WorldWideScience

Sample records for synthetic fuels industry

  1. Some regional costs of a synthetic fuel industry: The case of illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Green, E.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Federal Government's efforts to induce development of a coal-based synthetic fuel industry include direct subsidies, tax concessions, and assurances that it will purchase the industry's output, even if above the market price. In this note it is argued that these subsidies will enable this industry to secure a region's largest and lowest-cost coal deposits and that the costs imposed on other coal users will be substantial. Moreover, because the lowest-cost coal deposits will be committed to synthetic fuels production regardless of the industry's commercial viability, distortions in regional coal markets will develop. If economic efficiency requires that the price of the resource reflect its replacement value, then a State government is justified in imposing a tax on coal destined for subsidized synthetic fuel plants. Amounts of such a tax, based on the higher costs of coal that must be accepted by other users as the result of the subsidized synthetic fuel plants' preempting the largest and lowest-cost deposits, are estimated for the case of Illinois strippable coal. ?? 1981 Annals of Regional Science.

  2. MHD power generation for the synthetic-fuels industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.S. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The integration of open cycle MHD with various processes for the recovery of hydrocarbons for heavy oil deposits, oil sands, and oil shales are examined along with its use in producing medium Btu gas, synthetic natural gas and solvent refined coal. The major features of the MHD cycle which are of interest are: (a) the ability to produce hydrogen through the shift reaction by introducing H 2 O into the substoichiometric combustion product flow exiting the MHD diffuser, (b) the use of high temperature waste heat in the MHD exhaust, and (c) the ability of the seed in the MHD flow to remove sulfur from the combustion products. Therefore the use of the MHD cycle allows coal to be used in an environmentally acceptable manner in place of hydrocarbons which are now used to produce process heat and hydrogen. The appropriate plant sizes are in the range of 25 to 50 MWe and the required MHD generator enthalpy extraction efficiencies are low. Sale of electricity produced, over and above that used in the process, can provide a revenue stream which can improve the economics of the hydrocarbon processing. This, coupled with the replacement of coal for hydrocarbons in certain phases of the process, should improve the overall economics, while not requiring a high level of performance by the MHD components. Therefore, this area should be an early target of opportunity for the commercialization of MHD

  3. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  4. Catalysts for synthetic liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, L.A.; Turney, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysts have been designed, characterized and tested for the selective production of hydrocarbons suitable as synthetic liquid transport fuels from synthesis gas (i.e., by the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen). It was found that hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, or suitable for conversion to that range, could be produced over several of the new catalyst systems. The various catalysts examined included: (1) synthetic cobalt clays, mainly cobalt chlorites; (2) cobalt hydrotalcites; (3) ruthenium metal supported on rare earth oxides of high surface area; and (4) a novel promoted cobalt catalyst. Active and selective catalysts have been obtained, in each category. With the exception of the clays, reproducibility of catalyst performance has been good. Catalysts in groups 2 and 4 have exhibited very high activity, with long lifetimes and easy regeneration.

  5. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  6. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  7. The system architecture for renewable synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    To overcome and eventually eliminate the existing heavy fossil fuels in the transport sector, there is a need for new renewable fuels. This transition could lead to large capital costs for implementing the new solutions and a long time frame for establishing the new infrastructure unless a suitable...... and production plants, so it is important to implement it in the best manner possible to ensure an efficient and flexible system. The poster will provide an overview of the steps involved in the production of synthetic fuel and possible solutions for the system architecture based on the current literature...

  8. Fusion as a source of synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the near-term, coal derived synthetic fuels will be used; but in the long-term, resource depletion and environmental effects will mandate synthetic fuels from inexhaustible sources - fission, fusion, and solar. Of the three sources, fusion appears uniquely suited for the efficient production of hydrogen-based fuels, due to its ability to directly generate very high process temperatures (up to approx. 2000 0 C) for water splitting reactions. Fusion-based water splitting reactions include high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam, thermochemical cycles, hybrid electrochemical/thermochemical, and direct thermal decomposition. HTE appears to be the simplest and most efficient process with efficiencies of 50 to 70% (fusion to hydrogen chemical energy), depending on process conditions

  9. Development of fuel cell systems for aircraft applications based on synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasel, J.; Samsun, R.C.; Doell, C.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    At present, in the aviation sector considerable scientific project work deals with the development of fuel cell systems based on synthetic fuels to be integrated in future aircraft. The benefits of fuel cell systems in aircraft are various. They offer the possibility to simplify the aircraft layout. Important systems, i.e. the gas turbine powered auxiliary power unit (APU) for electricity supply, the fuel tank inserting system and the water tank, can be substituted by one single system, the fuel cell system. Additionally, the energy demand for ice protection can be covered assisted by fuel cell systems. These measures reduce the consumption of jet fuel, increase aircraft efficiency and allow the operation at low emissions. Additionally, the costs for aircraft related investments, for aircraft maintenance and operation can be reduced. On the background of regular discussions about environmental concerns (global warming) of kerosene Jet A-1 and its availability, which might be restricted in a few years, the aircraft industry is keen to employ synthetic, sulfur-free fuels such as Fischer-Tropsch fuels. These comprise Bio-To-Liquid and Gas-To-Liquid fuels. Within this field of research the Institute of Energy Research (IEF-3) in Juelich develops complete and compact fuel cell systems based on the autothermal reforming of these kinds of fuels in cooperation with industry. This paper reports about this work. (orig.)

  10. Procedure for matching synfuel users with potential suppliers. Appendix B. Proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-07

    To assist the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion (OFC), in implementing the synthetic fuel exemption under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (FUA) of 1978, Resource Consulting Group, Inc. (RCG), has developed a procedure for matching prospective users and producers of synthetic fuel. The matching procedure, which involves a hierarchical screening process, is designed to assist OFC in: locating a supplier for a firm that wishes to obtain a synthetic fuel exemption; determining whether the fuel supplier proposed by a petitioner is technically and economically capable of meeting the petitioner's needs; and assisting the Synthetic Fuels Corporation or a synthetic fuel supplier in evaluating potential markets for synthetic fuel production. A data base is provided in this appendix on proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects to be used in applying the screening procedure. The data base encompasses a total of 212 projects in the seven production technologies.

  11. The Role of Synthetic Fuels for a Carbon Neutral Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Namorado Rosa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels depletion and increasing environmental impacts arising from their use call for seeking growing supplies from renewable and nuclear primary energy sources. However, it is necessary to simultaneously attend to both the electrical power needs and the specificities of the transport and industrial sector requirements. A major question posed by the shift away from traditional fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources lies in matching the power demand with the daily and seasonal oscillation and the intermittency of these natural energy fluxes. Huge energy storage requirements become necessary or otherwise the decline of the power factor of both the renewable and conventional generation would mean loss of resources. On the other hand, liquid and gaseous fuels, for which there is vast storage and distribution capacity available, appear essential to supply the transport sector for a very long time ahead, besides their domestic and industrial roles. Within this context, the present assessment suggests that proven technologies and sound tested principles are available to develop an integrated energy system, relying on synthetic fuels. These would incorporate carbon capture and utilization in a closed carbon cycle, progressively relying mostly on solar and/or nuclear primary sources, providing both electric power and gaseous/liquid hydrocarbon fuels, having ample storage capacity, and able to timely satisfy all forms of energy demand. The principles and means are already available to develop a carbon-neutral synthetic fuel economy.

  12. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J; Steinberg, M.

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion

  13. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  14. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  15. South Korea's nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    March 1990 marked a major milestone for South Korea's nuclear power program, as the country became self-sufficient in nuclear fuel fabrication. The reconversion line (UF 6 to UO 2 ) came into full operation at the Korea Nuclear Fuel Company's fabrication plant, as the last step in South Korea's program, initiated in the mid-1970s, to localize fuel fabrication. Thus, South Korea now has the capability to produce both CANDU and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. This article covers the nuclear fuel industry in South Korea-how it is structures, its current capabilities, and its outlook for the future

  16. FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter focuses on methane emissions from the coal and natural gas industries. The petroleum industry is not addressed because of the lack of related quality data. Emission points are identified for each industry, and a discussion of factors affecting emissions is presented. ...

  17. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal of developing improved yeast cell factories. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1164-1170. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools......, microbial cell factories such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be engineered to express synthetic pathways for the production of fuels, biopharmaceuticals, fragrances, and food flavors. However, directing fluxes through these synthetic pathways towards the desired product can be demanding due to complex...... regulation or poor gene expression. Systems biology, which applies computational tools and mathematical modeling to understand complex biological networks, can be used to guide synthetic biology design. Here, we present our perspective on how systems biology can impact synthetic biology towards the goal...

  19. Economic Efficiency of Establishing Domestic Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article notes a stable tendency to increasing the oil dependence of Ukraine, which creates a threat to the national economic security, and proves an expediency of establishing domestic production of synthetic liquid fuel. The technical, organizational and economic features of establishing synthetic liquid fuel production in Ukraine are presented. There proved a hypothesis on the expediency of organizing the production of synthetic liquid fuels based on steam-plasma coal gasification technology. The forecast resource cycle of the country until 2020 under conditions of developing this technology is modeled.

  20. The LPG-fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The LPG-fuel industry comprises several professionals from various domains such as assembly shops for vehicles transformation, materials manufacturers for public distribution stations and companies which produce and commercialize the LPG-fuel. This paper summarizes the administrative and technical liabilities of these professionals, with the technical qualification required, the regulations concerning the official approval of transformation kits and pressure tanks. The French network of public distribution stations for LPG-fuel is shared between five independent dispensers with their own economic policy which represents about 700 LPG-stations. However, the safety regulations concerning LPG-fuels considerably limit the installation of LPG facilities in urban areas. A cost-benefit comparison between LPG and other liquid fuels is given in inset and takes into account the transformation costs of the vehicle. (J.S.)

  1. News from the fuel elements industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, R.; Delannay, M.; Dehon, C.; Jouan, J.; Beuneche, M.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals successively with: the re-structuring of the PWR fuel industry in France, with the setting up of Fragema and Cogema Framatome Combustible; Fragema products, from standard fuel assembly to the development of a new advanced fuel assembly; Framatome's experience with PWR fuel; fuel performances in the light of requirements imposed by network needs follow-up; devices developed by Fragema for on-site analysis of irradiated fuel [fr

  2. Why Synthetic Fuels Are Necessary in Future Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Grant Wilson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a hypothesis that fuels will continue to be critical elements of future energy systems. The reasons behind this are explored, such as the immense benefits conferred by fuels from their low cost of storage, transport, and handling, and especially in the management of the seasonal swing in heating demand for a country with a summer and winter season such as the UK. Empirical time-series data from Great Britain are used to examine the seasonal nature of the demand for liquid fuels, natural gas, and electricity, with the aid of a daily Shared Axis Energy Diagram. The logic of the continued need of fuels is examined, and the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic fuels are considered in comparison to fossil fuels.

  3. Why Synthetic Fuels Are Necessary in Future Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, I. A. Grant, E-mail: grant.wilson@sheffield.ac.uk [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Chemical & Biological Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC), London (United Kingdom); Styring, Peter [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Chemical & Biological Engineering, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-24

    We propose a hypothesis that fuels will continue to be critical elements of future energy systems. The reasons behind this are explored, such as the immense benefits conferred by fuels from their low cost of storage, transport, and handling, and especially in the management of the seasonal swing in heating demand for a country with a summer and winter season such as the UK. Empirical time-series data from Great Britain are used to examine the seasonal nature of the demand for liquid fuels, natural gas, and electricity, with the aid of a daily Shared Axis Energy Diagram. The logic of the continued need of fuels is examined, and the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic fuels are considered in comparison to fossil fuels.

  4. SOEC pathways for the production of synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    , and the competitive strengths and possible weaknesses of the SOEC technology in comparison with other competing technologies are evaluated. This resulted in a detailed overview of technologies involved in the production cycle of synthetic fuels, description of the proposed pathways and the architecture of the system....

  5. Innovation in the fuel cycle industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorlette, Guy

    1998-01-01

    The fuel cycle industry will have to adapt to the production of new fuel and in the same time will have to improve its performance. Innovation will be a key factor of success. Innovation must be driven by the needs of the fuel cycle industry to achieve. The fuel cycle requirement of tomorrow, Innovative processes for mining high grade uranium, Innovative enrichment process, Sorting the pellets at Melox plant, Innovation in action, and Innovative waste management in la Hague are presented. A number of innovative solutions are already implemented and are in action on industrial facilities. As problems are becoming more and more tough to address, international cooperation will be required. The fuel cycle industry, as a part of the nuclear power industry, is committed to seek improvements through performance upgrade and innovation. (Cho. G. S.). 10 refs., 4 figs

  6. Plant synthetic biology: a new platform for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesenko, Elena; Edwards, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Thirty years after the production of the first generation of genetically modified plants we are now set to move into a new era of recombinant crop technology through the application of synthetic biology to engineer new and complex input and output traits. The use of synthetic biology technologies will represent more than incremental additions of transgenes, but rather the directed design of completely new metabolic pathways, physiological traits, and developmental control strategies. The need to enhance our ability to improve crops through new engineering capability is now increasingly pressing as we turn to plants not just for food, but as a source of renewable feedstocks for industry. These accelerating and diversifying demands for new output traits coincide with a need to reduce inputs and improve agricultural sustainability. Faced with such challenges, existing technologies will need to be supplemented with new and far-more-directed approaches to turn valuable resources more efficiently into usable agricultural products. While these objectives are challenging enough, the use of synthetic biology in crop improvement will face public acceptance issues as a legacy of genetically modified technologies in many countries. Here we review some of the potential benefits of adopting synthetic biology approaches in improving plant input and output traits for their use as industrial chemical feedstocks, as linked to the rapidly developing biorefining industry. Several promising technologies and biotechnological targets are identified along with some of the key regulatory and societal challenges in the safe and acceptable introduction of such technology.

  7. The feasibility of synthetic fuels in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, D.

    2013-01-01

    , and other impacts on the environment and biosphere. Hence, it is essential to make a detailed analysis of this sector in order to match the demand and to meet the criteria of a 100% renewable energy system in 2050. The purpose of this article is to identify potential pathways for producing synthetic fuels......, with a specific focus on solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOEC) combined with the recycling of CO2....

  8. The feasibility of synthetic fuels in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    supplies, and other impacts on environment and biosphere. Hence, it is essential to make a detailed analysis of this sector in order to match the demand and to meet the criteria of a 100% renewable energy system in 2050. The purpose of this article is to identify potential pathways for producing synthetic...... fuels, with a specific focus on solid oxide electrolyser cells combined with the recycling of CO2....

  9. Forest industry wood fuel supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The potential for wood fired energy production in the UK is significant. Large scale developments are currently underway which could utilise over 100,000 green tonnes of forest residues. The fuel supply chain is likely to be complicated and there are perceived risks in its organisation and security. This report sets out to address some of these perceived risks and suggest suitable measures to reduce it. Six areas of the fuel supply chain have been studied, namely; Extraction, Comminution, Transport, Assessment and payment of wood fuel; Environmental impact; Nutrient recycling (ash disposal). (author)

  10. Solid recovered fuels in the steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepplinger, Werner L; Tappeiner, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    By using waste materials as alternative fuels in metallurgical plants it is possible to minimize the traditionally used reducing agents, such as coke, coal, oil or natural gas. Moreover, by using waste materials in the metallurgical industry it is feasible to recover these materials as far as possible. This also represents another step towards environmental protection because carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced, if the H(2) content of the waste material is greater in comparison with that of the substituted fuel and the effects of global warming can therefore be reduced. In the present article various solid recovered fuels and their applications in the metallurgical industry are detailed.

  11. Cold shock on the wood fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queyrel, A.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the wood fuel industry represents one of the pillars of the European energy plan, and in particular of the French energy policy, as it fulfills both objectives of development of renewable energy sources and CO 2 balance. The wood fuel industry supplies 6% of the French energy consumption and has permitted to save more than 9 million tons of petroleum equivalent. However, the conclusions of the European project CARBOSOL stress on the strong health impacts of wood-fueled combustion systems, in particular in the case of domestic individual systems and appliances. The combustion of biomass (fireplaces and agriculture) is responsible for 50 to 70% of the winter carbon pollution in Europe. The situation of collective or industrial wood-fueled facilities is different since pollution control solutions can be more easily implemented. (J.S.)

  12. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  13. The industrial nuclear fuel cycle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, J.H.; Kittl, J.E.; Parera, C.A.; Coppa, R.C.; Aguirre, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear power program of Argentina for the period 1976-85 is described, as a basis to indicate fuel requirements and the consequent implementation of a national fuel cycle industry. Fuel cycle activities in Argentina were initiated as soon as 1951-2 in the prospection and mining activities through the country. Following this step, yellow-cake production was initiated in plants of limited capacity. National production of uranium concentrate has met requirements up to the present time, and will continue to do so until the Sierra Pintada Industrial Complex starts operation in 1979. Presently, there is a gap in local production of uranium dioxide and fuel elements for the Atucha power station, which are produced abroad using Argentine uranium concentrate. With its background, the argentine program for the installation of nuclear fuel cycle industries is described, and the techno-economical implications considered. Individual projects are reviewed, as well as the present and planned infrastructure needed to support the industrial effort [es

  14. High temperature blankets for the production of synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Fillo, J.; Makowitz, H.

    1977-01-01

    The application of very high temperature blankets to improved efficiency of electric power generation and production of H 2 and H 2 based synthetic fuels is described. The blanket modules have a low temperature (300 to 400 0 C) structure (SS, V, Al, etc.) which serves as the vacuum/coolant pressure boundary, and a hot (>1000 0 C) thermally insulated interior. Approximately 50 to 70% of the fusion energy is deposited in the hot interior because of deep penetration by high energy neutrons. Separate coolant circuits are used for the two temperature zones: water for the low temperature structure, and steam or He for the hot interior. Electric generation efficiencies of approximately 60% and H 2 production efficiencies of approximately 50 to 70%, depending on design, are projected for fusion reactors using these high temperature blankets

  15. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples

  16. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  17. Application of game theory in decision making strategy: Does gas fuel industry need to kill oil based fuel industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Abdul Luky Shofi'ul; Prabandari, Dyah Lusiana; Hakim, Muhammad Lintang Islami

    2017-03-01

    Even though conversion of oil based fuel (Bahan Bakar Minyak) into gas fuel (Bahan Bakar Gas) for transportation (both land and sea) is one of the priority programs of the government of Indonesia, rules that have been established merely basic rules of gas fuel usage license for transportation, without discussing position of gas fuel related to oil based fuel in detail. This paper focus on possible strategic behavior of the key players in the oil-gas fuel conversion game, who will be impacted by the position of gas fuel as complement or substitution of oil based fuel. These players include industry of oil based fuel, industry of gas fuel, and the government. Modeling is made based on two different conditions: government plays a passive role and government plays an active role in legislating additional rules that may benefit industry of gas fuel. Results obtained under a passive government is that industry of oil based fuel need to accommodate the presence of industry of gas fuel, and industry of gas fuel does not kill/ eliminate the oil based fuel, or gas fuel serves as a complement. While in an active government, the industry of oil based fuel need to increase its negotiation spending in the first phase so that the additional rule that benefitting industry of gas fuel would not be legislated, while industry of gas fuel chooses to indifferent; however, in the last stage, gas fuel turned to be competitive or choose its role to be substitution.

  18. Industrial Maturity of FR Fuel Cycle Processes and Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruezière, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    FR fuel cycle processes and technologies have already been proven industrially for Oxide Fuel, and to a lesser extent for metal fuel. In addition, both used oxide fuel reprocessing and fresh oxide fuel manufacturing benefit from similar industrial experience currently deployed for LWR. Alternative fuel type will have to generate very significant benefit in reactor ( safety, cost, … ) to justify corresponding development and industrialization costs

  19. Carbon Risk and the Fossil Fuel Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Carole

    2015-04-01

    As calls for ambitious climate action intensify, questions arise concerning the resilience of the fossil fuel industry in a world ever more inclined to favour climate protection. This article will attempt to assess the extent of present risks and show how the strength of debate can affect practices and strategy employed by companies in this sector. (author)

  20. Environmental biotechnologies for the fossil fuel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D W; Donald, G M [Hycal Energy Research Labs. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Five recent technologies that have been proven to be viable means to mitigate the environmental impact of the fossil fuel industry were described as evidence of the industry`s concern about environmental pollution. The technologies were: bioventing, bioslurping, biofiltration, phytoremediation and the use of genetically engineered organisms. Special attention was paid to genetic modification strategies with reference to improved degradation rates and the regulations in Canada affecting genetically engineered organisms and their use. Case histories were cited to illustrate application of the various processes. 34 refs.

  1. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Boardman, Richard D.; Aumeier, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  2. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  3. Environmentally based siting assessment for synthetic-liquid-fuels facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the major environmental constraints to siting a synthetic fuels industry and the results of that assessment are used to determine on a regional basis the potential for development of such an industry with minimal environmental conflicts. Secondly, the ability to mitigate some of the constraining impacts through alternative institutional arrangements, especially in areas that are judged to have a low development potential is also assessed. Limitations of the study are delineated, but specifically, the study is limited geographically to well-defined boundaries that include the prime coal and oil shale resource areas. The critical factors used in developing the framework are air quality, water availability, socioeconomic capacity, ecological sensitivity, environmental health, and the management of Federally owned lands. (MCW)

  4. MOX fuel fabrication: Technical and industrial developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebastard, G.; Bairiot, H.

    1990-01-01

    The plutonium available in the near future is generally estimated rather precisely on the basis of the reprocessing contracts and the performance of the reprocessing plants. A few years ago, decision makers were convinced that a significant share of this fissile material would be used as the feed material for fast breeder reactors (FBRs) or other advanced reactors. The facts today are that large reprocessing plants are coming into commercial operations: UP3 and soon UP2-800 and THORP, but that FBR deployment is delayed worldwide. As a consequence, large quantities of plutonium will be recycled in light water reactors as mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. MOX fuel technology has been properly demonstrated in the past 25 years. All specific problems have been addressed, efficient fabrication processes and engineering background have been implemented to a level of maturity which makes MOX fuel behaving as well as Uranium fuel. The paper concentrates on todays MOX fabrication expertise and presents the technical and industrial developments prepared by the MOX fuel fabrication industry for this last decade of the century

  5. Globalising Synthetic Nitrogen: The Interwar Inauguration of a New Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Anthony S

    2017-02-01

    The most spectacular development in industrial chemistry during the early twentieth century concerned the capture of atmospheric nitrogen by the Haber-Bosch high-pressure ammonia process at the German chemical enterprise Badische Anilin- & Soda-Fabrik (BASF), of Ludwigshafen. This firm, confident that its complex process could not be readily imitated, set out to dominate the global nitrogen fertiliser market. The response was the emergence of rival high-pressure ammonia processes in Western Europe, the United States, and Japan during the 1920s. This article is an historical appreciation of the settings in which several countries, often driven by concerns over national security, were encouraged to develop and adopt non-BASF high-pressure nitrogen capture technologies. Moreover, synthetic ammonia was at the forefront of large-scale strategic self-sufficiency and state sponsored programmes in three countries - Italy, Russia, and Japan - at the very same time when the newer technologies became available. As a result, the chemical industries of these nations, under the influences of fascism, communism, and colonial modernisation projects, began moving into the top ranks.

  6. Environmental biotechnologies for the fossil fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. W.; Donald, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Five recent technologies that have been proven to be viable means to mitigate the environmental impact of the fossil fuel industry were described as evidence of the industry's concern about environmental pollution. The technologies were: bioventing, bioslurping, biofiltration, phytoremediation and the use of genetically engineered organisms. Special attention was paid to genetic modification strategies with reference to improved degradation rates and the regulations in Canada affecting genetically engineered organisms and their use. Case histories were cited to illustrate application of the various processes. 34 refs

  7. Industrial experience of irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delange, M.

    1981-01-01

    At the moment and during the next following years, France and La Hague plant particularly, own the greatest amount of industrial experience in the field of reprocessing, since this experience is referred to three types of reactors, either broadly spread all through the world (GCR and LWR) or ready to be greatly developed in the next future (FBR). Then, the description of processes and technologies used now in France, and the examination of the results obtained, on the production or on the security points of view, are a good approach of the actual industrial experience in the field of spent fuel reprocessing. (author)

  8. The fuel cycle industry of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devilliers, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    When the energy crisis arose, experts asserted that uranium was abundant and well distributed and that consumer countries need not fear a lasting crisis in supply. In point of fact, the decisions announced in 1974 to accelerate nuclear programmes have upset the natural uranium market and have deeply modified commercial prospects respecting enrichment and retreatment. The demand for fuel is most sensitive to changes made in reactor construction programmes. As a result of the deadline for setting up production units in certain phases of the fuel cycle, fluctuations will probably again occur during the next 15 years. Taken as a whole, the fuel cycle industry calls for heavy investments, compared with the added value that they generate. It might therefore be feared that hesitancy on the part of the industry could compromise its ability to adapt itself to the needs of utilities producing electricity, and one can understand the vigilance of the latter when their security of supply is involved. The many projects now being carried out in the various phases of the cycle show, however, that this adaptation should continue under satisfactory conditions [fr

  9. Systems studies of dual purpose electric/synthetic fuels fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsworth, E.; Powell, J.

    1975-02-01

    A reactor power plant is proposed that can meet base load electrical demand, while the remainder can generate synthetic fuels and meet intermittent electrical demands. Two principal objectives of this study are: (1) to examine how strongly various economic demand and resource factors affect the amount of installed CTR capacity, and (2) to examine what increase in CTR capacity can be expected with dual purpose electric/synthetic fuel fusion plants, and also the relative importance of the different production modes

  10. Industrial thermoforming simulation of automotive fuel tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesche, Stefan aus der

    2004-01-01

    An industrial thermoforming simulation with regard to automotive plastic fuel tanks is presented including all relevant process stages. The radiative and conductive heat transfer during the reheat stage, the deformation and stress behaviour during the forming stage, and the final cooling stage are simulated. The modelling of the thermal and rheological behaviour of the involved material is investigated in greater detail. By means of experimental data it is found that modelling of the phase transition during the process is highly important for predicting correct wall thickness distributions

  11. Future contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    In a modern futures market, standardized contracts for future delivery of a commodity are traded through an exchange that establishes contract terms and the rules of trading. The futures contract itself is simply an agreement between a buyer and a seller in which the seller is obligated to deliver and the buyer is obligated to accept a predetermined quantity of a specified commodity at a given location on a certain date in the future for a set price. Organized futures markets aid in price discovery; provide a risk management tool for those with commercial interests in a commodity; create speculative opportunities; and contribute to competitiveness, efficiency, and fairness in trading. There are, at present, no standardized futures contracts in the nuclear fuel industry, although the concept has been discovered for years. The idea has been raised again recently in relation to the disposition of Russian uranium. Some adaptation of traditional futures contracts, traded on an exchange composed of nuclear fuel industry participants, could provide many of the benefits found in other commodity futures markets

  12. Evaluation of safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to being used in aviation, alternative fuels have to be tested thoroughly to ensure safe operation. At Delft University of Technology, a test programme was performed to evaluate the safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends. During test preparations, compatibility of the

  13. Synthetic fuel production costs by means of solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of fuel production costs for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, along with comparable costs for first and second generation biodiesel, two types of second generation bioethanol, and biogas. When analysing 100% renewable systems...

  14. Stress tolerance and growth physiology of yeast strains from the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Bianca, B E; Gombert, A K

    2013-12-01

    Improved biofuels production requires a better understanding of industrial microorganisms. Some wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, isolated from the fuel ethanol industry in Brazil, present exceptional fermentation performance, persistence and prevalence in the harsh industrial environment. Nevertheless, their physiology has not yet been systematically investigated. Here we present a first systematic evaluation of the widely used industrial strains PE-2, CAT-1, BG-1 and JP1, in terms of their tolerance towards process-related stressors. We also analyzed their growth physiology under heat stress. These strains were evaluated in parallel to laboratory and baker's strains. Whereas the industrial strains performed in general better than the laboratory strains under ethanol or acetic acid stresses and on industrial media, high sugar stress was tolerated equally by all strains. Heat and low pH stresses clearly distinguished fuel ethanol strains from the others, indicating that these conditions might be the ones that mostly exert selective pressure on cells in the industrial environment. During shake-flask cultivations using a synthetic medium at 37 °C, industrial strains presented higher ethanol yields on glucose than the laboratory strains, indicating that they could have been selected for this trait-a response to energy-demanding fermentation conditions. These results might be useful to guide future improvements of large-scale fuel ethanol production via engineering of stress tolerance traits in other strains, and eventually also for promoting the use of these fuel ethanol strains in different industrial bioprocesses.

  15. Specific gravity and antibacterial assays of some synthetic industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... naturalcounterpart may contain certain antibacterial agents with similar effects to standard Chloramphenicol used in this work. However, further studies are required to justify the safety of the application of SIEO as antimicrobial agents. Keywords: synthetic fragrance, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, human health ...

  16. Alternative fuels in cement industry; Alternativa braenslen i cementindustrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, K.E.; Ek, R. [Finnsementti Oy, Parainen (Finland); Maekelae, K. [Finreci Oy (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the cement industry`s possibilities to replace half of the fossil fuels with waste derived fuels are investigated. Bench-scale experiments, pilot plant tests and full scale tests have been done with used tires and plastics wastes

  17. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned regarding production of synthetic diesel fuel, known as GTL (Gas To Liquid. Most of the future GTL plants are planned in oil exporting countries, such are Qatar and Nigeria, where natural gas as by-product of oil production is being flared, losing in that way precious energy and profit. In that way, otherwise flared natural gas, will be transformed into synthetic diesel fuel which can be directly used in all modern diesel engines. Furthermore, fossil fuel transportation and distribution technology grid can be used without any significant changes. According to lower emissions of harmful gasses during combustion than fossil diesel, this fuel could in the future play a significant part of EU efforts to reach 23% of alternative fuel share till 2020., which are now mostly relied on biodiesel, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas and CNG (compressed natural gas.

  18. GLOBAL PROSPECTS OF SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL PRODUCED FROM HYDROCARBON RESOURCES IN OIL&GAS EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kurevija, Tomislav; Kukulj, Nenad; Rajković, Damir

    2007-01-01

    Production of synthetic diesel fuel through Fischer-Tropsch process is a well known technology which dates from II World War, when Germany was producing transport fuel from coal. This process has been further improved in the South Africa due to period of international isolation. Today, with high crude oil market cost and increased demand of energy from China and India, as well as global ecological awareness and need to improve air quality in urban surroundings, many projects are being planned...

  19. A single step methane conversion into synthetic fuels using microplasma reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Agiral, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Yuzawa, Shuhei; Okazaki, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of natural gas into synthetic fuels such as methanol attracts keen attention because direct process can reduce capital and operating costs of high temperature, energy intensive, multi-step processes. We report a direct and selective synthesis of organic oxygenates such as methanol,

  20. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevyrev Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  1. Removal of lead from the industrial and synthetic Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with argon barbotage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of research on removal of lead from synthetic and industrial Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with argon barbotage are presented. For examinations was taken a synthetic alloy and industrial alloy coming “Glogow II” Copperworks. As basic research equipment was used a pipe resistance furnace enabling heating of samples up to 1 473 K. Examinations were made in 2 test series. The 1 series was performed on the synthetic alloy, while in 2 series was used an industrial alloy. All series were conducted at 1 473 K and with gas fl ow 5,55•10-6, 6,94•10-6, 8,33•10-6, 9,72•10-6 m3•s-1.

  2. Producing synthetic solid fuel from Kansk-Achinsk coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zverev, D.P.; Krichko, A.A.; Smirnova, T.S.; Markina, T.I.

    1981-01-01

    Studies were conducted by the Soviet Institute of Fossil Fuels in order to develop a technology and equipment configuration for thermal processing of coals using gas heat carriers in swirl chambers. Characteristics of the starting Irsha-Borodinskii coal and those of the products of thermal processing at 290-600 C are given. Testing the method showed that the products of high-speed thermal processing (thermocoal, semicoke, drier products) can be used as raw materials in hydrogenation, combustion, gasification, thermal benefication, briquetting and a series of other processes in metallurgy. (10 refs.) (In Russian)

  3. The corrosion of spent UO2-fuel in synthetic groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, R.S.; Svanberg, K.; Werme, L.

    1983-01-01

    Segments of fuel and clad have been leached in deionized water and in groundwater. The leachants were centrifuged through membrane filters. Both centrifugate and the filters were analysed for U, Sr-90, α- and γ-emitters. The results are discussed in terms of preferential leaching, solubility limitations and adsorption effects. For U an apparent saturation at about 800 ppb was observed. Pu also appeared to attain saturation at a few ppb. For Sr the leach rate was 3x10 -7 /d after ca 400 days. Attempts to impose reducing conditions showed decreased leach rates. (Authors)

  4. Future developments and technological and economic assessment of methods for producing synthetic liquid fuel from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlikhter, E B; Khor' kov, A V; Zhorov, Yu M

    1980-11-01

    Promising methods for obtaining synthetic liquid fuel from coal are surveyed and described: thermal dissolution of coal by means of a hydrogen donor solution: hydrogenation; gasification with subsequent synthesis and pyrolysis. A technological and economic assessment of the above processes is given. Emphasis is placed on methods employing catalytic conversion of methanol into hydrocarbon fuels. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations of the process for obtaining high-calorific liquid fuel from methanol the possibility of obtaining diesel fractions as well as gasoline is demonstrated. (12 refs.) (In Russian)

  5. Energy System Analysis of Solid Oxide Electrolysis cells for Synthetic Fuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    When restricting energy production to renewable energy sources, biomass, sun and wind energy are the pillars of 100% renewable energy system after implementing energy savings. Biomass resources are limited and the sustainable use of them needs to be prioritized. Future energy systems will require...... that require high energy density fuels or reused for power generation. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of fuel production cost for two types of synthetic fuels – methanol and methane, and comparable costs of biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas....

  6. The corrosion of spent UO2 fuel in synthetic groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, R.S.; Werme, L.D.; Bruno, J.

    1985-10-01

    Leaching of high burnup BWR fuel for up to 3 years showed that both U and Pu attain saturation rapidly at pH 8.1, giving values of 1-2 mg/l and 1 μg/l respectively. The leaching rate for Sr-90 decreased from about 10 -5 /d to 10 -7 /d but was always higher than the rates for U, Pu, Cm, Ce, Eu and Ru. Congruent dissolution was only attained at pH values of about 4. When reducing conditions were imposed on the pH 8.1 groundwater by means of H 2 /Ar in the presence of a Pd catalyst, significanly lower leach rates were attained. The hypothesis that alpha radiolytic decomposition of water is a driving force for UO 2 corrosion even under reducing conditions has been examined in leaching tests on low burnup (low alpha dose-rate) fuel. No significant effect of alpha radiolysis under the experimental conditions was detected. Thermodynamically the calculated uranium solubilities in the pH range 4-8.2 generally agreed, well with the measured ones, although assumptions made for certain parameters in the calculations limit the validity of the results. (Author)

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production in pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiufu; Chen, Ming; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2012-01-01

    A promising way to store wind and solar electricity is by electrolysis of H2O and CO2 using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels that can be used in existing fuel infrastructure. Pressurized operation decreases the cell internal resistance and enables...... improved system efficiency, potentially lowering the fuel production cost significantly. In this paper, we present a thermodynamic analysis of synthetic methane and dimethyl ether (DME) production using pressurized SOECs, in order to determine feasible operating conditions for producing the desired......, and outlet gas composition. For methane production, low temperature and high pressure operation could improve the system efficiency, but might lead to a higher capital cost. For DME production, high pressure SOEC operation necessitates higher operating temperature in order to avoid carbon formation at higher...

  8. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J. [Hatch Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  9. Synthetic fuel production via carbon neutral cycles with high temperature nuclear reactors as a power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarek, E.; Coulas, B.; Sarvinis, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes a number of carbon neutral cycles, which could be used to produce synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. Synthetic hydrocarbons are produced via the synthesis of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen. The . cycles considered will either utilize Gasification processes, or carbon capture as a source of feed material. In addition the cycles will be coupled to a small modular Nuclear Reactor (SMR) as a power and heat source. The goal of this analysis is to reduce or eliminate the need to transport diesel and other fossil fuels to remote regions and to provide a carbon neutral, locally produced hydrocarbon fuel for remote communities. The technical advantages as well as the economic case are discussed for each of the cycles presented. (author)

  10. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  11. Towards a methanol economy: Zeolite catalyzed production of synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    The main focus of this thesis is zeolite catalyzed conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. Furthermore, conversion of ethane to higher hydrocarbons has also been studied. After a brief introduction to the concept of “the methanol economy” in the first chapter, the second...... a commercial H-ZSM-5 zeolite impregnated with gallium and/or molybdenum is described. The object was to investigate if the presence of methanol in the feed could enhance the conversion of ethane, but in all cases the opposite is observed; the presence of methanol actually suppresses the conversion of ethane...... various zeolite catalysts is studied in Chapter 4. When 2-propanol or 1-butanol is converted over H-ZSM-5, the total conversion capacities of the catalyst are more than 25 times higher than for conversion of methanol and ethanol. Furthermore, for conversion of C3+ alcohols, the selectivity shifts during...

  12. Future combustion technology for synthetic and renewable fuels in compression ignition engines (REFUEL). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakko-Saksa, P.; Brink, A.; Happonen, M. [and others

    2012-07-01

    This domestic project, Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Compression Ignition Engines (ReFuel), was part of a Collaborative Task 'Future Combustion Technology for Synthetic and Renewable Fuels in Transport' of International Energy Agency (IEA) Combustion Agreement. This international Collaborative Task is coordinated by Finland. The three-year (2009-2011) prooject was a joint research project with Aalto University (Aalto), Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and Aabo Akademi University (AAU). The project was funded by TEKES, Waertsilae Oyj, Agro Sisu Power, Aker Arctic Technology Oy and the research partners listed above. Modern renewable diesel fuels have excellent physical and chemical properties, in comparison to traditional crude oil based fuels. Purely paraffinic fuels do not contain aromatic compounds and they are totally sulphur free. Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) was studied as an example of paraffinic high cetane number (CN) diesel fuels. HVO has no storage and low temperature problems like the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) have. The combustion properties are better than those of crude oil based fuels and FAME, because they have very high cetane numbers and contain no polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). With low HVO density, viscosity and distillation temperatures, these advantageous properties allow far more advanced combustion strategies, such as very high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates or extreme Miller timings, than has been possible with current fossil fuels. The implementation of these advanced combustion technologies, together with the novel renewable diesel fuel, brought significant nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), particulate matter (PM) emission reductions with no efficiency losses. (orig.)

  13. Industrial integration of the fuel cycle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, J.H.; Kittl, J.E.; Parera, C.A.; Coppa, R.C.; Aguirre, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    The power-reactor construction program in Argentina for the period 1976-1985 is described on the basis of which the nuclear-fuel requirements have been determined. Activities connected with the fuel cycle commenced in 1950 in Argentina with the prospection and working of uranium deposits. On the basis of the nuclear power program described, plans have been drawn up for the establishment of the industrial plants that will be needed to ensure the domestic supply of fuel. The demand for fuel is correlated with the availability of uranium resoures and it is shown to be desirable from the technical, economic and industrial point of view to integrate the front end of the fuel cycle, keeping the irradiation aspects and the tail end at the development level. Progress made in this field and current programs covering exploration, concentrate production, nuclear purification, conversion to uranium dioxide, production of special alloys and fuel element fabrication are described

  14. Industrial integration of the fuel cycle in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, J.H.; Kittl, J.E.; Parera, C.A.; Coppa, R.C.; Aguirre, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the power reactor construction programme in Argentina for the period 1976-1985, on the basis of which the nuclear fuel requirements have been determined. Activities connected with the fuel cycle commenced in 1950 in Argentina with the prospection and working of uranium deposits. On the basis of the nuclear power programme described, plans have been drawn up for the establishment of the industrial plants that will be needed to ensure the domestic supply of fuel. The demand for fuel is correlated with the availability of uranium resources and it is shown to be desirable from the technical, economic and industrial point of view to integrate the front end of the fuel cycle, keeping the irradiation aspects and the tail end at the development level. The authors report the progress that has been made in this field and describe current programmes covering prospection, concentrate production, nuclear purification, conversion to uranium dioxide, production of special alloys and fuel element fabrication. (author)

  15. Risk and investment in the fuel cell industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, I.; Sadorsky, P.

    2004-01-01

    The energy industry is one of the building blocks of the new economy. Currently, the global energy industry is going through a transformation from high carbon content fuels like crude oil to less carbon content fuels like natural gas and hydrogen. Fuel cells are the backbone of the hydrogen economy. Advances in fuel cell technology have the potential to improve the living standards of people in all countries. New sources of financial capital, however, remain a problem. In the fuel cell industry, the future of a firm often depends upon the success or failure of a few key products. This tends to make these firms very risky to invest in and, as a result, makes it difficult for these firms to secure financial investment capital. Oil price movements remain one very important source of risk to fuel cell companies. Conventional wisdom suggests that higher oil prices stimulate interest in alternative energy sources like fuel cells and the stock prices of publicly traded fuel cell companies tend to perform well when oil prices are high. Lower oil prices, however, have the opposite effect. Consequently, oil price movements may affect the rates of return of the companies currently in the fuel cell industry. In this paper, we empirically analyze the stock price sensitivity of a sample of fuel cell companies to oil price risk. In particular, we look at both the impact and magnitude of oil price changes on fuel cell stock prices. Both symmetric and asymmetric oil price changes are considered. Our results indicate that oil price risk is not an important source of risk that impacts the equity returns of fuel cell companies. We find that market risk factors are much more important. We then offer suggestions on how to manage this risk. These results are useful for managers, investors, policy makers, and others who are interested in the strategic management, financing and risk management of firms building the hydrogen economy. (author)

  16. New generation of monitors for PAH's from synthetic fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, R B; Vo-Dinh, T; Hawthorne, A R; Thorngate, J H; Parkinson, W W

    1977-01-01

    A gap exists between the crude techniques available for measuring polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds in the workplace, and the sophisticated analytical tools used in the laboratory for a much more complete characterization of pollutants from synfuel operations such as coal, tar sand, and oil shale processing. Real-time or near-real instruments suitable for use by industrial hygienists are urgently needed to measure fugitive emissions. Several new instruments and instrumental techniques are described that could satisfy some of these needs. They include second derivative UV-absorption, synchronous luminescence, room-temperature phosphorescence, photoacoustic spectrometers, a portable mass spectrometer, differential sublimation, and thermoluminescence. Already, studies to evaluate the practicality of these approaches have indicated a suitability for monitoring naphthalene and its alkyl derivatives at parts-per-billion (ppB) concentrations either in the vapor or the solution phase, trace amounts of phenolic compounds, and thiocyanate in by-product water, and suitability for the rapid analysis of samples filtered or spotted on paper adsorbents.

  17. Nuclear fuel supply industry in the European Community belgatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Deals with the industrial activities involved in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle in European Economic Community countries and essentially with operations pertaining to commercial light water reactors (LWR's). Various aspects of needs, investments, plant capacities, costs and prices, markets, financing methods, industrial structures, and employment are considered in detail

  18. Environment, automotive fuels and petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabarelli, Davide

    1997-01-01

    After several years of delays, the italian environmental regulation concerning the oil industry has taken a leading role in Europe, especially starting from 1995, for benzene limits in gasoline. This article tries to estimate what are the anticipates costs for the italian industry due to a stricter legislation on gasoline compared to the rest of Europe

  19. Hydrogen and synthetic fuel production using pressurized solid oxide electrolysis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Sun, Xiufu; Ebbesen, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Wind and solar power is troubled by large fluctuations in delivery due to changing weather. The surplus electricity can be used in a Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cell (SOEC) to split CO2 + H2O into CO + H2 (+O2). The synthesis gas (CO + H2) can subsequently be catalyzed into various types of synthetic...... fuels using a suitable catalyst. As the catalyst operates at elevated pressure the fuel production system can be simplified by operating the SOEC at elevated pressure. Here we present the results of a cell test with pressures ranging from 0.4 bar to 10 bar. The cell was tested both as an SOEC...

  20. Meeting the special requirements of the fuel cycle industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, N.C.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle industry is generally thriving, despite the slow-down in nuclear power plant construction. Turnover is expected to grow from the present Pound4.7 billion to Pound12 billion in 1985 and nearly Pound16 billion in 1988. The emerging fuel cycle companies have large demands for investment and working capital but are not yet financially strong. Utilities also are finding the funding of fuel onerous. Special nuclear fuel finance companies have been formed to help both satisfy their financing needs. A particular problem is the security of loans and much creative thinking is being applied to the use of contracts as collaterals. (U.K.)

  1. Synthetic fuels and the environment: an environmental and regulatory impacts analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Since July 1979 when DOE/EV-0044 report Environmental Analysis of Synthetic Liquid fuels was published the synthetic fuels program proposals of the Administration have undergone significant modifications. The program year for which the development goal of 1.5 million barrels per day is to be reached has been changed from 1990 to 1995. The program plan is now proposed to have two stages to ensure, among other things, better environmental protection: an initial stage emphasizing applied research and development (R and D), including environmental research, followed by a second stage that would accelerate deployment of those synthetic fuel technologies then judged most ready for rapid deployment and economic operation within the environmental protection requirements. These program changes have significantly expanded the scope of technologies to be considered in this environmental analysis and have increased the likelihood that accelerated environmental R and D efforts will be successful in solving principal environmental and worker safety concerns for most technologies prior to the initiation of the second stage of the accelerated deployment plan. Information is presented under the following section headings: summary; study description; the technologies and their environmental concerns (including, coal liquefaction and gasification, oil shale production, biomass and urban waste conversion); regulatory and institutional analyses; and environmental impacts analysis (including air and water quaility analyses, impacts of carbon dioxide and acid rain, water availability, solid and hazardous wastes, coal mining environmental impacts, transportation issues, community growth and change, and regional impacts). Additional information is presented in seventeen appendixes. (JGB)

  2. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  3. Use of petroleum code as fuel in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Cement industry is a very energy intensive industry. Each ton of cement produced requires 60 to 130 kilograms of fuel oil or an equivalent fuelling amount also requires an average 110 kWh of electricity as well over 40% of total production cost is the energy requirements in the cement industry (i.2). Normally oil, gas or coal is fired in cement kilns as traditional fuels. However use of waste, both as alternative fuels and raw materials is now common practice in many cement companies. Many different types of wastes are burnt today in cement kilns like used tyres, rubber, paper waste, waste oils, waste wood, paper sludge, sewage, animal meal and animal remains (i,4). The choice of fuel for the purpose is normally based on price and availability considering different properties of the fuel as energy contents, ash contents, moisture and volatiles contents. Petcoke is not yet produced in any petroleum refinery in Pakistan but it is abundantly available in the market worldwide as it is obtained as a waste product during the refining processes. The purpose of the current research is to figure out the suitability of petroleum coke as a fuel for cement industry both on technical and economic basis. (author)

  4. The technical and industrial evolutions in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.P.; Guais, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The fuel cycle industry is a vital part of nuclear energy generation. Producers in every step of this industry, from uranium to reprocessing are working to adapt their products and services both to the more and more competitive conditions of the market and to the utilities evoluting specific needs. For the next decade, the main trend is uranium economy and reduction of industrial costs. For the longer term, the difficult prevision of nuclear energy developments, in particular with new types of reactors necessitates a true capacity of adaptation both from the utilities and from the fuel cycle industry. Cogema has already demonstrated the ability to adapt its industrial capabilities and therefore can prepare confidently for the future challenges [fr

  5. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for biofuels production: from bugs to synthetic biology to fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuk Lee, Sung; Chou, Howard; Ham, Timothy S.; Soon Lee, Taek; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-12-02

    The ability to generate microorganisms that can produce biofuels similar to petroleum-based transportation fuels would allow the use of existing engines and infrastructure and would save an enormous amount of capital required for replacing the current infrastructure to accommodate biofuels that have properties significantly different from petroleum-based fuels. Several groups have demonstrated the feasibility of manipulating microbes to produce molecules similar to petroleum-derived products, albeit at relatively low productivity (e.g. maximum butanol production is around 20 g/L). For cost-effective production of biofuels, the fuel-producing hosts and pathways must be engineered and optimized. Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology will provide new tools for metabolic engineers to better understand how to rewire the cell in order to create the desired phenotypes for the production of economically viable biofuels.

  6. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleille, S.

    2004-01-01

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  7. Results of industrial tests of carbonate additive to fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, E. R.; Dmitriev, A. V.; Shageev, M. F.; Akhmetvalieva, G. R.

    2017-08-01

    Fuel oil plays an important role in the energy balance of our country. The quality of fuel oil significantly affects the conditions of its transport, storage, and combustion; release of contaminants to atmosphere; and the operation of main and auxiliary facilities of HPPs. According to the Energy Strategy of Russia for the Period until 2030, the oil-refining ratio gradually increases; as a result, the fraction of straight-run fuel oil in heavy fuel oils consistently decreases, which leads to the worsening of performance characteristics of fuel oil. Consequently, the problem of the increase in the quality of residual fuel oil is quite topical. In this paper, it is suggested to treat fuel oil by additives during its combustion, which would provide the improvement of ecological and economic indicators of oil-fired HPPs. Advantages of this method include simplicity of implementation, low energy and capital expenses, and the possibility to use production waste as additives. In the paper, the results are presented of industrial tests of the combustion of fuel oil with the additive of dewatered carbonate sludge, which is formed during coagulation and lime treatment of environmental waters on HPPs. The design of a volume delivery device is developed for the steady additive input to the boiler air duct. The values are given for the main parameters of the condition of a TGM-84B boiler plant. The mechanism of action of dewatered carbonate sludge on sulfur oxides, which are formed during fuel oil combustion, is considered. Results of industrial tests indicate the decrease in the mass fraction of discharged sulfur oxides by 36.5%. Evaluation of the prevented damage from sulfur oxide discharged into atmospheric air shows that the combustion of the fuel oil of 100 brand using carbonate sludge as an additive (0.1 wt %) saves nearly 6 million rubles a year during environmental actions at the consumption of fuel oil of 138240 t/year.

  8. The prospects of synthetic biology for the production of fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaechter, V.

    2013-01-01

    When applied to engineering the metabolism of microorganisms, synthetic biology produces a broad spectrum of biomolecules from carbohydrates and, in the near future, from the biomass in general. The markets for biofuels and for chemicals are thus hooked up through a common technological core. Synthetic biology also opens new possibilities for switching from different types of biomass to different products, thus allowing for more flexibility in development strategies and eventually in industrial operations. This opening is welcomed even though the economic and societal environments hardly favors biofuels. A few more years of research and development are needed to bring these new possibilities to industrial maturity. Advanced biofuels will pass the threshold at which they become profitable and will no longer need subsidies. (author)

  9. Enhanced fuel efficiency on tractor-trailers using synthetic jet-based active flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitay, Michael; Menicovich, David; Gallardo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The application of piezo-electrically-driven synthetic-jet-based active flow control to reduce drag on tractor-trailers was explored experimentally in wind tunnel testing as well as full-scale road tests. Aerodynamic drag accounts for more than 50% of the usable energy at highway speeds, a problem that applies primarily to trailer trucks. Therefore, a reduction in aerodynamic drag results in large saving of fuel and reduction in CO2 emissions. The active flow control technique that is being used relies on a modular system comprised of distributed, small, highly efficient actuators. These actuators, called synthetic jets, are jets that are synthesized at the edge of an orifice by a periodic motion of a piezoelectric diaphragm(s) mounted on one (or more) walls of a sealed cavity. The synthetic jet is zero net mass flux (ZNMF), but it allows momentum transfer to flow. It is typically driven near diaphragm and/or cavity resonance, and therefore, small electric input [O(10W)] is required. Another advantage of this actuator is that no plumbing is required. The system doesn't require changes to the body of the truck, can be easily reconfigured to various types of vehicles, and consumes small amounts of electrical power from the existing electrical system of the truck. Preliminary wind tunnel results showed up to 18% reduction in fuel consumption, whereas road tests also showed very promising results.

  10. The future for fuel cells in the automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' This paper presents the view that the automotive industry, seen as a vital potential market for hydrogen fuel cell applications, is one that will be characterised in the future by an unprecedented combination of technological and economic diversity. This highly volatile and uncertain future has profound implications for those involved in government policy related to energy use and transportation, as well as those involved in the fuel cell industry. Most significantly, it is argued that the industry that applies hydrogen fuel cells twenty to thirty years from now will have a quite different structure and economic logic to that which currently prevails. Suppliers of hydrogen fuel cell solutions and systems need to have considerable flexibility in their business models. The themes of diversity and co-existence are developed from extensive research into the contemporary automotive industry, as well as an active involvement in the government policy arena at national, EU and international levels. The continued search for sustainability will not just entail the insertion of technology into otherwise familiar products by otherwise familiar manufacturing processes. It will enable and require the transformation of industry. This paper seeks to outline some of the ways in which the changes could unfold. (author)

  11. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...... chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes....... an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine...

  13. Sales promotion and utilization of fuel. Engineering service of the heat industry for industrial companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, E. (Ruhrgas A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.). Abt. E-F)

    1978-01-01

    The contribution illustrates, from the industrial viewpoint, how one may produce process heat rationally and make optimum use of it using natural gas and how competing fuels can be supplanted. The heat economy engineering activities of a modern gas supply undertaking and a few practical examples to improve the industrial produce structure are shown.

  14. Canadian fuel cell commercialization roadmap update : progress of Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbee, S.; Karlsson, T.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells are considered an essential part of future low-carbon energy systems for transportation and stationary power. In recognition of this, Industry Canada has worked in partnership with public and private stakeholders to provide an update to the 2003 Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap to determine infrastructure requirements for near-term markets. The update includes technology and market developments in terms of cost and performance. This presentation included an overview of global hydrogen and fuel cell markets as background and context for the activities of the Canadian industry. Approaches toward commercial viability and mass market success were also discussed along with possible scenarios and processes by which these mass markets could develop. Hydrogen and fuel cell industry priorities were outlined along with recommendations for building a hydrogen infrastructure

  15. Nuclear fuel industry in USSR, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasaka, Makoto; Kinoshita, Michio.

    1987-01-01

    The data on the atomic energy industries in East European countries have been published variously so far, but their summaries are very few. In order to know about the atomic energy industries in the world, it is necessary to know about those in East European countries, particularly in USSR. The exploration of uranium ore in USSR was begun in 1940s, and the various types of uranium ore have been found. Simultaneously with the extraction of uranium, molybdenum, iron and rare earth can be extracted, and also phosphatic fertilizer can be produced, therefore, even the uranium deposits of low grade are profitable. The accurate quantity of uranium reserves in USSR is unknown, but the confirmed resources seem to be 100,000 - 160,000 tons. The yearly production of uranium in USSR was about 4,500 tons in mid 1970s, and the cumulative production since 1908 was about 135,000 tons. The main uranium production facilities in USSR are in six districts, but there are many other places of medium and small production. For the exploration, the gamma ray measuring instruments carried by walkers, automobiles and aircrafts are used as a rule. As the mining methods, pit mining, open air mining and leaching in the site are carried out. In the uranium deposits in USSR, several hundreds km of mining is carried out on the yearly average. (Kako, I.)

  16. Utility industry evaluation of the metal fuel facility and metal fuel performance for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.; Gibbons, J.P.; High, M.D.; O'Boyle, D.R.; Pickens, T.A.; Pilmer, D.F.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.

    1990-02-01

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the liquid metal reactor metal fuel process and facility conceptual design being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under Department of Energy sponsorship. The utility team concluded that a highly competent ANL team was making impressive progress in developing high performance advanced metal fuel and an economic processing and fabrication technology. The utility team concluded that the potential benefits of advanced metal fuel justified the development program, but that, at this early stage, there are considerable uncertainties in predicting the net overall economic benefit of metal fuel. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution towards enhancing the development program. 6 refs

  17. An examination of the variables influencing the fuel retail industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sartorius

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The objective of the study is to contribute to a better understanding of the key variables that influence the profitability of this sector, as well as to develop a reliable model to predict retail fuel sales volumes in an urban setting. Problem investigated: South African fuel retail outlets are confronted by a wide range of variables that constrain profit and a significant number of outlets are not profitable. In the event of further deregulation, it is conceivable that many fuel stations will go out of business. Methodology: A combination of a quantitative and a case study methodology, in conjunction with a literature review, was used to test the principal research questions. Findings/implications: The results suggest that location significantly influences urban retail fuel sales volumes whilst fuel station size and the fuel price play a lesser role. Other significant factors, however, also influence fuel station profitability. The demand for petrol appears to be relatively inelastic in the short term and more elastic over the long term. Conversely, the demand for diesel appears to be completely inelastic. Value: The article promotes a better understanding of the cost dynamics of the fuel industry. In this regard, the model constructed to predict urban fuel station turnover indicated high levels of reliability. Furthermore, few comparable studies have been published in accounting journals. Conclusion: The study concludes that urban petrol stations selling more than 370 000 liters of fuel per month are likely to be profitable and that location is a key variable influencing sales. In the event of deregulation, many operators are likely to be eliminated because of high levels of competition and low profit margins. An even greater number of fuel stations, therefore, will be reliant on non forecourt activities to survive.

  18. Status of Chinese NPP Industry and Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, R. X. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, W. I.; Kim, S. K. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    China still extended their experiences to both domestic and overseas so far. Chinese State Council approved its 'Medium and Long-term Nuclear Power Development Plan' in November 2007, indicating further definition for nuclear energy as indispensable energy option and future self-reliance development of nuclear industry. China intends to become self-sufficient not only in NPPs capacity, but also in the fuel production for all those plants. There are currently 17 NPPs in operation, and 28 NPPs under construction. However, domestic uranium mining supplying is currently less than a quarter of nuclear fuel demands. This paper investigated and summarized the updated status of NPP industry in China and Nuclear Fuel Cycle(NFC) policy. There still remain a number of technical innovation and comprehensive challenges for this nuclear developing country in the long-term, but its large ambitions and dramatic improvements toward future should not be ignored. As shown in this paper, the most suitable approach for China to achieve both environmentally-friendly power supplying and increasing energy demands meeting simultaneously must be considered. Nuclear energy now was recognized as the most potential and optimal way of energy supply system. In addition, to accommodate such a high-speed NPP construction in China, it should also focus on when and how spent nuclear fuel should be reprocessed. Finally, the nuclear back-end fuel cycle policy should be established, taking into accounts of all costs, uranium resource security, spent fuel management, proliferation resistance and environmental impact.

  19. Synthetic Biology and Microbial Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Sustaining Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    NASA ARC and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) collaborated to investigate the development of advanced microbial fuels cells (MFCs) for biological wastewater treatment and electricity production (electrogenesis). Synthetic biology techniques and integrated hardware advances were investigated to increase system efficiency and robustness, with the intent of increasing power self-sufficiency and potential product formation from carbon dioxide. MFCs possess numerous advantages for space missions, including rapid processing, reduced biomass and effective removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus. Project efforts include developing space-based MFC concepts, integration analyses, increasing energy efficiency, and investigating novel bioelectrochemical system applications

  20. SOEC pathways for the production of synthetic fuels: The transport case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridjan, I.; Vad Mathiesen, B.; Connolly, D. [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-08-15

    The focus of this report is analysis of Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cells (SOECs) in the future energy systems. The technical and socio-economic effects of various SOEC application scenarios on the future renewable energy systems are analysed, feasible or ideal locations are identified and recommended, and the competitive strengths and possible weaknesses of the SOEC technology in comparison with other competing technologies are evaluated. This resulted in a detailed overview of technologies involved in the production cycle of synthetic fuels, description of the proposed pathways and the architecture of the system. (Author)

  1. Some technical subjects on production of hydrocarbon fuel from synthetic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takashi

    1987-06-20

    Since fuel oil meeting the requirements of current petroleum products can be produced by SASOL F-T synthetic process, the manufacturing process of hydrocarbon fuel oil from the coal-derived synthesis gas, downstream processes are being successively investigated. Mobile M-gasoline, MTG, process which produces gasoline from the natural gas-derived synthesis gas through methanol went into commercial operation in New Zealand in 1986. Although the gasoline suffices the quality of commercial gasoline by both fixed bed and fluidized bed systems, the price and service life of catalyst and control of by-product durene must be improved. Any STG processes have not been completed yet and the yield and quality of gasoline are inferior to those of gasoline produced by the MTG process. Applying two-stage process, the STG process will be more economically effective.(21 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs)

  2. Evaluation of concepts for controlling exhaust emissions from minimally processed petroleum and synthetic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. L.; Beal, G. W.; Sederquist, R. A.; Shultz, D.

    1981-01-01

    Rich-lean combustor concepts designed to enhance rich combustion chemistry and increase combustor flexibility for NO(x) reduction with minimally processed fuels are examined. Processes such as rich product recirculation in the rich chamber, rich-lean annihilation, and graduated air addition or staged rich combustion to release bound nitrogen in steps of reduced equivalence ratio are discussed. Variations to the baseline rapid quench section are considered, and the effect of residence time in the rich zone is investigated. The feasibility of using uncooled non-metallic materials for the rich zone combustion construction is also addressed. The preliminary results indicate that rich primary zone staged combustion provides environmentally acceptable operation with residual and/or synthetic coal-derived liquid fuels

  3. Environmental assessment of wood industrial and collective (with heat network) heating. Synthetic report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This report proposes a synthesis of the results of an environmental assessment of wood industrial and collective heating. This study is based on a life cycle analysis which quantifies the impacts on the environment of all the related activities: fuel extraction, retailing, final use, and so on. Environmental impacts are assessed by means of different indicators: energetic assessment, greenhouse effect assessment, air pollution (acidification), water pollution (eutrophication), toxic material emissions in air and into the soils. Wood is compared to other heating sources (gas, fuel, electricity). Ways to improve this environmental assessment are discussed with respect to wood supply, boiler auxiliary equipment, boiler and combustion

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle bringing about opportunity for industrial structure conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Taiki

    1991-01-01

    Three facilities of nuclear fuel cycle, that is, uranium enrichment, fuel reprocessing and low level radioactive waste storage and burying, are being constructed by electric power industry in Rokkasho Village, Kamikita County, Aomori Prefecture. These are the large scale project of the total investment of 1.2 trillion yen. It is expected that the promotion of this project exerts not a little effect to the social economy of the surrounding districts. Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, carried out the social environment survey on the location of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In this report, the outline of the economical pervasive effect due to the construction and operation of the three facilities in the report of this survey is described. The method of survey and the organization, the outline of three nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the economical pervasive effect, the effect to the local social structure, and the direction of arranging occupation, residence and leisure accompanying the location of three nuclear fuel cycle facilities are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Performance and endurance of a PEMFC operated with synthetic reformate fuel feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sishtla, C; Koncar, G; Platon, R [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gamburzev, S; Appleby, A J [Texas Engineering Experimental Station, Texas A and M Univ. System, College Station, TX (United States). Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research; Velev, O A [AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, CA (United States)

    1998-03-15

    Widespread implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) powerplants for stationary and vehicular applications will be dependent in the near future on using readily available hydrocarbon fuels as the source of the hydrogen fuel. Methane and propane are ideal fuels for stationary applications, while methanol, gasoline, and diesel fuel are better suited for vehicular applications. Various means of fuel processing are possible to produce a gaseous fuel containing H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CO. CO is a known electrocatalyst poison and must be reduced to low (10`s) ppm levels and CO{sub 2} is said to cause additional polarization effects. Even with no CO in the feed gas a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gas mixture will form some CO. Therefore, as a first step of developing a PEMFC that can operate for thousands of hours using a reformed fuel, we used an anode gas feed of 80% H{sub 2} and 20% CO{sub 2} to simulate the reforming of CH{sub 4}. To investigate the effect of reformate on cell performance and endurance, a single cell with an active area of 58 cm{sup 2} was assembled with a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) furnished by Texas A and M University using IGT`s internally manifolded heat exchange (IMHEX{sup TM}) design configuration. The MEA consisted of a Nafion 112 membrane with anode and cathode Pt catalyst loadings of 0.26 and 1.46 mg/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The cell was set to operate on a synthetic reformate - air at 60 C and 1 atm and demonstrated over 5000 h of endurance with a decay rate of less than 1%/1000 h of operation. The cell also underwent four successful thermal cycles with no appreciable loss in performance. The stable performance is attributed to a combination of the IGT IMHEX plate design with its inherent uniform gas flow distribution across the entire active area and MEA quality. The effects of temperature, gas composition, fuel utilization (stoics) and thermal cycle on cell performance are described. (orig.)

  6. A view from the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Hartley, G.

    1982-01-01

    Radiological protection in UK nuclear industry is discussed, with special reference to British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. The following aspects are covered: historical introduction, relevant legislation and general principles; radioactive decay processes (fission, fission products, radio-isotopes, ionising radiations, neutrons); risk assessment (historical, biological radiation effects; ICRP recommendations, dose limits); cost effectiveness of protection; plant design principles; examples of containment (shielding, ventilation and contamination control required for various types of radioactive materials, e.g. fission products, plutonium, depleted uranium; fuel rod storage ponds and decanning caves; fission products at dissolution stage; glovebox handling of Pu operations; critical assembly of fissile materials; surface contamination control; monitoring radiation levels). (U.K.)

  7. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG and power-to-liquids (PtL facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L, respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L, respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost.

  8. Fuel cycle optimization. French industry experience with recycling, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    Treatment and recycling has been implemented in France from the very beginning of nuclear energy deployment. With the oil shocks in 1973 and 1979, very large scale industrial deployment of LWRs has then been conducted, with now 58 PWRs producing 80% of the total electricity. Modern large scale treatment and recycling facilities have been constructed in the same period: La Hauge treatment facilities and MELOX recycling plant. Important industrial feedback results from operation and optimization of fuel cycle backend facilities, which is summarized in the paper. Then are discussed perspectives with recycling. (author)

  9. Costs of fuel cycle industrial facilities: an international review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents, comments, and compares economic and financial data for industrial facilities concerning different aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. It first comments the present situation and the short term trends for the natural uranium market, the conversion market, the enrichment market, the reprocessing market, the storage market. It gives an assessment of the elementary costs of the existing facilities for the different stages and processes: reprocessing, spent fuel warehousing (example of the CLAB in Sweden and comparison with other available data), warehousing of all types of wastes (examples of Habog in Netherlands, Zwilag in Switzerland), spent fuel storage (example of Yucca Mountain in the USA, Onkalo in Finland, projects and studies in Sweden), storage of vitrified wastes in Belgium, storing of transuranic wastes in the USA, storage of low and intermediate level and short life wastes in Sweden

  10. Building the hydrogen/fuel cell industry: an EDC perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, A.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Canada has world-leading expertise in a number of hydrogen and fuel cell research segments. However, there are no guarantees that a strong research position necessarily translates into a large industry sector. The challenge facing Canada is to remain a leader in the coming years and decades as this hub of research activity evolves into an actual business sector. Many other countries are actively investing in hydrogen and fuel cell research. If these countries and their national governments are more committed than Canada to this commercial pursuit, then we will be left behind. Mr. Stothart's presentation will highlight a number of observations and recommendations regarding what is needed to build a successful hydrogen and fuel cell sector in Canada. (author)

  11. Fuel demand and fuel efficiency in the US commercial-airline industry and the trucking industry: an analysis of trends and implications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-31

    A study of trends in fuel use and efficiency in the US commercial airlines industry is extended back to 1967 in order to compare the relative contributions of the factors influencing efficiency during a period of stable fuel prices (1967 to 1972) versus a period of fuel price growth (1973 to 1980). A similar analysis disaggregates the components of truck efficiency and evaluates their relative impact on fuel consumption in the trucking industry. (LEW)

  12. The roles of industry for internationalization of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Oda, Takuji; Tanaka, Satoru; Kuno, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    To meet increasing energy demand and counter climate change, nuclear energy is expected to expand during the next decades in both developed and developing countries. The Fukushima accident in Japan in March 2011 may dampen the expansion, but it would proceed and continue when the Fukushima lessons are learned. This expansion, most visibly in Asian would be accompanied with complex and intractable challenges to global stability and nuclear security, notably, on 'how to reduce security and proliferation concerns if nuclear power is introduce and when used fuel is generated in less stable regions of the world?' The answers to the question may lie in the possibility of multilateral control of nuclear materials and technologies in the nuclear fuel cycle, including the provision of a 'cradle-to-grave' fuel cycle service, presumably by the nuclear industries and their respective governments. This paper evaluates the importance of such industry-government cooperative initiative and explores into the roles which the nuclear industry should play to ensure that the world would not be 'creating proliferation when expanding the application of nuclear power to emerging nuclear countries'. (author)

  13. Synthetic fuels development in Kentucky: Four scenarios for an energy future as constructed from lessons of the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musulin, Mike, II

    The continued failure of synthetic fuels development in the United States to achieve commercialization has been documented through the sporadic periods of mounting corporate and government enthusiasm and high levels of research and development efforts. Four periods of enthusiasm at the national level were followed by waning intervals of shrinking financial support and sagging R&D work. The continuing cycle of mobilization and stagnation has had a corresponding history in Kentucky. To better understand the potential and the pitfalls of this type of technological development the history of synthetic fuels development in the United States is presented as background, with a more detailed analysis of synfuels development in Kentucky. The first two periods of interest in synthetic fuels immediately after the Second World War and in the 1950s did not result in any proposed plants for Kentucky, but the third and fourth periods of interest created a great deal of activity. A theoretically grounded case study is utilized in this research project to create four different scenarios for the future of synthetic fuels development. The Kentucky experience is utilized in this case study because a fifth incarnation of synthetic fuels development has been proposed for the state in the form of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) to utilize coal and refuse derived fuel (RDF). The project has been awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology program. From an examination and analysis of these periods of interest and the subsequent dwindling of interest and participation, four alternative scenarios are constructed. A synfuels breakthrough scenario is described whereby IGCC becomes a viable part of the country's energy future. A multiplex scenario describes how IGCC becomes a particular niche in energy production. The status quo scenario describes how the old patterns of project failure repeat themselves. The fourth scenario describes

  14. The competitiveness of synthetic natural gas as a propellant in the Swedish fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Farzad; Görling, Martin; Alvfors, Per

    2013-01-01

    The road transport sector today is almost exclusively dependent on fossil fuels. Consequently, it will need to face a radical change if it aims to switch from a fossil-based system to a renewable-based system. Even though there are many promising technologies under development, they must also be economically viable to be implemented. This paper studies the economic feasibility of synthesizing natural gas through methanation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen from water electrolysis. It is shown that the main influences for profitability are electricity prices, synthetic natural gas (SNG) selling prices and that the by-products from the process are sold. The base scenario generates a 16% annual return on investment assuming that SNG can be sold at the same price as petrol. A general number based on set conditions was that the SNG must be sold at a price about 2.6 times higher per kWh than when bought in form of electricity. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the running costs weigh more heavily than the yearly investment cost and off-peak production can therefore still be economically profitable with only a moderate reduction of electricity price. The calculations and prices are based on Swedish prerequisites but are applicable to other countries and regions. - Highlights: ► The production cost for synthetic natural gas corresponds to the current biogas price. ► High return on capital if the synthetic natural gas could be sold for the same price as petrol. ► Production can cost-effectively be run off-peak hence electricity is the major cost. ► This study is based on Swedish prerequisites but is applicable on other regions.

  15. Maintenance of Geobacter-dominated biofilms in microbial fuel cells treating synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commault, Audrey S; Lear, Gavin; Weld, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Geobacter-dominated biofilms can be selected under stringent conditions that limit the growth of competing bacteria. However, in many practical applications, such stringent conditions cannot be maintained and the efficacy and stability of these artificial biofilms may be challenged. In this work, biofilms were selected on low-potential anodes (-0.36 V vs Ag/AgCl, i.e. -0.08 V vs SHE) in minimal acetate or ethanol media. Selection conditions were then relaxed by transferring the biofilms to synthetic wastewater supplemented with soil as a source of competing bacteria. We tracked community succession and functional changes in these biofilms. The Geobacter-dominated biofilms showed stability in their community composition and electrochemical properties, with Geobacter sp. being still electrically active after six weeks in synthetic wastewater with power densities of 100±19 mW·m(-2) (against 74±14 mW·m(-2) at week 0) for all treatments. After six weeks, the ethanol-selected biofilms, despite their high taxon richness and their efficiency at removing the chemical oxygen demand (0.8 g·L(-1) removed against the initial 1.3 g·L(-1) injected), were the least stable in terms of community structure. These findings have important implications for environmental microbial fuel cells based on Geobacter-dominated biofilms and suggest that they could be stable in challenging environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthetic fuel production using Texas lignite and a very high temperature reactor for process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.A.; Klein, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Two approaches for synthetic fuel production from coal are studied using Texas lignite as the feedstock. First, the gasification and liquefaction of coal are accomplished using Lurgi gasifiers and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A 50 000 barrel/day facility, consuming 13.7 million tonne/yr (15.1 million ton/yr) of lignite, is considered. Second, a nuclear-assisted coal conversion approach is studied using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor with a modified Lurgi gasifier and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The nuclear-assisted approach resulted in a 35% reduction in coal consumption. In addition, process steam consumption was reduced by one-half and the oxygen plants were eliminated in the nuclear assisted process. Both approaches resulted in a synthetic oil price higher than the March 1980 imported price of $29.65 per barrel: $36.15 for the lignite-only process and $35.16 for the nuclear-assisted process. No tax advantage was assumed for either process and the utility financing method was used for both economic calculations

  17. [Simultaneous determination of 15 industrial synthetic dyes in condiment by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiaolin; Bie, Wei; Wang, Minglin; Feng, Qian

    2011-02-01

    A new method was established for the determination of 15 industrial synthetic dyes in condiment by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography (SPE-HPLC). The samples were extracted by methanol-water (1:1, v/v) and purified by a solid phase extraction column. Then, the chromatographic separation was achieved on a Luna C18 column by linear gradient elution. The mobile phase was 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (containing 1% acetic acid). The results showed that the 15 industrial synthetic dyes can be separated efficiently. The recoveries of the 15 industrial synthetic dyes spiked in condiment were between 84.6% and 114.2% with the relative standard deviations of 0.9% - 10.3%. The limits of detection of this method was 0.05 - 0.18 mg/kg for the 15 industrial synthetic dyes. The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, repeatable and can be used for simultaneous determination of the 15 illegally added industrial synthetic dyes.

  18. special feature: Comparing evolutionary dynamics across different national settings: the case of the synthetic dye industry, 1857-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Peter Murmann; Ernst Homburg

    2001-01-01

    Current models of industry evolution suggest that development patterns should be the same across different levels of analysis. In comparing the evolution of the synthetic dye industry at the global level and in the five major producer countries before World War I (Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland and the United States), it is shown that patterns of industry evolution differed significantly across national contexts. Based on a quantitative and qualitative database of all firms and plants ...

  19. Informal presentations by fuel fabricators and others [contributed by A. Nishiyama, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper contains a brief summary of activities in the field of research reactor fuel fabrication in Nuclear Fuel Industries Sumitomo and Furukawa Industries. Since 1956 2 million dollars were spent for development of nuclear fuels and plant facilities including complete manufacturing and testing capabilities. Now this company is the only fuel supplier for the research reactors in Japan. The fabrication process starts with the melting, alloying, and casting of U-Al. The uranium billets are prepared by foreign fabricators. The uranium content varies from 13 to 22 wt % according to the purchaser's specifications. In making fuel plates, the picture frame method is applied. In this case, the original procedure is sufficiently effective in avoiding dogboning. The plates are finished by hot and cold roll milling and inspected dimensionally, metallurgically, and mechanically, and at the same time the blister test and X-ray radiographic tests are performed. Fuel elements are assembled by rolling flat or curved plates into side plate grooves and end-fit welding. Finished elements are tested dimensionally and hydraulically. Nominal losses during operation are less than 1% of the uranium metal. Our present capacity licensed by the Japanese Government is approximately 950 fuel elements a year. About 35 employees including engineers are engaged in development and manufacturing of fuels. Owing to the small limited demand of the research reactor fuels in Japan during the past 20 years (mostly in last 10 years), we processed only about 350 kg of highly enriched uranium and supplied approximately 1000 fuel elements to JAERI, Kyoto University, and others, and we have been suffering red-ink balance of budget every year. Some of trials in development are briefly discussed. In case of UO 2 -Al metal fuel plates, the vibratory compacting method was very popular among many researchers about 10 years ago. A lot of time and money was spent to study the economic fabrication process of

  20. Fuel sparing: Control of industrial furnaces using process gas as supplemental fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisvert, Patrick G.; Runstedtler, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Combustible gases from industrial processes can be used to spare purchased fuels such as natural gas and avoid wasteful flaring of the process gases. One of the challenges of incorporating these gases into other furnaces is their intermittent availability. In order to incorporate the gases into a continuously operating furnace, the furnace control system must be carefully designed so that the payload is not affected by the changing fuel. This paper presents a transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of an industrial furnace that supplements natural gas with carbon monoxide during furnace operation. A realistic control system of the furnace is simulated as part of the CFD calculation. The time dependent changes in fuels and air injection on the furnace operation is observed. It is found that there is a trade-off between over-controlling the furnace, which results in too sensitive a response to normal flow oscillations, and under-controlling, which results in a lagged response to the fuel change. - Highlights: •Intermittently available process gases used in a continuously operating furnace. •Study shows a trade-off between over-controlling and under-controlling the furnace. •Over-controlling: response too sensitive to normal flow oscillations. •Under-controlling: lagged response to changing fuel composition. •Normal flow oscillations in furnace would not be apparent in steady-state model

  1. Development of biochar and chitosan blend for heavy metals uptake from synthetic and industrial wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Athar; Maitra, Jaya; Khan, Kashif Ali

    2017-12-01

    Heavy metals are usually released into water bodies from industrial/domestic effluents such as metal plating industries, mining and tanneries. Adsorption is a fundamental process in the physiochemical treatment of wastewaters because of its low cost. Great efforts have been made to use the economically efficient and unconventional adsorbents to adsorb heavy metals from aqueous solutions, such as plant wastes and agricultural waste. Biochar mixed with chitosan after crosslinking can be casted into membranes, beads and solutions which can be effectively utilized as an adsorbent for metal ion uptake. Keeping these facts into consideration, the present study was undertaken with the objective to determine the effect of various proportions of biochar-modified chitosan membranes on the sorption characteristics of different heavy metals like Cu, Pb, As and Cd along with comparison of sorption characteristics between industrial waste water samples containing multi-metals and standard synthetic stock solution containing a particular metal. It is apparent from the results that the bioadsorbent prepared from biochar and chitosan are low-cost efficacious resource due to its easy availability. It is also eco-friendly material for making adsorbent for abstraction of heavy metals from aqueous solution. This adsorbent can be best utilized for adsorption of heavy metals.

  2. Biological conversion of carbon dioxide and hydrogen into liquid fuels and industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Aaron S; McTernan, Patrick M; Lian, Hong; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2013-06-01

    Non-photosynthetic routes for biological fixation of carbon dioxide into valuable industrial chemical precursors and fuels are moving from concept to reality. The development of 'electrofuel'-producing microorganisms leverages techniques in synthetic biology, genetic and metabolic engineering, as well as systems-level multi-omic analysis, directed evolution, and in silico modeling. Electrofuel processes are being developed for a range of microorganisms and energy sources (e.g. hydrogen, formate, electricity) to produce a variety of target molecules (e.g. alcohols, terpenes, alkenes). This review examines the current landscape of electrofuel projects with a focus on hydrogen-utilizing organisms covering the biochemistry of hydrogenases and carbonic anhydrases, kinetic and energetic analyses of the known carbon fixation pathways, and the state of genetic systems for current and prospective electrofuel-producing microorganisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute Dermal Irritation Study of Ten Jet Fuels in New Zealand White Rabbits: Comparison of Synthetic and Bio-Based Jet Fuels with Petroleum JP-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-18

    C.A. 2008. Comparative Evaluation of Semi-Synthetic Jet Fuels. Dayton OH: Universal Technology Corporation. http://crcao.org/publications/aviation...Acrobat, PDF) Master Schedule Maintains the master schedule for the company. Metasys DDC Electronic Environmental Control System Controls and

  4. An economic parametric analysis of the synthetic fuel produced by a fusion-fission complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A simple analytic model is used to examine economic constraints of a fusion-fission complex in which a portion of a thermal energy is used for producing synthetic fuel (synfuel). Since the values of many quantities are not well-known, a parametric analysis has been carried out for testing the sensitivity of the synfuel production cost in relation to crucial economic and technological quantities (investment costs of hybrid and synfuel plants, energy multiplication of the fission blanket, recirculating power fraction of the fusion driver, etc.). In addition, a minimum synfuel selling price has been evaluated, from which the fission-fusion-synfuel complex brings about a higher economic benefit than does the fusion-fission hybrid entirely devoted to fissile-fuel and electricity generation. This paper describes the energy flow diagram of fusion-fission synfuel concept, express the revenue-to-cost formulation and the breakeven synfuel selling price. The synfuel production cost given by the model is evaluated within a range of values of crucial parameters. Assuming an electric cost of 2.7 cents/kWh, an annual investment cost per energy unit of 4.2 to 6 $/FJ for the fusion-fission complex and 1.5 to 3 $/GJ for the synfuel plant, the synfuel production cost lies between 6.5 and 8.5 $/GJ. These production costs can compete with those evaluated for other processes. The study points out a potential use of the fusion-fission hybrid reactor for other than fissile-fuel and electricity generation. (orig.) [de

  5. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and... following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

  6. Decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye through fungal co-culture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Simpal; Naraian, Ram

    2016-09-15

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of fungal co-culture for the decolorization of synthetic brilliant green carpet industry dye. For this purpose two lignocellulolytic fungi Pleurotus florida (PF) and Rhizoctonia solani (RS) were employed. The study includes determination of enzyme profiles (laccase and peroxidase), dye decolorization efficiency of co-culture and crude enzyme extracts. Both fungi produced laccase and Mn peroxidase and successfully decolorized solutions of different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, & 8.0(w/v) of dye. The co-culture resulted highest 98.54% dye decolorization at 2% (w/v) of dye as compared to monocultures (82.12% with PF and 68.89% with RS) during 12 days of submerged fermentation. The lower levels of dyes were rapidly decolorized, while higher levels in slow order as 87.67% decolorization of 8% dye. The promising achievement of the study was remarkable decolorizing efficiency of co-culture over monocultures. The direct treatment of the mono and co-culture enzyme extracts to dye also influenced remarkable. The highest enzymatic decolorization was through combined (PF and RS) extracts, while lesser by monoculture extracts. Based on the observations and potentiality of co-culture technology; further it can be exploited for the bioremediation of areas contaminated with hazardous environmental pollutants including textile and other industry effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ototoxic potential of JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel following subacute inhalation exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, Laurence D; Gearhart, Caroline A; Fulton, Sherry

    2010-07-01

    This study was undertaken to identify the ototoxic potential of two jet fuels presented alone and in combination with noise. Rats were exposed via a subacute inhalation paradigm to JP-8 jet fuel, a kerosene-based fuel refined from petroleum, and a synthetic fuel produced by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process. Although JP-8 contains small ( approximately 5%) concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons some of which known to be ototoxic, the synthetic fuel does not. The objectives of this study were to identify a lowest observed adverse effect level and a no observed adverse effect level for each jet fuel and to provide some preliminary, but admittedly, indirect evidence concerning the possible role of the aromatic hydrocarbon component of petroleum-based jet fuel on hearing. Rats (n = 5-19) received inhalation exposure to JP-8 or to FT fuel for 4 h/day on five consecutive days at doses of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/m(3). Additional groups were exposed to various fuel concentrations followed by 1 h of an octave band of noise, noise alone, or no exposure to fuel or noise. Significant dose-related impairment in the distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) was seen in subjects exposed to combined JP-8 plus noise exposure when JP-8 levels of at least 1000 mg/m(3) were presented. No noticeable impairment was observed at JP-8 levels of 500 mg/m(3) + noise. In contrast to the effects of JP-8 on noise-induced hearing loss, FT exposure had no effect by itself or in combination with noise exposure even at the highest exposure level tested. Despite an observed loss in DPOAE amplitude seen only when JP-8 and noise were combined, there was no loss in auditory threshold or increase in hair cell loss in any exposure group.

  8. Utilization coke dust as fuel in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Utilization of coke dust available from coal carbonization plants, as a fuel in the cement industry has been undertaken and discussed in this research paper. The parameters studied include physical and chemical evaluation of the coke dust and its economic feasibility/ suitability as fuel for the cement plants. Detailed studies have been carried out on the above referred parameters. In addition a comparative study has been done to access its suitability in comparison to other fuels especially imported coal. It has been found that the coke dust contained about 66% fixed carbon, 29% ash, 4% volatile matter, 1% moisture and 0.48% sulphur. It gross calorific value was found to be 5292 Kcal/kg. The detailed analysis of coke dust ash was also performed to determine as to how its constituents will compare with the cement constituents. Keeping in view the experimental results/ data generated on the coke dust, it has been concluded that it can be quite a good substitute for imported coal. In doing so a substantial financial saving can be achieved which ranges 40-45%. (author)

  9. Canada's nuclear fuel industry: An overview. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, A.

    1993-11-01

    Canada was among the first countries to mine and process uranium-bearing ores. Such ores contain trace amounts of radium, which was in great demand for medical treatment and for use by research laboratories in the early part of the century. For the last half century, the same basic processes have been used to extract uranium from its ores and convert it to a form suitable for use in nuclear reactors. The process described here is that currently in use in Canada. Mining can take a variety of forms, from open-pit to deep, hard-rock. Mining is typically the most costly step in the process, particularly for lower-grade ores. The ore is crushed and ground in the mill to the consistency of fine sand from which the uranium is extracted chemically to produce the impure concentrate known as yellowcake. In the next step, the impure uranium concentrate is chemically refined into highly purified, nuclear-grade, uranium trioxide (UO 3 ). Uranium trioxide is then converted, in two separate chemical processes, into uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) which is destined for domestic consumption and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) which is exported. In Canada, fabrication is the final step of the fuel production process. Uranium dioxide powder is compressed and sintered into very dense ceramic pellets which are then sealed in zirconium tubes and assembled into fuel bundles for Candu reactors. This background paper will review the Canadian nuclear fuels industry. 1 fig

  10. Fuel cycle industrialization program prepared by N-Fuel Research Committee, ANRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    To meet the new situation resulting from the scaling down of nuclear power development plan in Japan, and the changes due to the new U.S. nuclear non-proliferation policy, the Nuclear Fuel Research Committee of the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of MITI has prepared the ''Interim Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle''. It sets out in precise terms the methods that should be followed for establishing the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan. Major items treated in this report are; uranium ore development, promotion of uranium stockpiling, construction of domestic uranium enrichment plant, promotion of the construction of a nuclear fuel park, Pu utilization and cooperation in international movement for nuclear non-proliferation, and the establishment of measures for radioactive waste management. Discussions are made from technological, economical, and political view points. Also attached are a table of the comprehensive industrialization plan up to the year 2000 and a table of estimated nuclear fuel demand and supply in Japan.

  11. The Survey of Melia Azaderach L. ash in Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Synthetic Electroplating Industry Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Ghaneian

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Melia azedarach ash is an effective adsorbent in removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic electroplating industries wastewater. In addition, the use of this biosorbent in preparation and application aspects is simple and cheap compared to many other natural and man-made adsorbent.

  12. Combining hybrid cars and synthetic fuels with electricity generation and carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, Oscar van; Broek, Machteld van den; Turkenburg, Wim; Faaij, Andre

    2011-01-01

    We examined the co-evolution of the transportation, and electricity and heat generation sectors in the Netherlands until 2040 using a MARKAL bottom-up cost optimisation model. All scenario variants investigated indicate a switch away from crude oil-based diesel and petrol for transportation. Lowest overall CO 2 abatement cost is achieved by accommodating transportation first and using relatively expensive options for emissions reduction in electricity generation if needed. Biomass and carbon capture and storage (CCS) are used to full potential. Transportation CO 2 emissions are reduced by switching to ethanol or bio-based synthetic fuels combined with CCS, and series hybrid cars if needed. Depending on the availability of biomass and carbon storage capacity, electricity is produced from biomass, coal with CCS, or wind complemented with natural gas. Indirect greenhouse gas emissions rise to 34-54% of national emissions in 2040. The difference in annual investment required between the scenario variants with and without CO 2 emissions reductions of 68% by 2040 is 4-7 billion euro/year, or 0.5-1.2% of projected GDP. Investment costs are mostly determined by the cost of cars and electricity generation capacity. We observe competition for limited biomass supply and CO 2 storage capacity between the transportation and power sectors.

  13. Dissolution of unirradiated UO{sub 2} fuel in synthetic groundwater. Final report (1996-1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollila, K. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-05-01

    This study was a part of the EU R and D programme 1994-1998: Nuclear Fission Safety, entitled `Source term for performance assessment of spent fuel as a waste form`. The research carried out at VTT Chemical Technology was focused on the effects of granitic groundwater composition and redox conditions on UO{sub 2} solubility and dissolution mechanisms. The synthetic groundwater compositions simulated deep granitic fresh and saline groundwaters, and the effects of the near-field material, bentonite, on very saline groundwater. Additionally, the Spanish granite/bentonite water was used. The redox conditions (Eh), which are obviously the most important factors that influence on UO{sub 2} solubility under the disposal conditions of spent fuel, varied from strongly oxidising (air-saturated), anaerobic (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} < l ppm) to reducing (N{sub 2}, low Eh). The objective of the air-saturated dissolution experiments was to yield the maximum solution concentrations of U, and information on the formation of secondary phases that control the concentrations, with different groundwater compositions. The static batch solubility experiments of long duration (up to 1-2 years) were performed using unirradiated UO{sub 2} pellets and powder. Under anaerobic and reducing conditions, the solubilities were also approached from oversaturation. The results of the oxic, air-saturated dissolution experiments with UO{sub 2} powder showed that the increase in the salinity (< 1.7 M) had a minor effect on the measured steady-state concentrations of U. The concentrations, (1.2 ...2.5) x 10{sup -5} M, were at the level of the theoretical solubility of schoepite or another uranyl oxide hydrate, e.g. becquerelite (possibly Na-polyuranate). The higher alkalinity of the fresh (Allard) composition increased the aqueous U concentration. Only some kind of oxidised U-phase (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-UO{sub 3}) was identified with XRD when studying possible secondary phases after the contact time of one year

  14. Dissolution of unirradiated UO2 fuel in synthetic groundwater. Final report (1996-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1999-05-01

    This study was a part of the EU R and D programme 1994-1998: Nuclear Fission Safety, entitled 'Source term for performance assessment of spent fuel as a waste form'. The research carried out at VTT Chemical Technology was focused on the effects of granitic groundwater composition and redox conditions on UO 2 solubility and dissolution mechanisms. The synthetic groundwater compositions simulated deep granitic fresh and saline groundwaters, and the effects of the near-field material, bentonite, on very saline groundwater. Additionally, the Spanish granite/bentonite water was used. The redox conditions (Eh), which are obviously the most important factors that influence on UO 2 solubility under the disposal conditions of spent fuel, varied from strongly oxidising (air-saturated), anaerobic (N 2 , O 2 2 , low Eh). The objective of the air-saturated dissolution experiments was to yield the maximum solution concentrations of U, and information on the formation of secondary phases that control the concentrations, with different groundwater compositions. The static batch solubility experiments of long duration (up to 1-2 years) were performed using unirradiated UO 2 pellets and powder. Under anaerobic and reducing conditions, the solubilities were also approached from oversaturation. The results of the oxic, air-saturated dissolution experiments with UO 2 powder showed that the increase in the salinity ( -5 M, were at the level of the theoretical solubility of schoepite or another uranyl oxide hydrate, e.g. becquerelite (possibly Na-polyuranate). The higher alkalinity of the fresh (Allard) composition increased the aqueous U concentration. Only some kind of oxidised U-phase (U 3 O 8 -UO 3 ) was identified with XRD when studying possible secondary phases after the contact time of one year with all groundwater compositions. Longer contact times are needed to identify secondary phases predicted by modelling (EQ3/6). In the anoxic dissolution experiments with UO 2 pellets, the

  15. Decolorization of industrial synthetic dyes using engineered Pseudomonas putida cells with surface-immobilized bacterial laccase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial laccases are highly useful in textile effluent dye biodegradation. However, the bioavailability of cellularly expressed or purified laccases in continuous operations is usually limited by mass transfer impediment or enzyme regeneration difficulty. Therefore, this study develops a regenerable bacterial surface-displaying system for industrial synthetic dye decolorization, and evaluates its effects on independent and continuous operations. Results A bacterial laccase (WlacD was engineered onto the cell surface of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Ice nucleation protein (InaQ anchor was employed, and the ability of 1 to 3 tandemly aligned N-terminal repeats to direct WlacD display were compared. Immobilized WlacD was determined to be surface-displayed in functional form using Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and whole-cell enzymatic activity assay. Engineered P. putida cells were then applied to decolorize the anthraquinone dye Acid Green (AG 25 and diazo-dye Acid Red (AR 18. The results showed that decolorization of both dyes is Cu2+- and mediator-independent, with an optimum temperature of 35°C and pH of 3.0, and can be stably performed across a temperature range of 15°C to 45°C. A high activity toward AG25 (1 g/l with relative decolorization values of 91.2% (3 h and 97.1% (18 h, as well as high activity to AR18 (1 g/l by 80.5% (3 h and 89.0% (18 h, was recorded. The engineered system exhibited a comparably high activity compared with those of separate dyes in a continuous three-round shake-flask decolorization of AG25/AR18 mixed dye (each 1 g/l. No significant decline in decolorization efficacy was noted during first two-rounds but reaction equilibriums were elongated, and the residual laccase activity eventually decreased to low levels. However, the decolorizing capacity of the system was easily retrieved

  16. Leaching studies of natural and synthetic titanite, a potential host for wastes from the reprocessing of Canadian nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, P.J.; Doern, F.E.; Cecchetto, E.V.; Mitchell, S.L.

    1983-01-01

    Glass ceramics (i.e., glasses subjected to controlled crystallization) with synthetic titanite as the major crystalline phase are being considered as potential hosts for the radioactive wastes arising from possible future reprocessing of nuclear fuel in Canada. In order to assess the stability of titanite in the anticipated environment of a disposal vault sited 500-1000 m deep within a granitic pluton in the Canadian Shield, leaching experiments have been performed with natural and synthetic titanite, using a synthetic groundwater whose composition is based on findings from a recent borehole-survey. The results are in qualitative agreement with calculations of solution equilibria for titanite and its main alteration products, and indicate that titanite should be stable and suffer no net leaching under anticipated conditions in the vault

  17. The nuclear fuel cycle industry. World situation: the place of the French industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sornein, J.

    1978-01-01

    The decision taken the day following the end of the second world war to create a French industry for the nuclear fuel cycle, the speed and dimension of its development from 1946 to 1966, the strengthening of its acquired knowledge during the following five years, lastly, the fact that, since 1972, it was able to make great strides, will have been in short the fruit of the remarkable continuity of an unfailing political will. Consequently it was possible beyond doubt, as soon as the ineluctable consequences of the oil crisis were evaluated, to give the French nuclear fuel cycle industry the new objectives which will succeed in granting it a foremost dimension on the international scale. In the three branches constituting the base of this industry (natural, enrichment, reprocessing), all these objectives will be reached by 1985. Their realization will permit our country to cover, in all security, not only its domestic needs but also to pursue a policy to sell materials and services for export at competitive prices [fr

  18. Powered by technology or powering technology?---Belief-based decision-making in nuclear power and synthetic fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Jen

    The overarching question in this study is how and why technical-fixes in energy policy failed. In the post-WWII era, civilian nuclear power and synthetic fuel had both been top priorities on the U.S. national policy agenda during certain periods of time. Nuclear power was promoted and pursued persistently with great urgency for over two decades. In contrast, synthetic fuel policy suffered from boom-and-bust cycles. The juxtaposition of policy histories of nuclear power and synthetic fuel highlights many peculiarities in policymaking. The U.S. government forcefully and consistently endorsed the development of civilian nuclear power for two decades. It adopted policies to establish the competitiveness of civilian nuclear power far beyond what would have occurred under free-market conditions. Even though synthetic fuel was characterized by a similar level of economic potential and technical feasibility, the policy approach toward synthetic fuel was almost the opposite of nuclear power. Political support usually stopped when the development of synthetic fuel technology encountered economic difficulties. The contrast between the unfaltering faith in nuclear power and the indeterminate attitude toward synthetic fuel raises many important questions. I argue that these diverging paths of development can be explained by exploring the dominant government ideology of the time or "ideology of the state" as the sociology literature describes it. The price-determining approach was a result of government preoccupied with fighting the Cold War. The U.S. intentionally idealized and deified nuclear power to serve its Cold War psychological strategy. These psychological maneuverings attached important symbolic meaning to nuclear power. The society-wide enthusiasm and resulting bandwagon market are better understood by taking the role of symbolism in the political arena into account. On the other hand, a "welfare state" ideology that stood behind synthetic fuel was confused

  19. Combined production of synthetic liquid fuel and electricity from coal using H2S and CO2 removal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina A. Tyurina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is to continue the studies on promising technologies of coal conversion into synthetic liquid fuel (methanol. The object of study is the plants for combined production of electricity and synthetic liquid fuel (PCPs, which are eco-friendly and more efficient as compared to the plants for separate production. The previous studies on PCPs consider the systems for fine cleaning of gasification products in a simplified way. This study presents the detailed mathematical modeling of the aforementioned systems and determines the values of energy consumption and investment in them. The obtained values are used to carry out the optimization studies and find the optimal parameters of PCPs with different degree of CO2 removal from gasification products providing fine cleaning of gasification products from H2S.

  20. Transport of oxide spent fuel. Industrial experience of COGEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1985-01-01

    COGEMA, the world leading Company in the reprocessing industry who is also involved in the transport activity, is ruling all transports of spent fuel to La Hague reprocessing plant. The paper summarizes some aspects of the experience gained in this field (road, rail and sea transports) and describes the standards defined by COGEMA as regards transport casks. These standards are as follows: - casks of dry type, - casks of the maximum size compatible with rail transports, - capability to be unloaded with standardized equipment and following standard procedures. Considering: 1) the extremely large experience of COGEMA for all transport modes and, 2) the fact that all these transports are performed in full compliance with the IAEA recommendations, COGEMA is convinced that its experience could serve to help countries or utilities willing to undertake to establish a transport system within their own country COGEMA is prepared to contribute to this task on terms to be agreed [fr

  1. Combustion of Sewage Sludge as Alternative Fuel for Cement Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fuzhou; ZHANG Wei

    2011-01-01

    The combustion of sewage sludge and coal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis.Both differential scanning calorimetric analysis and derivative thermogravimetric profiles showed differences between combustion of sewage sludge and coal, and non-isothermal kinetics analysis method was applied to evaluate the combustion process. Based on Coats-Redfem integral method, some reaction models were tested,the mechanism and kinetics of the combustion reaction were discussed. The results show that the combustion of sewage sludge is mainly in the Iow temperature stage, meanwhile the ignition temperature and Arrhenius activation energy are lower than that of coal. The combustion of sewage sludge has the advantage over coal in some aspects, thus sewage sludge can partly replace coal used as cement industry fuel.

  2. Performance evaluation of an side-stream anaerobic membrane bioreactor: Synthetic and alcoholic beverage industry wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan BÜYÜKKAMACI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment performance of a laboratory-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR using high strength wastewater was evaluated. The AnMBR model system consisted of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB and an ultrafiltration (UF membrane. Its performance was first examined using molasses based synthetic wastewater at different hydraulic retention times (1-3 days and organic loading rates (5-15 kg COD/m3.day. As a result of the experimental studies, maximum treatment efficiency with respect to COD reduction (95% was achieved at 7.5 kg COD/m3.day OLR (CODinfluent=15.000 mg/L, HRT=2 days applications. When OLR was increased to 15 kg COD/m3.day, system performance decreased sharply. Similarly, methane gas production decreased by increasing OLR. After then, feed was changed to real wastewater, which was alcoholic beverage industry effluent. At this study, maximum COD removal efficiency of the system and maximum methane gas production was 88% and 74%, respectively.

  3. Siemens fuel gasification technology for the Canadian oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehead, H. [Siemens Energy Inc., Orlando, FL (United States). IGCC and Gasification Sales and Marketing

    2010-07-01

    The Siemens fuel gasification (SFG) technology can be used to gasify a range of feedstocks, including petcoke, hard coal, lignite, and low-ranking fuels such as biomass and refinery residuals. The technology has recently been applied to a number of projects over the last 3 years. This paper discussed some of the issues related to the technology and it's use at a start-up facility in China. Five entrained-flow gasifiers with a thermal capacity of 500 MW are being installed at a coal gasification plant in northwestern China. The technology's use in hydrogen, steam and power production applications for the oil sands industry was also discussed. Issues related to feedstock quality, process characteristics, and equipment requirements for commercial gasifier systems were reviewed. The paper concluded by observing that improvements in gasification technology will make coal and petcoke gasification feasible options for power generation. IGCC is the most advanced and cost-effective technology for reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. Gasification-based plants are also able to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for storage and sequestration. Details of the Siemens gasification test center in Germany were also included. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  4. [Progress and prospect of bio-jet fuels industry in domestic and overseas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Kai; Fu, Jie; Zhou, Feng; Ma, Huixia

    2016-10-25

    We reviewed the progress of the bio-jet fuels industry in recent years and systematically analyzed the technical routes that have been approved or in the pipeline for approval by ASTM D7566. In addition, we highlighted a novel pathway to produce drop-in fuel by near-critical hydrolysis of waste cooking oils or algal oils followed by catalytic decarboxylation. Also, we introduced the source of oils and fats feedstock and the domestic bio-jet fuel industry status during the 12th Five-Year-Plan period. Based on our own research, we discussed the prospect of the bio-jet fuel industry and future research needs.

  5. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  6. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace

    2017-01-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  7. The regional effects of a biomass fuel industry on US agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at the potential competitiveness of the emerging biomass-based biofuel industry in the current economic environment. A simulation model suggests that a mature biomassbased biofuel industry is potentially competitive with gasoline, and capable of filling a significant fraction of motor fuel supplies. However, the existing land policy has a narrow definition of agricultural land for a biomass-based fuel industry. A broader definition of agricultural land suitable for biomass inputs would reduce biofuel processing costs, relieve the food versus fuel conflict, and increase the net gain to fuel consumers, food consumers, and producers of food and fuel. - Highlights: • We look at the potential competitiveness of a mature biomass fuel (BF) industry in the US. • We model a land policy that allows BF-cattle competition for forage, crop residues, and pasture. • We estimate the cost reductions and welfare gains associated with modifying the land use policy

  8. Bioremediation of Synthetic and Industrial Effluents by Aspergillus niger Isolated from Contaminated Soil Following a Sequential Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Tahsin; Huma, Tayyaba; Jalal, Fatima; Iqbal, Sarosh; Abrar, Shazia; Kiran, Shumaila; Nosheen, Sofia; Hussain, Waqar; Rafique, Muhammad Asim

    2017-12-16

    The present study aimed to assess and compare the ability to remediate synthetic textile and industrial wastewaters by Fenton treatment, a biological system and sequential treatments using Aspergillus niger ( A. niger ). All studied treatments were found to be effective in decolorization of the effluents under study. Fenton treatment followed by A. niger showed excellent potential for the maximum decolorization of the synthetic and industrial effluents under study. The effectiveness of sequential treatment was evaluated by water quality parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) before and after each treatment. The results indicated that A. niger is an effective candidate for detoxification of textile wastewaters.

  9. Bioremediation of Synthetic and Industrial Effluents by Aspergillus niger Isolated from Contaminated Soil Following a Sequential Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Gulzar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess and compare the ability to remediate synthetic textile and industrial wastewaters by Fenton treatment, a biological system and sequential treatments using Aspergillus niger (A. niger. All studied treatments were found to be effective in decolorization of the effluents under study. Fenton treatment followed by A. niger showed excellent potential for the maximum decolorization of the synthetic and industrial effluents under study. The effectiveness of sequential treatment was evaluated by water quality parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD before and after each treatment. The results indicated that A. niger is an effective candidate for detoxification of textile wastewaters.

  10. Identifying Opportunities and Impacts of Fuel Switching in the Industrial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ramesh C. [Industrial Technologies Program, Washington, DC (United States); Jamison, Keith [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Thomas, Daniel E. [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2006-08-01

    The underlying purpose of this white paper is to examine fuel switching opportunities in the U.S. industrial sector and make strategic recommendations—leading to application of the best available technologies and development of new technologies—that will introduce fuel use flexibility as an economically feasible option for plant operators, as a means to condition local fuel demands and a hedge against the local rises in fuel prices.

  11. Basic tendencies of restructured UO2 nuclear fuels fabrication industry for water-moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhova, V.A.; Bokshitskij, V.I.; Blinova, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    Processes of reformation and consolidation of firms and frontier nuclear fuels fabrication industry associated with processes of globalization and deregulation of electric power market are analyzed. Current state of nuclear fuel market and basic factors influenced on the market are presented. The role of nuclear fuel in increasing competition of NPP and fundamental directions of innovation action on the creation of perspective kinds of fuel were considered [ru

  12. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: environmental permit compliance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodamer, Jr., James W.; Bocchino, Robert M.

    1979-11-01

    This Environmental Permit Compliance Plan is intended to assist the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division in acquiring the necessary environmental permits for their proposed Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant in a time frame consistent with the construction schedule. Permits included are those required for installation and/or operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste sources and disposal areas. Only those permits presently established by final regulations are described. The compliance plan describes procedures for obtaining each permit from identified federal, state and local agencies. The information needed for the permit application is presented, and the stepwise procedure to follow when filing the permit application is described. Information given in this plan was obtained by reviewing applicable laws and regulations and from telephone conversations with agency personnel on the federal, state and local levels. This Plan also presents a recommended schedule for beginning the work necessary to obtain the required environmental permits in order to begin dredging operations in October, 1980 and construction of the plant in September, 1981. Activity for several key permits should begin as soon as possible.

  13. Effective equivalencies of industrial fuels; Equivalencias efetivas de combustiveis industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Manfred [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    1986-01-01

    This work perform comparison criteria between various solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, under several burn conditions. The objective of this comparison is to choose the most cost-effective fuel for heat generation, including the variables of fuel price, consumption, waste generation and safety conditions 16 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  14. Synthetic Natural Gas/ Biogas (Bio-SNG) from Wood as Transportation Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biollaz, S.; Stucki, S.

    2004-03-01

    Biofuel production from wood is an interesting option for the energetic use of wood. Various bio fuels could be produced from woody biomass, such as methanol, Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, methane or hydrogen. FT liquids and bio-SNG can be distributed and used via existing infrastructures and therefore fit best today's fossil infrastructure. On an assessment basis from primary to mechanical energy both fuels have pros and cons. For the consolidation of crucial information, i.e. production cost, demonstration plants of transportation fuels are needed. Based on such plants, a detailed evaluation of both fuel chains will be possible. (author)

  15. Synthetic fuels for transportation : background paper #1 : the future potential of electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    This report presents a comprehensive review of the future of electric and hybrid : vehicles through the year 2010 in the United States. It was prepared for the : Office of Technology Assessment as background information for its study, : "Synthetic Fu...

  16. H2O removal from diesel and JP8 fuels: A comparison study between synthetic and natural dehydration agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Favvas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comparison between Thermal Polyaspartate Anion, TPA, and natural resin in their effect on the improvement of the physicochemical properties of both conventional diesel and JP8 fuels is the main scope of this work. Specifically, both studied materials were used dehydration agents in order to increase the physicochemical properties of both treated fuels. The higher amount of the removed water was obtained when used the natural resin as adsorbent material. In this case the water concentration decreased into diesel up to 68.66 % and more than 30 % in the case of jet fuel (JP8. This water removal improves the studied physicochemical properties of both studied fuels, diesel and JP8, for example up to 633 J/g (using natural resin as dehydration agent (removable additive and 1040 J/g (using TPA as dehydration agent for the heat of combustion. Overall, the proposed method can be used in a simple fuel cleaning process using a metal mesh vessel of synthetic TPA polymer or natural resin. The higher water/humidity removal amount in conjunction with the very low price of the natural resin makes this material more promising for the up scaling of the proposed technique in the near future.

  17. Oil industry mergers. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels and the Subcommittee on Commerce, Transportation, and Tourism of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H. R. 5153, H. R. 5175, and H. R. 5452, March 21 and May 16, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Hearings were held on three House bills requiring studies to see if oil company mergers serve the public interest or violate anti-trust regulations. A trend toward mergers involving large companies, hostile takeovers, and the tie-up of investment capital, as well as the role of tax incentives were among the concerns of the 22 witnesses during the two-day hearing. The witnesses represented several facets of the oil producing and marketing industry, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), citizen groups, and several states. The issues they raised included industrial competition, the involvement of the FTC in industrial policy, and the attempt to restructure the procedures of divestiture and merger through new legislation. Material submitted for the record follows the text of H.R. 5153, H.R. 5175, and H.R. 5452 and the testimony.

  18. Energy and climate impacts of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from CO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giesen, Coen; Kleijn, René; Kramer, Gert Jan

    2014-06-17

    Within the context of carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization there is an increasing interest in using CO2 as a resource to produce sustainable liquid hydrocarbon fuels. When these fuels are produced by solely using solar energy they are labeled as solar fuels. In the recent discourse on solar fuels intuitive arguments are used to support the prospects of these fuels. This paper takes a quantitative approach to investigate some of the claims made in this discussion. We analyze the life cycle performance of various classes of solar fuel processes using different primary energy and CO2 sources. We compare their efficacy with respect to carbon mitigation with ubiquitous fossil-based fuels and conclude that producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels starting from CO2 by using existing technologies requires much more energy than existing fuels. An improvement in life cycle CO2 emissions is only found when solar energy and atmospheric CO2 are used. Producing fuels from CO2 is a very long-term niche at best, not the panacea suggested in the recent public discourse.

  19. Production process of the synthetics fuels: technological trajectory analysis; Processos de producao de combustiveis sinteticos: analise das trajetorias tecnologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Fabricio B. [Financiadora de Estudos e Projectos (FINEP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: fbrollo@finep.gov.br; Bomtempo, Jose Vitor [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica]. E-mail: vitor@eq.ufrj.br; Almeida, Edmar Luiz F. de

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the technological trajectories on synthetic fuels. What has influenced on the development of the first production process during the Second World War was analyzed, as well as, the causes of the first technological trajectory ending. It also shows the reasons of returning of the Fischer-Tropsch process to the petroleum companies' and technology licensors' R and D programs. At last, the consequences of the new technological trajectory and its differences regarding to the previous one were analyzed. (author)

  20. Effect on industry structure by fossil fuel burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoon Young [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Multi-industrial sector dynamic operation general equilibrium model of Korean economy has been developed. It is able to analyze carbon dioxide emission, energy use and macro economy, and reciprocal actions between each industrial sector and to measure economic effects by environmental policy for the purpose of reducing carbon dioxide. Using this model, it analyzed its effect on industries in Korea of limiting carbon dioxide emission by experimenting each policy instrument, policy object, application of tax revenue for limiting carbon dioxide. The spreading effect on each industry has a large difference for each industry. The production reduction of energy industry or large energy consuming industry (basic chemical industry, transportation and storage, steel industry, construction) shows relatively huge to other industries. Production reduction for each industry, i.e. a wide difference of economic burden between industries, will need some consideration when introducing energy carbon tax, especially in the initial stage, since it could cause an equity problem between industries. Moreover, studies on differentiating tax rate, tax return and exemption that can mitigate an equity problem between industries should be implemented. (author). 66 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Synthetic Fischer-Tropsch (FT) JP-5/JP-8 Aviation Turbine Fuel Elastomer Compatibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muzzell, Pat; Stavinoha, Leo; Chapin, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    ... to seal performance may arise, possibly leading to fuel leakage. The key objective of this study was to compare and contrast the material compatibility of nitrile coupons and O-rings with selected petroleum-derived fuels, Fisher-Tropsch (FT...

  2. Thermophysical properties of composite fuel based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovsky, S. A.; Tolokolnikov, A. A.; Gubin, V. E.; Slyusarskiy, K. V.; Zenkov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Results of experimental studies of composite fuel thermal decomposition processes based on T grade coal (Alardinskoe deposit) and timber industry wastes (fine wood) are presented. C, H, N, S weight percentage of each component of composite fuel was determined experimentally. It has been established that with an increase in wood concentration up to 50% in composite fuel, its energy characteristics decrease by less than 3.6%, while the yield of fly ash is 39.7%. An effective composite fuel composition has been defined as 50%/50%. Results of performed experimental studies suggest that it is possible to use composite fuels based on coal and wood at thermal power plants.

  3. Upgrading of Symbolic and Synthetic Knowledge Bases: Evidence from the Chinese Automotive and Construction Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Tuijl (Erwin); K. Dittrich (Koen); J. van der Borg (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with the question of how upgrading of the symbolic and synthetic knowledge bases takes place and, by doing so, we contribute to the upgrading literature by linking upgrading with the concept of the differentiated knowledge bases. We discern a number of upgrading

  4. Structure, conduct, and sustainability of the international low-enriched fuel fabrication industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the cost structures of fabricating Low-Enriched Uranium fuel (LEU, enriched to 5% enrichment) light water reactor fuels. The LEU industry is decades old, and (except for high entry cost, i.e., the cost of designing and licensing a fuel fabrication facility and its fuel), labor and additional fabrication lines can be added by industry incumbents at Nth-of-a-Kind cost to the maximum capacity allowed by the license. On the other hand, new entrants face higher First-of-a-Kind costs and high new-facility licensing costs, increasing the scale required for entry thus discouraging small scale entry by countries with only a few nuclear power plants. Therefore, the industry appears to be competitive with sustainable investment in fuel-cycle states, and structural barriers-to-entry increase its proliferation resistance. (author)

  5. Basic research and industrialization of CANDU advanced fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Suk Ho; Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su [and others

    2000-04-01

    Wolsong Unit 1 as the first heavy water reactor in Korea has been in service for 17 years since 1983. It would be about the time to prepare a plan for the solution of problems due to aging of the reactor. The aging of CANDU reactor could lead especially to the steam generator cruding and pressure tube sagging and creep and then decreases the operation margin to make some problems on reactor operations and safety. The counterplan could be made in two ways. One is to repair or modify reactor itself. The other is to develop new advanced fuel to increase of CANDU operation margin effectively, so as to compensate the reduced operation margin. Therefore, the first objectives in the present R and D is to develop the CANFLEX-NU (CANDU Flexible fuelling-Natural Uranium) fuel as a CANDU advanced fuel. The second objectives is to develop CANDU advanced fuel bundle to utilize advanced fuel cycles such as recovered uranium, slightly enriched uranium, etc. and so to raise adaptability for change in situation of uranium market. Also, it is to develop CANDU advanced fuel technology which improve uranium utilization to cope with a world-wide imbalance between uranium supply and demand, without significant modification of nuclear reactor design and refuelling strategies. As the implementations to achieve the above R and D goal, the work contents and scope of technology development of CANDU advanced fuel using natural uranium (CANFLEX-NU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the nuclear design and fuel management analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the safety analysis, fuel fabrication technologies, the out-pile thermalhydraulic test and in-pile irradiation tests performed. At the next, the work scopes and contents of feasibility study of CANDU advanced fuel using recycled uranium (CANFLEX-RU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the reactor physics analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the basic safety analysis of a CANDU-6 reactor with CANFLEX-RU fuel, the fabrication and

  6. Basic research and industrialization of CANDU advanced fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Suk Ho; Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su

    2000-04-01

    Wolsong Unit 1 as the first heavy water reactor in Korea has been in service for 17 years since 1983. It would be about the time to prepare a plan for the solution of problems due to aging of the reactor. The aging of CANDU reactor could lead especially to the steam generator cruding and pressure tube sagging and creep and then decreases the operation margin to make some problems on reactor operations and safety. The counterplan could be made in two ways. One is to repair or modify reactor itself. The other is to develop new advanced fuel to increase of CANDU operation margin effectively, so as to compensate the reduced operation margin. Therefore, the first objectives in the present R and D is to develop the CANFLEX-NU (CANDU Flexible fuelling-Natural Uranium) fuel as a CANDU advanced fuel. The second objectives is to develop CANDU advanced fuel bundle to utilize advanced fuel cycles such as recovered uranium, slightly enriched uranium, etc. and so to raise adaptability for change in situation of uranium market. Also, it is to develop CANDU advanced fuel technology which improve uranium utilization to cope with a world-wide imbalance between uranium supply and demand, without significant modification of nuclear reactor design and refuelling strategies. As the implementations to achieve the above R and D goal, the work contents and scope of technology development of CANDU advanced fuel using natural uranium (CANFLEX-NU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the nuclear design and fuel management analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the safety analysis, fuel fabrication technologies, the out-pile thermalhydraulic test and in-pile irradiation tests performed. At the next, the work scopes and contents of feasibility study of CANDU advanced fuel using recycled uranium (CANFLEX-RU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the reactor physics analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the basic safety analysis of a CANDU-6 reactor with CANFLEX-RU fuel, the fabrication and

  7. Automobile industry and new bio-fuel oils: International panorama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, G.

    1992-01-01

    In assessing the technical/economic feasibility of the direct combustion of vegetable oils in diesel type engines, this paper first points out the good results obtained in performance tests on these fuels in Elsberg engines, and their low sulfur and nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide emission characteristics. It then assesses the improvements that are necessary in the development of marketable bio-fuel oils that conform to European Communities air pollution standards for automobiles. Further efforts must be made to reduce bio-fuel oil smoke emission levels, to compensate for their lower calorific value as compared with conventional diesel fuels, and to make them compatible with automobile finishing materials - paints and plastics. The paper suggests a set of suitable fiscal policies designed to favour the marketing of bio-diesel fuels based on their favourable pollution abating qualities - low greenhouse gas emissions and biodegradability

  8. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs

  9. Challenges of electric power industry restructuring for fuel suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the changes in other energy industries that could occur as the result of restructuring in the electric power industry. This report is prepared for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public. 28 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. Towards a reference architecture of fuel-based carbon management systems in the logistics industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Steenwijk, M.; Verkroost, P.

    2013-01-01

    The current practice in the logistics industry is to calculate the carbon footprint of transportation activities based on the distance covered, using long-term fuel consumption averages per kilometer. However, fuel consumption may actually vary over time, because of differences in road

  11. Trends in energy use and fuel efficiency in the US commercial airline industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.B.

    1981-12-01

    The record of the US commercial airline industry in improving fuel efficiency from 1973 to 1980 is examined. The components of the efficiency changes and how much fuel they saved are identified. The analysis focused only on the transportion of passengers, excluding helicopter service, commuter service, and flights devoted solely to transporting cargo. (MHR)

  12. Synthetic Biology and Microbial Fuel Cells: Towards Self-Sustaining Life Support Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA ARC and the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) collaborated to investigate the development of advanced microbial fuels cells (MFCs) for biological wastewater...

  13. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jarboe, Laura R.; Zhang, Xueli; Wang, Xuan; Moore, Jonathan C.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, Lonnie O.

    2010-01-01

    Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibito...

  14. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  15. Air pollution and economics: Alternate use of fuels in small scale industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, B.P.S.; Pandit, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    In developing countries the problem of air pollution was recognized earlier, however, it has acquired a greater dimension due to the conventional use of low grade fuels like coal, baggase, rice husk, etc. having high sulphur and ash content. The industrial sources contribute about 30--40% of the total emissions. In India, the small scale industries (low investment group) contribute about 60--80% of the total industrial emissions. These industries are characterized with various environmental pollution problems due to cluster of small scale industries located in sensitive area; use of low grade fuel, primitive processing techniques without emission abatement facilities etc., thus leading to enormous pollution in an confined region. Acute need was felt to reduce the pollution problem associated with small scale industries by use of cleaner fuel so as to reduce the localized problem. The paper presents the emissions associated with use of coal/coke, natural gas, LPG, and propane along with the fuel cost for small scale industrial sector of Agra, Firozabad and Mathura region. The studies carried out would find applicability to meet the air pollution standards based on shift in fuel and associated cost

  16. The startup performance and microbial distribution of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating medium-strength synthetic industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Nie, Hong; Ding, Jiangtao; Stinner, Walter; Sun, Kaixuan; Zhou, Hongjun

    2018-01-02

    In this study, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) with seven chambers was applied to treat medium-strength synthetic industrial wastewater (MSIW). The performance of startup and shock test on treating MSIW was investigated. During the acclimation process, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of MSIW gradually increased from 0 to 2,000 mg L -1 , and the COD removal finally reached 90%. At shock test, the feeding COD concentration increased by one-fifth and the reactor adapted very well with a COD removal of 82%. In a stable state, Comamonas, Smithella, Syntrophomonas and Pseudomonas were the main populations of bacteria, while the predominant methanogen was Methanobacterium. The results of chemical and microbiological analysis indicated the significant advantages of ABR, including buffering shocks, separating stages with matching microorganisms and promoting syntrophism. Meanwhile, the strategies for acclimation and operation were of great importance. Further work can test reactor performance in the treatment of actual industrial wastewater.

  17. Analysis of Fuel Flexibility Opportunities and Constraints in the U.S. Industrial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2007-03-07

    The purpose of this assessment was to determine if flexible, alternative fuel use in industry, beyond switching from natural gas to petroleum derivatives, presents a sizeable opportunity for the reduction in use of natural gas. Furthermore, the assessment was to determine what programmatic activities the DOE could undertake to accelerate a fuel flexibility program for industry. To this end, a six-part framework (see Figure ES-1) was used to identify the most promising fuel flexibility options, and what level of accomplishment could be achieved, based on DOE leadership.

  18. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  19. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  20. Hydrogen movement and the next action: fossil fuels industry and sustainability economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejat Veziroglu, T.

    1997-01-01

    Since the hydrogen movement started in 1974, there has been progress in research, development, demonstration and commercialization activities, covering all aspects of the hydrogen energy system. In order to solve the interrelated problems of depletion of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of the combustion products of fossil fuels, it is desirable to speed up the conversion to the hydrogen energy system. Most established industries have joined the hydrogen movement. There is one exception: the fossil fuel industry. A call is made to the fossil fuel industry to join the hydrogen movement. It is also proposed to change the present economic system with a sustainability economics in order to account for environmental damage, recyclability and decommissioning, and thus, ensure a sustainable future. (Author)

  1. Working group report: methane emissions from fuel combustion and industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdowski, J.J.M.; Beck, L.; Piccot, S.; Olivier, J.G.J.; Veldt, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper lists the source categories which are currently recognised as minor sources of methane. These fall into five broad groups: stationary fuel combustion (residential combustion of fuels, solid waste incineration at home sites, on-site agricultural waste burning, industrial and utility combustion of coal, wood, oil and gas, commercial and industrial waste incineration); mobile fuel combustion; non-combustion industrial processes (primary metals production, chemical manufacturing processes, petroleum refining, commercial charcoal manufacturing waste treatments); minor energy production sources (storage and distribution of automotive fuels, geothermal energy production; peat mining operations, oil shale mining operations); and miscellaneous sources. The paper also presents a preliminary estimate of global methane emissions from these minor sources and the results of the working group's discussion on recommendations for the IPCC/OECD methodology and specific research needs. A list of control options for emissions from minor sources is provided. 2 tabs

  2. Research of power fuel low-temperature vortex combustion in industrial boiler based on numerical modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova K.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the presented research is to perform numerical modelling of fuel low-temperature vortex combustion in once-through industrial steam boiler. Full size and scaled-down furnace model created with FIRE 3D software and was used for the research. All geometrical features were observed. The baseline information for the low-temperature vortex furnace process are velocity and temperature of low, upper and burner blast, air-fuel ratio, fuel consumption, coal dust size range. The obtained results are: temperature and velocity three dimensional fields, furnace gases and solid fuel ash particles concentration.

  3. Sustainable use of biogenic fuels resources through industrial synergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuech, Andrea; Nelles, Michael; Nassour, Abdallah

    2017-01-01

    The term industrial symbiosis is used when traditionally separate companies and industries work together in a collective approach to physically exchange materials, energy, water and by-products with a mutual competitive advantage. Aim of the European project ''UBIS - Urban Baltic Industrial Symbiosis'' (INTERREG South-Baltic Programme) is to use biogenic resources as well as waste and residues sustainable in industrial symbiosis and to reduce emissions at the same time. Even if a lot has already been achieved in this area, there are still many unused material flows and there are possibilities to use them even more efficiently. In the project existing collaborations will be investigated as well as new ones identified and evaluated. This article introduces the UBIS project and provides an insight into the subject of industrial symbiosis as well examples described.

  4. Utilizing Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel for industrial steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie B. Maglaya [De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-01-01

    The fast depletion of fuel oil and the continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. In the Philippines, the demand for diesel oil is expected to increase significantly in a 20-year period as projected by the Department of Energy. In line with the Philippine Government's thrust to lessen the dependence on imported energy, the agenda for the search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus, this paper presents the results of the study on performance analysis and efficiency test of a diesel oil fired industrial steam generator using Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel. A computer program was developed in HyperText Markup Language (HTML{copyright}) and JavaScript{copyright} to aid the computation of the adiabatic flame temperature from the governing system of equations based on the heat interaction between CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion to determine the most desirable alternative fuel. Actual experimentation for the determination of CDOM fuel properties was also conducted to verify the alternative fuel selected through theoretical calculations. Results showed that the CDOM fuel with a particle size passing 75 {mu}m (-200 mesh) sieve having a proportion of 5% pulverized coal-95% diesel oil and 10% pulverized coal-90% diesel oil could be handled throughout the test with no degradation of the industrial steam generator. The steam generator efficiency using diesel oil is close to the steam generator efficiency using both CDOM fuels. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Metabolites from inhalation of aerosolized S-8 synthetic jet fuel in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Raphael T; Martin, Sheppard A; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2011-01-01

    Alternative fuels are being considered for civilian and military uses. One of these is S-8, a replacement jet fuel synthesized using the Fischer-Tropsch process, which contains no aromatic compounds and is mainly composed of straight and branched alkanes. Metabolites of S-8 fuel in laboratory animals have not been identified. The goal of this study was to identify metabolic products from exposure to aerosolized S-8 and a designed straight-chain alkane/polyaromatic mixture (decane, undecane, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, naphthalene, and 2-methylnaphthalene) in male Fischer 344 rats. Collected blood and tissue samples were analyzed for 70 straight and branched alcohols and ketones ranging from 7 to 15 carbons. No fuel metabolites were observed in the blood, lungs, brain, and fat following S-8 exposure. Metabolites were detected in the liver, urine, and feces. Most of the metabolites were 2- and 3-position alcohols and ketones of prominent hydrocarbons with very few 1- or 4-position metabolites. Following exposure to the alkane mixture, metabolites were observed in the blood, liver, and lungs. Interestingly, heavy metabolites (3-tridecanone, 2-tridecanol, and 2-tetradecanol) were observed only in the lung tissues possibly indicating that metabolism occurred in the lungs. With the exception of these heavy metabolites, the metabolic profiles observed in this study are consistent with previous studies reporting on the metabolism of individual alkanes. Further work is needed to determine the potential metabolic interactions of parent, primary, and secondary metabolites and identify more polar metabolites. Some metabolites may have potential use as biomarkers of exposure to fuels.

  6. OECD/NEA WGFCS Workshop: Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities - Regulatory Approaches and Industry Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is produced, processed, and stored mainly in industrial-scale facilities. Uranium ores are processed and refined to produce a pure uranium salt stream, Uranium is converted and enriched, nuclear fuel is fabricated (U fuel and U/Pu fuel for the closed cycle option); and spent fuel is stored and reprocessed in some countries (close cycle option). Facilities dedicated to the research and development of new fuel or new processes are also considered as Fuel Cycle Facilities. The safety assessment of nuclear facilities has often been led by the methodology and techniques initially developed for Nuclear Power Plants. As FCFs cover a wide diversity of installations the various approaches of national regulators, and their technical support organizations, for the Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities are also diverse, as are the approaches by their industries in providing safety justifications for their facilities. The objective of the Working Group on Fuel Cycle Safety is to advance the understanding for both regulators and operators of relevant aspects of nuclear fuel cycle safety in member countries. A large amount of experience is available in safety assessment of FCFs, which should be shared to develop ideas in this field. To contribute to this task, the Workshop on 'Safety Assessment of Fuel Cycle Facilities - Regulatory Approaches and Industry Perspectives' was held in Toronto, on 27 - 29 September 2011. The workshop was hosted by Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The current proceedings provide summary of the results of the workshop with the text of the papers given and presentations made

  7. Financial subsidies to the Australian fossil fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedy, Chris; Diesendorf, Mark

    2003-01-01

    A common claim during international greenhouse gas reduction negotiations has been that domestic emissions cuts will harm national economies. This argument fails to consider the distorting effect of existing financial subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption provided by governments in most developed countries. These subsidies support a fossil fuel energy sector that is the major contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions and conflict with attempts to expand the role of sustainable energy technologies. Reform of these types of subsidies has the potential to provide substantial gains in economic efficiency as well as reductions in carbon dioxide emissions--a 'no regrets' outcome for the economy and the environment. This paper examines financial subsidies to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia and estimates the magnitude of the subsidies. Subsidies and associated incentives to fossil fuel production and consumption in Australia are similar to those in the United States and the other countries that have pushed for increased 'flexibility' during international negotiations

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle and its supply industrial system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takei, M [Japan Energy Economic Research Inst., Tokyo

    1976-04-01

    This paper discusses problems about the supply and costs of nuclear fuel cycle referring to the discussions of IAEA's Advisory Group Meeting. As for natural uranium resources, prospect is given to the demand, supply, and cost trend up to 2000. As for uranium enrichment, the increasing capacity is compared with the projected demand. The comparison of cost characteristics between diffusion and centrifuge plants is presented with respect to plant scale, investment cost, electric power cost, and operation and maintenance cost. The fabrication cost for fuel is analyzed, and it is suggested that some cost down can be expected for the future. As for the mixed oxide fuel fabrication, the capacity in each country and the estimated fabrication costs for PWR, prototype fast breeder reactor and commercial fast breeder reactor are presented. As for reprocessing, the shortage of supply capacity and the needs for more storage capacity are emphasized. The estimated reprocessing cost for a new plant is also presented. Finally, the present status and future trend of fuel storage in each major country are reviewed.

  9. LWR fuel fabrication: a mature and competitive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    The pressures on fuel fabricators - to avoid losing existing clients as well as to win any new business that is put up to tender in this overly supplied market - is driving them to reduce costs and to improve designs and performance. (author)

  10. Mononitride fuel and large scale nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Sila-Novitsky, A.G.; Smirnov, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    Work to study nitride fuel, conducted in Russia a long time, has indicated interrelation between operational properties, including the data of gas fission release, the content of impurities and synthesis processes. Recommended method production fuel from initial metal, as more profitable that one from initial oxide, needs development of electro-chemical reprocessing with metal as end product and contributory to nonproliferation and cost efficient fuel cycle. Irradiation tests UN have shown no fission gaseous bubble within the lead sublayer. Taking as example the core design of BREST reactor of 300 MW(e) power there have been shown a possibility to put into reality a principle of nature safety in fast reactor by using inherent properties of U-Pu mononitride fuel (high density and thermal conductivity, low fission gas release and swelling) and lead coolant (low neutron absorption and moderation, high density and boiling temperature, chemical passive) as well as original technical solution on core major component (passive self-regulatory). (author). 19 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  11. Industrial use of SPring-8 in fuel cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    The study of fuel cells by using synchrotron radiation from SPring-8 was reviewed for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs; also called proton exchange membrane fuel cells), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and fuel cell-related materials. PEFCs use a solid polymer as an electrolyte and porous carbon electrodes containing a platinum catalyst. Measurements of Pt particles in the cathode catalyst by x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) showed that the decrease of the particle size of Pt particles caused an increased of the number of 5d orbital holes of Pt atoms. Oxidization processes of Pt particles were measured by time-resolved dispersive x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Measurements by time-gating quick scan XAFS together with dispersive XAFS revealed the reduction-oxidation process of Pt nanoparticles under the operation condition of PEFCs. SOFCs use a hard, non-porous ceramic compound as the electrolyte. SOFCs are operated at very high temperatures - around 1,000degC. Oxides having perovskite and fluorite structures are one of the most promising materials for electrolyte of SOFCs operated at reduced temperatures. The local structures of doped ceria and lanthanum gallate compounds were studied by extended XAFS. It was indicated from the measurements of ionic conductivity of these compounds that the local structure seriously affected oxide ionic conduction. Residual thermal stresses in the electrolyte of the anode-supported planar SOFCs were measured by high-energy x-rays. The crystal structure and electron density distribution of hydrogen storage alloys were measured by x-ray diffraction. (Y.K.)

  12. Demonstration of CO2 Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. M. Dowson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO2 utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO2 in nitrogen similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO2, this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO2 to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO2 to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so-called hydrogen

  13. Demonstration of CO{sub 2} Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowson, George R. M. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Styring, Peter, E-mail: p.styring@sheffield.ac.uk [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Department of Chemistry, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-12

    A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO{sub 2} utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO{sub 2} in nitrogen) similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO{sub 2}, this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO{sub 2} to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO{sub 2} to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so

  14. Preserving R and D: a crucial challenge for the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignon, D.

    1999-01-01

    Electricity of nuclear origin, accounts for about 30 % of the total consumption of the OECD countries. This percentage is considerably higher in several European countries (Sweden, Belgium, and France), which decided in the 1970's to put special emphasis on nuclear energy. At the heart of nuclear energy is the fuel. This is what is periodically replaced in the reactors, and therefore contributes a substantial share to the operating cost. This is also where the by-products of the nuclear chain reaction accumulate. It is the original source of the releases related to nuclear reactor operation, as well as the accidental releases. At the end of the fuel cycle in the reactor, the nuclear fuel still contains fissile materials (uranium and plutonium), but also neutron capture and fission products that must be stored. The spent fuel is the point of departure of the problem of radioactive wastes. Can a representative of the nuclear energy industry finally remind his audience that nuclear fuel is also a high-technology product - complex in its design, but that must remain simple to produce, and which customers want to have 'just in time'. Nuclear fuel is an industrial product behind which are found the factories, production facilities, and the men and women who must adapt it to the nuclear energy of tomorrow. It would be presumptuous of me to pretend to sketch out an exhaustive panorama of the problems related to nuclear fuel in my opening remarks to this conference. However, I would like to emphasize how the nuclear fuel industry has long anticipated and taken into account the requirements of the nuclear energy industry, amplified by the competitive pressures due to deregulation of the electricity markets: cost reduction and public acceptance of nuclear energy. Nuclear fuel plays an essential role to ensure the competitiveness of nuclear energy today and its acceptance by the public tomorrow. (authors)

  15. Importance of hydrogen fuels as sustainable alternative energy for domestic and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifan, H.R.; Banan, N.; Davari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Energy demand is increasing continuously due to rapid growth in population and industrialization development. As a result greenhouse gases especially CO 2 produced by the combustion of fossil fuels cause depletion of fossil fuels and deterioration of environmental conditions worldwide. The goal of global energy sustainability implies the replacement of all fossil fuels by renewable energy sources . Hydrogen fuel is one of the sustainable energy sources can be available by conversion of biomass into biological hydrogen gas and ethanol. Rate of biomass generation in domestic wastes in Iranian culture is high. Therefore there is suitable potential for hydrogen generation in rural and urban areas of Iran. On the other hand energy extraction from these fossil fuels causes pollution and diseases. Globally, hydrogen is already produced in significant quantities (around 5 billion cubic metres per annum). It is mainly used to produce ammonia for fertiliser (about 50%), for oil refining (37%), methanol production (8%) and in the chemical and metallurgical industries (4%). On the other hand, increase in emissions rates of greenhouse gases, i.e., CO 2 present a threat to the world climate. Also new legislation of Iran has been approved the higher costs of conventional fuels for consuming in vehicles for reduction of greenhouse gases reduction as environmental policies. Demand is rising in all cities of Iran for cleaner fuels such as mixed fuels and natural gas, but unfortunately they are exporting to foreign countries or the required technologies are not available and economically option. Nuclear industries in Iran are also small and expanding only slowly. So importance of alternative energies as hydrogen powers are increasing daily. Presently both major consumers of domestic and industrial such as plants and manufacturers are using fossil fuels for their process that consequently contribute to the global warming and climate change. This paper reviews these options, with

  16. Transport of oxide spent fuel. Industrial experience of COGEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1983-01-01

    COGEMA is ruling all transports of spent fuel to La Hague reprocessing plant. The paper summarizes some aspects of the experience gained in this field (road, rail and sea transports) and describes the standards defined by COGEMA as regards transport casks. These standards are as follows: - casks of dry type, - casks of the maximum size compatible with rail transports, - capability to be unloaded with standardized equipment and following standard procedures

  17. Integrated planning for a fuel industry with emphasis on minimum size to fabricate own fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondal Rao, N.; Katiyar, H.C.; Rajendran, R.; Sinha, K.K.; Swaminathan, N.; Subramanyam, R.B.; Pande, B.P.; Krishnan, T.S.; Agarwala, G.C.; Chandramouli, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Indian nuclear energy programme is based on the utilization of indigenous resources for the economic generation of power, developing its own know-how. In order to gain time, the first nuclear power station at Tarapur is a turn-key job based on enriched uranium fuel. Taking into consideration the established resources of uranium and thorium in the country, a strategy for nuclear power programme has been drawn up. The first phase is based on natural uranium fuel, the second phase on the recycle of plutonium and conversion of thorium and the third phase is the breeder system based on utilization of U 233 and conversion of thorium. This programme is specially significant for India in view of its vast resources of thorium. After the experience and confidence gained with the manufacture of metallic uranium fuel for the research reactors and about 40 tonnes of fuel for the initial loading of the Rajasthan Reactor, the fuel manufacturing programme within the country has been implemented to meet the entire initial and reload fuel requirements. The plant capacities are small compared to similar activities in developed countries. Further, by planning for an integrated fuel and component manufacturing complex, any draw-back in smaller scale of some of the operations is off-set. At the Nuclear Fuel Complex, set up on the above principles, production plants are in operation for the manufacture of reload fuel for the 400 MW Tarapur station, natural uranium oxide fuel, various zircaloy components such as fuel sheaths, pressure tubes, calandria tubes, channels and various other zircaloy components. Provisions have been made to expand the production facilities as the demand for reload fuel grows. With the facilities provided, the production programme can be diversified to take up the production of fast breeder reactor components of stainless steel and also the blanket thorium elements. The unitary control of all aspects of the manufacture and quality control of different types

  18. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry - volume, fleet characteristics and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry in Denmark, using aggregate time series data for the period 1980–2007. The model captures the main linkages between the demand for freight transport, the characteristics of the vehicle fleet, and the demand for fuel. Results...... of this effect is approximately 10% in the short run and 17% in the long run, so that a 1% improvement in fuel efficiency reduces fuel use by 0.90% (short-run) to 0.83% (long-run). Second, we find that higher fuel prices raise the average capacity of trucks, and they induce firm sto invest in newer, typically...... more fuel efficient, trucks. Third, these adjustments and the rebound effect jointly imply that the effect of higher fuel prices on fuel use in the trucking industry is fairly small; estimated price elasticities are _0:13 and _0:22 in the short run and in the long run, respectively. The empirical...

  19. Nuclear fuel industry of the republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenov, D.; Dara, S.

    2001-01-01

    National Atomic Company Kazatomprom has been established in 1997 by special presidential decree with the purpose to coordinate the former USSR Nuclear Industry enterprises located on the territory of Kazakhstan. The Government of Kazakhstan entrusts the republican nuclear sector's future to Kazatomprom. Although Kazatomprom is a state-owned company and operates on behalf of the government, it is private in terms of ownership, being organized in a form of a closed type joint stock company, and within its structure there are daughter companies with a certain share of private capital. Formally Kazatomprom has started only a few years ago, but it should not create confusion. Because Kazatomprom has only united the USSR traditional nuclear cycle units, which, I want to emphasize for, count as long history as that of the nuclear industry itself. This fact is the guarantee of high quality production culture inherent to the former USSR Defense Industry

  20. Commercial Approval Plan for Synthetic Jet Fuel from Hydrotreated Fats and Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-18

    driven by their experience, some of it very negative, with the other more well known organic oil derived fuel, BioDiesel. BioDiesel is methyl ester of...the fatty acid ( FAME ) that comes from the triglycerides that compose the organic oil. The HRJ SPKs are deoxygenated materials that are processed in...SwRI Cu PE506 * Semi-Quant Survey ICP/MS * Organic Elements C:H D5291 * N D4629 * S D5453 * Acid Number D3242 * Carbonyls, alcohols, esters , phenols

  1. Evaluation of Synthetic Fuel for Army Ground Applications Tasks II-VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-29

    84760 23819 31 PAHZZ 2910013638782 84760 28986 32 PABZZ 4730004596077 84760 15228 33 PAHZZ 5360011886693 78514 27003 33 PAHZZ 5360013181894 84760...SUPERSEDES: EDmON NO.: 15 DATED: OT-31-0S DEPT. OF DEFSNSE (1.2 CST MIN. FUEL) NOTE; THIS SPECIFICATION DEVt:LOPED WITH ISO LONG INI. t:T STUD... ISO 4093: .083" (1.6 mmliD X 25" {636 mml LONG. 2. CAUSRATIN~ INJECTORS ........ ’SAE Jlii66/ ISO 7440: 0.5 mm ORIFICE PLATE NOP: 3000 PSI (207 &ARl

  2. Secondary fuels and raw materials in the Spanish cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordobil, J.C.U.; Guede, Elena [Cementos Lemona s.a. (Spain)

    1997-03-01

    The growing environmental and energy concern are having an impact on the Spanish cement industry. This article describes the impact on waste management, the operation of cement kilns and the possibility for recycling. Current projects and future prospects are described. (UK)

  3. Permission of the alteration in nuclear fuel material processing business in the Kumatori Works of Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. (report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A report by the Nuclear Safety Commission to the Prime Minister concerning the permission of the alteration in nuclear fuel material processing business in the Kumatori Works, Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd., was presented. The technical capability of NFI and the safety of the business alteration were confirmed. The items of the safety examination concerning the alteration, made by the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Fuel Safety of NSC, are as follows: the aseismic design and fire prevention measures of the No.2 processing building and the No.3 waste storage building to be newly installed; criticality control concerning the No.2 processing building; the release control of gaseous and liquid wastes; the management of solid wastes; radiation control; the exposure dose of general public. (J.P.N.)

  4. Near-term markets for PEM fuel cell power modules: industrial vehicles and hydrogen recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintawar, P.S.; Block, G.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc. is a global leader in the development and advancement of multifuel processing and fuel cell technology. With offices located in Italy and the USA, Nuvera is committed to advancing the commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell power modules for industrial vehicles and equipment and stationary applications by 2006, natural gas fuel cell power systems for cogeneration applications by 2007, and on-board gasoline fuel processors and fuel cell stacks for automotive applications by 2010. Nuvera Fuel Cells Europe is ISO 9001:2000 certified for 'Research, Development, Design, Production and Servicing of Fuel Cell Stacks and Fuel Cell Systems.' In the chemical industry, one of the largest operating expenses today is the cost of electricity. For example, caustic soda and chlorine are produced today using industrial membrane electrolysis which is an energy intensive process. Production of 1 metric ton of caustic soda consumes 2.5 MWh of energy. However, about 20% of the electricity consumed can be recovered by converting the hydrogen byproduct of the caustic soda production process into electricity via PEM fuel cells. The accessible market is a function of the economic value of the hydrogen whether flared, used as fuel, or as chemical. Responding to this market need, we are currently developing large hydrogen fuel cell power modules 'Forza' that use excess hydrogen to produce electricity, representing a practical economic alternative to reducing the net electricity cost. Due for commercial launch in 2006, Forza is a low-pressure, steady state, base-load power generation solution that will operate at high efficiency and 100% capacity over a 24-hour period. We believe this premise is also true for chemical and electrochemical plants and companies that convert hydrogen to electricity using renewable sources like windmills or hydropower. The second near-term market that Nuvera is developing utilizes a 5.5 kW hydrogen fueled power module 'H 2 e

  5. Renewable and dangerous residues as industrial fuels. Study about hard environmental support in the cement production in Brazil, years 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Auxiliadora Maria Moura; Seva Filho, Arsenio Oswaldo

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work is to indicate new fuels to Brazilian cement industry. A comparative study is presented. The renewable energetic sources, not renewable energetic sources, and residues of other industrial processes are analyzed

  6. High-temperature gas reactor (HTGR) market assessment, synthetic fuels analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This study is an update of assessments made in TRW's October 1979 assessment of overall high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) markets in the future synfuels industry (1985 to 2020). Three additional synfuels processes were assessed. Revised synfuel production forecasts were used. General environmental impacts were assessed. Additional market barriers, such as labor and materials, were researched. Market share estimates were used to consider the percent of markets applicable to the reference HTGR size plant. Eleven HTGR plants under nominal conditions and two under pessimistic assumptions are estimated for selection by 2020. No new HTGR markets were identified in the three additional synfuels processes studied. This reduction in TRW's earlier estimate is a result of later availability of HTGR's (commercial operation in 2008) and delayed build up in the total synfuels estimated markets. Also, a latest date for HTGR capture of a synfuels market could not be established because total markets continue to grow through 2020. If the nominal HTGR synfuels market is realized, just under one million tons of sulfur dioxide effluents and just over one million tons of nitrous oxide effluents will be avoided by 2020. Major barriers to a large synfuels industry discussed in this study include labor, materials, financing, siting, and licensing. Use of the HTGR intensifies these barriers

  7. Proceedings of the symposium on potential health and environmental effects of synthetic fossil fuel technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This symposium included five sessions. Session I dealt with the technology for contending with harmful effluents primarily from coal conversion processes. Session II was designed to address the need for the systematic application of existing capabilities to the collection and characterization of materials of importance to the life scientists. Session III had the underlying theme of the health effects research - biologists, chemists, and technologists working together to confront the problems of the emerging industries. Session IV provided the most recent data in the areas of atmospheric, solid, and liquid releases. Session V dealt with effects on humans and on those people who may potentially be affected by the toxic material that they produce. In summary, the sessions were: technology, chemical, characterization, biological effects, environmental and ecological effects and occupational health effects. 29 pages were included.

  8. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  9. Annual and activity report 2005 - INB - Brazilian Nuclear Industries. Nuclear fuel: technology for the essential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reports the activities of Brazilian Nuclear Industry company during 2005 as follows: uranium isotope enrichment; production of nuclear fuel; mineral resources; finance and administration; planning and sales; quality, safety and environment, communication and social action; economic and financial management

  10. Carburants de substitution : orientations et recherches françaises Synthetic Fuels: French Orientation and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibet J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le programme d'études et de recherches entrepris en France, depuis 1981, dans le domaine des carburants de substitution, porte à la fois sur l'examen des techniques d'obtention et sur les modalités d'utilisation de ces produits. Les travaux concernent essentiellement le méthanol, le système acétono-butylique et, pour les moteurs Diesel, les dérivés d'huiles végétales. On prévoit, dans une première phase, l'incorporation de faibles proportions - moins de 10 % - de produits organiques oxygénés dans le supercarburant sans modifier les spécifications du produit ni les conditions de réglage des véhicules. D'autres études sont effectuées sur des mélanges à teneur moyenne ou élevée en méthanol (30, 50 ou 90 % afin d'examiner les meilleures voies possibles pour une substitution plus importante. The research undertaken in France since 1981 in the field of alternative fuels includes both the ways of producing and the ways of using such products. These research projects mainly concern methanol, butanol-acetone system and, for diesel engines, vegetable-oil derivatives. In the first phase, plans are being made to incorporate small proportions (less then 10% of oxygenated organic products in premium gasoline without modifying either the specifications of the product or vehicle tuning conditions. Other research is being done on mixtures with a moderate or high methanol content (30, 50 or 90% so as to examine the best possible methods for substituting larger amounts.

  11. Determination of heating value of industrial waste for the formulation of alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouabid G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative fuels has become increasingly widespread. They are basically designed based on industrial waste so that they can substitute fossil fuels which start to become scarce. Alternative fuels must meet some criteria, namely an important calorific content, minimum humidity and ash content. When it comes to combustion, the most interesting parameter is the calorific value which represents the thermal energy released during combustion. The experiments that were conducted showed that the calorific value is influenced by other parameters namely moisture and ash content. It was therefore necessary to study the behavior of the heating value in terms of these two parameters in order to establish a relationship that is used to describe the behavior. This is expected to allow a simulation of the calorific value of a mixture of various industrial waste.

  12. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Nonlinear acoustics, synthetic aperture imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingvall, Fredrik; Ping Wu; Stepinski, Tadeusz [Uppsala Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science

    2003-03-01

    This report contains results concerning inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in year 2001/2002. The first chapter presents results of an investigation of a new method for synthetic aperture imaging. The new method presented here takes the form of a 2D filter based on minimum mean squared error (MMSE) criteria. The filter, which varies with the target position in two dimensions includes information about spatial impulse response (SIR) of the imaging system. Spatial resolution of the MMSE method is investigated and compared experimentally to that of the classical SAFT and phased array imaging. It is shown that the resolution of the MMSE algorithm, evaluated for imaging immersed copper specimen is superior to that observed for the two above-mentioned methods. Extended experimental and theoretical research concerning the potential of nonlinear waves and material harmonic imaging is presented in the second chapter. An experimental work is presented that was conducted using the RITEC RAM-5000 ultrasonic system capable of providing a high power tone-burst output. A new method for simulation of nonlinear acoustic waves that is a combination of the angular spectrum approach and the Burger's equation is also presented. This method was used for simulating nonlinear elastic waves radiated by the annular transducer that was used in the experiments.

  13. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Nonlinear acoustics, synthetic aperture imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingvall, Fredrik; Ping Wu; Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2003-03-01

    This report contains results concerning inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound obtained at Signals and Systems, Uppsala University in year 2001/2002. The first chapter presents results of an investigation of a new method for synthetic aperture imaging. The new method presented here takes the form of a 2D filter based on minimum mean squared error (MMSE) criteria. The filter, which varies with the target position in two dimensions includes information about spatial impulse response (SIR) of the imaging system. Spatial resolution of the MMSE method is investigated and compared experimentally to that of the classical SAFT and phased array imaging. It is shown that the resolution of the MMSE algorithm, evaluated for imaging immersed copper specimen is superior to that observed for the two above-mentioned methods. Extended experimental and theoretical research concerning the potential of nonlinear waves and material harmonic imaging is presented in the second chapter. An experimental work is presented that was conducted using the RITEC RAM-5000 ultrasonic system capable of providing a high power tone-burst output. A new method for simulation of nonlinear acoustic waves that is a combination of the angular spectrum approach and the Burger's equation is also presented. This method was used for simulating nonlinear elastic waves radiated by the annular transducer that was used in the experiments

  14. Analysis of fuel oil consumption in industrial steam boiler plants in Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin; Tashevski, Done

    1999-01-01

    The steam boiler plants with heavy and light fuel oils in Republic of Macedonia are analyzed and determined. Depending of the working exit pressure, they are grouped in main industrial branches. The heat capacity and the steam production for the steam boiler plants are determined both total and separately by the different industrial branches. Depending of heat capacity and working period per year, the consumption of heavy and light oil is analyzed and determined particular for each industrial branch and total for all steam boiler plants for summer and winter period. (Author)

  15. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  16. Synthetic liquid fuels development: assessment of critical factors. Volume III. Coal resource depletion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, E.M.; Yabroff, I.W.; Kroll, C.A.; White, R.K.; Walton, B.L.; Ivory, M.E.; Fullen, R.E.; Weisbecker, L.W.; Hays, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    While US coal resources are known to be vast, their rate of depletion in a future based predominantly on coal has not been examined analytically heretofore. The Coal Depletion Model inventories the coal resource on a regional basis and calculates the cost of coal extraction by three technologies - strip and underground mining and in-situ combustion. A plausible coal demand scenario extending from 1975 to the year 2050 is used as a basis in applying the model. In the year 2050, plants in operation include 285 syncrude plants, each producing 100,000 B/D; 312 SNG plants, each producing 250 million SCF/D and 722 coal-fired electric power plants, each of 1000 MW capacity. In addition, there is 890 million tons per year of industrial coal consumption. Such a high level of coal use would deplete US coal resources much more rapidly than most people appreciate. Of course, the actual amount of US coal is unknown, and if the coal in the hypothetical reliability category is included, depletion is delayed. Coal in this category, however, has not been mapped; it is only presumed to exist on the basis of geological theory. The coal resource depletion model shows that unilateral imposition of a severance tax by a state tends to shift production to other coal producing regions. Boom and bust cycles are both delayed and reduced in their magnitude. When several states simultaneously impose severance taxes, the effect of each is weakened.Key policy issues that emerge from this analysis concern the need to reduce the uncertainty of the magnitude and geographic distribution of the US coal resource and the need to stimulate interaction among the parties at interest to work out equitable and acceptable coal conversion plant location strategies capable of coping with the challenges of a high-coal future.

  17. Briquette fuel production from wastewater sludge of beer industry and biodiesel production wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusong, P.; Puajindanetr, S.

    2018-04-01

    The production of industrial wastes is increasing each year. Current methods of waste disposal are severely impacting the environment. Utilization of industrial wastes as an alternative material for fuel is gaining interest due to its environmental friendliness. Thus, the objective of this research was to study the optimum condition for fuel briquettes produced from wastewater sludge of the beer industry and biodiesel production wastes. This research is divided into two parts. Part I will study the effects of carbonization of brewery wastewater sludge for high fixed carbon. Part II will study the ratio between brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth for its high heating value. The results show that the maximum fixed carbon of 10.01% by weight was obtained at a temperature of 350 °C for 30 minutes. The appropriate ratio of brewery wastewater sludge and bleaching earth by weight was 95:5. This condition provided the highest heating value of approximately 3548.10 kcal/kg.

  18. Regional Branching Reconsidered: Emergence of the Fuel Cell Industry in European Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The literature on economic geography suffers from a lack of attention to the emergence of new industries. Recent literature on “regional branching” proposes that new industries emerge in regions where preexisting economic activities are technologically related to the emerging industry. This article...... provides a more grounded basis for the emerging literature on regional branching by confronting the regional branching thesis with the realities of an emerging industry, namely, the fuel cell industry. The analysis is based on patent data and qualitative interviews conducted in a selection of European NUTS...... new technologies to their product portfolio. The importance of further investigating and disentangling different dimensions of relatedness and their impact on regional branching is stressed....

  19. Microbial alkane production for jet fuel industry: motivation, state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Díaz, Lorena; Caballero, Antonio; Pérez-Hernández, Natalia; Segura, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Bio-jet fuel has attracted a lot of interest in recent years and has become a focus for aircraft and engine manufacturers, oil companies, governments and researchers. Given the global concern about environmental issues and the instability of oil market, bio-jet fuel has been identified as a promising way to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from the aviation industry, while also promoting energy security. Although a number of bio-jet fuel sources have been approved for manufacture, their commercialization and entry into the market is still a far way away. In this review, we provide an overview of the drivers for intensified research into bio-jet fuel technologies, the type of chemical compounds found in bio-jet fuel preparations and the current state of related pre-commercial technologies. The biosynthesis of hydrocarbons is one of the most promising approaches for bio-jet fuel production, and thus we provide a detailed analysis of recent advances in the microbial biosynthesis of hydrocarbons (with a focus on alkanes). Finally, we explore the latest developments and their implications for the future of research into bio-jet fuel technologies. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Projection of fossil fuels consumption in the Venezuelan electricity generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidoza, Jorge A.; Gallo, Waldyr L.R.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a prospective analysis on the impacts of recent efficient energy policies application in Venezuela, integrating both oil production and electricity supply to assess energy resources balance in a quantitative manner. A special focus is given to main fossil fuels used in the electric power industry; natural gas, diesel oil and fuel oil. Four scenarios were proposed, ranging from a low-economy-growth/low-efficiency scenario to an optimist high-economy-growth/high-efficiency scenario. Efficiency effects are more notorious for high-economy-growth case, fuel consumption for electricity generation reduces 38% for natural gas, 12% for diesel and 29% for fuel oil, in the established time period. Deficits in oil and gas Venezuelan production were also determined, deficits are highly affected by economical forecasting, and by fuel smuggling in Venezuelan borders. Results showed the high importance of energy efficiency policies development for Venezuela, in order to reduce fossil fuel domestic consumption to allocate them in a more profitable market. - Highlights: • We made a prospective analysis on efficient energy policies impacts in Venezuela. • Reduced fuel consumption was obtained for efficient scenarios. • Current energy regulations are not enough to encourage energy efficiency. • Hydroelectricity projects need more promotion to have deeper impacts.

  1. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  2. Fuel licensing process for an industrial use. ATF licensing process for an industrial use - Utility's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeckel, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    the reliability of the ATF rods (within the hosting FA). It is recommended to perform out-of pile endurance tests, in-pile irradiation tests (in prototypical conditions) before starting an irradiation in a commercial reactor. It is known that a single 'bad' rod failure could result in a costly premature shut-down of the NPP. If the ATF rods or assemblies are not compatible with the current NPPs fuel cores designs, the ATF concept validation will rely on MTRs irradiations only and the whole core will have to be removed before introducing the new fuel concept. This process is going to be risky and costly. In addition to finding the right ATF concept, the developers will have to address the (small and large scale) manufacturing issues, the accidental and normal operation behaviour issues (cladding, fuel pellet and their interactions with the fuel assembly structure), the economic vs. benefit vs. risk issues regarding the implementation of a new fuel concept. Defining an appropriate licensing process (new concept means new requirements and limits) is a motivating challenge. Considering the current discharge burn-ups observed in the nuclear industry (>60 Gwd/t) and the related time to get any irradiation feedback, the entire development/licensing process will be likely much longer than expected (30 years)

  3. The role of synthetic fuels in natural gas global market; Il ruolo dei combustibili sintetici nello scenario mondiale del gas naturale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, R. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Strategie delle politiche energetiche

    2001-09-01

    The paper examines the dilemma risen within the oil companies about the role the synthetic fuels will play in the context of the world energy scenery. [Italian] L'articolo e' basato sul dilemma che si e' proposto all'interno delle societa' petrolifere sul ruolo che sara' esercitato negli anni a venire dai combustibili sintetici all'interno del panorama energetico mondiale.

  4. Effects of SO2 emission regulations and fuel prices on levellized energy costs for industrial steam generation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdogan, Sibel; Arikol, Mahir

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the impacts of SO 2 emission regulations and fuel prices on levellized energy costs of industrial steam generation options. A computer model called INDUSTEAM has been utilized. The steam-supply options comprise conventional grate-firing, bubbling and circulating fluidized beds, fuel-oil, and natural-gas-fired systems. Fuels of different SO 2 pollution potential have been evaluated assuming six environmental scenarios and varying fuel prices. A capacity range of 10-90 MW th is covered. (author)

  5. Breaking down the barriers to commercialization of fuel cells in transportation through Government - industry R&D programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, S.G. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Venkateswaran, S.R. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    PEM fuel cell technology is rapidly emerging as a viable propulsion alternative to the internal combustion engine. Fuel cells offer the advantages of low emissions, high efficiency, fuel flexibility, quiet and continuous operation, and modularity. Over the last decade, dramatic advances have been achieved in the performance and cost of PEM fuel cell technologies for automotive applications. However, significant technical barriers remain to making fuel cell propulsion systems viable alternatives to the internal combustion engine. This paper focuses on the progress achieved and remaining technical barriers while highlighting Government-industry R&D efforts that are accelerating fuel cell technology toward commercialization.

  6. Projections of spent fuel to be discharged by the U.S. nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.W.; Kee, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-10-01

    Calculated properties of spent fuel projected to be discharged and accumulated by the U.S. nuclear power industry through the year 2031 A.D. are presented. The projections are based on installed nuclear capacities of 380 and 543 GW(e) in the year 2000 and 2030, respectively. They include compilations of the grams of the elements, curies of radioactivity, thermal decay power, photon and neutron emission rates, and radiotoxicities of the assemblies that are accumulated at a Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility (SURFF), allowing for delays of 5 and 10 years before shipment to SURFF

  7. Projections of spent fuel to be discharged by the U. S. nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, C.W.; Kee, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-10-01

    Calculated properties of spent fuel projected to be discharged and accumulated by the U.S. nuclear power industry through the year 2031 A.D. are presented. The projections are based on installed nuclear capacities of 380 and 543 GW(e) in the year 2000 and 2030, respectively. They include compilations of the grams of the elements, curies of radioactivity, thermal decay power, photon and neutron emission rates, and radiotoxicities of the assemblies that are accumulated at a Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility (SURFF), allowing for delays of 5 and 10 years before shipment to SURFF.

  8. Production and processing of fuel by the forest industry - opportunities and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the opportunities for the forest industry to establish a system of handling and processing biofuels in conjunction with their existing activities, and which would supply a future market for biofuels in, for example, electricity generation. The sawmills report that it is difficult today to find a market for fuel products, especially for sawmills at greater distances from larger biofuel-consuming plants. The sawmills show great interest in cogeneration in their own plants, but report difficulties in achieving profitability. The main problem is reported to be that the price of the surplus electricity delivered to the grid is too low, but also that the electricity prices today are so low that it is difficult to justify even generating electricity for the mill's own use. There is an interest in the paper and pulp industry for integrated methods and production of biofuels since the part-tree methods used, at least in some parts of Sweden, are considered to contribute also to an increase in the availability of pulp wood to the industry. A fundamental viewpoint is, however, that the plants are built for the primary purpose of producing pulp or paper. It is unlikely that the industry would give priority to investments for production of a new secondary product in the form of fuel products, particularly when the conditions today imply that there are few possibilities to achieve any particular profitability. The most probable solution is that the fuel is processed outside the industry by other parties, e.g., the forest divisions. In the long term, increased efficiency in the processes may lead to a primary heat surplus which could be used to produce processed fuels

  9. The European cement industry's approach to the use of secondary raw materials and fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    Position statements prepared by the European cement industry on the use of secondary raw materials and secondary fuels are introduced and presented. The statements indicate the approach of the industry to the use of these materials and, in the wider context, form part of the industry's overall approach to the environment. (Author). 2 refs.

  10. Nuclear fuel cycle industry. A responsible approach supporting non proliferation efforts in global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorant, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the reasons why and the manner in which nuclear industry is a stakeholder in non proliferation efforts. It then presents some recent proposals on multinational approaches to the fuel cycle industry and offers some comments and an industry view on these issues. A parallel is established with fundamental concepts in the field of radiation protection. Our industry, involved in 'nuclear technology development' (activities) qualified of 'sensitive' from a non proliferation standpoint, has major interests at stake in the evolution of the international non proliferation regime and is genuinely committed to the spreading of a non proliferation culture. The international community and in particular the nuclear community have been recently reflecting on ways to strengthen the non-proliferation regime in reaction to new threats or the perception thereof. Multilateral approaches regarding the nuclear fuel cycle are being discussed or proposed in this regard. Our approach as an industrial may be illustrated using the three basic principles developed in the field of radiation protection, namely limitation, justification and optimization. a) an overall limitation of sensitive facilities worldwide may be judicious, b) however no prohibition should be imposed if justified needs can be demonstrated on objective criteria, c) optimized used for existing facilities should be promoted through strengthened guarantees of supply where it may be necessary. (author)

  11. Industrial feasibility study of a spent nuclear fuel package for direct deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lous, K.; Loubrieu, J.; Chupeau, J.; Serpantie, J.P.; Becle, D.; Aubry, S.

    2001-01-01

    EDF has undertaken to study the industrial feasibility of a spent nuclear fuel package meeting direct disposal requirements. In this context, a disposal concept has been defined in which packages are cooled in place until the module is finally sealed. Indeed, one of the objectives of that disposal concept is to reduce the underground area occupied by the repository. A functional analysis has been performed within the framework of that ventilated disposal concept, taking into account the phases of the package lifetime from its conditioning until the disposal post-closure phase. An industrial feasibility study is in progress, which takes into account the functional specifications and some preliminary studies. (author)

  12. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  13. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 μm, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  14. Synthetic Fuels Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrs, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on aquatic transport studies with regard to photolysis of polycyclic compounds in water; volatilization of PAH from water; bioaccumulation of anthracene by fathead minnows; bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by aquatic invertebrates; bioaccumulation of arylamines by zooplankton; availability of sediment-bound trace metals to bluegill; microbial transformation; transport and transformation of anthracene in natural waters; and microcosm studies. Progress is also reported on acute and chronic aquatic effects; acute and chronic terrestrial effects; leaching and chemical and physical characterization of solid wastes; toxicology of solid wastes; and field site task studies with regard to aquatic transport behavior of trace contaminants in wastewater discharges and airborne contaminants at coking plant field site

  15. Ways of conserving fuel-energy resources in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshchenko, N.I.; Nabokov, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    A discussion is made of the work undertaken by enterprises and organizations of the coal industry to conserve fuel-energy resources in the tenth Five-Year Plan. An examination is made of the basic organizational-technical measures that have been implemented in this sector for conserving thermal and electrical energy. A presentation is made of the results obtained from the introduction of advanced technological processes and equipment aimed at increasing productivity and reducing operational losses of coal.

  16. The industrial production of fuel elements; La fabrication en france des elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussard, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Nadal, J [Societe Industrielle de Combustible Nucleaire (SICN), 75 - Paris (France); Pellen, A [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques (CERCA), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    The authors deal successively with the industrial production of fuel elements for power reactors of the natural uranium-graphite-gas type, and more particularly for the EDF power stations, and with the industrial production of fuel elements containing enriched uranium designed for swimming-pool type reactors. 1. part: advanced fuel elements for the EDF reactors. After recalling the characteristics of the fuel elements now being produced industrially for the Marcoule and Chinon reactors, the authors give the various steps leading to the industrial production of a new type of fuel element both as concerns the can, and in certain cases the graphite sleeve, and the fuel itself. As for as the production of the fuel is concerned, they describe the various operations, stressing the original aspects of the production and of the equipment such as: - casting in hot moulds, - thermal treatments, of Uranium containing 1% in weight molybdenum, - welding of the pellets for closing the tubes of uranium, - canning, - controls in the various steps. As far as can production is concerned they show why the extruded can was replaced by a machined can and give a few characteristics of the equipment used as well as the controls effected. They give also some details concerning the production and machining of the sleeves. After recalling the state of the nuclear fuel industry in France in mid-1964 the authors stress the economic aspects of the production of fuel elements. They show the relative importance of capital costs on the cost price of the fuel itself and examine the various items involved. They analyse the cost price of a completed fuel element using present date knowledge. In conclusion the authors show the particular points which should be the subject of future efforts in order to decrease the cost of a production which is perhaps delicate but now will define, and review the development of this new industrial branch. 2. part: industrial production of fuel elements for swimming

  17. Predictive assessment of the Ukrainian power industry fuel balance structure progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P. Voinov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing structure of the fuel balance in Ukraine does largely determine high prices of such energy products as the electricity and the heat. The main reason lies in the fact that approximately 40% of the fuel balance represents the expensive imported liquid and gaseous fuels. Of course, such balance structure significantly affects the energy security of Ukraine. The article analyzes the three main directions of this situation possible normalization: replacing the imported gas with relatively inexpensive domestic coal burned at boilers and innovative coal-fired burner systems, especially in the low-temperature boilers with fluidized bed furnaces; replacement of imported fuel with respectively cheap pyrolysis gas obtained from the domestic low-grade brown coal; organization of domestic production of shale gas, which industrial production is scheduled for 2020. These promising directions of the national energetics’ fuel balance development can be considered as a priority part of the national tasks of increasing the country’s energy independence.

  18. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  19. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of candidate alternate fuels for aircraft is presented. The fuels discussed include liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene. Each fuel is evaluated from the standpoint of production, transmission, airport storage and distribution facilities, and use in aircraft. Technology deficient areas for cryogenic fuels, which should be advanced prior to the introduction of the fuels into the aviation industry, are identified, as are the cost and energy penalties associated with not achieving those advances. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed. A detailed description of the various fuel production and liquefaction processes and their efficiencies and economics is given.

  20. Design and safety studies on the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) with CERMET fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.N.; Rineiski, A.; Liu, P.; Matzerath Boccaccini, C.; Flad, M.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.; Morita, K.

    2008-01-01

    European R and D for ADS design and fuel development is driven in the 6 th FP of the EU by the EUROTRANS Programme [1]. In EUROTRANS two ADS design routes are followed, the XT-ADS and the EFIT. The XT-ADS is designed to provide the experimental demonstration of transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System. The EFIT development, the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, aims at a generic conceptual design of a full transmuter. A key issue of the R and D work is the choice of an adequate fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven Transmuter (ADT) like EFIT. Various fuel forms have been assessed. CERCER and CERMET fuels, specifically with the matrices MgO and Mo, have finally been selected and are now under closer investigation. Within EUROTRANS, a special domain named 'AFTRA', is responsible to more deeply assess the behavior of these dedicated fuels and to provide the fuel data base for the core design of the EFIT. The EFIT concept has to be optimized towards: a good transmutation efficiency, high burnup, low reactivity swing, low power peaking, adequate subcriticality, reasonable beam requirements and a high safety level. The final recommendation on fuels by AFTRA gave a ranking of these fuels based on the mentioned criteria. The composite CERMET fuel (Pu 0.5 ,Am 0.5 )O 2-x - Mo (with the isotope 92 Mo comprising 93% of the molybdenum) has been recommended as the primary candidate for the EFIT. This CERMET fuel fulfils adopted criteria for fabrication and reprocessing, and provides excellent safety margins. Disadvantages include the cost for enrichment of 92 Mo and a lower specific transmutation rate of minor actinides, because of the higher neutron absorption cross-section of the matrix. The composite CERCER fuel (Pu 0.4 ,Am 0.6 )O 2-x - MgO has therefore been recommended as a backup solution as it might offer a higher consumption rate of minor actinides, and can be manufactured for a lower unit cost. This paper is in fact a sequel to our last paper [2

  1. British Columbia hydrogen and fuel cell strategy : an industry vision for our hydrogen future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-05-15

    British Columbia's strategy for global leadership in hydrogen fuel cell technology was outlined. It was suggested that hydrogen and fuel cells will power a significant portion of the province by 2020, and will be used in homes, businesses, industry and transportation. The following 3 streams of activity were identified as leading to the achievement of this vision: (1) a hydrogen highway of technology demonstrations in vehicles, refuelling facilities and stationary power systems in time for and building on the 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, (2) the development of a globally leading sustainable energy technology cluster that delivers products and services as well as securing high-value jobs, and (3) the renewal of the province's resource heartlands to supply the fuel and knowledge base for hydrogen-based communities and industries, and clean hydrogen production and distribution. It was suggested that in order to achieve the aforementioned goals, the government should promote the hydrogen highway and obtain $135 million in funding from various sources. It was recommended that the BC government and members of industry should also work with the federal government and other provinces to make Canada an early adopter market. Creative markets for BC products and services both in Canada and abroad will be accomplished by global partnerships, collaboration with Alberta and the United States. It was suggested that in order to deploy clean energy technologies, BC must integrate their strategy into the province's long-term sustainable energy plan. It was concluded that the hydrogen and fuel cell cluster has already contributed to the economy through jobs, private sector investment and federal and provincial tax revenues. The technology cluster's revenues have been projected at $3 billion with a workforce of 10,000 people by 2010. The hydrogen economy will reduce provincial air emissions, improve public health, and support sustainable tourism

  2. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  3. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupolttoaineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K [Enso Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilisation targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilisation was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenise the quality of chips. (orig.)

  4. Potential impact of environmental requirements on petroleum products derived from synthetic crude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Fuel quality proposals regarding gasoline and diesel fuels were discussed. Strict regulations on air emissions will mean changes in transportation fuel specifications which will ultimately impact on the refining industry. As fuel quality requirements become more stringent, refiners will need to look more closely at increasing the use of Canadian synthetic crude as a refinery feed. The fuel quality specifications with the potentially highest impact for the continued use of synthetic crude are those relating to sulphur, aromatics (including benzene), and olefins in gasoline and sulphur, aromatics and cetane in diesel fuel. Synthetic crude has an advantage in terms of gasoline sulphur content. The FCC feed is at a low enough sulphur level to result in gasoline components that would allow refiners to meet final gasoline sulphur levels of less than 100 ppm. In either case, synthetic middle distillate must be upgraded. Options that face the synthetic crude and refining industries are: (1) synthetic crude producers may install the process equipment needed to upgrade the middle distillate portion of their synthetic crude stream, (2) refiners may install equipment to upgrade just the diesel fuel portion of the middle distillate pool and jet fuel, and (3) a joint effort may be made by the two industries. The National Centre for Upgrading Technology (NCUT) and the Western Research Centre of Natural Resources Canada will continue to assist with research into improved catalysts for hydrotreating of middle distillates, and new lower cost processes for upgrading middle distillates from synthetic and conventional crude oils to meet future product requirements. 5 refs., 1 tab

  5. Technique of calculating specific capital investments in the fuel extracting sectors of industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugrov, V.A.; Filey, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the existing methods of calculating specific capital investments in the fuel extracting sectors of industry. Their shortcomings are shown. It is suggested that specific capital investments for extraction of coal and gas be defined as the ratio of capital investments to the conditional increase in extraction. Coal extraction should take int consideration all the capital investments associated with the input of new facilities, and the maintenance of the attained level of extraction and reconstruction of the enterprise, as well as all the newly introduced facilities both at the new and at the active enterprises associated with an increase in coal extraction and with maintenance of the facilities. The suggested technique completely corresponds to the ''Standard Technique for Developing a Technical-Industrial-Financial Plan,'' which stipulates determination of specific capital investments per unit of introduced facilities with only the difference that it takes into consideration the specific features of the fuel extracting sectors of industry.

  6. Environmental benefits and drawbacks of composite fuels based on industrial wastes and different ranks of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyashina, G S; Vershinina, K Yu; Dmitrienko, M A; Strizhak, P A

    2018-04-05

    A promising solution to many problems that thermal power industry is facing today would be switching from conventional coal dust combustion to coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Here, we perform an experimental study of the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions (sulfur and nitrogen oxides) from the combustion of high-potential CWSP. We identify the main benefits and potential drawbacks of using CWSP in thermal power industry. A set of components and additives to CWSP are explored that significantly affect the environmental and energy performance of fuels. The anthropogenic emissions from the combustion of CWSP made of widespread coal and oil processing wastes are no higher than those from coal dust combustion. Using specialized additives to CWSP, we can change the concentrations of NO x and SO x several times. The most appealing additives to CWSP are sawdust, straw, charcoal, limestone, and glycerol. They provide better environmental, economic, and energy performance and improve the rheological properties of CWSP. Waste oils and oil sludge added to CWSP may impair the environmental performance but boost the cost and energy efficiency. Using coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals as a fuel at thermal power plants is an environmentally friendly as well as cost- and energy-efficient way to recover industrial wastes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electricity Production and Characterization of High-Strength Industrial Wastewaters in Microbial Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Afsin Y; Ozdemir, Oguz Kaan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestami

    2017-06-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) convert electrochemical energy into electrical energy immediately and have a big potential usage for the same time wastewater treatment and energy recovery via electro-active microorganisms. However, MFCs must be efficiently optimized due to its limitations such as high cost and low power production. Finding new materials to increase the cell performance and reduce cost for MFC anodes is mandatory. In the first step of this study, different inoculation sludges such as anaerobic gum industry wastewater, anaerobic brewery wastewater and anaerobic phosphate were tested, and MFC that was set up with anaerobic gum industry wastewater inoculation sludge exhibited the highest performance. In the second step of this study, various wastewaters such as chocolate industry, gum industry and slaughterhouse industry were investigated for anode bacteria sources. Several electrochemical techniques have been employed to elucidate how wastewaters affect the MFCs' performance. Among all the mentioned wastewaters, the best performance was achieved by the MFCs fed with slaughterhouse wastewater; this device produced a maximum power density of 267 mW·m -2 .

  8. Regulatory challenges posed by a changing nuclear fuel industry in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.W.; Tew, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the UK, all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle are regulated by HSE's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) through a licensing regime established by the Nuclear Installations Act 1965. This paper describes that regime, and also the organisational and technological changes which have taken place in the nuclear fuel industry in recent years. Such organisational changes have included restructuring, staff reductions, the greater use of contractors and possible privatisation. The paper then addresses the response of the regulator to such changes, both in terms of the licensing process and the inspection activities on site. It describes in particular new HSE Guidance - ''Nuclear Site Licences: Notes for Applicants'' - which introduces the key concept of a management prospectus for nuclear licensees. (author)

  9. The refining industry and the future of the fuel oils; L'industrie du raffinage et le devenir des fiouls lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleille, S

    2004-01-15

    The fuel oils consumption decrease in France since 1970, because of the two petroleum crisis, the nuclear energy competition and the air pollution. The fuel oils industry is then looking other export possibilities. This report aims to offer a first approach of the problem and presents the main challenges. The first part is devoted to the technical context (definition, production and outlet. The second part presents the environmental context and the fuel oils market. In the third part the market is studied at the world scale, in the fourth at the french scale and in the fifth at the scale of other countries as United States, Japan and european Union. A synthesis tables is given in the last part to compare and propose some hypothesis concerning the future of fuel oils and the french refining industry. (A.L.B.)

  10. Demystifying the hydrogen and fuel cell industry: Where are the investment opportunities in B.C.?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettlewell, D. [Hydrogen Media, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    It is forecast that accessible supplies of oil will decline by 2020; a similar fate is forecast for natural gas occurring 20 years later in 2040. Taking into account finite supply sources and environmental concerns, planners are forced to consider alternative energy sources. In considering energy alternatives, hydrogen is commonly identified as the potential energy elixir, given its ability to generate highly concentrated forms of energy with clean water being the only 'waste product'. British Columbia has been the locus of major hydrogen and fuel cell research in Canada and is, therefore, in an exceptionally good position to play a leading role in the development of this abundant and clean energy source. This paper examines the history and future investments in BC's hydrogen and fuel cell sectors from a macro financial point of view, and with a critical eye towards global developments. The report recommends development of a Hydrogen Energy Research Centre of Excellence in BC; increased collaboration between private firms, academic researchers and technology partners; development of quantifiable and measurable revenue goals for the fuel cell sector; and additional tax benefit policies to attract and retain hydrogen specialists and entrepreneurs in BC. With regard to investments specifically, the report recommends building appropriate industry and academic relationships; concentration of clients, partners and revenues in geographic clusters closer to home before expanding around the world; development of local media interest in the sector; increased public awareness; focus on standards and opportunities for 'angel' investors; and creating increased awareness of the most promising areas of the industry for venture capital to focus on. Based on the high concentration of fuel cell intellectual capital in BC, the report forecasts substantial growth in BC's hydrogen economy in 2006 and beyond.

  11. Numerical simulations of the industrial circulating fluidized bed boiler under air- and oxy-fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk, Wojciech P.; Kozołub, Paweł; Klimanek, Adam; Białecki, Ryszard A.; Andrzejczyk, Marek; Klajny, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Measured and numerical results of air-fuel combustion process within large scale industrial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is presented in this paper. For numerical simulations the industrial compact CFB boiler was selected. Numerical simulations were carried out using three-dimensional model where the dense particulate transport phenomenon was simultaneously modelled with combustion process. The fluidization process was modelled using the hybrid Euler-Lagrange approach. The impact of the geometrical model simplification on predicted mass distribution and temperature profiles over CFB boiler combustion chamber two kinds of geometrical models were used, namely the complete model which consist of combustion chamber, solid separators, external solid super-heaters and simplified boiler geometry which was reduced to the combustion chamber. The evaluated temperature and pressure profiles during numerical simulations were compared against measured data collected during boiler air-fuel operation. Collected data was also used for validating numerical model of the oxy-fuel combustion model. Stability of the model and its sensitivity on changes of several input parameters were studied. The comparison of the pressure and temperature profiles for all considered cases gave comparable trends in contrary to measured data. Moreover, some additional test was carried out the check the influence of radiative heat transfer on predicted temperature profile within the CFB boiler. - Highlights: • Hybrid Euler-Lagrange approach was used for modelling particle transport, air- and oxy-fuel combustion process. • Numerical results were validated against measured data. • The influence of different boiler operating conditions on calculated temperature profile was investigated. • New strategy for resolving particle transport in circulating fluidized bed was shown

  12. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomanetz, Erwin

    2012-04-01

    Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO₂-intensive. But most CO₂ is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other.

  13. Position paper on irradiated fuel and waste management. The Achille's heel of the nuclear industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The management and final disposal of irradiated fuel and nuclear waste is often presented by the media and perceived by the public as being an unsolved problem that restricts the future of nuclear energy. However, the nuclear industry focused on this problem very early on and has developed proven technical solutions. Nuclear energy will continue developing worldwide, in spite of the Fukushima accident. Even in those European countries that have decided to phase-out nuclear energy there is a legacy of nuclear waste that must be dealt with. The scientific and technical expertise needed for waste management already exists. Management decisions must be taken. Now is the time for political courage. (orig.)

  14. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) to more..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...

  15. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

  16. Proceedings of the GLOBAL 2009 congress - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options and Industrial Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    GLOBAL 2009 is the ninth bi-annual scientific world meeting on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) that started in 1993 in Seattle. This meeting has established itself as a dedicated international forum for experts, to provide an overall review of the status and new trends of research applications and policies related to the fuel cycle. The international nuclear community is actively developing advanced processes and innovative technologies that enhance economic competitiveness of nuclear energy and ensure its sustainability, through optimized utilization of natural resources, minimization of nuclear wastes, resistance to proliferation and compliance with safety requirements. In this context, and under the profound evolutions concerning energy supply, GLOBAL 2009 is a great opportunity for sharing ideas and visions on the NFC. Special emphasis are placed on the results of the international studies for developing next generation systems. GLOBAL 2009 highlights the technical challenges and successes involved in closing the NFC and recycling long lived nuclear waste. It is also an excellent occasion to review and discuss social and regulatory aspects as well as national plans and international policies and decision affecting the future of nuclear energy. This meeting provides a forum for the exchange of the newest ideas and developments related to the initiatives at of establishing an acceptable, reliable and universal international non proliferation regime. The congress, organized by the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), under the aegis of the IAEA, NEA of the OECD and the UE Commission with the basic sponsorships of ANS, ENS and AESJ, combines plenary sessions, general panel sessions, parallel sessions and technical visits. The program has full length technical papers, which are peer reviewed and published in conference proceedings. A large industrial exhibition takes place to complement the congress. The GLOBAL 2009 congress is organized in coordination with the 2009

  17. Proceedings of the GLOBAL 2009 congress - The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Sustainable Options and Industrial Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    GLOBAL 2009 is the ninth bi-annual scientific world meeting on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) that started in 1993 in Seattle. This meeting has established itself as a dedicated international forum for experts, to provide an overall review of the status and new trends of research applications and policies related to the fuel cycle. The international nuclear community is actively developing advanced processes and innovative technologies that enhance economic competitiveness of nuclear energy and ensure its sustainability, through optimized utilization of natural resources, minimization of nuclear wastes, resistance to proliferation and compliance with safety requirements. In this context, and under the profound evolutions concerning energy supply, GLOBAL 2009 is a great opportunity for sharing ideas and visions on the NFC. Special emphasis are placed on the results of the international studies for developing next generation systems. GLOBAL 2009 highlights the technical challenges and successes involved in closing the NFC and recycling long lived nuclear waste. It is also an excellent occasion to review and discuss social and regulatory aspects as well as national plans and international policies and decision affecting the future of nuclear energy. This meeting provides a forum for the exchange of the newest ideas and developments related to the initiatives at of establishing an acceptable, reliable and universal international non proliferation regime. The congress, organized by the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), under the aegis of the IAEA, NEA of the OECD and the UE Commission with the basic sponsorships of ANS, ENS and AESJ, combines plenary sessions, general panel sessions, parallel sessions and technical visits. The program has full length technical papers, which are peer reviewed and published in conference proceedings. A large industrial exhibition takes place to complement the congress. The GLOBAL 2009 congress is organized in coordination with the 2009

  18. Electricity production and phosphorous recovery as struvite from synthetic wastewater using magnesium-air fuel cell electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; An, Byung Min; Lim, Dae Hwan; Park, Joo Yang

    2018-04-01

    This research was based on the investigation of a major principle, regarding the effects of NaCl and KH 2 PO 4 concentrations on struvite recovery, with electricity production using magnesium-air fuel cell electrocoagulation, in accordance with the concentration of phosphorous and chloride. The weight ratio of N:P in the synthetic wastewater was in the range of 1.2-21. The concentration of NH 4 Cl was fixed at 0.277 M (approximately 3888 ppm as NH 3 -N and 5000 ppm as NH 4 ), while PO 4 -P was in the range of 0.006-0.1 M. In addition, the concentrations of NaCl as electrolyte were 0, 0.01, and 0.1 M. Phosphate removal increased linearly with the Mg:P ratio, up to approximately 1.1 mol mol -1 , irrespective of the initial concentrations of phosphate and NaCl. The one-to-one reaction as mole ratio between phosphate and the dissolved Mg ions resulted in phosphate removal, with the production of a one-to-one magnesium/phosphate mineral, such as struvite. The average removal rate of phosphorous in experiments without a dose of NaCl was 4.19 mg P cm -2 h -1 , which was lower than the relative values of 5.35 and 4.77 mg P cm -2 h -1 , in experiments with 0.01 and 0.1 M NaCl. The dissolution rate of Mg with electro-oxidation determined the rate of phosphorous removal with struvite recovery. The average removal rates of phosphorous with dose concentrations of 0.006, 0.01 and 0.02 M KH 2 PO 4 were 4.02, 5.54, 6.9 mg P cm -2 h -1 , respectively, which increased with the increase in KH 2 PO 4 dose. However, in experiments with a dose of 0.05 and 0.1 M KH 2 PO 4, the average removal rates of phosphorous decreased to 4.84 and 2.51, respectively. The maximum power densities in the electrolyte mixture of 0.05 M KH 2 PO 4 /0.277 M NH 4 Cl, 0.01 M NaCl/0.05 M KH 2 PO 4 /0.277 M NH 4 Cl, and 0.1 NaCl/0.05 KH 2 PO 4 /0.277 M NH 4 Cl were 25.1, 26.4, and 33.2 W/m 2 , respectively. The increase in the NaCl dose concentration resulted in an

  19. Estimates of inter-fuel substitution possibilities in Chinese chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Wesseh, Presley K.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical sector is a key driver of China's remarkable growth record and accounts for about 10% of the country's GDP. This has made the industry energy-intensive and consequently a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and other pollutants. This study has attempted to investigate the potential for inter-fuel substitution between coal, oil, natural gas and electricity in Chinese chemical sector by employing a translog production and cost function. Ridge regression procedure was adopted to estimate the parameters of the function. Estimation results show that all energy inputs are substitutes. In addition, the study produces evidence that the significant role of coal in the Chinese chemical fuel mix converges over time, albeit slowly. These results suggest that price-based policies, coupled with capital subsidy programs can be adopted to redirect technology use towards cleaner energy sources like electricity and natural gas; hence, retaining the ability to fuel the chemical sector, while also mitigating GHG emissions. Notwithstanding, one must understand that the extent to which substituting electricity for coal will be effective depends on the extent to which coal or oil is used in generating electricity. The findings of this study provide general insights and underscore the importance of Chinese government policies that focus on installed capacity of renewable electricity, energy intensity targets as well as merger of enterprises. - Highlights: • Potential for inter-fuel substitution in Chinese chemical sector is investigated. • Oil, natural gas and electricity are found to be substitutes for coal. • Coal dominance in Chinese chemical fuel mix is found to converge over time. • Price-based policies and capital-subsidies are needed to redirect technology use. • Results support policies concerning renewables, energy-intensity targets and mergers

  20. Studies on the new fuels with Santilli magnecular structure and their industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandhurnekar, Chandrashekhar P.

    2015-01-01

    Professor R. M. Santilli, the Italian-American physicist, for the first time in the history of Science, presented the theoretical and experimental evidence on the existence of the new chemical species of “magnecules” [1]. This new species mainly consist of individual atoms, radicals and conventional molecules bonded together with stable clusters under the new attractive force primarily originating from torroidal polarization of orbitals of atomic electrons under strong magnetic field. The main contribution in this area was the production of Magnegas TM , new clean fuels developed by Prof. Santilli, which are produced as byproducts of recycling nonradioactive liquid feedstock such as antifreeze waste, engine oil waste, town sewage, crude oil, etc., and generally vary with the liquid used for their production. A new technology, called Plasma Arc FlowTM, flows the waste through a submerged electric arc between conventional electrodes. The arc decomposes the liquid molecules into their atomic constituents, and forms a plasma in the immediate vicinity of the electrodes at about 10,000 0 F. The technology then moves the plasma away from the electrodes, and controls its recombination into environmentally acceptable fuels. In fact, the exhaust of magnegases shows: absence of carcinogenic or other toxic substances; breathable oxygen up 14 percent; and carbon dioxide down to 0.01 percent. Since, in addition, the new fuels can be produced everywhere, and have environmentally acceptable exhausts, Magnegases offer promising possibilities to satisfy our ever increasing energy needs, as well as to contain the alarming environmental problems caused by fossil fuels. Thus, it was thought worthwhile to present some of the industrial applications of environmentally benign fuel consisting magnecular bonds [2, 3, 4, 5]. Also in the present communications, some of the experimental evidences of Santilli’s new chemical species i. e. Magnecules which had been published recently have

  1. Studies on the new fuels with Santilli magnecular structure and their industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandhurnekar, Chandrashekhar P., E-mail: pandhurnekarcp@rknec.edu [Shri Ramdeobaba College of Engineering and Management, Nagpur, Maharashtra 440 013 (India)

    2015-03-10

    Professor R. M. Santilli, the Italian-American physicist, for the first time in the history of Science, presented the theoretical and experimental evidence on the existence of the new chemical species of “magnecules” [1]. This new species mainly consist of individual atoms, radicals and conventional molecules bonded together with stable clusters under the new attractive force primarily originating from torroidal polarization of orbitals of atomic electrons under strong magnetic field. The main contribution in this area was the production of Magnegas{sup TM}, new clean fuels developed by Prof. Santilli, which are produced as byproducts of recycling nonradioactive liquid feedstock such as antifreeze waste, engine oil waste, town sewage, crude oil, etc., and generally vary with the liquid used for their production. A new technology, called Plasma Arc FlowTM, flows the waste through a submerged electric arc between conventional electrodes. The arc decomposes the liquid molecules into their atomic constituents, and forms a plasma in the immediate vicinity of the electrodes at about 10,000{sup 0} F. The technology then moves the plasma away from the electrodes, and controls its recombination into environmentally acceptable fuels. In fact, the exhaust of magnegases shows: absence of carcinogenic or other toxic substances; breathable oxygen up 14 percent; and carbon dioxide down to 0.01 percent. Since, in addition, the new fuels can be produced everywhere, and have environmentally acceptable exhausts, Magnegases offer promising possibilities to satisfy our ever increasing energy needs, as well as to contain the alarming environmental problems caused by fossil fuels. Thus, it was thought worthwhile to present some of the industrial applications of environmentally benign fuel consisting magnecular bonds [2, 3, 4, 5]. Also in the present communications, some of the experimental evidences of Santilli’s new chemical species i. e. Magnecules which had been published

  2. Formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium of microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Huzairy; Jin, Bo; Dai, Sheng; Ngau, Cornelius

    2016-11-01

    The formation of microbial biofilm while maintaining the electricity output is a challenging topic in microbial fuel cell (MFC) studies. This MFC critical factor becomes more significant when handling with industrial wastewater which normally contains refractory and toxic compounds. This study explores the formation of industrial mixed culture biofilm in chlorophenol cultivated medium through observing and characterizing microscopically its establishment on MFC anode surface. The mixed culture was found to develop its biofilm on the anode surface in the chlorophenol environment and established its maturity and dispersal stages with concurrent electricity generation and phenolic degradation. The mixed culture biofilm engaged the electron transfer roles in MFC by generating current density of 1.4 mA/m2 and removing 53 % of 2,4-dichlorophenol. The results support further research especially on hazardous wastewater treatment using a benign and sustainable method.

  3. Innovative regions and industrial clusters in hydrogen and fuel cell technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Nygaard; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2010-01-01

    Regional governments in Europe seem to be playing an increasing role in hydrogen and fuel cell (H2FC) development. A number of regions are supporting demonstration projects and building networks among regional stakeholders to strengthen their engagement in H2FC technology. In this article, we...... will analyse regions that are highly engaged in H2FC activity, based on three indicators: existing hydrogen infrastructure and production sites, general innovativeness and the presence of industrial clusters with relevance for H2FC. Our finding is that regions with high activity in H2FC development are also...... innovative regions in general. Moreover, the article highlights some industrial clusters that create favourable conditions for regions to take part in H2FC development. Existing hydrogen infrastructure, however, seems to play only a minor role in a region’s engagement. The article concludes that, while...

  4. A PESTLE Policy Mapping and Stakeholder Analysis of Indonesia’s Fossil Fuel Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Widya Yudha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has a long-standing history of reliance on fossil fuels, which reflects the country’s vast reserves of crude oil, natural gas, coal, and other resources. Consequently, the potential of Indonesia’s fossil energy industry is both complex and multi-layered. This paper aims to carry out a policy mapping and stakeholder analysis of Indonesia’s fossil energy industry, adopting a PESTLE (Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal, and Environmental approach, which allows identification of multidisciplinary stakeholders and underlying relationships across the sector. The outcomes from the analysis indicated the importance of strategically aligning the stakeholders’ policies to the needs of other relevant stakeholders. Furthermore, the central and regional governments need to work closely in order to better sense if there is a change in the policy, be receptive to anticipating the potential impacts, and to avoid policies being executed in an isolated manner.

  5. Algal biorefinery-based industry: an approach to address fuel and food insecurity for a carbon-smart world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadra, Bobban

    2011-01-15

    Food and fuel production are intricately interconnected. In a carbon-smart society, it is imperative to produce both food and fuel sustainably. Integration of the emerging biorefinery concept with other industries can bring many environmental deliverables while mitigating several sustainability-related issues with respect to greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel usage, land use change for fuel production and future food insufficiency. A new biorefinery-based integrated industrial ecology encompasses the different value chain of products, coproducts, and services from the biorefinery industries. This paper discusses a framework to integrate the algal biofuel-based biorefinery, a booming biofuel sector, with other industries such as livestock, lignocellulosic and aquaculture. Using the USA as an example, this paper also illustrates the benefits associated with sustainable production of fuel and food. Policy and regulatory initiatives for synergistic development of the algal biofuel sector with other industries can bring many sustainable solutions for the future existence of mankind. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. GreenSynFuels. Economical and technological statement regarding integration and storage of renewable energy in the energy sector by production of green synthetic fuels for utilization in fuel cells. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebaek, J. (Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark)); Boegild Hansen, J. (Haldor Topsoee, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Mogens (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of the project is to select and validate technology concepts for the establishment of a Danish production of green synthetic fuels primarily for fuel cells. The feasibility of the selected concepts is assessed trough a techno-economical calculation, which includes mass and energy balances and economics including CAPEX and OPEX assessments. It is envisioned by the project partners that a production of green synthetic fuels, such as methanol, can 1) bring stability to a future electricity grid with a high share of renewable energy, 2) replace fossil fuels in the transport sector, and 3) boost Danish green technology export. In the project, two technology concepts were derived through carefully considerations and plenum discussions by the project group members: Concept 1): Methanol/DME Synthesis based on Electrolysis assisted Gasification of Wood. Concept 2): Methanol/DME synthesis based on biogas temporarily stored in the natural gas network. Concept 1) is clearly the most favored by the project group and is therefore analyzed for its techno-economic feasibility. Using mass and energy balances the technical perspectives of the concept were investigated, along with an economic breakdown of the CAPEX and OPEX cost of the methanol production plant. The plant was technically compared to a traditional methanol production plant using gasified biomass. The project group has decided to focus on large scale plants, as the scale economics favor large scale plants. Therefore, the dimensioning input of the concept 1) plant is 1000 tons wood per day. This is truly a large scale gasification plant; however, in a methanol synthesis context the plant is not particularly large. The SOEC electrolyzer unit is dimensioned by the need of hydrogen to balance the stoichiometric ratio of the methanol synthesis reaction, which will result in 141 MW installed SOEC. The resulting methanol output is 1,050 tons methanol per day. In comparison to a traditional methanol synthesis plant

  7. Wood fuel use in Tanzania rural-based industries. Brick kiln studies in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwele, P.M.; Mbise, H.A.; Mwihava, N.C.X.; Svenningsson, P.J.

    1999-07-01

    About 90% of the annual total energy consumed in Tanzania is biomass-based, mainly in the form of wood fuel. Small-scale brick-making is one of the major consumers of wood fuel, with Arusha, Iringa and Mbeya being the main areas where brick-making activities take place. In 1993, the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) in collaboration with the Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM) proposed a project to undertake studies on fuelwood in small rural industries of Tanzania, particularly brick-making. The study on wood fuel utilisation involved field measurements and analyses with the aim of establishing major sources of energy losses and to recommend measures regarding fuel switching, kiln thermal efficiency improvements, and the yield and quality of bricks. The positive feedback would mean reduced demand for fuelwood and hence reduced deforestation rate and therefore environmental protection. The implementation of the project, which commenced in 1994, involved field measurements in order to establish kiln performances as well as laboratory tests to determine the qualities of the fired bricks. At a later stage of implementation, efforts were made to consider other potential fuels (sawdust and coal) for firing the kilns. The main indicators of kiln performance include thermal efficiency, specific energy consumption (SEC), which is sometimes referred to as specific fuel consumption (SFC; yield; and quality. The average SEC for Mbeya region was found to vary from 1.11 to 1.54 while for Iringa region the range was from 1.21 to 1.84 MJ/kg fired brick. The data for Arusha was in the range of 0.76 to 3.3 MJ/kg of fired brick. The low SEC may not necessarily give a reasonable indication of the kiln performance because kiln operators in Mbeya mould larger size bricks which are unloaded from incomplete firing conditions. The fired bricks at Babati (Arusha), though of work-size, are of low quality and consume very little wood fuel. Findings obtained under the SADC project four

  8. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  9. Economics of the back-end of fuel cycle: Controversy, uncertainties and the industrial evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guais, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper underlines the usefulness of the document issued by OECD/NEA on the ''economics of the nuclear fuel cycle,'' as a reference methodology. As regards the technical and costs assumptions, we feel that COGEMA as the most important reprocessor to date has accumulated a large industrial experience allowing a better knowledge of the various costs included in the back-end operations, from spent fuel transportation handling and storage, to reprocessing and wastes conditioning. A comparative analysis of the two main options for the fuel cycle: reprocessing/recycling versus once-through, is performed on these grounds. In the economic conditions prevailing in Western Europe and in Japan, the resulting cost comparison is in favor of the reprocessing/recycling cycle. The authors conclude that economics is important as it is, is not the only criteria to be considered then assessing the back-end options: overall strategy, energy policy, environmental consideration and public acceptance are the other view-points to use to reach a sound decision in this field

  10. 'Demystifying the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. Where are the investment opportunities in B.C.?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettlewell, D.

    2004-01-01

    Human civilization has advanced through history by moving from one finite source of energy to the next. Wood and coal fueled the industrial revolution, while oil and natural gas powered us to a technological age. Exploration and innovation have provided tools to fuel rapid economic growth. However, our seemingly endless appetite for resources and power sources have left barren land, polluted waterways and a contaminated atmosphere. Our explorative human nature and global population growth trends ensures that our appetite for energy will continue to grow exponentially. Embracing sustainable development and integrating eco-efficiencies into industrial development will enable us to reduce and re-use our finite natural resources. The challenge for humanity is to ensure that we do not suffocate on the waste by-product of our economic growth. The world's ninety-year 'production affair' with oil will peak in 2020 as accessible supply begins to decline. Similarly, supply issues with natural gas will force production to decline after 2040. Finite supply forces and carbon pollution concerns are forcing energy alternatives to be considered. Hydrogen is a potential energy elixir considering its ability to generate more concentrated powerful energy with clean water as its only effluent. British Columbia (B.C.) is uniquely positioned to participate in a clean energy solution. This conference paper is a synopsis of a full consulting report that was undertaken on behalf of a Vancouver-based seed capital firm, Renewal Partners. The objective of the report was to examine the history, cycles and future of investments in B.C.'s hydrogen and fuel cell sectors within a macro financial outlook. With a critical eye towards global development, investment recommendations are offered from a B.C. sector perspective. The paper is divided into the following sections: Research Methodology; Hydrogen Overview; Financial Outlook; Canadian Perspective; B.C. Perspective; What Leading Experts Think

  11. Fossil Fuel Industry Funding of Climate-Relevant Research at U.S. Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franta, B.; Supran, G.

    2017-12-01

    Commercial producers of lead, tobacco, petroleum, and other products have funded extensive scholarly research in ways designed to confuse the public about the dangers of those products and thwart regulation [1-3]. For example, strategy documentation of the U.S. oil and gas industry from the late 1990s describes using selective support for scientists as a strategy for creating an atmosphere of debate and uncertainty, with the ultimate goal of delaying and defeating climate policies [4]. In this context, we systematically examine current funding from commercial fossil fuel interests of climate-relevant research - such as energy technology and climate policy research - in U.S. universities. We quantify such funding using charitable giving databases, university websites, and other publicly available records. We find that, especially among the most influential universities, climate-related research programs are frequently dominated by funding from fossil fuel interests. Moreover, these relationships sometimes afford funders privileges including formal control over research directions. This work represents an advance in mapping the presence of commercial fossil fuel interests in academia and may contribute to discussions of appropriate funding systems for climate-relevant research. 1. Markowitz, G. and D. Rosner, Lead Wars: The Politics of Science and the Fate of America's Children. 1st ed. 2013: University of California Press. 2. Brandt, A.M., Inventing Conflicts of Interest: A History of Tobacco Industry Tactics. American Journal of Public Health, 2012. 102(1): p. 63-71. 3. Oreskes, N. and E.M. Conway, Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. 2011: Bloomsbury Press. 4. Walker, J., Global Climate Science Communications Action Plan. 1998. Workshop held at the headquarters of the American Petroleum Institute.

  12. The potential of synthetic fuels to meet future emission regulations; Potenzial synthetischer Kraftstoffe zur Einhaltung zukuenftiger Emissionsgrenzwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, H.O.; Keppeler, S.; Friess, W. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Botha, J.J. [Sasol Technology (Pty) Ltd., Rosebank (South Africa); Schaberg, P. [Sasol Advanced Fuel Lab., Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa); Schnell, P. [Sasol Chevron Consulting Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The potential of GTL diesel fuel for further improving engine performance and reducing exhaust emissions beyond euro 4 was investigated in a Mercedes-Benz E320 CDI passenger car. Starting with the outlook on the production and properties of GTL fuel against the anticipated future diesel demand, the paper addresses the impacts of GTL diesel fuel on heavy-duty and light-duty engines. Based on preceding work on un-adapted engines, published in an earlier paper in 2004 at the 25{sup th} International Vienna Motor Symposium, the hardware configuration and software calibration of the E320 engine were now modified to better utilize the advantageous properties of the Sasol Chevron GTL diesel fuel. In order to keep engine changes at a minimum, hardware modifications were limited to lowering the compression ratio and optimizing the injection equipment. These hardware modifications required the adaptation of the engine software calibration, such as injection system parameters, boost pressure adjustment, and EGR rates. It has been shown that, by detailed bench work and chassis dynamometer testing, the vehicle, which is equipped with a DPF and has a euro 4 calibration in its original form, can comply with the very stringent nitrogen oxides emission limits of 0.08 g/km (NEDC) when moderately modified and operated on GTL diesel fuel. This was achieved without any active nitrogen oxides exhaust gas aftertreatment. This establishes a very promising outlook for a cost-efficient means for reducing exhaust emissions, and again highlights the benefits that may be obtained with cleaner fuels (GTL diesel fuel is free of sulfur and aromatics and has a cetane number > 70). The paper presents details of the fuel, the engine modifications and the test results obtained so far. (orig.)

  13. Comparative electrophysiological evaluation of hippocampal function following repeated inhalation exposures to JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, and the synthetic Fischer Tropsch fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan, Joyce G; McInturf, Shawn M; Miklasevich, Molly K; Gut, Chester P; Grimm, Michael D; Reboulet, James E; Howard, William R; Mumy, Karen L

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to fuels continues to be a concern in both military and general populations. The aim of this study was to examine effects of in vivo rat repeated exposures to different types of jet fuel utilizing microelectrode arrays for comparative electrophysiological (EP) measurements in hippocampal slices. Animals were exposed to increasing concentrations of four jet fuels, Jet Propellant (JP)-8, Jet A, JP-5, or synthetic Fischer Tropsch (FT) fuel via whole-body inhalation for 20 d (6 hr/d, 5 d/week for 28 d) and synaptic transmission as well as behavioral performance were assessed. Our behavioral studies indicated no significant changes in behavioral performance in animals exposed to JP-8, Jet A, or JP-5. A significant deviation in learning pattern during the Morris water maze task was observed in rats exposed to the highest concentration of FT (2000 mg/m 3 ). There were also significant differences in the EP profile of hippocampal neurons from animals exposed to JP-8, Jet A, JP-5, or FT compared to control air. However, these differences were not consistent across fuels or dose dependent. As expected, patterns of EP alterations in brain slices from JP-8 and Jet A exposures were more similar compared to those from JP-5 and FT. Further longitudinal investigations are needed to determine if these EP effects are transient or persistent. Such studies may dictate if and how one may use EP measurements to indicate potential susceptibility to neurological impairments, particularly those that result from inhalation exposure to chemicals or mixtures.

  14. Energy efficiency and fuel switching in Canadian industry under greenhouse gas regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolick, M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of financial instruments to greenhouse gas control, particularly a greenhouse gas tax, is discussed. As of June 1991, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway have imposed taxes on greenhouse gas emissions, while taxes are imminent in Denmark and Germany. A study has been carried out to model the effects of such taxes on greenhouse gas emissions in Canada, using the Intra-Sectoral Technology Use Model (ISTUM) and an end-use energy demand computer model. Only carbon dioxide and methane were considered. The limitations of the ISTUM model are discussed. Industry results are presented by sector, including an overview of greenhouse gas-producing processes, emission reduction measures possible, energy and greenhouse emissions, and results of taxes at varying levels. Different basic physical and chemical processes among industries would cause widely varying responses to a greenhouse gas tax. Issues which bear directly on greenhouse gas emissions include the burning of biomass fuels in the pulp and paper industry, strategic choices between existing and new technologies in the iron and steel sector, the possibility of a nearly greenhouse gas-free aluminum smelting sector, and the advent of reformulated gasoline requirements and declining crude oil quantity in the petroleum refining sector. 15 refs., 6 figs

  15. Using LMDI method to analyze the change of China's industrial CO2 emissions from final fuel use: An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lancui; Fan Ying; Wu Gang; Wei Yiming

    2007-01-01

    Based on time series decomposition of the Log-Mean Divisia Index (LMDI), this paper analyzes the change of industrial carbon emissions from 36 industrial sectors in China over the period 1998-2005. The changes of industrial CO 2 emission are decomposed into carbon emissions coefficients of heat and electricity, energy intensity, industrial structural shift, industrial activity and final fuel shift. Our results clearly show that raw chemical materials and chemical products, nonmetal mineral products and smelting and pressing of ferrous metals account for 59.31% of total increased industrial CO 2 emissions. The overwhelming contributors to the change of China's industrial sectors' carbon emissions in the period 1998-2005 were the industrial activity and energy intensity; the impact of emission coefficients of heat and electricity, fuel shift and structural shift was relatively small. Over the year 1998-2002, the energy intensity change in some energy-intensive sectors decreased industrial emissions, but increased emissions over the period 2002-2005. The impact of structural shift on emissions have varied considerably over the years without showing any clear trend, and the final fuel shift increased industrial emissions because of the increase of electricity share and higher emissions coefficient. Therefore, raw chemical materials and chemical products, nonmetal mineral products and smelting and pressing of ferrous metals should be among the top priorities for enhancing energy efficiency and driving their energy intensity close to the international advanced level. To some degree, we should reduce the products waste of these sectors, mitigate the growth of demand for their products through avoiding the excessive investment highly related to these sectors, increasing imports or decreasing the export in order to avoid expanding their share in total industrial value added. However, all these should integrate economic growth to harmonize industrial development and CO 2

  16. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  17. Importance and topical problems of the industry of the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrikoff, A.

    1987-01-01

    32 companies belong to the industrial association 'Kernbrennstoffkreislauf e.V.'. They do business in the nuclear fuel cycle in the Federal Republic of Germany. This field comprises the different forms of dealing with nuclear fuels and the materials from which they are made, including the radioactive wastes resulting from the use of nuclear fuels, with the exception of the handling of such materials in nuclear power plants. Some 5000 persons - subcontractors not counted - are employed in this branch of industry. Turnover amounts to about 2 billion Deutsch Marks yearly. But it is a branch of industry that is important beyond the figures mentioned. Its existence constitutes the precondition for building, operating, and exporting nuclear power plants. This paper is concerned particularly with some topical political problems. (orig./UA) [de

  18. A Synthetic Method for Atmospheric Diffusion Simulation and Environmental Impact Assessment of Accidental Pollution in the Chemical Industry in a WEBGIS Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Ni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents.

  19. A synthetic method for atmospheric diffusion simulation and environmental impact assessment of accidental pollution in the chemical industry in a WEBGIS context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen; Cheng, Liang

    2014-09-05

    The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information) management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents.

  20. A Synthetic Method for Atmospheric Diffusion Simulation and Environmental Impact Assessment of Accidental Pollution in the Chemical Industry in a WEBGIS Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Haochen; Rui, Yikang; Wang, Jiechen; Cheng, Liang

    2014-01-01

    The chemical industry poses a potential security risk to factory personnel and neighboring residents. In order to mitigate prospective damage, a synthetic method must be developed for an emergency response. With the development of environmental numeric simulation models, model integration methods, and modern information technology, many Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been established. However, existing systems still have limitations, in terms of synthetic simulation and network interoperation. In order to resolve these limitations, the matured simulation model for chemical accidents was integrated into the WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The complete workflow of the emergency response, including raw data (meteorology information, and accident information) management, numeric simulation of different kinds of accidents, environmental impact assessments, and representation of the simulation results were achieved. This allowed comprehensive and real-time simulation of acute accidents in the chemical industry. The main contribution of this paper is that an organizational mechanism of the model set, based on the accident type and pollutant substance; a scheduling mechanism for the parallel processing of multi-accident-type, multi-accident-substance, and multi-simulation-model; and finally a presentation method for scalar and vector data on the web browser on the integration of a WEB Geographic Information System (WEBGIS) platform. The outcomes demonstrated that this method could provide effective support for deciding emergency responses of acute chemical accidents. PMID:25198686

  1. Nuclear Energy R and D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David; Herring, J. Stephen

    2010-01-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R and D Roadmap, entitled 'Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors', addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R and D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: (1) Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, (2) Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and (3) Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation

  2. Assessment of safety culture from the INB organization: A case study for nuclear fuel cycle industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, J.S.; Barreto, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    The present article describes strategies, methodologies and first results on the Safety Culture Self-assessment Project under way at INB since August 2001. As a Brazilian Government company in charge of the nuclear fuel cycle activities,. the main purposes of the Project is to evaluate the present status of its safety culture and to propose actions to ensure continuous safety improvement at management level of its industrial processes. The proposed safety culture assessment describes INB's various production sites taking into account the different aspects of their activities, such as regional, social and technical issues. The survey was performed in March/2002 very good attendance (about 80%) the employees. The first global survey results are presented in item 4. (author)

  3. Industry requirements for introduction of alternative energies with emphasis on hydrogen fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delabbio, F. [Rio Tinto, Canadian Exploration Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Starbuck, D. [Newmont Mining Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Akerman, A. [CVRD-Inco, Toronto, ON (Canada); Betournay, M.C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2007-07-01

    This paper discussed issues related to the use of alternate sources of energy in underground mining applications. Hydrogen power systems were examined in relation to operational drivers, available commercial supplies, site supplies, health and safety issues, capital and operating costs, mine production, and the role of government. Hydrogen power systems are being considered for mining applications in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce cooling and ventilation requirements. This article examined a range of issues that must be addressed before alternate energy systems such as hydrogen fuel cell technology can be used in larger-scale underground mining applications. The mining industry supports the development of new technologies. However, the introduction of alternate energy technologies must proceed in steps which include proof of concept testing, the development of generic infrastructure, power systems and regulations, and whole operating system studies. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  5. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  6. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wennan

    2010-01-01

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  7. Building world-wide nuclear industry success stories - Safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This WNA Position Statement summarizes the worldwide nuclear industry's record, progress and plans in safely managing nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. The global industry's safe waste management practices cover the entire nuclear fuel-cycle, from the mining of uranium to the long-term disposal of end products from nuclear power reactors. The Statement's aim is to provide, in clear and accurate terms, the nuclear industry's 'story' on a crucially important subject often clouded by misinformation. Inevitably, each country and each company employs a management strategy appropriate to a specific national and technical context. This Position Statement reflects a confident industry consensus that a common dedication to sound practices throughout the nuclear industry worldwide is continuing to enhance an already robust global record of safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. This text focuses solely on modern civil programmes of nuclear-electricity generation. It does not deal with the substantial quantities of waste from military or early civil nuclear programmes. These wastes fall into the category of 'legacy activities' and are generally accepted as a responsibility of national governments. The clean-up of wastes resulting from 'legacy activities' should not be confused with the limited volume of end products that are routinely produced and safely managed by today's nuclear energy industry. On the significant subject of 'Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities', which is integral to modern civil nuclear power programmes, the WNA will offer a separate Position Statement covering the industry's safe management of nuclear waste in this context. The safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel is a widespread, well-demonstrated reality. This strong safety record reflects a high degree of nuclear industry expertise and of industry responsibility toward the well-being of current and future generations. Accumulating experience and

  8. Production of Liquid Synthetic Fuels from Carbon, Water and Nuclear Power on Ships and at Shore Bases for Military and Potential Commercial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke Bogart, S.; Schultz, Ken; Brown, Lloyd; Russ, Ben

    2006-01-01

    It is demonstrable that synthetic fuels (jet/diesel/gasoline ≅ (CH 2 ) n ) can be produced from carbon, water, and nuclear energy. What remains to be shown is that all system processes are scalable, integrable, and economical. Sources of carbon include but are not limited to CO 2 from the atmosphere or seawater, CO 2 from fossil-fired power plants, and elemental carbon from coal or biomass. For mobile defense (Navy) applications, the ubiquitous atmosphere is our chosen carbon source. For larger-scale sites such as Naval Advance Bases, the atmosphere may still be the choice should other sources not be readily available. However, at many locations suitable for defense and, potentially, commercial syn-fuel production, far higher concentrations of carbon may be available. The rationale for this study was manifold: fuel system security from terrorism and possible oil embargoes; rising demand and, eventually, peaking supply of conventional petroleum; and escalating costs and prices of fuels. For these reasons, the initial parts of the study were directed at Syn-fuel production for mobile Naval platforms and shore sites such as Rokkasho, Japan (as an exemplar). Nuclear reactors would provide the energy for H 2 from water-splitting, Membrane Gas Absorption (MGA) would extract CO 2 from the atmosphere, the Reverse Water-Gas Reaction (RWGR) would convert the CO 2 to CO, and the resultant H 2 and CO feeds would be converted to (CH 2 )n by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Many of these processes exist at commercial scale. Some, particularly MGA and RWGR, have been demonstrated at the bench-scale, requiring up-scaling. Likewise, the demonstration of an integrated system at some scale is yet to be done. For ship-based production, it has been shown that the system should be viable and, under reasonable assumptions, both scalable and economical for defense fuels. For the assumptions in the study, fuel cost estimates range from ∼ $2.55 to $4.75 per gallon with a nominal cost of

  9. Innovative regions and industrial clusters in hydrogen and fuel cell technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Anne Nygaard; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2010-01-01

    Regional governments in Europe seem to be playing an increasing role in hydrogen and fuel cell (H2FC) development. A number of regions are supporting demonstration projects and building networks among regional stakeholders to strengthen their engagement in H2FC technology. In this article, we will analyse regions that are highly engaged in H2FC activity, based on three indicators: existing hydrogen infrastructure and production sites, general innovativeness and the presence of industrial clusters with relevance for H2FC. Our finding is that regions with high activity in H2FC development are also innovative regions in general. Moreover, the article highlights some industrial clusters that create favourable conditions for regions to take part in H2FC development. Existing hydrogen infrastructure, however, seems to play only a minor role in a region's engagement. The article concludes that, while further research is needed before qualified policy implications can be drawn, an overall well-functioning regional innovation system is important in the formative phase of an H2FC innovation system.

  10. Waste management in the meat processing industry: Conversion of paunch and DAF sludge into solid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamawand, Ihsan; Pittaway, Pam; Lewis, Larry; Chakrabarty, Sayan; Caldwell, Justin; Eberhard, Jochen; Chakraborty, Arpita

    2017-02-01

    This article addresses the novel dewatering process of immersion-frying of paunch and dissolved air flotation (DAF) sludge to produce high energy pellets. Literature have been analysed to address the feasibility of replacing conventional boiler fuel at meat processing facilities with high energy paunch-DAF sludge pellets (capsules). The value proposition of pelleting and frying this mixture into energy pellets is based on a Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA). The CBA is based on information derived from the literature and consultation with the Australian Meat Processing Industry. The calorific properties of a mixture of paunch cake solids and DAF sludge were predicted from literature and industry consultation to validate the product. This study shows that the concept of pelletizing and frying paunch is economically feasible. The complete frying and dewatering of the paunch and DAF sludge mixture produces pellets with energy content per kilogram equivalent to coal. The estimated cost of this new product is half the price of coal and the payback period is estimated to be between 1.8 and 3.2years. Further research is required for proof of concept, and to identify the technical challenges associated with integrating this technology into existing meat processing plants. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The climate responsibilities of the fossil fuel industry: why the Paris Agreement goals require an end to growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, K.; Muttitt, G.; Kretzmann, S.; Stockman, L.; Doukas, A.

    2017-12-01

    In December 2015, governments agreed in Paris to limit global average temperature rise to well below 2°C, and to aim to limit it to 1.5°C, compared to pre-industrial levels. Achieving these goals would require greenhouse gas emissions to reach net zero early in the second half of this century, and consequently most fossil fuel use to be phased out. This has clear implications for fossil fuel industry, and shines light on what should be expected of the industry in its business decisions - complementing the discussion of the industry's role in the scientific debate. This presentation shares the results to date of ongoing research into the committed emissions from oilfields, gasfields and coal mines, compared to carbon budgets. Building on prior work on fossil fuel reserves (notably Meinshausen 2009), our research focuses just on the developed reserves, from already-producing fields and mines. We estimate developed reserves of oil and gas using industry databases, and of coal using analysis by the International Energy Agency, and compare with carbon budgets published in the IPCC's 5th Assessment Report. The key findings are that: Developed reserves of oil, gas, and coal are more than we can afford to burn while keeping likely warming below 2°C. Developed reserves of oil and gas alone would take the world beyond 1.5°C. The implications are that development of any new fields or mines will either push the world beyond agreed climate limits, or cause some existing extraction assets to become stranded. This suggests that fossil fuel companies should stop developing new infrastructure, and governments should oversee a managed decline of the industry over the coming decades, combined with an upscaling of clean energy, as existing fossil fuel reserves are depleted.

  12. Use of controlled thermonuclear reactor fusion power for the production of synthetic methanol fuel from air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Vi Duong Dang.

    1975-04-01

    Methanol synthesis from carbon dioxide, water and nuclear fusion energy is extensively investigated. The entire system is analyzed from the point of view of process design and economic evaluation of various processes. The main potential advantage of a fusion reactor (CTR) for this purpose is that it provides a large source of low cost environmentally acceptable electric power based on an abundant fuel source. Carbon dioxide is obtained by extraction from the atomsphere or from sea water. Hydrogen is obtained by electrolysis of water. Methanol is synthesized by the catalytic reaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The water electrolysis and methanol synthesis units are considered to be technically and commercially available. The benefit of using air or sea water as a source of carbon dioxide is to provide an essentially unlimited renewable and environmentally acceptabe source of hydrocarbon fuel. Extraction of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere also allows a high degree of freedom in plant siting. (U.S.)

  13. Extremely Thermophilic Microorganisms as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Production of Fuels and Industrial Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Zeldes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye towards potential technological

  14. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldes, Benjamin M.; Keller, Matthew W.; Loder, Andrew J.; Straub, Christopher T.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Kelly, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  15. Black Liquor Gasification with Motor Fuel Production - BLGMF II - A techno-economic feasibility study on catalytic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for synthetic diesel production in comparison with methanol and DME as transport fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekbom, Tomas; Berglin, Niklas; Loegdberg, Sara [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-06-15

    The present project presents additional results to the former BLGMF project, which investigate Black Liquor Gasification with Motor Fuels (BLGMF) production. The objectives were to investigate, based on the KAM 2 program Ecocyclic Pulp Mill (2,000 ADt/day of pulp) the feasibility of synthetic fuels production. Specifically the route to Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuels is investigated as comparison to earlier work on methanol/DME. As modern kraft pulp mills have a surplus of energy, they could become key suppliers of renewable fuels. It is thus of great interest to convert the spent cooking product 'black liquor' to an energy carrier of high value. The resulting biomass-to-fuel energy efficiency when only biomass is used as an external energy source was 43% for FTD or 65% for FT products compared with 66% for methanol and 67% for DME. The FTD calculation is considerably more complicated and based on assumptions, therefore the uncertainty is higher. Would the diesel be taken out with a T95% of 320 deg C the FTD efficiency would be 45%. FT synthesis also opens up a possibility to produce e.g. lube oils from waxes produced. The total net FT-products output equals 4115 barrels/day. The FTD production cost is calculated as the energy share of the total production cost and assumes an offset of naphtha covering its own costs, where it is essential that it finds a market. Assuming same petrol (methanol) and diesel (DME, FTD) costs for the consumer the payback time were 2.6, 2.9 and 3.4 years with an IRR of 40%, 45% and 30%, respectively. In conclusion, there are necessary resources and potential for large-scale methanol (or DME, FTD) production and substantial economic incentive for making plant investments and achieving competitive product revenues.

  16. Synthetic nanocomposite MgH2/5 wt. % TiMn2 powders for solid-hydrogen storage tank integrated with PEM fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eskandarany, M Sherif; Shaban, Ehab; Aldakheel, Fahad; Alkandary, Abdullah; Behbehani, Montaha; Al-Saidi, M

    2017-10-16

    Storing hydrogen gas into cylinders under high pressure of 350 bar is not safe and still needs many intensive studies dedic ated for tank's manufacturing. Liquid hydrogen faces also severe practical difficulties due to its very low density, leading to larger fuel tanks three times larger than traditional gasoline tank. Moreover, converting hydrogen gas into liquid phase is not an economic process since it consumes high energy needed to cool down the gas temperature to -252.8 °C. One practical solution is storing hydrogen gas in metal lattice such as Mg powder and its nanocomposites in the form of MgH 2 . There are two major issues should be solved first. One related to MgH 2 in which its inherent poor hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics and high thermal stability must be improved. Secondly, related to providing a safe tank. Here we have succeeded to prepare a new binary system of MgH 2 /5 wt. % TiMn 2 nanocomposite powder that show excellent hydrogenation/dehydrogenation behavior at relatively low temperature (250 °C) with long cycle-life-time (1400 h). Moreover, a simple hydrogen storage tank filled with our synthetic nanocomposite powders was designed and tested in electrical charging a battery of a cell phone device at 180 °C through a commercial fuel cell.

  17. Conceptual evaluation of hybrid energy system comprising wind-biomass-nuclear plants for load balancing and for production of renewable synthetic transport fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Purvins, Arturs; Papaioannou, Ioulia T.; Shropshire, David; Cherry, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Future energy systems will increasingly need to integrate variable renewable energy in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from power production. Addressing this trend the present paper studies how a hybrid energy systems comprising aggregated wind farms, a biomass processing plant, and a nuclear cogeneration plant could support high renewable energy penetration. The hybrid energy system operates so that its electrical output tends to meet demand. This is achieved mainly through altering the heat-to-power ratio of the nuclear reactor and by using excess electricity for hydrogen production through electrolysis. Hybrid energy systems with biomass treatment processes, i.e. drying, torrefaction, pyrolysis and synthetic fuel production were evaluated. It was shown that the studied hybrid energy system comprising a 1 GWe wind farm and a 347 MWe nuclear reactor could closely follow the power demand profile with a standard deviation of 34 MWe. In addition, on average 600 m"3 of bio-gasoline and 750 m"3 bio-diesel are produced daily. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of up to 4.4 MtCO_2eq annually compared to power generation and transport using conventional fossil fuel sources. (author)

  18. Fusion energy applied to synthetic fuel production: a report to the DOE Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy based on a preliminary study by an ad-hoc advisory group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1977-10-01

    The general conclusion is that the potential for utilization of fusion energy for synthetic fuel production is favorable. Three basic methods of hydrogen production are identified: high-temperature electrolysis, thermochemical cycles, and direct radiolysis. Combinations of these and their use as in combined cycles for electric power generation are considered

  19. Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duleep, K. G. [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Upreti, Girish [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry, Government Policy and Future Opportunities. Fuel cells (FCs)are considered essential future energy technologies by developed and developing economies alike. Several countries, including the United States, Japan, Germany,and South Korea have established publicly funded R&D and market transformation programs to develop viable domestic FC industries for both automotive and nonautomotive applications.

  20. Yeast synthetic biology toolbox and applications for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Sung; Kwak, Suryang; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-02-01

    Yeasts are efficient biofuel producers with numerous advantages outcompeting bacterial counterparts. While most synthetic biology tools have been developed and customized for bacteria especially for Escherichia coli, yeast synthetic biological tools have been exploited for improving yeast to produce fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass. Here we review the current status of synthetic biological tools and their applications for biofuel production, focusing on the model strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae We describe assembly techniques that have been developed for constructing genes, pathways, and genomes in yeast. Moreover, we discuss synthetic parts for allowing precise control of gene expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. Applications of these synthetic biological approaches have led to identification of effective gene targets that are responsible for desirable traits, such as cellulosic sugar utilization, advanced biofuel production, and enhanced tolerance against toxic products for biofuel production from renewable biomass. Although an array of synthetic biology tools and devices are available, we observed some gaps existing in tool development to achieve industrial utilization. Looking forward, future tool development should focus on industrial cultivation conditions utilizing industrial strains. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  1. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollis, Rebecca

    2013-03-31

    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  2. Assessment of Energy Performance and Emission Control Using Alternative Fuels in Cement Industry through a Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement manufacturing is one of the most energy intensive processes and is accountable for substantial pollutant emissions. Increasing energy costs compel stakeholders and researchers to search for alternative options to improve energy performance and reduce CO2 emissions. Alternative fuels offer a realistic solution towards the reduction of the usage of fossil fuels and the mitigation of pollutant emissions. This paper developed a process model of a precalciner kiln system in the cement industry using Aspen Plus software to simulate the effect of five alternative fuels on pollutant emissions and energy performance. The alternatives fuels used were tyre, municipal solid waste (MSW, meat and bone meal (MBM, plastic waste and sugarcane bagasse. The model was developed on the basis of energy and mass balance of the system and was validated against data from a reference cement plant. This study also investigated the effect of these alternative fuels on the quality of the clinker. The results indicated that up to a 4.4% reduction in CO2 emissions and up to a 6.4% reduction in thermal energy requirement could be achieved using these alternative fuels with 20% mix in coal. It was also found that the alternative fuels had minimum influence on the clinker quality except in the case of MSW. Overall, MBM was found to be a better option as it is capable on reducing energy requirement and CO2 emissions more than others. The outcomes of the study offer better understanding of the effects of solid alternative fuels to achieve higher energy performance and on mitigating pollutant emissions in cement industry.

  3. Well-to-wheel analysis of renewable transport fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification and hydrogen from concentrated solar energy[Dissertation 17437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, R.

    2007-07-01

    In order to deal with problems such as climate change, an increasing energy demand and the finiteness of fossil resources, alternative CO{sub 2}-low technologies have to be found for a sustainable growing future. Laboratories at PSI are conducting research on two pathways delivering such car fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification (SNG) and hydrogen from solar thermochemical ZnO dissociation (STD). The biofuel SNG is produced using wood in an auto-thermal gasification reactor. It can be supplied to the natural-gas grid and be used in a compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle. STD is a long-term option, using concentrated solar radiation in a thermochemical reactor, producing zinc as solar energy carrier. Zinc can be used for hydrolysis, in order to produce hydrogen as a locally low-polluting future car fuel. In the frame of the thesis, both fuels are assessed using a life cycle assessment, i.e. investigating all environmental interactions from the extraction of resources over the processing and usage steps to the final disposal. Different methodologies are applied for a rating, compared to alternatives and standard fuels of today. In addition, costs of the technologies are calculated in order to assess economic competitiveness. The thesis is structured as follows: After an introduction giving an overview (chapter A), the methodology is presented (chapter B). It includes various life cycle impact assessment methods such as greenhouse gas emissions, the cumulative energy demand or comprehensive rating approaches. Calculations of the production and supply costs of the assessed fuels are included as well as the eco-efficiency, a combination of environmental with economic indicators. In addition, external costs caused by the emissions are quantified. Sensitivity studies investigate the importance of different parameters and substantiate conclusions. In chapter C, the production, supply and use of the assessed fuels is discussed, following the well

  4. Oleaginous crops as integrated production platforms for food, feed, fuel and renewable industrial feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaudoin Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The world faces considerable challenges including how to produce more biomass for food, feed, fuel and industrial feedstock without significantly impacting on our environment or increasing our consumption of limited resources such as water or petroleum-derived carbon. This has been described as sustainable intensification. Oleaginous crops have the potential to provide renewable resources for all these commodities, provided they can be engineered to meet end-use requirements, and that they can be produced on sufficient scale to meet current growing world population and industrial demand. Although traditional breeding methods have been used successfully to modify the fatty acid composition of oils, metabolic engineering provides a more rapid and direct method for manipulating plant lipid composition. Recent advances in our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of seed oil biogenesis and the cloning of genes involved in fatty acid and oil metabolic pathways, have allowed the generation of oilseed crops that produce ‘designer oils’ tailored for specific applications and the conversion of high biomass crops into novel oleaginous crops. However, improvement of complex quantitative traits in oilseed crops remains more challenging as the underlying genetic determinants are still poorly understood. Technological advances in sequencing and computing have allowed the development of an association genetics method applicable to crops with complex genomes. Associative transcriptomics approaches and high throughput lipidomic profiling can be used to identify the genetic components controlling quantitative variation for lipid related traits in polyploid crops like oilseed rape and provide molecular tools for marker assisted breeding. In this review we are citing examples of traits with potential for bio-refining that can be harvested as co-products in seeds, but also in non-harvested biomass.

  5. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  6. Oil price, government policies fuel industry's shift from U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silas, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    The world exploration outlook starts with the outlook for the price of oil. This paper reports that oil prices and government policies for fuel industries shift from the U.S. If we've learned anything in the past decade it's that we're not very good at predicting oil prices. We can build economic models of supply and demand but we can't build models for political events in the Middle East or the actions of someone like Saddam Hussein. As we look to 2000 our best estimate is that oil will remain at about $20 for the near term and move upward very gradually during the rest of the decade. Of course, rising demand eventually should cause oil prices to break out and show some strength. But not soon. We don't see oil prices overcoming inflation until the latter part of the decade. And we aren't expecting oil prices much above $25 in inflation adjusted terms until the next century

  7. Plutonium-containing aerosols found within containment enclosures in industrial mixed-oxide reactor fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Yeh, H.C.; Stanley, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Mixed oxide (PuO 2 and UO 2 ) nuclear reactor fuel pellets are fabricated within safety enclosures at Babcock and Wilcox's Park Township site near Apollo, PA. Forty-two sample runs of plutonium-containing aerosols were taken from within glove boxes during routine industrial operations. A small, seven-stage cascade impactor and the Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator (LAPS) were used to determine aerodynamic size distribution and gross alpha aerosol concentration. Powder comminution and blending produced aerosols with lognormal size distributions characterized by activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMAD) of 1.89 +- 0.33 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.62 +- 0.09 and a gross alpha aerosol concentration range of 0.1 to 150 nCi/l. Slug pressing and grinding produced aerosols of AMAD = 3.08 +- 0.1 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.53 +- 0.01 and AMAD = 2.26 +- 0.16 μm, sigma/sub g/ = 1.68 +- 0.20, respectively. Gross alpha aerosol concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 450 nCi/l. Centerless grinding produced similar-sized aerosols but the gross alpha concentration ranged from 220 to 1690 nCi/l. In vitro solubility studies on selected LAPS samples in a lung fluid simulant indicate that plutonium mixed-oxide aerosols are more soluble than laboratory-produced plutonium aerosols

  8. The determinants of fuel use in the trucking industry – volume, size and the rebound effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of trucking firm fuel use. We develop a simple model to show that trucking firm fuel use depends, in addition to the fuel price and the traffic volume, also on the output of the trucking firm’s production process (the movement of cargo) measured in tonkilometres...... these elasticities using a simultaneous-equation model based on aggregate time-series data for Denmark for 1980-2007. Our best estimates of the short run and the long run rebound effects for road freight transportation are 19% and 28%, respectively. We also find that an increase in the fuel price surprisingly has...... a small but significant negative effect on the fuel efficiency (measured here as vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT) per litre of consumed fuel), i.e. a 1% increase in the fuel price decreases the fuel efficiency by 0.13% in the long run. However, less distance has to be driven for the same payload. An 1...

  9. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  10. Design, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels for the substitution of fossil feedstock in the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarc, R; Lorber, K E; Pomberger, R; Rogetzer, M; Sipple, E M

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the requirements for the production, quality, and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels (SRF) that are increasingly used in the cement industry. Different aspects have to be considered before using SRF as an alternative fuel. Here, a study on the quality of SRF used in the cement industry is presented. This overview is completed by an investigation of type and properties of input materials used at waste splitting and SRF production plants in Austria. As a simplified classification, SRF can be divided into two classes: a fine, high-calorific SRF for the main burner, or coarser SRF material with low calorific value for secondary firing systems, such as precombustion chambers or similar systems. In the present study, SRFs coming from various sources that fall under these two different waste fuel classes are discussed. Both SRFs are actually fired in the grey clinker kiln of the Holcim (Slovensko) plant in Rohožnik (Slovakia). The fine premium-quality material is used in the main burner and the coarse regular-quality material is fed to a FLS Hotdisc combustion device. In general, the alternative fuels are used instead of their substituted fossil fuels. For this, chemical compositions and other properties of SRF were compared to hard coal as one of the most common conventional fuels in Europe. This approach allows to compare the heavy metal input from traditional and alternative fuels and to comment on the legal requirements on SRF that, at the moment, are under development in Europe. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Methodical Approaches To Analysis And Forecasting Of Development Fuel And Energy Complex And Gas Industry In The Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Andreyevich Tsybatov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuel and energy complex (FEC is one of the main elements of the economy of any territory over which intertwine the interests of all economic entities. To ensure economic growth of the region should ensure that internal balance of energy resources, which should be developed with account of regional specifics of economic growth and energy security. The study examined the status of this equilibrium, indicating fuel and energy balance of the region (TEB. The aim of the research is the development of the fuel and energy balance, which will allow to determine exactly how many and what resources are not enough to ensure the regional development strategy and what resources need to be brought in. In the energy balances as the focus of displays all issues of regional development, so thermopile is necessary as a mechanism of analysis of current issues, economic development, and in the forward-looking version — as a tool future vision for the fuel and energy complex, energy threats and ways of overcoming them. The variety of relationships in the energy sector with other sectors and aspects of society lead to the fact that the development of the fuel and energy balance of the region have to go beyond the actual energy sector, involving the analysis of other sectors of economy, as well as systems such as banking, budgetary, legislative, tax. Due to the complexity of the discussed problems, the obvious is the need to develop appropriate forecast-analytical system, allowing regional authorities to implement evidence-based predictions of the consequences of management decisions. Multivariant scenario study on development of fuel and energy complex and separately industry, to use the methods of project-based management, harmonized application of state regulation of strategic and market mechanisms on the operational directions of development of fuel and energy complex and separately industry in the economy of the region.

  12. Automobile fuel; Economy and CO2 emissions in industrialized countries : troubling trends through 2005/6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A review of recently available data on both on-road fuel economy and new car test fuel economy : shows that while US on-road fuel economy has been flat for almost 15 years, major European countries and Japan have shown modest improvements in response...

  13. From dirt to industrial applications: Pseudomonas putida as a Synthetic Biology chassis for hosting harsh biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikel, Pablo I; Chavarría, Max; Danchin, Antoine; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2016-10-01

    The soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida is endowed with a central carbon metabolic network capable of fulfilling high demands of reducing power. This situation arises from a unique metabolic architecture that encompasses the partial recycling of triose phosphates to hexose phosphates-the so-called EDEMP cycle. In this article, the value of P. putida as a bacterial chassis of choice for contemporary, industrially-oriented metabolic engineering is addressed. The biochemical properties that make this bacterium adequate for hosting biotransformations involving redox reactions as well as toxic compounds and intermediates are discussed. Finally, novel developments and open questions in the continuous quest for an optimal microbial cell factory are presented at the light of current and future needs in the area of biocatalysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthetic Biology: Engineering, Evolution and Design (SEED) Conference 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Christopher [Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-07-01

    SEED2014 focused on advances in the science and technology emerging from the field of synthetic biology. We broadly define this as technologies that accelerate the process of genetic engineering. It highlighted new tool development, as well as the application of these tools to diverse problems in biotechnology, including therapeutics, industrial chemicals and fuels, natural products, and agriculture. Systems spanned from in vitro experiments and viruses, through diverse bacteria, to eukaryotes (yeast, mammalian cells, plants).

  15. Scope and perspectives of industrial hydrogen production and infrastructure for fuel cell vehicles in North Rhine-Westphalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastowski, Andreas; Grube, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A promising candidate that may follow conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines combines hydrogen from regenerative sources of energy, fuel cells and an electric drive train. For early fleets introduced the refuelling infrastructure needs to be in place at least to the extent of the vehicles operational reach. The question arises which strategies may help to keep initial hydrogen and infrastructure cost low? Industrial production, distribution and use of hydrogen is well-established and the volumes handled are substantial. Even though today's industrial hydrogen is not in tune with the long-term sustainable vision, hydrogen production and infrastructure already in place might serve as a nucleus for putting that vision into practice. This contribution takes stock of industrial production and use of hydrogen in North Rhine-Westphalia based on a recently finalized project. It demonstrates to which extent industrial hydrogen could be used for a growing number of vehicles and at which time additional capacity might need to be installed.

  16. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  17. Adsorption of copper, nickel and lead ions from synthetic semiconductor industrial wastewater by palm shell activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onundi, Y. B.; Mamun, A. A.; Al Khatib, M. F.; Ahmad, Y. M.

    2010-01-01

    Granular activated carbon produced from palm kernel shell was used as adsorbent to remove copper, nickel and lead ions from a synthesized industrial wastewater. Laboratory experimental investigation was carried out to identify the effect of p H and contact time on adsorption of lead, copper and nickel from the mixed metals solution. Equilibrium adsorption experiments at ambient room temperature were carried out and fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Results showed that p H 5 was the most suitable, while the maximum adsorbent capacity was at a dosage of 1 g/L, recording a sorption capacity of 1.337 mg/g for lead, 1.581 mg/g for copper and 0.130 mg/g for nickel. The percentage metal removal approached equilibrium within 30 minutes for lead, 75 minutes for copper and nickel, with lead recording 100 p ercent , copper 97 p ercent a nd nickel 55 p ercent r emoval, having a trend of Pb 2+ > Cu 2+ > Ni 2+ . Langmuir model had higher R 2 values of 0.977, 0.817 and 0.978 for copper, nickel and lead respectively, which fitted the equilibrium adsorption process more than Freundlich model for the three metals.

  18. Synthetic Klebsiella pneumoniae-Shewanella oneidensis Consortium Enables Glycerol-Fed High-Performance Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Yin, Changji; Sun, Liming; Li, Yuanxiu; Guo, Xuewu; Song, Hao

    2018-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an eco-friendly bio-electrochemical sys-tem that uses microorganism as biocatalyst to convert biomass into electricity. Glycerol, as a waste in the biodiesel refinery processes, is an appealing substrate for MFC. Nevertheless, glycerol cannot be utilized as carbon source by well-known exoelectrogens such as Shewanella oneidensis. Herein, to generate electricity by rapidly harnessing glycerol, the authors rationally constructed a Klebsiella pneumoniae-Shewanella oneidensis microbial consortium to efficiently harvest electricity from glyc-erol, in which K. pneumoniae converted glycerol into lactate, fed to S. oneidensis as carbon source and electron donor. To improve electricity output, the authors systematically engineered the consortium in terms of carbon flux distribution and efficiency of extracellular electron transfer (EET). To direct more carbon flux to lactate biosynthesis in K. pneumoniae, the authors eliminated the ethanol pathway by knocking out the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), and enhanced lactate biosynthesis by heterologously expressing a lactate dehydrogen-ase gene (ldhD) from Lactobacillus bulgaricus and a lactate transporter gene (lldP) from Escherichia coli. To facilitate EET between S. oneidensis and anode surfaces, a biosynthetic flavins pathway from Bacillus subtilis is introduced into S. oneidensis. The author further optimized the glycerol concentration, thus S. oneidensis could be continuously fed with lactate synthesized from K. pneumoniae at a constant rate. Our glycerol-fed MFC generated a maximum power density of 19.9 mW/m 2 , significantly higher than that of the wild-type consor-tium. This work suggested that engineering microbial consortia is an effi-cient strategy to expand the spectrum of usable carbon sources and promote electricity power production in MFCs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Numerical Simulation and Industrial Experimental Research on the Coherent Jet with "CH4 + N2" Mixed Fuel Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaoyan; Zhu, Rong; Dong, Kai; Liu, Runzao

    2018-06-01

    Coherent jet technology is widely used in the electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking process to deliver more energy and momentum into the molten steel bath. Meanwhile, the characteristics of a coherent jet using pure CH4 as the fuel gas have been well investigated in previous studies. To reduce the consumption of CH4, coherent jet technology using "CH4 + N2" mixed fuel gas instead of pure CH4 was proposed and studied in detail by numerical simulation in the present work. The Eddy Dissipation Concept model, which has detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms, was adopted to model the fuel gas combustion reactions. Experimental measurements were carried out to validate the accuracy of the computational model. The present study shows that the jet characteristics of the main oxygen improve along with the increase of the CH4 ratio in fuel gas and with the increase of the flow rate of fuel gas. When the CH4 ratio in the fuel gas is 25 pct, the fuel gas flow rate only has a limited influence on the jet characteristics, unlike the rest of the fuel gas compositions, because a high N2 proportion deteriorates the combustion performance and leads to severe incomplete combustion. Moreover, a false potential core phenomenon was observed and explained in the present study. Based on the average values, the jet length of a coherent jet with 75 pct CH4 can achieve 89.8 pct of that with 100 pct CH4. Finally, an industrial experiment was carried out on a commercial 100t EAF using coherent jet with 75 pct CH4, showing that the average CH4 consumption was reduced from 3.84 to 3.05 Nm3 t-1 under the premise of no obvious changes in the other production indexes.

  20. The turbulent liquid fuel industry in Zimbabwe: options for resolving the crisis and improving supply to the poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashange, Krispen

    2002-01-01

    Towards the end of the last decade, supplies in petroleum fuel have been erratic to the extent that Zimbabwe has at times operated with as low as 40% of normal supplies. These shortages were attributed mainly to foreign exchange shortages and alleged mismanagement and corruption at the National Oil Company of Zimbabwe (NOCZIM). As shortages intensified, problems of product shortage began to unfold, which adversely impacted on the urban poor. The public began to question the industry's policies on the sustainability of the liquid fuel sector policies in Zimbabwe. Of particular concern was policies regarding regulatory mechanisms, pricing, distribution, utilisation of storage facilities, supply routes and NOCZIM management. This paper evaluates the challenges facing the Zimbabwean petroleum sector and presents recommendations that could assist in ensuring a robust and functional national fuel sector. (Author)

  1. The development of an integrated nuclear fuel-cycle industry to meet the needs of the Italian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, A.M.; Badolato, G.; Clementel, E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper summarizes the Italian nuclear power station programme, recently approved by the Government, and illustrates the main reasons for the programme, which are in line with those presented at the Geneva Conference in 1971, and which lead to the consideration that nuclear energy is the main source for meeting practically all new electric power requirements in Italy. The implementation of this programme involves considerable nuclear fuel-cycle services, ranging from uranium supply to waste disposal. The industrial strategy to meet these needs is discussed. Technical and economic factors affecting such strategy, both for the fuel cycle as a whole and for its individual phases, are considered. Attention is focused on problems typical of the Italian situation and on various ways of solving them. A prominent feature of the Italian situation is the lack of sizeable domestic uranium resources, which makes it even more important to try, by local industrial efforts, to cover the phases of the cycle subsequent to uranium supply, so as to increase as much as possible the fraction of added value produced inside the country. The present status of the Italian nuclear fuel-cycle industry is reviewed in detail, and its capability of supporting the nuclear programme is analysed. Future development plans are discussed, taking into account the possibility of European co-operation. While the focus is on short- and medium-term programmes, the long-term nuclear programmes are discussed, such as those based on fast breeders, and stress is laid on the need to build up as quickly as possible a strong nuclear fuel-cycle industry. (author)

  2. Concerning permission of commercial processing of nuclear fuel substances at Rokkasho plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission on Dec. 19, 1987 directed the Nuclear Fuel Safety Expert Group to carry out a study on it, made deliberations after receiving a report from the Group on July 13, 1988, and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on July 21. The study and deliberations were intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The investigation on the location covered the site conditions, meteorology, ground conditions, hydrology, seismic environments, and social environment. The investigations on the safety design addressed the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, thermal stability, containment performance, safety against natural phenomena other than earthquake, radioactive waste management, and radiation control. Other investigations included exposure evaluation and accident analysis. It was concluded that the permission would not have adverse effects on the safety of the processing business. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Concerning permission of commercial processing of nuclear fuel substances at Rokkasho plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The Nuclear Safety Commission on Dec. 19, 1987 directed the Nuclear Fuel Safety Expert Group to carry out a study on it, made deliberations after receiving a report from the Group on July 13, 1988, and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on July 21. The study and deliberations were intended to determine the conformity of the permission to the applicable criteria specified in laws relating to control of nuclear material, nuclear fuel and nuclear reactor. The investigation on the location covered the site conditions, meteorology, ground conditions, hydrology, seismic environments, and social environment. The investigations on the safety design addressed the anti-earthquake performance, fire/explosion prevention, criticality control, thermal stability, containment performance, safety against natural phenomena other than earthquake, radioactive waste management, and radiation control. Other investigations included exposure evaluation and accident analysis. It was concluded that the permission would not have adverse effects on the safety of the processing business. (Nogami, K.).

  4. Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel; Schneising, Oliver; Farrell, Paige; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.

    2013-08-01

    The potent greenhouse gas, methane, CH4, has a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Fall, continental-scale (Florida to California) surface CH4 data were collected to investigate the importance of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) emissions in the South US. A total of 6600 measurements along 7020-km of roadways were made by flame ion detection gas chromatography onboard a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle in 2010. A second, winter survey in Southern California measured CH4 at 2 Hz with a cavity ring-down spectrometer in 2012. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI CH4 sources associated with refining, oil/gas production, a presumed major pipeline leak, and a coal loading plant. Nocturnal CH4 mixing ratios tended to be higher than daytime values for similar sources, sometimes significantly, which was attributed to day/night meteorological differences, primarily changes in the boundary layer height. The highest CH4 mixing ratio (39 ppm) was observed near the Kern River Oil Field, California, which uses steam reinjection. FFI CH4 plume signatures were distinguished as stronger than other sources on local scales. On large (4°) scales, the CH4 trend was better matched spatially with FFI activity than wetland spatial patterns. Qualitative comparison of surface data with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite retrievals showed agreement of the large-scale CH4 spatial patterns. Comparison with inventory models and seasonal winds suggests for some seasons and some portions of the Gulf of Mexico a non-negligible underestimation of FFI emissions. For other seasons and locations, qualitative interpretation is not feasible. Unambiguous quantitative source attribution is more complex, requiring transport modeling.

  5. Synthesis of zeolite from rice husk ash waste of brick industries as hydrophobic adsorbent for fuel grade ethanol purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, A.; Alhanif, M.; Khotimah, C.; Zuhra, UA; Putri, BR; Kumoro, AC

    2017-11-01

    A lot of researchers have devoted on ethanol utilization as renewable energy to substitute petroleum based gasoline. When ethanol is being used as a new fuel candidate, it should have at least of 99.5% purity. Usually produced via sugar fermentation process, further purification of ethanol from other components in fermentation broth to obtain its fuel grade is a crucial step. The purpose of this research is to produce synthetic zeolite as hydrophobic adsorbent from rice husk ash for ethanol-water separation and to investigate the influence of weight, adsorption time and initial ethanol concentration on zeolite adsorption capacity. This research consisted of rice husk silica extraction, preparation of hydrophobic zeolite adsorbent, physical characterization using SEM, EDX and adsorption test for an ethanol-water solution. Zeolite with highest adsorption capacity was obtained with 15: 1 alumina silica composition. The best adsorption condition was achieved when 4-gram hydrophobic zeolite applied for adsorption of 100 mL of 10% (v/v) ethanol-water solution for 120 minutes, which resulted in ethanol with 98.93% (v/v) purity. The hydrophobic zeolite from rice husk ash is a potential candidate as an efficient adsorbent to purify raw ethanol into fuel grade ethanol. Implementation of this new adsorbent for ethanol production in commercial scale may reduce the energy consumption of that usually used for the distillation processes.

  6. Fuel cells, present, future and their impact in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez Baez, Victor; Rodriguez, Valmore

    1999-01-01

    During the last years it has been shown the necessity in developing new devices to produce more efficient and clean energy. Fuel cells are efficient electrochemical devices that produce electricity with very low emissions. It is expected to use those devices for stationary and road transportation applications and in portable power units for electrical or electronic equipment. In fact, the car makers are doing great efforts to introduce vehicles powered by fuel cells, to the market by years 2003-2004. At the same time, the characteristics of the fuel cells made those devices excellent for produce combine power and heat in stationary applications. In this work, we examine which fuel cell technologies are best suited to which applications. It will also compare the advantages and disadvantages of using fuel cell, the state of the art of fuel cells in different applications and the progress needed for them to become competitive

  7. Egyptian And International Automotive Diesel. Fuels: Specifications Meeting Challenges To Refining Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, A.M.; EI Shamy, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a brief summary and comparison of Egyptian automotive diesel fuel to the international one. Recent legislation all over the world, requiring further reduction in sulfur, aromatics, T 90 and T 95 and increasing cetane value of the transportation diesel fuels, presents numerous technical and economic challenges to the refiners. While refiners grapple with these challenges, they will also face pressure from the increased demand of transportation diesel fuel and tighter capital restrictions. Overcome of these challenges makes a fair competition. A comparison of the Egyptian automotive diesel fuel and the international one will be a guide to locally and globally facing these challenges

  8. SAF: the next generation process for radiotoxic material handling in the nuclear fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Graham, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980 the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project was established with the goal to design, build, and operate a remote process for manufacturing breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be housed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at the Hanford site. The fabrication system and supporting operations are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. In addition to improved worker protection, remote and automated fuel fabrication operations will result in enhanced safeguards and accountability of fuel material, improved product quality, and increased productivity. Installation of the SAF line equipment has started. Qualification runs are scheduled to begin in 1986 with production commencing in 1987

  9. Design and preliminary results of a fuel flexible industrial gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, A. S.; Troth, D. L.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The design characteristics are presented of a fuel tolerant variable geometry staged air combustor using regenerative/convective cooling. The rich/quench/lean variable geometry combustor is designed to achieve low NO(x) emission from fuels containing fuel bound nitrogen. The physical size of the combustor was calculated for a can-annular combustion system with associated operating conditions for the Allison 570-K engine. Preliminary test results indicate that the concept has the potential to meet emission requirements at maximum continuous power operation. However, airflow sealing and improved fuel/air mixing are necessary to meet Department of Energy program goals.

  10. Techno-Economic Analysis of Camelina-Derived Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet Fuel and its Implications on the Aviation Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shila, Jacob Joshua Howard

    Although the aviation industry contributes toward global economic growth via transportation of passengers and cargo, the increasing demand for air transportation causes concern due to the corresponding increase in aircraft engine exhaust emissions. Use of alternative fuels is one pathway that has been explored for reducing emissions in the aviation industry. Hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) (also known as Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids - HEFA) fuels have been approved for blending with traditional jet fuel up to 50% by volume to be used as drop-in fuels. However, limited information exists on the economic viability of these fuels. While techno-economic studies have been conducted on the HRJ production process using soybean oil, different vegetable oils possess different hydrocarbon structures that affect the yield of HRJ fuels. This study involves the techno-economic analysis of producing Camelina-derived HRJ fuel using the option of hydro-deoxygenation (HDO). The hydrodeoxygenation option requires extra hydrogen and hence affects the overall cost of HRJ fuel production. Similar studies have been conducted on the production of Camelina-derived HRJ fuels using the same path of hydrodeoxygenation with minor contributions from both decarbonylation and decarboxylation reactions. This study, however, employs the UOP Honeywell procedure using the hydrodeoxygenation chemical reaction to estimate the breakeven price of Camelina-derived HRJ fuel. In addition, the study treats the cultivation of Camelina oilseeds, extraction of oilseeds, and the conversion of HRJ fuel as separate entities. The production of Camelina oilseed, Camelina oil, and finally Camelina-derived HRJ fuel is modeled in order to estimate the breakeven price of the fuel. In addition, the information obtained from the techno-economic analysis is used to assess the breakeven carbon price. All costs are analyzed based on 2016 US dollars. The breakeven price of Camelina oilseeds is found to be 228

  11. An alternative transportation fuels update : a case study of the developing E85 industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    As the United States imports more than half of its oil and overall consumption continues to climb, : the 1992 Energy Policy Act established the goal of having alternative fuels replace at least ten : percent of petroleum fuels used in the trans...

  12. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  13. Characterization of aerosols from industrial fabrication of mixed-oxide nuclear reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recycling plutonium into mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel for nuclear reactors is being given serious consideration as a safe and environmentally sound method of managing plutonium from weapons programs. Planning for the proper design and safe operation of the MOX fuel fabrication facilities can take advantage of studies done in the 1970s, when recycling of plutonium from nuclear fuel was under serious consideration. At that time, it was recognized that the recycle of plutonium and uranium in irradiated fuel could provide a significant energy source and that the use of 239 Pu in light water reactor fuel would reduce the requirements for enriched 235 U as a reactor fuel. It was also recognized that the fabrication of uranium and plutonium reactor fuels would not be risk-free. Despite engineered safety precautions such as the handling of uranium and plutonium in glove-box enclosures, accidental releases of radioactive aerosols from normal containment might occur. Workers might then be exposed to the released materials by inhalation

  14. ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical standard) band flex fuel sensor using electrical metamaterial device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Vaishali; Nadkarni, Vihang; Kale, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    A stand-alone device working on the electrical metamaterial concept, operating at 2.47 GHz (ISM band), using merely 10 μL sample is proposed to detect petrol/ethanol ratio in given hybrid fuel. Systematic shifts in the transmission frequency as well as magnitude are observed, up to a maximum of 160 MHz and 12 dBm with the hybrid fuels. The sensing was fast with an instantaneous recovery, promising an accurate and sensitive device of detection of flex fuel.

  15. Industrial space heating and cooling from stored spent nuclear power plant fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, B.O.; Doman, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Projections by the Department of Energy indicate that some 5800 metric tons of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors are now in storage and that some 33000 metric tons are expected to be in storage in 1990. The bulk of the spent fuel is currently stored in water-filled basins at the reactor sites from which the material was discharged. The thermal energy in the fuel is dissipated to atmospheres via a pumped water-to-air heat exchanger system. This paper describes a feasibility study of potential methods for the use of the heat. Also, potential applications of heat recovery systems at larger AFR storage facilities were investigated

  16. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupoltto-aineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K. [Enso-Gutzeit Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilization targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilization was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-dry drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenize the quality of chips

  17. Integrated production of merchantable wood and wood fuels in industry; Teollisuuden ainespuun ja puupoltto-aineen integroitu tuotanto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvaja, K [Enso-Gutzeit Oy, Imatra (Finland). Forest Dept.

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this project is the economically profitable integrated harvesting of industrial wood and firewood especially in harvesting of small-diameter first thinning wood. The research in 1994 was concentrated on improvement of the quality of the chipping methods based on chain-flail debarking chipping method, and on determination of the possible utilization targets for the fuel fraction. A reasonably large drum debarking test was also carried out at the industrial scale debarking station of the Enocell Oy. More than 80 000 m{sup 3} of first thinning wood was delivered by Enocell during this project. The quality of wood chips, produced using the chain-flail delimbing method, could be improved in the case of pine nearly to the required quality level, but additional measures are still needed in the case of birch. The fuel fraction deliveries to different points of utilization was started. The particle size of the fuel fraction appeared to be good after crushing. In 1995 a chain-flail-dry drum debarking chipping unit was developed to improve and homogenize the quality of chips

  18. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry--semi-automated sample preparation unit as a means for facilitated practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Pomberger, Roland; Lorber, Karl E; Sipple, Ernst-Michael

    2016-03-01

    One of the challenges for the cement industry is the quality assurance of alternative fuel (e.g., solid recovered fuel, SRF) in co-incineration plants--especially for inhomogeneous alternative fuels with large particle sizes (d95⩾100 mm), which will gain even more importance in the substitution of conventional fuels due to low production costs. Existing standards for sampling and sample preparation do not cover the challenges resulting from these kinds of materials. A possible approach to ensure quality monitoring is shown in the present contribution. For this, a specially manufactured, automated comminution and sample divider device was installed at a cement plant in Rohožnik. In order to prove its practical suitability with methods according to current standards, the sampling and sample preparation process were validated for alternative fuel with a grain size >30 mm (i.e., d95=approximately 100 mm), so-called 'Hotdisc SRF'. Therefore, series of samples were taken and analysed. A comparison of the analysis results with the yearly average values obtained through a reference investigation route showed good accordance. Further investigations during the validation process also showed that segregation or enrichment of material throughout the comminution plant does not occur. The results also demonstrate that compliance with legal standards regarding the minimum sample amount is not sufficient for inhomogeneous and coarse particle size alternative fuels. Instead, higher sample amounts after the first particle size reduction step are strongly recommended in order to gain a representative laboratory sample. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  20. The structure and economics of the nuclear fuel cycle service industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyett, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled; introduction; mining and milling of uranium ore; the nuclear energy process; enrichment; burnup; reprocessing; fast reactors; waste disposal; international aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle (international trade). (U.K.)

  1. Satisfaction of the Automotive Fleet Fuel Demand and Its Impact on the Oil Refining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Because virtually all transportation fuels are based on petroleum, it is essential to include petroleum refining in any assessment of potential changes in the transportation system. A number of changes in the automotive fleet have been proposed to im...

  2. Manufacturing at industrial level of UO2 pellets for the fuel elements of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyment, I.G.; Noguera Rojas, Francisco

    1982-01-01

    The interest to produce fuel elements within a policy of self sufficiency arose with the installation of Atucha I. The first steps towards this goal consisted in processing the uranium oxide, transforming it into fuel pellets of high density. The developments towards the fabrication of said pellets, performed by CNEA since 1968, first at a laboratory level and afterwards on an industrial scale, allowed CNEA to obtain its own technological capability to produce 400 kg of UO 2 per day. The fuel pellets manufacturing method developed by CNEA is a powder-metallurgical process, which, besides conventional equipment, involves the use of special equipment that required the performance of systematic testing programmes, as well as special training at operational level. The developed processes respond to a modern and advanced technology. A general scheme of the process, starting with a directly sinterable UO 2 powder, is described, including compacting of the powder into pellets, sintering, control of the temperature in the sintering and reduction zones and of the time of permanence in both zones, and cylindric rectifying of the pellets. During the whole process, specialized personnel controls the operations, after which the material is released by the Quality Control Department. The national contribution to the manufacturing technology of the pellets for fuel elements of power and research reactors was of 100%. (M.E.L.) [es

  3. Proceedings - Alternate Fuels II: The disposal and productive use of industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings contain 26 papers dealing with the following topics: fuels (biomass, coal, petroleum coke, landfill gas, hazardous and toxic wastes, liquid wastes, and digester gas); combustion systems; plant systems (pollution control, combustion control, and materials handling systems); external factors (public relations, markets, hazardous waste, vitrification for waste management); and case histories of resource recovery facilities, process heating plants, and retrofits to alternative fuels. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  4. Industry perspectives on the U.S. used nuclear fuel management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. used nuclear fuel management program is at a critical juncture. It has been 17 years since the U.S. Congress authorized geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel and 12 years since Congress elected to study Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the nation's lone long-term disposal option. During this period, Yucca Mountain's ability to isolate long-lived radionuclides was the subject of considerable scientific study. Concurrently, specialists expended significant design effort on the engineered barriers that work in conjunction with the proposed repository's natural features to ensure that health protection standards are met. Confidence as to the soundness of the geologic disposal option is high. While technical progress on geologic disposal is substantial, policy level decision-making needed to move the program forward remains lacking. A number of important policy questions concerning used fuel management remain unanswered as this fuel accumulates at 103 operating U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors at 65 sites. Wet fuel storage space at those locations is becoming increasingly scarce. This paper will review both the scientific successes and policy challenges on the road to geologic disposal. It will outline the nation's used nuclear fuel storage needs, highlight what the nation's scientists have learned about geologic disposal, discuss what is being done to meet near-term interim storage requirements, describe the emerging regulatory framework associated with the program and summarize the ongoing policy debate. (author)

  5. The social cost of fuel cycles. Report to the UK Department of Trade and Industry (Department of Industry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, D; Bann, C; Georgiou, S

    1992-09-01

    CSERGE was commissioned by the then UK Department of Energy to survey the available literature on the monetary estimation of the social costs of energy production and use. It focuses on the social costs of electricity production. The report assesses 'externality adders' defined as a surcharge that may be added to the marginal private cost of electricity in order to reflect the non-market damages or benefits that given electricity-generating technology creates. These 'adders' arise from environmental damages, such as the production of greenhouse gases, and from non-environmental externalities such as subsidies. Fuel cycles considered are: coal fired systems, both with and without emission control, oil-fired systems without FGD and low NO[sub x] burners; combined cycle gas turbines; nuclear energy (PWR), wind energy, landfill gas, geothermal energy, tidal power, hydroelectric power, wave energy, solar energy and combined heat and power. Types of adder considered fall into categories including: air pollution, building damage; catastrophic risks/discount rates; crop damage; energy and environment valuation; forest damage; principles of monetary valuation; global damage; health effects; land damage; noise pollution; non-environmental externalities; radiation damage; transmission; visibility; water pollution and biological diversity. 500 refs.

  6. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  7. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  8. Towards synthetic fuels via electrocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanov, Zarko

    -cadmium. By roughening the surface of polycrystalline copper in a low buffer capacity electrolyte, we favoured the selectivity towards ethylene rather than methane production. We show trends between the selectivity towards CO, CH4 and C2H4. By depositing monolayers of copper onto platinum single crystals, we tuned...

  9. The mechanisms of regional branching: An investigation of the emerging fuel cell industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    The growth of evolutionary thinking in economic geography has brought about the proposition that new industries are place dependent and tend to develop in regions where the pre-existing industry is technologically related to the knowledge base of the new industry, a phenomena that is termed...... ?regional branching?. What is still lacking, however, is a more thorough understanding of the mechanisms through which regional branching operates: firm diversification, spinoffs, labor mobility, and social networking. This paper analyzes which mechanisms dominate the current regional branching process...... such as universities and network organizations play a role in the creation of new knowledge-intensive industrial paths in regions....

  10. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasano Yu

    2012-04-01

    generation and that increased NO plays an important role in baking-associated stress tolerance. Conclusions In this work, we clarified the importance of Put1- and Mpr1-mediated NO generation from proline to the baking-associated stress tolerance in industrial baker's yeast. We also demonstrated that baker's yeast that enhances the proline and NO synthetic pathway by expressing the Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L variants showed improved fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions. From a biotechnological perspective, the enhancement of proline and NO synthesis could be promising for breeding novel baker's yeast strains.

  11. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    role in baking-associated stress tolerance. In this work, we clarified the importance of Put1- and Mpr1-mediated NO generation from proline to the baking-associated stress tolerance in industrial baker's yeast. We also demonstrated that baker's yeast that enhances the proline and NO synthetic pathway by expressing the Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L variants showed improved fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions. From a biotechnological perspective, the enhancement of proline and NO synthesis could be promising for breeding novel baker's yeast strains.

  12. Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    plays an important role in baking-associated stress tolerance. Conclusions In this work, we clarified the importance of Put1- and Mpr1-mediated NO generation from proline to the baking-associated stress tolerance in industrial baker's yeast. We also demonstrated that baker's yeast that enhances the proline and NO synthetic pathway by expressing the Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L variants showed improved fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions. From a biotechnological perspective, the enhancement of proline and NO synthesis could be promising for breeding novel baker's yeast strains. PMID:22462683

  13. Position paper on irradiated fuel and waste management. The Achille's heel of the nuclear industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, Bernard [European Nuclear Society (ENS), Brussel (Belgium). ENS High Scientific Council

    2014-07-15

    The management and final disposal of irradiated fuel and nuclear waste is often presented by the media and perceived by the public as being an unsolved problem that restricts the future of nuclear energy. However, the nuclear industry focused on this problem very early on and has developed proven technical solutions. Nuclear energy will continue developing worldwide, in spite of the Fukushima accident. Even in those European countries that have decided to phase-out nuclear energy there is a legacy of nuclear waste that must be dealt with. The scientific and technical expertise needed for waste management already exists. Management decisions must be taken. Now is the time for political courage. (orig.)

  14. A Review and Analysis of European Industrial Experience in Handling LWR Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    2001-07-10

    The industrial facilities that have been built or are under construction in France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and West Germany to handle light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and canisters of vitrified high-level waste before ultimate disposal are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Published information on the operating performance of these facilities is also given. This information was assembled for consideration in planning and design of similar equipment and facilities needed for the Federal Waste Management System in the United States.

  15. Future market synthetic bio fuels. Case study on behalf of the Federal Office for Environment Protection in the context of the research project innovative environmental policy in important fields of action; Zukunftsmarkt Synthetische Biokraftstoffe. Fallstudie im Auftrag des Umweltbundesamtes im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes Innovative Umweltpolitik in wichtigen Handlungsfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angerer, Gerhard [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Bioethanol produced by fermenting lignocellulosic biomass and synthetic biofuels are known as second generation biofuels. These biofuels are produced using the whole plant including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Ethanol is the product of fermentative biomass conversion. Synthetic biofuels, the so-called BtL (biomass to liquid) processes, are produced using thermochemical biomass conversion. Here, in the first process step, the hydrocarbon structure of the biomass is converted to syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). The second process step uses the purified and conditioned syngas for chemical fuel synthesis. The outcome of the synthesis is gasoline, diesel, or tailor-made fuels for advanced fuel-efficient and low-emission engines. R and D on synthetic biofuel processes is being conducted in several countries around the world, but the global technology leader is without doubt the German company, CHOREN Industries Ltd. in Freiberg, Saxony. Since 1998, CHOREN has been operating a pilot plant for the production of biofuels. At present this plant is being up-scaled and the first commercial production worldwide will start in 2007 with a capacity of 15,000 t/a biofuel. Annually 65,000 t of wood will be processed, including scrap wood. This will produce a high-quality diesel product, marketed under the brand name ''SunDiesel''. This product requires neither any modification to the diesel engine nor to the refueling technique. Because the whole plant is processed, 4,000 l diesel equivalent can be obtained from one hectare of crop. This yield is almost three times that of biodiesel produced from rape. Compared with diesel produced from crude oil, synthetic biofuels reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions by more than 80 %. Nevertheless, the establishment of a synthetic biofuels industry cannot be justified based on climate protection arguments, because the CO{sub 2} balance of direct biomass combustion is more favourable. But

  16. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This report analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP-8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0, 50, and 100 percent. The data show that SPK fuel (an FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  17. Use of secondary fuels in rotary kilns of the cement industry; Einsatz von Sekundaerstoffen in Drehofenanlagen der Zementindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, V. [Forschungsinstitut der Zementindustrie, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Most cement works in Germany use secondary materials for cement production or are planning to do so. Many of the materials in question, such as used tyres, have been recycled in an environmentally acceptable way for decades, and a large body of experience has accumulated on their use in the cement industry. In the cement industry secondary materials are understood to comprise secondary fuels as well as secondary raw materials. The latter have for some part replaced the natural raw materials used for burning cement clinker, the preliminary product of cement. By using used tyres, used oil and other waste materials as secondary fuels the cement industry has for decades contributed to an environmentally acceptable form of waste disposal. The use of secondary materials has also enabled the cement industry to improve its economic situation. In response to the enactment of the Materials Recycling Law the cement industry has during the past few years turned its attention to the utilisation of other waste materials. The criteria relevant to the cement industry`s choice of a waste material as secondary material lastly depends on the process-related side constraints attending the clinker burning process and the requirements on the burning process with regard to product quality and environmental acceptability. [Deutsch] Die meisten Zementwerke in Deutschland setzen bei der Zementherstellung Sekundaerstoffe ein oder planen ihren Einsatz. Fuer einige dieser Stoffe, wie z.B. Altreifen gilt, dass sie bereits seit Jahrzehnten umweltvertraeglich verwertet werden, so dass viele Erfahrungen ueber deren Einsatz in der Zementindustrie vorliegen. Unter Sekundaerstoffen werden in der Zementindustrie sowohl Sekundaerbrennstoffe wie auch Sekundaerrohstoffe verstanden. Letztere ersetzen teilweise die natuerlichen Rohstoffe, aus denen der Zementklinker, das Vorprodukt des Zements, gebrannt wird. Bezueglich der Sekundaerbrennstoffe traegt die Zementindustrie schon seit Jahrzehnten zu einer

  18. The emergence of new technology-based industries: the case of fuel cells and its technological relatedness to regional knowledge bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    to emerging radical technologies that create the foundation for new industries. The article develops a new measure for technological relatedness between the knowledge base of a region and that of a radical technology based on patent classes. It demonstrates that emerging fuel cell technology develops where...... the regional knowledge base is technologically related to that of fuel cells and consequently confirms the evolutionary thesis.......Evolutionary economic geographers propose that regional diversification is a path-dependent process whereby industries grow out of pre-existing industrial structures through technologically related localised knowledge spillovers and learning. This article examines whether this also applies...

  19. Feasibility study for the implementation of NRTMA system for an industrial nuclear fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Dionisi, M.; Graziani, M.; Remetti, R.

    1989-01-01

    In the frame of the problems arising from the fissile materials safeguards into the facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle, the International Safeguards devoted, in the recent years, R and D efforts on a new Dynamic Accountability procedures (Near Real Time Material Accountancy) appealing to the needs of timeliness in detecting diversion. This paper deals with a feasibility study of a NRTMA system to be applied to a nuclear fuel fabbrication plant for light water reactor. Such a feasibility study was performed by developing a dynamic model and a computer program, written in FORTRAN 77, in order to simulate all the processes and measurement procedures involved in the nuclear material accountancy

  20. Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, Gopal [HD Systems

    2013-06-01

    Automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were interviewed in Japan, Korea, Germany and the United States. There is general agreement that the performance of FCVs with respect to durability, cold start, packaging, acceleration, refueling time and range has progressed to the point where vehicles that could be brought to market in 2015 will satisfy customer expectations. However, cost and the lack of refueling infrastructure remain significant barriers. Costs have been dramatically reduced over the past decade, yet are still about twice what appears to be needed for sustainable market success. While all four countries have plans for the early deployment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, the roles of government, industry and the public in creating a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure remain unresolved. The existence of an adequate refueling infrastructure and supporting government policies are likely to be the critical factors that determine when and where hydrogen FCVs are brought to market.

  1. Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM): industrial energy use in the United States, 1974-2000. Volume 3. Appendix on service and fuel demands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This book is the third volume of the ISTUM report. The first volume of the report describes the primary model logic and the model's data inputs. The second volume lists and evaluates the results of one model run. This and the fourth volume give supplementary information in two sets of model data - the energy consumption base and technology descriptions. Chapter III of Vol. I, Book 1 describes the ISTUM demand base and explains how that demand base was developed. This volume serves as a set of appendices to that chapter. The chapter on demands in Vol. I describes the assumptions and methodology used in constructing the ISTUM demand base; this volume simply lists tables of data from that demand base. This book divides the demand tables into two appendices. Appendix III-1 contains detailed tables on ISTUM fuel-consumption estimates, service-demand forecasts, and size and load-factor distributions. Appendix III-2 contains tables detailing ISTUM allocations of each industry's fuel consumption to service sectors. The tables show how the ECDB was used to develop the ISTUM demand base.

  2. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  3. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  4. Tubes of stainless steel - Welding of fuel elements for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, M.S.Q.; Carvalho Perdigao, S. de

    1984-01-01

    Aiming at welding fuel elements of 316 AISI alloy steel by the TIG self generating process, the welding parameters which could provide. The major total penetration / width of welded fillet relation, were selected. Tensile tests at room temperature and at 650 0 C were done in the obtained welds. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. What would be the effects of a carbon tax in Japan: an historic analysis of subsidies and fuel pricing on the iron & steel, chemical, and machinery industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Wakiyama

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how a carbon tax could affect industrial-related carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in Japan. Rather than forecasting the effects of a tax, the paper employs a time-series autoregressive moving average (ARMA model to determine how past subsidies and fuel price changes affected investments in energy and carbon intensity in Japan’s iron & steel, chemical, and machinery industries from 1993 to 2004. The results suggest the impacts varied greatly across industries. In the iron & steel industry, subsidies and price changes produced negligible effects on investments in energy and carbon intensity. This may be because existing iron & steel technologies have long lifetimes and substantial replacement costs. It may also be because the few large companies dominating the industry were relatively immune to subsidy provisions and pricing changes. In the chemical industry, subsidies and fuel prices gave rise to investments that improved carbon and energy intensity. This may be because the industry has relatively higher operation costs that could be cut easily given financial incentives. In the machinery industry, two of three fuel price changes (oil and gas, but not subsidy provisions, yielded improvements in carbon and energy intensity. This may reflect the heterogeneity of companies and products comprising the industry. Overall, the study underscores that policymakers need to tailor the rates and revenue recycling provisions of a carbon tax to an industry’s unique features to stimulate CO2 reductions.

  6. 'Demystifying the hydrogen and fuel cell industry. Where are the investment opportunities in B.C.?'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettlewell, D. [Royal Roads Univ. and Hydrogen Media, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: hydrogenmedia@telus.net

    2004-07-01

    Human civilization has advanced through history by moving from one finite source of energy to the next. Wood and coal fueled the industrial revolution, while oil and natural gas powered us to a technological age. Exploration and innovation have provided tools to fuel rapid economic growth. However, our seemingly endless appetite for resources and power sources have left barren land, polluted waterways and a contaminated atmosphere. Our explorative human nature and global population growth trends ensures that our appetite for energy will continue to grow exponentially. Embracing sustainable development and integrating eco-efficiencies into industrial development will enable us to reduce and re-use our finite natural resources. The challenge for humanity is to ensure that we do not suffocate on the waste by-product of our economic growth. The world's ninety-year 'production affair' with oil will peak in 2020 as accessible supply begins to decline. Similarly, supply issues with natural gas will force production to decline after 2040. Finite supply forces and carbon pollution concerns are forcing energy alternatives to be considered. Hydrogen is a potential energy elixir considering its ability to generate more concentrated powerful energy with clean water as its only effluent. British Columbia (B.C.) is uniquely positioned to participate in a clean energy solution. This conference paper is a synopsis of a full consulting report that was undertaken on behalf of a Vancouver-based seed capital firm, Renewal Partners. The objective of the report was to examine the history, cycles and future of investments in B.C.'s hydrogen and fuel cell sectors within a macro financial outlook. With a critical eye towards global development, investment recommendations are offered from a B.C. sector perspective. The paper is divided into the following sections: Research Methodology; Hydrogen Overview; Financial Outlook; Canadian Perspective; B.C. Perspective; What

  7. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John A.; Tan Hao; Moore, Michael J.B.; Bell, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: → A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. → Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. → In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. → In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  8. Uranium and plutonium distribution in unirradiated mixed oxide fuel from industrial fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, D.; Kleykamp, H.

    1982-01-01

    Different process variants developed in the last few years by the firm ALKEM to manufacture FBR and LWR mixed oxide fuel are given. The uranium and plutonium distribution is determined on the pellets manufactured with the help of the electron beam microprobe. The stepwise improvement of the uranium-plutonium homogeneity in the short-term developed granulate variants and in the long-term developed new processes are illustrated starting with early standard processes for FBR fuel. An almost uniform uranium-plutonium distribution could be achieved for the long-term developed new processes (OKOM, AuPuC). The uranium-plutonium homogeneity are quantified in the pellets manufactured according to the considered process variants with a newly defined quality number. (orig.)

  9. Mechanochemical production of lignin-containing powder fuels from biotechnical industry waste: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomovsky Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In biotechnological processing of plant raw materials, carbohydrates that are soluble and accessible for microorganisms are the only usable components. The lignin-rich part of the plant raw materials usually ends up in the waste. Lignin transferred into water suspensions cannot be used efficiently as a fuel. In this review, a new processing scheme of plant raw materials is presented, which includes mechanochemical treatment of the plant raw materials and separation of the powder product into particles of lignified and non-lignified tissues rich in lignin and cellulose, respectively. The cellulose-rich powders can then be used in biotechnological processes. Lignin-rich powder aerodynamically separated using cyclone-type apparatus can be used as a powder fuel to satisfy the needs of the main biotechnological plant in heat and steam.

  10. Consumption of fuels and energy in the coking industry and ways of reducing consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, Yu.S.; Tsel' ik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V. (Khar' kovskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhimicheski Institut (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    Coking plants in the USSR consume 4,000 million kWh electric energy, 100 million GJ heat energy and 35,000 million m{sup 3} gaseous fuels per year. Structure of energy consumption is the following: 68% gaseous fuels, 24% steam and 8% electric energy. Processes of coal preparation, crushing, mixing, coking and quenching are analyzed from the point of view of energy consumption. The following methods for reducing energy consumption are discussed: using the FM-25 flotation machines for flotation of coking coal slurries, briquetting the whole coal charge for coking, optimization of air supply rates for combustion of gases used for coke oven heating, use of control systems for coke oven heating considering coal charge density, waste heat utilization from quenching. 4 refs.

  11. Application of a long-period fibre grating-based transducer in the fuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possetti, G R C; De Arruda, L V R; Muller, M; Fabris, J L; Côcco, L C; Yamamoto, C I; Falate, R

    2009-01-01

    This work shows prospects of long-period fibre grating applications as transducers for fuel conformity analysis. The proposed long-period grating transducer was employed to assess the gasoline conformity in commercial gas stations. Grating responses were used to train and validate a radial base function topology of an artificial neural network. The obtained results show that fibre optic sensors supervised by artificial neural networks can integrate systems for smart sensing with high applicability in the petrochemical field. The radial base function had reached a correct classification probability of approximately 94%. The device applicability in the analysis of hydrated ethanol fuel was also investigated by measuring the concentration of ethanol in ethanol–water mixtures. The results showed that the developed transducer can be used to infer the ethanol–water concentration with a resolution of up to 0.23%

  12. Driving an Industry: Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Truck Component Sizing

    OpenAIRE

    Marcinkoski, J.; Vijayagopal, R.; Kast, J.; Duran, A.

    2016-01-01

    Medium and heavy duty (MD and HD respectively) vehicles are responsible for 26 percent of the total U.S. transportation petroleum consumption [1]. Hydrogen fuel cells have demonstrated value as part of a portfolio of strategies for reducing petroleum use and emissions from MD and HD vehicles [2] [3], but their performance and range capabilities, and associated component sizing remain less clear when compared to other powertrains. This paper examines the suitability of converting a representat...

  13. The use of exhausted olive husks as fuel in the Calabrian bread-baking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoletti, G. [University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    Exhausted olive husks are a biomass by-product from the olive oil working cycle that has very interesting energy characteristics. This paper considers the use of this biomass as an alternative to or integrative energy source with conventional fuels in the Calabrian bread baking sector, and it outlines its potential and economic viability. Various energy scenarios are suggested for a Calabrian bakery, by means of a detailed analysis of economic convenience. (author)

  14. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  15. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  16. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and risk management applied to an active industrial site affected by fuel spill in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pablo, J.; Marti, V.; Rovira, M.; Vinolas, C.; Navarro, O.

    2005-01-01

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) applied to sites were groundwater have been affected by a fuel spill from an Industrial Underground Storage Tank (UST) is economically viable and a reliable methodology to achieve remediation goals. MNA process consists in the control of naturally occurring physical, chemical , and biological processes and is based in the knowledge of the processes that take place and reduce the charge of compounds derived from fuel in the site of study. Because the risk for Human Health and Ecosystem define the concept of contaminant, during MNA special attention has to be taken on concentration diminution of that are or could become contaminants and in this way is possible to perform Risk-Based Land Management (RBLM) by measuring both, the primary lines of evidence (shrinking or stable plume of contaminants) and secondary lines of evidence (given by geochemical indicators in the plume). Once, evidences have been gathered, is possible to calculate the rate of attenuation of contaminants and evaluate if admissible risk is reached an in a reasonable time framework, in order to propose MNA as a unique remediation or combined with other procedures to apply to an affected site. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the application of MNA to an active industrial site in order to develop a RBLM able to assess that the risk for Human Health and ecosystem are acceptable. The added attractive of this methodology is the non-intrusiveness that allows not to stop the industrial activity. The site considered in our study is in an active company located about 15 Km to NW from Barcelona, Spain.The company has a buried UST containing heavy fuel oil for energetic use. During 2002 a general soil impact study revealed that subsoil and groundwater close to the UST were affected by hydrocarbon losses from the tank and in January 2003 the fuel of the tank was emptied by pumping. The free phase of fuel floating on groundwater remained on the aquifer. As a

  17. United Nuclear Industries, Inc. reactor and fuel production facilities 1975 environmental release report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiara, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    During calendar year 1975, an estimated total of 3,000,000 pounds of waste materials and approximately 150 curies of radionuclides were discharged to the environs in liquid effluent streams emanating from United Nuclear Industries, Inc., operated facilities. During the same period, approximately 1,700,000 pounds of reported waste materials, including 34,000 curies of reported radionuclides, were discharged to the atmosphere from United Nuclear Industries, Inc., operated facilities. Superscript numbers reference explanatory notes contained at the end of the report

  18. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  19. Recent progress in synthetic biology for microbial production of C3-C10 alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna N. Lamsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing need to address current energy and environmental problems has sparked an interest in developing improved biological methods to produce liquid fuels from renewable sources. While microbial ethanol production is well established, higher chain alcohols possess chemical properties that are more similar to gasoline. Unfortunately, these alcohols (except 1-butanol are not produced efficiently in natural microorganisms, and thus economical production in industrial volumes remains a challenge. Synthetic biology, however, offers additional tools to engineer synthetic pathways in user-friendly hosts to help increase titers and productivity of these advanced biofuels. This review concentrates on recent developments in synthetic biology to produce higher-chain alcohols as viable renewable replacements for traditional fuel.

  20. Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Usage of Oil Industry Products and Wastes as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek BOLAT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for oil industry products has been increasing in parallel to the rapid population growth and industrialization. Physical and chemical properties of these products change after usage based on the media and operating conditions. Then, these products lose the eligibility and turn into the form of waste. The most commonly used method for the disposal of waste oils is combustion due to its high calorific value. In this study, the possible effects on the environment and human health of combustion of oil industry products and wastes are evaluated. Poor combustion conditions lead emissions from the process depending on the ingredients of wastes in addition to incomplete combustion products such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, volatile organic chemicals polyaromatic hydrocarbons, metals etc. that may occur according to the type of waste. These emissions are released into the environment and partition between soil, water and air media related to their physicochemical characteristics. In addition to environmental problems, these emissions are a risk factor for human health in terms of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Regulations and control measures should be put into practice in order to get rid of the effects of non-standard diesel like product named number 10 lube on human health and environment. In this context, emission measurements should be done simultaneously to determine the effects of combustion of these wastes and products of oil industry.

  1. Apparatus for examination of irradiated fuel elements of industrial reactors at Marcoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesenti, P.; Wallet, Ph.

    1960-01-01

    The authors describe a viewing and measurement cell for the slugs of Marcoule industrial reactors. This cell allows visual inspection, and photography of slugs. Length measurements are also made possible by horizontal motion of the slug both in translation and rotation. (author) [fr

  2. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program. Volume II. The environment (Deliverable No. 27). [Baseline environmental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The proposed site of the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant (IFGDP) is located on a small peninsula extending eastward into Lake McKeller from the south shore. The peninsula is located west-southwest of the City of Memphis near the confluence of Lake McKeller and the Mississippi River. The environmental setting of this site and the region around this site is reported in terms of physical, biological, and human descriptions. Within the physical description, this report divides the environmental setting into sections on physiography, geology, hydrology, water quality, climatology, air quality, and ambient noise. The biological description is divided into sections on aquatic and terrestrial ecology. Finally, the human environment description is reported in sections on land use, demography, socioeconomics, culture, and visual features. This section concludes with a discussion of physical environmental constraints.

  3. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle-related areas, focusing on the nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. As a result of the study, a list of subject areas has been compiled as best representing the current content of an educational program. In addition to identifying subject areas, a set of course descriptions and reference materials has been developed around each subject. Each course description contains information regarding objectives, anticipated audience, and prerequisites and offers a suggested course outline. An initial modest program of implementation is recommended which would continue to concentrate on the Southeast as a target area

  4. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, the College of Engineering at the University of South Carolina has conducted an assessment of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle related areas. The study was initiated as a regional effort focusing on the concentration of nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. The project was envisioned as providing base line information for the eventual implementation of a program in line with the needs of the Southeast's nuclear community. Specific objectives were to establish the content of such a program and to determine those specialized features which would make the program most attractive and useful.

  5. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    An assessment was conducted of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle-related areas, focusing on the nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. As a result of the study, a list of subject areas has been compiled as best representing the current content of an educational program. In addition to identifying subject areas, a set of course descriptions and reference materials has been developed around each subject. Each course description contains information regarding objectives, anticipated audience, and prerequisites and offers a suggested course outline. An initial modest program of implementation is recommended which would continue to concentrate on the Southeast as a target area.

  6. Study of advanced professional educational requirements relative to nuclear fuel cycle engineering in industry and government. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jur, T.A.; Huhns, M.N.; Keating, D.A.; Orloff, D.I.; Rhodes, C.A.; Stanford, T.G.; Stephens, L.M.; Tatterson, G.B.; Van Brunt, V.

    1978-12-01

    Under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, the College of Engineering at the University of South Carolina has conducted an assessment of educational needs among engineers working in nuclear fuel cycle related areas. The study was initiated as a regional effort focusing on the concentration of nuclear industry in the Southeast. Educational needs addressed were those at the post-baccalaureate professional level. The project was envisioned as providing base line information for the eventual implementation of a program in line with the needs of the Southeast's nuclear community. Specific objectives were to establish the content of such a program and to determine those specialized features which would make the program most attractive and useful

  7. Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)

  8. Comparison of physical chemical properties of powders and respirable aerosols of industrial mixed uranium and plutonium oxide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were performed to characterize physical and chemical properties which may be important in determining the metabolism of accidentally released, inhaled aerosols of industrial mixed uranium and plutonium oxide fuels and to compare the properties of bulk powders and the respirable fraction they include. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that analysis of mixed-oxide powders from four process steps served to characterize their respirable fractions. IR spectroscopy was useful as a method to detect organic binders that were not observed by X-ray diffraction methods. Both X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy methods can be used in combination to identify the sources of a complex aerosol that might be released from more than one fabrication step. Isotopic distributions in powders and aerosols showed that information important for radiation dose to tissue calculations or Pu lung burden estimates can be obtained by analysis of powders. (U.K.)

  9. The development of a cell-assembly for the treatment of irradiated fuels on a semi-industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.; Couture, J.; Lefort, G.

    1961-01-01

    The main studies and experiments involved in the development of a cell-assembly for the treatment of irradiated fuels on a semi-industrial scale are described. It must be possible to modify or transform each of these cells without interrupting the rest of the pilot. A full-scale prototype cell (3 x 4 x 6 m) has been built with an α-protection independent of the γ-protection. It features all the main characteristics: tightness to γ losses, dense glass lighting, ventilation. This cell has made possible trials on transfer, remote-controls and tele-dismantling, as well as the development of new methods of rapidly connecting hydraulic circuits. In conclusion the final form is given of the cells selected for the pilot. (author) [fr

  10. Redistribution of tasks among the industrial enterprises dealing with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrikoff, A.

    1990-01-01

    From the dubious events within the nuclear industry at Mol and Hanau resulted the imperative necessity of restructuring various sections. The concept established by the Federal Government provides for both nuclear transportation and the conditioning of radioactive wastes being concentrated each in one hand, as far as possible, namely the Federal Railways and the Nuclear Service Society - new. The present paper makes critical comments about the overall situation and the reorganization concept. (UA) [de

  11. Canadian power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.D.

    1976-03-01

    The following subjects are covered: the basic CANDU fuel design, the history of the bundle design, the significant differences between CANDU and LWR fuel, bundle manufacture, fissile and structural materials and coolants used in the CANDU fuel program, fuel and material behaviour, and performance under irradiation, fuel physics and management, booster rods and reactivity mechanisms, fuel procurement, organization and industry, and fuel costs. (author)

  12. Valorization of used tyres as fuel substitute in cement industry; Valorisation des pneus usages comme combustible de substitution en cimenterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-03-01

    According to the French syndicate of cement industry, more than 350000 t of worn tyres are produced each year in France, among which only 143000 t are reused in retreading, exported as used tyres or valorized in cement industry. The rest is generally tipped or burnt in the open-air. In cement kilns, the organic matters of tyres are completely burnt while the metal belts supply the necessary amount of iron to the cement composition. The combustion of tyres produces no black smoke, no smell and no ash and has no significant influence on the effluents of cement factories: gases are directly filtered in the kiln by the important mass of raw materials which acts as quicklime. In 1997, 31500 t of used tyres were burnt in the seven French cement factories over 34 that use this kind of fuel and represents 1.5% of the total energy needs. This substitution ratio could easily reach 10 to 15% without leading to any additional environmental or technical problem. A project of collection and valorization of used tyres has been developed by the French ministry of environment and aims at completely eliminating tyres tipping since July 1, 2002. In order to illustrate the French policy of tyres valorization, two examples of actions are presented in this paper: the first one is carried out by the Michelin manufacturer in order to facilitate the recycling of civil engineering tyres, and the second is carried out by Ciments d`Origny company at the Rochefort factory where tyres are used as fuel substitutes. (J.S.)

  13. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  14. Enhanced power generation in annular single-chamber microbial fuel cell via optimization of electrode spacing using chocolate industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Parisa; Najafpour Darzi, Ghasem

    2016-05-01

    Development and practical application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is restricted because of the limitations such as low power output. To overcome low power limitation, the optimization of specific parameters including electrode materials and surface area, electrode spacing, and MFC's cell shape was investigated. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation has been reported in the literature to implement an annular single-chamber microbial fuel cell (ASCMFC) using chocolate industry wastewater. ASCMFC was fabricated via optimization of the stated parameters. The aspects of ASCMFC were comprehensively examined. In this study, the optimization of electrode spacing and its impact on performance of the ASCMFC were conducted. Reduction of electrode spacing by 46.15% (1.3-0.7 cm) resulted in a decrease in internal resistance from 100 to 50 Ω, which enhanced the power density and current output to 22.898 W/m(3) and 6.42 mA, respectively. An optimum electrode spacing of 0.7 cm was determined. Through this paper, the effects of these parameters and the performance of ASCMFC are also evaluated. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  16. Nuclear materials accountancy in an industrial MOX fuel fabrication plant safeguards versus commercial aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canck, H. de; Ingels, R.; Lefevre, R.

    1991-01-01

    In a modern MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant, with a large throughput of nuclear materials, computerized real-time accountancy systems are applied. Following regulations and prescriptions imposed by the Inspectorates EURATOM-IAEA, the State and also by internal plant safety rules, the accountancy is kept in plutonium element, uranium element and 235 U for enriched uranium. In practice, Safeguards Authorities are concerned with quantities of the element (U tot , Pu tot ) and to some extent with its fissile content. Custom Authorities are for historical reasons, interested in fissile quantities (U fiss , Pu fiss ) whereas owners wish to recover the energetic value of their material (Pu equivalent). Balancing the accountancy simultaneously in all these related but not proportional units is a new problem in a MOX-plant where pool accountancy is applied. This paper indicates possible ways to solve the balancing problem created by these different units used for expressing nuclear material quantities

  17. Synthetic Or Reformulated Fuels: a Challenge for Catalysis Carburants de synthèse ou reformulés : un défi pour la catalyse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courty P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite comparative figures for wordwide crude oil and natural gas proven reserves, present time contribution of syngas chemistry to motorfuels remains marginal when the refining industry is faced to main constraints: market demand evolution, stringent specifications and environmental issues. Actually natural gas upgrading via syngas chemistry yields key products (e. g. methanol among which clean motorfuels (ethers, FT products should develop despite the huge investments required, mostly for syngas production. Main challenges and corresponding issues for catalysts and related technologies are identified for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and motorfuels long-term reformulation. Among other, mastering the chain-growth (FT synthesis improving the FCC products: gasoline, and LCO for Diesel pool. All these issues need significant progresses in catalyst and technology to be solved. Lastly, our economical study, focused on Diesel-fuel production, shows up that clean diesel (from SR-LCO mixtures and FT Diesel reach similar production costs when cheap NG is available. In the future, FT middle distillates should amount to a few percent (5-150 Mt of the 1700-2000 Mt of transport middle distillates expected from oil refining. However they should more and more be a compulsory part of diesel pool if the level of investment for an FT process continues to decrease significantly. Malgré des réserves prouvées en pétrole et en gaz du même ordre de grandeur, la contribution de la chimie du gaz de synthèse à la production de carburants reste marginale, alors que l'industrie du raffinage est confrontée à des contraintes majeures : évolution de la demande, durcissement des spécifications des produits et contraintes environnementales. Cependant, la conversion chimique du gaz, via la chimie du gaz de synthèse, fournit des produits stratégiques (e. g. méthanol parmi lesquels les carburants propres (éthers, produits Fischer-Tropsch devraient se développer, bien

  18. Characterization of whole assembly hulls produced by industrial reprocessing of LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, J.P.; Isaac, M.

    1987-03-01

    The characterization program for Obrigheim and Stade PWR hulls sampled at La Hague was conducted in the CEA hot cells (Coquenstock program operating on whole assembly hulls). A description of the appearance of these hulls, recovered on the industrial scale and after severe damage, is followed by a review of the results of the different radiochemical characterization operations (neutron emission measurements, gamma scanning, alpha and mass spectrometry after dissolution of several samples, determination of the retention of tritium and other gaseous fission products occluded in the zircalloy clads etc). The alpha contamination of these hulls proved to be rather high, but it demonstrated that a large part (90 to 95%) was labile and could be removed by simple rinsing with cold 3N nitric acid. By contrast, contamination by fission products such as Cs 137, Ce 144 and Eu 154, remains high and relatively unaffected by nitriacid rinsing. Based on the results obtained and the observations recorded, an analysis is carried out of the origins of alpha contamination of these hulls treated on an industrial scale, among which the chief source is certainly the limited effectiveness of rinsing

  19. Characterization of whole assembly hulls produced by industrial reprocessing of LWR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gue, J.P.; Isaac, M.; Hebel, W.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization program for Obrigheim and Stade PWR hulls sampled at La Hague was conducted in the CEA hot cells (Coquenstock program operating on whole assembly hulls). A description of the appearance of these hulls, recovered on the industrial scale and after severe damage, is followed by a review of the results of the different radiochemical characterization operations (neutron emission measurements, gamma scanning, alpha and mass spectrometry after dissolution of several samples, determination of the retention of tritium and other gaseous fission products occluded in the zircalloy clads, etc.). The alpha contamination of these hulls proved to be rather high, but it demonstrated that a large part (90 to 95%) was labile and could be removed by simple rinsing with cold 3N nitric acid. By contrast, contamination by fission products such as Cs 137, Ce 144 and Eu 154, remains high and relatively unaffected by nitric acid rinsing. Based on the results obtained and the observations recorded, an analysis is carried out of the origins of alpha contamination of these hulls treated on an industrial scale, among which the chief source is certainly the limited effectiveness of rinsing

  20. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  1. Refuse derived fuel (RDF) plasma torch gasification as a feasible route to produce low environmental impact syngas for the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Fleiger, Kristina; Schäfer, Stefan; Antoñanzas, Javier; Irazustabarrena, Ane; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán A

    2015-08-01

    Plasma torch gasification (PTG) is currently researched as a technology for solid waste recovery. However, scientific studies based on evaluating its environmental implications considering the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology are lacking. Therefore, this work is focused on comparing the environmental effect of the emissions of syngas combustion produced by refuse derived fuel (RDF) and PTG as alternative fuels, with that related to fossil fuel combustion in the cement industry. To obtain real data, a semi-industrial scale pilot plant was used to perform experimental trials on RDF-PTG.The results highlight that PTG for waste to energy recovery in the cement industry is environmentally feasible considering its current state of development. A reduction in every impact category was found when a total or partial substitution of alternative fuel for conventional fuel in the calciner firing (60 % of total thermal energy input) was performed. Furthermore, the results revealed that electrical energy consumption in PTG is also an important parameter from the LCA approach. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act, PL 95-620: legislative history, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Hearings continued on H.R. 6831, the President's proposed National Energy Act. Witnesses aired views on the impacts that industries would experience on converting boilers to coal. The final hearing of the three-week session was held on June 1, 1977. The June 1 session took a step back from the details of the many components of the President's plan and took a broad and longer term view of the plan as a whole. The hearings elicited substantial criticism of the many costs and burdens that would accompany the President's program. This is largely because the costs of conservation and conversion to coal precede the benefits by several years. A summary of the National Energy Plan is presented. (MCW)

  3. Bio-based production of fuels and industrial chemicals by repurposing antibiotic-producing type I modular polyketide synthases: opportunities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Keasling, Jay D.; Katz, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Complex polyketides comprise a large number of natural products that have broad application in medicine and agriculture. They are produced in bacteria and fungi from large enzyme complexes named type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) that are composed of multifunctional polypeptides containin...... have applications as fuels or industrial chemicals....

  4. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    , pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  5. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  6. DEA environmental assessment in a time horizon: Malmquist index on fuel mix, electricity and CO2 of industrial nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and global warming become a major policy issue in the world. Economic activities produce not only desirable outputs (e.g., electricity) but also undesirable outputs (e.g., CO 2 emission). The important policy issue is how each nation can balance between economic development and environmental protection to attain a sustainable society. In attaining the sustainable society, environmental assessment is increasingly important because it can serve as an initial step toward the green growth of each nation. For the purpose, this study proposes a new use of DEA (Data Environment Analysis) for environmental assessment in a time horizon. The proposed use of DEA incorporates Malmquist index to examine the degree of a frontier shift among multiple periods. The frontier shift indicates a technology progress and/or managerial innovation during an observed period. The index is conceptually separated into six subcomponents, which are further divided into twelve different subcomponents (six subcomponents × two disposability concepts) under the natural and managerial disposability. In the index measurement, it is necessary for us to consider a frontier crossover among different periods because technology innovation usually has a time lag until it really appears. As an empirical application, this study utilizes the proposed approach to identify the relationship among fuel mix, electricity and CO 2 of ten industrial nations. This study finds three important empirical findings. First, there is a time lag in technology innovation on electricity generation and CO 2 emission reduction. Consequently, it is necessary to consider the existence of a frontier crossover in assessing the electric power industry. Second, nuclear generation, as found in France, as well as hydro and renewable energy, as found in Netherlands, are important for the development of a sustainable society although the former is associated with a very high level of risk and the latter has a limited

  7. Comparative economic efficiency, operating costs and fuel consumption rates of freight transport modes between the largest industrial cities and seaports in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W J (Wessel Pienaar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with aspects of efficiency within the five modes of freight transport, with special reference to the operating cost and fuel consumption rates between South Africa’s largest industrial cities and seaports. In particular, the paper deals with (a the opportunities that exist for the achievement of efficiency in freight transport; (b the subgroups of economies that can enhance efficiency attainment in the freight transport industry; (c prevailing cost structures, operating cost and fuel consumption rates within the five modes of freight transport; and (d the salient economic features of the freight transport market. The research approach and methodology combine (a a literature survey; (b empiric research, (c an analysis of the cost structures of freight transport operators from different modes of transport; and (d interviews conducted with specialists in the freight transport industry.

  8. Nutritional characteristics of by-products originating from the Central European ethanol fuel industry for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrayová, S; Brestensky, M; Patrás, P; Heger, J

    2012-12-01

    Chemical composition and nutrient and energy digestibilities were determined in 4 samples of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and 1 sample of wet distillers grains (WDG) from 4 ethanol fuel manufacturers. The cereal sources used for ethanol production were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 1 sample), wheat + barley (Hordeum vulgare; 2 samples), and maize (Zea mays; 2 samples). The nutrient contents (expressed as % of DM) were variable, ranging from 30.5 to 39.5 CP, 4.4 to 12.3 fat, 7.5 to 12.9 crude fiber, 2.7 to 7.8 ash, and 0.4 to 0.9 total P. The concentration of Lys ranged from 2.05 to 5.20 g/kg DM. The diets were fed to 6 gilts (39.9 ± 1.9 kg BW) fitted with ileal T-cannulas using a 5 × 6 Youden square. Each experimental period comprised a 5-d adaptation followed by a 2-d collection of urine and feces and 1-d (24 h) collection of ileal digesta. Using acid-insoluble ash as a marker, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy and AID of AA were calculated. The ATTD of N ranged from 55.7 to 83.7%. The N retention expressed as percentage of N intake ranged from 10.2 to 32.0. Except for wheat-based DDGS, the AID of N was 66.8%. The ATTD and AID values of NDF were 52.8 and 24.4%, respectively. The concentration of total P in WDG was half of values in DDGS, which likely caused its very low ATTD (1.4%). The ATTD and AID of energy ranged from 58.8 to 73.9% and from 40.6 to 54.1%, respectively. The AID of AA was greatest (P origin is an important determinant of quality.

  9. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  10. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhavan, Aravind [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum (India); Jose, Anju Alphonsa; Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran, E-mail: sindhurgcb@gmail.com; Sukumaran, Rajeev K. [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Trivandrum (India); Center for Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab (India); Castro, Galliano Eulogio [Dpt. Ingeniería Química, Ambiental y de los Materiales Edificio, Universidad de Jaén, Jaén (Spain)

    2017-04-25

    The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  11. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raveendran Sindhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  12. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering Approaches and Its Impact on Non-Conventional Yeast and Biofuel Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, Aravind; Jose, Anju Alphonsa; Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran; Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Pandey, Ashok; Castro, Galliano Eulogio

    2017-01-01

    The increasing fossil fuel scarcity has led to an urgent need to develop alternative fuels. Currently microorganisms have been extensively used for the production of first-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Yeast is the efficient producer of bioethanol among all existing biofuels option. Tools of synthetic biology have revolutionized the field of microbial cell factories especially in the case of ethanol and fatty acid production. Most of the synthetic biology tools have been developed for the industrial workhorse Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The non-conventional yeast systems have several beneficial traits like ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, inhibitor tolerance, genetic diversity, etc., and synthetic biology have the power to expand these traits. Currently, synthetic biology is slowly widening to the non-conventional yeasts like Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. Herein, we review the basic synthetic biology tools that can apply to non-conventional yeasts. Furthermore, we discuss the recent advances employed to develop efficient biofuel-producing non-conventional yeast strains by metabolic engineering and synthetic biology with recent examples. Looking forward, future synthetic engineering tools’ development and application should focus on unexplored non-conventional yeast species.

  13. Direct coupling of a liquid chromatograph to a continuous flow hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance detector for analysis of petroleum and synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haw, J.F.; Glass, T.E.; Hausler, D.W.; Motell, E.; Dorn, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Initial results obtained for a flow 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detector directly coupled to a liquid chromatography unit are described. Results achieved for a model mixture and several jet fuel samples are discussed. Chromatographic separation of alkanes, alkylbenzenes, and substituted naphthalenes present in the jet fuel samples are easily identified with the 1 H NMR detector. Results with our present flow 1 H NMR insert indicate that 5-Hz linewidths are readily obtainable for typical chromatographic flow rates. The limitations and advantages of this liquid chromatography detector are compared with more commonly employed detectors (e.g., refractive index detectors). 11 figures

  14. Anthropogenic and technogenic factors of operational risk at hazardous industrial objects of fuel-power complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, S. I.; Arkhipova, E. N.; Kulichikhin, V. V.; Zagretdinov, I. Sh.

    2016-12-01

    Technogenic and anthropogenic accidence at hazardous industrial objects (HIO) in the Russian Federation has been considered. The accidence level at HIO, including power plants and network enterprises, is determined by anthropogenic reasons, so-called "human factor", in 70% of all cases. The analysis of incidents caused by personnel has shown that errors occur most often during accidental situations, launches, holdups, routine switches, and other effects on equipment controls. It has been demonstrated that skills needed to perform type and routine switches can be learned, to certain limits, on real operating equipment, while combating emergency and accidental situations can be learned only with the help of modern training simulators developed based on information technologies. Problems arising during the following processes have been considered: development of mathematical and software support of modern training equipment associated, in one way or another, with adequate power-generating object modeling in accordance with human operator specifics; modeling and/or simulation of the corresponding control and management systems; organization of the education system (functional supply of the instructor, education and methodological resources (EMR)); organization of the program-technical, scalable and adaptable, platform for modeling of the main and secondary functions of the training simulator. It has been concluded that the systemic approach principle on the necessity and sufficiency in the applied methodology allows to reproduce all technological characteristics of the equipment, its topological completeness, as well as to achieve the acceptable counting rate. The initial "rough" models of processes in the equipment are based on the normative techniques and equation coefficients taken from the normative materials as well. Then, the synthesis of "fine" models has been carried out following the global practice in modeling and training simulator building, i

  15. The potential for generating a surplus of biomass fuel in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, U.

    2001-06-01

    The conditions under which the pulp and paper industry is working are changing. New technology and new environmental objectives lead to changes: system closure (less water is used); processes are introduced and modified; new, more energy efficient processes are applied. Many of these changes affect the energy system in a mill and can also result in new potential for energy savings. Here a method is described and applied to six modern and/or future green field kraft market pulp model mills. The basic configuration for these model mills is designed according to best available technology today and consists of commercially available equipment in conventionally designed mills. These basic configurations are process integrated using Pinch Technology to ensure that the model mills are as energy efficient as possible with existing processes. Then by allowing process and system modifications, the model mills are made even more energy efficient. From the process integration study streams that could produce usable excess heat below the Pinch temperature are identified. In a pulp mill, necessary cooling is performed while producing warm and hot water. In modern mills there is usually a surplus of warm and hot water. It is herein presented that by designing the secondary heat system differently such that only necessary warm and hot water is produced, excess heat at a higher temperature than traditionally can be made available. The excess heat made available can be used for several applications; in this work it is used for evaporation. In order to use the excess heat for evaporation the evaporation plant has to be designed non-conventionally, with more than one level where heat is supplied, and a lower temperature in the surface condenser than what is typically used. A reasonable level of the extra investment cost for the novel system compared to the reference system is then calculated and a payback period is estimated. This payback period varies between approximately 3.5 and 6

  16. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  17. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  18. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial fuel contamination provides insight into the level of concordance with the standard industry practice of aerobis cultivation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Hill, G.; Hill, E.; Huse, S. M.; Weightman, A. J.; Mahenthiralingam, E. (CLS-CI); (Organisms and Environment Division, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University); (ECHA Microbiology Ltd.); (Josephine Bay Paul Centre for Comparative Molecular Biology and Evolution)

    2011-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in contaminated fuels has not been systematically investigated using cultivation-independent methods. The fuel industry relies on phenotypic cultivation-based contaminant identification, which may lack accuracy and neglect difficult-to-culture taxa. By the use of industry practice aerobic cultivation, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and strain genotyping, a collection of 152 unique contaminant isolates from 54 fuel samples was assembled, and a dominance of Pseudomonas (21%), Burkholderia (7%), and Bacillus (7%) was demonstrated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 15 samples revealed Proteobacteria and Firmicutes to be the most abundant phyla. When 16S rRNA V6 gene pyrosequencing of four selected fuel samples (indicated by 'JW') was performed, Betaproteobacteria (42.8%) and Gammaproteobacteria (30.6%) formed the largest proportion of reads; the most abundant genera were Marinobacter (15.4%; JW57), Achromobacter (41.6%; JW63), Burkholderia (80.7%; JW76), and Halomonas (66.2%; JW78), all of which were also observed by DGGE. However, the Clostridia (38.5%) and Deltaproteobacteria (11.1%) identified by pyrosequencing in sample JW57 were not observed by DGGE or aerobic culture. Genotyping revealed three instances where identical strains were found: (i) a Pseudomonas sp. strain recovered from 2 different diesel fuel tanks at a single industrial site; (ii) a Mangroveibacter sp. strain isolated from 3 biodiesel tanks at a single refinery site; and (iii) a Burkholderia vietnamiensis strain present in two unrelated automotive diesel samples. Overall, aerobic cultivation of fuel contaminants recovered isolates broadly representative of the phyla and classes present but lacked accuracy by overrepresenting members of certain groups such as Pseudomonas.

  19. Conventional and microwave pyrolysis of a macroalgae waste from the Agar-Agar industry. Prospects for bio-fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera-Lorenzo, N; Fuente, E; Bermúdez, J M; Suárez-Ruiz, I; Ruiz, B

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study of the pyrolysis of a macroalgae industrial solid waste (algae meal) in an electrical conventional furnace and in a microwave furnace has been carried out. It was found that the chars obtained from both pyrolyses are similar and show good properties for performing as a solid bio-fuel and as a precursor of activated carbon. Bio-oils from conventional pyrolysis have a greater number of phenolic, pyrrole and alkane compounds whereas benzene and pyridine compounds are more predominant in microwave pyrolysis with a major presence of light compounds. The bio-gas fraction from microwave pyrolysis presents a much higher syngas content (H2+CO), and a lower CO2 and CH4 proportion than that obtained by conventional pyrolysis. Yields are similar for both treatments with a slightly higher gas yield in the case of microwave pyrolysis due to the fact that microwave heating favors heterogeneous reactions between the gases and the char. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conference on researches and industrial outlooks on fuel cell and hydrogen; Recherches et perspectives industrielles sur la pile a combustible et l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference aimed at presenting a panorama concerning the research and development of fuel cells and hydrogen and the associated regulation landscape. The first sessions concerned the industrial offer: the strategic advantages as a vehicle fuel, the equipment and the technology, the micro-cell. The second part of the conference concerned the society demand, the difficulties and the research and development programs: the parliamentary offer for the scientific and technological choices evaluation, the energy vector choice, the experiments in particular in Germany, the regulations. (A.L.B.)

  1. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  2. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Pyrolysis of biomass in a semi-industrial scale reactor: Study of the fuel-nitrogen oxidation during combustion of volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, E.; Debono, O.; Villot, A.; Paviet, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study of the NOx-fuel formation, carried out on a semi-industrial scale reactor during combustion of volatiles of the pyrolysis, is performed. Two different biomasses with different nitrogen contents such as a mixture of organic sludge and wood were tested. Results show that the temperature of pyrolysis does not obviously affect the production of NOx-fuel because of the most active precursors (NH 3 and HCN) are already released at low temperatures (400 °C). In the case of sludge mixture, the combustion conditions play the discriminating role in the production of NOx-fuel: the higher the excess air ratio the larger the production of nitrogen oxides from N-fuel. -- Highlights: • An experimental study of the pyrolysis of biomass from waste has been carried out. • The study consists in the analysis of NOx-fuel production during combustion. • The temperature of pyrolysis does not affect the production of NOx. • Only a small part of the N-fuel released in the volatile fraction is oxidized. • In the case of sewage sludge the excess air ratio affects the NOx production

  4. Integrated automation for continuous high-throughput synthetic chromosome assembly and transformation to identify improved yeast strains for industrial production of peptide sweetener brazzein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production and recycling of recombinant sweetener peptides in industrial biorefineries involves the evaluation of large numbers of genes and proteins. High-throughput integrated robotic molecular biology platforms that have the capacity to rapidly synthesize, clone, and express heterologous gene ope...

  5. Determining the platinum loading and distribution of industrial scale polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrodes using low energy X-ray imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, T.; Vassiliev, Anton; Kerr, R.

    2014-01-01

    Low energy X-ray imaging (E <25 keV) is herein demonstrated to be a rapid, effective and non-destructive tool for the quantitative determination of the platinum loading and distribution over the entire geometric area of gas diffusion electrodes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. A linea...... of electrodes fabricated using an industrial spraying process. This technique proves to be an attractive option for the electrode performance study, the process optimization and quality control of electrode fabrication on an industrial scale....

  6. Costs of fuel cycle industrial facilities: an international review; Couts des installations industrielles du cycle du combustible point a l'international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias, R.M

    2004-07-01

    This document presents, comments, and compares economic and financial data for industrial facilities concerning different aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. It first comments the present situation and the short term trends for the natural uranium market, the conversion market, the enrichment market, the reprocessing market, the storage market. It gives an assessment of the elementary costs of the existing facilities for the different stages and processes: reprocessing, spent fuel warehousing (example of the CLAB in Sweden and comparison with other available data), warehousing of all types of wastes (examples of Habog in Netherlands, Zwilag in Switzerland), spent fuel storage (example of Yucca Mountain in the USA, Onkalo in Finland, projects and studies in Sweden), storage of vitrified wastes in Belgium, storing of transuranic wastes in the USA, storage of low and intermediate level and short life wastes in Sweden.

  7. Effect of biofilm and selective mixed culture on microbial fuel cell for the treatment of tempeh industrial wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbianti, Rita; Surya Utami, Tania; Leondo, Vifki; Elisabeth; Andyah Putri, Syafira; Hermansyah, Heri

    2018-03-01

    Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) provides a new alternative in the treatment of organic waste. MFC produces 50-90% less sludge to be disposed than other methods. MFC technology can utilize existing microorganisms in the waste as a catalyst to generate electricity and simultaneously also serves as a wastewater treatment unit itself. Tempeh wastewater is one of the abundant industrial wastewater which can be processed using MFC. Research using the selective mixed culture is very likely to do due to the good result on COD removals by adding mixed culture. Microorganisms in tempeh wastewater consist of bacteria gram positive and gram negative. This study focused on the aspects of waste treatment which is determined by decreased levels of COD and BOD. Variations in this study are the formation time of biofilm and the addition of selective gram. MFC operated for 50 hours. For a variation of biofilm formation, experiments were performed after incubation by replacing incubation substrates used in the formation of biofilms. Biofilm formation time in this study was 3 days, 5 days, 7 days and 14 days. Gram positive and gram negative bacteria were used in selective mixed culture experiments. Selective mixed culture added to the reactor by 1 mL and 5 mL. Selection of gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria carried by growing mixed culture on selective media. COD and BOD levels were measured in the wastewater before and after the experiment conducted in each variation. Biofilm formation optimum time is 7 days which decrease COD and BOD levels by 18.2% and 35.9%. The addition of gram negative bacteria decreases COD and BOD levels by 29.32% and 51.32%. Further research is needed in order to get a better result on decreasing levels of COD and BOD.

  8. All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute experience in using difficult to burn fuels in the power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.; Ryabov, G. A.; Shtegman, A. V.; Ryzhii, I. A.; Litun, D. S.

    2016-07-01

    This article presents the results of the research carried out at the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI) aimed at using saline coal, municipal solid waste and bark waste, sunflower husk, and nesting/ manure materials from poultry farms. The results of saline coal burning experience in Troitsk and Verkhny Tagil thermal power plants (TPP) show that when switching the boiler to this coal, it is necessary to take into account its operating reliability and environmental safety. Due to increased chlorine content in saline coal, the concentration of hydrogen chloride can make over 500 mg/m3. That this very fact causes the sharp increase of acidity in sludge and the resulting damage of hydraulic ash removal system equipment at these power stations has been proven. High concentration of HCl can trigger damage of the steam superheater due to high-temperature corrosion and result in a danger of low-temperature corrosion of air heating surfaces. Besides, increased HCl emissions worsen the environmental characteristics of the boiler operation on the whole. The data on waste-to-energy research for municipal solid waste (MSW) has been generalized. Based on the results of mastering various technologies of MSW thermal processing at special plants nos. 2 and 4 in Moscow, as well as laboratory, bench, and industrial studies, the principal technical solutions to be implemented in the modern domestic thermal power plant with the installed capacity of 24 MW and MSW as the primary fuel type has been developed. The experience of the VTI in burning various kinds of organic waste—bark waste, sunflower husk, and nesting/manure materials from poultry farms—has been analyzed.

  9. CPFD simulations of an industrial-sized dual fluidized bed steam gasification system of biomass with 8 MW fuel input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Stephan; Kirnbauer, Friedrich; Hofbauer, Hermann

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulated an 8 MWth steam gasification system with the CPFD code Barracuda. • The prediction of the hydrodynamics depends strongly upon the chosen drag law. • The EMMS drag law predicted best the bed material recirculation and pressure drops. • The model of the DFB plant is able to predict the operation accurately. - Abstract: Dual fluidized bed (DFB) systems for biomass gasification consist of two connected fluidized beds with a circulating bed material in between. Inside such reactor systems, rough conditions occur due to the high temperatures and the movement of the bed material. Computational fluid dynamics calculations are a useful tool for investigating fluid dynamics inside such a reactor system. In this study, an industrial-sized DFB system was simulated with the commercial code CPFD Barracuda. The DFB system is part of the combined heat and power (CHP) plant at Güssing, situated in Austria, and has a total fuel input of 8 MW_t_h. The model was set up according to geometry and operating data which allows a realistic description of the hot system in the simulation environment. Furthermore, a conversion model for the biomass particles was implemented which covers the drying and devolatilization processes. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were considered. Since drag models have an important influence on fluidization behavior, four drag models were tested. It was found that the EMMS drag model fits best, with an error of below 20%, whereas the other drag models produced much larger errors. Based on this drag law, further simulations were conducted. The simulation model correctly predicts the different fluidization regimes and pressure drops in the reactor system. It is also able to predict the compositions of the product and flue gas, as well as the temperatures inside the reactor, with reasonable accuracy. Due to the results obtained, Barracuda seems suitable for further investigations regarding the fluid mechanics of such

  10. Study of seed for synthetical quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, C.K.; Torikai, D.

    1988-01-01

    Natural quartz blocks for seed (synthetic quartz technology) were studied by using various characterization techniques, such as X-ray topography, optical micrography, inspectoscopy, polariscopy and conoscopy, and etching. One of the most commonly found defect is the electrical or Dauphine twin. In The present research, we have developed a methodology to obtain a highly perfect seed for the synthetic quartz industries. (author) [pt

  11. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  12. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anna E.; Saxena, Nikita T.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize alternative fueling for military and commercial use, the industry has set forth guidelines that must be met by each fuel. These aviation fueling requirements are outlined in MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 Annex (2011) standards, and are classified as "drop-in" fuel replacements. This report provides combustor performance data for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100, relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Data were taken at various nominal inlet conditions: 75 psia (0.52 MPa) at 500 degF (533 K), 125 psia (0.86 MPa) at 625 degF (603 K), 175 psia (1.21 MPa) at 725 degF (658 K), and 225 psia (1.55 MPa) at 790 degF (694 K). Combustor performance analysis assessments were made for the change in flame temperatures, combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, and exhaust plane temperatures at 3, 4, and 5 percent combustor pressure drop (DP) for fuel:air ratios (F/A) ranging from 0.010 to 0.025. Significant general trends show lower liner temperatures and higher flame and combustor outlet temperatures with increases in FT fueling relative to JP-8+100 fueling. The latter affects both turbine efficiency and blade and vane lives.

  13. Army Alternative Ground Fuels Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    Jet Fuel-Like Product Lignocellulose corn stover forest waste switchgrass sugarcane Fermentation Genetically Engineered Microbes Jet...Fuel-Like Product Bio-Crude Pyrolysis Dehydration Hydroprocessing Synthetic Biology Pyrolysis Alcohol Oligomerization Conventional

  14. Fiscal 2000 survey of refuse-fueled power generation introduction technology, etc. Survey of industrial refuse-fueled power generation (Industrial refuse-fueled power generation case study implementation - 1); 2000 nendo chosa haikibutsu hatsuden donyu gijutsu chosa to - Sangyo haikibutsu hatsuden chosa (Sangyo haikibutsu hatsuden case study no jisshi - 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Case studies were conducted of industrial refuse-fueled power generation using plastic waste, paper waste, and wood chips, and the same using the excretions of cattle. In the study of power generation fueled by mixed waste containing plastic waste, 325t/d, 220t/d, and 130t/d incinerators having the lower calorific value of 5,960-6,401 kcal/kg were taken up, and steam conditions, generator output, generating-end efficiency, station service power ratio, sending-end efficiency, etc., were tentatively calculated. As for cost efficiency, a manufacturer's estimate indicated that commercialization would be impossible in all the cases unless the construction cost was cut down. In the study of excretion-fueled power generation, cases were taken up where medium-temperature fermentation proceeded for the excretions of 620-29,853 dairy cows (32-1,576 t/d). A calculation was performed on conditions that the construction cost and maintenance/utility costs were as estimated by the manufacturer, that the excretion treatment and power generation facilities were covered by subsidies, and that personnel expenses of 6-million yen were necessary. It was then found that there would be commercial viability in case the yield was 790t/d or higher. (NEDO)

  15. Electrochemical evaluation of Ti/TiO{sub 2}-polyaniline anodes for microbial fuel cells using hypersaline microbial consortia for synthetic-wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetton, X.D.; Navarro-Avila, S.G. [Univ. Autonoma de Yucatan, Yucatan (Mexico). Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria; Carrera-Figueiras, C. [Univ. Autonoma de Yucatan, Yucatan (Mexico). Quimica Fundamental y Aplicada

    2010-07-01

    This paper described the development of a titanium (Ti/TiO{sub 2}) polyaniline composite electrode. The electrode was designed for use with a microbial fuel cell (MFC) that generated electricity through the microbial biodegradation of organic compounds. A modified NBAF medium was used with a 20 mM acetate as an electron donor and 53 mM fumarate as an electron acceptor for a period of 96 hours at 37 degrees C. Strains were cultured under strict anaerobic conditions. Two microbial cultures were used: (1) pure cultures of Geobacter sulfur-reducens; and (2) an uncharacterized stable microbial consortia isolated from hypersaline swamp sediments. The anodes were made with an emeraldine form of PANI deposited over Ti/TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) monitoring was used to determine the open circuit potential of the MFC. Negative real impedances were obtained and reproduced in all systems studied with the Ti/TiO{sub 2}-PANI anodes. The highest power density was obtained using the Geobacter sulfur-reducens culture. Further research is needed to study the mechanisms that contribute to the occurrence of negative real impedances. 23 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  16. Physiology of the fuel ethanol strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 at low pH indicates a context-dependent performance relevant for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Bianca, Bianca E; de Hulster, Erik; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A; Gombert, Andreas K

    2014-12-01

    Selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used in Brazil to produce the hitherto most energetically efficient first-generation fuel ethanol. Although genome and some transcriptome data are available for some of these strains, quantitative physiological data are lacking. This study investigates the physiology of S. cerevisiae strain PE-2, widely used in the Brazilian fuel ethanol industry, in comparison with CEN.PK113-7D, a reference laboratory strain, focusing on tolerance to low pH and acetic acid stress. Both strains were grown in anaerobic bioreactors, operated as batch, chemostat or dynamic continuous cultures. Despite their different backgrounds, biomass and product formation by the two strains were similar under a range of conditions (pH 5 or pH cells, incubated at pH 1.5, indicated a superior survival of glucose-depleted PE-2 cells, when compared with either CEN.PK113-7D or a commercial bakers' strain. These results indicate that the sulfuric acid washing step, used in the fuel ethanol industry to decrease bacterial contamination due to non-aseptic operation, might have exerted an important selective pressure on the microbial populations present in such environments. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Models for solid oxide fuel cell systems exploitation of models hierarchy for industrial design of control and diagnosis strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Marra, Dario; Polverino, Pierpaolo; Sorrentino, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents methodologies for optimal design of control and diagnosis strategies for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell systems. A key feature of the methodologies presented is the exploitation of modelling tools that balance accuracy and computational burden.

  18. Bioremediation: Effective treatment of petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil, a common environmental problem at industrial and governmental agency sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L.; Siegrist, R.L.; Walker, J.F.; MacNeill, J.J.; Ott, D.W.; Machanoff, R.A.; Adler, H.I.; Phelps, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation methods are receiving increased attention for degradation of petroleum-fuel-hydrocarbon contamination in soils. An in situ bioremediation demonstration is being conducted on petroleum-fuel-contaminated soil at Kwajalein Island, a remote Pacific site. Bioreaction parameters studied include water, air, nutrient, and microorganism culture addition. This paper presents planning and design aspects of the demonstration that is scheduled to be completed in 1993

  19. The utility industry's perspective on OCRWM's plans for developing the system for transporting spent fuel under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodnick, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The electric utility industry has a vital interest in the transport program to be developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The industry's interest stems in part from the fact that the DOE's transportation program is financed by the Nuclear Waste Fund which is made up of ratepayer funds. However, the industry is also vitally interested in the DOE's transportation program because it could impact the ongoing transportation operations of all nuclear utilities, and, perhaps most importantly, without the utility industry's input, DOE is not able to develop an optimal transportation program. The NWPA contemplates that the DOE conducts its transportation program in accordance with the existing federal and state regulatory structure. DOE has significant discretion, however, in creating and implementing the business, operational and institutional aspects of its NWPA transportation program. The utility industry intends to ensure that the DOE meets the challenge to develop a safe, efficient and economically sound program to transport spent fuel and high-level waste to the appropriate federal facilities

  20. Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, K. G. [ICF International; Upreti, Girish [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    Fuel cells (FCs) are considered essential future energy technologies by developed and developing economies alike. Several countries, including the United States, Japan, Germany, and South Korea have established publicly funded R&D and market transformation programs to develop viable domestic FC industries for both automotive and non-automotive applications. Important non-automotive applications include large scale and small scale distributed combined heat and electrical power, backup and uninterruptible power, material handling and auxiliary power units. The U.S. FC industry is in the early stages of development, and is working to establish sustainable markets in all these areas. To be successful, manufacturers must reduce costs, improve performance, and overcome market barriers to new technologies. U.S. policies are assisting via research and development, tax credits and government-only and government-assisted procurements. Over the past three years, the industry has made remarkable progress, bringing both stack and system costs down by more than a factor of two while improving durability and efficiency, thanks in part to government support. Today, FCs are still not yet able to compete in these markets without continued policy support. However, continuation or enhancement of current policies, such as the investment tax credit and government procurements, together with continued progress by the industry, appears likely to establish a viable domestic industry within the next decade.

  1. Direcionamentos da tecnologia industrial de células a combustível de óxidos sólidos Directions of the industrial development of the solid oxide fuel cells technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Z. de Florio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript shows an overview of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC technology based on industrial developments. The information presented has been collected mostly at conferences that the authors attended. It is observed that several companies have been pursuing the development of the SOFC technology. Significant advances in stability and power density have raised the economic interest in this technology recently. It is revealed that the SOFC materials are essentially the same ones that have been used in the past decades, and that the two most important designs of pre-commercial SOFC prototypes are the tubular and planar ones.

  2. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging......Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......-mode images have high contrast. Like all imaging modalities, ultrasound is subject to a number of inherent artifacts that compromise image quality. The most prominent artifact is the degradation by coherent wave interference, known as “speckle”, which gives a granular appearance to an otherwise homogeneous...

  3. Non-electrical uses of thermal energy generated in the production of fissile fuel in fusion--fission reactors: a comparative economic parametric analysis for a hybrid with or without synthetic fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    A parametric analysis has been carried out for testing the sensitivity of the synfuel production cost in relation to crucial economic and technologic quantities (investment costs of hybrid and synfuel plant, energy multiplication of the fission blanket, recirculating power fraction of the fusion driver, etc.). In addition, a minimum synfuel selling price has been evaluated, from which the fission--fusion--synfuel complex brings about a higher economic benefit than does the fusion--fission hybrid entirely devoted to fissile-fuel and electricity generation. Assuming an electricity cost of 2.7 cents/kWh, an annual investment cost per power unit of 4.2 to 6 $/GJ (132 to 189 k$/MWty) for the fission--fusion complex and 1.5 to 3 $/GJ (47 to 95 k$/MWty) for the synfuel plant, the synfuel production net cost (i.e., revenue = cost) varies between 6.5 and 8.6 $/GJ. These costs can compete with those obtained by other processes (natural gas reforming, resid partial oxidation, coal gasification, nuclear fission, solar electrolysis, etc.). This study points out a potential use of the fusion--fission hybrid other than fissile-fuel and electricity generation

  4. Bio-based production of fuels and industrial chemicals by repurposing antibiotic-producing type I modular polyketide synthases: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Keasling, Jay D; Katz, Leonard

    2017-04-01

    Complex polyketides comprise a large number of natural products that have broad application in medicine and agriculture. They are produced in bacteria and fungi from large enzyme complexes named type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) that are composed of multifunctional polypeptides containing discrete enzymatic domains organized into modules. The modular nature of PKSs has enabled a multitude of efforts to engineer the PKS genes to produce novel polyketides of predicted structure. We have repurposed PKSs to produce a number of short-chain mono- and di-carboxylic acids and ketones that could have applications as fuels or industrial chemicals.

  5. A review and analysis of European industrial experience in handling LWR [light water reactor] spent fuel and vitrified high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1988-06-01

    The industrial facilities that have been built or are under construction in France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and West Germany to handle light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and canisters of vitrified high-level waste before ultimate disposal are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Published information on the operating performances of these facilities is also given. This information was assembled for consideration in planning and design of similar equipment and facilities needed for the Federal Waste Management System in the United States. 79 refs., 71 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Bio-based production of fuels and industrial chemicals by repurposing antibiotic-producing type I modular polyketide synthases: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Technical Univ. of Denmark, Horsholm (Denmark). Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability; Katz, Leonard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.

    2016-11-16

    Complex polyketides comprise a large number of natural products that have broad application in medicine and agriculture. They are produced in bacteria and fungi from large enzyme complexes named type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) that are composed of multifunctional polypeptides containing discrete enzymatic domains organized into modules. The modular nature of PKSs has enabled a multitude of efforts to engineer the PKS genes to produce novel polyketides of predicted structure. Finally, we have repurposed PKSs to produce a number of short-chain mono- and di-carboxylic acids and ketones that could have applications as fuels or industrial chemicals.

  7. Bed agglomeration risk related to combustion of cultivated fuels (wheat straw, red canary grass, industrial hemp) in commercial bed materials; Baeddagglomereringsrisk vid foerbraenning av odlade braenslen (hampa, roerflen, halm) i kommersiella baeddmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardsson, Thomas; Oehman, Marcus; Geyter, Sigrid de; Oehrstroem, Anna

    2006-12-15

    The market of forest products is expanding and thus resulting in more expensive biomass fuels. Therefore research within the combustion industry for alternative fuels is needed, for example cultivated fuels. Combustion and gasification research on these cultivated fuels are limited. The objectives of this work was to increase the general knowledge of silicon rich cultivated fuels by study the agglomeration characteristics for wheat straw, reed canary grass and industrial hemp in combination with commercial bed materials. Controlled fluidized bed agglomeration tests was conducted in a 5 kW, bench-scale, bubbling fluidized bed reactor. The tendencies of agglomeration were determined with the three cultivated fuels in combination with various minerals present in natural sand (quarts, plagioclase and potassium feldspar) and an alternative bed material (olivine). During the experiments bed samples and formed agglomerates were collected for further analyses with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and with X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Wheat straw had the highest agglomeration tendency of the studied fuels followed by reed canary grass and industrial hemp. No significant layer formation was found around the different bed particles. Instead, the ash forming matter were found as individual ash sticky (partial melted) particles in the bed. The bed material mineralogical composition had no influence of the agglomeration process because of the non layer formation propensities of the used silicon rich fuels.

  8. Sustainable use of biogenic fuels resources through industrial synergies; Nachhaltige energetische Nutzung biogener Ressourcen durch industrielle Synergien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuech, Andrea [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultaet; Nassour, Abdallah

    2017-08-01

    The term industrial symbiosis is used when traditionally separate companies and industries work together in a collective approach to physically exchange materials, energy, water and by-products with a mutual competitive advantage. Aim of the European project ''UBIS - Urban Baltic Industrial Symbiosis'' (INTERREG South-Baltic Programme) is to use biogenic resources as well as waste and residues sustainable in industrial symbiosis and to reduce emissions at the same time. Even if a lot has already been achieved in this area, there are still many unused material flows and there are possibilities to use them even more efficiently. In the project existing collaborations will be investigated as well as new ones identified and evaluated. This article introduces the UBIS project and provides an insight into the subject of industrial symbiosis as well examples described.

  9. Assessment for development of an industrial wet oxidation system for burning waste and low-grade fuels. Final report, October 18, 1989--February 28, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundback, C.

    1995-05-01

    The ultimate goal of this program was to demonstrate safe, reliable, and effective operation of the supercritical water oxidation process (SCWO) at a pilot plant-level throughput. This program was a three phase program. Phase 1 of the program preceded MODEC's participation in the program. MODEC did participate in Phases 2 and 3 of the program. In Phase 2, the target waste and industry were pulp mill sludges from the pulp and paper industry. In Phase 3, the target was modified to be DOE-generated mixed low level waste; wastes containing RCRA hazardous constituents and radionuclide surrogates were used as model wastes. The paper describes the research unit planning and design; bench-scale development of SCWO; research and development of wet oxidation of fuels; and the design of a super-critical water pilot plant

  10. Industrial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    The technical and economic scope for industrial process electrification in Canada is assessed in the light of increasing costs of combustion fuels relative to electricity. It is concluded that electricity is capable of providing an increasing share of industrial energy, eventually aproaching 100 percent. The relatively low cost of electricity in Canada offers industry the opportunity of a head start in process electrification with consequent advantages in world markets both for industrial products and for electrical process equipment and technology. A method is described to promote the necessary innovation by providing access to technology and financing. The potential growth of electricity demand due to industrial electrification is estimated

  11. Assessing the current Brazilian sugar cane industry and directing developments for maximum fossil fuel mitigation for the international petrochemical market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The EU proposes that 5.75% of the transportation fuels market consist of biofuels by 2010 and the USA proposes that all gasoline be blended with 10% bioethanol by 2012. While these targets have not yet been reached, an aura of critique is emerging, arguing that biofuel mandates are not sustainable.

  12. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combustion of a fuel mix containing animal waste, industry and household waste in FB-boilers; Foerbraenning av en braenslemix bestaaende av animaliskt avfall, industri- och hushaallsavfall i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Moradian, Farzad

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this project is to evaluate how the operation conditions and the combustion chemistry is changed in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) Boiler when adding approx. 20 wt-% Biomal into the fuel mixture. The following issues were addressed in the project: 1. How does the new chemical composition of the fuel mix influence bed agglomeration, deposit growth, ash flows, flue gases and particle size distribution? 2. Is it possible to run the boiler at a reduced bed temperature of about 750 deg C due to the increased moisture content originating from the biomal fuel? The project is based on combustion tests in the two Waste to Energy boilers at 20 MWth each owned by Boraas Energy and Environment AB (BEM). Furthermore, results from the Waste Refinery Project 'Reduced bed temperature in FB-boilers burning waste - part II' has been used as reference in some cases. At normal conditions the boilers are run on a fuel mixture containing 80 % sorted industrial waste and 20 % household waste. This fuel mixture consists mainly of paper, plastics and wood. In Boraas the organic part of the household waste is sorted out and used for biogas production. With the addition of biomal, which consists of animal by-products crushed to a pumpable fuel, the chemical composition of the fuel mixture is changed to some extent. The results from the combustion tests shows that biomal influences the chemical fuel composition, but also that there are large variations in the ordinary waste fuel composition as well. The most evident changes with addition of biomal are: 1. Increased moisture. 2. Reduced heat value. 3. Increased amount nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. 4. Decreased amount lead due to the low concentration in biomal. However, there were no changes in sodium, potassium, sulphur and chlorine, elements important for increased/reduced fuel related problems, derived from biomal. The increase of calcium and phosphorus with biomal derive from bone and the calcium

  14. Role of non-destructive examinations in leak testing of glove boxes for industrial scale plutonium handling at nuclear fuel fabrication facility along with case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aher, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Non Destructive Examinations has the prominent role at Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Facilities. Specifically NDE has contributed at utmost stratum in Leak Testing of Glove Boxes and qualifying them as a Class-I confinement for safe Plutonium handling at industrial scale. Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility, BARC, Tarapur is engaged in fabrication of Plutonium based MOX (PuO 2 , DDUO 2 ) fuel with different enrichments for first core of PFBR reactor. Alpha- Leak Tight Glove Boxes along with HEPA Filters and dynamic ventilation form the promising engineering system for safe and reliable handling of plutonium bearing materials considering the radiotoxicity and risk associated with handling of plutonium. Leak Testing of Glove Boxes which involves the leak detection, leak rectification and leak quantifications is major challenging task. To accomplish this challenge, various Non Destructive Testing methods have assisted in promising way to achieve the stringent leak rate criterion for commissioning of Glove Box facilities for plutonium handling. This paper highlights the Role of various NDE techniques like Soap Solution Test, Argon Sniffer Test, Pressure Drop/Rise Test etc. in Glove Box Leak Testing along with procedure and methodology for effective rectification of leakage points. A Flow Chart consisting of Glove Box leak testing procedure starting from preliminary stage up to qualification stage along with a case study and observations are discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Synthetic carbonaceous fuel and feedstock using nuclear power, air, and water. [CO/sub 2/ from atmosphere and ocean reacting with H/sub 2/ to produce MeOH and then gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Baron, S

    1977-01-01

    Development of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks (SCFF) is imperative if the U.S. is to maintain its world leadership. All forms of carbonaceous materials can serve as sources of raw material for SCFF, however, here we consider the ultimate renewable resource of carbon which is CO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere or the oceans. A number of methods for the recovery of CO/sub 2/ have been examined. An absorption-stripping system utilizing dilute carbonate solvent appears most economical for atmospheric recovery while distillation appears of interest for sea-water recovery. An alternative isothermal process utilizing chlor-alkali cells is also described. Electrolytic hydrogen is thermocatalytically combined with the CO/sub 2/ to form methanol which can then be dehydrated to gasoline. Production cost is dominated by the energy for hydrogen and the plant capital investment. Base loaded nuclear power plants supplying peaking load and generating SCFF in an off-peak mode is proposed for reducing costs. Under 1974/5 conditions, incremental power costs would have been a minimum. Under 1985 escalated conditions, incremental costs indicate 6 mills/kWh(e) for power which yields 33.9 c/gallon methanol or 77.1 c/gallon of equivalent gasoline which takes credit for oxygen would break even with $23/bbl of oil. The capital investment for producing the equivalent of one million barrels/day of gasoline in 142 nuclear reactors of 100 MW(e) capacity, operating in an off-peak mode, amounts to slightly more than the investment in new oil exploration and production facilities and considerably less than the projected outflow of capital to foreign OPEC countries. The nuclear synthesis-route using atmospheric and aquatic CO/sub 2/ simulates the solar photosynthetic process and provides a long-term renewable and environmentally acceptable alternate source of SCFF.

  16. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  18. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  19. Applications of Neutron Scattering in the Chemical Industry: Proton Dynamics of Highly Dispersed Materials, Characterization of Fuel Cell Catalysts, and Catalysts from Large-Scale Chemical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Peter W.; Parker, Stewart F.

    The attractiveness of neutron scattering techniques for the detailed characterization of materials of high degrees of dispersity and structural complexity as encountered in the chemical industry is discussed. Neutron scattering picks up where other analytical methods leave off because of the physico-chemical properties of finely divided products and materials whose absorption behavior toward electromagnetic radiation and electrical conductivity causes serious problems. This is demonstrated by presenting typical applications from large-scale production technology and industrial catalysis. These include the determination of the proton-related surface chemistry of advanced materials that are used as reinforcing fillers in the manufacture of tires, where interrelations between surface chemistry, rheological properties, improved safety, and significant reduction of fuel consumption are the focus of recent developments. Neutron scattering allows surface science studies of the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on nanodispersed, supported precious metal particles of fuel cell catalysts under in situ loading at realistic gas pressures of about 1 bar. Insight into the occupation of catalytically relevant surface sites provides valuable information about the catalyst in the working state and supplies essential scientific input for tailoring better catalysts by technologists. The impact of deactivation phenomena on industrial catalysts by coke deposition, chemical transformation of carbonaceous deposits, and other processes in catalytic hydrogenation processes that result in significant shortening of the time of useful operation in large-scale plants can often be traced back in detail to surface or bulk properties of catalysts or materials of catalytic relevance. A better understanding of avoidable or unavoidable aspects of catalyst deactivation phenomena under certain in-process conditions and the development of effective means for reducing deactivation leads to more energy

  20. СALCULATION OF INDIVIDUAL TECHNOLOGICAL NORMS PERTAINING TO EXPENDITURE OF FUEL AND POWER RESOURCES IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lozovsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers private methods for calculation of individual technological norms pertaining to expenditure of fuel and power resources in  respect of main types of construction and installation works and technological processes whish are executed with the help of various machines, mechanisms, technological equipment etc. Analytical expressions that take into account various factors influencing on the power consumption level are presented in the paper.

  1. Used fuel packing plant for CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, I.; Thayer, B.; Bains, N., E-mail: imenzies@atsautomation.com [ATS Automation, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Murchison, A., E-mail: amurchison@nwmo.ca [NWMO, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Large forgings have been selected to containerize Light Water Reactor used nuclear fuel. CANDU fuel, which is significantly smaller in size, allows novel approaches for containerization. For example, by utilizing commercially available extruded ASME pipe a conceptual design of a Used Fuel Packing Plant for containerization of used CANDU fuel in a long lived metallic container has been developed. The design adopts a modular approach with multiple independent work cells to transfer and containerize the used fuel. Based on current technologies and concepts from proven industrial systems, the Used Fuel Packing Plant can assemble twelve used fuel containers per day considering conservative levels of process availability. (author)

  2. A Novel Early Warning System Based on a Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell for In Situ and Real Time Hexavalent Chromium Detection in Industrial Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Liu, Pu; Niu, Yongyan; Chen, Zhengjun; Khan, Aman; Zhang, Pengyun; Li, Xiangkai

    2018-02-22

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a well-known toxic heavy metal in industrial wastewater, but in situ and real time monitoring cannot be achieved by current methods used during industrial wastewater treatment processes. In this study, a Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC) was used as a biosensor for in situ real-time monitoring of Cr(VI), which was the organic substrate is oxidized in the anode and Cr(VI) is reduced at the cathode simultaneously. The pH 6.4 and temperature 25 °C were optimal conditions for the operation. Under the optimal conditions, linearity (R² = 0.9935) of the generated voltage was observed in the Cr(VI) concentration range from 0.2 to 0.7 mg/L. The system showed high specificity for Cr(VI), as other co-existing ions such as Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Pb 2+ did not interfere with Cr(VI) detection. In addition, when the sediment MFC-based biosensor was applied for measuring Cr(VI) in actual wastewater samples, a low deviation (real time in situ detection of Cr(VI) in industrial wastewaters.

  3. Synthetic fuels summary. [1850 to 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conta, Lewis D.; Fiedler, Harry H.; Hill, Richard F.; Ksander, Yuri; Parker, Harry W.; Reilly, Matthew J.; Roger, Kenneth A.; Cooke, Charles E.; Novak, Robert; Booker, John D.; Gouse, S. William; Joyce, Thomas J.; Knudsen, Christian W.; Yancik, Joseph J.

    1981-03-01

    This report examines the federal government's experience in synfuels, the market potential of synfuels, the US energy resources base, and the numerous technologies available. Technologies and energy resources are reviewed and compared to provide the facts needed to understand existing energy-related problems. This introductory manual is an overview of synfuel technologies, and markets. It is not meant to be the sole source of information on which multi-billion dollar investment decisions for specific synfuel plants would be based. The report, published originally in August 1980, has been revised to incorporate appropriate corrections and clarifications. The intent behind these revisions is to present the best technical and programmatic information available as of the original publication date, August 1980. The original report included certain information about the relative costs of selected synfuels technologies. Economics are especially sensitive to recent events and updated information, and it would possibly be misleading to restate the original cost data in this report. It was felt that the original cost data needed major updating and reconciliation due to differences in project scope, basic assumptions, and costing methodologies. ESCOE believes that reliable economic comparisons require timely data and a recognition of any major differences in scope or methodology. Therefore, ESCOE, in a separate task, is undertaking an updated commercial scale economic comparison of selected synfuel processes, on a normalized basis. The results of this task will be published as a separate ESCOE report.

  4. Nanoplasmonic Catalysis for Synthetic Fuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    processes using mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, and potentiostatic electrochemistry while irradiating these plasmonic/catalytic nanostructures at...is of great interest for the removal of pollutants from water and air. Semiconductor photocatalysts (e.g., TiO2, ZnO , SnO, In2O3) have been shown to...34Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange over Single Crystalline ZnO : Orientation Dependence of Photoactivity and Photostability of ZnO ." Langmuir

  5. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  6. Bioelectricity Production and Comparative Evaluation of Electrode Materials in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Indigenous Anode-Reducing Bacterial Community from Wastewater of Rice-Based Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kumar Jadhav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are the electrochemical systems that harness the electricity production capacity of certain microbes from the reduction of biodegradable compounds. The present study aimed to develop mediator-less MFC without using expensive proton exchange membrane. In the present study, a triplicate of dual-chamber, mediator-less MFCs was operated with two local rice based industrial wastewater to explore the potential of this wastewater as a fuel option in these electrochemical systems. 30 combinations of 6 electrodes viz. Carbon (14 cm × 1.5 cm, Zn (14.9 cm × 4.9 cm, Cu (14.9 cm × 4.9 cm, Sn (14.1cm × 4.5cm, Fe (14cm × 4cm and Al (14cm × 4.5 cm were evaluated for each of the wastewater samples. Zn-C as anode-cathode combination produced a maximum voltage that was 1.084±0.016V and 1.086±0.028 and current of 1.777±0.115mA and 1.503±0.120 for KRM and SSR, respectively. In the present study, thick biofilm has been observed growing in MFC anode. Total 14 bacterial isolates growing in anode were obtained from two of the wastewater. The dual chambered, membrane-less and mediator-less MFCs were employed successfully to improve the economic feasibility of these electrochemical systems to generate bioelectricity and wastewater treatment simultaneously. Keywords: Membrane-less, Microbial Fuel Cells, Biofilm, Wastewater, Electrogenic. Article History: Received June 25th 2016; Received in revised form Dec 15th 2016; Accepted January 5th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Reena, M. and Jadhav, S. K. (2017 Bioelectricity production and Comparative Evaluation of Electrode Materials in Microbial Fuel Cells using Indigenous Anode-reducing Bacterial Community from Wastewater of Rice-based Industries. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(1, 83-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.83-92

  7. Quality assurance in the manufacture of pump designed for industrial installations, fuel burning power station and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beugnon, P.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of quality of a construction, equipment or industrial product; components of quality, quality management, evolution of the concepts of quality assurance and quality control; code of quality assurance, and organisation of quality assurance system are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  8. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  9. A Century of Synthetic Fertilizer: 1909-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2009-01-01

    This year marks a centenary of the synthetic fertilizer industry. German chemists, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch, in 1909 demonstrated their industrial process for the manufacture of ammonia. The achievement won them accolades including Nobel Prizes. The output of their Haber-Bosch process can be used for either peace or war, agriculture or munitions, and the rapid adoption by Germany of this industrial process is credited with prolonging WW1. Most of the synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer of the...

  10. Synthetic greenhouse gases under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, B.; Karlaganis, G.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed

  11. Fuel Quality/Processing Study. Volume II. Appendix, Task I, literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J B; Bela, A; Jentz, N E; Klumpe, H W; Kessler, R E; Kotzot, H T; Loran, B I

    1981-04-01

    This activity was begun with the assembly of information from Parsons' files and from contacts in the development and commercial fields. A further more extensive literature search was carried out using the Energy Data Base and the American Petroleum Institute Data Base. These are part of the DOE/RECON system. Approximately 6000 references and abstracts were obtained from the EDB search. These were reviewed and the especially pertinent documents, approximately 300, were acquired in the form of paper copy or microfiche. A Fuel Properties form was developed for listing information pertinent to gas turbine liquid fuel properties specifications. Fuel properties data for liquid fuels from selected synfuel processes, deemed to be successful candidates for near future commercial plants were tabulated on the forms. The processes selected consisted of H-Coal, SRC-II and Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) coal liquefaction processes plus Paraho and Tosco shale oil processes. Fuel properties analyses for crude and distillate syncrude process products are contained in Section 2. Analyses representing synthetic fuels given refinery treatments, mostly bench scale hydrotreating, are contained in Section 3. Section 4 discusses gas turbine fuel specifications based on petroleum source fuels as developed by the major gas turbine manufacturers. Section 5 presents the on-site gas turbine fuel treatments applicable to petroleum base fuels impurities content in order to prevent adverse contaminant effects. Section 7 relates the environmental aspects of gas turbine fuel usage and combustion performance. It appears that the near future stationary industrial gas turbine fuel market will require that some of the synthetic fuels be refined to the point that they resemble petroleum based fuels.

  12. Synthetic Sling Failure - Evaluations and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Mackey, Thomas C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall

  13. Fuel cells in industrial use. EnBW's experiences from three years' pilot operation at Michelin; Brennstoffzellen im industriellen Einsatz. EnBW-Erfahrungen aus drei Jahren Pilotbetrieb bei Michelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, A. [EnBW AG, Karlsruhe (Germany); Berger, P. [MTU CFC Solutions GmbH, Ottobrunn (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    For three years a molten carbonate fuel cell of MTU CFC Solutions GmbH supplied Michelin tyre plant at Karlsruhe with power and 200 C process heat for the vulcanisation of truck tyres. In about 24.000 operating hours the plant produced more than four million kWh power. Aim of the fuel cell project at Michelin was to gain deepened cognitions concerning suitability for daily use of fuel cells in industrial processes. Operator of the plant was EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttenberg AG. (orig.)

  14. Determining the biomass fraction of mixed waste fuels: A comparison of existing industry and {sup 14}C-based methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, G.K.P., E-mail: Graham.Muir@glasgow.ac.uk [SUERC Radiocarbon Laboratory, Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), Rankine Avenue, East Kilbride G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hayward, S. [Stopford Energy and Environment, The Gordon Manley Building, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England (United Kingdom); Tripney, B.G.; Cook, G.T.; Naysmith, P. [SUERC Radiocarbon Laboratory, Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC), Rankine Avenue, East Kilbride G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Herbert, B.M.J. [Stopford Energy and Environment, The Gordon Manley Building, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England (United Kingdom); Garnett, M.H [NERC Radiocarbon Facility, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, Rankine Avenue, East Kilbride G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, M. [Stopford Energy and Environment, The Gordon Manley Building, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, England (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Compares industry standard and {sup 14}C methods for determining bioenergy content of MSW. • Differences quantified through study at an operational energy from waste plant. • Manual sort and selective dissolution are unreliable measures of feedstock bioenergy. • {sup 14}C methods (esp. AMS) improve precision and reliability of bioenergy determination. • Implications for electricity generators and regulators for award of bio-incentives. - Abstract: {sup 14}C analysis of flue gas by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) were used to determine the biomass fraction of mixed waste at an operational energy-from-waste (EfW) plant. Results were converted to bioenergy (% total) using mathematical algorithms and assessed against existing industry methodologies which involve manual sorting and selective dissolution (SD) of feedstock. Simultaneous determinations using flue gas showed excellent agreement: 44.8 ± 2.7% for AMS and 44.6 ± 12.3% for LSC. Comparable bioenergy results were obtained using a feedstock manual sort procedure (41.4%), whilst a procedure based on selective dissolution of representative waste material is reported as 75.5% (no errors quoted). {sup 14}C techniques present significant advantages in data acquisition, precision and reliability for both electricity generator and industry regulator.

  15. Developing a green lending model for renewable energy project (case study electricity from biogas fuel at Palm Oil Industry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirman, Y. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the last two decades, development initiatives solely aimed to generate economic growth has been placed under scrutiny, particularly amidst the rampant discussion on the quality decline of the environment, growing social divide and climate change along with its implications thereof. Considerations of the negative impacts brought about by the economic development process prompted the move to adopt the sustainable financing model that gives precedence to economic, environmental and social aspects. We introduced Green Lending Model for Renewable Energy Project (Case Study Electricity From Biogas at Palm Oil Industry) based on sustainability financing, which is used as variable to implementing financial institutions’ lending policies. There are two major trends in the literature relating to sustainability and the banking industry: external and internal practices. The external practices strand analyzes the relevance of sustainability to the bank’s communication with shareholders and other stakeholders, and how investors use it as a measure to help achieve optimal portfolio allocation. The internal practices literature, more relevant to the present work, studies how sustainability criteria are integrated into risk management models and lending practices. Its first implementation is in the Palm Oil industry at South Sumatera. The results explained that sustainability is not related to profit either from a short- or long-term perspective. The Sustainable Green Lending Model is related to the Equator Principles and its application is driven to project financing. It also related with short- and long-term risks and opportunities, instead of short-term sustainability impacts.

  16. Water for energy and fuel production

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Yatish T

    2014-01-01

    Water, in all its forms, may be the key to an environmentally friendly energy economy. Water is free, there is plenty of it, plus it carries what is generally believed to be the best long-term source of green energy-hydrogen. Water for Energy and Fuel Production explores the many roles of water in the energy and fuel industry. The text not only discusses water's use as a direct source of energy and fuel-such as hydrogen from water dissociation, methane from water-based clathrate molecules, hydroelectric dams, and hydrokinetic energy from tidal waves, off-shore undercurrents, and inland waterways-but also: Describes water's benign application in the production of oil, gas, coal, uranium, biomass, and other raw fuels, and as an energy carrier in the form of hot water and steam Examines water's role as a reactant, reaction medium, and catalyst-as well as steam's role as a reactant-for the conversion of raw fuels to synthetic fuels Explains how supercritical water can be used to convert fossil- and bio-based feed...

  17. Comparison of atomization characteristics of drop-in and conventional jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kumaran; Sadr, Reza; Micro Scale Thermo-Fluids Lab Team

    2016-11-01

    Surge in energy demand and stringent emission norms have been driving the interest on alternative drop-in fuels in aviation industry. The gas-to-liquid (GTL), synthetic paraffinic kerosene fuel derived from natural gas, has drawn significant attention as drop-in fuel due to its cleaner combustion characteristics when compared to other alternative fuels derived from various feedstocks. The fuel specifications such as chemical and physical properties of drop-in fuels are different from those of the conventional jet fuels, which can affect their atomization characteristics and in turn the combustion performance. The near nozzle liquid sheet dynamics of the drop-in fuel, GTL, is studied at different nozzle operating conditions and compared with that of the conventional Jet A-1 fuel. The statistical analysis of the near nozzle sheet dynamics shows that the drop-in fuel atomization characteristics are comparable to those of the conventional fuel. Furthermore, the microscopic spray characteristics measured using phase Doppler anemometry at downstream locations are slightly different between the fuels. Authors acknowledge the support by National Priorities Research Program (NPRP) of Qatar National Research Fund through the Grant NPRP-7-1449-2-523.

  18. The metrological activity determination of 238 U and 230 Th by gamma spectrometry to industrial fuel-cycle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida M, M.C. de; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the difficulty for determining the activity of 238 U and 230 Th using gamma spectrometry due to the low gamma-ray emission probabilities of 92 and 67 keV, and, mainly, the associated high uncertainties about 13 and 11%, respectively. 230 Th is a 238 U daughter and it is product from uranium mills and refineries. 230 Th decays to 226 Ra and this decay has to be measured because these radionuclides are not in secular equilibrium with their daughter products, besides the gamma-energies have high uncertainties in the emission probabilities. These radionuclides, mostly 238 U, are important in the nuclear fuel-cycle, since the mining of uranium ore, where the nominal isotopic content of natural uranium is 99.27% of 238 U, until the irradiated fuel reprocessing, where this isotope, a fertile material, is recovered to be used again. The uranium and thorium are considered safeguarded nuclear materials and the metrology tries to calibrate and standardize these materials to improve the activity determination techniques applied in different fuel-cycle scopes. The essential characteristics of the safeguarded materials are low gamma energies (less than 100 keV) and emission probabilities but with high uncertainties. In this way, the metrology can contribute to homeland security defense against illicit nuclear trafficking with the identification and quantification of the safeguarded radionuclides such as uranium and thorium, using specific gamma window energy and high resolution planar or coaxial germanium detector. The efficiency curve is obtained from the reference source spectrum considering the photopeak areas corresponding the standard activities. This curve depends on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation (sample absorption and material absorption between sample-detector), dead time and sample-detector position. The metrological activity determinations of 238 U solid sources, and of 230 Th, in solution (5 ml flask), were performed using

  19. Renewable and dangerous residues as industrial fuels. Study about hard environmental support in the cement production in Brazil, years 1990; Residuos renovaveis e perigosos como combustiveis industriais. Estudo sobre a dificil sustentacao ambiental da fabricacao de cimento no Brasil, anos 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Auxiliadora Maria Moura [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Seva Filho, Arsenio Oswaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the work is to indicate new fuels to Brazilian cement industry. A comparative study is presented. The renewable energetic sources, not renewable energetic sources, and residues of other industrial processes are analyzed.

  20. Industrial ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelle, Ch.

    1999-04-01

    After having given the definition of the term 'ceramics', the author describes the different manufacturing processes of these compounds. These materials are particularly used in the fields of 1)petroleum industry (in primary and secondary reforming units, in carbon black reactors and ethylene furnaces). 2)nuclear industry (for instance UO 2 and PuO 2 as fuels; SiC for encapsulation; boron carbides for control systems..)

  1. From Extremophiles to Star Trek, The Use of Synthetic Biology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Fujishima, Kosuke; Lima, Ivan Paulino; Gentry, Diana; Phan, Samson; Navarette, Jesica; Palmer, Jesse; Burnier, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology – the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes – has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids. In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as bio-mining, human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  2. Report on the proposal for a Council directive (EURATOM) on the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste - Committee on Industry, External Trade, Research and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    By letter of 13 May 2003 the Council consulted Parliament, pursuant to Articles 31 and 32 of the EURATOM Treaty, on the proposal for a Council directive (EURATOM) on the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste (COM(2003) 32 - 2003/0022(CNS)). At the sitting of 15 May 2003 the President of Parliament announced that he had referred the proposal to the Committee on Industry, External Trade, Research and Energy as the committee responsible and the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Consumer Policy for its opinion (C5-0229/2003). The Committee on Industry, External Trade, Research and Energy appointed Alejo Vidal-Quadras Roca Rapporteur at its meeting of 22 May 2003. The committee considered the Commission proposal and draft report at its meetings of 9 July, 9 September, 6 October, 3 November and 27 November 2003. At the last meeting it adopted the draft legislative resolution by 36 votes to 7, with 2 abstentions. The opinion of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Consumer Policy is attached. The report was tabled on 1 December 2003

  3. Electricity generation using chocolate industry wastewater and its treatment in activated sludge based microbial fuel cell and analysis of developed microbial community in the anode chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sunil A; Surakasi, Venkata Prasad; Koul, Sandeep; Ijmulwar, Shrikant; Vivek, Amar; Shouche, Y S; Kapadnis, B P

    2009-11-01

    Feasibility of using chocolate industry wastewater as a substrate for electricity generation using activated sludge as a source of microorganisms was investigated in two-chambered microbial fuel cell. The maximum current generated with membrane and salt bridge MFCs was 3.02 and 2.3 A/m(2), respectively, at 100 ohms external resistance, whereas the maximum current generated in glucose powered MFC was 3.1 A/m(2). The use of chocolate industry wastewater in cathode chamber was promising with 4.1 mA current output. Significant reduction in COD, BOD, total solids and total dissolved solids of wastewater by 75%, 65%, 68%, 50%, respectively, indicated effective wastewater treatment in batch experiments. The 16S rDNA analysis of anode biofilm and suspended cells revealed predominance of beta-Proteobacteria clones with 50.6% followed by unclassified bacteria (9.9%), alpha-Proteobacteria (9.1%), other Proteobacteria (9%), Planctomycetes (5.8%), Firmicutes (4.9%), Nitrospora (3.3%), Spirochaetes (3.3%), Bacteroides (2.4%) and gamma-Proteobacteria (0.8%). Diverse bacterial groups represented as members of the anode chamber community.

  4. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  5. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazar, Sarah L; Hund, Gretchen E; Bonheyo, George T; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    Several recent articles have described risks posed by synthetic biology and spurred vigorous discussion in the scientific, commercial, and government communities about how to best detect, prevent, regulate, and respond to these risks. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) deep experience working with dual-use technologies for the nuclear industry has shown that analysis of supply chains can reveal security vulnerabilities and ways to mitigate security risk without hindering beneficial research and commerce. In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology to illustrate new insights about the effectiveness of current regulations, the possible need for different screening approaches, and new technical solutions that could help identify or mitigate risks in the synthetic biology supply chain.

  7. Exploratory study on the integration of fuel cell systems inside the chloro-soda plants for utilization of industrial hydrogen; Estudo exploratorio da integracao de sistemas de celula a combustivel dentro das plantas de cloro-soda para utilizacao do hidrogenio industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Jose Mauro Fernandes [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mail: jmfbraga@oi.com.br; Seidl, Peter [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Pirro e Longo, Waldimir [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Nwcleo de Estudos Estrategicos (NEST)

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to demonstrate the economic viability of the application of industrial hydrogen in fuel cell systems by analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of this investment in hydrochloric acid/ sodium hydroxide plants. Using the Present Liquid Value and the Real Options Theory an economic evaluation will be made of the integration of fuel cell system in these plants, based on investment cost, volatility, among other parameters. (author)

  8. Ash behavior during hydrothermal treatment for solid fuel applications. Part 2: Effects of treatment conditions on industrial waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of treatment conditions on composition and solubility of ash. • Ash dissolution and yield governed by liquid pH and calcium carbonate solubility. • Dissolution of calcium carbonate decreases ash fusion temperature during combustion. • Decreasing the ash content of sludge can weaken ash properties for combustion. - Abstract: This second half of our work on ash behavior concentrates on the effects of hydrothermal treatment conditions on paper sludge. Ash composition and solubility were determined based on treatment temperature, reactor solid load and liquid pH using experimental design and univariate regression methods. In addition, ash properties for combustion were evaluated based on recent developments on ash classification. Based on the results, all experimental variables had a statistically significant effect on ash yields. Only reactor solid load was statistically insignificant for char ash content, which increased based on increasing treatment temperature due to the decomposition of organic components. Ash dissolution and ash yield were governed by liquid pH and the generation of acids mainly due to the solubility of calcium carbonate identified as the main mineral species of paper sludge. Dissolution of calcium carbonate however decreased ash fusion temperatures more likely causing problems during char incineration. This indicated that decreasing the ash content of sludge during hydrothermal treatment can actually weaken ash properties for solid fuel applications.

  9. The genetic manipulation of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the aim of converting polysaccharide-rich agricultural crops and industrial waste to single-cell protein and fuel ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Pretorius

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The world’s problem with overpopulation and environmental pollution has created an urgent demand for alternative protein and energy sources. One way of addressing these burning issues is to produce single-cell protein (for food and animal feed supplements and fuel ethanol from polysaccharide-rich agricultural crops and industrial waste by using baker’s yeast.

  10. Solid fuels. Coal. Economy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautin, F.; Martin-Amouroux, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The share of coal in the world energy mix (25%) and its possible increase during the next decades is due to its specific use in steelmaking industry and to its excellent competitiveness in fossil-fuel power plants with respect to other energy sources. Its inferior energy efficiency is compensated by lower and more stable prices on international markets. This situation is explained by a strong competition and abundant reserves. However, coal is a strong emitter of greenhouse gases and would be temporarily penalized by the implementation of emission tax or trading systems before the development of carbon sequestration systems. This article presents: the main world markets (consumption per sector of activity, power generation market, coke market, start-up of a synthetic fuels market), the main international coal producers and traders (overview and typology, international trades, transport), the reserves and resources, and the worldwide perspectives (2050 scenarios, climatic risks, CO 2 prices and technological changes). (J.S.)

  11. Human Health Assessment of Alcohol To Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Kerosenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    workplace . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Jet fuels, alternative fuels, synthetic kerosene, JP-8, biobased/bio-based, toxicity/toxicology, alcohol-to-jet, toxicity...ATJ fuels alone, or in a blend with petroleum-derived JP-8, is unlikely to increase human health risks in the military workplace . Therefore, the... pregnancy rate, gestation length, or number of pups per litter. The female-only exposure did result in decreased pup weights in the highest dose group

  12. Establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, Mark A; Nguyen, Ginnie T D T; Rico, Juan; Lambert, Devinn; Helliwell, Katherine E; Smith, Alison G

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Stabilization/solidification of synthetic Nigerian drill cuttings | Opete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stabilization/solidification of synthetic Nigerian drill cuttings. SEO Opete, IA Mangibo, ET Iyagba. Abstract. In the Nigerian oil and gas industry, large quantities of oily and synthetic drill cuttings are produced annually. These drill cuttings are heterogeneous wastes which comprises of hydrocarbons, heavy metals and ...

  14. US Army Qualification of Alternative Fuels Specified in MIL-DTL-83133H for Ground Systems Use. Final Qualification Report: JP-8 Containing Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene Manufactured Via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis or Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    environmental standards, and the Department of Energy (DOE) launched several initiatives to develop a new generation of ‘ultra-clean’ transportation fuels...Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck) – A4 HETS (Heavy Equipment Transporter System) – M1070A1 PLS (Palletized Load System) – A1 DDC 8V92TA 12.0 L...Modulus of Compressibility of Diesel/ Biodiesel /HVO Blends. Energy Fuels. 2011, 26, 1336-1343. 578789 Fuels. Coordinating Research Council, Inc. 2009

  15. Wood and natural gas as fuels for tunnel kilns in the clay-product industry; Serragem e gas natural como fontes energeticas em fornos tuneis na industria ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gabriel M. dos; Bazzo, Edson; Nicolau, Vicente de P.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: mann@emc.ufsc.br; ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; vicente@lmpt.ufsc.br; amirol@emc.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    The clay-product industry is responsible to large part of the thermal energy consumption, especially on drying and burning process. In spite of the success obtained with the burning of wood like principal fuel for tunnel kilns, the clay-product industries of Santa Catarina have looked for alternatives to substitute it. The interest appears especially due to imminent shortage of the wood on the market and due to possibility of use natural gas as a good and environmentally favorable alternative to reduce the energy specific consumption of the kilns, to increase the production and to improve the quality of the ceramic products. Nowadays, the natural gas is more expensive when compared with the wood. However, we believe that additional studies can place this fuel as a viable alternative to the clay-product industries. (author)

  16. Fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdoeckl, J.

    2001-01-01

    Europe has at present big hopes on the fuel cells technology, in comparison with other energy conversion technologies, this technology has important advantages, for example: high efficiency, very low pollution and parallel use of electric and thermal energy. Preliminary works for fuel cells developing and its commercial exploitation are at full speed; until now the European Union has invested approx. 1.7 billion Schillings, 60 relevant projects are being executed. The Austrian industry is interested in applying this technique to drives, thermal power stations and the miniature fuel cells as replacement of batteries in electronic products (Notebooks, mobile telephones, etc.). A general description of the historic development of fuel cells including the main types is given as well as what is the situation in Austria. (nevyjel)

  17. Nuclear Industry Input to the Development of Concepts for the Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel - 13411

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Chris; Thomas, Ivan; McNiven, Steven; Lanthrum, Gary

    2013-01-01

    EnergySolutions and its team partners, NAC International, Exelon Nuclear Partners, Talisman International, TerranearPMC, Booz Allen Hamilton and Sargent and Lundy, have carried out a study to develop concepts for a Consolidated Storage Facility (CSF) for the USA's stocks of commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF), and the packaging and transport provisions required to move the UNF to the CSF. The UNF is currently stored at all 65 operating nuclear reactor sites in the US, and at 10 shutdown sites. The study was funded by the US Department of Energy and followed the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC), one of which was that the US should make prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities for commercial UNF. The study showed that viable schemes can be devised to move all UNF and store it at a CSF, but that a range of schemes is required to accommodate the present widely varying UNF storage arrangements. Although most UNF that is currently stored at operating reactor sites is in water-filled pools, a significant amount is now dry stored in concrete casks. At the shutdown sites, the UNF is dry stored at all but two of the ten sites. Various types of UNF dry storage configurations are used at the operating sites and shutdown sites that include vertical storage casks that are also licensed for transportation, vertical casks that are licensed for storage only, and horizontally orientated storage modules. The shutdown sites have limited to nonexistent UNF handling infrastructure and several no longer have railroad connections, complicating UNF handling and transport off the site. However four methods were identified that will satisfactorily retrieve the UNF canisters within the storage casks and transport them to the CSF. The study showed that all of the issues associated with the transportation and storage of UNF from all sites in the US can be accommodated by adopting a staged approach to the construction of

  18. Nuclear Industry Input to the Development of Concepts for the Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel - 13411

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Chris; Thomas, Ivan; McNiven, Steven [EnergySolutions Federal EPC., 2345 Stevens Drive, Richland, WA, 99354 (United States); Lanthrum, Gary [NAC International, 3930 East Jones Bridge Road, Norcross, GA, 30092 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    EnergySolutions and its team partners, NAC International, Exelon Nuclear Partners, Talisman International, TerranearPMC, Booz Allen Hamilton and Sargent and Lundy, have carried out a study to develop concepts for a Consolidated Storage Facility (CSF) for the USA's stocks of commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF), and the packaging and transport provisions required to move the UNF to the CSF. The UNF is currently stored at all 65 operating nuclear reactor sites in the US, and at 10 shutdown sites. The study was funded by the US Department of Energy and followed the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC), one of which was that the US should make prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities for commercial UNF. The study showed that viable schemes can be devised to move all UNF and store it at a CSF, but that a range of schemes is required to accommodate the present widely varying UNF storage arrangements. Although most UNF that is currently stored at operating reactor sites is in water-filled pools, a significant amount is now dry stored in concrete casks. At the shutdown sites, the UNF is dry stored at all but two of the ten sites. Various types of UNF dry storage configurations are used at the operating sites and shutdown sites that include vertical storage casks that are also licensed for transportation, vertical casks that are licensed for storage only, and horizontally orientated storage modules. The shutdown sites have limited to nonexistent UNF handling infrastructure and several no longer have railroad connections, complicating UNF handling and transport off the site. However four methods were identified that will satisfactorily retrieve the UNF canisters within the storage casks and transport them to the CSF. The study showed that all of the issues associated with the transportation and storage of UNF from all sites in the US can be accommodated by adopting a staged approach to the

  19. An Analysis of Environmental Dimensions Affected in Adoption of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles: A Study in Shah ALAM Industrial AREA, Selangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siron Rusinah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the perceptions of respondents on environmental dimensions hat affected in adoption of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The study was conducted at Shah Alam industrial areas of Selangor, Malaysia, with the number of respondents are 120 respondents with various job positions that related with engineering and automobiles industry. The findings of the research shows that the dimensions of HFCV Internal Environmental total score of the items statement is 3.40 with the percentage of agreement in implementation is 3.72 percent, HFCV Environmental Information Systems shows that the total score of the items statement is 3.63 with the percentage of agreement on use to great extend is 42.5 percent, HFCV Cooperation with Customers shows that the total score of the items statement is 3.81 with the percentage of agreement on implementation is 44.2 percent. The findings on HFCV Eco Design shows that the total score of items statement is 4.02 with the percentage of agreement on implementation is 42.3 percent, HFCV Environmental Organizational Culture shows that the total score of the items statement is 3.37 with the percentage of agreement is 34.2 percent, HFCV Environmental Leadership shows that the total score of the items statement is 3.34 with the percentage of agreement is 48.2 percent. HFCV Proactive Green Innovation shows that the total score of items statement is 4.10 ahead of automobile got the highest mean score of 4.32 with the percentage of agreement is 41 percent. HFCV Environmental performance shows that the total score of the items statement is 3.87 with the percentage of agreement is 39 percent and the last environmental dimensions was HFCV Environmental Risks shows that the total score of the item statement is 4.00 with the percentage of agreement is 40 percent

  20. Continuing education in radiation protection in the nuclear fuel cycle: The case of Nuclear Industries of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Pereira, W. de; Kelecom, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the pedagogical and technical concept that guided training in radiation protection implemented by the Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB; Nuclear Industries of Brazil) to maintain the competence of its technical staff to perform activities with exposure to radiation, the staff responsible for the supervision of this work and as a form of dissemination of knowledge to the staff not involved in the use of ionizing radiation. The groups of workers to be trained are here described, as well as the level of training, the frequency and types of training, the profile of trainers, the training programs, the forms of assessment and recording of training. It also describes the first general training performed in 2004. After this initial training no other general training was realized, and the option was to train small groups of workers, to avoid stopping the production as it occurred when general training was executed. The overall training was conducted in three units: the Uranium Concentration Unit (URA) under production in the city of Caetité, state of Bahia, the Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) undergoing decommissioning at Poços de Caldas, state of Minas Gerais and the Unit of Heavy Minerals (UMP), at Buena, state of Rio de Janeiro. In the initial training at URA 79 workers were trained, distributed in 6 classes (average of 13 students per class); each class had nine hours training and the grades obtained ranged from 7.5 to 10. At UTM, 200 employees were trained distributed in 9 classes (average of 22 students per class); their notes ranged from 8.8 to 10. Finally, at UMP 151 employees were trained, in 5 classes (average of 31 students per class); their grades ranged from 8.6 to 9.0. That year, a total of 180 hours were spent for training 430 employees, with no effective rebuke. Currently employees are trained when they arrive at their Units, and all along the year in small classes, as the general training has been definitely abolished. (author)