with hierarchical performance optimization targeted for environments with uncertainty and incomplete information. We employ theoretical analysis and computational simulations of multicellular reaction/diffusion models to design and understand system behavior, and find that certain features often associated with robustness (e.g., multicellular synchronization and noise attenuation) are actually detrimental for tissue homeostasis. We overcome these problems by engineering a new class of genetic modules for 'synthetic cellular heterogeneity' that function to generate beneficial population diversity. We design two such modules (an asynchronous genetic oscillator and a signaling throttle mechanism), demonstrate their capacity for enhancing robust control, and provide guidance for experimental implementation with various computational techniques. We found that designing modules for synthetic heterogeneity can be complex, and in general requires a framework for non-linear and multifactorial analysis. Consequently, we adapt a 'phenotypic sensitivity analysis' method to determine how functional module behaviors combine to achieve optimal system performance. We ultimately combine this analysis with Bayesian network inference to extract critical, causal relationships between a module's biochemical rate-constants, its high level functional behavior in isolation, and

  9. Effective lethal mutagenesis of influenza virus by three nucleoside analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Matthew D; Lauring, Adam S

    2015-04-01

    Lethal mutagenesis is a broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that exploits the high mutation rate and low mutational tolerance of many RNA viruses. This approach uses mutagenic drugs to increase viral mutation rates and burden viral populations with mutations that reduce the number of infectious progeny. We investigated the effectiveness of lethal mutagenesis as a strategy against influenza virus using three nucleoside analogs, ribavirin, 5-azacytidine, and 5-fluorouracil. All three drugs were active against a panel of seasonal H3N2 and laboratory-adapted H1N1 strains. We found that each drug increased the frequency of mutations in influenza virus populations and decreased the virus' specific infectivity, indicating a mutagenic mode of action. We were able to drive viral populations to extinction by passaging influenza virus in the presence of each drug, indicating that complete lethal mutagenesis of influenza virus populations can be achieved when a sufficient mutational burden is applied. Population-wide resistance to these mutagenic agents did not arise after serial passage of influenza virus populations in sublethal concentrations of drug. Sequencing of these drug-passaged viral populations revealed genome-wide accumulation of mutations at low frequency. The replicative capacity of drug-passaged populations was reduced at higher multiplicities of infection, suggesting the presence of defective interfering particles and a possible barrier to the evolution of resistance. Together, our data suggest that lethal mutagenesis may be a particularly effective therapeutic approach with a high genetic barrier to resistance for influenza virus. Influenza virus is an RNA virus that causes significant morbidity and mortality during annual epidemics. Novel therapies for RNA viruses are needed due to the ease with which these viruses evolve resistance to existing therapeutics. Lethal mutagenesis is a broad-spectrum strategy that exploits the high mutation rate and the low

  10. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  11. Photoreactivable sector of lethal damage in ultraviolet-irradiated Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balgavy, P.

    1976-01-01

    The photoreactivable sector of lethal damage in Escherichia coli Bsub(s-1), Escherichia coli B/r Hcr - and Escherichia coli B/r Hcr + cells after ultraviolet irradiation at 254 nm is 0.823 +- 0.004, 0.70 +- 0.01 and 0.53 +- 0.06, respectively, at 99% confidence limits. For the low values of the photoreactivable sector in the B/r Hcr - and B/r Hcr + strains are likely to be responsible dark repair processes which eliminate lethal damage, brought about by pyrimidine dimers, preferably in comparison with lethal damage caused by photoproducts of another type. (author)

  12. Synthetic Strategies for High Dielectric Constant Silicone Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt

    synthetic strategies were developed in this Ph.D. thesis, in order to create silicone elastomers with high dielectric constants and thereby higher energy densities. The work focused on maintaining important properties such as dielectric loss, electrical breakdown strength and elastic modulus....... The methodology therefore involved chemically grafting high dielectric constant chemical groups onto the elastomer network, as this would potentially provide a stable elastomer system upon continued activation of the material. The first synthetic strategy involved the synthesis of a new type of cross...... extender’ that allowed for chemical modifications such as Cu- AAC. This route was promising for one-pot elastomer preparation and as a high dielectric constant additive to commercial silicone systems. The second approach used the borane-catalysed Piers-Rubinsztajn reaction to form spatially well...

  13. Three fatalities associated with the synthetic cannabinoids 5F-ADB, 5F-PB-22, and AB-CHMINACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, V; Jacobi, S; Franz, F; Auwärter, V; Pietsch, J

    2017-12-01

    The use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has been widespread in certain groups of drug users for many years. In the scientific literature many intoxication cases and a number of fatalities after the use of synthetic cannabinoids were reported. In this paper three death cases are described with involvement of the synthetic cannabinoids 5F-PB-22, AB-CHMINACA, and 5F-ADB. The three cases occurred in the eastern region of Germany, which is known as a region of high methamphetamine abuse. All decedents were male, between 25 and 41 years old, and had a known history of drug use. Femoral blood concentrations of the synthetic cannabinoids were measured using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The concentration of 5F-PB-22 in the first case was 0.37ng/mL, the concentration of AB-CHMINACA in the second case was approximately 4.1ng/mL (extrapolated) and the 5F-ADB concentration in the third case was 0.38ng/mL. Compared to other published cases the concentrations in the here presented cases seem to be in the lower range. However, taking into account the scene of death, the results of the forensic autopsy and the full toxicological analysis, the deaths can be explained as a direct consequence of consumption of synthetic cannabinoids, although in case one and two relevant amounts of ethanol were found, and in case three trimipramine and olanzapine were present in non-toxic concentrations. It has to be noted that concentrations of synthetic cannabinoids in femoral blood cannot directly be judged as toxic or lethal due to the possibility of postmortem redistribution and the development of tolerance after frequent use. Therefore, all available information has to be considered carefully before stating SC use as the cause of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Heterochromatin position effects on circularized sex chromosomes cause filicidal embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Patrick M; Gomez, Karina; Rominger, Peter; Howard, Dagnie; Kornfeld, Hannah; Barbash, Daniel A

    2014-04-01

    Some circularized X-Y chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster are mitotically unstable and induce early embryonic lethality, but the genetic basis is unknown. Our experiments suggest that a large region of X-linked satellite DNA causes anaphase bridges and lethality when placed into a new heterochromatic environment within certain circularized X-Y chromosomes. These results reveal that repetitive sequences can be incompatible with one another in cis. The lethal phenotype also bears a remarkable resemblance to a case of interspecific hybrid lethality.

  15. Automatic target classification of man-made objects in synthetic aperture radar images using Gabor wavelet and neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuki, Perumal; Roomi, S. Mohamed Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Processing of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images has led to the development of automatic target classification approaches. These approaches help to classify individual and mass military ground vehicles. This work aims to develop an automatic target classification technique to classify military targets like truck/tank/armored car/cannon/bulldozer. The proposed method consists of three stages via preprocessing, feature extraction, and neural network (NN). The first stage removes speckle noise in a SAR image by the identified frost filter and enhances the image by histogram equalization. The second stage uses a Gabor wavelet to extract the image features. The third stage classifies the target by an NN classifier using image features. The proposed work performs better than its counterparts, like K-nearest neighbor (KNN). The proposed work performs better on databases like moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition against the earlier methods by KNN.

  16. Vulnerability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkovski, Igor; Biey, Mario; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2011-01-01

    We consider normalized average edge betweenness of a network as a metric of network vulnerability. We suggest that normalized average edge betweenness together with is relative difference when certain number of nodes and/or edges are removed from the network is a measure of network vulnerability, called vulnerability index. Vulnerability index is calculated for four synthetic networks: Erdős-Rényi (ER) random networks, Barabási-Albert (BA) model of scale-free networks, Watts-Strogatz (WS) model of small-world networks, and geometric random networks. Real-world networks for which vulnerability index is calculated include: two human brain networks, three urban networks, one collaboration network, and two power grid networks. We find that WS model of small-world networks and biological networks (human brain networks) are the most robust networks among all networks studied in the paper.

  17. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Lack of a peroxiredoxin suppresses the lethality of cells devoid of electron donors by channelling electrons to oxidized ribonucleotide reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronat, Susanna; Domènech, Alba; Carmona, Mercè; García-Santamarina, Sarela; Bañó, M Carmen; Ayté, José; Hidalgo, Elena

    2017-06-01

    The thioredoxin and glutaredoxin pathways are responsible of recycling several enzymes which undergo intramolecular disulfide bond formation as part of their catalytic cycles such as the peroxide scavengers peroxiredoxins or the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). RNR, the rate-limiting enzyme of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, is an essential enzyme relying on these electron flow cascades for recycling. RNR is tightly regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner at different levels, but little is known about the participation of electron donors in such regulation. Here, we show that cytosolic thioredoxins Trx1 and Trx3 are the primary electron donors for RNR in fission yeast. Unexpectedly, trx1 transcript and Trx1 protein levels are up-regulated in a G1-to-S phase-dependent manner, indicating that the supply of electron donors is also cell cycle-regulated. Indeed, genetic depletion of thioredoxins triggers a DNA replication checkpoint ruled by Rad3 and Cds1, with the final goal of up-regulating transcription of S phase genes and constitutive RNR synthesis. Regarding the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin cascades, one combination of gene deletions is synthetic lethal in fission yeast: cells lacking both thioredoxin reductase and cytosolic dithiol glutaredoxin. We have isolated a suppressor of this lethal phenotype: a mutation at the Tpx1-coding gene, leading to a frame shift and a loss-of-function of Tpx1, the main client of electron donors. We propose that in a mutant strain compromised in reducing equivalents, the absence of an abundant and competitive substrate such as the peroxiredoxin Tpx1 has been selected as a lethality suppressor to favor RNR function at the expense of the non-essential peroxide scavenging function, to allow DNA synthesis and cell growth.

  19. Lack of a peroxiredoxin suppresses the lethality of cells devoid of electron donors by channelling electrons to oxidized ribonucleotide reductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Boronat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The thioredoxin and glutaredoxin pathways are responsible of recycling several enzymes which undergo intramolecular disulfide bond formation as part of their catalytic cycles such as the peroxide scavengers peroxiredoxins or the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR. RNR, the rate-limiting enzyme of deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, is an essential enzyme relying on these electron flow cascades for recycling. RNR is tightly regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner at different levels, but little is known about the participation of electron donors in such regulation. Here, we show that cytosolic thioredoxins Trx1 and Trx3 are the primary electron donors for RNR in fission yeast. Unexpectedly, trx1 transcript and Trx1 protein levels are up-regulated in a G1-to-S phase-dependent manner, indicating that the supply of electron donors is also cell cycle-regulated. Indeed, genetic depletion of thioredoxins triggers a DNA replication checkpoint ruled by Rad3 and Cds1, with the final goal of up-regulating transcription of S phase genes and constitutive RNR synthesis. Regarding the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin cascades, one combination of gene deletions is synthetic lethal in fission yeast: cells lacking both thioredoxin reductase and cytosolic dithiol glutaredoxin. We have isolated a suppressor of this lethal phenotype: a mutation at the Tpx1-coding gene, leading to a frame shift and a loss-of-function of Tpx1, the main client of electron donors. We propose that in a mutant strain compromised in reducing equivalents, the absence of an abundant and competitive substrate such as the peroxiredoxin Tpx1 has been selected as a lethality suppressor to favor RNR function at the expense of the non-essential peroxide scavenging function, to allow DNA synthesis and cell growth.

  20. Small-Molecule Inhibitors Targeting DNA Repair and DNA Repair Deficiency in Research and Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengel, Sarah R; Spies, M Ashley; Spies, Maria

    2017-09-21

    To maintain stable genomes and to avoid cancer and aging, cells need to repair a multitude of deleterious DNA lesions, which arise constantly in every cell. Processes that support genome integrity in normal cells, however, allow cancer cells to develop resistance to radiation and DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics. Chemical inhibition of the key DNA repair proteins and pharmacologically induced synthetic lethality have become instrumental in both dissecting the complex DNA repair networks and as promising anticancer agents. The difficulty in capitalizing on synthetically lethal interactions in cancer cells is that many potential targets do not possess well-defined small-molecule binding determinates. In this review, we discuss several successful campaigns to identify and leverage small-molecule inhibitors of the DNA repair proteins, from PARP1, a paradigm case for clinically successful small-molecule inhibitors, to coveted new targets, such as RAD51 recombinase, RAD52 DNA repair protein, MRE11 nuclease, and WRN DNA helicase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthetic control of a fitness tradeoff in yeast nitrogen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jack J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial communities are involved in many processes relevant to industrial and medical biotechnology, such as the formation of biofilms, lignocellulosic degradation, and hydrogen production. The manipulation of synthetic and natural microbial communities and their underlying ecological parameters, such as fitness, evolvability, and variation, is an increasingly important area of research for synthetic biology. Results Here, we explored how synthetic control of an endogenous circuit can be used to regulate a tradeoff between fitness in resource abundant and resource limited environments in a population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that noise in the expression of a key enzyme in ammonia assimilation, Gdh1p, mediated a tradeoff between growth in low nitrogen environments and stress resistance in high ammonia environments. We implemented synthetic control of an endogenous Gdh1p regulatory network to construct an engineered strain in which the fitness of the population was tunable in response to an exogenously-added small molecule across a range of ammonia environments. Conclusion The ability to tune fitness and biological tradeoffs will be important components of future efforts to engineer microbial communities.

  2. Resolving structural variability in network models and the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Klimm

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale white matter pathways crisscrossing the cortex create a complex pattern of connectivity that underlies human cognitive function. Generative mechanisms for this architecture have been difficult to identify in part because little is known in general about mechanistic drivers of structured networks. Here we contrast network properties derived from diffusion spectrum imaging data of the human brain with 13 synthetic network models chosen to probe the roles of physical network embedding and temporal network growth. We characterize both the empirical and synthetic networks using familiar graph metrics, but presented here in a more complete statistical form, as scatter plots and distributions, to reveal the full range of variability of each measure across scales in the network. We focus specifically on the degree distribution, degree assortativity, hierarchy, topological Rentian scaling, and topological fractal scaling--in addition to several summary statistics, including the mean clustering coefficient, the shortest path-length, and the network diameter. The models are investigated in a progressive, branching sequence, aimed at capturing different elements thought to be important in the brain, and range from simple random and regular networks, to models that incorporate specific growth rules and constraints. We find that synthetic models that constrain the network nodes to be physically embedded in anatomical brain regions tend to produce distributions that are most similar to the corresponding measurements for the brain. We also find that network models hardcoded to display one network property (e.g., assortativity do not in general simultaneously display a second (e.g., hierarchy. This relative independence of network properties suggests that multiple neurobiological mechanisms might be at play in the development of human brain network architecture. Together, the network models that we develop and employ provide a potentially useful

  3. The bureaucratization of war: moral challenges exemplified by the covert lethal drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Adams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates the bureaucratization of war, incarnate in the covert lethal drone. Bureaucracies are criticized typically for their complexity, inefficiency, and inflexibility. This article is concerned with their moral indifference. It explores killing, which is so highly administered, so morally remote, and of such scale, that we acknowledge a covert lethal program. This is a bureaucratized program of assassination in contravention of critical human rights. In this article, this program is seen to compromise the advance of global justice. Moreover, the bureaucratization of lethal force is seen to dissolve democratic ideals from within. The bureaucracy isolates the citizens from lethal force applied in their name. People are killed, in the name of the State, but without conspicuous justification, or judicial review, and without informed public debate. This article gives an account of the risk associated with the bureaucratization of the State's lethal power. Exemplified by the covert drone, this is power with formidable reach. It is power as well, which requires great moral sensitivity. Considering the drone program, this article identifies challenges, which will become more prominent and pressing, as technology advances.

  4. A quick method for testing recessive lethal damage with a diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morpurgo, G.; Puppo, S.; Gualandi, G.; Conti, L.

    1978-01-01

    A simple method capable of detecting recessive lethal damage in a diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans is described. The method scores the recessive lethals on the 1st, the 3rd and the 5th chromosomes, which represent about 40% of the total map of A. nidulans. Two examples of induced lethals, with ultraviolet irradiation and methyl methanesulfonate are shown. The frequency of lethals may reach 36% of the total population with UV irradiation. (Auth.)

  5. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Information flow analysis of interactome networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Vasilyev Missiuro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of cellular networks have revealed modular organizations of genes and proteins. For example, in interactome networks, a module refers to a group of interacting proteins that form molecular complexes and/or biochemical pathways and together mediate a biological process. However, it is still poorly understood how biological information is transmitted between different modules. We have developed information flow analysis, a new computational approach that identifies proteins central to the transmission of biological information throughout the network. In the information flow analysis, we represent an interactome network as an electrical circuit, where interactions are modeled as resistors and proteins as interconnecting junctions. Construing the propagation of biological signals as flow of electrical current, our method calculates an information flow score for every protein. Unlike previous metrics of network centrality such as degree or betweenness that only consider topological features, our approach incorporates confidence scores of protein-protein interactions and automatically considers all possible paths in a network when evaluating the importance of each protein. We apply our method to the interactome networks of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that the likelihood of observing lethality and pleiotropy when a protein is eliminated is positively correlated with the protein's information flow score. Even among proteins of low degree or low betweenness, high information scores serve as a strong predictor of loss-of-function lethality or pleiotropy. The correlation between information flow scores and phenotypes supports our hypothesis that the proteins of high information flow reside in central positions in interactome networks. We also show that the ranks of information flow scores are more consistent than that of betweenness when a large amount of noisy data is added to an interactome. Finally, we

  7. Engineering genetic circuit interactions within and between synthetic minimal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamala, Katarzyna P.; Martin-Alarcon, Daniel A.; Guthrie-Honea, Katriona R.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2017-05-01

    Genetic circuits and reaction cascades are of great importance for synthetic biology, biochemistry and bioengineering. An open question is how to maximize the modularity of their design to enable the integration of different reaction networks and to optimize their scalability and flexibility. One option is encapsulation within liposomes, which enables chemical reactions to proceed in well-isolated environments. Here we adapt liposome encapsulation to enable the modular, controlled compartmentalization of genetic circuits and cascades. We demonstrate that it is possible to engineer genetic circuit-containing synthetic minimal cells (synells) to contain multiple-part genetic cascades, and that these cascades can be controlled by external signals as well as inter-liposomal communication without crosstalk. We also show that liposomes that contain different cascades can be fused in a controlled way so that the products of incompatible reactions can be brought together. Synells thus enable a more modular creation of synthetic biology cascades, an essential step towards their ultimate programmability.

  8. Lethal mutagenesis: targeting the mutator phenotype in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Edward J; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2010-10-01

    The evolution of cancer and RNA viruses share many similarities. Both exploit high levels of genotypic diversity to enable extensive phenotypic plasticity and thereby facilitate rapid adaptation. In order to accumulate large numbers of mutations, we have proposed that cancers express a mutator phenotype. Similar to cancer cells, many viral populations, by replicating their genomes with low fidelity, carry a substantial mutational load. As high levels of mutation are potentially deleterious, the viral mutation frequency is thresholded at a level below which viral populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance, and above which the population is no longer viable, i.e., the population undergoes an error catastrophe. Because their mutation frequencies are fine-tuned just below this error threshold, viral populations are susceptible to further increases in mutational load and, recently this phenomenon has been exploited therapeutically by a concept that has been termed lethal mutagenesis. Here we review the application of lethal mutagenesis to the treatment of HIV and discuss how lethal mutagenesis may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of solid cancers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new lethal sclerosing bone dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, H.M.; Freeman, J.S.; Hall, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    A neonate is described with a lethal sclerosing bone dysplasia associated with prenatal fractures and craniofacial abnormalities including microcephaly, exophthalmos, hypoplastic nose and mid-face, small jaw and nodular hyperplasia of the gums. Parental consanguinity suggests that an autosomal recessive mutation is the likely aetiology. (orig.)

  10. Network structure exploration in networks with node attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Xiaolong; Bu, Junzhao; Tang, Buzhou; Xiang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Complex networks provide a powerful way to represent complex systems and have been widely studied during the past several years. One of the most important tasks of network analysis is to detect structures (also called structural regularities) embedded in networks by determining group number and group partition. Most of network structure exploration models only consider network links. However, in real world networks, nodes may have attributes that are useful for network structure exploration. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) model to explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes, called Bayesian nonparametric attribute (BNPA) model. This model does not only take full advantage of both links between nodes and node attributes for group partition via shared hidden variables, but also determine group number automatically via the Bayesian nonparametric theory. Experiments conducted on a number of real and synthetic networks show that our BNPA model is able to automatically explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes and is competitive with other state-of-the-art models.

  11. Hierarchical spatial organization of geographical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we propose a hierarchical extension of the polygonality index as the means to characterize geographical planar networks. By considering successive neighborhoods around each node, it is possible to obtain more complete information about the spatial order of the network at progressive spatial scales. The potential of the methodology is illustrated with respect to synthetic and real geographical networks

  12. New type of lethal short-limbed dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nairn, E.R.; Chapman, S.

    1989-05-01

    Details are presented of a most unusual osteo-chondrodysplasia which presents with lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism, defective ossification and nodular calcification with cartilage. The features resemble one case previously described in the literature.

  13. Quantitative aspects of repair of potentially lethal damage in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Pohlit, W.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary cultures of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells were irradiated with X-rays and then immediately or after a time interval tsub(rep) plated to measure the survival. The increase in survival observed after delayed plating was interpreted as repair of potentially lethal damage. A cybernetic model was used to analyse these data. Three states of damage were assumed for the cells. In state A the cells could grow to macrocolonies, in state B the cells suffered potentially lethal damage and could grow to macrocolonies only if they were allowed to repair the damage and in state C the cells were lethally damaged. A method of deriving the values of the parameters of the model from the experimental data was given. The dependence of the reaction rate constant of the repair potentially lethal damage on the dose D was used to derive a possible mechanism for the production of the shoulder in the dose effect curve. Finally this model was compared with other models of radiation action in living cells. (author)

  14. Synthetic biology in mammalian cells: Next generation research tools and therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienert, Florian; Lohmueller, Jason J; Garg, Abhishek; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in DNA manipulation and gene circuit engineering has greatly improved our ability to programme and probe mammalian cell behaviour. These advances have led to a new generation of synthetic biology research tools and potential therapeutic applications. Programmable DNA-binding domains and RNA regulators are leading to unprecedented control of gene expression and elucidation of gene function. Rebuilding complex biological circuits such as T cell receptor signalling in isolation from their natural context has deepened our understanding of network motifs and signalling pathways. Synthetic biology is also leading to innovative therapeutic interventions based on cell-based therapies, protein drugs, vaccines and gene therapies. PMID:24434884

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Amish lethal microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 in 500 newborns in the Old Order Amish population of Pennsylvania. It has not been found outside this population. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ... gene cause Amish lethal microcephaly . The SLC25A19 gene provides instructions for ...

  16. Lethals induced by γ-radiation in drosophila somatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of 3-hour drosophila male embryos to γ-radiation during the topographic segregation of the germ anlage nuclei caused recessive sex-linked lethals in somatic cells only. The selectivity of the screening was determined by the ratio of mutation frequencies induced in embryos and adult males. Analysis of lethal mutations shows that a minimal rate of the divergence between germinal and somatic patterns of the cell development is observed in the embryogenesis, the 3d instar larva and prepupa, and maximal in the 1st and 2nd larva and pupa

  17. Dominant lethal mutations in male mice fed γ-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, P.S.; Aravindakshan, M.; Aiyer, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of Swiss male mice were fed a stock ration of an unirradiated or irradiated (2.5 Mrad) test diet for 8 wk. After the feeding period, the males were mated with groups of untreated female mice for 4 consecutive weeks. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. Numbers of dead implantations, including deciduomas and dead embryos, showed no significant differences among the different groups, thus producing no evidence of any induced post-implantation lethality in mice fed on irradiated diet. Similarly, there was no indication of preimplantation lethality, since implantation rates remained comparable among different groups. Consumption of irradiated diet did not affect the fertility of mice. Total pre- and post-implantation loss, as indicated by the numbers of live implantations remained comparable among all the groups of mice. (author)

  18. Synthetic tetracycline-inducible regulatory networks: computer-aided design of dynamic phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaznessis Yiannis N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tightly regulated gene networks, precisely controlling the expression of protein molecules, have received considerable interest by the biomedical community due to their promising applications. Among the most well studied inducible transcription systems are the tetracycline regulatory expression systems based on the tetracycline resistance operon of Escherichia coli, Tet-Off (tTA and Tet-On (rtTA. Despite their initial success and improved designs, limitations still persist, such as low inducer sensitivity. Instead of looking at these networks statically, and simply changing or mutating the promoter and operator regions with trial and error, a systematic investigation of the dynamic behavior of the network can result in rational design of regulatory gene expression systems. Sophisticated algorithms can accurately capture the dynamical behavior of gene networks. With computer aided design, we aim to improve the synthesis of regulatory networks and propose new designs that enable tighter control of expression. Results In this paper we engineer novel networks by recombining existing genes or part of genes. We synthesize four novel regulatory networks based on the Tet-Off and Tet-On systems. We model all the known individual biomolecular interactions involved in transcription, translation, regulation and induction. With multiple time-scale stochastic-discrete and stochastic-continuous models we accurately capture the transient and steady state dynamics of these networks. Important biomolecular interactions are identified and the strength of the interactions engineered to satisfy design criteria. A set of clear design rules is developed and appropriate mutants of regulatory proteins and operator sites are proposed. Conclusion The complexity of biomolecular interactions is accurately captured through computer simulations. Computer simulations allow us to look into the molecular level, portray the dynamic behavior of gene regulatory

  19. Experimental evaluation of the relationship between lethal or non-lethal virulence and transmission success in malaria parasite infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithiuthai S

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolutionary theory suggests that the selection pressure on parasites to maximize their transmission determines their optimal host exploitation strategies and thus their virulence. Establishing the adaptive basis to parasite life history traits has important consequences for predicting parasite responses to public health interventions. In this study we examine the extent to which malaria parasites conform to the predicted adaptive trade-off between transmission and virulence, as defined by mortality. The majority of natural infections, however, result in sub-lethal virulent effects (e.g. anaemia and are often composed of many strains. Both sub-lethal effects and pathogen population structure have been theoretically shown to have important consequences for virulence evolution. Thus, we additionally examine the relationship between anaemia and transmission in single and mixed clone infections. Results Whereas there was a trade-off between transmission success and virulence as defined by host mortality, contradictory clone-specific patterns occurred when defining virulence by anaemia. A negative relationship between anaemia and transmission success was found for one of the parasite clones, whereas there was no relationship for the other. Notably the two parasite clones also differed in a transmission phenotype (gametocyte sex ratio that has previously been shown to respond adaptively to a changing blood environment. In addition, as predicted by evolutionary theory, mixed infections resulted in increased anaemia. The increased anaemia was, however, not correlated with any discernable parasite trait (e.g. parasite density or with increased transmission. Conclusions We found some evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is an adaptive basis correlating virulence (as defined by host mortality and transmission success in malaria parasites. This confirms the validity of applying evolutionary virulence theory to biomedical

  20. Relative Risks for Lethal Prostate Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Prostate Cancer Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Indirect effects of non-lethal predation on bivalve activity and sediment reworking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maire, O.; Merchant, J.N.; Bulling, M.; Teal, L.R.; Gremare, A.; Duchene, J.C.; Solan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Deposit-feeders are the dominant bioturbators of aquatic sediments, where they profoundly impact biogeochemical processes, but they are also vulnerable to both lethal and non-lethal predation by a large variety of predators. In this study, we performed a series of experiments to test the effects of

  2. Sonographic features of lethal multiple pterygium syndrome at 14 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chan, Gavin Shueng Wai; Lee, Chin Peng; Tang, Mary Hoi Yin

    2005-06-01

    Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is a rare inherited disorder. Previous reports suggest that the diagnosis may be based on prenatal sonographic demonstration of severe limb flexion, absence of fetal motion, and a large cystic hygroma in the second and third trimesters. We present the sonographic features and postmortem features of a fetus with lethal multiple pterygium syndrome at 13 weeks of gestation, which shows that the condition can possibly be diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  3. Influence of temperature and pressure on the lethality of ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raso, J.; Pagan, R.; Condon, S.; Sala, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    A specially designed resistometer was constructed, and the lethal effect on Yersinia enterocolitica of ultrasonic waves (UW) at different static pressures (manosonication [MS]) and of combined heat-UW under pressure treatments (manothermosonication [MTS]) was investigated. During MS treatments at 30 degrees C and 200 kPa, the increase in the amplitude of UW of 20 kHz from 21 to 150 micrometers exponentially decreased decimal reduction time values (D(MS)) from 4 to 0.37 min. When pressure was increased from 0 to 600 kPa at a constant amplitude (150 micrometers) and temperature (30 degrees C), D(MS) values decreased from 1.52 to 0.20 min. The magnitude of this decrease in D(MS) declined progressively as pressure was increased. The influence of pressure on D(MS) values was greater with increased amplitude of UW. Pressure alone of as much as 600 kPa did not influence the heat resistance of Y. enterocolitica (D60 = 0.094; zeta = 5.65). At temperatures of as much as 58 degrees C, the lethality of UW under pressure was greater than that of heat treatment alone at the same temperature. At higher temperatures, this difference disappeared. Heat and UW under pressure seemed to act independently. The lethality of MTS treatments appeared to result from the added effects of UW under pressure and the lethal effect of heat. The individual contributions of heat and of UW under pressure to the total lethal effect of MTS depended on temperature. The inactivating effect of UW was not due to titanium particles eroded from the sonication horn. The addition to the MS media of cysteamine did not increase the resistance of Y. enterocolitica to MS treatment. MS treatment caused cell disruption

  4. Complex and unexpected dynamics in simple genetic regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Yanika; Ullner, Ekkehard; Alagha, Afnan; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Nesbeth, Darren; Zaikin, Alexey

    2014-03-01

    One aim of synthetic biology is to construct increasingly complex genetic networks from interconnected simpler ones to address challenges in medicine and biotechnology. However, as systems increase in size and complexity, emergent properties lead to unexpected and complex dynamics due to nonlinear and nonequilibrium properties from component interactions. We focus on four different studies of biological systems which exhibit complex and unexpected dynamics. Using simple synthetic genetic networks, small and large populations of phase-coupled quorum sensing repressilators, Goodwin oscillators, and bistable switches, we review how coupled and stochastic components can result in clustering, chaos, noise-induced coherence and speed-dependent decision making. A system of repressilators exhibits oscillations, limit cycles, steady states or chaos depending on the nature and strength of the coupling mechanism. In large repressilator networks, rich dynamics can also be exhibited, such as clustering and chaos. In populations of Goodwin oscillators, noise can induce coherent oscillations. In bistable systems, the speed with which incoming external signals reach steady state can bias the network towards particular attractors. These studies showcase the range of dynamical behavior that simple synthetic genetic networks can exhibit. In addition, they demonstrate the ability of mathematical modeling to analyze nonlinearity and inhomogeneity within these systems.

  5. Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin kills mice by inducing a major increase in lung vascular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geny, Blandine; Khun, Huot; Fitting, Catherine; Zarantonelli, Leticia; Mazuet, Christelle; Cayet, Nadège; Szatanik, Marek; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Huerre, Michel; Popoff, Michel R

    2007-03-01

    When intraperitoneally injected into Swiss mice, Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin reproduces the fatal toxic shock syndrome observed in humans and animals after natural infection. This animal model was used to study the mechanism of lethal toxin-induced death. Histopathological and biochemical analyses identified lung and heart as preferential organs targeted by lethal toxin. Massive extravasation of blood fluid in the thoracic cage, resulting from an increase in lung vascular permeability, generated profound modifications such as animal dehydration, increase in hematocrit, hypoxia, and finally, cardiorespiratory failure. Vascular permeability increase induced by lethal toxin resulted from modifications of lung endothelial cells as evidenced by electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that VE-cadherin, a protein participating in intercellular adherens junctions, was redistributed from membrane to cytosol in lung endothelial cells. No major sign of lethal toxin-induced inflammation was observed that could participate in the toxic shock syndrome. The main effect of the lethal toxin is the glucosylation-dependent inactivation of small GTPases, in particular Rac, which is involved in actin polymerization occurring in vivo in lungs leading to E-cadherin junction destabilization. We conclude that the cells most susceptible to lethal toxin are lung vascular endothelial cells, the adherens junctions of which were altered after intoxication.

  6. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Suicidal Intent and Medical Lethality in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapyta, Jeffrey; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Heilbron, Nicole; Mayfield, Andrew; Treadway, S. Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether suicidal intent and medical lethality of past suicide attempts are predictive of future attempts, the association between intent and lethality, and the consistency of these characteristics across repeated attempts among youth. Method: Suicide attempts in a 15-year prospective study of 180 formerly psychiatrically…

  7. Small molecule inhibitors uncover synthetic genetic interactions of human flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1 with DNA damage response genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Ward

    Full Text Available Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1 is a structure selective endonuclease required for proficient DNA replication and the repair of DNA damage. Cellularly active inhibitors of this enzyme have previously been shown to induce a DNA damage response and, ultimately, cell death. High-throughput screens of human cancer cell-lines identify colorectal and gastric cell-lines with microsatellite instability (MSI as enriched for cellular sensitivity to N-hydroxyurea series inhibitors of FEN1, but not the PARP inhibitor olaparib or other inhibitors of the DNA damage response. This sensitivity is due to a synthetic lethal interaction between FEN1 and MRE11A, which is often mutated in MSI cancers through instabilities at a poly(T microsatellite repeat. Disruption of ATM is similarly synthetic lethal with FEN1 inhibition, suggesting that disruption of FEN1 function leads to the accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks. These are likely a result of the accumulation of aberrant replication forks, that accumulate as a consequence of a failure in Okazaki fragment maturation, as inhibition of FEN1 is toxic in cells disrupted for the Fanconi anemia pathway and post-replication repair. Furthermore, RAD51 foci accumulate as a consequence of FEN1 inhibition and the toxicity of FEN1 inhibitors increases in cells disrupted for the homologous recombination pathway, suggesting a role for homologous recombination in the resolution of damage induced by FEN1 inhibition. Finally, FEN1 appears to be required for the repair of damage induced by olaparib and cisplatin within the Fanconi anemia pathway, and may play a role in the repair of damage associated with its own disruption.

  8. Engineering a Functional Small RNA Negative Autoregulation Network with Model-Guided Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chelsea Y; Takahashi, Melissa K; Zhang, Yan; Lucks, Julius B

    2018-05-22

    RNA regulators are powerful components of the synthetic biology toolbox. Here, we expand the repertoire of synthetic gene networks built from these regulators by constructing a transcriptional negative autoregulation (NAR) network out of small RNAs (sRNAs). NAR network motifs are core motifs of natural genetic networks, and are known for reducing network response time and steady state signal. Here we use cell-free transcription-translation (TX-TL) reactions and a computational model to design and prototype sRNA NAR constructs. Using parameter sensitivity analysis, we design a simple set of experiments that allow us to accurately predict NAR function in TX-TL. We transfer successful network designs into Escherichia coli and show that our sRNA transcriptional network reduces both network response time and steady-state gene expression. This work broadens our ability to construct increasingly sophisticated RNA genetic networks with predictable function.

  9. Reverse engineering large-scale genetic networks: synthetic versus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Development of microarray technology has resulted in an exponential rise in gene expression data. Linear computational methods are of great assistance in identifying molecular interactions, and elucidating the functional properties of gene networks. It overcomes the weaknesses of in vivo experiments including high cost, ...

  10. The Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Host Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Frucht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathological actions of anthrax toxin require the activities of its edema factor (EF and lethal factor (LF enzyme components, which gain intracellular access via its receptor-binding component, protective antigen (PA. LF is a metalloproteinase with specificity for selected mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs, but its activity is not directly lethal to many types of primary and transformed cells in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo treatment of several animal species with the combination of LF and PA (termed lethal toxin or LT leads to morbidity and mortality, suggesting that LT-dependent toxicity is mediated by cellular interactions between host cells. Decades of research have revealed that a central hallmark of this toxicity is the disruption of key cellular barriers required to maintain homeostasis. This review will focus on the current understanding of the effects of LT on barrier function, highlighting recent progress in establishing the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects.

  11. Analysis of time of death of prenatally lethal Steeloid mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinchik, E.M.; Cummings, C.C.; Bangham, J.W.; Hunsicker, P.R.; Phipps, E.L.; Stelzner, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Deletion mutations have been extremely useful in initiating the functional and molecular dissections of regions of the mouse genome. For the d-se and c regions, for example, it was observed that radiation mutations carrying lethal factors separable, by complementation analysis, from the primary d, se, or c mutation itself, could often be associated at both the genetic and molecular levels with multilocus chromosomal deletions. Since many of the Oak Ridge Sld mutations arose in radiation mutagenesis experiments, a substantial number may carry chromosomal deletions that involve the Sl locus in chromosome 10. Because of the great value of deletion mutations for the genetic and molecular analysis of chromosomal regions and complex genetic loci, they have initiated a series of experiments designed to test whether radiation-induced Sld mutations carry other lethal factors, in addition to the lethality caused by severe alleles of the Sl locus itself, as one prescreen for identifying Sld's that are caused by deletions

  12. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Raymond C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  13. The evolution of lethal intergroup violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Raymond C

    2005-10-25

    Recent findings and analyses in evolutionary biology, archaeology, and ethnology provide a favorable conjuncture for examining the evolution of lethal intergroup violence among hominids during the 2.9-million-year Paleolithic time span. Here, I seek to identify and investigate the main turning points in this evolutionary trajectory and to delineate the periodization that follows from this inquiry.

  14. 77 FR 6548 - Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Availability of Ballistic Survivability, Lethality and Vulnerability Analyses AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The US Army Research Laboratory's (ARL's), Survivability, Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD...

  15. Internet suicide: communities of affirmation and the lethality of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezen, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    As a tool of instant information dissemination and social networking, the Internet has made possible the formation and affirmation of public identities based on personality traits that are usually characterized by clinicians as pathological. The wide variety of online communities of affirmation reveals new conditions for permissiveness and inclusiveness in expressions of these socially marginal and clinically pathologized identities. Much the same kind of discourse common to these online communities is evident in some suicide forums. Web sites with suicide as their central raison d'être, taken together, encompass a wide range of ideas and commitments, including many that provide collective affirmation outside of (and often with hostility toward) professional intervention. The paradox of a potentially life-affirming effect of such forums runs counter to a stark dualism between online therapy versus "prochoice" forums and, by extension, to simple models of the influence of ideas on the lethality of suicide. Different forums either intensify or mitigate self-destructive tendencies in ways that are significant for understanding the place of communication in the occurrence of suicide and for therapeutic practice.

  16. Synthetic Biology Outside the Cell: Linking Computational Tools to Cell-Free Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Daniel D.; Villarreal, Fernando D.; Wu, Fan; Tan, Cheemeng

    2014-01-01

    As mathematical models become more commonly integrated into the study of biology, a common language for describing biological processes is manifesting. Many tools have emerged for the simulation of in vivo synthetic biological systems, with only a few examples of prominent work done on predicting the dynamics of cell-free synthetic systems. At the same time, experimental biologists have begun to study dynamics of in vitro systems encapsulated by amphiphilic molecules, opening the door for the development of a new generation of biomimetic systems. In this review, we explore both in vivo and in vitro models of biochemical networks with a special focus on tools that could be applied to the construction of cell-free expression systems. We believe that quantitative studies of complex cellular mechanisms and pathways in synthetic systems can yield important insights into what makes cells different from conventional chemical systems.

  17. Synthetic Biology Outside the Cell: Linking Computational Tools to Cell-Free Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Daniel D. [Integrative Genetics and Genomics, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Villarreal, Fernando D.; Wu, Fan; Tan, Cheemeng, E-mail: cmtan@ucdavis.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-09

    As mathematical models become more commonly integrated into the study of biology, a common language for describing biological processes is manifesting. Many tools have emerged for the simulation of in vivo synthetic biological systems, with only a few examples of prominent work done on predicting the dynamics of cell-free synthetic systems. At the same time, experimental biologists have begun to study dynamics of in vitro systems encapsulated by amphiphilic molecules, opening the door for the development of a new generation of biomimetic systems. In this review, we explore both in vivo and in vitro models of biochemical networks with a special focus on tools that could be applied to the construction of cell-free expression systems. We believe that quantitative studies of complex cellular mechanisms and pathways in synthetic systems can yield important insights into what makes cells different from conventional chemical systems.

  18. Lethal Zika Virus Disease Models in Young and Older Interferon α/β Receptor Knock Out Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The common small animal disease models for Zika virus (ZIKV are mice lacking the interferon responses, but infection of interferon receptor α/β knock out (IFNAR−/− mice is not uniformly lethal particularly in older animals. Here we sought to advance this model in regard to lethality for future countermeasure efficacy testing against more recent ZIKV strains from the Asian lineage, preferably the American sublineage. We first infected IFNAR−/− mice subcutaneously with the contemporary ZIKV-Paraiba strain resulting in predominantly neurological disease with ~50% lethality. Infection with ZIKV-Paraiba by different routes established a uniformly lethal model only in young mice (4-week old upon intraperitoneal infection. However, intraperitoneal inoculation of ZIKV-French Polynesia resulted in uniform lethality in older IFNAR−/− mice (10–12-weeks old. In conclusion, we have established uniformly lethal mouse disease models for efficacy testing of antivirals and vaccines against recent ZIKV strains representing the Asian lineage.

  19. Damage to E. coli cells induced by tritium decay: secondary lethality under nongrowth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukalova, B.; Kuhrova, V.

    1980-01-01

    Cells containing incorporated 3 H-thymidine are damaged by its decay. It was found with E.coli TAU-bar cells that a small part of the damage is lethal whereas most of it is reparable and only potentially lethal. If cells are subjected to nongrowth conditions, the potentially lethal damage changes to lethal damage. This process is called secondary lethality (SL). The extent of SL and some changes in DNA under three different modes of growth inhibition were determined. It was found that: (i) SL is maximal under conditions of amino acid starvation (-AA), the viable count decreasing by two orders of magnitude. (ii) SL is 4 times lower in the presence of chloramphenicol (-AA+CLP) and 6.5 times lower under +AA+CLP conditions. Changes in the sedimentation rate of DNA determined in alkaline sucrose gradient correlate with the differences in SL: under -AA conditions the sedimentation rate of DNA decreases whereas in the presence of CLP no decrease occurs. The results suggest that certain enzymatic processes take place under -AA conditions which lead to irreparable changes in DNA. (author)

  20. Damage to E. coli cells induced by tritium decay: secondary lethality under nongrowth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukalova, B; Kuhrova, V [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav

    1980-05-01

    Cells containing incorporated /sup 3/H-thymidine are damaged by its decay. It was found with E.coli TAU-bar cells that a small part of the damage is lethal whereas most of it is reparable and only potentially lethal. If cells are subjected to nongrowth conditions, the potentially lethal damage changes to lethal damage. This process is called secondary lethality (SL). The extent of SL and some changes in DNA under three different modes of growth inhibition were determined. It was found that: (i) SL is maximal under conditions of amino acid starvation (-AA), the viable count decreasing by two orders of magnitude. (ii) SL is 4 times lower in the presence of chloramphenicol (-AA+CLP) and 6.5 times lower under +AA+CLP conditions. Changes in the sedimentation rate of DNA determined in alkaline sucrose gradient correlate with the differences in SL: under -AA conditions the sedimentation rate of DNA decreases whereas in the presence of CLP no decrease occurs. The results suggest that certain enzymatic processes take place under -AA conditions which lead to irreparable changes in DNA.

  1. Introduction to focus issue: quantitative approaches to genetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Réka; Collins, James J; Glass, Leon

    2013-06-01

    All cells of living organisms contain similar genetic instructions encoded in the organism's DNA. In any particular cell, the control of the expression of each different gene is regulated, in part, by binding of molecular complexes to specific regions of the DNA. The molecular complexes are composed of protein molecules, called transcription factors, combined with various other molecules such as hormones and drugs. Since transcription factors are coded by genes, cellular function is partially determined by genetic networks. Recent research is making large strides to understand both the structure and the function of these networks. Further, the emerging discipline of synthetic biology is engineering novel gene circuits with specific dynamic properties to advance both basic science and potential practical applications. Although there is not yet a universally accepted mathematical framework for studying the properties of genetic networks, the strong analogies between the activation and inhibition of gene expression and electric circuits suggest frameworks based on logical switching circuits. This focus issue provides a selection of papers reflecting current research directions in the quantitative analysis of genetic networks. The work extends from molecular models for the binding of proteins, to realistic detailed models of cellular metabolism. Between these extremes are simplified models in which genetic dynamics are modeled using classical methods of systems engineering, Boolean switching networks, differential equations that are continuous analogues of Boolean switching networks, and differential equations in which control is based on power law functions. The mathematical techniques are applied to study: (i) naturally occurring gene networks in living organisms including: cyanobacteria, Mycoplasma genitalium, fruit flies, immune cells in mammals; (ii) synthetic gene circuits in Escherichia coli and yeast; and (iii) electronic circuits modeling genetic networks

  2. Tunable signal processing in synthetic MAP kinase cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Ellen C; Palani, Santhosh; Collins, James J; Sarkar, Casim A

    2011-01-07

    The flexibility of MAPK cascade responses enables regulation of a vast array of cell fate decisions, but elucidating the mechanisms underlying this plasticity is difficult in endogenous signaling networks. We constructed insulated mammalian MAPK cascades in yeast to explore how intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations affect the flexibility of these synthetic signaling modules. Contrary to biphasic dependence on scaffold concentration, we observe monotonic decreases in signal strength as scaffold concentration increases. We find that augmenting the concentration of sequential kinases can enhance ultrasensitivity and lower the activation threshold. Further, integrating negative regulation and concentration variation can decouple ultrasensitivity and threshold from the strength of the response. Computational analyses show that cascading can generate ultrasensitivity and that natural cascades with different kinase concentrations are innately biased toward their distinct activation profiles. This work demonstrates that tunable signal processing is inherent to minimal MAPK modules and elucidates principles for rational design of synthetic signaling systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Deficiency of CRTAP in non-lethal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta reduces collagen deposition into matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, M; Barnes, A M; Gallanti, A; Cabral, W A; Viglio, S; Weis, M A; Makareeva, E; Eyre, D; Leikin, S; Antoniazzi, F; Marini, J C; Mottes, M

    2012-11-01

    Deficiency of any component of the ER-resident collagen prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex causes recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). The complex modifies the α1(I)Pro986 residue and contains cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP), prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 (P3H1) and cyclophilin B (CyPB). Fibroblasts normally secrete about 10% of CRTAP. Most CRTAP mutations cause a null allele and lethal type VII OI. We identified a 7-year-old Egyptian boy with non-lethal type VII OI and investigated the effects of his null CRTAP mutation on collagen biochemistry, the prolyl 3-hydroxylation complex, and collagen in extracellular matrix. The proband is homozygous for an insertion/deletion in CRTAP (c.118_133del16insTACCC). His dermal fibroblasts synthesize fully overmodified type I collagen, and 3-hydroxylate only 5% of α1(I)Pro986. CRTAP transcripts are 10% of control. CRTAP protein is absent from proband cells, with residual P3H1 and normal CyPB levels. Dermal collagen fibril diameters are significantly increased. By immunofluorescence of long-term cultures, we identified a severe deficiency (10-15% of control) of collagen deposited in extracellular matrix, with disorganization of the minimal fibrillar network. Quantitative pulse-chase experiments corroborate deficiency of matrix deposition, rather than increased matrix turnover. We conclude that defects of extracellular matrix, as well as intracellular defects in collagen modification, contribute to the pathology of type VII OI. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Plasma microRNA profiles distinguish lethal injury in acetaminophen toxicity: A research study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeanine Ward; Shashi Bala; Jan Petrasek; Gyongyi Szabo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles indicative of hepatotoxicity in the setting of lethal acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice.METHODS:Using plasma from APAP poisoned mice,either lethally (500 mg/kg) or sublethally (150 mg/kg) dosed,we screened commercially available murine microRNA libraries (SABiosciences,Qiagen Sciences,MD) to evaluate for unique miRNA profiles between these two dosing parameters.RESULTS:We distinguished numerous,unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice.Of note,many of the greatest up- and downregulated miRNAs,namely 574-5p,466g,466f-3p,375,29c,and 148a,have been shown to be associated with asthma in prior studies.Interestingly,a relationship between APAP and asthma has been previously well described in the literature,with an as yet unknown mechanism of pathology.There was a statistically significant increase in alanine aminotransferase levels in the lethal compared to sublethal APAP dosing groups at the 12 h time point (P <0.001).There was 90% mortality in the lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice at the 48 h time point (P =0.011).CONCLUSION:We identified unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in APAP poisoning which are correlated to asthma development.

  5. Automatic design of digital synthetic gene circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Marchisio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available De novo computational design of synthetic gene circuits that achieve well-defined target functions is a hard task. Existing, brute-force approaches run optimization algorithms on the structure and on the kinetic parameter values of the network. However, more direct rational methods for automatic circuit design are lacking. Focusing on digital synthetic gene circuits, we developed a methodology and a corresponding tool for in silico automatic design. For a given truth table that specifies a circuit's input-output relations, our algorithm generates and ranks several possible circuit schemes without the need for any optimization. Logic behavior is reproduced by the action of regulatory factors and chemicals on the promoters and on the ribosome binding sites of biological Boolean gates. Simulations of circuits with up to four inputs show a faithful and unequivocal truth table representation, even under parametric perturbations and stochastic noise. A comparison with already implemented circuits, in addition, reveals the potential for simpler designs with the same function. Therefore, we expect the method to help both in devising new circuits and in simplifying existing solutions.

  6. Lethal domestic violence in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, M G; Spence, P R; Spence, R L

    2000-01-01

    Strategies for preventing domestic violence can be tailored to a particular geographic or socioeconomic area if the patterns of domestic violence in the area are known. National statistics, although widely available, may not be applicable to a specific region. We reviewed homicide deaths in Eastern North Carolina between 1978 and 1999 to identify patterns in this rural area. Approximately 20% of the homicide deaths in eastern North Carolina are caused by intimate partners. Women accounted for 53% of the victims in 1976, similar to national figures but not rising to 72% as seen nationally in 1998. Latinos are an increasing presence in the area, but had only one recorded episode of lethal violence against an intimate partner. Gunshots accounted for most of the deaths (59% in men, 72% in women). Knowledge of such patterns can assist in selecting prevention strategies for this particular area. Over the last 25 years increasing attention has been devoted to domestic violence (DV), initially defined as abuse committed against a spouse, former spouse, fiancée, boy- or girlfriend, or cohabitant. As time has passed, the definition has been broadened to include other family members--elders, children, and siblings. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now uses the term "intimate partner violence" for intentional emotional or physical abuse inflicted by a spouse, ex-spouse, a present or former boy- or girlfriend, or date. For the purposes of this paper, we consider DV interchangeable with intimate partner violence. There has been a national concern that abusive events are under-reported. The National Crime Victimization Survey, an anonymous household survey, indicated nearly 1 million incidents of non-lethal intimate partner violence per year between 1992 and 1996. The number decreased from 1.1 million in 1993 to 840,000 in 1996. Attempts to validate such data for a given geographic area often require subjects to violate anonymity--this may account for lower

  7. Variability in mutational fitness effects prevents full lethal transitions in large quasispecies populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanyés, Josep; Simó, Carles; Martínez, Regina; Solé, Ricard V.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of mutational fitness effects (DMFE) is crucial to the evolutionary fate of quasispecies. In this article we analyze the effect of the DMFE on the dynamics of a large quasispecies by means of a phenotypic version of the classic Eigen's model that incorporates beneficial, neutral, deleterious, and lethal mutations. By parameterizing the model with available experimental data on the DMFE of Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Tobacco etch virus (TEV), we found that increasing mutation does not totally push the entire viral quasispecies towards deleterious or lethal regions of the phenotypic sequence space. The probability of finding regions in the parameter space of the general model that results in a quasispecies only composed by lethal phenotypes is extremely small at equilibrium and in transient times. The implications of our findings can be extended to other scenarios, such as lethal mutagenesis or genomically unstable cancer, where increased mutagenesis has been suggested as a potential therapy.

  8. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  9. A new type of lethal short-limbed dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairn, E.R.; Chapman, S.

    1989-01-01

    Details are presented of a most unusual osteo-chondrodysplasia which presents with lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism, defective ossification and nodular calcification with cartilage. The features resemble one case previously described in the literature. (orig.)

  10. Inferring network structure from cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonge, Sushrut; Vural, Dervis Can

    2017-07-01

    Many physical, biological, and social phenomena can be described by cascades taking place on a network. Often, the activity can be empirically observed, but not the underlying network of interactions. In this paper we offer three topological methods to infer the structure of any directed network given a set of cascade arrival times. Our formulas hold for a very general class of models where the activation probability of a node is a generic function of its degree and the number of its active neighbors. We report high success rates for synthetic and real networks, for several different cascade models.

  11. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  12. Robust synchronization control scheme of a population of nonlinear stochastic synthetic genetic oscillators under intrinsic and extrinsic molecular noise via quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Hsu, Chih-Yuan

    2012-10-26

    Collective rhythms of gene regulatory networks have been a subject of considerable interest for biologists and theoreticians, in particular the synchronization of dynamic cells mediated by intercellular communication. Synchronization of a population of synthetic genetic oscillators is an important design in practical applications, because such a population distributed over different host cells needs to exploit molecular phenomena simultaneously in order to emerge a biological phenomenon. However, this synchronization may be corrupted by intrinsic kinetic parameter fluctuations and extrinsic environmental molecular noise. Therefore, robust synchronization is an important design topic in nonlinear stochastic coupled synthetic genetic oscillators with intrinsic kinetic parameter fluctuations and extrinsic molecular noise. Initially, the condition for robust synchronization of synthetic genetic oscillators was derived based on Hamilton Jacobi inequality (HJI). We found that if the synchronization robustness can confer enough intrinsic robustness to tolerate intrinsic parameter fluctuation and extrinsic robustness to filter the environmental noise, then robust synchronization of coupled synthetic genetic oscillators is guaranteed. If the synchronization robustness of a population of nonlinear stochastic coupled synthetic genetic oscillators distributed over different host cells could not be maintained, then robust synchronization could be enhanced by external control input through quorum sensing molecules. In order to simplify the analysis and design of robust synchronization of nonlinear stochastic synthetic genetic oscillators, the fuzzy interpolation method was employed to interpolate several local linear stochastic coupled systems to approximate the nonlinear stochastic coupled system so that the HJI-based synchronization design problem could be replaced by a simple linear matrix inequality (LMI)-based design problem, which could be solved with the help of LMI

  13. Epigenetic Deficiencies and Replicative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell-specific synthetic lethal interactions entail promising therapeutic possibilities. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Pfister et al. describe a synthetic lethal interaction where cancer cells deficient in H3K36me3 owing to SETD2 loss-of-function mutation are strongly sensitized to inhibiti...

  14. Effects of lethal and non-lethal malaria on the mononuclear phagocyte system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Tosta

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects ofone non-lethal species ofmalarialparasite, Plasmodium yoelii, and one lethal species, P. berghei, on the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS of BALB/c mice were studied. P. yoelii caused a greater and more sustained expansion and activation of the MPS, and the two major populations of spleen phagocytic cells-red pulp and marginal zone macrophages - exhibited a greater increase in numbers in this infection. During the course of P. berghei mataria, the spleen was progressively occupied by haematopoietic tissue and, at the terminal stage of infection, an extensive depletion of lymphocytes and macrophages was apparent. The possibility was suggested that the outcome of mataria may be inftuenced by the particular way the parasite interacts with the MPS.Estudou-se o efeito da infecção causada por espécie letal (Plasmodium berghei e não- letal (P. yoelii de plasmódio sobre o sistema de fagócitos mononucleares de camundongo BALB/c. O P. yoelii causou maior e mais prolongada expansão e ativação do sistema de macrófagos. As duas mais importantes populações de fagócitos esplênicos - macrófagos de polpa vermelha e da zona marginal - exibiam maior aumento do número de células nesta infecção. Durante a evolução da malária por P. berghei, o baço foi progressivamente ocupado por tecido hematopoiético e, na fase terminal da infecção, observou-se significativa depleção dos linfócitos e macrófagos esplênicos. Os dados apresentados indicam que a evolução da malária depende do tipo de interação entre o plasmódio e o sistema de fagócitos mononucleares.

  15. Characterization of Thermal Stability of Synthetic and Semi-Synthetic Engine Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar Tripathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engine oils undergo oxidative degradation and wears out during service. Hence it is important to characterize ageing of engine oils at different simulated conditions to evaluate the performance of existing oils and also design new formulations. This work focuses on characterizing the thermo-oxidative degradation of synthetic and semi-synthetic engine oils aged at 120, 149 and 200 °C. Apparent activation energy of decomposition of aged oils evaluated using the isoconversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose technique was used as a thermal stability marker. The temporal variation of stability at different ageing temperatures was corroborated with kinematic viscosity, oxidation, sulfation and nitration indices, total base number, antiwear additive content and molecular structure of the organic species present in the oils. At the lowest temperature employed, synthetic oil underwent higher rate of oxidation, while semi-synthetic oil was stable for longer time periods. At higher temperatures, the initial rate of change of average apparent activation energy of synthetic oil correlated well with a similar variation in oxidation number. A mixture of long chain linear, branched, and cyclic hydrocarbons were observed when semi-synthetic oil was degraded at higher temperatures.

  16. Protease Addiction and Synthetic Lethality in Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freije, José M. P.; Fraile, Julia M.; López-Otín, Carlos, E-mail: jmpf@uniovi.es [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto Universitario de Oncología, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-09-05

    The “oncogene addiction” concept refers to the dependence of cancer cells on the function of the oncogenes responsible for their transformed phenotype, while the term “non-oncogene addiction” has been introduced to define the exacerbated necessity of the normal function of non-mutated genes. In this Perspective, we focus on the importance of proteolytic enzymes to maintain the viability of cancer cells and hypothesize that most, if not all, tumors present “addiction” to a number of proteolytic activities, which in turn may represent valuable targets of anti-cancer therapies, even without being mutated or over-expressed by the malignant cells.

  17. Protease Addiction and Synthetic Lethality in Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freije, José M. P.; Fraile, Julia M.; López-Otín, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The “oncogene addiction” concept refers to the dependence of cancer cells on the function of the oncogenes responsible for their transformed phenotype, while the term “non-oncogene addiction” has been introduced to define the exacerbated necessity of the normal function of non-mutated genes. In this Perspective, we focus on the importance of proteolytic enzymes to maintain the viability of cancer cells and hypothesize that most, if not all, tumors present “addiction” to a number of proteolytic activities, which in turn may represent valuable targets of anti-cancer therapies, even without being mutated or over-expressed by the malignant cells.

  18. Dominant lethal and ovarian effects of plutonium-239 in female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, A.G.; Beechey, C.V.; Green, D.; Howells, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    (C3H x 101)F 1 female mice were injected intravenously with 239 Pu in trisodium citrate, then mated in pairs to strain CBA males, to test for dominant lethality. In the first experiment 10μCi kg -1 and in the second 20μCi kg -1 body mass was injected. Matings were after 6 days in the first experiment (estimated ovarian absorbed dose of 0.1 Gy) and after 3,6 or 12 weeks in the second (estimated ovarian doses of 1.11, 2.45 and 5.91 Gy respectively). No evidence of dominant lethal induction was found in the first experiment, but in the second there was a significant increase over controls in pre-implantation loss in all three series. Post-implantation lethality increased significantly (by 12%) only after 12 weeks' exposure. With the 6- and 12-week exposures (especially the latter) luteal counts fell, fewer females becoming pregnant than in controls. This is attributed to oocyte killing by the α-particles. Histological and autoradiographic investigations showed a marked reduction in ovarian size and follicular numbers with fission-tracks clustered mainly over the medullary stroma. The preimplantation loss may stem from lowered fertilization of oocytes because of their damage, so that the best measure of dominant lethality is that based on post-implantation death. (author)

  19. UV-induced lethal sectoring and pure mutant clones in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Duck, P; Nasim, A

    1976-08-01

    The induction of lethal sectoring and pure mutant clones by ultraviolet light has been studied in a homogeneous G1 population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in a normal growth medium. At the lowest UV dose of 250 ergs, which corresponds to a shoulder in the survival curve, all mutants appeared as pure clones. At higher doses the frequency of mosaic mutants progressively increased. These results indicate a relationship between the highest frequency of complete mutants and the maximum repair activity. In addition, the frequency of lethal sectoring at all doses tested was too low to account for the origin of pure mutant clones.

  20. Semi-lethal high temperature and heat tolerance of eight Camellia species

    OpenAIRE

    He, XY; Ye, H; Ma, JL; Zhang, RQ; Chen, GC; Xia, YY

    2012-01-01

    Annual leaf segments of eight Camellia species were used to study the heat tolerance by an electrical conductivity method, in combination with a Logistic equation to ascertain the semi-lethal high temperature by fitting the cell injury rate curve. Te relationship between the processing temperature and the cell injury rate in Camellia showed a typical "S" shaped curve, following the Logistic model. Te correlation coeficient was above 0.95. Te semi-lethal high temperature LT50 of the eight Came...

  1. Evaluating the lethal and pre-lethal effects of a range of fungi against adult Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanford Simon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance is seriously undermining efforts to eliminate malaria. In response, research on alternatives to the use of chemical insecticides against adult mosquito vectors has been increasing. Fungal entomopathogens formulated as biopesticides have received much attention and have shown considerable potential. This research has necessarily focused on relatively few fungal isolates in order to ‘prove concept’. Further, most attention has been paid to examining fungal virulence (lethality and not the other properties of fungal infection that might also contribute to reducing transmission potential. Here, a range of fungal isolates were screened to examine variation in virulence and how this relates to additional pre-lethal reductions in feeding propensity. Methods The Asian malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi was exposed to 17 different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi belonging to species of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium acridum and Isaria farinosus. Each isolate was applied to a test substrate at a standard dose rate of 1×109 spores ml-1 and the mosquitoes exposed for six hours. Subsequently the insects were removed to mesh cages where survival was monitored over the next 14 days. During this incubation period the mosquitoes’ propensity to feed was assayed for each isolate by offering a feeding stimulant at the side of the cage and recording the number probing. Results and conclusions Fungal isolates showed a range of virulence to A. stephensi with some causing >80% mortality within 7 days, while others caused little increase in mortality relative to controls over the study period. Similarly, some isolates had a large impact on feeding propensity, causing >50% pre-lethal reductions in feeding rate, whereas other isolates had very little impact. There was clear correlation between fungal virulence and feeding reduction with virulence explaining nearly 70% of the variation in

  2. Monitoring performance using synthetic data for induced microseismicity by hydrofracking at the Wysin site (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Comino, J. A.; Cesca, S.; Kriegerowski, M.; Heimann, S.; Dahm, T.; Mirek, J.; Lasocki, S.

    2017-07-01

    Ideally, the performance of a dedicated seismic monitoring installation should be assessed prior to the observation of target seismicity. This work is focused on a hydrofracking experiment monitored at Wysin, NE Poland. A microseismic synthetic catalogue is generated to assess the monitoring performance during the pre-operational phase, where seismic information only concerns the noise conditions and the potential background seismicity. Full waveform, accounting for the expected spatial, magnitude and focal mechanism distributions and a realistic local crustal model, are combined with real noise recording to produce either event based or continuous synthetic waveforms. The network detection performance is assessed in terms of the magnitude of completeness (Mc) through two different techniques. First, we use an amplitude threshold, taking into the ratio among the maximal amplitude of synthetic waveforms and station-dependent noise levels, for different values of signal-to-noise ratio. The detection probability at each station is estimated for the whole data set and extrapolated to a broader range of magnitude and distances. We estimate an Mc of about 0.55, when considering the distributed network, and can further decrease Mc to 0.45 using arrays techniques. The second approach, taking advantage on an automatic, coherence-based detection algorithm, can lower Mc to ∼ 0.1, at the cost of an increase of false detections. Mc experiences significant changes during day hours, in consequence of strongly varying noise conditions. Moreover, due to the radiation patterns and network geometry, double-couple like sources are better detected than tensile cracks, which may be induced during fracking.

  3. Hazard tolerance of spatially distributed complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Sarah; Wilkinson, Sean

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new methodology for quantifying the reliability of complex systems, using techniques from network graph theory. In recent years, network theory has been applied to many areas of research and has allowed us to gain insight into the behaviour of real systems that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to analyse, for example increasingly complex infrastructure systems. Although this work has made great advances in understanding complex systems, the vast majority of these studies only consider a systems topological reliability and largely ignore their spatial component. It has been shown that the omission of this spatial component can have potentially devastating consequences. In this paper, we propose a number of algorithms for generating a range of synthetic spatial networks with different topological and spatial characteristics and identify real-world networks that share the same characteristics. We assess the influence of nodal location and the spatial distribution of highly connected nodes on hazard tolerance by comparing our generic networks to benchmark networks. We discuss the relevance of these findings for real world networks and show that the combination of topological and spatial configurations renders many real world networks vulnerable to certain spatial hazards. - Highlights: • We develop a method for quantifying the reliability of real-world systems. • We assess the spatial resilience of synthetic spatially distributed networks. • We form algorithms to generate spatial scale-free and exponential networks. • We show how these “synthetic” networks are proxies for real world systems. • Conclude that many real world systems are vulnerable to spatially coherent hazard.

  4. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandadi, Machender R; Yu, Xuejun; Frankel, Arthur E; Ren, Jun

    2012-11-07

    Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Wild type (WT) and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.)). Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca(2+) handling), the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  6. Pedigree analyses of yeast cells recovering from DNA damage allow assignment of lethal events to individual post-treatment generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, F.; Karwan, A.; Wintersberger, U.

    1990-01-01

    Haploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were treated with different DNA damaging agents at various doses. A study of the progeny of individual such cells allowed the assignment of lethal events to distinct post treatment generations. By microscopically inspecting those cells which were not able to form visible colonies the authors could discriminate between cells dying from immediately effective lethal hits and those generating microcolonies probably as a consequence of lethal mutation(s). The experimentally obtained numbers of lethal events were mathematically transformed into mean probabilities of lethal fixations at taking place in cells of certain post treatment generations. Such analyses give detailed insight into the kinetics of lethality as a consequence of different kinds of DNA damage. For example, X-irradiated cells lost viability mainly by lethal hits, only at a higher dose also lethal mutations fixed in the cells that were in direct contact with the mutagen, but not in later generations, occurred. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-treated cells were hit by 00-fixations in a dose dependent manner. The distribution of all sorts of lethal fixations taken together, which occurred in the EMS-damaged cell families, was not random. For comparison analyses of cells treated with methyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and nitrous acid are also reported

  7. Assessing the monitoring performance using a synthetic microseismic catalogue for hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel López Comino, José; Kriegerowski, Marius; Cesca, Simone; Dahm, Torsten; Mirek, Janusz; Lasocki, Stanislaw

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is considered among the human operations which could induce or trigger seismicity or microseismic activity. The influence of hydraulic fracturing operations is typically expected in terms of weak magnitude events. However, the sensitivity of the rock mass to trigger seismicity varies significantly for different sites and cannot be easily predicted prior to operations. In order to assess the sensitivity of microseismity to hydraulic fracturing operations, we perform a seismic monitoring at a shale gas exploration/exploitation site in the central-western part of the Peribaltic synclise at Pomerania (Poland). The monitoring will be continued before, during and after the termination of hydraulic fracturing operations. The fracking operations are planned in April 2016 at a depth 4000 m. A specific network setup has been installed since summer 2015, including a distributed network of broadband stations and three small-scale arrays. The network covers a region of 60 km2. The aperture of small scale arrays is between 450 and 950 m. So far no fracturing operations have been performed, but seismic data can already be used to assess the seismic noise and background microseismicity, and to investigate and assess the detection performance of our monitoring setup. Here we adopt a recently developed tool to generate a synthetic catalogue and waveform dataset, which realistically account for the expected microseismicity. Synthetic waveforms are generated for a local crustal model, considering a realistic distribution of hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and source durations. Noise free synthetic seismograms are superposed to real noise traces, to reproduce true monitoring conditions at the different station locations. We estimate the detection probability for different magnitudes, source-receiver distances, and noise conditions. This information is used to estimate the magnitude of completeness at the depth of the hydraulic fracturing horizontal wells

  8. Monitoring performance for hydraulic fracturing using synthetic microseismic catalogue at the Wysin site (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel López Comino, José; Cesca, Simone; Kriegerowski, Marius; Heimann, Sebastian; Dahm, Torsten; Mirek, Janusz; Lasocky, Stanislaw

    2017-04-01

    Previous analysis to assess the monitoring performance of a dedicated seismic network are always useful to determine its capability of detecting, locating and characterizing target seismicity. This work focuses on a hydrofracking experiment in Poland, which is monitored in the framework of the SHEER (SHale gas Exploration and Exploitation induced Risks) EU project. The seismic installation is located near Wysin (Poland), in the central-western part of the Peribaltic synclise at Pomerania. The network setup includes a distributed network of six broadband stations, three shallow borehole stations and three small-scale arrays. We assess the monitoring performance prior operations, using synthetic seismograms. Realistic full waveform are generated and combined with real noise before fracking operations, to produce either event based or continuous synthetic waveforms. Background seismicity is modelled by double couple (DC) focal mechanisms. Non-DC sources resemble induced tensile fractures opening in the direction of the minimal compressive stress and closing in the same direction after the injection. Microseismic sources are combined with a realistic crustal model, distribution of hypocenters, magnitudes and source durations. The network detection performance is then assessed in terms of Magnitude of Completeness (Mc) through two different techniques: i) using an amplitude threshold approach, taking into account a station dependent noise level and different values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and ii) through the application of an automatic detection algorithm to the continuous synthetic dataset. In the first case, we compare the maximal amplitude of noise free synthetic waveforms with the different noise levels. Imposing the simultaneous detection at e.g. 4 stations for a robust detection, the Mc is assessed and can be adjusted by empirical relationships for different SNR values. We find that different source mechanisms have different detection threshold. The

  9. Fine Mapping and Transcriptome Analysis Reveal Candidate Genes Associated with Hybrid Lethality in Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiliang; Hu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xue, Yuqian; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Liu, Xing; Liu, Zezhou; Lv, Honghao; Zhuang, Mu

    2017-06-05

    Hybrid lethality is a deleterious phenotype that is vital to species evolution. We previously reported hybrid lethality in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea ) and performed preliminary mapping of related genes. In the present study, the fine mapping of hybrid lethal genes revealed that BoHL1 was located on chromosome C1 between BoHLTO124 and BoHLTO130, with an interval of 101 kb. BoHL2 was confirmed to be between insertion-deletion (InDels) markers HL234 and HL235 on C4, with a marker interval of 70 kb. Twenty-eight and nine annotated genes were found within the two intervals of BoHL1 and BoHL2 , respectively. We also applied RNA-Seq to analyze hybrid lethality in cabbage. In the region of BoHL1 , seven differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and five resistance (R)-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo1g153320 and Bo1g153380 ) were found, whereas in the region of BoHL2 , two DEGs and four R-related genes (two in common, i.e., Bo4g173780 and Bo4g173810 ) were found. Along with studies in which R genes were frequently involved in hybrid lethality in other plants, these interesting R-DEGs may be good candidates associated with hybrid lethality. We also used SNP/InDel analyses and quantitative real-time PCR to confirm the results. This work provides new insight into the mechanisms of hybrid lethality in cabbage.

  10. Synthetic biology and biomimetic chemistry as converging technologies fostering a new generation of smart biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana; Antonacci, Amina; Lambreva, Maya D; Litescu, Simona C; Rea, Giuseppina

    2015-12-15

    Biosensors are powerful tunable systems able to switch between an ON/OFF status in response to an external stimulus. This extraordinary property could be engineered by adopting synthetic biology or biomimetic chemistry to obtain tailor-made biosensors having the desired requirements of robustness, sensitivity and detection range. Recent advances in both disciplines, in fact, allow to re-design the configuration of the sensing elements - either by modifying toggle switches and gene networks, or by producing synthetic entities mimicking key properties of natural molecules. The present review considered the role of synthetic biology in sustaining biosensor technology, reporting examples from the literature and reflecting on the features that make it a useful tool for designing and constructing engineered biological systems for sensing application. Besides, a section dedicated to bioinspired synthetic molecules as powerful tools to enhance biosensor potential is reported, and treated as an extension of the concept of biomimetic chemistry, where organic synthesis is used to generate artificial molecules that mimic natural molecules. Thus, the design of synthetic molecules, such as aptamers, biomimetics, molecular imprinting polymers, peptide nucleic acids, and ribozymes were encompassed as "products" of biomimetic chemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Potentially lethal damage and its repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    Two forms termed fast-and slow-potentially lethal lethal damage (PLD) are introduced and discussed. The effect on the survival of x-irradiated Chinese hamster cells (V79) of two different post-treatments is examined in plateau- and in log-phases of growth. The postirradiation treatments used : a) incubation in hypertonic solution, and b) incubation in conditioned medium obtained from plateau-phase. Similar reduction in survival was caused by postirradiation treatment with hypertonic phosphate buffered saline, and similar increased in survival was effected by treatment in conditioned medium in plateau- and in log-phases cells. However, repair of PLD sensitive to hypertonic treatment was faster (half time, 5-10 min)(f-PLD repair) and independent from the repair of PLD (half time, 1-2 hour)(s-PLD repair) observed in conditioned medium. The results indicate the induction of two forms of PLD by radiation. Induction of both PLD was found to decrease with increasing LET of the radiation used. Identification of the molecular processes underlying repair and fixation of PLD is a task of particular interest, since it may allow replacement of a phenomenological definition with a molecular definition. Evidence is reviewed indicating the DNA double strand breaks (directly or indirectly induced) may be the DNA lesions underlying PLD. (author)

  12. Automated Design Framework for Synthetic Biology Exploiting Pareto Optimality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Muras, Irene; Banga, Julio R

    2017-07-21

    In this work we consider Pareto optimality for automated design in synthetic biology. We present a generalized framework based on a mixed-integer dynamic optimization formulation that, given design specifications, allows the computation of Pareto optimal sets of designs, that is, the set of best trade-offs for the metrics of interest. We show how this framework can be used for (i) forward design, that is, finding the Pareto optimal set of synthetic designs for implementation, and (ii) reverse design, that is, analyzing and inferring motifs and/or design principles of gene regulatory networks from the Pareto set of optimal circuits. Finally, we illustrate the capabilities and performance of this framework considering four case studies. In the first problem we consider the forward design of an oscillator. In the remaining problems, we illustrate how to apply the reverse design approach to find motifs for stripe formation, rapid adaption, and fold-change detection, respectively.

  13. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandadi Machender R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Results Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca2+ handling, the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Conclusions Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  14. Frequencies of aneuploidy and dominant lethal mutations in young female mice induced by low dose γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Suyan; Zhang Chaoyang; Dai Lianlian; Gao Changwen

    1991-01-01

    Relationship between aneuploidy, dominant lethal mutations and doses in young feral mice induced by low dose γ-rays was examined. The results suggest that the frequencies of aneuploidy of embryos increased at 0.15 Gy, but increases at over 0.50 Gy after irradiation in groups. The frequencies of aneuploidy and dominant lethal mutations increased with increasing doses and fitted linear relationship. This dose-response relationship of trisomic was not significant. The frequency of dominant lethal mutations induced by 60 Co γ irradiation is 5.59%. The effect of dominant lethal mutation is higher than that of the aneuploidy

  15. Can Telescopes Help Leo Satellites Dodge Most Lethal Impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUDIEL, ANDREA; Carroll, Joseph; Rowe, David

    2018-01-01

    Authors: Joseph Carroll and David RoweABSTRACT LEO objects are tracked by radar because it works day and night, in all weather. This fits military interest in potentially hostile objects. There is less interest in objects too small to be credible active threats. But accidental hypervelocity impact by even 5-10 mm objects can disable most LEO satellites. Such “cm-class” objects greatly outnumber objects of military interest, and will cause most accidental impact losses.Under good viewing conditions, a sunlit 5mm sphere with 0.15 albedo at 800 km altitude is a 19th magnitude object. A ground-based 0.5m telescope tracking it against a 20 mag/arcsec2 sky can see it in seconds, and provide 1 million such objects in LEO, nearly all debris fragments, mostly cm-class and at 600-1200 km altitude.Maintaining a ~million-item catalog requires a world-wide network of several dozen telescope sites with several telescopes at each site. Each telescope needs a mount capable of ~1,000,000 fast slews/year without wearing out.The paper discusses recent advances that make such a service far more feasible:1. Automated tasking and remote control of distributed telescope networks,2. Direct-drive mounts that can make millions of fast slews without wearing out,3. Telescope optics with low focal curvature that are in focus across large imagers,4. CMOS imagers with 95% peak QE and 1.5e- noise at 2E8 pix/sec readout rates,5. Methods for uncued detection of most lethal LEO debris (eg., >5 mm at 800 km),6. Initial orbit determination using 3 alt-az fixes made during the discovery pass,7. High-speed photometry to infer debris spin axis, to predict drag area changes,8. Better conjunction predictions using explicit modeling of drag area variations.

  16. Mimicking biological stress-strain behaviour with synthetic elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, Mohammad; Daniel, William F. M.; Everhart, Matthew H.; Pandya, Ashish A.; Liang, Heyi; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Dobrynin, Andrey V.; Sheiko, Sergei S.

    2017-09-01

    Despite the versatility of synthetic chemistry, certain combinations of mechanical softness, strength, and toughness can be difficult to achieve in a single material. These combinations are, however, commonplace in biological tissues, and are therefore needed for applications such as medical implants, tissue engineering, soft robotics, and wearable electronics. Present materials synthesis strategies are predominantly Edisonian, involving the empirical mixing of assorted monomers, crosslinking schemes, and occluded swelling agents, but this approach yields limited property control. Here we present a general strategy for mimicking the mechanical behaviour of biological materials by precisely encoding their stress-strain curves in solvent-free brush- and comb-like polymer networks (elastomers). The code consists of three independent architectural parameters—network strand length, side-chain length and grafting density. Using prototypical poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomers, we illustrate how this parametric triplet enables the replication of the strain-stiffening characteristics of jellyfish, lung, and arterial tissues.

  17. Social interaction in synthetic and natural microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joao B

    2011-04-12

    Social interaction among cells is essential for multicellular complexity. But how do molecular networks within individual cells confer the ability to interact? And how do those same networks evolve from the evolutionary conflict between individual- and population-level interests? Recent studies have dissected social interaction at the molecular level by analyzing both synthetic and natural microbial populations. These studies shed new light on the role of population structure for the evolution of cooperative interactions and revealed novel molecular mechanisms that stabilize cooperation among cells. New understanding of populations is changing our view of microbial processes, such as pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance, and suggests new ways to fight infection by exploiting social interaction. The study of social interaction is also challenging established paradigms in cancer evolution and immune system dynamics. Finding similar patterns in such diverse systems suggests that the same 'social interaction motifs' may be general to many cell populations.

  18. Modification of the repair of potentially lethal damage in plateau-phase Chinese hamster cells by 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Hiraoka, Wakako; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Matsuda, Akira; Ueda, Tohru; Sato, Fumiaki.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, to inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage was demonstrated in Chinese hamster V79 cells after X irradiation in plateau-phase cultures. This ability of the drug was completely diminished when deoxycytidine was added at the same time, though this was slightly affected by the addition of adenosine, suggesting that this drug was phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase to serve as an inhibitor of the repair of potentially lethal damage. Compared with hydroxyurea, another ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, this drug appeared to contain its own activity which suppressed the repair of potentially lethal damage. A combined study of post-irradiation treatment with hypertonic salt solution and with this drug on the fixation of potentially lethal damage revealed that this drug inhibited the repair of hypertonic-insensitive potentially lethal damage. (author)

  19. Modification of the repair of potentially lethal damage in plateau-phase Chinese hamster cells by 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Kiyoshi; Hiraoka, Wakako; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Matsuda, Akira; Ueda, Tohru; Sato, Fumiaki.

    1988-09-01

    The ability of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, to inhibit the repair of potentially lethal damage was demonstrated in Chinese hamster V79 cells after X irradiation in plateau-phase cultures. This ability of the drug was completely diminished when deoxycytidine was added at the same time, though this was slightly affected by the addition of adenosine, suggesting that this drug was phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase to serve as an inhibitor of the repair of potentially lethal damage. Compared with hydroxyurea, another ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, this drug appeared to contain its own activity which suppressed the repair of potentially lethal damage. A combined study of post-irradiation treatment with hypertonic salt solution and with this drug on the fixation of potentially lethal damage revealed that this drug inhibited the repair of hypertonic-insensitive potentially lethal damage.

  20. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  1. Computing with synthetic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Alexis; Molina, Franck; Amar, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    In this article we present a new kind of computing device that uses biochemical reactions networks as building blocks to implement logic gates. The architecture of a computing machine relies on these generic and composable building blocks, computation units, that can be used in multiple instances to perform complex boolean functions. Standard logical operations are implemented by biochemical networks, encapsulated and insulated within synthetic vesicles called protocells. These protocells are capable of exchanging energy and information with each other through transmembrane electron transfer. In the paradigm of computation we propose, protoputing, a machine can solve only one problem and therefore has to be built specifically. Thus, the programming phase in the standard computing paradigm is represented in our approach by the set of assembly instructions (specific attachments) that directs the wiring of the protocells that constitute the machine itself. To demonstrate the computing power of protocellular machines, we apply it to solve a NP-complete problem, known to be very demanding in computing power, the 3-SAT problem. We show how to program the assembly of a machine that can verify the satisfiability of a given boolean formula. Then we show how to use the massive parallelism of these machines to verify in less than 20 min all the valuations of the input variables and output a fluorescent signal when the formula is satisfiable or no signal at all otherwise.

  2. A reliable method for reconstituting thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs with bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terata, N.; Tanio, Y.; Zbar, B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors developed a reliable method for reconstituting thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs. Injection of 2.5-10 x 10 7 syngeneic bone marrow cells into adult thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs produced survival of 46-100% of treated animals. Gentamycin sulfate (5 mg/kg of body weight) for 10 days was required for optimal results. Acidified drinking water (pH 2.5) appeared to be required for optimal results. Thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow reconstituted ('B') guinea pigs had impaired ability to develop delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity to mycobacterial antigens and cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity to keyhole limpet hemocyanin; proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin were impaired. (Auth.)

  3. Beliefs and attitudes toward lethal management of deer in Cuyahoga Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, D.C.; Skerl, K.; Shank, E.M.; Lime, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    We used the theory of reasoned action to help understand attitudes and beliefs about lethal management of deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CVNP), Ohio. We used a mail-back survey to collect data from Ohio residents in the surrounding 9-county area. Two strata were defined: residents control of deer was acceptable (near 71%??4.7%, far 62%??5.5%) and taking no action to reduce deer populations was unacceptable (near 75%??4.5%, far 72%??5.1%). Beliefs about outcomes of lethal control and evaluation of those outcomes proved to be strong predictors of the acceptability of lethal control of deer in CVNP. Lethal control was more acceptable if it was done to prevent severe consequences for humans (e.g., spread of disease, car collisions) or the natural environment (e.g., maintain a healthy deer herd) than to prevent negative aesthetic impacts or personal property damage. Results from the study can be used to assist managers at CVNP as they make decisions regarding alternatives for deer management in the park and to inform others managing abundant deer populations of socially relevant impacts of management actions.

  4. Specifications of Standards in Systems and Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Falk; Bader, Gary D; Golebiewski, Martin; Hucka, Michael; Kormeier, Benjamin; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris; Nickerson, David; Sommer, Björn; Waltemath, Dagmar; Weise, Stephan

    2015-09-04

    Standards shape our everyday life. From nuts and bolts to electronic devices and technological processes, standardised products and processes are all around us. Standards have technological and economic benefits, such as making information exchange, production, and services more efficient. However, novel, innovative areas often either lack proper standards, or documents about standards in these areas are not available from a centralised platform or formal body (such as the International Standardisation Organisation). Systems and synthetic biology is a relatively novel area, and it is only in the last decade that the standardisation of data, information, and models related to systems and synthetic biology has become a community-wide effort. Several open standards have been established and are under continuous development as a community initiative. COMBINE, the ‘COmputational Modeling in BIology’ NEtwork has been established as an umbrella initiative to coordinate and promote the development of the various community standards and formats for computational models. There are yearly two meeting, HARMONY (Hackathons on Resources for Modeling in Biology), Hackathon-type meetings with a focus on development of the support for standards, and COMBINE forums, workshop-style events with oral presentations, discussion, poster, and breakout sessions for further developing the standards. For more information see http://co.mbine.org/. So far the different standards were published and made accessible through the standards’ web- pages or preprint services. The aim of this special issue is to provide a single, easily accessible and citable platform for the publication of standards in systems and synthetic biology. This special issue is intended to serve as a central access point to standards and related initiatives in systems and synthetic biology, it will be published annually to provide an opportunity for standard development groups to communicate updated specifications.

  5. Papaya Lethal Yellowing Virus (PLYV) Infects Vasconcellea cauliflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, P.P.R.; Resende, de R.O.; Souza, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Papaya lethal yellowing virus (PLYV) é um dos três vírus descritos infectando mamoeiros (Carica papaya L.) no Brasil. Vasconcellea cauliflora (Jacq.) A. DC., antes denominada de Carica cauliflora (Jacq.), é uma reconhecida fonte de resistência natural ao Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), causador da

  6. Mammogram synthesis using a three-dimensional simulation. III. Modeling and evaluation of the breast ductal network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakic, Predrag R.; Albert, Michael; Brzakovic, Dragana; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2003-01-01

    A method is proposed for realistic simulation of the breast ductal network as part of a computer three-dimensional (3-D) breast phantom. The ductal network is simulated using tree models. Synthetic trees are generated based upon a description of ductal branching by ramification matrices (R matrices), whose elements represent the probabilities of branching at various levels of a tree. We simulated the ductal network of the breast, consisting of multiple lobes, by random binary trees (RBT). Each lobe extends from the ampulla and consists of branching ductal segments of decreasing size, and the associated terminal ductal-lobular units. The lobes follow curved paths that project from the nipple toward the chest wall. We have evaluated the RBT model by comparing manually- traced ductal networks from 25 projections of ductal lobes in clinical galactograms and manually- traced networks from 23 projections of synthetic RBTs. A root-mean-square (rms) fractional error of 41%, between the R-matrix elements corresponding to clinical and synthetic images, was computed. This difference was influenced by projection and segmentation artifacts and by the limited number of available images. In addition, we analyzed 23 synthetic trees generated using R matrices computed from clinical images. A comparison of these synthetic and clinical images yielded a rms fractional error of 11%, suggesting the possibility that a more appropriate model of the ductal branching morphology may be developed. Rejection of the RBT model also suggests the existence of a relationship between ductal branching morphology and the state of mammary development and pathology

  7. Hematologic syndrome in man modeled from mammalian lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Data on acute radiation lethality due to failure of the hematologic system in rats, mice, dogs, swine, monkeys and man are analyzed. Based on the available data, the mortality incidences for 1-100% levels can be computed directly if one has only an estimate of the dose lethal to 50% of the population (LD 50 ) for the mammalian strain and radiation environment of interest. The sole restriction is that the dose profile to the marrow be moderately uniform. If an LD 50 for any exposure situation has been measured, then one can readily scale to any desired situation through implicit-biological and empirical-physical relationships. The LD 50 for man, exposed to an isotropic cloud of photons, and knowledge of the bone-marrow dose profiles readily permit evaluation of the model for other levels of human mortality from different irradiating particles, partial body irradiation and spatially dependent and/or mixed radiation environments. (author)

  8. Knowledge-fused differential dependency network models for detecting significant rewiring in biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Zhang, Bai; Hoffman, Eric P; Clarke, Robert; Zhang, Zhen; Shih, Ie-Ming; Xuan, Jianhua; Herrington, David M; Wang, Yue

    2014-07-24

    Modeling biological networks serves as both a major goal and an effective tool of systems biology in studying mechanisms that orchestrate the activities of gene products in cells. Biological networks are context-specific and dynamic in nature. To systematically characterize the selectively activated regulatory components and mechanisms, modeling tools must be able to effectively distinguish significant rewiring from random background fluctuations. While differential networks cannot be constructed by existing knowledge alone, novel incorporation of prior knowledge into data-driven approaches can improve the robustness and biological relevance of network inference. However, the major unresolved roadblocks include: big solution space but a small sample size; highly complex networks; imperfect prior knowledge; missing significance assessment; and heuristic structural parameter learning. To address these challenges, we formulated the inference of differential dependency networks that incorporate both conditional data and prior knowledge as a convex optimization problem, and developed an efficient learning algorithm to jointly infer the conserved biological network and the significant rewiring across different conditions. We used a novel sampling scheme to estimate the expected error rate due to "random" knowledge. Based on that scheme, we developed a strategy that fully exploits the benefit of this data-knowledge integrated approach. We demonstrated and validated the principle and performance of our method using synthetic datasets. We then applied our method to yeast cell line and breast cancer microarray data and obtained biologically plausible results. The open-source R software package and the experimental data are freely available at http://www.cbil.ece.vt.edu/software.htm. Experiments on both synthetic and real data demonstrate the effectiveness of the knowledge-fused differential dependency network in revealing the statistically significant rewiring in biological

  9. Evaluation of synthetic infection-enhancing lipopeptides as adjuvants for a live-attenuated canine distemper virus vaccine administered intra-nasally to ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D Tien; Ludlow, Martin; van Amerongen, Geert; de Vries, Rory D; Yüksel, Selma; Verburgh, R Joyce; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Duprex, W Paul; de Swart, Rik L

    2012-07-20

    Inactivated paramyxovirus vaccines have been associated with hypersensitivity responses upon challenge infection. For measles and canine distemper virus (CDV) safe and effective live-attenuated virus vaccines are available, but for human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus development of such vaccines has proven difficult. We recently identified three synthetic bacterial lipopeptides that enhance paramyxovirus infections in vitro, and hypothesized these could be used as adjuvants to promote immune responses induced by live-attenuated paramyxovirus vaccines. Here, we tested this hypothesis using a CDV vaccination and challenge model in ferrets. Three groups of six animals were intra-nasally vaccinated with recombinant (r) CDV(5804P)L(CCEGFPC) in the presence or absence of the infection-enhancing lipopeptides Pam3CSK4 or PHCSK4. The recombinant CDV vaccine virus had previously been described to be over-attenuated in ferrets. A group of six animals was mock-vaccinated as control. Six weeks after vaccination all animals were challenged with a lethal dose of rCDV strain Snyder-Hill expressing the red fluorescent protein dTomato. Unexpectedly, intra-nasal vaccination of ferrets with rCDV(5804P)L(CCEGFPC) in the absence of lipopeptides resulted in good immune responses and protection against lethal challenge infection. However, in animals vaccinated with lipopeptide-adjuvanted virus significantly higher vaccine virus loads were detected in nasopharyngeal lavages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, these animals developed significantly higher CDV neutralizing antibody titers compared to animals vaccinated with non-adjuvanted vaccine. This study demonstrates that the synthetic cationic lipopeptides Pam3CSK4 and PHCSK4 not only enhance paramyxovirus infection in vitro, but also in vivo. Given the observed enhancement of immunogenicity their potential as adjuvants for other live-attenuated paramyxovirus vaccines should be considered

  10. Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindervater, Katharine Hall

    Interdisciplinary both in scope and method, my dissertation, Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War, examines the history of drone technology from the start of the 20th century to the present in order to understand the significance of the increasing centrality of drones to current American military engagements and security practices more generally. Much of the scholarship on drones and many other contemporary military technologies tends to view the technology as radically new, missing both the historical development of these objects as well as the perspectives and rationalities that are embedded in their use. For this research, I focused on three main periods of drone research and development: the early years of World War I and II in the UK, the Cold War, and the 1990s. In studying this history of the drone, I found that two key trends emerge as significant: the increasing importance of information to warfare under the rubric of intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance; and a shift toward more dynamic, speedier, and individualized targeting practices. I argue that the widespread use of drones today thus represents the culmination of attempts in war to effectively link these two trends, creating a practice I call lethal surveillance -- with the armed Predator effectively closing the loop between identifying and killing targets. The concept of lethal surveillance, which in my dissertation I place squarely within the histories of modern scientific thinking and Western liberal governance, allows us to see how techniques of Western state power and knowledge production are merging with practices of killing and control in new ways, causing significant changes to both the operations of the state and to practices of war. Framing the drone through the lens of lethal surveillance, therefore, allows us to see the longer histories the drone is embedded in as well as other security practices it is connected to.

  11. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  12. Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA) Using Generalized Radial Basis Function Neural Networks for Nonlinear Functional Connectivity Network Recovery in Resting-State Functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Adora M; Abidin, Anas Zainul; Nagarajan, Mahesh B; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-29

    We investigate the applicability of a computational framework, called mutual connectivity analysis (MCA), for directed functional connectivity analysis in both synthetic and resting-state functional MRI data. This framework comprises of first evaluating non-linear cross-predictability between every pair of time series prior to recovering the underlying network structure using community detection algorithms. We obtain the non-linear cross-prediction score between time series using Generalized Radial Basis Functions (GRBF) neural networks. These cross-prediction scores characterize the underlying functionally connected networks within the resting brain, which can be extracted using non-metric clustering approaches, such as the Louvain method. We first test our approach on synthetic models with known directional influence and network structure. Our method is able to capture the directional relationships between time series (with an area under the ROC curve = 0.92 ± 0.037) as well as the underlying network structure (Rand index = 0.87 ± 0.063) with high accuracy. Furthermore, we test this method for network recovery on resting-state fMRI data, where results are compared to the motor cortex network recovered from a motor stimulation sequence, resulting in a strong agreement between the two (Dice coefficient = 0.45). We conclude that our MCA approach is effective in analyzing non-linear directed functional connectivity and in revealing underlying functional network structure in complex systems.

  13. Influence Of Quinolone Lethality on Irradiated Anaerobic Growth of Escherichia Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.M.; El-Kabbany, H.M.; El-Esseily, E.SH.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities were measured with wild type cells and isomerase mutants of Escherichia coli for ciprofloxacin, formation of quinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes, observed as a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dependent drop in cell lysate viscosity, occurred during aerobic and anaerobic growth and in the presence and in the absence of chloramphenicol. Quinolone activity against Escherichia coli was examined during aerobic growth, aerobic treatment with chloramphenicol, and anaerobic growth. Nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin were lethal for cultures growing aerobically, and the bacteriostatic activity of each quinolone was unaffected by anaerobic growth. However, lethal activity was distinct for each quinolone with cells treated aerobically with chloramphenicol or grown anaerobically. Nalidixic acid failed to kill cells under both conditions, norfloxacin killed cells when they were grown anaerobically but not when they were treated with chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin killed cells under both conditions but required higher concentrations than those required with cells grown aerobically, C-methoxy fluoro quinolone was equally lethal under all conditions. However, lethal chromosome fragmentation, detected as a drop in viscosity in the absence of SDS, was occurred with nalidixic acid treatment only under aerobic conditions in the absence of chloramphenicol, thus, all quinolones tested appeared to form reversible bacteriostatic complexes containing broken DNA during aerobic growth, during anaerobic growth, and when protein synthesis is blocked. The ability to fragment chromosomes rapidly kill cells under these conditions depends on quinolone structure. The radiation of sublethal dose was 3 Gy at rate of 0.6 Gy/min was shown as non-significant result

  14. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E. [Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Halvorsen, O.J. [Dept. of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Gjelland, K. [Dept. of Gynaecology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engebretsen, L. [Dept. of Genetics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2001-09-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  15. Neonatal lethal dwarfism with distinct skeletal malformations - a separate entity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosendahl, K.; Maurseth, K.; Olsen, Oe.E.; Halvorsen, O.J.; Gjelland, K.; Engebretsen, L.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a case of neonatal lethal dwarfism characterised by short trunk, short, stick-like tubular bones, deficient ossification of the axial skeleton and broad, sclerotic horizontal ribs. Two similar cases have previously been reported as examples of the Neu-Laxova syndrome. However, the radiological findings of the Neu-Laxova syndrome, as reported in 16 out of 40 documented cases, show a heterogeneous pattern of minor features, which differ distinctively from those found in the previous two cases and by us. A literature research did not reveal similar cases, and we therefore suggest that our case, together with the two previous cases, may represent a new distinctive form of neonatal lethal dwarfism. (orig.)

  16. Pacman dysplasia: a lethal skeletal dysplasia with variable radiographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of the King' s Daughters, Norfolk (United States); Proud, V.K. [Dept. of Genetics, Children' s Hospital of the King' s Daughters, Norfolk (United States); Werner, A.L. [Dept. of Pathology, Children' s Hospital of the King' s Daughters, Norfolk (United States); Field, F.M.; Wilcox, W.F.; Lachman, R.S.; Rimoin, D.L. [International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Background: Punctate or stippled cartilaginous calcifications are associated with many conditions, including chromosomal, infectious, endocrine, and teratogenic etiologies. Some of these conditions are clinically mild, while others are lethal. Accurate diagnosis can prove instrumental in clinical management and in genetic counseling. Objective: To describe the diagnostic radiographic features seen in Pacman dysplasia, a distinct autosomal recessive, lethal skeletal dysplasia. Materials and methods: We present the fourth reported case of Pacman dysplasia and compare the findings seen in our patient with the three previously described patients. Results: Invariable and variable radiographic findings were seen in all four cases of histologically proven Pacman dysplasia. Conclusion: Pacman dysplasia presents both constant and variable diagnostic radiographic features. (orig.)

  17. Synthetic genome engineering forging new frontiers for wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Isak S

    2017-02-01

    Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes. In 2014, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae became the first eukaryotic cell to be equipped with a fully functional synthetic chromosome. This was achieved following the synthesis of the first viral (poliovirus in 2002 and bacteriophage Phi-X174 in 2003) and bacterial (Mycoplasma genitalium in 2008 and Mycoplasma mycoides in 2010) genomes, and less than two decades after revealing the full genome sequence of a laboratory (S288c in 1996) and wine (AWRI1631 in 2008) yeast strain. A large international project - the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project - is now underway to synthesize all 16 chromosomes (∼12 Mb carrying ∼6000 genes) of the sequenced S288c laboratory strain by 2018. If successful, S. cerevisiae will become the first eukaryote to cross the horizon of in silico design of complex cells through de novo synthesis, reshuffling, and editing of genomes. In the meantime, yeasts are being used as cell factories for the semi-synthetic production of high-value compounds, such as the potent antimalarial artemisinin, and food ingredients, such as resveratrol, vanillin, stevia, nootkatone, and saffron. As a continuum of previously genetically engineered industrially important yeast strains, precision genome engineering is bound to also impact the study and development of wine yeast strains supercharged with synthetic DNA. The first taste of what the future

  18. QTL mapping of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity and conditional lethality in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding-related and conditionally expressed lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. The lethal effect was triggered by exposure to a cold shock. We used a North Carolina crossing Design 3 to establish the mapping population, as well as to estimate the average dominance ratio and heritability. We found two......Inbreeding depression is a central theme within genetics, and is of specific interest for researchers within evolutionary and conservation genetics and animal and plant breeding. Inbreeding effects are thought to be caused by the joint expression of conditional and unconditional deleterious alleles....... Whenever the expression of deleterious alleles is conditional, this can result in extreme environmental sensitivity in certain inbred lineages. Analysis of conditional lethal effects can reveal some of the loci that are sensitive to inbreeding. We performed a QTL (quantitative trait locus) mapping study...

  19. Epidemic extinction paths in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindes, Jason; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2017-05-01

    We study the extinction of long-lived epidemics on finite complex networks induced by intrinsic noise. Applying analytical techniques to the stochastic susceptible-infected-susceptible model, we predict the distribution of large fluctuations, the most probable or optimal path through a network that leads to a disease-free state from an endemic state, and the average extinction time in general configurations. Our predictions agree with Monte Carlo simulations on several networks, including synthetic weighted and degree-distributed networks with degree correlations, and an empirical high school contact network. In addition, our approach quantifies characteristic scaling patterns for the optimal path and distribution of large fluctuations, both near and away from the epidemic threshold, in networks with heterogeneous eigenvector centrality and degree distributions.

  20. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Le Feuvre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials, where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal. Keywords: Synthetic biology, Materials, Biological materials, Biomaterials, Advanced materials

  1. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  2. Dominant lethal mutations research in mice fed with irradiated black beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Z.P.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of irradiated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) with conservation purpose, in germ cells of mice, dominant lethal assay were employed. Three groups of albino swiss male mice (S W-55) were fed with a normal ration, or unirradiated or irradiated (0,2; 0,5; 1; 5; 10; 15 e 20 KGy) test diets for eight weeks. After the feeding period the males were mated with groups of untreated females mice for four consecutive weeks. Numbers of pregnancy rates females were observed. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. (author)

  3. Trade-offs between driving nodes and time-to-control in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pequito, Sérgio; Preciado, Victor M.; Barabási, Albert-László; Pappas, George J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in control theory provide us with efficient tools to determine the minimum number of driving (or driven) nodes to steer a complex network towards a desired state. Furthermore, we often need to do it within a given time window, so it is of practical importance to understand the trade-offs between the minimum number of driving/driven nodes and the minimum time required to reach a desired state. Therefore, we introduce the notion of actuation spectrum to capture such trade-offs, which we used to find that in many complex networks only a small fraction of driving (or driven) nodes is required to steer the network to a desired state within a relatively small time window. Furthermore, our empirical studies reveal that, even though synthetic network models are designed to present structural properties similar to those observed in real networks, their actuation spectra can be dramatically different. Thus, it supports the need to develop new synthetic network models able to replicate controllability properties of real-world networks.

  4. Testing of candidate non-lethal sampling methods for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; McKibben, Constance L.; Conway, Carla M.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Applegate, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal pathogen testing can be a useful tool for fish disease research and management. Our research objectives were to determine if (1) fin clips, gill snips, surface mucus scrapings, blood draws, or kidney biopsies could be obtained non-lethally from 3 to 15 g Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (2) non-lethal samples could accurately discriminate between fish exposed to the bacterial kidney disease agent Renibacterium salmoninarum and non-exposed fish, and (3) non-lethal samples could serve as proxies for lethal kidney samples to assess infection intensity. Blood draws and kidney biopsies caused ≥5% post-sampling mortality (Objective 1) and may be appropriate only for larger fish, but the other sample types were non-lethal. Sampling was performed over 21 wk following R. salmoninarum immersion challenge of fish from 2 stocks (Objectives 2 and 3), and nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) results from candidate non-lethal samples were compared with kidney tissue analysis by nPCR, qPCR, bacteriological culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology/immunohistochemistry. R. salmoninarum was detected by PCR in >50% of fin, gill, and mucus samples from challenged fish. Mucus qPCR was the only non-lethal assay exhibiting both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity estimates >90% for distinguishing between R. salmoninarum-exposed and non-exposed fish and was the best candidate for use as an alternative to lethal kidney sample testing. Mucus qPCR R. salmoninarum quantity estimates reflected changes in kidney bacterial load estimates, as evidenced by significant positive correlations with kidney R. salmoninaruminfection intensity scores at all sample times and in both fish stocks, and were not significantly impacted by environmentalR. salmoninarum concentrations.

  5. Induction of dominant lethal mutations by gamma irradiation of Gallus domesticus spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J; Grom, A; Csuka, J; Kindlova, L [Poultry Research Institute, Ivanka pri Dunaji (Czechoslovakia)

    1977-01-01

    Mixed semen of Gallus domesticus cocks was gamma irradiated in vitro with exposures of 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 R at the exposure rate of 5.86 Rs/sup -1/. After the irradiation the semen was applied to experimental and control layer hens, the embryonic mortality in F/sub 1/ was observed, the total number of incubated eggs was 3344. Irradiation with 500 R had a favourable influence on embryonic vitality, the exposures 1000, 2000, and 3000 R resulted in increased embryonic mortality, for 2100 R a 50% mortality of offspring was found. Induced dominant lethality was manifest during embryonic and oviduct development. The frequency of induced dominant lethality for exposures used was 19.2, 9.9, 48.3, and 69.1%, the values of mutation rate were 0.087, 0.104, 0.659, and 1.174. The mutation rate had a linear course, the value of the lethal hit per gamete for 1 R was 1.04x10/sup -4/.

  6. Induction of dominant lethal mutations by gamma irradiation of Gallus domesticus spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, J.; Grom, A.; Csuka, J.; Kindlova, L.

    1977-01-01

    Mixed semen of Gallus domesticus cocks was gamma irradiated in vitro with exposures of 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 R at the exposure rate of 5.86 Rs -1 . After the irradiation the semen was applied to experimental and control layer hens, the embryonic mortality in F 1 was observed, the total number of incubated eggs was 3344. Irradiation with 500 R had a favourable influence on embryonic vitality, the exposures 1000, 2000 and 3000 R resulted in increased embryonic mortality, for 2100 R a 50% mortality of offspring was found. Induced dominant lethality was manifest during embryonic and oviduct development. The frequency of induced dominant lethality for exposures used was 19.2, 9.9, 48.3, and 69.1%, the values of mutation rate were 0.087, 0.104, 0.659, and 1.174. The mutation rate had linear course, the value of the lethal hit per gamete for 1 R was 1.04x10 -4 . (author)

  7. 5-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Reduces Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S. N. Hohmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes (LTs and is involved in inflammation. At present, the participation of 5-LO in acetaminophen (APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and liver damage has not been addressed. 5-LO deficient (5-LO-/- mice and background wild type mice were challenged with APAP (0.3–6 g/kg or saline. The lethality, liver damage, neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, LTB4, cytokine production, and oxidative stress were assessed. APAP induced a dose-dependent mortality, and the dose of 3 g/kg was selected for next experiments. APAP induced LTB4 production in the liver, the primary target organ in APAP toxicity. Histopathological analysis revealed that 5-LO-/- mice presented reduced APAP-induced liver necrosis and inflammation compared with WT mice. APAP-induced lethality, increase of plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, liver cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10, superoxide anion, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity, Nrf2 and gp91phox mRNA expression, and decrease of reduced glutathione and antioxidant capacity measured by 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate assay were prevented in 5-LO-/- mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, 5-LO deficiency resulted in reduced mortality due to reduced liver inflammatory and oxidative damage, suggesting 5-LO is a promising target to reduce APAP-induced lethality and liver inflammatory/oxidative damage.

  8. An improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Mu, Jun; Han, Jinyuan; Gu, Xiaojie

    2012-01-01

    This article described an improved brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test method. A simply designed connecting vessel with alternative photoperiod was used to culture and collect high yield of active Artemia parthenogenetica nauplii for brine shrimp larvae lethality microwell test. Using this method, pure A. parthenogenetica nauplii suspension was easily cultured and harvested with high density about 100-150 larvae per milliliter and the natural mortality was reduced to near zero by elimination of unnecessary artificial disturbance. And its sensitivity was validated by determination of LC(50)-24 h of different reference toxicants including five antitumor agents, two pesticides, three organic pollutants, and four heavy metals salts, most of which exhibited LC(50)-24 h between 0.07 and 58.43 mg/L except for bleomycin and mitomycin C with LC(50)-24 h over 300 mg/L.

  9. An M2e-based synthetic peptide vaccine for influenza A virus confers heterosubtypic protection from lethal virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji-Hong; Yang, Fu-Ru; Yu, Hai; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Guo-Xin; Huang, Meng; Wen, Feng; Tong, Guangzhi

    2013-07-09

    Vaccination is considered as the most effective preventive method to control influenza. The hallmark of influenza virus is the remarkable variability of its major surface glycoproteins, HA and NA, which allows the virus to evade existing anti-influenza immunity in the target population. So it is necessary to develop a novel vaccine to control animal influenza virus. Also we know that the ectodomain of influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved in animal influenza A viruses, so a vaccine based on the M2e could avoid several drawbacks of the traditional vaccines. In this study we designed a novel tetra-branched multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) based vaccine, which was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper (Th) cell epitope, and then investigated its immune responses. Our results show that the M2e-MAP induced strong M2e-specific IgG antibody,which responses following 2 doses immunization in the presence of Freunds' adjuvant. M2e-MAP vaccination limited viral replication substantially. Also it could attenuate histopathological damage in the lungs of challenged mice and counteracted weight loss. M2e-MAP-based vaccine protected immunized mice against the lethal challenge with PR8 virus. Based on these findings, M2e-MAP-based vaccine seemed to provide useful information for the research of M2e-based influenza vaccine. Also it show huge potential to study vaccines for other similarly viruses.

  10. Rational Diversification of a Promoter Providing Fine-Tuned Expression and Orthogonal Regulation for Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Benjamin A.; Weenink, Tim; Vasylechko, Serge; Ellis, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Yeast is an ideal organism for the development and application of synthetic biology, yet there remain relatively few well-characterised biological parts suitable for precise engineering of this chassis. In order to address this current need, we present here a strategy that takes a single biological part, a promoter, and re-engineers it to produce a fine-graded output range promoter library and new regulated promoters desirable for orthogonal synthetic biology applications. A highly constitutive Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoter, PFY1p, was identified by bioinformatic approaches, characterised in vivo and diversified at its core sequence to create a 36-member promoter library. TetR regulation was introduced into PFY1p to create a synthetic inducible promoter (iPFY1p) that functions in an inverter device. Orthogonal and scalable regulation of synthetic promoters was then demonstrated for the first time using customisable Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) modified and designed to act as orthogonal repressors for specific PFY1-based promoters. The ability to diversify a promoter at its core sequences and then independently target Transcription Activator-Like Orthogonal Repressors (TALORs) to virtually any of these sequences shows great promise toward the design and construction of future synthetic gene networks that encode complex “multi-wire” logic functions. PMID:22442681

  11. Rational diversification of a promoter providing fine-tuned expression and orthogonal regulation for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Benjamin A; Weenink, Tim; Vasylechko, Serge; Ellis, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Yeast is an ideal organism for the development and application of synthetic biology, yet there remain relatively few well-characterised biological parts suitable for precise engineering of this chassis. In order to address this current need, we present here a strategy that takes a single biological part, a promoter, and re-engineers it to produce a fine-graded output range promoter library and new regulated promoters desirable for orthogonal synthetic biology applications. A highly constitutive Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoter, PFY1p, was identified by bioinformatic approaches, characterised in vivo and diversified at its core sequence to create a 36-member promoter library. TetR regulation was introduced into PFY1p to create a synthetic inducible promoter (iPFY1p) that functions in an inverter device. Orthogonal and scalable regulation of synthetic promoters was then demonstrated for the first time using customisable Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) modified and designed to act as orthogonal repressors for specific PFY1-based promoters. The ability to diversify a promoter at its core sequences and then independently target Transcription Activator-Like Orthogonal Repressors (TALORs) to virtually any of these sequences shows great promise toward the design and construction of future synthetic gene networks that encode complex "multi-wire" logic functions.

  12. Lethal midline granuloma syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle; Oliveira, Ana Luiza Vianna Sobral de Magalhaes; Marchon Junior, Joao Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The rare lethal midline granuloma syndrome is difficult to diagnose because of the wide array of related diseases and lack of knowledge by the majority of physicians. In the present report, the authors describe the case of a patient with this disease, caused by squamous cell carcinoma, drawing attention to differential diagnoses and to clinical and radiological findings that may be useful to define the diagnosis. (author)

  13. Lethal midline granuloma syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle [Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF-UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, Ana Luiza Vianna Sobral de Magalhaes [Resident of Medical Practice, Hospital Federal da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchon Junior, Joao Luiz [Unit of Computed Tomography, Hospital Federal da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The rare lethal midline granuloma syndrome is difficult to diagnose because of the wide array of related diseases and lack of knowledge by the majority of physicians. In the present report, the authors describe the case of a patient with this disease, caused by squamous cell carcinoma, drawing attention to differential diagnoses and to clinical and radiological findings that may be useful to define the diagnosis. (author)

  14. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Feuvre, Rosalind A; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2018-06-01

    Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials , where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal.

  15. Development of non-lethal methods for investigation of actinide uptake by wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, M.; Child, D.; Davis, E.; Harrison, J.; Hotchkis, M.; Payne, T.; Thiruvoth, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Org. (Australia); Wood, M. [University of Salford (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    There is growing interest in the use of non-lethal methods in radioecology and an International Union of Radioecology Task Group has been established to facilitate international cooperation in this field (http://iur-uir.org/en/task-groups/id-19-non-lethal-methods-in-radioecology). In this paper, we evaluate the use of lethally-, and non-lethally obtained samples (various body tissues, excreta and blood withdrawals as well as parasites and found bones) as indicators of contamination. Samples of mammals and reptiles were collected from the semi-arid former weapons test site at Maralinga, Australia and analysed for thorium, plutonium, and uranium isotopes by accelerator mass spectrometry and alpha-spectrometry. Most samples were of low mass and presented analytical challenges as a result. The plutonium concentrations in blood withdrawn from the marginal ear veins of Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit) were successfully analysed using small samples (0.2 -7.9 ml, below the ∼10 ml threshold for safe extraction of blood from these rabbits). The results demonstrate that small-volume blood samples can serve as indicators of the presence of plutonium absorbed within other tissues (e.g., muscle, bone). However, the magnitude of the blood plutonium masses were poorly correlated with those in muscle and bone due to the presence of a small number of outliers (without the outliers, correlations improved to r = +0.66 and r = +0.51 for muscle and bone respectively). The activity concentrations in parasitic ticks were relatively high compared with those of their hosts Pseudomys hermannsburgensis (sandy inland mouse) and Ctenophorus cristatus (crested dragon lizard). Successful measurement of tick samples indicates a potential for use of parasites as general indicators of contamination within host organisms. The concentrations of actinides in found bones of Macropus rufus (red kangaroo) and O. cuniculus demonstrated potential for their use as indicators of the areal extent of

  16. A neural network for the Bragg synthetic curves recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynoso V, M.R.; Vega C, J.J.; Fernandez A, J.; Belmont M, E.; Policroniades R, R.; Moreno B, E.

    1996-01-01

    A ionization chamber was employed named Bragg curve spectroscopy. The Bragg peak amplitude is a monotone growing function of Z, which permits to identify elements through their measurement. A better technique for this measurement is to improve the use of neural networks with the purpose of the identification of the Bragg curve. (Author)

  17. Nanoporous ionic organic networks: from synthesis to materials applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jian-Ke; Antonietti, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid progress in the synthesis of nanoporous organic networks or polymer frameworks for various potential applications. Generally speaking, functionalization of porous networks to add extra properties and enhance materials performance could be achieved either during the pore formation (thus a concurrent approach) or by post-synthetic modification (a sequential approach). Nanoporous organic networks which include ion pairs bound in a covalent manner are of specia...

  18. Tolerization with BLP down-regulates HMGB1 a critical mediator of sepsis-related lethality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J Calvin

    2012-02-03

    Tolerization with bacterial lipoprotein (BLP) affords a significant survival benefit in sepsis. Given that high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) is a recognized mediator of sepsis-related lethality, we determined if tolerization with BLP leads to alterations in HMGB1. In vitro, BLP tolerization led to a reduction in HMGB1 gene transcription. This was mirrored at the protein level, as HMGB1 protein expression and release were reduced significantly in BLP-tolerized human THP-1 monocytic cells. BLP tolerance in vivo led to a highly significant, long-term survival benefit following challenge with lethal dose BLP in C57BL\\/6 mice. This was associated with an attenuation of HMGB1 release into the circulation, as evidenced by negligible serum HMGB1 levels in BLP-tolerized mice. Moreover, HMGB1 levels in peritoneal macrophages from BLP-tolerized mice were reduced significantly. Hence, tolerization with BLP leads to a down-regulation of HMGB1 protein synthesis and release. The improved survival associated with BLP tolerance could thus be explained by a reduction in HMGB1, were the latter associated with lethality in BLP-related sepsis. In testing this hypothesis, it was noted that neutralization of HMGB1, using anti-HMGB1 antibodies, abrogated BLP-associated lethality almost completely. To conclude, tolerization with BLP leads to a down-regulation of HMGB1, thus offering a novel means of targeting the latter. HMGB1 is also a mediator of lethality in BLP-related sepsis.

  19. Generalized synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition by convolutional neural network with joint use of two-dimensional principal component analysis and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ce; Jiang, Xue; Liu, Xingzhao

    2017-10-01

    Convolutional neural network (CNN), as a vital part of the deep learning research field, has shown powerful potential for automatic target recognition (ATR) of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). However, the high complexity caused by the deep structure of CNN makes it difficult to generalize. An improved form of CNN with higher generalization capability and less probability of overfitting, which further improves the efficiency and robustness of the SAR ATR system, is proposed. The convolution layers of CNN are combined with a two-dimensional principal component analysis algorithm. Correspondingly, the kernel support vector machine is utilized as the classifier layer instead of the multilayer perceptron. The verification experiments are implemented using the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition database, and the results validate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. [Gunshot wounds caused by non-lethal ammunition on the porcine model post-mortem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabrocký, Peter; Pivko, Juraj; Vondráková, Mária; Tažký, Boris

    2013-10-01

    In this article we focus on the effects of so called non-lethal ammunition. We studied possible mechanism of firearm injury formation as a consequence of using firearm on the body, to present a more comprehensive material in wound ballistics. We pointed out possible actions of a projectile causes on human, respectively other animal organisms, as well as to a manner in which an injury is caused by rifles or shotguns using non-lethal ammunition with rubber projectiles. In the experiment, we have focused on macroscopic analysis of the tissue penetrated by a rubber projectile fired from a long firearm and pump-action shotgun while focusing on the anatomical-morphological analysis of entry wounds to determine the effectiveness respectively, the wounding potential of the projectile. The results of the experiment based on the macroscopic analysis of entry wounds, cavities and exit wounds, show that when a rubber projectile penetrates the body it causes loss of the tissue (i.e. the minus effect) and mechanical disruption of the tissue similar to lethal projectile. Based on the measures and ballistic computations we concluded that in specific cases, like for example in a close range hit, a penetration of vital organs can cause serious or even lethal injuries.

  1. FIRESTORM: a collaborative network suite application for rapid sensor data processing and precise decisive responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyantethu, Shaji

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the many features and composed technologies in Firestorm™ - a Distributed Collaborative Fires and Effects software. Modern response management systems capitalize on the capabilities of a plethora of sensors and its output for situational awareness. Firestorm utilizes a unique networked lethality approach by integrating unmanned air and ground vehicles to provide target handoff and sharing of data between humans and sensors. The system employs Bayesian networks for track management of sensor data, and distributed auction algorithms for allocating targets and delivering the right effect without information overload to the Warfighter. Firestorm Networked Effects Component provides joint weapon-target pairing, attack guidance, target selection standards, and other fires and effects components. Moreover, the open and modular architecture allows for easy integration with new data sources. Versatility and adaptability of the application enable it to devise and dispense a suitable response to a wide variety of scenarios. Recently, this application was used for detecting and countering a vehicle intruder with the help of radio frequency spotter sensor, command driven cameras, remote weapon system, portable vehicle arresting barrier, and an unmanned aerial vehicle - which confirmed the presence of the intruder, as well as provided lethal/non-lethal response and battle damage assessment. The completed demonstrations have proved Firestorm's™ validity and feasibility to predict, detect, neutralize, and protect key assets and/or area against a variety of possible threats. The sensors and responding assets can be deployed with numerous configurations to cover the various terrain and environmental conditions, and can be integrated to a number of platforms.

  2. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  3. Synthetic biology to access and expand nature’s chemical diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smanski, Michael J.; Zhou, Hui; Claesen, Jan; Shen, Ben; Fischbach, Michael; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial genomes encode the biosynthetic potential to produce hundreds of thousands of complex molecules with diverse applications, from medicine to agriculture and materials. Economically accessing the potential encoded within sequenced genomes promises to reinvigorate waning drug discovery pipelines and provide novel routes to intricate chemicals. This is a tremendous undertaking, as the pathways often comprise dozens of genes spanning as much as 100+ kiliobases of DNA, are controlled by complex regulatory networks, and the most interesting molecules are made by non-model organisms. Advances in synthetic biology address these issues, including DNA construction technologies, genetic parts for precision expression control, synthetic regulatory circuits, computer aided design, and multiplexed genome engineering. Collectively, these technologies are moving towards an era when chemicals can be accessed en mass based on sequence information alone. This will enable the harnessing of metagenomic data and massive strain banks for high-throughput molecular discovery and, ultimately, the ability to forward design pathways to complex chemicals not found in nature. PMID:26876034

  4. Synthetic Biology and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task. PMID:22907209

  5. Multimodal functional network connectivity: an EEG-fMRI fusion in network space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lei

    Full Text Available EEG and fMRI recordings measure the functional activity of multiple coherent networks distributed in the cerebral cortex. Identifying network interaction from the complementary neuroelectric and hemodynamic signals may help to explain the complex relationships between different brain regions. In this paper, multimodal functional network connectivity (mFNC is proposed for the fusion of EEG and fMRI in network space. First, functional networks (FNs are extracted using spatial independent component analysis (ICA in each modality separately. Then the interactions among FNs in each modality are explored by Granger causality analysis (GCA. Finally, fMRI FNs are matched to EEG FNs in the spatial domain using network-based source imaging (NESOI. Investigations of both synthetic and real data demonstrate that mFNC has the potential to reveal the underlying neural networks of each modality separately and in their combination. With mFNC, comprehensive relationships among FNs might be unveiled for the deep exploration of neural activities and metabolic responses in a specific task or neurological state.

  6. Tracking the emergence of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Philip; Kwon, Seokbeom; Youtie, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging domain that combines biological and engineering concepts and which has seen rapid growth in research, innovation, and policy interest in recent years. This paper contributes to efforts to delineate this emerging domain by presenting a newly constructed bibliometric definition of synthetic biology. Our approach is dimensioned from a core set of papers in synthetic biology, using procedures to obtain benchmark synthetic biology publication records, extract keywords from these benchmark records, and refine the keywords, supplemented with articles published in dedicated synthetic biology journals. We compare our search strategy with other recent bibliometric approaches to define synthetic biology, using a common source of publication data for the period from 2000 to 2015. The paper details the rapid growth and international spread of research in synthetic biology in recent years, demonstrates that diverse research disciplines are contributing to the multidisciplinary development of synthetic biology research, and visualizes this by profiling synthetic biology research on the map of science. We further show the roles of a relatively concentrated set of research sponsors in funding the growth and trajectories of synthetic biology. In addition to discussing these analyses, the paper notes limitations and suggests lines for further work.

  7. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  8. A single-arm trial indirect comparison investigation: a proof-of-concept method to predict venous leg ulcer healing time for a new acellular synthetic matrix matched to standard care control

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, R; Nelson, A

    2017-01-01

    To compare data on time to healing from two separate cohorts: one treated with a new acellular synthetic matrix plus standard care (SC) and one matched from four large UK pragmatic, randomised controlled trials [venous leg ulcer (VLU) evidence network]. We introduce a new proof-of-concept strategy to a VLU clinical evidence network, propensity score matching and sensitivity analysis to predict the feasibility of the new acellular synthetic matrix plus SC for success in future randomised, cont...

  9. Immune Protection against Lethal Fungal-Bacterial Intra-Abdominal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Elizabeth A; Ikeh, Melanie; Nash, Evelyn E; Fidel, Paul L; Noverr, Mairi C

    2018-01-16

    Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are clinically prevalent and cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially those involving fungi. Our laboratory developed a mouse model of IAI and demonstrated that intraperitoneal inoculation with Candida albicans or other virulent non- albicans Candida (NAC) species plus Staphylococcus aureus resulted in 70 to 80% mortality in 48 to 72 h due to robust local and systemic inflammation (sepsis). Surprisingly, inoculation with Candida dubliniensis or Candida glabrata with S. aureus resulted in minimal mortality, and rechallenge of these mice with lethal C. albicans / S. aureus (i.e., coninfection) resulted in >90% protection. The purpose of this study was to define requirements for C. dubliniensis / S. aureus -mediated protection and interrogate the mechanism of the protective response. Protection was conferred by C. dubliniensis alone or by killed C. dubliniensis plus live S. aureus S. aureus alone was not protective, and killed S. aureus compromised C. dubliniensis -induced protection. C. dubliniensis / S. aureus also protected against lethal challenge by NAC plus S. aureus and could protect for a long-term duration (60 days between primary challenge and C. albicans/S. aureus rechallenge). Unexpectedly, mice deficient in T and B cells (Rag-1 knockouts [KO]) survived both the initial C. dubliniensis/S. aureus challenge and the C. albicans/S. aureus rechallenge, indicating that adaptive immunity did not play a role. Similarly, mice depleted of macrophages prior to rechallenge were also protected. In contrast, protection was associated with high numbers of Gr-1 hi polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) in peritoneal lavage fluid within 4 h of rechallenge, and in vivo depletion of Gr-1 + cells prior to rechallenge abrogated protection. These results suggest that Candida species can induce protection against a lethal C. albicans / S. aureus IAI that is mediated by PMNLs and postulated to be a unique form of

  10. 76 FR 6054 - Use of Less-Than-Lethal Force: Delegation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... report any medical problems encountered by subjects being subdued and arrested, and no medical problems.... Therefore, for accuracy in terminology, we replace the term ``non-lethal'' with the more accurate term...

  11. Infection dynamics on spatial small-world network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iotti, Bryan; Antonioni, Alberto; Bullock, Seth; Darabos, Christian; Tomassini, Marco; Giacobini, Mario

    2017-11-01

    The study of complex networks, and in particular of social networks, has mostly concentrated on relational networks, abstracting the distance between nodes. Spatial networks are, however, extremely relevant in our daily lives, and a large body of research exists to show that the distances between nodes greatly influence the cost and probability of establishing and maintaining a link. A random geometric graph (RGG) is the main type of synthetic network model used to mimic the statistical properties and behavior of many social networks. We propose a model, called REDS, that extends energy-constrained RGGs to account for the synergic effect of sharing the cost of a link with our neighbors, as is observed in real relational networks. We apply both the standard Watts-Strogatz rewiring procedure and another method that conserves the degree distribution of the network. The second technique was developed to eliminate unwanted forms of spatial correlation between the degree of nodes that are affected by rewiring, limiting the effect on other properties such as clustering and assortativity. We analyze both the statistical properties of these two network types and their epidemiological behavior when used as a substrate for a standard susceptible-infected-susceptible compartmental model. We consider and discuss the differences in properties and behavior between RGGs and REDS as rewiring increases and as infection parameters are changed. We report considerable differences both between the network types and, in the case of REDS, between the two rewiring schemes. We conclude that REDS represent, with the application of these rewiring mechanisms, extremely useful and interesting tools in the study of social and epidemiological phenomena in synthetic complex networks.

  12. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  13. A synthetic multifunctional mammalian pH sensor and CO2 transgene-control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausländer, David; Ausländer, Simon; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Sedlmayer, Ferdinand; Müller, Marius; Frey, Olivier; Hierlemann, Andreas; Stelling, Jörg; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-07

    All metabolic activities operate within a narrow pH range that is controlled by the CO2-bicarbonate buffering system. We hypothesized that pH could serve as surrogate signal to monitor and respond to the physiological state. By functionally rewiring the human proton-activated cell-surface receptor TDAG8 to chimeric promoters, we created a synthetic signaling cascade that precisely monitors extracellular pH within the physiological range. The synthetic pH sensor could be adjusted by organic acids as well as gaseous CO2 that shifts the CO2-bicarbonate balance toward hydrogen ions. This enabled the design of gas-programmable logic gates, provided remote control of cellular behavior inside microfluidic devices, and allowed for CO2-triggered production of biopharmaceuticals in standard bioreactors. When implanting cells containing the synthetic pH sensor linked to production of insulin into type 1 diabetic mice developing diabetic ketoacidosis, the prosthetic network automatically scored acidic pH and coordinated an insulin expression response that corrected ketoacidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthetic quorum sensing in model microcapsule colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.

    2017-08-01

    Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop models for a colony of synthetic microcapsules that communicate by producing and releasing signaling molecules. Production of the chemicals is regulated by a biomimetic negative feedback loop, the “repressilator” network. Through theory and simulation, we show that the chemical behavior of such capsules is sensitive to both the density and number of capsules in the colony. For example, decreasing the spacing between a fixed number of capsules can trigger a transition in chemical activity from the steady, repressed state to large-amplitude oscillations in chemical production. Alternatively, for a fixed density, an increase in the number of capsules in the colony can also promote a transition into the oscillatory state. This configuration-dependent behavior of the capsule colony exemplifies quorum-sensing behavior. Using our theoretical model, we predict the transitions from the steady state to oscillatory behavior as a function of the colony size and capsule density.

  15. Parental response to severe or lethal prenatal diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Stina; Jensen, Lotte Groth; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Objective A severe or lethal prenatal diagnosis places great demands on prospective parents, who face choices of far-reaching consequences, such as continuing or terminating the pregnancy. How best to support these parents is a clinical challenge. This systematic review aimed to identify and synt......Objective A severe or lethal prenatal diagnosis places great demands on prospective parents, who face choices of far-reaching consequences, such as continuing or terminating the pregnancy. How best to support these parents is a clinical challenge. This systematic review aimed to identify...... and synthesize the qualitative evidence regarding prospective parents’ responses to such prenatal diagnoses. Methods Following PRISMA guidelines, four databases were systematically searched and 28 studies met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis guided data extraction and synthesis of findings. The CERQual....... Prospective parents who continued the pregnancy wished to be acknowledged as parents, and engaged in planning to obtain a sense of meaning and control. Selective disclosure and concerns about negative responses were issues both for the parents who terminated and those who continued a pregnancy. Conclusion...

  16. Interaction of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone, and Adriamycin on the induction of acute lethality in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Cox, G.G.; Reddy, E.K.

    1984-01-01

    The acute lethality induced by combinations of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ), and Adriamycin (ADR) was investigated in mice. Whole-body irradiation produced acute lethality, with an LD-50/30 of approximately 6.5 Gy. ADR and DHAQ produced LD-50/30's of 14 and 4 mg/kg, respectively. When 10 mg/kg doses were fractionated into 5 x 2 mg/kg daily doses, both drugs were equally or more efficient at producing mortality, 90% by day 30. When 4 Gy radiation was combined with 5 mg/kg ADR or 5 mg/kg DHAQ, a response no greater than that produced by drug alone was obtained. However, when 5 mg/kg ADR was administered concomitantly with 5 mg/kg DHAQ, there was a less-than-additive induction of lethality, resulting in only 21% mortality by day 20. ADR and DHAQ (at doses of 5 mg/kg) were combined but with a 1 day interval between drugs, the protective effect was lost and animals died earlier than after either agent alone. At present, no definite explanation is available for this unusual protective effect of ADR against acute lethality induced by DHAQ

  17. Performing particle image velocimetry using artificial neural networks: a proof-of-concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabault, Jean; Kolaas, Jostein; Jensen, Atle

    2017-12-01

    Traditional programs based on feature engineering are underperforming on a steadily increasing number of tasks compared with artificial neural networks (ANNs), in particular for image analysis. Image analysis is widely used in fluid mechanics when performing particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), and therefore it is natural to test the ability of ANNs to perform such tasks. We report for the first time the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and fully connected neural networks (FCNNs) for performing end-to-end PIV. Realistic synthetic images are used for training the networks and several synthetic test cases are used to assess the quality of each network’s predictions and compare them with state-of-the-art PIV software. In addition, we present tests on real-world data that prove ANNs can be used not only with synthetic images but also with more noisy, imperfect images obtained in a real experimental setup. While the ANNs we present have slightly higher root mean square error than state-of-the-art cross-correlation methods, they perform better near edges and allow for higher spatial resolution than such methods. In addition, it is likely that one could with further work develop ANNs which perform better that the proof-of-concept we offer.

  18. Protective effects of Punica Granatum (L) and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Satheesh Kumar Bhandary, B.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Vadisha Bhat, S.; Sherly, Sharmila; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Radiotherapy, which is a chief modality to treat cancer, faces a major drawback because it produces severe side effects developed due to damage to normal tissue by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have indicated that some commonly used medicinal plants may be good sources of potent but non-toxic radioprotectors. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron beam radiation(EBR) induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were exposed to sub-lethal dose (6 Gy) of Electron Beam Radiation and then treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid for 15 consecutive days. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the liver homogenate of the sacrificed animals. Radiation induced depletion in the level of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were prevented significantly by EPWF, EPS and EA administration. Also there was significant reduction in the levels of membrane lipid peroxidation in the treated groups compared to irradiated control. The findings of our study indicate the protective efficacy of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant levels. (author)

  19. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Kandadi, Machender R; Yu, Xuejun; Frankel, Arthur E; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT) and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged...

  20. Recovery from UV-induced potentially lethal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamansky, G B

    1986-08-01

    The repair of ultraviolet light-induced potentially lethal damage was investigated in density-inhibited skin fibroblast cell strains derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The effect of exposure to polychromatic ultraviolet light composed of environmentally relevant wavelengths or to the more commonly studied, short wavelength (254 nm) ultraviolet light was studied. Systemic lupus erythematosus cells, which are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light under growth promoting conditions, were able to repair potentially lethal damage as well as normal cells.

  1. Recovery from UV-induced potentially lethal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamansky, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The repair of ultraviolet light-induced potentially lethal damage was investigated in density-inhibited skin fibroblast cell strains derived from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The effect of exposure to polychromatic ultraviolet light composed of environmentally relevant wavelengths or to the more commonly studied, short wavelength (254 nm) ultraviolet light was studied. Systemic lupus erythematosus cells, which are hypersensitive to ultraviolet light under growth promoting conditions, were able to repair potentially lethal damage as well as normal cells. (author)

  2. A comparative study of proliferative nodules and lethal melanomas in congenital nevi from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yélamos, Oriol; Arva, Nicoleta C; Obregon, Roxana; Yazdan, Pedram; Wagner, Annette; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram

    2015-03-01

    Differentiating proliferative nodules (PNs) from melanomas arising in congenital nevi (CN) is a considerable challenge for dermatopathologists. Most of the specimens dermatopathologists assess that deal with this differential diagnosis involve proliferations of melanocytes arising in the dermis. In this study, we compare the clinical, histologic, and molecular findings of these 2 conditions. In our database, we found 22 examples of PNs arising in the dermis of CN and 2 cases of lethal melanomas arising from the dermis/epidermis of CN of children. Importantly, we found that among dermal melanocytic proliferations arising from CN in children, PNs are far more common than lethal melanomas. Clinically, multiplicity of lesions favored a diagnosis of PNs, whereas ulceration was infrequent in PNs compared with lethal melanomas. Histologically, PNs showed several distinct patterns including expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with mitotic counts lower than that seen in the melanomas (1.67 vs. 12.5 mitoses/mm), a small round blue cell pattern often highly mitotically active, neurocristic-like, blue nevus-like, a nevoid melanoma-like pattern, or an undifferentiated spindle cell pattern. The lethal melanomas both featured expansile nodules of epithelioid melanocytes with high mitotic counts (range, 5 to 20 mitoses/mm) and an ulcerated overlying epidermis. At the molecular level, the PNs showed mostly whole chromosomal copy number aberrations, which in some cases were accompanied by rare partial chromosomal aberrations, whereas both lethal melanomas showed highly elevated copy number aberrations involving 6p25 without gains of the long arm of chromosome 6.

  3. Caffeine and D2O medium interact in affecting the expression of radiation-induced potentially lethal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsumi, H.; Elkind, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    Earlier work has been extended to compare the killing of long-phase V79 Chinese hamster cells by ionizing radiation when they are treated immediately after irradiation with medium containing either caffeine or 90% D 2 O. The object was to determine if the enhanced killing due to post-treatment with caffeine, or D 2 O, resulted from action on the same sector of potentially lethal damage as appeared to be the case for hypertonic shock and D 2 O medium. The treatments by themselves were not toxic to unirradiated cells. We found that the enhanced expression of potentially lethal damage by post-treatment with caffeine or D 2 O medium is similar. For example, the kinetic of the repair of the potentially lethal damage expressible by either post-treatment was similar, and an additive enhancement of potentially lethal damage occurred when the two treatments were administered sequentially. These findings suggest that caffeine and D 2 O medium affect the same sector of potentially lethal damage. When the two treatments were combined, however, they competed with each other. Thus, although caffeine and D 2 O medium act on the same sector of potentially lethal damage they do so differently, suggesting that more than one pathway of the expression of radiation damage can result in the same phenotypic effect. (author)

  4. Fighting Lethal Yellowing Disease for Coconut Farmers (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Copra is the dried kernel of the coconut, which is used to extract coconut oil. Coconut is the main income source for the coastal region's poor farmers. Over the past 10 years, Côte d'Ivoire lethal yellowing disease has destroyed more than 350 hectares of coconut and caused losses of 12,000 tons of copra per year.

  5. Perforated appendicitis presenting as a thigh abscess: A lethal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typical cases of acute appendicitis have excellent treatment outcomes, if managed appropriately.1 We discuss an unusual case of perforated retrocaecal appendicitis that presented as a right thigh abscess without prominent abdominal symptoms, which highlights the lethal nature of advanced appendicitis even when ...

  6. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  7. Synthetic Promoters and Transcription Factors for Heterologous Protein Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Machens

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal systems for heterologous protein expression as well as for the engineering of synthetic gene regulatory circuits in hosts like Saccharomyces cerevisiae depend on synthetic transcription factors (synTFs and corresponding cis-regulatory binding sites. We have constructed and characterized a set of synTFs based on either transcription activator-like effectors or CRISPR/Cas9, and corresponding small synthetic promoters (synPs with minimal sequence identity to the host’s endogenous promoters. The resulting collection of functional synTF/synP pairs confers very low background expression under uninduced conditions, while expression output upon induction of the various synTFs covers a wide range and reaches induction factors of up to 400. The broad spectrum of expression strengths that is achieved will be useful for various experimental setups, e.g., the transcriptional balancing of expression levels within heterologous pathways or the construction of artificial regulatory networks. Furthermore, our analyses reveal simple rules that enable the tuning of synTF expression output, thereby allowing easy modification of a given synTF/synP pair. This will make it easier for researchers to construct tailored transcriptional control systems.

  8. Differential replication of Foot-and-mouth disease viruses in mice determine lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciabue, Marco; García-Núñez, María Soledad; Delgado, Fernando; Currá, Anabella; Marrero, Rubén; Molinari, Paula; Rieder, Elizabeth; Carrillo, Elisa; Gismondi, María Inés

    2017-09-01

    Adult C57BL/6J mice have been used to study Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) biology. In this work, two variants of an FMDV A/Arg/01 strain exhibiting differential pathogenicity in adult mice were identified and characterized: a non-lethal virus (A01NL) caused mild signs of disease, whereas a lethal virus (A01L) caused death within 24-48h independently of the dose used. Both viruses caused a systemic infection with pathological changes in the exocrine pancreas. Virus A01L reached higher viral loads in plasma and organs of inoculated mice as well as increased replication in an ovine kidney cell line. Complete consensus sequences revealed 6 non-synonymous changes between A01L and A10NL genomes that might be linked to replication differences, as suggested by in silico prediction studies. Our results highlight the biological significance of discrete genomic variations and reinforce the usefulness of this animal model to study viral determinants of lethality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular analysis of two mouse dilute locus deletion mutations: Spontaneous dilute lethal20J and radiation-induced dilute prenatal lethal Aa2 alleles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, M.C.; Seperack, P.K.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The dilute (d) coat color locus of mouse chromosome 9 has been identified by more than 200 spontaneous and mutagen-induced recessive mutations. With the advent of molecular probes for this locus, the molecular lesion associated with different dilute alleles can be recognized and precisely defined. In this study, two dilute mutations, dilute-lethal20J (dl20J) and dilute prenatal lethal Aa2, have been examined. Using a dilute locus genomic probe in Southern blot analysis, we detected unique restriction fragments in dl20J and Aa2 DNA. Subsequent analysis of these fragments showed that they represented deletion breakpoint fusion fragments. DNA sequence analysis of each mutation-associated deletion breakpoint fusion fragment suggests that both genomic deletions were generated by nonhomologous recombination events. The spontaneous dl20J mutation is caused by an interstitial deletion that removes a single coding exon of the dilute gene. The correlation between this discrete deletion and the expression of all dilute-associated phenotypes in dl20J homozygotes defines the dl20J mutation as a functional null allele of the dilute gene. The radiation-induced Aa2 allele is a multilocus deletion that, by complementation analysis, affects both the dilute locus and the proximal prenatal lethal-3 (pl-3) functional unit. Molecular analysis of the Aa2 deletion breakpoint fusion fragment has provided access to a previously undefined gene proximal to d. Initial characterization of this new gene suggests that it may represent the genetically defined pl-3 functional unit

  10. Models for pulmonary lethality and morbidity after irradiation from internal and external sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Filipy, R.E.; Hahn, E.F.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides a hazard-function model for estimating the risk of death from radiation pneumonitis and/or pulmonary fibrosis following a light-water nuclear power accident. A similar model is also provided for estimating the prevalence of respiratory functional morbidity among those that survive death from acute effects. Hazard-function models for lethality and for morbidity were constructed using the cumulative hazard estimator H, which is related to the risk estimator R through the equation R = 1-exp(-H). The estimator H can be calculated using information provided in the report. The method of calculation depends on the exposure scenario. In general, the total normalized dose X for lethality or for morbidity is calculated. For lethality, X = 1 corresponds to a median lethal dose (LD 50 ); for morbidity, X = 1 corresponds to a median effective dose (ED 50 ). H is related to X by the equation H = 1n(2)X/sup V/, where V depends on the type of radiation (or radiations) involved. Contributions to X can arise from each of two main modes of exposure: (1) brief exposure of the lung, at a relatively high dose rate, to mainly external gammas, followed by (2) chronic internal alpha, and/or beta, and/or gamma irradiation of the lung. Equations are provided for calculating the contributions to X from both modes of exposure. 73 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Vehicle-network defensive aids suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanotti, John

    2005-05-01

    Defensive Aids Suites (DAS) developed for vehicles can be extended to the vehicle network level. The vehicle network, typically comprising four platoon vehicles, will benefit from improved communications and automation based on low latency response to threats from a flexible, dynamic, self-healing network environment. Improved DAS performance and reliability relies on four complementary sensor technologies including: acoustics, visible and infrared optics, laser detection and radar. Long-range passive threat detection and avoidance is based on dual-purpose optics, primarily designed for manoeuvring, targeting and surveillance, combined with dazzling, obscuration and countermanoeuvres. Short-range active armour is based on search and track radar and intercepting grenades to defeat the threat. Acoustic threat detection increases the overall robustness of the DAS and extends the detection range to include small calibers. Finally, detection of active targeting systems is carried out with laser and radar warning receivers. Synthetic scene generation will provide the integrated environment needed to investigate, develop and validate these new capabilities. Computer generated imagery, based on validated models and an acceptable set of benchmark vignettes, can be used to investigate and develop fieldable sensors driven by real-time algorithms and countermeasure strategies. The synthetic scene environment will be suitable for sensor and countermeasure development in hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The research effort focuses on two key technical areas: a) computing aspects of the synthetic scene generation and b) and development of adapted models and databases. OneSAF is being developed for research and development, in addition to the original requirement of Simulation and Modelling for Acquisition, Rehearsal, Requirements and Training (SMARRT), and is becoming useful as a means for transferring technology to other users, researchers and contractors. This procedure

  12. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  13. Potentiation of radiation lethality by Topotecan, a Topoisomerase I inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamond, J.P.; Kinsella, T.J.; Boothman, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Topotecan is a water soluble Topoisomerase I (Topo I) inhibitor that has demonstrated antineoplastic activity in phase I/II trials of solid tumors (such as non-small cell lung, small cell lung, ovarian, esophageal and head and neck primaries) and leukemias. We sought to determine (1) if Topotecan potentiated the lethal effects of ionizing radiation, and (2) the characteristics of the synergistic effect. Materials and Methods: Human radioresistant melanoma (U1-Mel) and glioma (D54) cells were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DME) with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) until confluence-arrest. Cells were x-irradiated (0-700 cGy) and exposed to various Topotecan concentrations (2-100μM), either before (for 4 hours), during, or after (for 4 hours) irradiation. Appropriate controls were also performed. Survival was determined via colony forming assays. Survival curves were normalized to correct for drug cytotoxicities and variations in initial viable cells plated. In another set of experiments, U1-Mel cells were exposed to 10 μM Topotecan either before, during or after 400 cGy, as described above. A modification of the SDS and KCl assay was used to quantify Topo I-DNA complexes via glass fiber filter binding. All experiments were performed at least 7 times in duplicate. Results: Potentiation of radiation lethality was seen in the U1-Mel and D54 cell lines. The synergistic effects were (1) dependent on drug concentration, with lethality enhancement and minimal drug lethality alone in the 2-10 μM range (2) dependent on timing, with synergy present only when the drug was present at the time of, or shortly after irradiation, and (3) irreversible, with inhibition of potential lethal damage repair (PLDR). The dose enhancement ratios (DER) for 4 μM Topotecan in the U1-Mel cells was 1.7 - 2.4, depending on the survival endpoints that were used. The DER for 2 μM Topotecan in D54 cells was 3.0 - 4.0. The U1-Mel cells that were exposed to Topotecan

  14. Comparative study of different sexis mutability: recessive sex-linked and dominant lethals in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatti, K.V.; Dzhaparidze, L.A.; Mamon, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) and those realizing in embryogenesis of dominant lethals, which form in oo- and spermatogenesis of Drosophila and fly productivity under the effect of X-rays and N-nitroso-N methylourea (NMU), is studied. In the case of effect of both mutagens RSLLM form in spermatocytes with higher frequency as compared with oocytes. Dominant lethal mutations (DLM) during irradiation are also often registered in spermatocytes. NMU induces DLM in mitotic male cells with a very high frequency but is not effective during the effect on oocytes. When both mutagens affect males and X-rays affect females, the decrease of productivity is mainly conditioned by DLM. As NMU does not induce DLM in females realizing in embryogenesis but reduces productivity, a later lethal realization connected with their different nature is supposed. Differences in mole and female mutability found in the course of X-ray and NMU effect are discussed in connection with peculiarities of their mitotic cells and the nature of effect of mutagens applied [ru

  15. Molecular Imaging in Synthetic Biology, and Synthetic Biology in Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Assaf A; Shapiro, Mikhail G

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical synthetic biology is an emerging field in which cells are engineered at the genetic level to carry out novel functions with relevance to biomedical and industrial applications. This approach promises new treatments, imaging tools, and diagnostics for diseases ranging from gastrointestinal inflammatory syndromes to cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. As these cellular technologies undergo pre-clinical and clinical development, it is becoming essential to monitor their location and function in vivo, necessitating appropriate molecular imaging strategies, and therefore, we have created an interest group within the World Molecular Imaging Society focusing on synthetic biology and reporter gene technologies. Here, we highlight recent advances in biomedical synthetic biology, including bacterial therapy, immunotherapy, and regenerative medicine. We then discuss emerging molecular imaging approaches to facilitate in vivo applications, focusing on reporter genes for noninvasive modalities such as magnetic resonance, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, bioluminescence, and radionuclear imaging. Because reporter genes can be incorporated directly into engineered genetic circuits, they are particularly well suited to imaging synthetic biological constructs, and developing them provides opportunities for creative molecular and genetic engineering.

  16. New designer drugs (synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones): review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottencin, Olivier; Rolland, Benjamin; Karila, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    New designer drugs (synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones) are new "legal highs" that are sold online for recreational public or private use. Synthetic cannabinoids are psychoactive herbal and chemical products that mimic the effects of cannabis when used. These drugs are available on the Internet or in head shops as incense or air fresheners to circumvent the law. Cathinone is a naturally occurring beta-ketone amphetamine analog found in the leaves of the Catha edulis plant. Synthetic cathinones are phenylalkylamine derivatives that may possess amphetamine-like properties. These drugs are sold online as bath salts. Designer drugs are often labeled as "not for human consumption" to circumvent drug abuse legislation. The absence of legal risks, the ease of obtaining these drugs, the moderate cost, and the availability via the Internet are the main features that attract users, but the number of intoxicated people presenting with emergencies is increasing. There is evidence that negative health and social consequences may affect recreational and chronic users. The addictive potential of designer drugs is not negligible.

  17. Lethal coalitionary aggression and long-term alliance formation among Yanomamö men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlan, Shane J; Walker, Robert S; Flinn, Mark V; Chagnon, Napoleon A

    2014-11-25

    Some cross-cultural evidence suggests lethal coalitionary aggression in humans is the product of residence and descent rules that promote fraternal interest groups, i.e., power groups of coresident males bonded by kinship. As such, human lethal coalitions are hypothesized to be homologous to chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) border patrols. However, humans demonstrate a unique metagroup social structure in which strategic alliances allow individuals to form coalitions transcending local community boundaries. We test predictions derived from the fraternal interest group and strategic alliance models using lethal coalition data from a lowland South American population, the Yanomamö. Yanomamö men who kill an enemy acquire a special status, termed unokai. We examine the social characteristics of co-unokais or men who jointly kill others. Analyses indicate co-unokais generally are (i) from the same population but from different villages and patrilines, (ii) close age mates, and (iii) maternal half-first cousins. Furthermore, the incident rate for co-unokai killings increases if men are similar in age, from the same population, and from different natal communities. Co-unokais who have killed more times in the past and who are more genetically related to each other have a higher probability of coresidence in adulthood. Last, a relationship exists between lethal coalition formation and marriage exchange. In this population, internal warfare unites multiple communities, and co-unokais strategically form new residential groups and marriage alliances. These results support the strategic alliance model of coalitionary aggression, demonstrate the complexities of human alliance formation, and illuminate key differences in social structure distinguishing humans from other primates.

  18. Suppressing epidemics on networks by exploiting observer nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Hasegawa, Takehisa; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    To control infection spreading on networks, we investigate the effect of observer nodes that recognize infection in a neighboring node and make the rest of the neighbor nodes immune. We numerically show that random placement of observer nodes works better on networks with clustering than on locally treelike networks, implying that our model is promising for realistic social networks. The efficiency of several heuristic schemes for observer placement is also examined for synthetic and empirical networks. In parallel with numerical simulations of epidemic dynamics, we also show that the effect of observer placement can be assessed by the size of the largest connected component of networks remaining after removing observer nodes and links between their neighboring nodes.

  19. Suppressing epidemics on networks by exploiting observer nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Hasegawa, Takehisa; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    To control infection spreading on networks, we investigate the effect of observer nodes that recognize infection in a neighboring node and make the rest of the neighbor nodes immune. We numerically show that random placement of observer nodes works better on networks with clustering than on locally treelike networks, implying that our model is promising for realistic social networks. The efficiency of several heuristic schemes for observer placement is also examined for synthetic and empirical networks. In parallel with numerical simulations of epidemic dynamics, we also show that the effect of observer placement can be assessed by the size of the largest connected component of networks remaining after removing observer nodes and links between their neighboring nodes.

  20. Current status of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K P; Hanna, K; Waring, G O; Gipson, I; Liu, Y; Gailitis, R P; Johnson-Wint, B; Green, K

    1991-01-01

    Many of the deficiencies with human tissue epikeratoplasty might be improved by the use of a suitable synthetic lenticule. Potential biomaterials for epikeratoplasty include collagen (types I, III, or IV), collagen-hydrogel copolymers, bioactive synthetics, and coated hydrogels. The biomaterial must be engineered to achieve strict specifications of optical clarity, support of epithelial migration and adhesion, permeability to solutes, and stability to corneal proteases. Attaching synthetic lenticules to the cornea without cutting Bowman's layer by adhesives, laser welding, or direct adhesion may also improve the efficacy of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

  1. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  2. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  3. Combined Diazepam and MK-801 Therapy Provides Synergistic Protection from Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced Tonic-Clonic Seizures and Lethality in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakarjian, Michael P.; Ali, Mahil S.; Velíšková, Jana; Stanton, Patric K.; Heck, Diane E.; Velíšek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic rodenticide, tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT), is a persistent and highly lethal GABA-gated Cl− channel blocker. TMDT is clandestinely produced, remains popular in mainland China, and causes numerous unintentional and deliberate poisonings worldwide. TMDT is odorless, tasteless, and easy to manufacture, features that make it a potential weapon of terrorism. There is no effective treatment. We previously characterized the effects of TMDT in C57BL/6 mice and surveyed efficacies of GABAergic and glutamatergic anticonvulsant treatments. At 0.4 mg/kg i.p., TMDT produced neurotoxic symptomatology consisting of twitches, clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, often progressing to status epilepticus and death. If administered immediately after the occurrence of the first clonic seizure, the benzodiazepine diazepam (DZP) effectively prevented all subsequent seizure symptoms, whereas the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) primarily prevented tonic-clonic seizures. The latter agent, however, appeared to be more effective at preventing delayed death. The present study further explored these phenomena, and characterized the therapeutic actions of DZP and MK-801 as combinations. Joint treatment with both DZP and MK-801 displayed synergistic protection against tonic-clonic seizures and 24 hour lethality as determined by isobolographic analysis. Clonic seizures, however, remained poorly controlled. A modification of the treatment regimen, where DZP was followed 10 min later by MK-801, yielded a reduction in both types of seizures and improved overall outcome. Simultaneous monitoring of subjects via EEG and videography confirmed effectiveness of this sequential regimen. We conclude that TMDT blockage at GABAA receptors involves early activation of NMDA receptors, which contribute to persistent ictogenic activity. Our data predict that a sequential combination treatment with DZP followed by MK-801 will be superior to either individual therapy with, or

  4. Artificial immune kernel clustering network for unsupervised image segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlong Huang; Licheng Jiao

    2008-01-01

    An immune kernel clustering network (IKCN) is proposed based on the combination of the artificial immune network and the support vector domain description (SVDD) for the unsupervised image segmentation. In the network, a new antibody neighborhood and an adaptive learning coefficient, which is inspired by the long-term memory in cerebral cortices are presented. Starting from IKCN algorithm, we divide the image feature sets into subsets by the antibodies, and then map each subset into a high dimensional feature space by a mercer kernel, where each antibody neighborhood is represented as a support vector hypersphere. The clustering results of the local support vector hyperspheres are combined to yield a global clustering solution by the minimal spanning tree (MST), where a predefined number of clustering is not needed. We compare the proposed methods with two common clustering algorithms for the artificial synthetic data set and several image data sets, including the synthetic texture images and the SAR images, and encouraging experimental results are obtained.

  5. Network-Friendly Gossiping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbu, Sabina; Rivière, Étienne; Felber, Pascal

    The emergence of large-scale distributed applications based on many-to-many communication models, e.g., broadcast and decentralized group communication, has an important impact on the underlying layers, notably the Internet routing infrastructure. To make an effective use of network resources, protocols should both limit the stress (amount of messages) on each infrastructure entity like routers and links, and balance as much as possible the load in the network. Most protocols use application-level metrics such as delays to improve efficiency of content dissemination or routing, but the extend to which such application-centric optimizations help reduce and balance the load imposed to the infrastructure is unclear. In this paper, we elaborate on the design of such network-friendly protocols and associated metrics. More specifically, we investigate random-based gossip dissemination. We propose and evaluate different ways of making this representative protocol network-friendly while keeping its desirable properties (robustness and low delays). Simulations of the proposed methods using synthetic and real network topologies convey and compare their abilities to reduce and balance the load while keeping good performance.

  6. Living GenoChemetics by hyphenating synthetic biology and synthetic chemistry in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil V; Tong, Xiaoxue; Pubill-Ulldemolins, Cristina; Cartmell, Christopher; Bogosyan, Emma J A; Rackham, Emma J; Marelli, Enrico; Hamed, Refaat B; Goss, Rebecca J M

    2017-08-09

    Marrying synthetic biology with synthetic chemistry provides a powerful approach toward natural product diversification, combining the best of both worlds: expediency and synthetic capability of biogenic pathways and chemical diversity enabled by organic synthesis. Biosynthetic pathway engineering can be employed to insert a chemically orthogonal tag into a complex natural scaffold affording the possibility of site-selective modification without employing protecting group strategies. Here we show that, by installing a sufficiently reactive handle (e.g., a C-Br bond) and developing compatible mild aqueous chemistries, synchronous biosynthesis of the tagged metabolite and its subsequent chemical modification in living culture can be achieved. This approach can potentially enable many new applications: for example, assay of directed evolution of enzymes catalyzing halo-metabolite biosynthesis in living cells or generating and following the fate of tagged metabolites and biomolecules in living systems. We report synthetic biological access to new-to-nature bromo-metabolites and the concomitant biorthogonal cross-coupling of halo-metabolites in living cultures.Coupling synthetic biology and chemical reactions in cells is a challenging task. The authors engineer bacteria capable of generating bromo-metabolites, develop a mild Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction compatible with cell growth and carry out the cross-coupling chemistry in live cell cultures.

  7. 9 CFR 430.4 - Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products. 430.4 Section 430.4 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... Control of Listeria monocytogenes in post-lethality exposed ready-to-eat products. (a) Listeria... comes into direct contact with a food contact surface which is contaminated with L. monocytogenes. (b...

  8. The role of pH in lethal effect of glucose load malignant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmakova, N.L.; Yarmonenko, S.P.; Laser, K.; Fomenkova, T.E.; Kozubek, S.; Korogodin, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    The lethal effect of variuos pH values on Erlich ascites tumour (EAT) calls has been investigated. Different pH values were obtained by means of both glucose load and phosphate buffers. The effect has been investigated by observing cell death in vitro, determining cancerogenity of EAT cells and determining their radiosensitivity. The results of all methods enabled us to conclude that the same values of pH lead to the same effect on EAT cells independently of the way by which the given pH value was reached. The lethal effect markedly increased when the value of pH was lower than 5.6. It is concluded that the basis of the mechanism of glucose load lethal effect is their ''self-acidisation''. The measurement of pH in tumours is proposed as a basic test for determining the suitability of the use of hyperglycemia in clinics and for comparison of the efficiency of various modes of treatment

  9. Comparison of the lethal effects of chemical warfare nerve agents across multiple ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Linnzi K M; Lee, Robyn B; Vincelli, Nicole M; Whalley, Christopher E; Lumley, Lucille A

    2016-01-22

    Children may be inherently more vulnerable than adults to the lethal effects associated with chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure because of their closer proximity to the ground, smaller body mass, higher respiratory rate, increased skin permeability and immature metabolic systems. Unfortunately, there have only been a handful of studies on the effects of CWNA in pediatric animal models, and more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Using a stagewise, adaptive dose design, we estimated the 24h median lethal dose for subcutaneous exposure to seven CWNA in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at six different developmental times. Perinatal (postnatal day [PND] 7, 14 and 21) and adult (PND 70) rats were more susceptible than pubertal (PND 28 and 42) rats to the lethal effects associated with exposure to tabun, sarin, soman and cyclosarin. Age-related differences in susceptibility were not observed in rats exposed to VM, Russian VX or VX. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Myxoma virus M130R is a novel virulence factor required for lethal myxomatosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, John W; Werden, Steven J; Wang, Fuan; McKillop, William M; Jimenez, June; Villeneuve, Danielle; McFadden, Grant; Dekaban, Gregory A

    2009-09-01

    Myxoma virus (MV) is a highly lethal, rabbit-specific poxvirus that induces a disease called myxomatosis in European rabbits. In an effort to understand the function of predicted immunomodulatory genes we have deleted various viral genes from MV and tested the ability of these knockout viruses to induce lethal myxomatosis. MV encodes a unique 15 kD cytoplasmic protein (M130R) that is expressed late (12h post infection) during infection. M130R is a non-essential gene for MV replication in rabbit, monkey or human cell lines. Construction of a targeted gene knockout virus (vMyx130KO) and infection of susceptible rabbits demonstrate that the M130R knockout virus is attenuated and that loss of M130R expression allows the rabbit host immune system to effectively respond to and control the lethal effects of MV. M130R expression is a bona fide poxviral virulence factor necessary for full and lethal development of myxomatosis.

  11. The applications of deep neural networks to sdBV classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Thomas M.

    2017-12-01

    With several new large-scale surveys on the horizon, including LSST, TESS, ZTF, and Evryscope, faster and more accurate analysis methods will be required to adequately process the enormous amount of data produced. Deep learning, used in industry for years now, allows for advanced feature detection in minimally prepared datasets at very high speeds; however, despite the advantages of this method, its application to astrophysics has not yet been extensively explored. This dearth may be due to a lack of training data available to researchers. Here we generate synthetic data loosely mimicking the properties of acoustic mode pulsating stars and we show that two separate paradigms of deep learning - the Artificial Neural Network And the Convolutional Neural Network - can both be used to classify this synthetic data effectively. And that additionally this classification can be performed at relatively high levels of accuracy with minimal time spent adjusting network hyperparameters.

  12. Phleomycin-induced lethality and DNA degradation in Escherichia coli K12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, H

    1975-01-01

    The cell lethality and DNA fragmentation caused by phleomycin (PM) were studied in E. coli K12 strains with special reference to the effects of repair or recombination deficiencies and metabolic inhibitors. Unlike excision-defective derivatives of E. coli B, uvrA, uvrB, and uvrC mutants of strain K12 showed no peculiarities compared with wild type in regard to cell survival. Likewise, mutant alleles at uvrD and polA loci had no effect. In contrast, rec mutants were more sensitive to PM-killing than were rec/sup +/ strains. PM-induced strand breakage in DNA was observed in all strains tested including the above-mentioned mutants. There was no significant distinction between the uvr mutants and the wild type strain, indicating that the uvr-endonuclease was not responsible for the strand breaks. Involvement of endonuclease I was also ruled out. At least some of the PM-induced strand breaks were repairable. PM-induced lethality and strand breakage were totally dependent on energy supply. Inhibition of protein synthesis resulted in a partial and parallel suppression of the two effects. Our results suggest that the lethality is due to DNA strand breakage and the repair of such damage is postulated to be controlled by rec genes.

  13. Robust network topologies for generating switch-like cellular responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf A Shah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Signaling networks that convert graded stimuli into binary, all-or-none cellular responses are critical in processes ranging from cell-cycle control to lineage commitment. To exhaustively enumerate topologies that exhibit this switch-like behavior, we simulated all possible two- and three-component networks on random parameter sets, and assessed the resulting response profiles for both steepness (ultrasensitivity and extent of memory (bistability. Simulations were used to study purely enzymatic networks, purely transcriptional networks, and hybrid enzymatic/transcriptional networks, and the topologies in each class were rank ordered by parametric robustness (i.e., the percentage of applied parameter sets exhibiting ultrasensitivity or bistability. Results reveal that the distribution of network robustness is highly skewed, with the most robust topologies clustering into a small number of motifs. Hybrid networks are the most robust in generating ultrasensitivity (up to 28% and bistability (up to 18%; strikingly, a purely transcriptional framework is the most fragile in generating either ultrasensitive (up to 3% or bistable (up to 1% responses. The disparity in robustness among the network classes is due in part to zero-order ultrasensitivity, an enzyme-specific phenomenon, which repeatedly emerges as a particularly robust mechanism for generating nonlinearity and can act as a building block for switch-like responses. We also highlight experimentally studied examples of topologies enabling switching behavior, in both native and synthetic systems, that rank highly in our simulations. This unbiased approach for identifying topologies capable of a given response may be useful in discovering new natural motifs and in designing robust synthetic gene networks.

  14. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.

    1990-08-01

    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  15. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  16. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50%) and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  17. Betweenness in time dependent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsayed, Ahmad; Higham, Desmond J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of betweenness has given rise to a very useful class of network centrality measures. Loosely, betweenness quantifies the level of importance of a node in terms of its propensity to act as an intermediary when messages are passed around the network. In this work we generalize a walk-based betweenness measure to the case of time-dependent networks, such as those arising in telecommunications and on-line social media. We also introduce a new kind of betweenness measure, temporal betweenness, which quantifies the importance of a time-point. We illustrate the effectiveness of these new measures on synthetic examples, and also give results on real data sets involving voice call, email and Twitter

  18. Synthetic biology: Emerging bioengineering in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandono, Sony

    2017-05-01

    The development of synthetic biology will shape the new era of science and technology. It is an emerging bioengineering technique involving genetic engineering which can alter the phenotype and behavior of the cell or the new product. Synthetic biology may produce biomaterials, drugs, vaccines, biosensors, and even a recombinant secondary metabolite used in herbal and complementary medicine, such as artemisinin, a malaria drug which is usually extracted from the plant Artemisia annua. The power of synthetic biology has encouraged scientists in Indonesia, and is still in early development. This paper also covers some research from an Indonesian research institute in synthetic biology such as observing the production of bio surfactants and the enhanced production of artemisinin using a transient expression system. Synthetic biology development in Indonesia may also be related to the iGEM competition, a large synthetic biology research competition which was attended by several universities in Indonesia. The application of synthetic biology for drug discovery will be discussed.

  19. Lethal Interpersonal Violence in the Middle Pleistocene

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Pantoja-P?rez, Ana; Pablos, Adri?n; Mart?nez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf M.; G?mez-Olivencia, Asier; Berm?dez de Castro, Jos? Mar?a; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of interpersonal violence has been documented previously in Pleistocene members of the genus Homo, but only very rarely has this been posited as the possible manner of death. Here we report the earliest evidence of lethal interpersonal violence in the hominin fossil record. Cranium 17 recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site shows two clear perimortem depression fractures on the frontal bone, interpreted as being produced by two episodes of localized blunt force ...

  20. CDDO-Me: A Novel Synthetic Triterpenoid for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorrah Deeb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is one of the most lethal human malignancy with dismal prognosis and few effective therapeutic options. Novel agents that are safe and effective are urgently needed. Oleanolic acid-derived synthetic triterpenoids are potent antitumorigenic agents, but their efficacy or the mechanism of action for pancreatic cancer has not been adequately investigated. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor activity and the mechanism of action of methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me, a oleanane-derived synthetic triterpenoid for human pancreatic cancer cell lines. CDDO-Me inhibited the growth of both K-ras mutated (MiaPaca2, Panc1 and Capan2 and wild-type K-ras (BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells at very low concentrations. The growth inhibitory activity of CDDO-Me was attributed to the induction of apoptosis characterized by increased annexin-V-FITC binding and cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases-3, -8 and-9. In addition, CDDO-Me induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome C. The antitumor activity of CDDO-Me was associated with the inhibition of prosurvival p-Akt, NF-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling proteins and the downstream targets of Akt and mTOR, such as p-Foxo3a (Akt and p-S6K1, p-eIF-4E and p-4E-BP1 (mTOR. Silencing of Akt or mTOR with gene specific-siRNA sensitized the pancreatic cancer cells to CDDO-Me, demonstrating Akt and mTOR as molecular targets of CDDO-Me for its growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activity.

  1. CDDO-Me: A Novel Synthetic Triterpenoid for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeb, Dorrah; Gao, Xiaohua; Arbab, Ali S.; Barton, Kenneth; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Gautam, Subhash C.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal human malignancy with dismal prognosis and few effective therapeutic options. Novel agents that are safe and effective are urgently needed. Oleanolic acid-derived synthetic triterpenoids are potent antitumorigenic agents, but their efficacy or the mechanism of action for pancreatic cancer has not been adequately investigated. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor activity and the mechanism of action of methyl-2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oate (CDDO-Me), a oleanane-derived synthetic triterpenoid for human pancreatic cancer cell lines. CDDO-Me inhibited the growth of both K-ras mutated (MiaPaca2, Panc1 and Capan2) and wild-type K-ras (BxPC3) pancreatic cancer cells at very low concentrations. The growth inhibitory activity of CDDO-Me was attributed to the induction of apoptosis characterized by increased annexin-V-FITC binding and cleavage of PARP-1 and procaspases-3, -8 and-9. In addition, CDDO-Me induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome C. The antitumor activity of CDDO-Me was associated with the inhibition of prosurvival p-Akt, NF-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling proteins and the downstream targets of Akt and mTOR, such as p-Foxo3a (Akt) and p-S6K1, p-eIF-4E and p-4E-BP1 (mTOR). Silencing of Akt or mTOR with gene specific-siRNA sensitized the pancreatic cancer cells to CDDO-Me, demonstrating Akt and mTOR as molecular targets of CDDO-Me for its growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activity

  2. The Network Completion Problem: Inferring Missing Nodes and Edges in Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M; Leskovec, J

    2011-11-14

    Network structures, such as social networks, web graphs and networks from systems biology, play important roles in many areas of science and our everyday lives. In order to study the networks one needs to first collect reliable large scale network data. While the social and information networks have become ubiquitous, the challenge of collecting complete network data still persists. Many times the collected network data is incomplete with nodes and edges missing. Commonly, only a part of the network can be observed and we would like to infer the unobserved part of the network. We address this issue by studying the Network Completion Problem: Given a network with missing nodes and edges, can we complete the missing part? We cast the problem in the Expectation Maximization (EM) framework where we use the observed part of the network to fit a model of network structure, and then we estimate the missing part of the network using the model, re-estimate the parameters and so on. We combine the EM with the Kronecker graphs model and design a scalable Metropolized Gibbs sampling approach that allows for the estimation of the model parameters as well as the inference about missing nodes and edges of the network. Experiments on synthetic and several real-world networks show that our approach can effectively recover the network even when about half of the nodes in the network are missing. Our algorithm outperforms not only classical link-prediction approaches but also the state of the art Stochastic block modeling approach. Furthermore, our algorithm easily scales to networks with tens of thousands of nodes.

  3. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  4. Development of System Architecture to Investigate the Impact of Integrated Air and Missile Defense in a Distributed Lethality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT by Justin K. Davis...TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Justin K...ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT Justin K. Davis Lieutenant

  5. A semi-supervised learning approach to predict synthetic genetic interactions by combining functional and topological properties of functional gene network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Kyungsook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic interaction profiles are highly informative and helpful for understanding the functional linkages between genes, and therefore have been extensively exploited for annotating gene functions and dissecting specific pathway structures. However, our understanding is rather limited to the relationship between double concurrent perturbation and various higher level phenotypic changes, e.g. those in cells, tissues or organs. Modifier screens, such as synthetic genetic arrays (SGA can help us to understand the phenotype caused by combined gene mutations. Unfortunately, exhaustive tests on all possible combined mutations in any genome are vulnerable to combinatorial explosion and are infeasible either technically or financially. Therefore, an accurate computational approach to predict genetic interaction is highly desirable, and such methods have the potential of alleviating the bottleneck on experiment design. Results In this work, we introduce a computational systems biology approach for the accurate prediction of pairwise synthetic genetic interactions (SGI. First, a high-coverage and high-precision functional gene network (FGN is constructed by integrating protein-protein interaction (PPI, protein complex and gene expression data; then, a graph-based semi-supervised learning (SSL classifier is utilized to identify SGI, where the topological properties of protein pairs in weighted FGN is used as input features of the classifier. We compare the proposed SSL method with the state-of-the-art supervised classifier, the support vector machines (SVM, on a benchmark dataset in S. cerevisiae to validate our method's ability to distinguish synthetic genetic interactions from non-interaction gene pairs. Experimental results show that the proposed method can accurately predict genetic interactions in S. cerevisiae (with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 91%. Noticeably, the SSL method is more efficient than SVM, especially for

  6. Tityus serrulatus venom--A lethal cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Longhim, Heloisa Tavoni; Cremonez, Caroline Marroni; Oliveira, Guilherme Honda; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-15

    Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is the main scorpion species of medical importance in Brazil. Ts venom is composed of several compounds such as mucus, inorganic salts, lipids, amines, nucleotides, enzymes, kallikrein inhibitor, natriuretic peptide, proteins with high molecular mass, peptides, free amino acids and neurotoxins. Neurotoxins are considered the most responsible for the envenoming syndrome due to their pharmacological action on ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels. The major goal of this review is to present important advances in Ts envenoming research, correlating both the crude Ts venom and isolated toxins with alterations observed in all human systems. The most remarkable event lies in the Ts induced massive releasing of neurotransmitters influencing, directly or indirectly, the entire body. Ts venom proved to extremely affect nervous and muscular systems, to modulate the immune system, to induce cardiac disorders, to cause pulmonary edema, to decrease urinary flow and to alter endocrine, exocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal and digestive functions. Therefore, Ts venom possesses toxins affecting all anatomic systems, making it a lethal cocktail. However, its low lethality may be due to the low venom mass injected, to the different venom compositions, the body characteristics and health conditions of the victim and the local of Ts sting. Furthermore, we also described the different treatments employed during envenoming cases. In particular, throughout the review, an effort will be made to provide information from an extensive documented studies concerning Ts venom in vitro, in animals and in humans (a total of 151 references). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The "Lethal Chamber": Further Evidence of the Euthanasia Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elks, Martin A.

    1993-01-01

    Historical discussions of the euthanasia or "lethal chamber" option in relation to people with mental retardation are presented. The paper concludes that eugenic beliefs in the primacy of heredity over environment and the positive role of natural selection may have condoned the poor conditions characteristic of large, segregated institutions and…

  8. Network Completion for Static Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsu Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of completing and inferring genetic networks under stationary conditions from static data, where network completion is to make the minimum amount of modifications to an initial network so that the completed network is most consistent with the expression data in which addition of edges and deletion of edges are basic modification operations. For this problem, we present a new method for network completion using dynamic programming and least-squares fitting. This method can find an optimal solution in polynomial time if the maximum indegree of the network is bounded by a constant. We evaluate the effectiveness of our method through computational experiments using synthetic data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed method can distinguish the differences between two types of genetic networks under stationary conditions from lung cancer and normal gene expression data.

  9. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  10. Network Dynamics of Innovation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopini, Iacopo; Milojević, Staša; Latora, Vito

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a model for the emergence of innovations, in which cognitive processes are described as random walks on the network of links among ideas or concepts, and an innovation corresponds to the first visit of a node. The transition matrix of the random walk depends on the network weights, while in turn the weight of an edge is reinforced by the passage of a walker. The presence of the network naturally accounts for the mechanism of the "adjacent possible," and the model reproduces both the rate at which novelties emerge and the correlations among them observed empirically. We show this by using synthetic networks and by studying real data sets on the growth of knowledge in different scientific disciplines. Edge-reinforced random walks on complex topologies offer a new modeling framework for the dynamics of correlated novelties and are another example of coevolution of processes and networks.

  11. Presence of virus neutralizing antibodies in cerebral spinal fluid correlates with non-lethal rabies in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement W Gnanadurai

    Full Text Available Rabies is traditionally considered a uniformly fatal disease after onset of clinical manifestations. However, increasing evidence indicates that non-lethal infection as well as recovery from flaccid paralysis and encephalitis occurs in laboratory animals as well as humans.Non-lethal rabies infection in dogs experimentally infected with wild type dog rabies virus (RABV, wt DRV-Mexico correlates with the presence of high level of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF and mild immune cell accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS. By contrast, dogs that succumbed to rabies showed only little or no VNA in the serum or in the CSF and severe inflammation in the CNS. Dogs vaccinated with a rabies vaccine showed no clinical signs of rabies and survived challenge with a lethal dose of wild-type DRV. VNA was detected in the serum, but not in the CSF of immunized dogs. Thus the presence of VNA is critical for inhibiting virus spread within the CNS and eventually clearing the virus from the CNS.Non-lethal infection with wt RABV correlates with the presence of VNA in the CNS. Therefore production of VNA within the CNS or invasion of VNA from the periphery into the CNS via compromised blood-brain barrier is important for clearing the virus infection from CNS, thereby preventing an otherwise lethal rabies virus infection.

  12. The frequency of allelic lethals and complementation maps in natural populations of drosophila melanogaster from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salceda Victor M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Departing from a previous study on the genetic loads affecting the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster in four natural populations, 171 lethal chromosomes were recovered and maintained as a balanced stocks in the condition Cy L / 1 (l=lethal; of those lethais 24 correspond to population A, 50 to populations B and C and 47 to population D. later on an intra-population allelism test for the four populations was performed for each one. A total of 3807 inter lethal crosses were done yielding a total of i 10 allelic combinations, from them the respective percentage of allelism for each population was calculated and they are as follow: 3.98 % for population A, 1.80 % for population B, 3.67 % for population C and 2.96 % for population D. the observed values for the frequency of allelism in these populations are not significantly different from those reported by other authors in similar studies in natural and/or experimental populations. Beside these values the frequency for singles, doubles, triplets and even quadruplets present in each population were determined, they shown the presence of various complementation maps due to the clustering of few different lethals: also a large complementation map formed by a large cluster involving the presence of 26 different lethals found in population D all of them combined constituting a single unit was found.

  13. Intracellular production of hydrogels and synthetic RNA granules by multivalent molecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hideki; Lee, Albert A.; Afshar, Ali Sobhi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Rho, Elmer; Razavi, Shiva; Suarez, Allister; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tanigawa, Makoto; Huang, Brian; Derose, Robert; Bobb, Diana; Hong, William; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Goutsias, John; Inoue, Takanari

    2018-01-01

    Some protein components of intracellular non-membrane-bound entities, such as RNA granules, are known to form hydrogels in vitro. The physico-chemical properties and functional role of these intracellular hydrogels are difficult to study, primarily due to technical challenges in probing these materials in situ. Here, we present iPOLYMER, a strategy for a rapid induction of protein-based hydrogels inside living cells that explores the chemically inducible dimerization paradigm. Biochemical and biophysical characterizations aided by computational modelling show that the polymer network formed in the cytosol resembles a physiological hydrogel-like entity that acts as a size-dependent molecular sieve. We functionalize these polymers with RNA-binding motifs that sequester polyadenine-containing nucleotides to synthetically mimic RNA granules. These results show that iPOLYMER can be used to synthetically reconstitute the nucleation of biologically functional entities, including RNA granules in intact cells.

  14. Direct measurement of the lethal isotherm for radiofrequency ablation of myocardial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mark; Goldberg, Scott; Lau, Melissa; Goel, Aneesh; Alexander, Daniel; Han, Frederick; Feinstein, Shawn

    2011-06-01

    The lethal isotherm for radiofrequency catheter ablation of cardiac myocardium is widely accepted to be 50°C, but this has not been directly measured. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the tissue temperature at the edge of radiofrequency lesions in real time using infrared thermal imaging. Fifteen radiofrequency lesions of 6 to 240 seconds in duration were applied to the left ventricular surface of isolated perfused pig hearts. At the end of radiofrequency delivery, a thermal image of the tissue surface was acquired with an infrared camera. The lesion was then stained and an optical image of the lesion was obtained. The thermal and optical images were electronically merged to allow determination of the tissue temperature at the edge of the lesion at the end of radiofrequency delivery. By adjusting the temperature overlay display to conform with the edge of the radiofrequency lesion, the lethal isotherm was measured to be 60.6°C (interquartile ranges, 59.7° to 62.4°C; range, 58.1° to 64.2°C). The areas encompassed by the lesion border in the optical image and the lethal isotherm in the thermal image were statistically similar and highly correlated (Spearman ρ=0.99, Pradiofrequency delivery or to lesion size (both P>0.64). The areas circumscribed by 50°C isotherms were significantly larger than the areas of the lesions on optical imaging (P=0.002). By direct measurement, the lethal isotherm for cardiac myocardium is near 61°C for radiofrequency energy deliveries radiofrequency ablation is important to clinical practice as well as mathematical modeling of radiofrequency lesions.

  15. Soluble factor(s) from bone marrow cells can rescue lethally irradiated mice by protecting endogenous hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhan, Yuxia; Burke, Kathleen A; Anderson, W French

    2005-04-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced myeloablation can be rescued via bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or administration of cytokines if given within 2 hours after radiation exposure. There is no evidence for the existence of soluble factors that can rescue an animal after a lethal dose of radiation when administered several hours postradiation. We established a system that could test the possibility for the existence of soluble factors that could be used more than 2 hours postirradiation to rescue animals. Animals with an implanted TheraCyte immunoisolation device (TID) received lethal-dose radiation and then normal bone marrow Lin- cells were loaded into the device (thereby preventing direct interaction between donor and recipient cells). Animal survival was evaluated and stem cell activity was tested with secondary bone marrow transplantation and flow cytometry analysis. Donor cell gene expression of five antiapoptotic cytokines was examined. Bone marrow Lin- cells rescued lethally irradiated animals via soluble factor(s). Bone marrow cells from the rescued animals can rescue and repopulate secondary lethally irradiated animals. Within the first 6 hours post-lethal-dose radiation, there is no significant change of gene expression of the known radioprotective factors TPO, SCF, IL-3, Flt-3 ligand, and SDF-1. Hematopoietic stem cells can be protected in lethally irradiated animals by soluble factors produced by bone marrow Lin- cells.

  16. Caffeine and D sub 2 O medium interact in affecting the expression of radiation-induced potentially lethal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, H. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Radiation Biology Center); Elkind, M.M. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiological Health Sciences)

    1991-10-01

    Earlier work has been extended to compare the killing of long-phase V79 Chinese hamster cells by ionizing radiation when they are treated immediately after irradiation with medium containing either caffeine or 90% D{sub 2}O. The object was to determine if the enhanced killing due to post-treatment with caffeine, or D{sub 2}O, resulted from action on the same sector of potentially lethal damage as appeared to be the case for hypertonic shock and D{sub 2}O medium. The treatments by themselves were not toxic to unirradiated cells. We found that the enhanced expression of potentially lethal damage by post-treatment with caffeine or D{sub 2}O medium is similar. For example, the kinetic of the repair of the potentially lethal damage expressible by either post-treatment was similar, and an additive enhancement of potentially lethal damage occurred when the two treatments were administered sequentially. These findings suggest that caffeine and D{sub 2}O medium affect the same sector of potentially lethal damage. When the two treatments were combined, however, they competed with each other. Thus, although caffeine and D{sub 2}O medium act on the same sector of potentially lethal damage they do so differently, suggesting that more than one pathway of the expression of radiation damage can result in the same phenotypic effect. (author).

  17. Mutagenesis and lethality following S phase irradiation of xeroderma pigmentosum and normal human diploid fibroblasts with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosovsky, A.J.; Little, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenic and lethal effects of u.v. light exposure in the DNA synthetic phase of the cell cycle were determined in xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XP-A), hereditary adenomatosis of the colon and rectum (ACR), and a normal, foreskin derived cell strain (AG1522). For AG1522, an increased sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of u.v. light was observed as compared to previous findings for confluent, non-proliferating cultures. XP-A fibroblasts were markedly hypersensitive and ACR fibroblasts exhibited an intermediate response. The mutagenic response of ACR fibroblasts, however, was similar to normal fibroblasts. A threshold of 1.5-2 J/m 2 was observed for u.v. induced mutagenesis in normal and ACR fibroblasts. XP fibroblasts, on the other hand, were strikingly hypermutable and demonstrated little or no threshold. When S phase mutagenesis was considered as a function of survival level rather than u.v. light dose, XP fibroblasts remained significantly hypermutable as compared with normal fibroblasts at all survival levels. Previous mutagenesis results with confluent, non-proliferating cultures of XP and normal fibroblasts were reanalyzed as a function of cytotoxicity; XP hypermutability at all survival levels was also observed. (author)

  18. Applicability of Neural Networks to Etalon Fringe Filtering in Laser Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, J. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Riris, H.

    2018-01-01

    We present a neural network algorithm for spectroscopic retrievals of concentrations of trace gases. Using synthetic data we demonstrate that a neural network is well suited for filtering etalon fringes and provides superior performance to conventional least squares minimization techniques. This novel method can improve the accuracy of atmospheric retrievals and minimize biases.

  19. Applicability of neural networks to etalon fringe filtering in laser spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, J. M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Riris, H.

    2018-05-01

    We present a neural network algorithm for spectroscopic retrievals of concentrations of trace gases. Using synthetic data we demonstrate that a neural network is well suited for filtering etalon fringes and provides superior performance to conventional least squares minimization techniques. This novel method can improve the accuracy of atmospheric retrievals and minimize biases.

  20. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergl, Roland; Koburger, Nicole; Heinrichs, Katherina; Székely, András; Tóth, Mónika Ditta; Coyne, James; Quintão, Sónia; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Maxwell, Margaret; Värnik, Airi; van Audenhove, Chantal; McDaid, David; Sarchiapone, Marco; Schmidtke, Armin; Genz, Axel; Gusmão, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in lethality can be explained by factors such as choice of more lethal methods or lethality differences within the same suicide method or age. In addition, we explored gender differences in the intentionality of suicide attempts. Methods. Design: Epidemiological study using a combination of self-report and official data. Setting: Mental health care services in four European countries: Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal. Data basis: Completed suicides derived from official statistics for each country (767 acts, 74.4% male) and assessed suicide attempts excluding habitual intentional self-harm (8,175 acts, 43.2% male). Main Outcome Measures and Data Analysis. We collected data on suicidal acts in eight regions of four European countries participating in the EU-funded "OSPI-Europe"-project (www.ospi-europe.com). We calculated method-specific lethality using the number of completed suicides per method * 100 / (number of completed suicides per method + number of attempted suicides per method). We tested gender differences in the distribution of suicidal acts for significance by using the χ2-test for two-by-two tables. We assessed the effect sizes with phi coefficients (φ). We identified predictors of lethality with a binary logistic regression analysis. Poisson regression analysis examined the contribution of choice of methods and method-specific lethality to gender differences in the lethality of suicidal acts. Suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal) were 3.4 times more lethal in men than in women (lethality 13.91% (regarding 4106 suicidal acts) versus 4.05% (regarding 4836 suicidal acts)), the difference being significant for the methods hanging, jumping, moving objects, sharp objects

  1. Monoketone analogs of curcumin, a new class of Fanconi anemia pathway inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turker Mitchell S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Fanconi anemia (FA pathway is a multigene DNA damage response network implicated in the repair of DNA lesions that arise during replication or after exogenous DNA damage. The FA pathway displays synthetic lethal relationship with certain DNA repair genes such as ATM (Ataxia Telangectasia Mutated that are frequently mutated in tumors. Thus, inhibition of FANCD2 monoubiquitylation (FANCD2-Ub, a key step in the FA pathway, might target tumor cells defective in ATM through synthetic lethal interaction. Curcumin was previously identified as a weak inhibitor of FANCD2-Ub. The aim of this study is to identify derivatives of curcumin with better activity and specificity. Results Using a replication-free assay in Xenopus extracts, we screened monoketone analogs of curcumin for inhibition of FANCD2-Ub and identified analog EF24 as a strong inhibitor. Mechanistic studies suggest that EF24 targets the FA pathway through inhibition of the NF-kB pathway kinase IKK. In HeLa cells, nanomolar concentrations of EF24 inhibited hydroxyurea (HU-induced FANCD2-Ub and foci in a cell-cycle independent manner. Survival assays revealed that EF24 specifically sensitizes FA-competent cells to the DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C (MMC. In addition, in contrast with curcumin, ATM-deficient cells are twofold more sensitive to EF24 than matched wild-type cells, consistent with a synthetic lethal effect between FA pathway inhibition and ATM deficiency. An independent screen identified 4H-TTD, a compound structurally related to EF24 that displays similar activity in egg extracts and in cells. Conclusions These results suggest that monoketone analogs of curcumin are potent inhibitors of the FA pathway and constitute a promising new class of targeted anticancer compounds.

  2. Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija

    2017-04-01

    For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.

  3. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  4. A low complexity method for the optimization of network path length in spatially embedded networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guang; Yang, Xu-Hua; Xu, Xin-Li; Ming, Yong; Chen, Sheng-Yong; Wang, Wan-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The average path length of a network is an important index reflecting the network transmission efficiency. In this paper, we propose a new method of decreasing the average path length by adding edges. A new indicator is presented, incorporating traffic flow demand, to assess the decrease in the average path length when a new edge is added during the optimization process. With the help of the indicator, edges are selected and added into the network one by one. The new method has a relatively small time computational complexity in comparison with some traditional methods. In numerical simulations, the new method is applied to some synthetic spatially embedded networks. The result shows that the method can perform competitively in decreasing the average path length. Then, as an example of an application of this new method, it is applied to the road network of Hangzhou, China. (paper)

  5. Inversion of a lateral log using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Whitman, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a technique using neural networks is demonstrated for the inversion of a lateral log. The lateral log is simulated by a finite difference method which in turn is used as an input to a backpropagation neural network. An initial guess earth model is generated from the neural network, which is then input to a Marquardt inversion. The neural network reacts to gross and subtle data features in actual logs and produces a response inferred from the knowledge stored in the network during a training process. The neural network inversion of lateral logs is tested on synthetic and field data. Tests using field data resulted in a final earth model whose simulated lateral is in good agreement with the actual log data

  6. Modeling Temporal Evolution and Multiscale Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit both temporal evolution and multiscale structure. We propose a model for temporally correlated multifurcating hierarchies in complex networks which jointly capture both effects. We use the Gibbs fragmentation tree as prior over multifurcating trees and a change......-point model to account for the temporal evolution of each vertex. We demonstrate that our model is able to infer time-varying multiscale structure in synthetic as well as three real world time-evolving complex networks. Our modeling of the temporal evolution of hierarchies brings new insights...

  7. and in anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Toma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cancer and anticancer therapy are increasingly mentioned topics. Groups of researchers keep looking for a tool that will specifically and efficiently eliminate abnormal cells without any harm for the normal ones. Such method entails the reduction of therapy’s side effects, thus also improving patient’s recovery. Discovery of synthetic lethality has become a new hope to create effective, personalized therapy of cancer. Researchers noted that pairs of simultaneously mutated genes can lead to cell death, whereas each gene from that pair mutated individually does not result in cell lethality. Cancer cells accumulate numerous changes in their genetic material. By defining the pairs of genes interacting in cell pathways we are able to identify a potential anticancer therapy. It is believed that such a process has evolved to create cell resistance for a single gene mutation. Proper functioning of a pathway is not dependent on a single gene. Such a solution, however, also led to the evolution of multifactorial diseases such as cancer. Research techniques using iRNA, shRNA or small molecule libraries allow us to find genes that are connected in synthetic lethality interactions. Synthetic lethality may be applied not only as an anticancer therapy but also as a tool for identifying the functions of recently recognized genes. In addition, studying synthetic lethality broadens our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing cancer cells, which should be helpful in designing highly effective personalized cancer therapies.

  8. Restoring efficiency of hemopoietic cell transplantation in a mouse lethally irradiated by a total exposure to X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Gino

    1959-10-01

    This research thesis reports the study of possibility of treatments (or restoration) of a mouse which has been submitted to a lethal dose of X rays. More particularly, the author compared the restoring efficiency of bone marrow and fetal liver injected in a mouse which had been lethally irradiated by a total exposure to X rays. He also studied the functional status of the hemopoietic graft, and the emergence of the secondary disease in mice which had been as well lethally irradiated and then restored by injection of bone marrow and fetal liver. The author then addressed the influence of the induction of immune tolerance of the host with respect to the donor on the survival of a mouse lethally irradiated and restored by homologue bone marrow [fr

  9. A synthetic computational environment: To control the spread of respiratory infections in a virtual university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yuanzheng; Chen, Bin; liu, Liang; Qiu, Xiaogang; Song, Hongbin; Wang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Individual-based computational environment provides an effective solution to study complex social events by reconstructing scenarios. Challenges remain in reconstructing the virtual scenarios and reproducing the complex evolution. In this paper, we propose a framework to reconstruct a synthetic computational environment, reproduce the epidemic outbreak, and evaluate management interventions in a virtual university. The reconstructed computational environment includes 4 fundamental components: the synthetic population, behavior algorithms, multiple social networks, and geographic campus environment. In the virtual university, influenza H1N1 transmission experiments are conducted, and gradually enhanced interventions are evaluated and compared quantitatively. The experiment results indicate that the reconstructed virtual environment provides a solution to reproduce complex emergencies and evaluate policies to be executed in the real world.

  10. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  11. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Mergl

    Full Text Available In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in lethality can be explained by factors such as choice of more lethal methods or lethality differences within the same suicide method or age. In addition, we explored gender differences in the intentionality of suicide attempts.Methods. Design: Epidemiological study using a combination of self-report and official data. Setting: Mental health care services in four European countries: Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal. Data basis: Completed suicides derived from official statistics for each country (767 acts, 74.4% male and assessed suicide attempts excluding habitual intentional self-harm (8,175 acts, 43.2% male. Main Outcome Measures and Data Analysis. We collected data on suicidal acts in eight regions of four European countries participating in the EU-funded "OSPI-Europe"-project (www.ospi-europe.com. We calculated method-specific lethality using the number of completed suicides per method * 100 / (number of completed suicides per method + number of attempted suicides per method. We tested gender differences in the distribution of suicidal acts for significance by using the χ2-test for two-by-two tables. We assessed the effect sizes with phi coefficients (φ. We identified predictors of lethality with a binary logistic regression analysis. Poisson regression analysis examined the contribution of choice of methods and method-specific lethality to gender differences in the lethality of suicidal acts.Suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal were 3.4 times more lethal in men than in women (lethality 13.91% (regarding 4106 suicidal acts versus 4.05% (regarding 4836 suicidal acts, the difference being significant for the methods hanging, jumping, moving objects, sharp

  12. Immune Protection against Lethal Fungal-Bacterial Intra-Abdominal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Ikeh, Melanie; Nash, Evelyn E.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) are clinically prevalent and cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially those involving fungi. Our laboratory developed a mouse model of IAI and demonstrated that intraperitoneal inoculation with Candida albicans or other virulent non-albicans Candida (NAC) species plus Staphylococcus aureus resulted in 70 to 80% mortality in 48 to 72 h due to robust local and systemic inflammation (sepsis). Surprisingly, inoculation with Candida dubliniensis or Candida glabrata with S. aureus resulted in minimal mortality, and rechallenge of these mice with lethal C. albicans/S. aureus (i.e., coninfection) resulted in >90% protection. The purpose of this study was to define requirements for C. dubliniensis/S. aureus-mediated protection and interrogate the mechanism of the protective response. Protection was conferred by C. dubliniensis alone or by killed C. dubliniensis plus live S. aureus. S. aureus alone was not protective, and killed S. aureus compromised C. dubliniensis-induced protection. C. dubliniensis/S. aureus also protected against lethal challenge by NAC plus S. aureus and could protect for a long-term duration (60 days between primary challenge and C. albicans/S. aureus rechallenge). Unexpectedly, mice deficient in T and B cells (Rag-1 knockouts [KO]) survived both the initial C. dubliniensis/S. aureus challenge and the C. albicans/S. aureus rechallenge, indicating that adaptive immunity did not play a role. Similarly, mice depleted of macrophages prior to rechallenge were also protected. In contrast, protection was associated with high numbers of Gr-1hi polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) in peritoneal lavage fluid within 4 h of rechallenge, and in vivo depletion of Gr-1+ cells prior to rechallenge abrogated protection. These results suggest that Candida species can induce protection against a lethal C. albicans/S. aureus IAI that is mediated by PMNLs and postulated to be a unique form of

  13. Immune Protection against Lethal Fungal-Bacterial Intra-Abdominal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Lilly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAIs are clinically prevalent and cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially those involving fungi. Our laboratory developed a mouse model of IAI and demonstrated that intraperitoneal inoculation with Candida albicans or other virulent non-albicans Candida (NAC species plus Staphylococcus aureus resulted in 70 to 80% mortality in 48 to 72 h due to robust local and systemic inflammation (sepsis. Surprisingly, inoculation with Candida dubliniensis or Candida glabrata with S. aureus resulted in minimal mortality, and rechallenge of these mice with lethal C. albicans/S. aureus (i.e., coninfection resulted in >90% protection. The purpose of this study was to define requirements for C. dubliniensis/S. aureus-mediated protection and interrogate the mechanism of the protective response. Protection was conferred by C. dubliniensis alone or by killed C. dubliniensis plus live S. aureus. S. aureus alone was not protective, and killed S. aureus compromised C. dubliniensis-induced protection. C. dubliniensis/S. aureus also protected against lethal challenge by NAC plus S. aureus and could protect for a long-term duration (60 days between primary challenge and C. albicans/S. aureus rechallenge. Unexpectedly, mice deficient in T and B cells (Rag-1 knockouts [KO] survived both the initial C. dubliniensis/S. aureus challenge and the C. albicans/S. aureus rechallenge, indicating that adaptive immunity did not play a role. Similarly, mice depleted of macrophages prior to rechallenge were also protected. In contrast, protection was associated with high numbers of Gr-1hi polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs in peritoneal lavage fluid within 4 h of rechallenge, and in vivo depletion of Gr-1+ cells prior to rechallenge abrogated protection. These results suggest that Candida species can induce protection against a lethal C. albicans/S. aureus IAI that is mediated by PMNLs and postulated to be a unique form of

  14. Rifaximin diminishes neutropenia following potentially lethal whole-body radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahraus, Christopher D; Schemera, Bettina; Rynders, Patricia; Ramos, Melissa; Powell, Charles; Faircloth, John; Brawner, William R

    2010-07-01

    Terrorist attacks involving radiological or nuclear weapons are a substantial geopolitical concern, given that large populations could be exposed to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Because of this, evaluating potential countermeasures against radiation-induced mortality is critical. Gut microflora are the most common source of systemic infection following exposure to lethal doses of whole-body radiation, suggesting that prophylactic antibiotic therapy may reduce mortality after radiation exposure. The chemical stability, easy administration and favorable tolerability profile of the non-systemic antibiotic, rifaximin, make it an ideal potential candidate for use as a countermeasure. This study evaluated the use of rifaximin as a countermeasure against low-to-intermediate-dose whole-body radiation in rodents. Female Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were irradiated with 550 cGy to the whole body and were evaluated for 30 d. Animals received methylcellulose, neomycin (179 mg/kg/d) or variably dosed rifaximin (150-2000 mg/kg/d) one hour after irradiation and daily throughout the study period. Clinical assessments (e.g. body weight) were made daily. On postirradiation day 30, blood samples were collected and a complete blood cell count was performed. Animals receiving high doses of rifaximin (i.e. 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/d) had a greater increase in weight from the day of irradiation to postirradiation day 30 compared with animals that received placebo or neomycin. For animals with an increase in average body weight from irradiation day within 80-110% of the group average, methylcellulose rendered an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 211, neomycin rendered an ANC of 334, rifaximin 300 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 582 and rifaximin 1000 mg/kg/d rendered an ANC of 854 (P = 0.05 for group comparison). Exposure to rifaximin after near-lethal whole-body radiation resulted in diminished levels of neutropenia.

  15. Mapping the epitopes of a neutralizing antibody fragment directed against the lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis and cross-reacting with the homologous edema factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Thullier

    Full Text Available The lethal toxin (LT of Bacillus anthracis, composed of the protective antigen (PA and the lethal factor (LF, plays an essential role in anthrax pathogenesis. PA also interacts with the edema factor (EF, 20% identity with LF to form the edema toxin (ET, which has a lesser role in anthrax pathogenesis. The first recombinant antibody fragment directed against LF was scFv 2LF; it neutralizes LT by blocking the interaction between PA and LF. Here, we report that scFv 2LF cross-reacts with EF and cross-neutralizes ET, and we present an in silico method taking advantage of this cross-reactivity to map the epitope of scFv 2LF on both LF and EF. This method identified five epitope candidates on LF, constituted of a total of 32 residues, which were tested experimentally by mutating the residues to alanine. This combined approach precisely identified the epitope of scFv 2LF on LF as five residues (H229, R230, Q234, L235 and Y236, of which three were missed by the consensus epitope candidate identified by pre-existing in silico methods. The homolog of this epitope on EF (H253, R254, E258, L259 and Y260 was experimentally confirmed to constitute the epitope of scFv 2LF on EF. Other inhibitors, including synthetic molecules, could be used to target these epitopes for therapeutic purposes. The in silico method presented here may be of more general interest.

  16. Detecting Hierarchical Structure in Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit hierarchical organization. Previous models of hierarchies within relational data has focused on binary trees; however, for many networks it is unknown whether there is hierarchical structure, and if there is, a binary tree might not account well for it. We propose...... a generative Bayesian model that is able to infer whether hierarchies are present or not from a hypothesis space encompassing all types of hierarchical tree structures. For efficient inference we propose a collapsed Gibbs sampling procedure that jointly infers a partition and its hierarchical structure....... On synthetic and real data we demonstrate that our model can detect hierarchical structure leading to better link-prediction than competing models. Our model can be used to detect if a network exhibits hierarchical structure, thereby leading to a better comprehension and statistical account the network....

  17. Left ventricular function during lethal and sublethal endotoxemia in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, R.D.; Nightingale, L.M.; Kish, P.; Weber, P.B.; Loegering, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that after a median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of endotoxin, cardiac contractility was depressed in nonsurviving dogs. The canine cardiovascular system is unlike humans in that dogs have a hepatic vein sphincter that is susceptible to adrenergic stimulation capable of raising hepatic and splanchnic venous pressures. The authors retested the hypothesis that lethality after endotoxin administration is associated with cardiac contractile depression in pigs, because of the hepatic circulation in this species is similar to that of humans. They compared cardiac mechanical function of pigs administered a high dose (250 μg/kg) or a low dose (100 μg/kg) endotoxin by use of the slope of the end-systolic pressure-diameter relationship (ESPDR) as well as other measurements of cardiac performance. In all the pigs administered a high dose, ESPDR demonstrated a marked, time-dependent depression whereas we observed no significant ESPDR changes after low endotoxin doses. The other cardiodynamic variables were uninterpretable, due to the significant changes in heart rate, end-diastolic diameter (preload), and aortic diastolic pressure (afterload). Plasma myocardia depressant factor activity accumulated in all endotoxin-administered animals, tending to be greater in the high-dose group. In this group, both subendocardial blood flow and global function were depressed, whereas pigs administered the low dose endotoxin demonstrated slight, but nonsignificant, increases in flow and function. These observations indicate that myocardial contractile depression is associated with a lethal outcome to high doses of endotoxin. Myocardial perfusion was measured using radiolabeled microspheres infused into the left atria

  18. Discovery and Development of Therapeutic Drugs against Lethal Human RNA Viruses: a Multidisciplinary Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-16

    AD-A239 742 AD GRANT NO: DAMD17-89-Z-9021 TITLE: DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC DRUGS AGAINST LETHAL HUMAN RNA VIRUSES: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY...62787A871 AB WrJDA317987 11. TITLE (Include Securty Classification) DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPEUTIC DRUGS AGAINST LETHAL HUMAN RNA VIRUSES: A...G. R. Pettit, III, D.-S. Huang, and G. R. Pettit, 23rd Int’l. Horticulture Congress, Italy, 8/27 - 9/1/90. "Bryostatins Define the Role of Protein

  19. Ebolavirus Glycoprotein Fc Fusion Protein Protects Guinea Pigs against Lethal Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Shurtleff, Amy C.; Bradfute, Steven B.; Nakamura, Siham; Bavari, Sina; Kaplan, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, poses a significant threat to the public health. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics to prevent and treat EBOV infection. Several vaccines based on the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) are under development, including vectored, virus-like particles, and protein-based subunit vaccines. We previously demonstrated that a subunit vaccine containing the extracellular domain of the Ebola ebolavirus (EBOV) GP fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (EBOVgp-Fc) protected mice against EBOV lethal challenge. Here, we show that the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine formulated with QS-21, alum, or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) adjuvants induced strong humoral immune responses in guinea pigs. The vaccinated animals developed anti-GP total antibody titers of approximately 105−106 and neutralizing antibody titers of approximately 103 as assessed by a BSL-2 neutralization assay based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes. The poly-ICLC formulated EBOVgp-Fc vaccine protected all the guinea pigs against EBOV lethal challenge performed under BSL-4 conditions whereas the same vaccine formulated with QS-21 or alum only induced partial protection. Vaccination with a mucin-deleted EBOVgp-Fc construct formulated with QS-21 adjuvant did not have a significant effect in anti-GP antibody levels and protection against EBOV lethal challenge compared to the full-length GP construct. The bulk of the humoral response induced by the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine was directed against epitopes outside the EBOV mucin region. Our findings indicate that different adjuvants can eliciting varying levels of protection against lethal EBOV challenge in guinea pigs vaccinated with EBOVgp-Fc, and suggest that levels of total anti-GP antibodies elicit by protein-based GP subunit vaccines do not correlate with protection. Our data further support

  20. Ebolavirus Glycoprotein Fc Fusion Protein Protects Guinea Pigs against Lethal Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, Krishnamurthy; Shurtleff, Amy C; Bradfute, Steven B; Nakamura, Siham; Bavari, Sina; Kaplan, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, poses a significant threat to the public health. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics to prevent and treat EBOV infection. Several vaccines based on the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) are under development, including vectored, virus-like particles, and protein-based subunit vaccines. We previously demonstrated that a subunit vaccine containing the extracellular domain of the Ebola ebolavirus (EBOV) GP fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (EBOVgp-Fc) protected mice against EBOV lethal challenge. Here, we show that the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine formulated with QS-21, alum, or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC) adjuvants induced strong humoral immune responses in guinea pigs. The vaccinated animals developed anti-GP total antibody titers of approximately 105-106 and neutralizing antibody titers of approximately 103 as assessed by a BSL-2 neutralization assay based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotypes. The poly-ICLC formulated EBOVgp-Fc vaccine protected all the guinea pigs against EBOV lethal challenge performed under BSL-4 conditions whereas the same vaccine formulated with QS-21 or alum only induced partial protection. Vaccination with a mucin-deleted EBOVgp-Fc construct formulated with QS-21 adjuvant did not have a significant effect in anti-GP antibody levels and protection against EBOV lethal challenge compared to the full-length GP construct. The bulk of the humoral response induced by the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine was directed against epitopes outside the EBOV mucin region. Our findings indicate that different adjuvants can eliciting varying levels of protection against lethal EBOV challenge in guinea pigs vaccinated with EBOVgp-Fc, and suggest that levels of total anti-GP antibodies elicit by protein-based GP subunit vaccines do not correlate with protection. Our data further support

  1. Ebolavirus Glycoprotein Fc Fusion Protein Protects Guinea Pigs against Lethal Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy Konduru

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV, a member of the Filoviridae that can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, poses a significant threat to the public health. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics to prevent and treat EBOV infection. Several vaccines based on the EBOV glycoprotein (GP are under development, including vectored, virus-like particles, and protein-based subunit vaccines. We previously demonstrated that a subunit vaccine containing the extracellular domain of the Ebola ebolavirus (EBOV GP fused to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 (EBOVgp-Fc protected mice against EBOV lethal challenge. Here, we show that the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine formulated with QS-21, alum, or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC adjuvants induced strong humoral immune responses in guinea pigs. The vaccinated animals developed anti-GP total antibody titers of approximately 105-106 and neutralizing antibody titers of approximately 103 as assessed by a BSL-2 neutralization assay based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV pseudotypes. The poly-ICLC formulated EBOVgp-Fc vaccine protected all the guinea pigs against EBOV lethal challenge performed under BSL-4 conditions whereas the same vaccine formulated with QS-21 or alum only induced partial protection. Vaccination with a mucin-deleted EBOVgp-Fc construct formulated with QS-21 adjuvant did not have a significant effect in anti-GP antibody levels and protection against EBOV lethal challenge compared to the full-length GP construct. The bulk of the humoral response induced by the EBOVgp-Fc vaccine was directed against epitopes outside the EBOV mucin region. Our findings indicate that different adjuvants can eliciting varying levels of protection against lethal EBOV challenge in guinea pigs vaccinated with EBOVgp-Fc, and suggest that levels of total anti-GP antibodies elicit by protein-based GP subunit vaccines do not correlate with protection. Our data

  2. Synthetic biology as it relates to CAM photosynthesis: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaoli, Henrique C; Borland, Anne M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Cushman, John C; Yang, Xiaohan

    2014-07-01

    To meet future food and energy security needs, which are amplified by increasing population growth and reduced natural resource availability, metabolic engineering efforts have moved from manipulating single genes/proteins to introducing multiple genes and novel pathways to improve photosynthetic efficiency in a more comprehensive manner. Biochemical carbon-concentrating mechanisms such as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), which improves photosynthetic, water-use, and possibly nutrient-use efficiency, represent a strategic target for synthetic biology to engineer more productive C3 crops for a warmer and drier world. One key challenge for introducing multigene traits like CAM onto a background of C3 photosynthesis is to gain a better understanding of the dynamic spatial and temporal regulatory events that underpin photosynthetic metabolism. With the aid of systems and computational biology, vast amounts of experimental data encompassing transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics can be related in a network to create dynamic models. Such models can undergo simulations to discover key regulatory elements in metabolism and suggest strategic substitution or augmentation by synthetic components to improve photosynthetic performance and water-use efficiency in C3 crops. Another key challenge in the application of synthetic biology to photosynthesis research is to develop efficient systems for multigene assembly and stacking. Here, we review recent progress in computational modelling as applied to plant photosynthesis, with attention to the requirements for CAM, and recent advances in synthetic biology tool development. Lastly, we discuss possible options for multigene pathway construction in plants with an emphasis on CAM-into-C3 engineering. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of β-arabinofuranosyladenine on the growth and repair of potentially lethal damage in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.

    1980-01-01

    β-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine (β-araA) inhibit the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by selective inhibition of DNA polymerases. RNA and protein synthesis are not significantly affected. Addition of β-araA to the cells after irradiation resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in survival, presumably due to the inhibition of the repair of potentially lethal damage. Since β-araA selectively inhibits DNA polymerases it is suggested that repair of potentially lethal damage involves steps at the DNA level which require some polymerization. These repair steps take place in the DNA with a velocity comparable to that of the repair of potentially lethal damage. The inhibition of the repair of potentially lethal damage by β-araA was modified by the addition of deoxyadenosine; this supports the finding that β-araA acts competitively against dATP at the molecular level. The inhibition of the repair of potentially lethal damage by β-araA, which is partly reversible, resulted in a concentration-dependent modification of the survival curve. At low concentrations of β-araA a dose-modifying decrease in survival was observed. At higher concentrations (more than 12 μM) the decrease in survival resulted in a decrease of the shoulder width of the survival curve. Eventually an exponential curve was obtained. We suggest therefore that the shoulder of the survival curve results from some repair or potentially lethal damage. Preliminary information has been obtained on the time course of this repair

  4. Synthetic Biodegradable Hydrogels with Excellent Mechanical Properties and Good Cell Adhesion Characteristics Obtained by the Combinatorial Synthesis of Photo-Cross-Linked Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, Erwin; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    Major drawbacks of synthetic hydrogels are their poor mechanical properties and their limited ability to allow cell attachment and proliferation. By photo-cross-linking mixtures of dimethacrylate-functionalized oligomers (macromers) in a combinatorial manner in solution, synthetic hydrogels with

  5. Lethal infection thresholds of Paenibacillus larvae for honeybee drone and worker larvae (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Dieter; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-10-01

    We compared the mortality of honeybee (Apis mellifera) drone and worker larvae from a single queen under controlled in vitro conditions following infection with Paenibacillus larvae, a bacterium causing the brood disease American Foulbrood (AFB). We also determined absolute P. larvae cell numbers and lethal titres in deceased individuals of both sexes up to 8 days post infection using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results show that in drones the onset of infection induced mortality is delayed by 1 day, the cumulative mortality is reduced by 10% and P. larvae cell numbers are higher than in worker larvae. Since differences in bacterial cell titres between sexes can be explained by differences in body size, larval size appears to be a key parameter for a lethal threshold in AFB tolerance. Both means and variances for lethal thresholds are similar for drone and worker larvae suggesting that drone resistance phenotypes resemble those of related workers. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Model-based design of RNA hybridization networks implemented in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Prakash, Satya; Shen, Shensi; Majer, Eszter; Daròs, José-Antonio; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2017-09-19

    Synthetic gene circuits allow the behavior of living cells to be reprogrammed, and non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are increasingly being used as programmable regulators of gene expression. However, sRNAs (natural or synthetic) are generally used to regulate single target genes, while complex dynamic behaviors would require networks of sRNAs regulating each other. Here, we report a strategy for implementing such networks that exploits hybridization reactions carried out exclusively by multifaceted sRNAs that are both targets of and triggers for other sRNAs. These networks are ultimately coupled to the control of gene expression. We relied on a thermodynamic model of the different stable conformational states underlying this system at the nucleotide level. To test our model, we designed five different RNA hybridization networks with a linear architecture, and we implemented them in Escherichia coli. We validated the network architecture at the molecular level by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, as well as the network function at the bacterial population and single-cell levels with a fluorescent reporter. Our results suggest that it is possible to engineer complex cellular programs based on RNA from first principles. Because these networks are mainly based on physical interactions, our designs could be expanded to other organisms as portable regulatory resources or to implement biological computations. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Delay-independent stability of genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2011-11-01

    Genetic regulatory networks can be described by nonlinear differential equations with time delays. In this paper, we study both locally and globally delay-independent stability of genetic regulatory networks, taking messenger ribonucleic acid alternative splicing into consideration. Based on nonnegative matrix theory, we first develop necessary and sufficient conditions for locally delay-independent stability of genetic regulatory networks with multiple time delays. Compared to the previous results, these conditions are easy to verify. Then we develop sufficient conditions for global delay-independent stability for genetic regulatory networks. Compared to the previous results, this sufficient condition is less conservative. To illustrate theorems developed in this paper, we analyze delay-independent stability of two genetic regulatory networks: a real-life repressilatory network with three genes and three proteins, and a synthetic gene regulatory network with five genes and seven proteins. The simulation results show that the theorems developed in this paper can effectively determine the delay-independent stability of genetic regulatory networks.

  8. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Periasamy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection.

  9. An Immature Myeloid/Myeloid-Suppressor Cell Response Associated with Necrotizing Inflammation Mediates Lethal Pulmonary Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Sivakumar; Avram, Dorina; McCabe, Amanda; MacNamara, Katherine C.; Sellati, Timothy J.; Harton, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of Francisella tularensis (Ft) causes acute and fatal pneumonia. The lung cytokine milieu favors exponential Ft replication, but the mechanisms underlying acute pathogenesis and death remain unknown. Evaluation of the sequential and systemic host immune response in pulmonary tularemia reveals that in contrast to overwhelming bacterial burden or cytokine production, an overt innate cellular response to Ft drives tissue pathology and host mortality. Lethal infection with Ft elicits medullary and extra-medullary myelopoiesis supporting recruitment of large numbers of immature myeloid cells and MDSC to the lungs. These cells fail to mature and die, leading to subsequent necrotic lung damage, loss of pulmonary function, and host death that is partially dependent upon immature Ly6G+ cells. Acceleration of this process may account for the rapid lethality seen with Ft SchuS4. In contrast, during sub-lethal infection with Ft LVS the pulmonary cellular response is characterized by a predominance of mature neutrophils and monocytes required for protection, suggesting a required threshold for lethal bacterial infection. Further, eliciting a mature phagocyte response provides transient, but dramatic, innate protection against Ft SchuS4. This study reveals that the nature of the myeloid cell response may be the primary determinant of host mortality versus survival following Francisella infection. PMID:27015566

  10. A screen for F1 hybrid male rescue reveals no major-effect hybrid lethality loci in the Drosophila melanogaster autosomal genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuykendall, Tawny N; Satyaki, P; Ji, Shuqing; Clay, Derek M; Edelman, Nathaniel B; Kimchy, Alexandra; Li, Ling-Hei; Nuzzo, Erin A; Parekh, Neil; Park, Suna; Barbash, Daniel A

    2014-10-27

    Hybrid sons between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males die as 3rd instar larvae. Two genes, D. melanogaster Hybrid male rescue (Hmr) on the X chromosome, and D. simulans Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) on chromosome II, interact to cause this lethality. Loss-of-function mutations in either gene suppress lethality, but several pieces of evidence suggest that additional factors are required for hybrid lethality. Here we screen the D. melanogaster autosomal genome by using the Bloomington Stock Center Deficiency kit to search for additional regions that can rescue hybrid male lethality. Our screen is designed to identify putative hybrid incompatibility (HI) genes similar to Hmr and Lhr which, when removed, are dominant suppressors of lethality. After screening 89% of the autosomal genome, we found no regions that rescue males to the adult stage. We did, however, identify several regions that rescue up to 13% of males to the pharate adult stage. This weak rescue suggests the presence of multiple minor-effect HI loci, but we were unable to map these loci to high resolution, presumably because weak rescue can be masked by genetic background effects. We attempted to test one candidate, the dosage compensation gene male specific lethal-3 (msl-3), by using RNA interference with short hairpin microRNA constructs targeted specifically against D. simulans msl-3 but failed to achieve knockdown, in part due to off-target effects. We conclude that the D. melanogaster autosomal genome likely does not contain additional major-effect HI loci. We also show that Hmr is insufficient to fully account for the lethality associated with the D. melanogaster X chromosome, suggesting that additional X-linked genes contribute to hybrid lethality. Copyright © 2014 Cuykendall et al.

  11. Flood quantile estimation at ungauged sites by Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediero, L.; Santillán, D.; Garrote, L.

    2012-04-01

    stochastic generator of synthetic data was developed. Synthetic basin characteristics were randomised, keeping the statistical properties of observed physical and climatic variables in the homogeneous region. The synthetic flood quantiles were stochastically generated taking the regression equation as basis. The learnt Bayesian network was validated by the reliability diagram, the Brier Score and the ROC diagram, which are common measures used in the validation of probabilistic forecasts. Summarising, the flood quantile estimations through Bayesian networks supply information about the prediction uncertainty as a probability distribution function of discharges is given as result. Therefore, the Bayesian network model has application as a decision support for water resources and planning management.

  12. Comparing Models GRM, Refraction Tomography and Neural Network to Analyze Shallow Landslide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong F. Sompotan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed investigations of landslides are essential to understand fundamental landslide mechanisms. Seismic refraction method has been proven as a useful geophysical tool for investigating shallow landslides. The objective of this study is to introduce a new workflow using neural network in analyzing seismic refraction data and to compare the result with some methods; that are general reciprocal method (GRM and refraction tomography. The GRM is effective when the velocity structure is relatively simple and refractors are gently dipping. Refraction tomography is capable of modeling the complex velocity structures of landslides. Neural network is found to be more potential in application especially in time consuming and complicated numerical methods. Neural network seem to have the ability to establish a relationship between an input and output space for mapping seismic velocity. Therefore, we made a preliminary attempt to evaluate the applicability of neural network to determine velocity and elevation of subsurface synthetic models corresponding to arrival times. The training and testing process of the neural network is successfully accomplished using the synthetic data. Furthermore, we evaluated the neural network using observed data. The result of the evaluation indicates that the neural network can compute velocity and elevation corresponding to arrival times. The similarity of those models shows the success of neural network as a new alternative in seismic refraction data interpretation.

  13. Aberrations of holokinetic chromosomes and associated lethality after X-irradiation of meiotic stages in Tetranychus urticae Koch (acari, tetranychidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelaar, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosomes of the holokinetic organization type were irradiated with X-rays in various stages of meiosis in unfertillized eggs of Tetranychus urticae Koch. Visible cytological aberrations, lethality and sterility were investigated in subsequent generations. Chromosome fragments are the most frequently occuring light-microscopically visible chromosome aberrations; bridges are not formed. Contrary to expectations, the presence of fragments appears to be positively correlated with the occurrence of lethality; loss of fragments, missegregation and the measure of damage of the broken chromosome parts are involved. In contrast with monokinetic chromosomes the earliest lethality occurs only after about 10 divisions. The ratios between different embryonic lethality types (early vs. late) differ depending on the stage irradiated: in more compact chromatin, more serious damage (i.e. more early lethality syndromes) is induced than in less compact chromatin. In the progeny of the surviving males, neither translocations nor independent fragments are found; indirect evidence indicated the occasional presence of inversions. The presumtive inversions are induced more frequently in a chromatin-compact stage (metaphase I) than in a less compact one (telophase I). (Auth.)

  14. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  15. 21 CFR 73.1200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.1200 Section 73.1200 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of any one or any combination of synthetically prepared...

  16. 21 CFR 73.200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.200 Section 73.200 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of any one or any combination of synthetically prepared...

  17. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  18. Non-Lethal Weapons: A Technology Gap or Lack or Available Systems, Training, and Proper Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    102-104. 31 Ibid., 103-104. 32 Michael Wines , “The Aftermath in Moscow: Post-Mortem in Moscow; Russia Names Drug in Raid, Defending Use,” New York...during the past three decades have increased awareness of the benefit of non- lethal options, but increased advocacy within the services has not led to a...during the execution of suitable missions that could benefit from less than lethal technology. Research and Development Once the directorate

  19. Convolutional Neural Networks for SAR Image Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmgren-Hansen, David; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images has several uses, but it is a difficult task due to a number of properties related to SAR images. In this article we show how Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) can easily be trained for SAR image segmentation with good results. Besides...

  20. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  1. Chemical and radiation induced late dominant lethal effects in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favor, J.; Crenshaw, J.W. Jr.; Soares, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Although theoretically expected, experimental data to date have not shown dominant lethal expression to occur throughout the developmental period. Specifically, late post-implantation effects have not been demonstrated. The authors routinely use an experimental technique in which parental females mated to mutagenically treated males are allowed to give birth and wean their litter, and their uterine horns are then inspected for uterine scars indicative of live and dead embryos. In a number of experiments in which males were mutagenically treated with either chemicals or X-irradiation, a discrepancy was observed between the number of live embryos as determined by the scar technique and the number of live observed at birth, suggesting the possibility of embryonic losses at a late stage in development. Initial analyses showed that mutagenic treatment increased the percentage of these late losses. These differences were statistically significant in 2 of 3 analyses. Factors affecting statistical significance and an understanding of dominant lethal mutations are discussed. (Auth.)

  2. Dominant lethals following administration of tritium (THO) to rat males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagova, A.; Baev, I.; Bajrakova, A.

    1976-01-01

    Adult rat males were given a single intraperitoneal tritium (THO) injection at 0,01 or 0,001 mCi/g body weight (1/100 or 1/1000 of LDsub(50/30), respectively). Twelve days after treatment each male was mated to 3-5 intact females, and the latter were replaced by fresh ones every 12 following days over a 120-day period. Mated females were killed to score conceptions, corpora lutea, and live and dead embryos. Estimations were made of F 1 prenatal death rate (according to Bateman, 1958) and the frequency of induction of dominant lethal mutations (according to Roehrborn, 1970). The results observed indicated paternal exposure to tritium (THO) to produce dominant lethals both in pre- and post-meiotic germ cells in the rat. The extent of the genetic damage studied was found to depend on the amount of activity administered as well as on the time interval between treatment and conception. (author)

  3. Role of Synthetic and Dimensional Synthetic Organic Chemistry in Block Copolymer Micelle Nanosensor Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar

    This thesis investigated the role of amphiphilic triblock copolymer micelle nanomaterials in nanosensors, with emphasis on the synthesis of micelle particle sensors. The thesis is focused on the role of synthetic and dimensional synthetic organic chemistry in amphiphilic triblock core-shellcorona...

  4. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  5. Biological activity of neosergeolide and isobrucein B (and two semi-synthetic derivatives) isolated from the Amazonian medicinal plant Picrolemma sprucei (Simaroubaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ellen C C; Cavalcanti, Bruno C; Amorim, Rodrigo C N; Lucena, Jorcilene F; Quadros, Dulcimar S; Tadei, Wanderli P; Montenegro, Raquel C; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Pessoa, Cláudia; Moraes, Manoel O; Nunomura, Rita C S; Nunomura, Sergio M; Melo, Marcia R S; Andrade-Neto, Valter F de; Silva, Luiz Francisco R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Pohlit, Adrian M

    2009-02-01

    In the present study, in vitro techniques were used to investigate a range of biological activities of known natural quassinoids isobrucein B (1) and neosergeolide (2), known semi-synthetic derivative 1,12-diacetylisobrucein B (3), and a new semi-synthetic derivative, 12-acetylneosergeolide (4). These compounds were evaluated for general toxicity toward the brine shrimp species Artemia franciscana, cytotoxicity toward human tumour cells, larvicidal activity toward the dengue fever mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, haemolytic activity in mouse erythrocytes and antimalarial activity against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited the greatest cytotoxicity against all the tumor cells tested (IC50 = 5-27 microg/L) and against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum K1 strain (IC50 = 1.0-4.0 g/L) and 3 was only cytotoxic toward the leukaemia HL-60 strain (IC50 = 11.8 microg/L). Quassinoids 1 and 2 (LC50 = 3.2-4.4 mg/L) displayed greater lethality than derivative 4 (LC50 = 75.0 mg/L) toward A. aegypti larvae, while derivative 3 was inactive. These results suggest a novel application for these natural quassinoids as larvicides. The toxicity toward A. franciscana could be correlated with the activity in several biological models, a finding that is in agreement with the literature. Importantly, none of the studied compounds exhibited in vitro haemolytic activity, suggesting specificity of the observed cytotoxic effects. This study reveals the biological potential of quassinoids 1 and 2 and to a lesser extent their semi-synthetic derivatives for their in vitro antimalarial and cytotoxic activities.

  6. Biological activity of neosergeolide and isobrucein B (and two semi-synthetic derivatives isolated from the Amazonian medicinal plant Picrolemma sprucei (Simaroubaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen CC Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, in vitro techniques were used to investigate a range of biological activities of known natural quassinoids isobrucein B (1 and neosergeolide (2, known semi-synthetic derivative 1,12-diacetylisobrucein B (3, and a new semi-synthetic derivative, 12-acetylneosergeolide (4. These compounds were evaluated for general toxicity toward the brine shrimp species Artemia franciscana, cytotoxicity toward human tumour cells, larvicidal activity toward the dengue fever mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, haemolytic activity in mouse erythrocytes and antimalarial activity against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited the greatest cytotoxicity against all the tumor cells tested (IC50 = 5-27 µg/L and against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum K1 strain (IC50 = 1.0-4.0 g/L and 3 was only cytotoxic toward the leukaemia HL-60 strain (IC50 = 11.8 µg/L. Quassinoids 1 and 2 (LC50 = 3.2-4.4 mg/L displayed greater lethality than derivative 4 (LC50 = 75.0 mg/L toward A. aegypti larvae, while derivative 3 was inactive. These results suggest a novel application for these natural quassinoids as larvicides. The toxicity toward A. franciscana could be correlated with the activity in several biological models, a finding that is in agreement with the literature. Importantly, none of the studied compounds exhibited in vitro haemolytic activity, suggesting specificity of the observed cytotoxic effects. This study reveals the biological potential of quassinoids 1 and 2 and to a lesser extent their semi-synthetic derivatives for their in vitro antimalarial and cytotoxic activities.

  7. Non-Lethal Weaponry: A Framework for Future Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    community, but was widely popularized by John Naisbitt in his 1982 work, Megatrends . In short, it asserts that much may be learned about a dynamic, but...Notes 1 John Naisbitt, Megatrends : Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives (New York, NY: Warner Books, Inc., 1982), 3-5. 2 Robert J. Bunker...lethals by opponents of biological and chemical weapons. The use of chemical agents…is seen as a Trojan Horse to circumvent the Chemical Weapons

  8. Linear control theory for gene network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Bleris, Leonidas

    2010-09-16

    Systems biology is an interdisciplinary field that aims at understanding complex interactions in cells. Here we demonstrate that linear control theory can provide valuable insight and practical tools for the characterization of complex biological networks. We provide the foundation for such analyses through the study of several case studies including cascade and parallel forms, feedback and feedforward loops. We reproduce experimental results and provide rational analysis of the observed behavior. We demonstrate that methods such as the transfer function (frequency domain) and linear state-space (time domain) can be used to predict reliably the properties and transient behavior of complex network topologies and point to specific design strategies for synthetic networks.

  9. A flood-based information flow analysis and network minimization method for gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Mozhayskiy, Vadim; Tagkopoulos, Ilias

    2013-04-24

    Biological networks tend to have high interconnectivity, complex topologies and multiple types of interactions. This renders difficult the identification of sub-networks that are involved in condition- specific responses. In addition, we generally lack scalable methods that can reveal the information flow in gene regulatory and biochemical pathways. Doing so will help us to identify key participants and paths under specific environmental and cellular context. This paper introduces the theory of network flooding, which aims to address the problem of network minimization and regulatory information flow in gene regulatory networks. Given a regulatory biological network, a set of source (input) nodes and optionally a set of sink (output) nodes, our task is to find (a) the minimal sub-network that encodes the regulatory program involving all input and output nodes and (b) the information flow from the source to the sink nodes of the network. Here, we describe a novel, scalable, network traversal algorithm and we assess its potential to achieve significant network size reduction in both synthetic and E. coli networks. Scalability and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed method scales well with the size of the network, and is robust to noise and missing data. The method of network flooding proves to be a useful, practical approach towards information flow analysis in gene regulatory networks. Further extension of the proposed theory has the potential to lead in a unifying framework for the simultaneous network minimization and information flow analysis across various "omics" levels.

  10. Sampling from complex networks with high community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Mostafa; Rabiee, Hamid R; Rajabi, Arezo

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel link-tracing sampling algorithm, based on the concepts from PageRank vectors, to sample from networks with high community structures. Our method has two phases; (1) Sampling the closest nodes to the initial nodes by approximating personalized PageRank vectors and (2) Jumping to a new community by using PageRank vectors and unknown neighbors. Empirical studies on several synthetic and real-world networks show that the proposed method improves the performance of network sampling compared to the popular link-based sampling methods in terms of accuracy and visited communities.

  11. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  12. Protease-sensitive synthetic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Colby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrP(C undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrP(Sc. Frequently, PrP(Sc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164, denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174 did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrP(Sc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600-750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrP(Sc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrP(Sc.

  13. Lethal and mutagenic effects of ion beams and γ-rays in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Akemi; Tanaka, Hisaki; Watanabe, Jun; Mogi, Yoshinobu; Yamazaki, Tatsuo; Hamada, Ryoko; Iwashita, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Katsuya; Narumi, Issay

    2012-12-01

    Aspergillus oryzae is a fungus that is used widely in traditional Japanese fermentation industries. In this study, the lethal and mutagenic effects of different linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in freeze-dried conidia of A. oryzae were investigated. The lethal effect, which was evaluated by a 90% lethal dose, was dependent on the LET value of the ionizing radiation. The most lethal ionizing radiation among that tested was (12)C(5+) ion beams with an LET of 121keV/μm. The (12)C(5+) ion beams had a 3.6-times higher lethal effect than low-LET (0.2keV/μm) γ-rays. The mutagenic effect was evaluated by the frequency of selenate resistant mutants. (12)C(6+) ion beams with an LET of 86keV/μm were the most effective in inducing selenate resistance. The mutant frequency following exposure to (12)C(6+) ion beams increased with an increase in dose and reached 3.47×10(-3) at 700Gy. In the dose range from 0 to 700Gy, (12)C(5+) ion beams were the second most effective in inducing selenate resistance, the mutant frequency of which reached a maximum peak (1.67×10(-3)) at 400Gy. To elucidate the characteristics of mutation induced by ionizing radiation, mutations in the sulphate permease gene (sB) and ATP sulfurylase gene (sC) loci, the loss of function of which results in a selenate resistant phenotype, were compared between (12)C(5+) ion beams and γ-rays. We detected all types of transversions and transitions. For frameshifts, the frequency of a +1 frameshift was the highest in all cases. Although the incidence of deletions >2bp was generally low, deletions >20bp were characteristic for (12)C(5+) ion beams. γ-rays had a tendency to generate mutants carrying a multitude of mutations in the same locus. Both forms of radiation also induced genome-wide large-scale mutations including chromosome rearrangements and large deletions. These results provide new basic insights into the mutation breeding of A. oryzae using ionizing radiation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published

  14. Psychosocial influences on prisoner suicide: a case-control study of near-lethal self-harm in women prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Lisa; Hawton, Keith; Rivlin, Adrienne; Fazel, Seena

    2011-03-01

    We examined the psychosocial influences on female prisoner suicide by carrying out a study of near-lethal self-harm. We interviewed 60 women prisoners who had recently engaged in near-lethal self-harm (cases) and 60 others who had never carried out near-lethal acts in prison (controls) from all closed female prison establishments in England and Wales, using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. We gathered information on socio-demographic and criminological variables, life events and childhood trauma, exposure to suicidal behaviour, contributory and precipitating factors for near-lethal self-harm, social support and psychological characteristics. While socio-demographic factors were only modestly associated with near-lethal self-harm, being on remand, in single cell accommodation, and reporting negative experiences of imprisonment were strong correlates. Recent life events and past trauma, including different forms of childhood abuse, were also significantly associated with near-lethal self-harm, as were a family history of suicide and high scores on measures of depression, aggression, impulsivity and hostility, and low levels of self-esteem and social support. Our findings underline the importance of both individual and prison-related factors for suicide in custody, and hence the need for a comprehensive approach to suicide prevention in women's prisons. Given the multiple needs of female prisoners at-risk of self-harm and suicide, complex psychosocial interventions are likely to be required, including interventions for abused and bereaved women, and initiatives to improve staff-prisoner relationships and reduce bullying. The findings of this research may provide insights into factors leading to suicidal behaviour in other forensic and institutional settings, such as detention centres and psychiatric hospitals, and may assist in developing suicide prevention policies for prisoners and other at-risk populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Targeting the Fanconi Anemia Pathway to Identify Tailored Anticancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Jenkins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fanconi Anemia (FA pathway consists of proteins involved in repairing DNA damage, including interstrand cross-links (ICLs. The pathway contains an upstream multiprotein core complex that mediates the monoubiquitylation of the FANCD2 and FANCI heterodimer, and a downstream pathway that converges with a larger network of proteins with roles in homologous recombination and other DNA repair pathways. Selective killing of cancer cells with an intact FA pathway but deficient in certain other DNA repair pathways is an emerging approach to tailored cancer therapy. Inhibiting the FA pathway becomes selectively lethal when certain repair genes are defective, such as the checkpoint kinase ATM. Inhibiting the FA pathway in ATM deficient cells can be achieved with small molecule inhibitors, suggesting that new cancer therapeutics could be developed by identifying FA pathway inhibitors to treat cancers that contain defects that are synthetic lethal with FA.

  16. Deletion of Indian hedgehog gene causes dominant semi-lethal Creeper trait in chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sihua; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Yanyun; Yi, Guoqiang; Li, Junying; Lian, Ling; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Jiao, Rengang; Gong, Yu; Hou, Zhuocheng; Yang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The Creeper trait, a classical monogenic phenotype of chicken, is controlled by a dominant semi-lethal gene. This trait has been widely cited in the genetics and molecular biology textbooks for illustrating autosomal dominant semi-lethal inheritance over decades. However, the genetic basis of the Creeper trait remains unknown. Here we have utilized ultra-deep sequencing and extensive analysis for targeting causative mutation controlling the Creeper trait. Our results indicated that the deletion of Indian hedgehog (IHH) gene was only found in the whole-genome sequencing data of lethal embryos and Creeper chickens. Large scale segregation analysis demonstrated that the deletion of IHH was fully linked with early embryonic death and the Creeper trait. Expression analysis showed a much lower expression of IHH in Creeper than wild-type chickens. We therefore suggest the deletion of IHH to be the causative mutation for the Creeper trait in chicken. Our findings unravel the genetic basis of the longstanding Creeper phenotype mystery in chicken as the same gene also underlies bone dysplasia in human and mouse, and thus highlight the significance of IHH in animal development and human haploinsufficiency disorders. PMID:27439785

  17. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  18. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  19. The Effects of Posture, Body Armor and Other Equipment on Rifleman Lethality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kramlich, Gary R., II

    2005-01-01

    ...? This study quantifies the effects of Soldier equipment on lethality through multi-factor logistic regression using data from range experiments with the 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized...

  20. Strong lethality and teratogenicity of strobilurins on Xenopus tropicalis embryos: Basing on ten agricultural fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Mengyun; Yang, Yongsheng; Shi, Huahong; Zhou, Junliang; He, Defu

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural chemical inputs have been considered as a risk factor for the global declines in amphibian populations, yet the application of agricultural fungicides has increased dramatically in recent years. Currently little is known about the potential toxicity of fungicides on the embryos of amphibians. We studied the effects of ten commonly used fungicides (four strobilurins, two SDHIs, two triazoles, fludioxonil and folpet) on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. Lethal and teratogenic effects were respectively examined after 48 h exposure. The median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the median teratogenic concentrations (TC50s) were determined in line with actual exposure concentrations. These fungicides except two triazoles showed obvious lethal effects on embryos; however LC50s of four strobilurins were the lowest and in the range of 6.81–196.59 μg/L. Strobilurins, SDHIs and fludioxonil induced severe malformations in embryos. Among the ten fungicides, the lowest TC50s were observed for four strobilurins in the range of 0.61–84.13 μg/L. The teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and consistent phenotypes mainly including microcephaly, hypopigmentation, somite segmentation and narrow fins. The findings indicate that the developmental toxicity of currently-used fungicides involved with ecologic risks on amphibians. Especially strobilurins are highly toxic to amphibian embryos at μg/L level, which is close to environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Effects of ten agricultural fungicides were tested on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. • Strobilurin fungicides showed strong lethal and teratogenic effects on embryos. • Lowest LC50 and TC50 were observed for strobilurins in ten fungicides. • μg/L level of toxic concentrations for strobilurins was environmentally relevant. • Teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and main phenotypes. - Strobilurins induced strong lethality and teratogenicity on Xenopus

  1. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  3. A novel and generalized approach in the inversion of geoelectrical resistivity data using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, A. Stanley; Srinivas, Y.; Oliver, D. Hudson; Muthuraj, D.

    2014-03-01

    The non-linear apparent resistivity problem in the subsurface study of the earth takes into account the model parameters in terms of resistivity and thickness of individual subsurface layers using the trained synthetic data by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Here we used a single layer feed-forward neural network with fast back propagation learning algorithm. So on proper training of back propagation networks it tends to give the resistivity and thickness of the subsurface layer model of the field resistivity data with reference to the synthetic data trained in the appropriate network. During training, the weights and biases of the network are iteratively adjusted to make network performance function level more efficient. On adequate training, errors are minimized and the best result is obtained using the artificial neural networks. The network is trained with more number of VES data and this trained network is demonstrated by the field data. The accuracy of inversion depends upon the number of data trained. In this novel and specially designed algorithm, the interpretation of the vertical electrical sounding has been done successfully with the more accurate layer model.

  4. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Technique for Presenting a Deceptive Dynamic Network Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    more complicated network topologies in our experiments. We used a Watts- Strogatz [35] model to generate a synthetic topology for experimentation due...generated Watts- Strogatz model except for the intelligent router and the web server. The actual router used does not impact the results of our experiment...library for the Python [43] programming language. NetworkX provides two features useful for this experiment. It was used to generate a Watts- Strogatz model

  6. Lethal modifications of DNA via the transmutation of 32P and 33P incorporated in the genome of the S13 bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cols, P.; Apelgot, S.; Guille, E.

    1988-01-01

    When circular single-standard DNA of phage S13 is labelled with 32 P or 33 P, the transmutations very efficiently bring about a loss of phage infectiousness (efficiency = 1 for 32 P and 0.73 for 33 P). For both radionuclides, the lethal efficiencies as well as the lethal events are different. In the case of 32 P, the lethal event is the loss of the circular integrity of the DNA molecule, occurring as a consequence of a systematic single strand-break caused by each 32 P decay (100%). Conversely, in the case of 33 P, the lethal events are either a single strand-break (40%) or a local stereochemical modification (33%). The same primary event, the substitution at each 33 P decay of a phosphate by a sulfate molecule, leads to one of these lethal events in relation to the decay site. Moreover, neither the phage adsorption nor its genome injection into bacteria depends on the physical state of the genome, and thus lethality is revealed at only the genetic level. (orig.)

  7. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  8. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  9. Effective augmentation of networked systems and enhancing pinning controllability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-06-01

    Controlling dynamics of networked systems to a reference state, known as pinning control, has many applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we introduce a method for effective augmentation of networked systems, while also providing high levels of pinning controllability for the final augmented network. The problem is how to connect a sub-network to an already existing network such that the pinning controllability is maximised. We consider the eigenratio of the augmented Laplacian matrix as a pinning controllability metric, and use graph perturbation theory to approximate the influence of edge addition on the eigenratio. The proposed metric can be effectively used to find the inter-network links connecting the disjoint networks. Also, an efficient link rewiring approach is proposed to further optimise the pinning controllability of the augmented network. We provide numerical simulations on synthetic networks and show that the proposed method is more effective than heuristic ones.

  10. Synthetic Biology: Advancing Biological Frontiers by Building Synthetic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  11. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  12. Opinion formation and distribution in a bounded-confidence model on various networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X. Flora; Van Gorder, Robert A.; Porter, Mason A.

    2018-02-01

    In the social, behavioral, and economic sciences, it is important to predict which individual opinions eventually dominate in a large population, whether there will be a consensus, and how long it takes for a consensus to form. Such ideas have been studied heavily both in physics and in other disciplines, and the answers depend strongly both on how one models opinions and on the network structure on which opinions evolve. One model that was created to study consensus formation quantitatively is the Deffuant model, in which the opinion distribution of a population evolves via sequential random pairwise encounters. To consider heterogeneity of interactions in a population along with social influence, we study the Deffuant model on various network structures (deterministic synthetic networks, random synthetic networks, and social networks constructed from Facebook data). We numerically simulate the Deffuant model and conduct regression analyses to investigate the dependence of the time to reach steady states on various model parameters, including a confidence bound for opinion updates, the number of participating entities, and their willingness to compromise. We find that network structure and parameter values both have important effects on the convergence time and the number of steady-state opinion groups. For some network architectures, we observe that the relationship between the convergence time and model parameters undergoes a transition at a critical value of the confidence bound. For some networks, the steady-state opinion distribution also changes from consensus to multiple opinion groups at this critical value.

  13. Communication efficiency and congestion of signal traffic in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišić, Bratislav; Sporns, Olaf; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    The complex connectivity of the cerebral cortex suggests that inter-regional communication is a primary function. Using computational modeling, we show that anatomical connectivity may be a major determinant for global information flow in brain networks. A macaque brain network was implemented as a communication network in which signal units flowed between grey matter nodes along white matter paths. Compared to degree-matched surrogate networks, information flow on the macaque brain network was characterized by higher loss rates, faster transit times and lower throughput, suggesting that neural connectivity may be optimized for speed rather than fidelity. Much of global communication was mediated by a "rich club" of hub regions: a sub-graph comprised of high-degree nodes that are more densely interconnected with each other than predicted by chance. First, macaque communication patterns most closely resembled those observed for a synthetic rich club network, but were less similar to those seen in a synthetic small world network, suggesting that the former is a more fundamental feature of brain network topology. Second, rich club regions attracted the most signal traffic and likewise, connections between rich club regions carried more traffic than connections between non-rich club regions. Third, a number of rich club regions were significantly under-congested, suggesting that macaque connectivity actively shapes information flow, funneling traffic towards some nodes and away from others. Together, our results indicate a critical role of the rich club of hub nodes in dynamic aspects of global brain communication.

  14. Cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and resistance to radiation lethality in murine tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, C.A.; Tesfay, Z.; Jones, J.; Rosenberg, R.C.; McCarthy, C.; Rosenberg, S.O.

    1986-01-01

    Reduced species of molecular oxygen are produced by the interaction of ionizing radiation with aqueous solutions containing molecular oxygen. The enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are thought to function in vivo as scavengers of metabolically produced peroxide and superoxide respectively. SOD has been shown to protect against the lethal effects of ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. The authors have investigated the relationship between the cytosolic SOD catalase content and the sensitivity to radiation lethality of a number of murine cell lines (402AX, EL-4, MB-2T3, MB-4, MEL, P-815, SAI, SP-2, and SV-3T3). K/sub i/(CN - ) for murine Cu-Zn-SOD was determined to be 6.8 x 10 -6 M. No cytosolic Mn-SOD activity was found in any of the cell lines studied. No correlation was found between the cytosolic Cu-Zn-SOD or cytosolic catalase activity and the resistance to radiation lethality or the murine cell lines studied

  15. Lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner: comparing male murderers to nonlethal abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P; Cavanagh, Kate; Medina-Ariza, Juanjo

    2007-04-01

    Men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner are compared. Various risk factors are examined to compare men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate woman partner. Relative to abusers, men who kill are generally more conventional with respect to childhood backgrounds, education, employment, and criminal careers, are more likely to be possessive and jealous, and are more likely to be separated from their partner at the time of the event. Men who kill are more likely to have used violence against a previous partner, to have sexually assaulted and strangled the victim, and to have used a weapon or instrument. However, they were less likely to have been drunk at the time of the event and/or to have previously used violence against the woman they killed. Overall, the findings do not support the notion of a simple progression from nonlethal to lethal violence and raise some dilemmas for the growing area of risk assessment.

  16. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  17. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA; Nikanjam, Mina [Richmond, CA

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  18. Protective Effect of Phillyrin on Lethal LPS-Induced Neutrophil Inflammation in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liling Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Forsythia suspensa Vahl. (Oleaceae fruits are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat pneumonia, typhoid, dysentery, ulcers and oedema. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities have been reported for phillyrin (PHN, the main ingredient in Forsythia suspensa Vahl fruits, in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms in vivo remain poorly defined. In this study, we discovered that PHN exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in lethal LPS-induced neutrophil inflammation by suppressing the MyD88-dependent signalling pathway in zebrafish. Methods: LPS-yolk microinjection was used to induce a lethal LPS-infected zebrafish model. The effect of PHN on the survival of zebrafish challenged with lethal LPS was evaluated using survival analysis. The effect of PHN on neutrophil inflammation grading in vivo was assessed by tracking neutrophils with a transgenic line. The effects of PHN on neutrophil production and migration were analysed by SB+ cell counts during consecutive hours after modelling. Additionally, key cytokines and members of the MyD88 signalling pathway that are involved in inflammatory response were detected using quantitative RT-PCR. To assess gene expression changes during consecutive hours after modelling, the IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MyD88, TRIF, ERK1/2, JNK, IκBa and NF-κB expression levels were measured. Results: PHN could protect zebrafish against a lethal LPS challenge in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by decreased neutrophil infltration, reduced tissue necrosis and increased survival rates. Up-regulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression also showed the same tendencies of depression by PHN. Critically, PHN significantly inhibited the LPS-induced activation of MyD88, IκBa, and NF-κB but did not affect the expression of ERK1/2 MAPKs or JNK MAPKs in LPS-stimulated zebrafish. Additionally, PHN regulated the MyD88/IκBα/NF-κB signalling pathway by controlling IκBα, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF

  19. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  1. Synthetic Biology: Mapping the Scientific Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Burton, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from Thomson Reuters Web of Science to map and analyse the scientific landscape for synthetic biology. The article draws on recent advances in data visualisation and analytics with the aim of informing upcoming international policy debates on the governance of synthetic biology by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. We use mapping techniques to identify how synthetic biology can best be understood and the range of institutions, researchers and funding agencies involved. Debates under the Convention are likely to focus on a possible moratorium on the field release of synthetic organisms, cells or genomes. Based on the empirical evidence we propose that guidance could be provided to funding agencies to respect the letter and spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity in making research investments. Building on the recommendations of the United States Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues we demonstrate that it is possible to promote independent and transparent monitoring of developments in synthetic biology using modern information tools. In particular, public and policy understanding and engagement with synthetic biology can be enhanced through the use of online interactive tools. As a step forward in this process we make existing data on the scientific literature on synthetic biology available in an online interactive workbook so that researchers, policy makers and civil society can explore the data and draw conclusions for themselves. PMID:22539946

  2. Generic, network schema agnostic sparse tensor factorization for single-pass clustering of heterogeneous information networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jibing; Meng, Qinggang; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin; Wu, Yahui; Badii, Atta

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous information networks (e.g. bibliographic networks and social media networks) that consist of multiple interconnected objects are ubiquitous. Clustering analysis is an effective method to understand the semantic information and interpretable structure of the heterogeneous information networks, and it has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, most studies assume that heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bi-typed networks or star network schema, and they can only cluster one type of object in the network each time. In this paper, a novel clustering framework is proposed based on sparse tensor factorization for heterogeneous information networks, which can cluster multiple types of objects simultaneously in a single pass without any network schema information. The types of objects and the relations between them in the heterogeneous information networks are modeled as a sparse tensor. The clustering issue is modeled as an optimization problem, which is similar to the well-known Tucker decomposition. Then, an Alternating Least Squares (ALS) algorithm and a feasible initialization method are proposed to solve the optimization problem. Based on the tensor factorization, we simultaneously partition different types of objects into different clusters. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world datasets have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework, STFClus, can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and can outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms as a generally applicable single-pass clustering method for heterogeneous network which is network schema agnostic.

  3. Ultraviolet-B lethal damage on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiorgi, C.F.; Fernandez, R.O.; Pizarro, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa has shown an increased sensitivity compared with that of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae, when they were exposed to 0.4 kJ/m2 of ultraviolet-B radiation. The rapid decay in cell viability observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa after the irradiation was influenced by factors such as culture media and the presence of pyocyanine during the irradiation. The radioinduced lethal damage could be prevented by photoreactivating treatment, indicating that pyrimidine dimer formation was the mechanism causing bacterial death. The results indicate that several environmental conditions may act as protective agents against ultraviolet-B-induced damage

  4. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  5. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  6. Why the United States Must Adopt Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    intelligence , Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems, energy production, energy storage, three-dimensional printing , bandwidth improvements, computer...views on the morality of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics technology. Eastern culture sees artificial intelligence as an economic savior...capable of improving their society. In contrast, Western culture regards artificial intelligence with paranoia, anxiety, and skepticism. As Eastern

  7. Content metamorphosis in synthetic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbiens, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic hologram is an optical system made of hundreds of images amalgamated in a structure of holographic cells. Each of these images represents a point of view on a three-dimensional space which makes us consider synthetic holography as a multiple points of view perspective system. In the composition of a computer graphics scene for a synthetic hologram, the field of view of the holographic image can be divided into several viewing zones. We can attribute these divisions to any object or image feature independently and operate different transformations on image content. In computer generated holography, we tend to consider content variations as a continuous animation much like a short movie. However, by composing sequential variations of image features in relation with spatial divisions, we can build new narrative forms distinct from linear cinematographic narration. When observers move freely and change their viewing positions, they travel from one field of view division to another. In synthetic holography, metamorphoses of image content are within the observer's path. In all imaging Medias, the transformation of image features in synchronisation with the observer's position is a rare occurrence. However, this is a predominant characteristic of synthetic holography. This paper describes some of my experimental works in the development of metamorphic holographic images.

  8. Linear control theory for gene network modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jun Shin

    Full Text Available Systems biology is an interdisciplinary field that aims at understanding complex interactions in cells. Here we demonstrate that linear control theory can provide valuable insight and practical tools for the characterization of complex biological networks. We provide the foundation for such analyses through the study of several case studies including cascade and parallel forms, feedback and feedforward loops. We reproduce experimental results and provide rational analysis of the observed behavior. We demonstrate that methods such as the transfer function (frequency domain and linear state-space (time domain can be used to predict reliably the properties and transient behavior of complex network topologies and point to specific design strategies for synthetic networks.

  9. Multidimensional epidemic thresholds in diffusion processes over interdependent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, Mostafa; Siyari, Payam; Magnani, Matteo; Montesi, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We propose a new concept of multidimensional epidemic threshold for interdependent networks. •We analytically derive and numerically illustrate the conditions for multilayer epidemics. •We study the evolution of infection density and diffusion dynamics. -- Abstract: Several systems can be modeled as sets of interdependent networks where each network contains distinct nodes. Diffusion processes like the spreading of a disease or the propagation of information constitute fundamental phenomena occurring over such coupled networks. In this paper we propose a new concept of multidimensional epidemic threshold characterizing diffusion processes over interdependent networks, allowing different diffusion rates on the different networks and arbitrary degree distributions. We analytically derive and numerically illustrate the conditions for multilayer epidemics, i.e., the appearance of a giant connected component spanning all the networks. Furthermore, we study the evolution of infection density and diffusion dynamics with extensive simulation experiments on synthetic and real networks

  10. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  11. Multiply-Imputed Synthetic Data: Advice to the Imputer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loong Bronwyn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several statistical agencies have started to use multiply-imputed synthetic microdata to create public-use data in major surveys. The purpose of doing this is to protect the confidentiality of respondents’ identities and sensitive attributes, while allowing standard complete-data analyses of microdata. A key challenge, faced by advocates of synthetic data, is demonstrating that valid statistical inferences can be obtained from such synthetic data for non-confidential questions. Large discrepancies between observed-data and synthetic-data analytic results for such questions may arise because of uncongeniality; that is, differences in the types of inputs available to the imputer, who has access to the actual data, and to the analyst, who has access only to the synthetic data. Here, we discuss a simple, but possibly canonical, example of uncongeniality when using multiple imputation to create synthetic data, which specifically addresses the choices made by the imputer. An initial, unanticipated but not surprising, conclusion is that non-confidential design information used to impute synthetic data should be released with the confidential synthetic data to allow users of synthetic data to avoid possible grossly conservative inferences.

  12. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  13. Sub-lethal effects of Vip3A toxin on survival, development and fecundity of Heliothis virescens and Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Asim; Wright, Denis J

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of sub-lethal effects is important to interpret the overall insecticide efficacy in controlling insect pest populations. In addition to the lethal effect, sub-lethal effects may also occur in exposed insects. Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) have shown a broad spectrum of insecticidal activity against many insect pest species. In this study the sub-lethal effects of the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal toxin Vip3A on the development and reproduction of Heliothis virescens F. and Plutella xylostella L. were evaluated in the laboratory. The results indicated that the sub-lethal concentration of Vip3A increased the duration of the larval and pupal stages as compared with the control treatment for both species. The percent pupation and percent adult emergence were significantly lower for Vip3A-treated insects. The proportion of pairs that produced eggs and the longevity of adults were not significantly different between treatments. H. virescens and P. xylostella treated with Vip3A showed an 11 and 17 % decrease in their intrinsic rate of increase (rm) respectively compared with untreated insects. The results from this study will be helpful to develop the strategy to incorporate Vip 3A containing crops in an integrated pest management programme.

  14. Synthetic cannabis and acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson-Leung, Miya E; Leung, Lester Y; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    An association between marijuana use and stroke has been previously reported. However, the health risks of newer synthetic cannabinoid compounds are less well known. We describe 2 cases that introduce a previously unreported association between synthetic cannabis use and ischemic stroke in young adults. A 22-year-old woman presented with dysarthria, left hemiplegia, and left hemianesthesia within hours of first use of synthetic cannabis. She was healthy and without identified stroke risk factors other than oral contraceptive use and a patent foramen ovale without venous thromboses. A 26-year-old woman presented with nonfluent aphasia, left facial droop, and left hemianesthesia approximately 12 hours after first use of synthetic cannabis. Her other stroke risk factors included migraine with aura, oral contraceptive use, smoking, and a family history of superficial thrombophlebitis. Both women were found to have acute, large-territory infarctions of the right middle cerebral artery. Our 2 cases had risk factors for ischemic stroke but were otherwise young and healthy and the onset of their deficits occurred within hours after first-time exposure to synthetic cannabis. Synthetic cannabis use is an important consideration in the investigation of stroke in young adults. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transplantation of bone marrow cells into lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktora, L.; Hermanova, E.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological changes were studied of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and spleen of lethally irradiated mice (0.2 C/kg) after transplantation of living bone marrow cells. It was observed that functional trombopoietic megakaryocytes occur from day 15 after transplantation and that functional active megakaryocytes predominate in bone marrow and spleen from day 20. In addition, other types of cells, primarily granulocytes, were detected in some megakaryocytes. (author)

  16. Inhibitory action of chlorophyllin of autosome recessive lethals induced by irradiation; Accion inhibidora de la clorofilina de letales recesivos autosonicos inducidos por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V.M.; Pimentel, P.A.E.; Cruces, M.P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vmss@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    The chlorolin is a sodium salt of the chlorophyll that has a strong protective action of the damage induced by different agents so much physical as chemical. In Drosophila there is reported this effect in somatic cells. In contrast, in germinal cells using tests with the sexual chromosomes has not been found such inhibitory action. For this reason, in this occasion we will refer to the effect of the lethality induced in autosome chromosomes, in particular to the chromosome II of this species. For such effect groups of males of the line Canton-S its were pre-treated for 24h with or without 69 mm of CCS and later on treaties with or without 40 Gy of gamma irradiation. The males were then subjected to the technical Cy L / Pm for the detection of recessive lethals. In the third generation the respective counts of the descendant of each one of them to determine the corresponding categories for each extracted chromosome were made. To be mendelian crosses it is expected for a normal chromosome a proportion 2:1 of individuals with genotype Cy L / +: +/+. The absence of individuals +/+ it is indicative of a lethal gene, until 10% of these individuals of each male's total descendant, it is considered that is carrying of a semi lethal gene. The sum of lethal and semi lethals constitutes the category detrimental. The obtained results indicated that the pre-treatment with CCS reduces in a significant way the frequency of induced lethals by 40 Gy of gamma rays. The fact that an effect inhibitor has not been observed in the test of recessive lethal bound to the sex obtained previously, it contrasts with the effect observed in the chromosome II, results of this study and with the one observed in the chromosome III in somatic cells. The above-mentioned shows a differential action of the CCS between sexual chromosomes and autosomal before the effect of the gamma radiation. At the moment we don't have an explanation to these evidences. To evaluate the action of the

  17. Inhibitory action of chlorophyllin of autosome recessive lethals induced by irradiation; Accion inhibidora de la clorofilina de letales recesivos autosonicos inducidos por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V M; Pimentel, P A.E.; Cruces, M P [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The chlorolin is a sodium salt of the chlorophyll that has a strong protective action of the damage induced by different agents so much physical as chemical. In Drosophila there is reported this effect in somatic cells. In contrast, in germinal cells using tests with the sexual chromosomes has not been found such inhibitory action. For this reason, in this occasion we will refer to the effect of the lethality induced in autosome chromosomes, in particular to the chromosome II of this species. For such effect groups of males of the line Canton-S its were pre-treated for 24h with or without 69 mm of CCS and later on treaties with or without 40 Gy of gamma irradiation. The males were then subjected to the technical Cy L / Pm for the detection of recessive lethals. In the third generation the respective counts of the descendant of each one of them to determine the corresponding categories for each extracted chromosome were made. To be mendelian crosses it is expected for a normal chromosome a proportion 2:1 of individuals with genotype Cy L / +: +/+. The absence of individuals +/+ it is indicative of a lethal gene, until 10% of these individuals of each male's total descendant, it is considered that is carrying of a semi lethal gene. The sum of lethal and semi lethals constitutes the category detrimental. The obtained results indicated that the pre-treatment with CCS reduces in a significant way the frequency of induced lethals by 40 Gy of gamma rays. The fact that an effect inhibitor has not been observed in the test of recessive lethal bound to the sex obtained previously, it contrasts with the effect observed in the chromosome II, results of this study and with the one observed in the chromosome III in somatic cells. The above-mentioned shows a differential action of the CCS between sexual chromosomes and autosomal before the effect of the gamma radiation. At the moment we don't have an explanation to these evidences. To evaluate the action of the chlorophyllin on

  18. Computed tomography of lethal medline granuloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Suk; Kim, Tae Ho; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik

    1991-01-01

    In order to clarify the CT findings of lethal midline granuloma (LMG) diagnosed clinically or histopathologically, the authors retrospectively analyzed 12 patients who were seen at Kyungpook National University Hospital from February 1985 to August 1989. CT showed nasal mucosal thickening and / or soft tissue mass (9 case), spreading of the lesions along the facial subcutaneous fat plane (8 cases), invasion into the paranasal sinuses (5 cases), bone destruction (5 cases), nasopharyngeal mass lesion (2 cases), and extension of the lesion into the infratemporal fossa (1 case). In spite of the fact that CT does not make definitive diagnosis of LMG, it permits evaluation of the extent of the lesion, detection of the combined lesion, differential diagnosis, and close monitoring of its evolution under treatment

  19. [Lethal effect after transmutation of 33P incorporated into bacteriophage S 13 and mechanisms of DNA double helix rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelgot, S

    1980-04-01

    The experiments show the lethal effect of the beta decay of 33P incorporated in DNA of bacteriophage S 13. The lethal efficiency is high, 0.72 at 0 degrees C and 0.55 at--197 degrees C. The presence of a radical scavenger like AET has no influence. It was found previously that for such phages with single-stranded DNA, the lethal efficiency of 32P decay is unity, and that the lethal event is a DNA single-strand break, owing to the high energy of the nucleogenic 32S atom. As the recoil energy of the 33S atom is too low to account for such a break, it is suggested that the reorganization of the phosphate molecule into sulphate is able to bring about a DNA single-strand break with an efficiency as high as 0.7, at 0 degrees C. A model for the DNA double-strand-break produced by a transmutation processes is suggested.