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Sample records for synthetic fabrics covered

  1. Water resistance and surface morphology of synthetic fabrics covered by polysiloxane/acrylate followed by electron beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    El-Naggar, A M; Mohammed, S S; Alam, E A

    2003-01-01

    Different synthetic fabrics were treated by electron beam surface coating with two formulations based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) oligomers. The water resistance properties were investigated in terms of the percentage of water repellency and absorption. Also, the surface coated fabrics were examined by scanning electron microscopy/microscope (SEM) connected to an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) unit to determine the percentage atomic contents of elements. The results showed that the adhesion of the polysiloxane formulation to the surface depends largely on the kind of acrylate oligomer and textile fabric as indicated by the EDX analysis for silicon. In this regard, PDMS/PS formulation is more compatible with polyester and nylon-6 fabrics than PDMS/PMMA one. However, it was found that PDMS/PMMA formulation is more compatible with cotton/polyester blend than PDMS/PS. The SEM micrographs give further supports to the EDX analysis. On the basis of the perce...

  2. Moessbauer Study of Discoloration of Synthetic Resin Covered Electric Switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmann, E.; Muzsay, I.; Homonnay, Z.; Vertes, A.

    2002-01-01

    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry were used to investigate brown discoloration and sediments formed on the surface of synthetic resin product covered electronic switches. The Moessbauer measurement revealed that alloyed steels and iron-containing corrosion products are associated with the discolored layers. Iron, and iron corrosion products were shown by both MS and XRD in the sediments formed eventually during the finishing of the synthetic resin products after machining and washing with water solution.

  3. Synthetic mullite fabrication from smectite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, L.N. de; Kiminami, R.H.G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The technological importance of mullite is mostly due to its refractory properties. Mullite in native form is very rare, and therefore it may be necessary to produced it by synthetic means. Brazil has a large reserve of smectite clays. In this work the process to produce synthetic mullite from these clays by treatment with aluminum sulphate was studied. X-ray analyses has shown the presence of mullite crystals in treated smectite clays of several colours, sinterized at 1100 0 C. By sintering at 1300 0 C, pure mullite was obtained in some colours. (author) [pt

  4. Natural and synthetic polymers in fabric and home care applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paderes, Monissa; Ahirwal, Deepak; Fernández Prieto, Susana

    2017-07-01

    Polymers can be tailored to provide different benefits in Fabric & Home Care formulations depending on the monomers and modifications used, such as avoiding dye transfer inhibition in the wash, modifying the surface of tiles or increasing the viscosity and providing suspension properties to consumer products. Specifically, the rheology modification properties of synthetic and natural polymers are discussed in this chapter. The choice of a polymeric rheology modifier will depend on the formulation ingredients (charges, functional groups), the type and the amount of surfactants, the pH and the desired rheology modification. Natural polymeric rheology modifiers have been traditionally used in the food industry, being xanthan gum one of the most well-known ones. On the contrary, synthetic rheology modifiers are preferably used in paints & coats, textile printing and cleaning products.

  5. Fabrication of Porous Materials from Natural/Synthetic Biopolymers and Their Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeni Gunathilake T.M. Sampath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers and their applications have been widely studied in recent years. Replacing the oil based polymer materials with biopolymers in a sustainable manner might give not only a competitive advantage but, in addition, they possess unique properties which cannot be emulated by conventional polymers. This review covers the fabrication of porous materials from natural biopolymers (cellulose, chitosan, collagen, synthetic biopolymers (poly(lactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid and their composite materials. Properties of biopolymers strongly depend on the polymer structure and are of great importance when fabricating the polymer into intended applications. Biopolymers find a large spectrum of application in the medical field. Other fields such as packaging, technical, environmental, agricultural and food are also gaining importance. The introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. There are many techniques used to fabricate porous polymers. Fabrication methods, including the basic and conventional techniques to the more recent ones, are reviewed. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the pore characteristics of biomaterials used for various applications. This review can aid in furthering our understanding of the fabrication methods and about controlling the porosity and microarchitecture of porous biopolymer materials.

  6. Fabrication of Porous Materials from Natural/Synthetic Biopolymers and Their Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Udeni Gunathilake T M; Ching, Yern Chee; Chuah, Cheng Hock; Sabariah, Johari J; Lin, Pai-Chen

    2016-12-07

    Biopolymers and their applications have been widely studied in recent years. Replacing the oil based polymer materials with biopolymers in a sustainable manner might give not only a competitive advantage but, in addition, they possess unique properties which cannot be emulated by conventional polymers. This review covers the fabrication of porous materials from natural biopolymers (cellulose, chitosan, collagen), synthetic biopolymers (poly(lactic acid), poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid)) and their composite materials. Properties of biopolymers strongly depend on the polymer structure and are of great importance when fabricating the polymer into intended applications. Biopolymers find a large spectrum of application in the medical field. Other fields such as packaging, technical, environmental, agricultural and food are also gaining importance. The introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. There are many techniques used to fabricate porous polymers. Fabrication methods, including the basic and conventional techniques to the more recent ones, are reviewed. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the pore characteristics of biomaterials used for various applications. This review can aid in furthering our understanding of the fabrication methods and about controlling the porosity and microarchitecture of porous biopolymer materials.

  7. Fabrication of synthetic diffractive elements using advanced matrix laser lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Škeren, M; Svoboda, J; Kveton, M; Fiala, P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a matrix laser writing device based on a demagnified projection of a micro-structure from a computer driven spatial light modulator. The device is capable of writing completely aperiodic micro-structures with resolution higher than 200 000 DPI. An optical system is combined with ultra high precision piezoelectric stages with an elementary step ∼ 4 nm. The device operates in a normal environment, which significantly decreases the costs compared to competitive technologies. Simultaneously, large areas can be exposed up to 100 cm2. The capabilities of the constructed device will be demonstrated on particular elements fabricated for real applications. The optical document security is the first interesting field, where the synthetic image holograms are often combined with sophisticated aperiodic micro-structures. The proposed technology can easily write simple micro-gratings creating the color and kinetic visual effects, but also the diffractive cryptograms, waveguide couplers, and other structures recently used in the field of optical security. A general beam shaping elements and special photonic micro-structures are another important applications which will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Fabrication of synthetic diffractive elements using advanced matrix laser lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škereň, M.; Svoboda, J.; Květoň, M.; Fiala, P.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we present a matrix laser writing device based on a demagnified projection of a micro-structure from a computer driven spatial light modulator. The device is capable of writing completely aperiodic micro-structures with resolution higher than 200 000 DPI. An optical system is combined with ultra high precision piezoelectric stages with an elementary step ~ 4 nm. The device operates in a normal environment, which significantly decreases the costs compared to competitive technologies. Simultaneously, large areas can be exposed up to 100 cm2. The capabilities of the constructed device will be demonstrated on particular elements fabricated for real applications. The optical document security is the first interesting field, where the synthetic image holograms are often combined with sophisticated aperiodic micro-structures. The proposed technology can easily write simple micro-gratings creating the color and kinetic visual effects, but also the diffractive cryptograms, waveguide couplers, and other structures recently used in the field of optical security. A general beam shaping elements and special photonic micro-structures are another important applications which will be discussed in this paper.

  9. Technical specification for fabrication of HANARO pool cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo; Woo, Sang Ik

    2001-06-01

    This technical specification details the requirements and the acceptance criteria for design, seismic analysis, function test, installation and quality assurance for HANARO pool cover which will be installed at the top of reactor pool. The pool cover is classified as non-nuclear safety, seismic category II and quality class T. The basic design of the pool cover for increasing HANARO applications has been carried out for supporting the driving devices which can load, unload and rotate the irradiation targets in the in-core and out-core vertical irradiation holes under on-power operation. The comments of HANARO user group related with irradiation tests have optimally considered in the process of design. The interference between fuel handling and control absorber units in the reactor pool and activities to load, unload and rotate the irradiation targets at the top of the reactor pool have been minimized. The pool cover can be moved for maintenance and can protect the reactor pool from unexpected drop of foreign materials. It provides the space to vertical access of driving devices for NTD, CT/IR and OR4/OR5 under on-power operation. And the pool cover assembly must maintain its structural integrity under seismic load. Based on the above design concept, the HANARO pool cover has been proposed as supporting structure of driving devices for NTD, fission moly and RI production under on-power operation.

  10. antimicrobial properties of some natural and synthetic fabrics modified by radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    natural and synthetic fabrics have been treated with different antimicrobial metal complexes under the effect of gamma radiation . in this regard, cotton, cotton/PET blend and PET were grafted with acrylic acid by gamma radiation and this grafted fabrics were complexed with Cu(ll),Ni(ll)and Co(ll) metal ions . the antimicrobial properties were evaluated by the measurement of tensile strength of fabrics after burring in a soil for one and two weeks as well as the effect of this treatment on the growth of certain bacteria and fungi incubated on a culture for 48 hours. the results showed that the highest protection to cotton, cotton/PET blend and PET fabrics by using Cu(ll) ion in the complexation process, where the order of protection by metals is Cu(ll) > Co(ll)> Ni(ll), moreover, the more grafted fabrics the more complexed fabrics with metal ions and is higher protection against microorganisms . the treatment with the metal ions has nearly no effect on the chemical and physical properties of the natural or the synthetic fabrics as indicated from the analysis by TGA, sem, ion exchange testing and wettability testing.

  11. Evaluation of microplastic release caused by textile washing processes of synthetic fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Francesca; Gullo, Maria Pia; Gentile, Gennaro; Di Pace, Emilia; Cocca, Mariacristina; Gelabert, Laura; Brouta-Agnésa, Marolda; Rovira, Angels; Escudero, Rosa; Villalba, Raquel; Mossotti, Raffaella; Montarsolo, Alessio; Gavignano, Sara; Tonin, Claudio; Avella, Maurizio

    2018-05-01

    A new and more alarming source of marine contamination has been recently identified in micro and nanosized plastic fragments. Microplastics are difficult to see with the naked eye and to biodegrade in marine environment, representing a problem since they can be ingested by plankton or other marine organisms, potentially entering the food web. An important source of microplastics appears to be through sewage contaminated by synthetic fibres from washing clothes. Since this phenomenon still lacks of a comprehensive analysis, the objective of this contribution was to investigate the role of washing processes of synthetic textiles on microplastic release. In particular, an analytical protocol was set up, based on the filtration of the washing water of synthetic fabrics and on the analysis of the filters by scanning electron microscopy. The quantification of the microfibre shedding from three different synthetic fabric types, woven polyester, knitted polyester, and woven polypropylene, during washing trials simulating domestic conditions, was achieved and statistically analysed. The highest release of microplastics was recorded for the wash of woven polyester and this phenomenon was correlated to the fabric characteristics. Moreover, the extent of microfibre release from woven polyester fabrics due to different detergents, washing parameters and industrial washes was evaluated. The number of microfibres released from a typical 5 kg wash load of polyester fabrics was estimated to be over 6,000,000 depending on the type of detergent used. The usage of a softener during washes reduces the number of microfibres released of more than 35%. The amount and size of the released microfibres confirm that they could not be totally retained by wastewater treatments plants, and potentially affect the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Superhydrophilicity of a nanofiber-covered aluminum surface fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2016-12-01

    A superhydrophilic aluminum surface covered by numerous alumina nanofibers was fabricated via pyrophosphoric acid anodizing. High-density anodic alumina nanofibers grow on the bottom of a honeycomb oxide via anodizing in concentrated pyrophosphoric acid. The water contact angle on the nanofiber-covered aluminum surface decreased with time after a 4 μL droplet was placed on the surface, and a superhydrophilic behavior with a contact angle measuring 2.2° was observed within 2 s; this contact angle is considerably lower than those observed for electropolished and porous alumina-covered aluminum surfaces. There was no dependence of the superhydrophilicity on the density of alumina nanofibers fabricated via different constant voltage anodizing conditions. The superhydrophilic property of the surface covered by anodic alumina nanofibers was maintained during an exposure test for 359 h. The quick-drying and snow-sliding behaviors of the superhydrophilic aluminum covered with anodic alumina nanofibers were demonstrated.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of mixed dye: Natural and synthetic organic dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richhariya, Geetam; Kumar, Anil

    2018-05-01

    Mixed dye from hibiscus sabdariffa and eosin Y was employed in the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Nanostructured mesoporous film was prepared from the titanium dioxide (TiO2). The energy conversion efficiency of hibiscus, eosin Y and mixed dye was obtained as 0.41%, 1.53% and 2.02% respectively. Mixed DSSC has shown improvement in the performance of the cell as compared to hibiscus and eosin Y dye due to addition of synthetic organic dye. This illustrates the effect of synthetic organic dyes in performance enhancement of natural dyes. It has been credited to the improved absorption of light mainly in higher energy state (λ = 440-560 nm) when two dyes were employed simultaneously as was obvious from the absorption spectra of dyes adsorbed onto TiO2 electrode. The cell with TiO2 electrode sensitized by mixed dye gives short circuit current density (Jsc) = 4.01 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) = 0.67 V, fill factor (FF) = 0.60 and energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.02%.

  14. Development of a hybrid scaffold with synthetic biomaterials and hydrogel using solid freeform fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Park, Min; Park, Jaesung; Cho, Dong-Woo; Kim, Jong Young

    2011-01-01

    Natural biomaterials such as hyaluronic acid, gelatin and collagen provide excellent environments for tissue regeneration. Furthermore, gel-state natural biomaterials are advantageous for encapsulating cells and growth factors. In cell printing technology, hydrogel which contains cells was printed directly to form three-dimensional (3D) structures for tissue or organ regeneration using various types of printers. However, maintaining the 3D shape of the printed structure, which is made only of the hydrogel, is very difficult due to its weak mechanical properties. In this study, we developed a hybrid scaffold consisting of synthetic biomaterials and natural hydrogel using a multi-head deposition system, which is useful in solid freeform fabrication technology. The hydrogel was intentionally infused into the space between the lines of a synthetic biomaterial-based scaffold. The cellular efficacy of the hybrid scaffold was validated using rat primary hepatocytes and a mouse pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell line. In addition, the collagen hydrogel, which encapsulates cells, was dispensed and the viability of the cells observed. We demonstrated superior effects of the hybrid scaffold on cell adhesion and proliferation and showed the high viability of dispensed cells.

  15. Inundation Mapping for Heterogeneous Land Covers with Synthetic Aperture Radar and Auxiliary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, F.; Judge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used to detect surface water inundation and provides an advantage over multi-spectral instruments due to cloud penetration and higher spatial resolutions. However, detecting inundation for densely vegetated and urban areas with SAR remains a challenge due to corner reflection and diffuse scattering. Additionally, flat urban surfaces such as roads exhibit similar backscatter coefficients as urban surface water. Differences between inundated and non-inundated backscatter over vegetated land covers of static spatial domains have been demonstrated in previous studies. However, these backscatter differences are sensitive to changes in water depth, soil moisture, SAR sensor parameters, terrain, and vegetation properties. These factors tend to make accurate inundation mapping of heterogeneous regions across varying spatial and temporal extents difficult with exclusive use of SAR. This study investigates the utility of auxiliary data specifically high-resolution (10m) terrain information in conjunction with SAR (10m) for detecting inundated areas. Digital elevation models provide an absolute elevation which could enhance inundation mapping given a limited study extent with similar topography. To counter this limitation, a hydrologically relevant terrain index is proposed known as the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) which normalizes topography to the local relative elevation of the nearest point along the relevant drainage line. HAND has been used for assisting remote sensing inundation mapping in the pre-processing stage as a terrain correction tool and as a post-processing mask that eliminates areas of low inundation risk. While the latter technique is useful for reduction of commission errors, it does not employ HAND for reducing omission errors that can occur from dense vegetation, spectral noise, and urban features. Sentinel-1 dual-pol SAR as well as auxiliary HAND will be used as predictors by various supervised and

  16. Fabrication of free-standing copper foils covered with highly-ordered copper nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Jaskuła, Marian

    2012-07-01

    The through-hole nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with relatively large surface area (ca. 2 cm2) were employed for fabrication of free-standing and mechanically stable copper foils covered with close-packed and highly-ordered copper nanowire arrays. The home-made AAO membranes with different pore diameters and interpore distances were fabricated via a two-step self-organized anodization of aluminum performed in sulfuric acid, oxalic acid and phosphoric acid followed by the pore opening/widening procedure. The direct current (DC) electrodeposition of copper was performed efficiently on both sides of AAO templates. The bottom side of the AAO templates was not insulated and consequently Cu nanowire arrays on thick Cu layers were obtained. The proposed template-assisted fabrication of free-standing copper nanowire array electrodes is a promising method for synthesis of nanostructured current collectors. The composition of Cu nanowires was confirmed by energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The structural features of nanowires were evaluated from field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images and compared with the characteristic parameters of anodic alumina membranes.

  17. Fabrication of free-standing copper foils covered with highly-ordered copper nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Jaskuła, Marian

    2012-01-01

    The through-hole nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with relatively large surface area (ca. 2 cm 2 ) were employed for fabrication of free-standing and mechanically stable copper foils covered with close-packed and highly-ordered copper nanowire arrays. The home-made AAO membranes with different pore diameters and interpore distances were fabricated via a two-step self-organized anodization of aluminum performed in sulfuric acid, oxalic acid and phosphoric acid followed by the pore opening/widening procedure. The direct current (DC) electrodeposition of copper was performed efficiently on both sides of AAO templates. The bottom side of the AAO templates was not insulated and consequently Cu nanowire arrays on thick Cu layers were obtained. The proposed template-assisted fabrication of free-standing copper nanowire array electrodes is a promising method for synthesis of nanostructured current collectors. The composition of Cu nanowires was confirmed by energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The structural features of nanowires were evaluated from field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images and compared with the characteristic parameters of anodic alumina membranes.

  18. Forest-cover-type separation using RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Kathleen T. Ward; Marvin E. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    RADARSAT-1 synthetic aperture radar data, speckle reduction, and texture measures provided for separation among forest types within the Twin Cities metropolitan area, MN, USA. The highest transformed divergence values for 16-bit data resulted from speckle filtering while the highest values for 8-bit data resulted from the orthorectified image, before and after...

  19. Fabrication and Performance of All-Solid-State Chloride Sensors in Synthetic Concrete Pore Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Deng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One type of all-solid-state chloride sensor was fabricated using a MnO2 electrode and a Ag/AgCl electrode. The potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride in synthetic concrete pore solutions was systematically studied, and the polarization performance was also evaluated. The results show a good linear relationship between the potential reading of the sensor and the logarithm of chloride activity (concentration ranges from 0.05 to 5.0 M, and the potential value remains stable with increasing immersion time. The existence of K+, Ca2+, Na+ and SO42− ions have little influence on the potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride, but the pH has a significant influence on the potential value of the sensor at low chloride concentration. The potential reading of the sensor increases linearly with the solution temperature over the range from 5 to 45 °C. Meanwhile, an excellent polarization behavior is proven by galvanostatic and potentiodynamic tests. All of the results reveal that the developed sensor has a great potential for monitoring chloride ions in concrete environments.

  20. Bioinspired fabrication and characterization of a synthetic fish skin for the protection of soft materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Natasha; Vera, Marc; Szewciw, Lawrence J; Barthelat, Francois; Stoykovich, Mark P; Vernerey, Franck J

    2015-03-18

    The scaled skin of fish is a high-performance natural armor that represents a source of inspiration for novel engineering designs. In this paper, we present a biomimetic fish skin material, fabricated with a design and components that are simple, that achieves many of the advantageous attributes of natural materials, including the unique combination of flexibility and mechanical robustness. The bioinspired fish skin material is designed to replicate the structural, mechanical, and functional aspects of a natural teleost fish skin comprised of leptoid-like scales, similar to that of the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus. The man-made fish skin material consists of a low-modulus elastic mesh or "dermis" layer that holds rigid, plastic scales. The mechanics of the synthetic material is characterized under in-plane, bending, and indentation modes of deformation and is successfully described by theoretical deformation models that have been developed. This combined experimental and modeling approach elucidates the critical mechanisms by which the composite material achieves its unique properties and provides design rules that allow for the engineering of scaled skins. Such artificial scaled skins that are flexible, lightweight, transparent, and robust under mechanical deformation may thus have potential as thin protective coatings for soft materials.

  1. Fabrication and performance of all-solid-state chloride sensors in synthetic concrete pore solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Yingzi; Deng, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    One type of all-solid-state chloride sensor was fabricated using a MnO(2) electrode and a Ag/AgCl electrode. The potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride in synthetic concrete pore solutions was systematically studied, and the polarization performance was also evaluated. The results show a good linear relationship between the potential reading of the sensor and the logarithm of chloride activity (concentration ranges from 0.05 to 5.0 M), and the potential value remains stable with increasing immersion time. The existence of K(+), Ca(2+), Na(+) and SO(4) (2-) ions have little influence on the potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride, but the pH has a significant influence on the potential value of the sensor at low chloride concentration. The potential reading of the sensor increases linearly with the solution temperature over the range from 5 to 45 °C. Meanwhile, an excellent polarization behavior is proven by galvanostatic and potentiodynamic tests. All of the results reveal that the developed sensor has a great potential for monitoring chloride ions in concrete environments.

  2. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  3. One-step fabrication of nanostructure-covered microstructures using selective aluminum anodization based on non-uniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Min; Kim, Byeong Hee; Seo, Young Ho

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a selective aluminum anodization technique for the fabrication of microstructures covered by nanoscale dome structures. It is possible to fabricate bulging microstructures, utilizing the different growth rates of anodic aluminum oxide in non-uniform electric fields, because the growth rate of anodic aluminum oxide depends on the intensity of electric field, or current density. After anodizing under a non-uniform electric field, bulging microstructures covered by nanostructures were fabricated by removing the residual aluminum layer. The non-uniform electric field induced by insulative micropatterns was estimated by computational simulations and verified experimentally. Utilizing computational simulations, the intensity profile of the electric field was calculated according to the ratio of height and width of the insulative micropatterns. To compare computational simulation results and experimental results, insulative micropatterns were fabricated using SU-8 photoresist. The results verified that the shape of the bottom topology of anodic alumina was strongly dependent on the intensity profile of the applied electric field, or current density. The one-step fabrication of nanostructure-covered microstructures can be applied to various fields, such as nano-biochip and nano-optics, owing to its simplicity and cost effectiveness.

  4. UV-protection of Natural and Synthetic Fabrics by Surface Treatment under the effect of Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, AW.M.; Zohdy, M.H.; Ali, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic and natural fabrics were surface coated with gamma radiation curable novel formulations. These formulations were based on naturally occurring Alum individually and in binary mixture with ZnO beside different functional oligomers and monomers. The physical properties of the treated fabrics were evaluated in terms of ultraviolet protection, moisture regain, and water absorption. Also, the effect of coating formulations on the crystallinity was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) showed that the formulation containing 30% of Alum caused a significant UPF values (50+) according to standard rating over untreated fabrics. When ZnO was incorporated in the formulation, the UPF factor was increased by two folds. A decrease in the moisture regain and water absorption of fabrics was featured with ZnO, however, in case of Alum a decrease followed by an increase was observed. In conclusion, these novel coats could be taken as an nontoxic alternative UV-resist finishing agents for fabrics

  5. Release of synthetic microplastic plastic fibres from domestic washing machines: Effects of fabric type and washing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napper, Imogen E; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-11-15

    Washing clothes made from synthetic materials has been identified as a potentially important source of microscopic fibres to the environment. This study examined the release of fibres from polyester, polyester-cotton blend and acrylic fabrics. These fabrics were laundered under various conditions of temperature, detergent and conditioner. Fibres from waste effluent were examined and the mass, abundance and fibre size compared between treatments. Average fibre size ranged between 11.9 and 17.7μm in diameter, and 5.0 and 7.8mm in length. Polyester-cotton fabric consistently shed significantly fewer fibres than either polyester or acrylic. However, fibre release varied according to wash treatment with various complex interactions. We estimate over 700,000 fibres could be released from an average 6kg wash load of acrylic fabric. As fibres have been reported in effluent from sewage treatment plants, our data indicates fibres released by washing of clothing could be an important source of microplastics to aquatic habitats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Welded-woven fabrics for use as synthetic, minimally invasive orthopaedic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodts, Timothy W.

    The treatment of osteoarthritis in healthcare today focuses on minimizing pain and retaining mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common disease and known to be associated with traumatic injuries, among other factors. An identified trend is that patients are younger and have expectations of life with the preservation of an active lifestyle. As a result, great strain is placed on the available offerings of healthcare professionals and device manufacturers alike. This results in numerous design challenges for managing pain and disease over an extended period of time. The available treatments are being extended into younger populations, which increasingly suffer traumatic knee injuries. However, these patients are not good candidates for total joint replacement. A common problem for young patients is localized cartilage damage. This can heal, but often results in a painful condition that requires intervention. A welded-woven three-dimensional polymer fabric was developed to mimic the properties of articular cartilage. A process for the laser welding reinforcement of the surface layers of three-dimensional fabrics was investigated. Confined compression creep and pin-on-disc wear studies were conducted to characterize the contribution of the surface welding reinforcement. All materials used in the studies have previously been used in orthopaedic devices or meet the requirements for United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) Class VI biocompatibility approval. The compressive behavior of three-dimensional fabrics was tailored by the inclusion of surface welds. The compressive properties of the welded-woven fabrics were shown to better approximate articular cartilage compressive properties than conventional woven materials. The wear performance was benchmarked against identical fabrics without welding reinforcement. The wear rates were significantly reduced and the lifespan of the fabrics was markedly improved due to surface welding. Welding reinforcement offers a

  7. Does Certification Change the Trajectory of Tree Cover in Working Forests in The Tropics? An Application of the Synthetic Control Method of Impact Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Rana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Certification by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC remains rare among forest management units (FMUs in natural tropical forests, presenting a challenge for impact evaluation. We demonstrate application of the synthetic control method (SCM to evaluate the impact of FSC certification on a single FMU in each of three tropical forest landscapes. Specifically, we estimate causal effects on tree cover change from the year of certification to 2012 using SCM and open-access, pan-tropical datasets. We demonstrate that it is possible to construct synthetic controls, or weighted combinations of non-certified FMUs, that followed the same path of tree cover change as the certified FMUs before certification. By using these synthetic controls to measure counterfactual tree cover change after certification, we find that certification reduced tree cover loss in the most recent year (2012 in all three landscapes. However, placebo tests show that in one case, this effect was not significant, and in another case, it followed several years in which certification had the opposite effect (increasing tree cover loss. We conclude that SCM has promise for identifying temporally varying impacts of small-N interventions on land use and land cover change.

  8. Smart DNA Fabrication Using Sound Waves: Applying Acoustic Dispensing Technologies to Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanigowska, Paulina; Shen, Yue; Zheng, Yijing; Rosser, Susan; Cai, Yizhi

    2016-02-01

    Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) technology uses focused acoustic energy to transfer nanoliter-scale liquid droplets with high precision and accuracy. This noncontact, tipless, low-volume dispensing technology minimizes the possibility of cross-contamination and potentially reduces the costs of reagents and consumables. To date, acoustic dispensers have mainly been used in screening libraries of compounds. In this paper, we describe the first application of this powerful technology to the rapidly developing field of synthetic biology, for DNA synthesis and assembly at the nanoliter scale using a Labcyte Echo 550 acoustic dispenser. We were able to successfully downscale PCRs and the popular one-pot DNA assembly methods, Golden Gate and Gibson assemblies, from the microliter to the nanoliter scale with high assembly efficiency, which effectively cut the reagent cost by 20- to 100-fold. We envision that acoustic dispensing will become an instrumental technology in synthetic biology, in particular in the era of DNA foundries. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of biodegradable and synthetic polymeric films: Effect of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akter, Nousin; Khan, Ruhul A.; Salmieri, Stephane; Sharmin, Nusrat; Dussault, Dominic; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan (1 wt%, in 2% aqueous acetic acid solution) and starch (1 wt%, in deionised water) were dissolved and mixed in different proportions (20–80 wt% chitosan) then films were prepared by casting. Tensile strength and elongation at break of the 50% chitosan containing starch-based films were found to be 47 MPa and 16%, respectively. It was revealed that with the increase of chitosan in starch, the values of TS improved significantly. Monomer, 2-butane diol-diacrylate (BDDA) was added into the film forming solutions (50% starch-based), then casted films. The BDDA containing films were irradiated under gamma radiation (5–25 kGy) and it was found that strength of the films improved significantly. On the other hand, synthetic petroleum-based polymeric films (polycaprolactone, polyethylene and polypropylene) were prepared by compression moulding. Mechanical and barrier properties of the films were evaluated. The gamma irradiated (25 kGy) films showed higher strength and better barrier properties. - Highlights: ► Chitosan and starch-based biodegradable films were prepared by casting. ► With the increase of chitosan in starch, the strength of the films improved significantly. ► Monomer, 2-Butane diol-diacrylate was grafted with the films by gamma radiation. ► Mechanical properties of synthetic polymeric films improved by gamma radiation. ► The irradiated polymer films showed better water vapor barrier properties.

  10. Polyester non-woven fabric finger cover as a TRUCT Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Kouki; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2007-11-01

    Transparent resinous ultraviolet-curing type (TRUCT) Braille signs are becoming more and more popular in Japan, especially when they are printed together with visual characters. These signs are made by screen printing, a technique that can be applied to various base materials, such as paper, metal, and plastic. TRUCT Braille signs have begun to be used in public facilities, such as on tactile maps and on handrails. Naturally, it is expected that Braille beginners will utilize these signs. However, it has been pointed out that the friction between the forefinger and the base material may affect reading accuracy and speed. In this study, we developed a finger cover made of soft, thin polyester non-woven fabric to reduce friction during Braille reading. We also carried out a study to investigate the effect of its use. The subjects were 12 Braille learners with acquired visual impairment, who were asked to read randomly selected characters with and without the finger cover. The results showed that most participants could read TRUCT Braille significantly faster and more accurately with a finger cover than without it, regardless of the base material and dot height. This result suggests that wearing the finger cover enables Braille learners to read TRUCT Braille more efficiently. The finger cover can be used as a Braille reading assistance tool for Braille learners. An additional, health-related advantage of the finger cover is that the forefinger remains clean. We expect that the finger cover will be in practical use in Japan within 1 or 2 years.

  11. Fabrication of a micro-hole array on metal foil by nanosecond pulsed laser beam machining using a cover plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Se Won; Jee, Won Young; Chu, Chong Nam; Kim, Janggil

    2015-01-01

    A novel laser beam machining (LBM) method is proposed to achieve higher precision and better quality beyond the limits of a commercialized nanosecond pulsed laser system. The use of a cover plate is found to be effective for the precision machining of a thin metal foil at micro scale. For verifying the capability of cover plate laser beam machining (c-LBM) technology, a 30 by 30 array of micro-holes was fabricated on 8 µm-thick stainless steel 304 (STS) foil. As a result, thermal deformation and cracks were significantly reduced in comparison with the results using LBM without a cover plate. The standard deviation of the inscribed and circumscribed circle of the holes with a diameter of 12 µm was reduced to 33% and 81%, respectively and the average roundness improved by 77%. Moreover, the smallest diameter obtainable by c-LBM in the given equipment was found to be 6.9 µm, which was 60% less than the minimum size hole by LBM without a cover plate. (technical note)

  12. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of biodegradable and synthetic polymeric films: Effect of gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Nousin; Khan, Ruhul A.; Salmieri, Stephane; Sharmin, Nusrat; Dussault, Dominic; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    Chitosan (1 wt%, in 2% aqueous acetic acid solution) and starch (1 wt%, in deionised water) were dissolved and mixed in different proportions (20-80 wt% chitosan) then films were prepared by casting. Tensile strength and elongation at break of the 50% chitosan containing starch-based films were found to be 47 MPa and 16%, respectively. It was revealed that with the increase of chitosan in starch, the values of TS improved significantly. Monomer, 2-butane diol-diacrylate (BDDA) was added into the film forming solutions (50% starch-based), then casted films. The BDDA containing films were irradiated under gamma radiation (5-25 kGy) and it was found that strength of the films improved significantly. On the other hand, synthetic petroleum-based polymeric films (polycaprolactone, polyethylene and polypropylene) were prepared by compression moulding. Mechanical and barrier properties of the films were evaluated. The gamma irradiated (25 kGy) films showed higher strength and better barrier properties.

  13. Land cover classification accuracy from electro-optical, X, C, and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammann, Mark Gregory

    The fusion of electro-optical (EO) multi-spectral satellite imagery with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data was explored with the working hypothesis that the addition of multi-band SAR will increase the land-cover (LC) classification accuracy compared to EO alone. Three satellite sources for SAR imagery were used: X-band from TerraSAR-X, C-band from RADARSAT-2, and L-band from PALSAR. Images from the RapidEye satellites were the source of the EO imagery. Imagery from the GeoEye-1 and WorldView-2 satellites aided the selection of ground truth. Three study areas were chosen: Wad Medani, Sudan; Campinas, Brazil; and Fresno- Kings Counties, USA. EO imagery were radiometrically calibrated, atmospherically compensated, orthorectifed, co-registered, and clipped to a common area of interest (AOI). SAR imagery were radiometrically calibrated, and geometrically corrected for terrain and incidence angle by converting to ground range and Sigma Naught (?0). The original SAR HH data were included in the fused image stack after despeckling with a 3x3 Enhanced Lee filter. The variance and Gray-Level-Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture measures of contrast, entropy, and correlation were derived from the non-despeckled SAR HH bands. Data fusion was done with layer stacking and all data were resampled to a common spatial resolution. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) decision rule was used for the supervised classifications. Similar LC classes were identified and tested for each study area. For Wad Medani, nine classes were tested: low and medium intensity urban, sparse forest, water, barren ground, and four agriculture classes (fallow, bare agricultural ground, green crops, and orchards). For Campinas, Brazil, five generic classes were tested: urban, agriculture, forest, water, and barren ground. For the Fresno-Kings Counties location 11 classes were studied: three generic classes (urban, water, barren land), and eight specific crops. In all cases the addition of SAR to EO resulted

  14. Fabrication of a novel aluminum surface covered by numerous high-aspect-ratio anodic alumina nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2015-11-01

    The formation behavior of anodic alumina nanofibers via anodizing in a concentrated pyrophosphoric acid under various conditions was investigated using electrochemical measurements and SEM/TEM observations. Pyrophosphoric acid anodizing at 293 K resulted in the formation of numerous anodic alumina nanofibers on an aluminum substrate through a thin barrier oxide and honeycomb oxide with narrow walls. However, long-term anodizing led to the chemical dissolution of the alumina nanofibers. The density of the anodic alumina nanofibers decreased as the applied voltage increased in the 10-75 V range. However, active electrochemical dissolution of the aluminum substrate occurred at a higher voltage of 90 V. Low temperature anodizing at 273 K resulted in the formation of long alumina nanofibers measuring several micrometers in length, even though a long processing time was required due to the low current density during the low temperature anodizing. In contrast, high temperature anodizing easily resulted in the formation and chemical dissolution of alumina nanofibers. The structural nanofeatures of the anodic alumina nanofibers were controlled by choosing of the appropriate electrochemical conditions, and numerous high-aspect-ratio alumina nanofibers (>100) can be successfully fabricated. The anodic alumina nanofibers consisted of a pure amorphous aluminum oxide without anions from the employed electrolyte.

  15. Length-scales of Slab-induced Asthenospheric Deformation from Geodynamic Modeling, Mantle Deformation Fabric, and Synthetic Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadamec, M. A.; MacDougall, J.; Fischer, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    The viscosity structure of the Earth's interior is critically important, because it places a first order constraint on plate motion and mantle flow rates. Geodynamic models using a composite viscosity based on experimentally derived flow laws for olivine aggregates show that lateral viscosity variations emerge in the upper mantle due to the subduction dynamics. However, the length-scale of this transition is still not well understood. Two-dimensional numerical models of subduction are presented that investigate the effect of initial slab dip, maximum yield stress (slab strength), and viscosity formulation (Newtonian versus composite) on the emergent lateral viscosity variations in the upper-mantle and magnitude of slab-driven mantle flow velocity. Significant viscosity reductions occur in regions of large flow velocity gradients due to the weakening effect of the dislocation creep deformation mechanism. The dynamic reductions in asthenospheric viscosity (less than 1018 Pa s) occur within approximately 500 km from driving force of the slab, with peak flow velocities occurring in models with a lower yield stress (weaker slab) and higher stress exponent. This leads to a sharper definition of the rheological base of the lithosphere and implies lateral variability in tractions along the base of the lithosphere. As the dislocation creep mechanism also leads to mantle deformation fabric, we then examine the spatial variation in the LPO development in the asthenosphere and calculate synthetic shear wave splitting. The models show that olivine LPO fabric in the asthenosphere generally increases in alignment strength with increased proximity to the slab, but can be transient and spatially variable on small length scales. The vertical flow fields surrounding the slab tip can produce shear-wave splitting variations with back-azimuth that deviate from the predictions of uniform trench-normal anisotropy, a result that bears on the interpretation of complexity in shear

  16. BioWires: Conductive DNA Nanowires in a Computationally-Optimized, Synthetic Biological Platform for Nanoelectronic Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchioni, Simon; Toomey, Emily; Capece, Mark C.; Rothschild, Lynn; Wind, Shalom

    2017-01-01

    DNA is an ideal template for a biological nanowire-it has a linear structure several atoms thick; it possesses addressable nucleobase geometry that can be precisely defined; and it is massively scalable into branched networks. Until now, the drawback of DNA as a conducting nanowire been, simply put, its low conductance. To address this deficiency, we extensively characterize a chemical variant of canonical DNA that exploits the affinity of natural cytosine bases for silver ions. We successfully construct chains of single silver ions inside double-stranded DNA, confirm the basic dC-Ag+-dC bond geometry and kinetics, and show length-tunability dependent on mismatch distribution, ion availability and enzyme activity. An analysis of the absorbance spectra of natural DNA and silver-binding, poly-cytosine DNA demonstrates the heightened thermostability of the ion chain and its resistance to aqueous stresses such as precipitation, dialysis and forced reduction. These chemically critical traits lend themselves to an increase in electrical conductivity of over an order of magnitude for 11-base silver-paired duplexes over natural strands when assayed by STM break junction. We further construct and implement a genetic pathway in the E. coli bacterium for the biosynthesis of highly ionizable DNA sequences. Toward future circuits, we construct a model of transcription network architectures to determine the most efficient and robust connectivity for cell-based fabrication, and we perform sequence optimization with a genetic algorithm to identify oligonucleotides robust to changes in the base-pairing energy landscape. We propose that this system will serve as a synthetic biological fabrication platform for more complex DNA nanotechnology and nanoelectronics with applications to deep space and low resource environments.

  17. Antibody response to a synthetic peptide covering a LAV-1/HTLV-IIIB neutralization epitope and disease progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boucher, C. A.; de Wolf, F.; Houweling, J. T.; Bakker, M.; Dekker, J.; Roos, M. T.; Coutinho, R. A.; van der Noordaa, J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1989-01-01

    Sequential sera of homosexual men participating in a prospective study on the incidence of HIV-1 infection and risk factors for AIDS were tested for the presence of antibodies to a synthetic 17-mer (Neu21; KSIRIQRGPGRAFVTIG) representing a neutralization epitope as present on the LAV-1/HTLV-IIIB

  18. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  19. Utility of Covered Stents for Revision of Aging Failing Synthetic Hemodialysis Grafts: A Report of Three Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silas, Anne M.; Bettmann, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Three aging failing hemodialysis polytetrafluoroethylene bypass shunts, average age 44 months, previously percutaneously revised with balloon angioplasty, presented with pseudoaneurysms and recurrent thrombosis. All were treated with percutaneous covered stent placement within their affected limbs. One graft was ligated 1 month after treatment for infected overlying skin ulcer, though this graft was subsequently surgically revised with interposition graft and the covered stent portion remains functional at 19 month follow-up. The 18- and 13- month follow- up of the remaining 2 patients shows that the covered stents remained patent and they are functional and being successfully and routinely punctured for dialysis. In this elderly population, the use of covered stents may prolong the functional life of failing hemodialysis bypass grafts, reducing the number of percutaneous and surgical interventions and further sparing other vascular access sites

  20. Note related to the examination of fitness to service of the vessel bottom and cover of the Flamanville EPR reactor. Pedagogical sheet: Analysis of consequences of the fabrication anomaly of the Flamanville EPR reactor vessel bottom and cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    After having recalled the context related to the discovery of a fabrication anomaly in the chemical composition of the steel used in the central part of the vessel cover and bottom of the Flamanville EPR reactor, this report presents the approach proposed and adopted by Areva for the justification of the mechanical strength of the vessel cover and bottom. It indicates the main conclusions of the IRSN and ASN on various issues addressed by the audit performed by AREVA: fabrication controls, material characterisation, thermal-mechanical loadings, mechanical analysis of a risk of sudden failure. The next part proposes a pedagogical sheet of consequences of a fabrication anomaly: presentation of vessel structure and specificities, report of the discovery of this anomaly and main consequence (steel embrittlement), expertise approach, expertise conclusions (control of the absence of any deleterious defect, characterisation of material mechanical properties, assessment of thermal-mechanical loadings, assessment of a risk of sudden failure, and in-service follow-up)

  1. Retrieval of the ocean wave spectrum in open and thin ice covered ocean waters from ERS Synthetic Aperture Radar images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Carolis, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper concerns with the task of retrieving ocean wave spectra form imagery provided by space-borne SAR systems such as that on board ERS satellite. SAR imagery of surface wave fields travelling into open ocean and into thin sea ice covers composed of frazil and pancake icefields is considered. The major purpose is to gain insight on how the spectral changes can be related to sea ice properties of geophysical interest such as the thickness. Starting from SAR image cross spectra computed from Single Look Complex (SLC) SAR images, the ocean wave spectrum is retrieved using an inversion procedure based on the gradient descent algorithm. The capability of this method when applied to satellite SAR sensors is investigated. Interest in the SAR image cross spectrum exploitation is twofold: first, the directional properties of the ocean wave spectra are retained; second, external wave information needed to initialize the inversion procedure may be greatly reduced using only information included in the SAR image cross spectrum itself. The main drawback is that the wind waves spectrum could be partly lost and its spectral peak wave number underestimated. An ERS-SAR SLC image acquired on April 10, 1993 over the Greenland Sea was selected as test image. A pair of windows that include open-sea only and sea ice cover, respectively, were selected. The inversions were carried out using different guess wave spectra taken from SAR image cross spectra. Moreover, care was taken to properly handle negative values eventually occurring during the inversion runs. This results in a modification of the gradient descending the technique that is required if a non-negative solution of the wave spectrum is searched for. Results are discussed in view of the possibility of SAR data to detect ocean wave dispersion as a means for the retrieval of ice thickness

  2. Metal Nanoparticles Covered with a Metal-Organic Framework: From One-Pot Synthetic Methods to Synergistic Energy Storage and Conversion Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Mitsuka, Yuko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid materials composed of metal nanoparticles and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted much attention in many applications, such as enhanced gas storage and catalytic, magnetic, and optical properties, because of the synergetic effects between the metal nanoparticles and MOFs. In this Forum Article, we describe our recent progress on novel synthetic methods to produce metal nanoparticles covered with a MOF (metal@MOF). We first present Pd@copper(II) 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (HKUST-1) as a novel hydrogen-storage material. The HKUST-1 coating on Pd nanocrystals results in a remarkably enhanced hydrogen-storage capacity and speed in the Pd nanocrystals, originating from charge transfer from Pd nanocrystals to HKUST-1. Another material, Pd-Au@Zn(MeIM)2 (ZIF-8, where HMeIM = 2-methylimidazole), exhibits much different catalytic activity for alcohol oxidation compared with Pd-Au nanoparticles, indicating a design guideline for the development of composite catalysts with high selectivity. A composite material composed of Cu nanoparticles and Cr3F(H2O)2O{C6H3(CO2)3}2 (MIL-100-Cr) demonstrates higher catalytic activity for CO2 reduction into methanol than Cu/γ-Al2O3. We also present novel one-pot synthetic methods to produce composite materials including Pd/ZIF-8 and Ni@Ni2(dhtp) (MOF-74, where H4dhtp = 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid).

  3. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. Iron sulfide scales formation on surfaces covered by fabrication produced films. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, A.L.

    1986-04-01

    This work describes the assays aimed to passivate the steel carbon of the process pipings. This steel is marked by the ASTM A 333 G6 and is chemically similar to those of isotopic exchange towers which corrode in contact with in-water hydrogen sulfide solutions forming iron sulfide protective layers. The differences between both materials lie in the surface characteristics to be passivated. The steel of towers has an internal side covered by paint which shall be removed prior to passivation. The steel's internal side shall be covered by a film formed during the fabrication process and constituted by calcinated wastes and iron oxides (magnetite, hematite and wustite). This film interferes in the formation process of passivating layers of pyrrhotite and pyrite. The possibility to passivate the pipes in their actual state was evaluated since it would result highly laborious and expensive to eliminate the film. (Author) [es

  4. Performance and effects of land cover type on synthetic surface reflectance data and NDVI estimates for assessment and monitoring of semi-arid rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Lawrence, Rick L

    2014-01-01

    Federal land management agencies provide stewardship over much of the rangelands in the arid andsemi-arid western United States, but they often lack data of the proper spatiotemporal resolution andextent needed to assess range conditions and monitor trends. Recent advances in the blending of com-plementary, remotely sensed data could provide public lands managers with the needed information.We applied the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) to five Landsat TMand concurrent Terra MODIS scenes, and used pixel-based regression and difference image analyses toevaluate the quality of synthetic reflectance and NDVI products associated with semi-arid rangeland. Pre-dicted red reflectance data consistently demonstrated higher accuracy, less bias, and stronger correlationwith observed data than did analogous near-infrared (NIR) data. The accuracy of both bands tended todecline as the lag between base and prediction dates increased; however, mean absolute errors (MAE)were typically ≤10%. The quality of area-wide NDVI estimates was less consistent than either spectra lband, although the MAE of estimates predicted using early season base pairs were ≤10% throughout the growing season. Correlation between known and predicted NDVI values and agreement with the 1:1regression line tended to decline as the prediction lag increased. Further analyses of NDVI predictions,based on a 22 June base pair and stratified by land cover/land use (LCLU), revealed accurate estimates through the growing season; however, inter-class performance varied. This work demonstrates the successful application of the STARFM algorithm to semi-arid rangeland; however, we encourage evaluation of STARFM’s performance on a per product basis, stratified by LCLU, with attention given to the influence of base pair selection and the impact of the time lag.

  5. Shielding Efficiency of a Fabric Based on Amorphous Glass-Covered Magnetic Microwires to Radiation Emitted by a Mobile Phone in 2G and 3G Communication Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miclăuş Simona

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A dual band mobile phone model was used to check the shielding properties of an amorphous ferromagnetic textile against the radiation emitted by the handset. Two frequencies belonging to the 2nd and 3rd generation of mobile emission technologies were used, 897 MHz and 1950 MHz. The specific absorption rate (SAR of energy deposition in a human head phantom was measured in standardized conditions. The textile contained micrometric-diameter wires of a ferromagnetic mixture embedded in a thin glass coat and weaved in a specific way. A set of fabric orientations and configurations (layering were provided in the experiment in order to achieve a better shielding to the phone’s radiation. Compared with the non-shielded handset, SAR deposited in the head while using the fabric-covered phone could be decreased up to 30 % of its initial value – in case of 2G technology and up to 24 % – in case of 3G technology. This type of material shows one of the highest shielding efficiencies of the electric-field component in near-field exposure conditions reported until now. A cubic curve of SAR decrease in depth of the head was revealed in both uncovered and covered handset, the effect of shielding being larger at the higher frequency.

  6. The assessment of data mining algorithms for modelling Savannah woody cover using multi-frequency (X-, C- and L-band) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) datasets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The woody component in African Savannahs provides essential ecosystem services such as fuel wood and construction timber to large populations of rural communities. Woody canopy cover (i.e. the percentage area occupied by woody canopy or CC) is a key...

  7. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  8. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  9. S-Layer Based Bio-Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0161 S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers Dietmar Pum ZENTRUM FUER NANOBIOTECHNOLOGIE Final Report 07/09...COVERED (From - To)      01-06-2012 to 31-05-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT...technology for the fabrication of nano patterned thin film imprints by using functional S-layer protein arrays as templates. The unique feature of

  10. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  11. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  12. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  13. Performance of non woven synthetic fabric and disc filters for fertirrigation water treatment Desempenho dos filtros de mantas não tecidas e de disco no tratamento de água para fertirrigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Assunção Pires Ribeiro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Obstruction of emitters caused by the presence of solid particles in the water raises the cost and maintenance of trickle irrigation systems, and might compromise their utilization. This research was performed through test fields, with the objective of evaluating the performance of a disc filter (130 microns and a non woven synthetic fabric filter on the removal of physical, chemical and biological impurities from the irrigation water, which may cause emitter obstruction during fertirrigation processes. The evaluation criteria of the impurities present in the irrigation water, were based on studies performed on trickle irrigation systems. Specifically, physical, chemical and biological parameters analyzed in the inflow and outflow water from both filters were: pH, turbidity, total suspended solids, salinity, total iron, sulphites, manganese, algae and bacteria. Results pointed to chemical factors, which presented medium clogging risks to the emitters; those factors were: pH, total iron and sulphite concentration. All the other parameters of water quality did not present clogging risks. A comparative analysis of head loss evolution, according to the filtered volume, was also atempted Non woven synthetic fabric filter presented a higher evolution when compared to the disc filter.Um dos fatores que elevam os custos de operação e manutenção dos sistemas de irrigação localizada e, em certos casos, inviabiliza a utilização desse método, é a obstrução de emissores pela presença de partículas sólidas na água de irrigação. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo principal estimar, através de ensaios experimentais de campo, o desempenho de um filtro de disco (130 microns com outro de manta sintética não tecida na remoção de impurezas de origens físicas, químicas e biológicas presentes na água de irrigação que promovem o entupimento dos emissores, quando se utiliza a fertirrigação. Os critérios para avaliação das impurezas

  14. Paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies of Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the Central Western Carpathians: new insights into paleogeographic setting and tectonic evolution of the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniawski, R.; Jankowski, L.; Ludwiniak, M.; Mazzoli, S.; Szczygieł, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Carpathian Mountains were formed through progressive collision and amalgamation of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform. The Central Western Carpathians (CWC) tectonic unit analyzed in this study constitutes a fragment of the Alcapa microplate - research in this area is therefore of great importance in the context of the geotectonic evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Our paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies were focused on Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement. We present new results from three mountain massifs: Low Tatra, Velka Fatra and Strazovske Vrchy, comparing them with our earlier works performed in the Tatra Mts. Rockmagnetic studies reveal similar results in all four studied regions - the dominant ferromagnetic carrier in red sandstones is hematite, while the magnetic fabric is mostly controlled by paramagnetic minerals. AMS results outline a bedding parallel foliation and a tectonic lineation. This lineation lies in the bedding plane but is somewhat oblique to the present horizontal plane. The fact that the lineation is not exactly parallel to the strike of the beds is most likely due to multistage deformation: the lineation is related to bedding parallel shortening associated with the folding and thrusting stage, while present-day bedding attitude results at least partially from rotations associated with subsequent uplift and/or faulting. Paleomagnetic analysis indicate that hematite carrier records characteristic remanent component of high unblocking temperatures (680°C) and both normal (dominant) and reversed polarity. Paleomagnetic inclinations are similar to those expected from reference paleomagnetic data from the European Platform. Declination values are rather similar in all four studied areas and imply moderate counterclockwise rotations of the CWC. These results are incompatible with some of the previous paleomagnetic studies of younger rocks from the CWC

  15. Fabricated Elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Giselle C; Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Behnaz; Brackenreg, Edwin P; Hiob, Matti A; Lee, Pearl; Weiss, Anthony S

    2015-11-18

    The mechanical stability, elasticity, inherent bioactivity, and self-assembly properties of elastin make it a highly attractive candidate for the fabrication of versatile biomaterials. The ability to engineer specific peptide sequences derived from elastin allows the precise control of these physicochemical and organizational characteristics, and further broadens the diversity of elastin-based applications. Elastin and elastin-like peptides can also be modified or blended with other natural or synthetic moieties, including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, and polymers, to augment existing capabilities or confer additional architectural and biofunctional features to compositionally pure materials. Elastin and elastin-based composites have been subjected to diverse fabrication processes, including heating, electrospinning, wet spinning, solvent casting, freeze-drying, and cross-linking, for the manufacture of particles, fibers, gels, tubes, sheets and films. The resulting materials can be tailored to possess specific strength, elasticity, morphology, topography, porosity, wettability, surface charge, and bioactivity. This extraordinary tunability of elastin-based constructs enables their use in a range of biomedical and tissue engineering applications such as targeted drug delivery, cell encapsulation, vascular repair, nerve regeneration, wound healing, and dermal, cartilage, bone, and dental replacement. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  17. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  18. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  19. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  20. Synthetic Biology and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task. PMID:22907209

  1. Synthetic biology: Emerging bioengineering in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandono, Sony

    2017-05-01

    The development of synthetic biology will shape the new era of science and technology. It is an emerging bioengineering technique involving genetic engineering which can alter the phenotype and behavior of the cell or the new product. Synthetic biology may produce biomaterials, drugs, vaccines, biosensors, and even a recombinant secondary metabolite used in herbal and complementary medicine, such as artemisinin, a malaria drug which is usually extracted from the plant Artemisia annua. The power of synthetic biology has encouraged scientists in Indonesia, and is still in early development. This paper also covers some research from an Indonesian research institute in synthetic biology such as observing the production of bio surfactants and the enhanced production of artemisinin using a transient expression system. Synthetic biology development in Indonesia may also be related to the iGEM competition, a large synthetic biology research competition which was attended by several universities in Indonesia. The application of synthetic biology for drug discovery will be discussed.

  2. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  3. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  4. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  5. Transionospheric synthetic aperture imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gilman, Mikhail; Tsynkov, Semyon

    2017-01-01

    This landmark monograph presents the most recent mathematical developments in the analysis of ionospheric distortions of SAR images and offers innovative new strategies for their mitigation. As a prerequisite to addressing these topics, the book also discusses the radar ambiguity theory as it applies to synthetic aperture imaging and the propagation of radio waves through the ionospheric plasma, including the anisotropic and turbulent cases. In addition, it covers a host of related subjects, such as the mathematical modeling of extended radar targets (as opposed to point-wise targets) and the scattering of radio waves off those targets, as well as the theoretical analysis of the start-stop approximation, which is used routinely in SAR signal processing but often without proper justification. The mathematics in this volume is clean and rigorous – no assumptions are hidden or ambiguously stated. The resulting work is truly interdisciplinary, providing both a comprehensive and thorough exposition of the field,...

  6. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  7. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  8. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Le Feuvre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials, where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal. Keywords: Synthetic biology, Materials, Biological materials, Biomaterials, Advanced materials

  9. Calculating the vulnerability of synthetic polymers to autoignition during nuclear flash. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.; Reitter, T.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the rapid progression of fire to flashover conditions in a furnished room, observed in a 1953 nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site (the Encore Event), might be typical behavior rather than an aberration. If flashover under such conditions is indeed likely, this phenomenon is worth pursuing in view of the increased threat to buildings and human life from possible large-scale fires. We placed special emphasis on fires that occurred in modern rooms, i.e., ones furnished with upholstery and drapery materials made from synthetic polymers. Examination of photochemical processes showed them to be an unlikely explanation, either in Encore or in the future. Our calculation of rapid radiant-heating behavior of a few materials demonstrated that fabrics and fabric-covered foams would exceed their autoignition temperature when exposed to a 25-cal/cm 2 fluence from a 1-Mt air burst weapon. Because synthetic polymers have higher heating values and release heat faster during combustion than do the cellulosics used in the Encore experiment, early flashover should not be unexpected in contemporary households. However, the far-field thermal fluence required would be higher because of the absorption of thermal energy by windows and window coverings. Because of the complexity of the problem, carefully planned, full-scale experiments will be needed to finally answer the question. 39 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Feuvre, Rosalind A; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2018-06-01

    Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials , where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal.

  12. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  14. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  15. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  16. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  17. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Berry, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250 degrees C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure

  19. The effect of dose enhancement near metal interfaces on synthetic diamond based X-ray dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, D.; Lohstroh, A.; Albarakaty, H.

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of dose enhancement on the photocurrent performance at metallic interfaces in synthetic diamond detectors based X-ray dosimeters as a function of bias voltages. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the BEAMnrc code were carried out to simulate the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and compared against the equivalent photocurrent ratio from experimental investigations. The MC simulation results show that the sensitive region for the absorbed dose distribution covers a few micrometers distances from the interface. Experimentally, two single crystals (SC) and one polycrystalline (PC) synthetic diamond samples were fabricated into detectors with carbon based electrodes by boron and carbon ion implantation. Subsequently; the samples were each mounted inside a tissue equivalent encapsulation to minimize unintended fluence perturbation. Dose enhancement was generated by placing copper, lead or gold near the active volume of the detectors using 50 kVp and 100 kVp X-rays relevant for medical dosimetry. The results show enhancement in the detectors' photocurrent performance when different metals are butted up to the diamond bulk as expected. The variation in the photocurrent measurement depends on the type of diamond samples, their electrodes' fabrication and the applied bias voltages indicating that the dose enhancement near the detector may modify their electronic performance.

  20. 16 CFR 501.5 - Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.5 Paper table covers, bedsheets, pillowcases. Table covers, bedsheets, and pillowcases, fabricated from paper, are exempt from the requirements of § 500.12 of this...

  1. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  2. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  3. Fabrication and application of advanced functional materials from lignincellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sixiao

    This dissertation explored the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into advanced functional materials and their potential applications. Lignocellulosic biomass represents an as-of-yet underutilized renewable source for not only biofuel production but also functional materials fabrication. This renewable source is a great alternative for fossil fuel based chemicals, which could be one of the solutions to energy crisis. In this work, it was demonstrated a variety of advanced materials including functional carbons, metal and silica nanoparticles could be derived from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 1 provided overall reviewed of the lignin structures, productions and its utilizations as plastics, absorbents and carbons, as well as the preparation of nano-structured silver, silica and silicon carbide/nitride from biomass. Chapter 2, 3 and 4 discussed the fabrication of highly porous carbons from isolated lignin, and their applications as electric supercapacitors for energy storage. In chapter 2, ultrafine porous carbon fibers were prepared via electrospinning followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. Chapter 3 covered the fabrication of supercapacitor based on the porous carbon fibers and the investigation of their electrochemical performances. In chapter 4, porous carbon particulates with layered carbon nano plates structures were produced by simple oven-drying followed by simultaneous carbonization and activation. The effects of heat processing parameters on the resulting carbon structures and their electrochemical properties were discussed in details. Chapter 5 and 6 addressed the preparation of silver nanoparticles using lignin. Chapter 5 reported the synthesis, underlying kinetics and mechanism of monodispersed silver nanospheres with diameter less than 25 nm in aqueous solutions using lignin as dual reducing and capping agents. Chapter 6 covered the preparation of silver nanoparticles on electrospun celluloses ultrafine fibers using lignin as both

  4. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  5. Technical Assessment: Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pfizer, Bausch & Lomb, Coca - Cola , and other Fortune 500 companies 8 Data estimated by the... financial prize for ideas to drive forward the production of a sensor relying on synthetic organisms that can detect exposure to 500 specific chemicals

  6. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  7. Influence of Clothing Fabrics on Skin Microcirculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ling; PAN Ning; ZHAO Lian-ying; HUAUNG Gu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of clothing fabric on human skin microcirculation. Once skin is covered with a clothing fabric, human sensations, namely, coolness, warmth, softness, and roughness, are amused immediately, and the cutaneous micrecireulation may be changed consequently. Since the complex relationships of the human skin, the environment, and the clothing, there is few publication focusing on the physiological responses of the skin to the fabrics. In this paper, a Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) was used to test the dynamic responses of the skin blood flow when the fabric was placed on the skin. Effects of different fabrics on the skin blood flux were investigated. The results show that cold stimulation of fabric has remarkable influences on the skin blood flux, and the surface properties of fabric are of importance to affect the human skin blood flow.

  8. Generation of Synthetic Turbulence in Arbitrary Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Sørensen, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A new method for generating synthetic turbulence is presented. The method is intended for generating a turbulent velocity field with a fine spatial resolution but only covering a small moving part of the rotor area of a wind turbine. For this application the Mann and Sandia methods cannot be used......-spectra a realization of a velocity field is determined by factorization and Fourier transform as in the Sandia method....

  9. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  10. Synthetic Biology: Applications in the Food Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ashish; Kumar, Ashwani; Aparna, S V; Mallappa, Rashmi H; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2016-08-17

    Synthetic biology also termed as "genomic alchemy" represents a powerful area of science that is based on the convergence of biological sciences with systems engineering. It has been fittingly described as "moving from reading the genetic code to writing it" as it focuses on building, modeling, designing and fabricating novel biological systems using customized gene components that result in artificially created genetic circuitry. The scientifically compelling idea of the technological manipulation of life has been advocated since long time. Realization of this idea has gained momentum with development of high speed automation and the falling cost of gene sequencing and synthesis following the completion of the human genome project. Synthetic biology will certainly be instrumental in shaping the development of varying areas ranging from biomedicine, biopharmaceuticals, chemical production, food and dairy quality monitoring, packaging, and storage of food and dairy products, bioremediation and bioenergy production, etc. However, potential dangers of using synthetic life forms have to be acknowledged and adoption of policies by the scientific community to ensure safe practice while making important advancements in the ever expanding field of synthetic biology is to be fully supported and implemented.

  11. Development of synthetic graphite resistive elements for sintering furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Rezende, Mirabel C.; Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.

    1987-01-01

    The synthetic graphites have been produced using lignin coke, natural graphite and phenolic resin. The bulk density, porosity, flexural strength and eletrical resistivity measurements have been performed on specimens at about 2400 0 C. The performance of these materials, as heating elements, was evaluated in a sintering furnace prototype. This paper reports the fabrication process and the experimental results. (Author) [pt

  12. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  13. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  14. Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-28

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0169 TR-2017-0169 ARRAYS OF SYNTHETIC ATOMS: NANOCAPACITOR BATTERIES WITH LARGE ENERGY DENSITY AND SMALL LEAK...1-0247 Arrays of Synthetic Atoms: Nanocapacitor Batteries with Large Energy Density and Small Leak Currents 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...large dielectric strength to a nanoscale rechargeable battery . We fabricated arrays of one-, two- and three-dimensional synthetic atoms and comparison

  15. Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover depending on land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Köster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interrelationships between soil cover and plant cover of normally developed (or postlithogenic mineral soils are analysed on the basis of four sampling soil groups. The four-link pedo-ecological sequence of analysed soils, rendzinas → brown soils → pseudopodzolic soils → gley-podzols, forms a representative cross section in relation to the normal mineral soils of Estonia. All groups differ substantially from each other in terms of soil properties (calcareousness, acidity, nutrition conditions, profile fabric and humus cover. The primary tasks of the research were (1 to elucidate the main pedo-ecological characteristics of the four soil groups and their suitability for plant cover, (2 to evaluate comparatively soils in terms of productivity, sustainability, biodiversity and environmental protection ability and (3 to analyse possibilities for ecologically sound matching of soil cover with suitable plant cover. On the basis of the same material, the influence of land-use change on humus cover (epipedon fabric, properties of the entire soil cover and soil–plant interrelationship were also analysed. An ecosystem approach enables us to observe particularities caused by specific properties of a soil type (species, variety in biological turnover and in the formation of biodiversity.

  16. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years, synthetic cannabinoid mixtures have been easy to buy in drug paraphernalia shops, novelty stores, gas stations, and over ... abuse, authorities have made it illegal to sell, buy, or possess some of ... use is that standard drug tests cannot easily detect many of the chemicals ...

  17. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  18. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  19. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  20. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  1. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  2. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  3. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  4. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  5. Land cover and water yield: inference problems when comparing catchments with mixed land cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled experiments provide strong evidence that changing land cover (e.g. deforestation or afforestation can affect mean catchment streamflow (Q. By contrast, a similarly strong influence has not been found in studies that interpret Q from multiple catchments with mixed land cover. One possible reason is that there are methodological issues with the way in which the Budyko framework was used in the latter type studies. We examined this using Q data observed in 278 Australian catchments and by making inferences from synthetic Q data simulated by a hydrological process model (the Australian Water Resources Assessment system Landscape model. The previous contrasting findings could be reproduced. In the synthetic experiment, the land cover influence was still present but not accurately detected with the Budyko- framework. Likely sources of interpretation bias demonstrated include: (i noise in land cover, precipitation and Q data; (ii additional catchment climate characteristics more important than land cover; and (iii covariance between Q and catchment attributes. These methodological issues caution against the use of a Budyko framework to quantify a land cover influence in Q data from mixed land-cover catchments. Importantly, however, our findings do not rule out that there may also be physical processes that modify the influence of land cover in mixed land-cover catchments. Process model simulations suggested that lateral water redistribution between vegetation types and recirculation of intercepted rainfall may be important.

  6. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  7. Synthetic Electric Microbial Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-10

    domains and DNA-binding domains into a single protein for deregulation of down stream genes of have been favored [10]. Initially experiments with... Germany DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited.   Talk title: “Synthetic biology based microbial biosensors for the...toolbox” in Heidelberg, Germany Poster title: “Anaerobic whole cell microbial biosensors” Link: http://phdsymposium.embl.org/#home   September, 2014

  8. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  9. Paper-based synthetic gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Keith; Green, Alexander A; Ferrante, Tom; Cameron, D Ewen; DaleyKeyser, Ajay; Yin, Peng; Collins, James J

    2014-11-06

    Synthetic gene networks have wide-ranging uses in reprogramming and rewiring organisms. To date, there has not been a way to harness the vast potential of these networks beyond the constraints of a laboratory or in vivo environment. Here, we present an in vitro paper-based platform that provides an alternate, versatile venue for synthetic biologists to operate and a much-needed medium for the safe deployment of engineered gene circuits beyond the lab. Commercially available cell-free systems are freeze dried onto paper, enabling the inexpensive, sterile, and abiotic distribution of synthetic-biology-based technologies for the clinic, global health, industry, research, and education. For field use, we create circuits with colorimetric outputs for detection by eye and fabricate a low-cost, electronic optical interface. We demonstrate this technology with small-molecule and RNA actuation of genetic switches, rapid prototyping of complex gene circuits, and programmable in vitro diagnostics, including glucose sensors and strain-specific Ebola virus sensors.

  10. Paper-based Synthetic Gene Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Keith; Green, Alexander A.; Ferrante, Tom; Cameron, D. Ewen; DaleyKeyser, Ajay; Yin, Peng; Collins, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene networks have wide-ranging uses in reprogramming and rewiring organisms. To date, there has not been a way to harness the vast potential of these networks beyond the constraints of a laboratory or in vivo environment. Here, we present an in vitro paper-based platform that provides a new venue for synthetic biologists to operate, and a much-needed medium for the safe deployment of engineered gene circuits beyond the lab. Commercially available cell-free systems are freeze-dried onto paper, enabling the inexpensive, sterile and abiotic distribution of synthetic biology-based technologies for the clinic, global health, industry, research and education. For field use, we create circuits with colorimetric outputs for detection by eye, and fabricate a low-cost, electronic optical interface. We demonstrate this technology with small molecule and RNA actuation of genetic switches, rapid prototyping of complex gene circuits, and programmable in vitro diagnostics, including glucose sensors and strain-specific Ebola virus sensors. PMID:25417167

  11. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  12. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  13. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  14. Study of mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of synthetic fibers nylon-and-polyester type, used in engineering products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Sergio Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Fibers are groups formed by molecular-chain-oriented filaments. Fibers play a fundamental role in human being's daily life and they can be found in several forms and geometries, such as filaments, yarns, beams, rope, fabric, composite, coatings, others. They are used in various segments such as civil, mechanical, electrical, electronics, military, naval, nautical, aviation, health, medicine, environment, communications, safety, space, others. Fibers are divided into two distinct classes: natural and chemical ones, which cover synthetic and man-made sub-classes. They can be produced from several materials, such as wool, cotton, rayon, flax, silk, rock, nylon, polyester, polyethylene, poly-propylene, aramid, glass, carbon, steel, ceramic, others. Globally, the participation of chemical fibers corresponds to approximately 59,9%, and the synthetic fiber polyester, the most used one, represents approximately 63% of the world market. Vital needs have led to the development of multi-function fibers and the focus has changed in the last 10 years with the use of nano technology for environmental responsibility and smart fibers. The study of mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of fibers is of great relevance for characterization and understanding of causes as consequence of failures. For such reason, it was selected technical fabrics made of high performance synthetic fiber nylon-and-polyester type, used in engineered products such as tires, belts, hoses and pneumatic springs, which have been analyzed in each processing phase. Fiber samples were extracted after each processing phase to be analyzed, by traction destructive tests and scanning electron microscopy. The results of analysis of mechanical properties showed loss of resistance to temperature and multi axial stress during fiber processing phase. Through microscopy tests, it was possible to find contamination, surface stains, plastic deformations, scaling, variations in the fracture faces of the filaments and

  15. Fabrication and Multiprobe Electrical Characterization of Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Mikkel Buster

    2013-01-01

    techniques, such as colloidal lithography or block copolymers lithography, which covers the entire sample. This project presents graphene devices with periodic holes fabricated by electron beam lithography. Only partial coverage of holes are fabricated by making from one to many rows of holes perpendicular......, such as nanograss and silver nanowires. Furthermore, antidot lattice of dierent sizes are made in graphene, to investigating the dependence of number of holes needed for modifying the electronic properties of graphene....

  16. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  17. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  18. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  19. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  20. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  1. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  2. Online professionalism: A synthetic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Tuck, Matthew G

    2015-04-01

    The rise of social media has increased connectivity and blurred personal and professional boundaries, bringing new challenges for medical professionalism. Whether traditional professionalism principles apply to the online social media space remains unknown. The purpose of this synthetic literature review was to characterize the original peer-reviewed research studies published between 1 January 2000-1 November 2014 on online professionalism, to assess methodologies and approaches used, and to provide insights to guide future studies in this area. The investigators searched three databases and performed manual searches of bibliographies to identify the 32 studies included. Most studies originated in the USA. Cross-sectional surveys and analyses of publicly available online content were the most common methodologies employed. Studies covered the general areas of use and privacy, assessment of unprofessional online behaviours, consensus-gathering of what constitutes unprofessional or inappropriate online behaviours, and education and policies. Studies were of variable quality; only around half of survey studies had response rates of 50% or greater. Medical trainees were the most common population studied. Future directions for research include public perspectives of online professionalism, impact on patient trust, and how to use social media productively as medical professionals.

  3. Parallel fabrication of macroporous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Andrew; Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Godeshala, Sudhakar; Meldrum, Deirdre R; Rege, Kaushal

    2018-07-01

    Scaffolds generated from naturally occurring and synthetic polymers have been investigated in several applications because of their biocompatibility and tunable chemo-mechanical properties. Existing methods for generation of 3D polymeric scaffolds typically cannot be parallelized, suffer from low throughputs, and do not allow for quick and easy removal of the fragile structures that are formed. Current molds used in hydrogel and scaffold fabrication using solvent casting and porogen leaching are often single-use and do not facilitate 3D scaffold formation in parallel. Here, we describe a simple device and related approaches for the parallel fabrication of macroporous scaffolds. This approach was employed for the generation of macroporous and non-macroporous materials in parallel, in higher throughput and allowed for easy retrieval of these 3D scaffolds once formed. In addition, macroporous scaffolds with interconnected as well as non-interconnected pores were generated, and the versatility of this approach was employed for the generation of 3D scaffolds from diverse materials including an aminoglycoside-derived cationic hydrogel ("Amikagel"), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or PLGA, and collagen. Macroporous scaffolds generated using the device were investigated for plasmid DNA binding and cell loading, indicating the use of this approach for developing materials for different applications in biotechnology. Our results demonstrate that the device-based approach is a simple technology for generating scaffolds in parallel, which can enhance the toolbox of current fabrication techniques. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Synthetic staggered architecture composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite design inspired by nature. ► Tuning microstructure via changing ceramic content and aspect ratio. ► Experimental display of structure–property correlationship in synthetic composites. - Abstract: Structural biocomposites (for example, nacre in seashells, bone, etc.) are designed according to the functional role they are delegated for. For instance, bone is primarily designed for withstanding time-dependent loading (for example, withstanding stresses while running, jumping, accidental fall) and hence the microstructure is designed primarily from enhanced toughness and moderate stiffness point of view. On the contrary, seashells (which lie in the abyss of oceans) apart from providing defense to the organism (it is hosting) against predatory attacks, are subjected to static loading (for example, enormous hydrostatic pressure). Hence, emphasis on the shell structure evolution is directed primarily towards providing enhanced stiffness. In order to conform between stiffness and toughness, nature precisely employs a staggered arrangement of inorganic bricks in a biopolymer matrix (at its most elementary level of architecture). Aspect ratio and content of ceramic bricks are meticulously used by nature to synthesize composites having varying degrees of stiffness, strength and toughness. Such an amazing capability of structure–property correlationship has rarely been demonstrated in synthetic composites. Therefore, in order to better understand the mechanical behavior of synthetic staggered composites, the problem becomes two-pronged: (a) synthesize composites with varying brick size and contents and (b) experimental investigation of the material response. In this article, an attempt has been made to synthesize and characterize staggered ceramic–polymer composites having varying aspect ratio and ceramic content using freeze-casting technique. This will in-turn help us in custom-design manufacture of hybrid bio-inspired composite materials

  5. News: Synthetic biology leading to specialty chemicals ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic biology can combine the disciplines of biology, engineering, and chemistry productively to form molecules of great scientific and commercial value. Recent advances in the new field are explored for their connection to new tools that have been used to elucidate production pathways to a wide variety of chemicals generated by microorganisms. The selection and enhancement of microbiological strains through the practice of strain engineering enables targets of design, construction, and optimization. This news column aspires to cover recent literature relating to the development and understanding of clean technology.

  6. Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the use of synthetic aperture (SA) imaging in medical ultrasound. SA imaging is a radical break with today's commercial systems, where the image is acquired sequentially one image line at a time. This puts a strict limit on the frame rate and the possibility of acquiring...... a sufficient amount of data for high precision flow estimation. These constrictions can be lifted by employing SA imaging. Here data is acquired simultaneously from all directions over a number of emissions, and the full image can be reconstructed from this data. The talk will demonstrate the many benefits...

  7. Transition in synthetic jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 187, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 105-117 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795; GA ČR(CZ) GPP101/12/P556; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : turbulence * synthetic jet * transition * velocity spectra Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0924424712005031

  8. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  9. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  10. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  11. Synthetic lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Jurado, J

    1953-01-01

    A yellow solid petroleum paraffin d/sup 60/ 0.808, I number 3.5, average molecular weight 350, chlorinated and condensed with benzene, xylene, or naphthalene by the Friedel and Crafts reaction, in the presence of anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ or activated Al, gave synthetic lubricating oils. Xylene was the preferred aromatic compound, naphthalene required the use of less completely chlorinated paraffin, benzene produced resins difficult to remove and gave darker oils with excessive green fluorescence. Activated Al rather than anhydrous AlCl/sub 3/ gave darker oils with higher viscosity and Conradson C values. Tar from the low-temperature distillation of lignite, used as a source of a paraffin fraction melting 40/sup 0/ to 48/sup 0/ (chlorinated to 26.5 percent Cl) and an aromatic fraction, 45 percent aromatic compounds by volume (mainly polysubstituted benzenes), I number 10, was converted to a similar synthetic lubricant with the following properties: Kinematic viscosity at 210/sup 0/ F., 50.4 centistokes; viscosity index, 92; Conradson C, 1.5 percent; solidification point, 9/sup 0/; S, 0.41 percent.

  12. Coloring of synthetic fluorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birsoy, R.

    1980-01-01

    A synthetic fluorite of the Harshaw Chemical Company is analyzed for rare earth elements, yttrium, and sodium. Samples of this fluorite are irradiated with X-rays, γ-rays, neutrons, electrons, protons, and α-particles at different energies, and their absorption spectra are analyzed. Analyzing the thermal bleaching of these radiation-coloured fluorites shows that both, impurities and radiation play a part in the coloration of synthetic fluorite. However, the main contribution comes from the radiation induced lattice defects. In the visible region spectra, the colour centre of the 5800 to 5900 A absorption band is probably mainly related with large aggregates of F-centres. The 5450 and the 5300 A absorption bands are mainly related to monovalent and divalent ion impurities and their association with lattice defects. The 3800 A absorption band seems to be related with F-centre aggregates. However, the contribution from the rare earth elements related complex color centres also plays some part for the production of this absorption band. These results indicate that the color centres of different origin can absorb light at the same wavelength. (author)

  13. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  14. Novel fabric pressure sensors: design, fabrication, and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yangyong; Hua, Tao; Zhu, Bo; Li, Qiao; Yi, Weijing; Tao, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Soft and pliable pressure sensors are essential elements in wearable electronics which have wide applications in modern daily lives. This paper presents a family of fabric pressure sensors made by sandwiching a piece of resistive fabric strain sensing element between two tooth-structured layers of soft elastomers. The pressure sensors are capable of measuring pressure from 0 to 2000 kPa, covering the whole range of human–machine interactions. A pressure sensitivity of up to 2.98 × 10 −3 kPa −1 was obtained. Theoretical modeling was conducted based on an energy method to predict the load–displacement relationship for various sensor configurations. By adjusting the Young's modulus of the two conversion layers, as well as the geometrical dimensions, the measurement ranges, and sensitivities of the sensors can be quantitatively determined. The sensors are being used for pressure measurements between the human body and garments, shoes, beds, and chairs

  15. On Covering Approximation Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Ge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

  16. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    resins. The soft lithography technique was mainly used to fabricate micro and nanostructures on zein films. Zein material well-replicated small structures with the smallest size at sub micrometer scale that resulted in interesting photonic properties. The bonding method was also developed for assembling portable zein microfluidic devices with small shape distortion. Zein-zein and zein-glass microfluidic devices demonstrated sufficient strength to facilitate fluid flow in a complex microfluidic design with no leakage. Aside from the fabrication technique development, several potential applications of this environmentally friendly microfluidic device were investigated. The concentration gradient manipulation of Rhodamine B solution in zein-glass microfluidic devices was demonstrated. The diffusion of small molecules such as fluorescent dye into the wall of the zein microfluidic channels was observed. However, with this formulation, zein microfluidic devices were not suitable for cell culture applications. This pioneer study covered a wide spectrum of the implementation of the two nanotechnology approaches to advance zein biomaterial which provided proof of fundamental concepts as well as presenting some limitations. The findings in this study can lead to several innovative research opportunities of advanced zein biomaterials with broad applications. The information from the study of zein nanocomposite structure allows the packaging industry to develop the low cost biodegradable materials with physical property improvement. The information from the study of the zein microfluidic devices allows agro-industry to develop the nanotechnology-enabled microfluidic sensors fabricated entirely from biodegradable polymer for on-site disease or contaminant detection in the fields of food and agriculture.

  17. Space Synthetic Biology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David; Roman, Monsi; Mansell, James (Matt)

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an effort to make genetic engineering more useful by standardizing sections of genetic code. By standardizing genetic components, biological engineering will become much more similar to traditional fields of engineering, in which well-defined components and subsystems are readily available in markets. Specifications of the behavior of those components and subsystems can be used to model a system which incorporates them. Then, the behavior of the novel system can be simulated and optimized. Finally, the components and subsystems can be purchased and assembled to create the optimized system, which most often will exhibit behavior similar to that indicated by the model. The Space Synthetic Biology project began in 2012 as a multi-Center effort. The purpose of this project was to harness Synthetic Biology principals to enable NASA's missions. A central target for application was to Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS). Engineers from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) ECLS Systems Development Branch (ES62) were brought into the project to contribute expertise in operational ECLS systems. Project lead scientists chose to pursue the development of bioelectrochemical technologies to spacecraft life support. Therefore, the ECLS element of the project became essentially an effort to develop a bioelectrochemical ECLS subsystem. Bioelectrochemical systems exploit the ability of many microorganisms to drive their metabolisms by direct or indirect utilization of electrical potential gradients. Whereas many microorganisms are capable of deriving the energy required for the processes of interest (such as carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation) from sunlight, it is believed that subsystems utilizing electrotrophs will exhibit smaller mass, volume, and power requirements than those that derive their energy from sunlight. In the first 2 years of the project, MSFC personnel conducted modeling, simulation, and conceptual design efforts to assist the

  18. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  19. Current status of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K P; Hanna, K; Waring, G O; Gipson, I; Liu, Y; Gailitis, R P; Johnson-Wint, B; Green, K

    1991-01-01

    Many of the deficiencies with human tissue epikeratoplasty might be improved by the use of a suitable synthetic lenticule. Potential biomaterials for epikeratoplasty include collagen (types I, III, or IV), collagen-hydrogel copolymers, bioactive synthetics, and coated hydrogels. The biomaterial must be engineered to achieve strict specifications of optical clarity, support of epithelial migration and adhesion, permeability to solutes, and stability to corneal proteases. Attaching synthetic lenticules to the cornea without cutting Bowman's layer by adhesives, laser welding, or direct adhesion may also improve the efficacy of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

  20. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  1. Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija

    2017-04-01

    For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.

  2. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  3. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  4. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  5. Synthetic Aperture Compound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk

    and the limiting factor is the amount of memory IO resources available. An equally high demand for memory throughput is found in the computer gaming industry, where a large part of the processing takes place on the graphics processing unit (GPU). Using the GPU, a framework for synthetic aperture imaging......Medical ultrasound imaging is used for many purposes, e.g. for localizing and classifying cysts, lesions, and other processes. Almost any mass is first observed using B-mode imaging and later classified using e.g. color flow, strain, or attenuation imaging. It is therefore important that the B......-mode images have high contrast. Like all imaging modalities, ultrasound is subject to a number of inherent artifacts that compromise image quality. The most prominent artifact is the degradation by coherent wave interference, known as “speckle”, which gives a granular appearance to an otherwise homogeneous...

  6. Radioimmunoassay of synthetic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynaud, J -P; Bucourt, R; Salmon, J

    1975-12-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay depends on the intrinsic association constant of the interaction between ligand and antibody. Its specificity depends on the position of the chain which forms the link with the antigen. Thus, an antibody specific of estradiol has been obtained by coupling estradiol to albumin via a chain at position 7. For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. These criteria were used to develop assays for R 2858 and R 2453 which obviate the need to administer radioactive product in clinical pharmacology. Cross-reaction with structural analogs may be used to assay competitors. Thus, R 2323 antibody, highly specific for endogenous steroids, may be used to assay other trienes such as R 1697 (trenbolone) and R 2010 (norgestrienone).

  7. Synthetic fuels and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1981-03-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. equal to 40-60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. equal to 50-70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long-term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  8. Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubris, Kimberly Ann V.; Richards, Brian K.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic fabric fibers have been proposed as indicators of past spreading of wastewater sludge. Synthetic fiber detectability was examined in sludges (dewatered, pelletized, composted, alkaline-stabilized) and in soils from experimental columns and field sites applied with those sludge products. Fibers (isolated by water extraction and examined using polarized light microscopy) were detectable in sludge products and in soil columns over 5 years after application, retaining characteristics observed in the applied sludge. Concentrations mirrored (within a factor of 2) predictions based on soil dilution. Fibers were detectable in field site soils up to 15 years after application, again retaining the characteristics seen in sludge products. Concentrations correlated with residual sludge metal concentration gradients in a well-characterized field site. Fibers found along preferential flow paths and/or in horizons largely below the mixed layer suggest some potential for translocation. Synthetic fibers were shown to be rapid and semi-quantitative indicators of past sludge application. - Synthetic fabric fibers present in wastewater sludge are a semi-quantitative long-term indicator of past sludge application in soils

  9. Synthetic tsunami waveform catalogs with kinematic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Maria Ana; Miranda, Jorge Miguel; Matias, Luis; Omira, Rachid

    2017-07-01

    In this study we present a comprehensive methodology to produce a synthetic tsunami waveform catalogue in the northeast Atlantic, east of the Azores islands. The method uses a synthetic earthquake catalogue compatible with plate kinematic constraints of the area. We use it to assess the tsunami hazard from the transcurrent boundary located between Iberia and the Azores, whose western part is known as the Gloria Fault. This study focuses only on earthquake-generated tsunamis. Moreover, we assume that the time and space distribution of the seismic events is known. To do this, we compute a synthetic earthquake catalogue including all fault parameters needed to characterize the seafloor deformation covering the time span of 20 000 years, which we consider long enough to ensure the representability of earthquake generation on this segment of the plate boundary. The computed time and space rupture distributions are made compatible with global kinematic plate models. We use the tsunami empirical Green's functions to efficiently compute the synthetic tsunami waveforms for the dataset of coastal locations, thus providing the basis for tsunami impact characterization. We present the results in the form of offshore wave heights for all coastal points in the dataset. Our results focus on the northeast Atlantic basin, showing that earthquake-induced tsunamis in the transcurrent segment of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary pose a minor threat to coastal areas north of Portugal and beyond the Strait of Gibraltar. However, in Morocco, the Azores, and the Madeira islands, we can expect wave heights between 0.6 and 0.8 m, leading to precautionary evacuation of coastal areas. The advantages of the method are its easy application to other regions and the low computation effort needed.

  10. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  11. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  12. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  13. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  14. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  15. Synthetic biology of polyketide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Backman, Tyler W.H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The modules are composed of enzymatic domains that share sequence and functional similarity across all known PKSs. We have used the nomenclature of synthetic biology to classify the enzymatic domains and modules as parts and devices, respectively, and have generated detailed lists of both. In addition, we...... realize the potential that synthetic biology approaches bring to this class of molecules....

  16. Synthetic quorum sensing in model microcapsule colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.

    2017-08-01

    Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop models for a colony of synthetic microcapsules that communicate by producing and releasing signaling molecules. Production of the chemicals is regulated by a biomimetic negative feedback loop, the “repressilator” network. Through theory and simulation, we show that the chemical behavior of such capsules is sensitive to both the density and number of capsules in the colony. For example, decreasing the spacing between a fixed number of capsules can trigger a transition in chemical activity from the steady, repressed state to large-amplitude oscillations in chemical production. Alternatively, for a fixed density, an increase in the number of capsules in the colony can also promote a transition into the oscillatory state. This configuration-dependent behavior of the capsule colony exemplifies quorum-sensing behavior. Using our theoretical model, we predict the transitions from the steady state to oscillatory behavior as a function of the colony size and capsule density.

  17. Compartmentalization and Transport in Synthetic Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSchmitt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-scale vesicles have become a popular tool in life sciences. Besides liposomes that are generated from phospholipids of natural origin, polymersomes fabricated of synthetic block copolymers enjoy increasing popularity, as they represent more versatile membrane building blocks that can be selected based on their specific physicochemical properties, like permeability, stability or chemical reactivity.In this review, we focus on the application of simple and nested artificial vesicles in synthetic biology. First, we provide an introduction into the utilization of multi-compartmented vesosomes as compartmentalized nano-scale bioreactors. In the bottom-up development of protocells from vesicular nano-reactors, the specific exchange of pathway intermediates across compartment boundaries represents a bottleneck for future studies. To date, most compartmented bioreactors rely on unspecific exchange of substrates and products. This is either based on changes in permeability of the coblock polymer shell by physicochemical triggers or by the incorporation of unspecific porin proteins into the vesicle membrane. Since the incorporation of membrane transport proteins into simple and nested artificial vesicles offers the potential for specific exchange of substances between subcompartments, it opens new vistas in the design of protocells. Therefore we devote the main part of the review to summarize the technical advances in the use of phospholipids and block copolymers for the reconstitution of membrane proteins.

  18. Computing with synthetic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Alexis; Molina, Franck; Amar, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    In this article we present a new kind of computing device that uses biochemical reactions networks as building blocks to implement logic gates. The architecture of a computing machine relies on these generic and composable building blocks, computation units, that can be used in multiple instances to perform complex boolean functions. Standard logical operations are implemented by biochemical networks, encapsulated and insulated within synthetic vesicles called protocells. These protocells are capable of exchanging energy and information with each other through transmembrane electron transfer. In the paradigm of computation we propose, protoputing, a machine can solve only one problem and therefore has to be built specifically. Thus, the programming phase in the standard computing paradigm is represented in our approach by the set of assembly instructions (specific attachments) that directs the wiring of the protocells that constitute the machine itself. To demonstrate the computing power of protocellular machines, we apply it to solve a NP-complete problem, known to be very demanding in computing power, the 3-SAT problem. We show how to program the assembly of a machine that can verify the satisfiability of a given boolean formula. Then we show how to use the massive parallelism of these machines to verify in less than 20 min all the valuations of the input variables and output a fluorescent signal when the formula is satisfiable or no signal at all otherwise.

  19. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  20. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  1. The repair of ground cover of Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline near Paraguay River crossing, in a swamp soft soil region, using geo synthetics reinforced backfilling; Reparo da cobertura do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil junto ao Rio Paraguai, em trecho com solo mole, utilizando aterro reforcado com geosinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Cesar Augusto; Jorge, Kemal Vieira; Bechuate Filho, Pedro [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Gerencia Regional Centro Oeste (CRGO); Teixeira, Sidnei H.C. [Geohydrotech Engenharia S.C. Ltda., Braganca Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    TBG - Transportadora Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A, executes routine maintenance works at the Gas Pipeline Right of Way, seeking its integrity. In the wetlands of Pantanal, near the Paraguay river crossing, the organic-alluvial soil was submitted to the process of subsidence. This process, associated with the river water flow erosion, shrank the soil volume and diminished or extinguished the pipeline land cover. The pipeline was exposed to the environment, and submitted to tension stresses and the risk of low cycle fatigue during the floods. The cathodic protection system also had to be evaluated, specially in the drought. To mitigate the problem, the embankment technique was adopted using sandy soil, reinforced with polyester geo-webs and with woven polipropene geo-textiles. The solution also used geo-webs with soil-cement as protection elements against the degradation of the geo-textiles blankets. Some monitoring works are associated with those interventions: monitoring of cathodic protection; topographical verification of horizontal and vertical displacements of the pipeline; levels of land covering, and rainfalls and flood measurement. The base of the embankment was built with hydraulic transported soil, and at the end consistently supported the gas pipeline. (author)

  2. Synthetic Biology: Advancing Biological Frontiers by Building Synthetic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  3. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansley, S P; Betzel, G T; Metcalfe, P; Reinisch, L; Meyer, J

    2010-12-01

    Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolution resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high-quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kV), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MV). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response with dose (at 100 kV) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 V compared to a bias of 61.75 V used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the synthetic diamond detector. Overall, the synthetic diamond detector performed well in comparison to the natural diamond detector.

  4. 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dylan; Jia, Jia; Yost, Michael; Markwald, Roger; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    3D bioprinting holds remarkable promise for rapid fabrication of 3D tissue engineering constructs. Given its scalability, reproducibility, and precise multi-dimensional control that traditional fabrication methods do not provide, 3D bioprinting provides a powerful means to address one of the major challenges in tissue engineering: vascularization. Moderate success of current tissue engineering strategies have been attributed to the current inability to fabricate thick tissue engineering constructs that contain endogenous, engineered vasculature or nutrient channels that can integrate with the host tissue. Successful fabrication of a vascularized tissue construct requires synergy between high throughput, high-resolution bioprinting of larger perfusable channels and instructive bioink that promotes angiogenic sprouting and neovascularization. This review aims to cover the recent progress in the field of 3D bioprinting of vascularized tissues. It will cover the methods of bioprinting vascularized constructs, bioink for vascularization, and perspectives on recent innovations in 3D printing and biomaterials for the next generation of 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication. PMID:27230253

  5. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  7. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  8. Adaptive Synthetic Forces: Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Randall

    2001-01-01

    ...: perception, comprehension, and prediction. Building on these ideas, we developed techniques for improving the situation awareness in synthetic helicopter pilots for the ModSAF military simulation by giving them more human-like perception...

  9. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  10. Nanocarbon materials fabricated using plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of fullerenes more than three decades ago, new kinds of nanoscale materials of carbon allotropes called "nanocarbons" have so far been discovered or synthesized at successive intervals as cases such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanohorns, graphene, carbon nanowalls, and a carbon nanobelt, while nanodiamonds were actually discovered before then. Their attractively excellent mechanical, physical, and chemical properties have driven researchers to continuously create one of the hottest frontiers in materials science and technology. While plasma states have often been involved in their discovery, on the other hand, plasma-based approaches to this exciting field originally hold promising and enormous potentials for advancing and expanding industrial/biomedical applications of nanocarbons of great diversity. This article provides an extensive overview on plasma-fabricated nanocarbon materials, where the term "fabrication" is defined as synthesis, functionalization, and assembly of devices to cover a wide range of issues associated with the step-by-step plasma processes. Specific attention has been paid to the comparative examination between plasma-based and non-plasma methods for fabricating the nanocarobons with an emphasis on the advantages of plasma processing, such as low-temperature/large-scale fabrication and diversity-carrying structure controllability. The review ends with current challenges and prospects including a ripple effect of the nanocarbon studies on the development of related novel nanomaterials such as transition metal dichalcogenides. It contains not only the latest progress in the field for cutting-edge scientists and engineers, but also the introductory guidance to non-specialists such as lower-class graduate students.

  11. Overview of MOX fuel fabrication achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairiot, H.; Vliet, J. van; Chiarelli, G.; Edwards, J.; Nagai, S.H.; Reshetnikov, F.

    2000-01-01

    Such overview having been adequately covered in an OECD/NEA publication providing the situation as of end 1994, this paper is mainly devoted to an update as of end 1998. The Belgian plant, Belgonucleaire/Dessel, is now dedicated exclusively to the fabrication of MOX fuel and has operated consistently around its nameplate capacity (35tHM/a) through the 1990s involving a large variety of PWR and BWR fuels. The two French plants have also achieved routine operation during the 1990s. CFCa, historically the largest FBR MOX fuel manufacturer, is utilizing the genuine COCA process for that type of fuel and the MIMAS process for LWR fuel: a nominal capacity (40 tHM/a) has been gradually approached. MELOX has operated at 100 tHM/a, as defined in the operating licence granted originally. The British plant, MDF/Sellafield with 8tHM/a nameplate capacity is devoted to fuel and has manufactured several small fabrication campaigns. In Japan, JNC operates three facilities located at Tokai: PFDF, devoted to basic research and fabrication of test fuels, PFFF/ATR line, for the fabrication of Fugen fuel and of corresponding fuel for the critical facility DCA, and PFPF for the fabrication of FBR fuel. In Russia, fabrication techniques have been developed to fuel four BN-800 FBRs contemplated to be constructed and be fuelled with the civilian Pu stockpile. Two demonstration facilities Paket (Mayak) and RIAR (Dimitrovgrad) fabricated respectively pellet and vipac type FBR MOX fuel for BR-5, BOR-60, BN-350 and BN-600. The paper includes a brief description of each of the fabrication routes mentioned, as well as the production of respectively LWR and FBR MOX fuel in each fabrication facility, since the start-up of the plant, since 1 January 1993 and since 1 January 1998 up to 31 December 1998. (author)

  12. Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics with enhanced stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Bi, E-mail: xubi@dhu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Dyeing and Finishing of Textiles, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Science & Technology of Eco-Textile, Ministry of Education, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Ding, Yinyan; Qu, Shaobo [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cai, Zaisheng, E-mail: zshcai@dhu.edu [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared. • Water and hexadecane contact angels reach to 164.4° and 156.3°, respectively. • Nanoporous organically modified silica alcogel particles were synthesized. • The superamphiphobic cotton fabrics exhibit enhanced stability against abrasion, laundering and acid. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic cotton fabrics were prepared by alternately depositing organically modified silica alcogel (ormosil) particles onto chitosan precoated cotton fabrics and subsequent 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyltrimethoxysilane (PFOTMS) modification. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images reveal that the ormosil particles display a fluffy, sponge-like nanoporous structure, and the entire cotton fiber surface is covered with highly porous networks. PFOTMS acts as not only a modifier to lower the surface energy of the cotton fabric but also a binder to enhance the coating stability against abrasion and washing. The treated cotton fabrics show highly liquid repellency with the water, cooking oil and hexadecane contact angels reaching to 164.4°, 160.1° and 156.3°, respectively. Meanwhile, the treated cotton fabrics exhibit good abrasion resistance and high laundering durability, which can withstand 10,000 cycles of abrasion and 30 cycles of machine wash without apparently changing the superamphiphobicity. The superamphiphobic cotton fabric also shows high acid stability, and can withstand 98% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Moreover, the superamphiphobic coating has almost no influence on the other physical properties of the cotton fabrics including tensile strength, whiteness and air permeability. This durable non-wetting surface may provide a wide range of new applications in the future.

  13. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  14. National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) Land Cover Collection is produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC)...

  15. Biodeterioration of synthetic materials - A brief review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flemming, H.C. [Biofilm Centre, University of Duisburg-Essen, Geibelstr. 41, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Although synthetic polymers are part of our global waste problem because they are not sufficiently biologically degraded, microorganisms can severely impair the properties and functions of these materials. It seems as if consumers do not really acknowledge this cause of problems and there is only sparse systematic research about. Damaging mechanisms include (i) covering of surfaces (biofouling) which may be enhanced by leaching of biodegradable additives, (ii) depletion of such additives which can lead to loss of material properties, (iii) intrusion into materials by fungal hyphae, (iv) water uptake, and (v) discoloration. The common countermeasure is the addition of biocides or simply to tolerate the effects of biodeterioration and live on with them. It is suggested to encourage further systematic research, and to develop integrated strategies in order to avoid problems, e.g., based on nutrient and water limitation whenever possible. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Fabric based supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, S; Tudor, M J; Beeby, S P; Owen, J R

    2013-01-01

    Flexible supercapacitors with electrodes coated on inexpensive fabrics by the dipping technique. This paper present details of the design, fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor. The sandwich structured supercapacitors can achieve specific capacitances of 11.1F/g, area capacitance 105 mF.cm −2 and maintain 95% of the initial capacitance after cycling the device for more than 15000 times

  17. HgI2 detector fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.; Perez, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to describe the steps followed to fabricate an ionizing radiation detector based on synthetic mercuric iodide monocrystal layers. Firstly, the crystalline orientation method has been describe, which is needed before the layer cutting perpendicularly to the (001) crystallographic. It is also defined the proceeding to crystal face finishing by a mechanical polishing and subsequent chemical etching. then, the metal electrode deposition and the view connection has been explained. Finally, the technique followed to encapsulate the detector with a polymeric thin film deposition has been described. (Author) 10 refs

  18. HgI2 detector fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.; Perez, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to describe the steps followed to fabricate an ionizing radiation detector based on synthetic mercuric iodide monocrystal layers. Firstly, the crystalline orientation method has been describe, which is needed before the layer cutting perpendicullarly to the (001) crystallographyc. It is also defined the proceeding to crystal face finishing by a mechanical polishing and subsequent chemical etching. Then, the metal electrode deposition and the wire connection has been explained. Finally, the technique followed to encapsulate the detector with a polimeric thin film deposition has been described

  19. Moisture Responded Transformable Property Of Intelligent Coolness Knitted Fabrics For Sportswear Clothings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Kim Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the physical properties related to the intelligent coolness characteristics including the wearing comfort of Huvis elastic fiber (HEF knitted fabrics. For this purpose, three kinds of covered filament yarn specimens, such as PET-HEF, Aerocool-HEF, and PET-spandex, were prepared, and their knitted fabric specimens were made using these covered yarn specimens. These knitted fabric specimens were dyed at different dyeing temperatures and times to analyze the dyeing characteristics. The moisture absorption rate, drying, and hygral expansion of the three kinds of knitted fabric specimens were measured and compared with the yarn characteristics to determine the wearing comfort of HEF knitted fabrics.

  20. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Varieties of noise: analogical reasoning in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, Tarja; Loettgers, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The picture of synthetic biology as a kind of engineering science has largely created the public understanding of this novel field, covering both its promises and risks. In this paper, we will argue that the actual situation is more nuanced and complex. Synthetic biology is a highly interdisciplinary field of research located at the interface of physics, chemistry, biology, and computational science. All of these fields provide concepts, metaphors, mathematical tools, and models, which are typically utilized by synthetic biologists by drawing analogies between the different fields of inquiry. We will study analogical reasoning in synthetic biology through the emergence of the functional meaning of noise, which marks an important shift in how engineering concepts are employed in this field. The notion of noise serves also to highlight the differences between the two branches of synthetic biology: the basic science-oriented branch and the engineering-oriented branch, which differ from each other in the way they draw analogies to various other fields of study. Moreover, we show that fixing the mapping between a source domain and the target domain seems not to be the goal of analogical reasoning in actual scientific practice.

  2. Allegheny County Land Cover Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Land Cover dataset demarcates 14 land cover types by area; such as Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Forest, Agriculture, etc. If viewing this description on...

  3. On approximating restricted cycle covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    A cycle cover of a graph is a set of cycles such that every vertex is part of exactly one cycle. An $L$-cycle cover is a cycle cover in which the length of every cycle is in the set $L$. The weight of a cycle cover of an edge-weighted graph is the sum of the weights of its edges. We come close to

  4. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  5. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  6. Fabrics in Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    sensing of fabrics in function. It is proposed that tactile and visual sensing of fabrics is a way to investigate and express emotional utility values. The further purpose is to use experiments with repertory grid models as part of the mapping of the entire research project and also as a basis...

  7. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on...

  8. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  9. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  10. Content metamorphosis in synthetic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbiens, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic hologram is an optical system made of hundreds of images amalgamated in a structure of holographic cells. Each of these images represents a point of view on a three-dimensional space which makes us consider synthetic holography as a multiple points of view perspective system. In the composition of a computer graphics scene for a synthetic hologram, the field of view of the holographic image can be divided into several viewing zones. We can attribute these divisions to any object or image feature independently and operate different transformations on image content. In computer generated holography, we tend to consider content variations as a continuous animation much like a short movie. However, by composing sequential variations of image features in relation with spatial divisions, we can build new narrative forms distinct from linear cinematographic narration. When observers move freely and change their viewing positions, they travel from one field of view division to another. In synthetic holography, metamorphoses of image content are within the observer's path. In all imaging Medias, the transformation of image features in synchronisation with the observer's position is a rare occurrence. However, this is a predominant characteristic of synthetic holography. This paper describes some of my experimental works in the development of metamorphic holographic images.

  11. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Optics fabrication technical challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabassier, G.; Ferriou, N.; Lavastre, E.; Maunier, C.; Neauport, J.; Taroux, D.; Balla, D.; Fornerod, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Before the production of all the LMJ (MEGAJOULE laser) optics, the CEA had to proceed with the fabrication of about 300 large optics for the LIL (laser integration line) laser. Thanks to a fruitful collaboration with high-tech optics companies in Europe, this challenge has been successfully hit. In order to achieve the very tight requirements for cleanliness, laser damage threshold and all the other high demanding fabrication specifications, it has been necessary to develop and to set completely new fabrication process going and to build special outsize fabrication equipment. Through a couple of examples, this paper gives an overview of the work which has been done and shows some of the results which have been obtained: continuous laser glass melting, fabrication of the laser slabs, rapid-growth KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) technology, large diffractive transmission gratings engraving and characterization. (authors)

  13. CMOS MEMS Fabrication Technologies and Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems fabrication technologies and enabled micro devices of various sensors and actuators. The technologies are classified based on the sequence of the fabrication of CMOS circuitry and MEMS elements, while SOI (silicon-on-insulator CMOS MEMS are introduced separately. Introduction of associated devices follows the description of the respective CMOS MEMS technologies. Due to the vast array of CMOS MEMS devices, this review focuses only on the most typical MEMS sensors and actuators including pressure sensors, inertial sensors, frequency reference devices and actuators utilizing different physics effects and the fabrication processes introduced. Moreover, the incorporation of MEMS and CMOS is limited to monolithic integration, meaning wafer-bonding-based stacking and other integration approaches, despite their advantages, are excluded from the discussion. Both competitive industrial products and state-of-the-art research results on CMOS MEMS are covered.

  14. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  15. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABA A receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disorders via reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids administration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute promising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl configuration is the key for binding and activity, but modifications in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions.

  16. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  18. Developments in rubber technology 2 synthetic rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K

    1981-01-01

    This book is intended for those people who have a knowledge or understanding of rubber materials and processes but who wish to update their knowledge. It should be read in conjunction with Developments in Rubber Technology-l as that volume discussed developments in natural rubber and selected special purpose synthetic rubbers as well as additives. The authors have been selected for their expertise in each particular field and we, as editors, would like to express our appreciation to the individual authors and also to their companies. Such a book would be impossible to produce without such active cooperation as we have received. Volumes 1 and 2 of Developments in Rubber Technology cover rubbers which are processed and vulcanised in the traditional manner. It is appreciated that the omission of non-vulcanised rubber materials (the so­ called thermoplastic elastomers) will be unwelcome to many readers but it is intended, because of the size of the subject, to cover these materials in a subsequent volume. A.W. K...

  19. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  20. Synthetic biology and its promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel De Cózar Escalante

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new science and emerging technology, or rather a technoscience, which converges with others such as nanotechnology, information technology, robotics, artificial intelligence and neuroscience. All have common features that could have highly concerning social and environmental impacts. With its ambitious goals of controlling complexity, redesigning and creating new living entities, synthetic biology perfectly exemplifies the new bioeconomic reality. This requires expanding the focus of the discussion beyond the limited comparative analysis of risks and benefits, to address uncertainties, reassign responsibilities and initiate a thorough social assessment of what is at stake.

  1. New polymorphous computing fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolinski, Christophe; Gokhale, Maya; McCabe, Kevin P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  2. COLOR STABILITY OF NATURALLY DYED DENIM FABRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBTIRICA Adriana-Ioana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The desire to colour textiles is as old as spinning and weaving. Natural dyes have been used since thousands of years for their long endurance, soft and elegant colours. But the invention of synthetic dyes has limited the application of natural dyes. The health hazards associated with the use of synthetic dyes and also the increased environmental awareness have revived the use of natural dyes during the recent years. The major performance characteristic of a dye is its ability to maintain the colour in normal use and is known as colorfastness. The study provides information regarding colour fastness properties of naturally dyed denim fabrics. Three vegetable materials were used for dyeing denim fabrics: Punica granatum (bark powder, Indigofera tinctoria (leave powder and Juglans regia (walnut dried shells. The results of the study indicated that using Walnut shells and Punica granatum deeper and more stable shades of colors are obtained in comparison with Indigofera Tinctoria dyed denim samples. All samples highlight a change in color in the sense of fading which has occurred to the highest extent when exposed to artificial light and washing. When tested against water, alkaline and acid perspiration, it is noticed that better results are obtained, and color change appear in a smaller extent.

  3. Antibacterial property of fabrics coated by magnesium-based brucites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Sha, Lin; Zhao, Jiao; Li, Qian; Zhu, Yimin, E-mail: ntp@dlmu.edu.cn; Wang, Ninghui

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Magnesium-based antibacterial agents composited by brucites with different particle sizes were proposed for the first time. • The coating process for making antibacterial fabrics was easy to operate and apply in industrial application. • The materials used in the antibacterial fabrics were environmental-friendly and cost-effective. • Reduction percentage of as-prepared antibacterial fabrics against E. coli and S. aureus reached to 96.6%, 100% respectively. • The antibacterial fabrics attained excellent washing durability. - Abstract: A kind of environmental-friendly magnesium-based antibacterial agent was reported for the first time, which was composited by brucites with different particle sizes. The antibacterial fabrics were produced by coating the magnesium-based antibacterial agents on the 260T polyester pongee fabrics with waterborne polyurethane. The coating process was simple, low-cost, and harmless to human health and environment. Characteristics of the antibacterial agents and fabrics were studied by particulate size distribution analyzer (PSDA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that the coating layer was covered tightly on the fabrics and compositing of different particles by a certain proportion made full filling of the coating layer. Meanwhile, compositing did not change the structure of brucites. The antibacterial fabrics presented strong antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), with the reduction percentage of 96.6% and 100%, respectively, and the antibacterial fabrics attained excellent washing durability.

  4. Fabrication and characterisation of fabric supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Fabric supercapacitor is a flexible electrochemical device for energy storage application. It is designed to power up flexible electronic systems used for, for example, information sensing, data computation and communication. The development of a flexible supercapacitor is important for e-textiles since supercapacitor can achieve higher energy density than a standard parallel plate capacitor and a larger power density compared with a battery. This research area is currently facing barriers on...

  5. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O`Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1–98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  6. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  7. Stereoscopy in cinematographic synthetic imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.

  8. Synthetic biology meets tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise

    2016-06-15

    Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  9. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H; Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E; Katayama, S; Koyano, M

    2010-01-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO 4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO 2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  10. Assessment of synthetic image fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kevin D.; Moorhead, Ian R.; Gilmore, Marilyn A.; Watson, Graham H.; Thomson, Mitch; Yates, T.; Troscianko, Tomasz; Tolhurst, David J.

    2000-07-01

    Computer generated imagery is increasingly used for a wide variety of purposes ranging from computer games to flight simulators to camouflage and sensor assessment. The fidelity required for this imagery is dependent on the anticipated use - for example when used for camouflage design it must be physically correct spectrally and spatially. The rendering techniques used will also depend upon the waveband being simulated, spatial resolution of the sensor and the required frame rate. Rendering of natural outdoor scenes is particularly demanding, because of the statistical variation in materials and illumination, atmospheric effects and the complex geometric structures of objects such as trees. The accuracy of the simulated imagery has tended to be assessed subjectively in the past. First and second order statistics do not capture many of the essential characteristics of natural scenes. Direct pixel comparison would impose an unachievable demand on the synthetic imagery. For many applications, such as camouflage design, it is important that nay metrics used will work in both visible and infrared wavebands. We are investigating a variety of different methods of comparing real and synthetic imagery and comparing synthetic imagery rendered to different levels of fidelity. These techniques will include neural networks (ICA), higher order statistics and models of human contrast perception. This paper will present an overview of the analyses we have carried out and some initial results along with some preliminary conclusions regarding the fidelity of synthetic imagery.

  11. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Okuno, M.; Okudera, H.; Mashimo, T.; Omurzak, E.; Katayama, S.; Koyano, M.

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO4 tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO2 glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  12. Shock compression of synthetic opal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, A; Okuno, M; Okudera, H [Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192 (Japan); Mashimo, T; Omurzak, E [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan); Katayama, S; Koyano, M, E-mail: okuno@kenroku.kanazawa-u.ac.j [JAIST, Nomi, Ishikawa, 923-1297 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    Structural change of synthetic opal by shock-wave compression up to 38.1 GPa has been investigated by using SEM, X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies. Obtained information may indicate that the dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole due to high shock and residual temperature are very important factors in the structural evolution of synthetic opal by shock compression. Synthetic opal loses opalescence by 10.9 and 18.4 GPa of shock pressures. At 18.4 GPa, dehydration and polymerization of surface silanole and transformation of network structure may occur simultaneously. The 4-membered ring of TO{sub 4} tetrahedrons in as synthetic opal may be relaxed to larger ring such as 6-membered ring by high residual temperature. Therefore, the residual temperature may be significantly high at even 18.4 GPa of shock compression. At 23.9 GPa, opal sample recovered the opalescence. Origin of this opalescence may be its layer structure by shock compression. Finally, sample fuse by very high residual temperature at 38.1 GPa and the structure closes to that of fused SiO{sub 2} glass. However, internal silanole groups still remain even at 38.1 GPa.

  13. Methods for preparing synthetic freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E J; Davison, W; Hamilton-Taylor, J

    2002-03-01

    Synthetic solutions that emulate the major ion compositions of natural waters are useful in experiments aimed at understanding biogeochemical processes. Standard recipes exist for preparing synthetic analogues of seawater, with its relatively constant composition, but, due to the diversity of freshwaters, a range of compositions and recipes is required. Generic protocols are developed for preparing synthetic freshwaters of any desired composition. The major problems encountered in preparing hard and soft waters include dissolving sparingly soluble calcium carbonate, ensuring that the ionic components of each concentrated stock solution cannot form an insoluble salt and dealing with the supersaturation of calcium carbonate in many hard waters. For acidic waters the poor solubility of aluminium salts requires attention. These problems are overcome by preparing concentrated stock solutions according to carefully designed reaction paths that were tested using a combination of experiment and equilibrium modeling. These stock solutions must then be added in a prescribed order to prepare a final solution that is brought into equilibrium with the atmosphere. The example calculations for preparing hard, soft and acidic freshwater surrogates with major ion compositions the same as published analyses, are presented in a generalized fashion that should allow preparation of any synthetic freshwater according to its known analysis.

  14. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  15. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  16. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  17. Experimental Fabrication Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides aviation fabrication support to special operations aircraft residing at Fort Eustis and other bases in the United States. Support is also provided to AATD...

  18. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  19. Protease-sensitive synthetic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Colby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrP(C undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrP(Sc. Frequently, PrP(Sc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164, denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174 did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrP(Sc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600-750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrP(Sc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrP(Sc.

  20. GLCF: Landsat GeoCover

    Science.gov (United States)

    satellite imagery provided in a standardized, orthorectified format, covering the entire land surface of the * Orthorectification * Distribution Status * Hard Media Orders * Letters Delivered Quick Links * Create True Color

  1. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  3. Fique Fabric: A Promising Reinforcement for Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A relatively unknown natural fiber extracted from the leaves of the fique plant, native of the South American Andes, has recently shown potential as reinforcement of polymer composites for engineering applications. Preliminary investigations indicated a promising substitute for synthetic fibers, competing with other well-known natural fibers. The fabric made from fique fibers have not yet been investigated as possible composite reinforcement. Therefore, in the present work a more thorough characterization of fique fabric as a reinforcement of composites with a polyester matrix was performed. Thermal mechanical properties of fique fabric composites were determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The ballistic performance of plain woven fique fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as a second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS. The results revealed a sensible improvement in thermal dynamic mechanical behavior. Both viscoelastic stiffness and glass transition temperature were increased with the amount of incorporated fique fabric. In terms of ballistic results, the fique fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger KevlarTM as an MAS second layer with the same thickness. A cost analysis indicated that armor vests with fique fabric composites as an MAS second layer would be 13 times less expensive than a similar creation made with Kevlar™.

  4. Climate Impacts of Cover Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardozzi, D.; Wieder, W. R.; Bonan, G. B.; Morris, C. K.; Grandy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cover crops are planted in agricultural rotation with the intention of protecting soil rather than harvest. Cover crops have numerous environmental benefits that include preventing soil erosion, increasing soil fertility, and providing weed and pest control- among others. In addition to localized environmental benefits, cover crops can have important regional or global biogeochemical impacts by increasing soil organic carbon, changing emissions of greenhouse trace gases like nitrous oxide and methane, and reducing hydrologic nitrogen losses. Cover crops may additionally affect climate by changing biogeophysical processes, like albedo and latent heat flux, though these potential changes have not yet been evaluated. Here we use the coupled Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) - Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to test how planting cover crops in the United States may change biogeophysical fluxes and climate. We present seasonal changes in albedo, heat fluxes, evaporative partitioning, radiation, and the resulting changes in temperature. Preliminary analyses show that during seasons when cover crops are planted, latent heat flux increases and albedo decreases, changing the evaporative fraction and surface temperatures. Understanding both the biogeophysical changes caused by planting cover crops in this study and the biogeochemical changes found in other studies will give a clearer picture of the overall impacts of cover crops on climate and atmospheric chemistry, informing how this land use strategy will impact climate in the future.

  5. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  6. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  7. Stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with corrugated diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Takashiro; Asao, Hideaki; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a stylus type MEMS texture sensor covered with a corrugated palylene diaphragm, which prevent debris from jamming into the sensor without significant degradation of sensitivity and bandwidth, was reported. A new fabrication process using a lost-foil method to make the corrugated diaphragm on a 3-axis piezoresistive force sensor at wafer level has been developed. The texture sensor could detect the surface microstructure as small as about 10 \

  8. Electronic emission and electron spin resonance of irradiated clothes: (cottons, synthetic clothes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ajouz Rima, H.

    1984-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to a new method of dosimetry applicable to accidental irradiations. It is based on the use of cotton and synthetic fabric clothes as detectors. It enables absorbed doses and body dose distributions to be estimated after an accidental irradiation. A bibliography on textile fibres used for clothing is presented in the first chapter: origin, structure, industrial treatments, effects of heat, light, ionizing radiations. In the second chapter, electronic emission generated by double stimulation (thermal and optic) is described. This phenomenon reveals changes in the surface state of cotton. Exo-emission was chosen because of its high sensitivity in dosimetry. The third chapter is devoted to the application of electron paramagnetic resonance to the dosimetry of irradiated fabrics. After a brief description of the spectrometer used, the results obtained with commercial cotton fabrics and with a special fabric realized by the Institut Textile de France are described some of these fabrics were subjected to special treatments either before or after irradiation. Synthetic fabrics (polyesters and polypropylene) have also been studied. (author)

  9. Catalysts for synthetic liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, L.A.; Turney, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysts have been designed, characterized and tested for the selective production of hydrocarbons suitable as synthetic liquid transport fuels from synthesis gas (i.e., by the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen). It was found that hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, or suitable for conversion to that range, could be produced over several of the new catalyst systems. The various catalysts examined included: (1) synthetic cobalt clays, mainly cobalt chlorites; (2) cobalt hydrotalcites; (3) ruthenium metal supported on rare earth oxides of high surface area; and (4) a novel promoted cobalt catalyst. Active and selective catalysts have been obtained, in each category. With the exception of the clays, reproducibility of catalyst performance has been good. Catalysts in groups 2 and 4 have exhibited very high activity, with long lifetimes and easy regeneration.

  10. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic biology character and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Christian; Wigger, Henning; Gleich, Arnim

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field’s scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads be...

  12. Synthetic greenhouse gases under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, B.; Karlaganis, G.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed

  13. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA; Nikanjam, Mina [Richmond, CA

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  14. Applications of cell-free protein synthesis in synthetic biology: Interfacing bio-machinery with synthetic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic biology is built on the synthesis, engineering, and assembly of biological parts. Proteins are the first components considered for the construction of systems with designed biological functions because proteins carry out most of the biological functions and chemical reactions inside cells. Protein synthesis is considered to comprise the most basic levels of the hierarchical structure of synthetic biology. Cell-free protein synthesis has emerged as a powerful technology that can potentially transform the concept of bioprocesses. With the ability to harness the synthetic power of biology without many of the constraints of cell-based systems, cell-free protein synthesis enables the rapid creation of protein molecules from diverse sources of genetic information. Cell-free protein synthesis is virtually free from the intrinsic constraints of cell-based methods and offers greater flexibility in system design and manipulability of biological synthetic machinery. Among its potential applications, cell-free protein synthesis can be combined with various man-made devices for rapid functional analysis of genomic sequences. This review covers recent efforts to integrate cell-free protein synthesis with various reaction devices and analytical platforms. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Compound Half-Backed Weave Design For Digital Jacquard Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Jiu

    2017-12-01

    Based on layered-combination design mode and compound structure, this paper presents a design method, named compound half-backed weave in order to achieve innovating weave structure and surface effect of fabric. This design method includes primary weaves chosen, half-backed technical points set up and half-backed weave databases established. The fabric produced using compound half-backed weave designed by this method can exhibit a unique half-backed effect that only half of the threads on the fabric surface remain in a state of being covered by adjacent wefts. Compound half-backed weave can not only meets the design need of jacquard fabric with different digital images and effectively improves the efficiency of structural design, but also puts forward new theory and method for innovative design of digital jacquard fabric.

  16. Vibrational spectrum of synthetic carnotite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, E J; Botto, I L [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas

    1976-05-01

    The infrared and laser-Raman spectra of synthetic carnotite, K/sub 2/((UO/sub 2/)/sub 2/V/sub 2/O/sub 8/), are reported and discussed. Force constants for the terminal V-O bonds as well as for the UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ ions are evaluated. From the spectroscopic data, a U-O bond length of 1.81 A is estimated for the uranyl ion in this compound.

  17. Designer Drugs: A Synthetic Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Fratantonio, James; Andrade, Lawrence; Febo, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic stimulants can cause hallucinations, aggressive behaviors, death and are sometimes legal. These substances are sold as plant food and bath salts that are "Not for Human Consumption", therefore skirting the 1986 Federal Analogue Act and giving a false pretense of safety. Studies have proved that these substances are toxic, have a high abuse potential, and are becoming extremely prevalent in the United States. This creates a dilemma for law enforcement agents, hospitals, and substance...

  18. Hydrogen speciation in synthetic quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, R.D.; Kirby, S.H.; Rossman, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The dominant hydrogen impurity in synthetic quartz is molecular H2O. H-OH groups also occur, but there is no direct evidence for the hydrolysis of Si-O-Si bonds to yield Si-OH HO-Si groups. Molecular H2O concentrations in the synthetic quartz crystals studied range from less than 10 to 3,300 ppm (H/Si), and decrease smoothly by up to an order of magnitude with distance away from the seed. OH- concentrations range from 96 to 715 ppm, and rise smoothly with distance away from the seed by up to a factor of three. The observed OH- is probably all associated with cationic impurities, as in natural quartz. Molecular H2O is the dominant initial hydrogen impurity in weak quartz. The hydrolytic weakening of quartz may be caused by the transformation H2O + Si-O-Si ??? 2SiOH, but this may be a transitory change with the SiOH groups recombining to form H2O, and the average SiOH concentration remaining very low. Synthetic quartz is strengthened when the H2O is accumulated into fluid inclusions and cannot react with the quartz framework. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Characterization of synthetic peptides by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhala, Bala Krishna; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is well suited for analysis of the identity and purity of synthetic peptides. The sequence of a synthetic peptide is most often known, so the analysis is mainly used to confirm the identity and purity of the peptide. Here, simple procedures are described for MALDI......-TOF-MS and LC-MS of synthetic peptides....

  20. Mapping Forest Cover and Forest Cover Change with Airborne S-Band Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Ningthoujam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of forest cover, forest carbon stocks and carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation are increasingly important components of sustainable resource management, for combating biodiversity loss and in climate mitigation policies. Satellite remote sensing provides the only means for mapping global forest cover regularly. However, forest classification with optical data is limited by its insensitivity to three-dimensional canopy structure and cloud cover obscuring many forest regions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR sensors are increasingly being used to mitigate these problems, mainly in the L-, C- and X-band domains of the electromagnetic spectrum. S-band has not been systematically studied for this purpose. In anticipation of the British built NovaSAR-S satellite mission, this study evaluates the benefits of polarimetric S-band SAR for forest characterisation. The Michigan Microwave Canopy Scattering (MIMICS-I radiative transfer model is utilised to understand the scattering mechanisms in forest canopies at S-band. The MIMICS-I model reveals strong S-band backscatter sensitivity to the forest canopy in comparison to soil characteristics across all polarisations and incidence angles. Airborne S-band SAR imagery over the temperate mixed forest of Savernake Forest in southern England is analysed for its information content. Based on the modelling results, S-band HH- and VV-polarisation radar backscatter and the Radar Forest Degradation Index (RFDI are used in a forest/non-forest Maximum Likelihood classification at a spatial resolution of 6 m (70% overall accuracy, κ = 0.41 and 20 m (63% overall accuracy, κ = 0.27. The conclusion is that S-band SAR such as from NovaSAR-S is likely to be suitable for monitoring forest cover and its changes.

  1. Synthetic cation-selective nanotube: permeant cations chaperoned by anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2011-01-28

    The ability to design ion-selective, synthetic nanotubes which mimic biological ion channels may have significant implications for the future treatment of bacteria, diseases, and as ultrasensitive biosensors. We present the design of a synthetic nanotube made from carbon atoms that selectively allows monovalent cations to move across and rejects all anions. The cation-selective nanotube mimics some of the salient properties of biological ion channels. Before practical nanodevices are successfully fabricated it is vital that proof-of-concept computational studies are performed. With this in mind we use molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamics of ion permeation across a single-walled (10, 10), 36 Å long, carbon nanotube terminated with carboxylic acid with an effective radius of 5.08 Å. Although cations encounter a high energy barrier of 7 kT, its height is drastically reduced by a chloride ion in the nanotube. The presence of a chloride ion near the pore entrance thus enables a cation to enter the pore and, once in the pore, it is chaperoned by the resident counterion across the narrow pore. The moment the chaperoned cation transits the pore, the counterion moves back to the entrance to ferry another ion. The synthetic nanotube has a high sodium conductance of 124 pS and shows linear current-voltage and current-concentration profiles. The cation-anion selectivity ratio ranges from 8 to 25, depending on the ionic concentrations in the reservoirs.

  2. The art of the cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nora

    2017-07-01

    Often, it's difficult to match up our cover artwork with the subjects of our lead articles and special reports. Of necessity, we sometimes turn to pure abstraction. How else to illustrate technical policy articles on subjects such as changing research protocols or informed consent, or abstract ideas like congruence, duality, imbalance, causality? At such times, we have to be pretty creative, and my search for cover art can be long and challenging. In the end, we hope that the reader will make the connection between cover and content. However, at other times, the subject of a lead article or special report overflows with artistic possibilities. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  3. On numerically pluricanonical cyclic coverings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V S; Kharlamov, V M

    2014-01-01

    We investigate some properties of cyclic coverings f:Y→X (where X is a complex surface of general type) branched along smooth curves B⊂X that are numerically equivalent to a multiple of the canonical class of X. Our main results concern coverings of surfaces of general type with p g =0 and Miyaoka-Yau surfaces. In particular, such coverings provide new examples of multi-component moduli spaces of surfaces with given Chern numbers and new examples of surfaces that are not deformation equivalent to their complex conjugates

  4. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  5. Heat resistant protective hand covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A heat-resistant aromatic polyamide fiber is described. The outer surface of the shell is coated with a fire-resistant elastomer and liner. Generally conforming and secured to the shell and disposed inwardly of the shell, the liner is made of a felt fabric of temperature-resistant aromatic polymide fiber.

  6. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jasveer, E-mail: kaurjasveer89@gmail.com; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India); Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder, E-mail: raminder-k-saini@yahoo.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  7. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader

    2005-08-01

    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  8. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  9. The development of nonwoven fabric and agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber for industrial usages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Seung Sik

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project is the development of nonwoven fabric using natural kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for industrial usages and the development of manufacturing techniques for nursery bed soil using kapok fiber. Research scopes include the development of agricultural bed soil using kapok fiber and nonwoven fabric using kapok fiber. Main results are as follow; the physico-chemical characterization of kapok fiber (water holding capacity, bulk density, water retention curve, viscoelastic measurement, oil adsorption capacity, analysis of essential elements, measurement of anion and cation); the physico-chemical characterization of kapok bed soil; the evidence experiment of kapok bed soil; the optimum content of kapok fiber and synthetic fiber for nonwoven fabric; establishment of the optimum radiation dose for manufacturing kapok nonwoven fabric

  10. Special study on vegetative covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the findings of a special study on the use of vegetative covers to stabilize tailings piles for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The principal rationale for using plants would be to establish a dynamic system for controlling water balance. Specifically, vegetation would be used to intercept and transpire precipitation to the atmosphere, rather than allowing water to drain into the tailings and mobilize contaminants. This would facilitate compliance with groundwater standards proposed for the UMTRA Project by the Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of using vegetative covers on UMTRA Project piles, define the advantages and disadvantages of vegetative covers, and develop general guidelines for their use when such use seems reasonable. The principal method for the study was to analyze and apply to the UMTRA Project the results of research programs on vegetative covers at other US Department of Energy (DOE) waste management facilities. The study also relied upon observations made of existing stabilized piles at UMTRA Project sites where natural vegetation is growing on the rock-covered surfaces. Water balance and erosion models were also used to quantify the long-term performance of vegetative covers planned for the topslopes of stabilized piles at Grand Junction and Durango, Colorado, two UMTRA Project sites where the decision was made during the course of this special study to use vegetative covers. Elements in the design and construction of the vegetative covers at these two sites are discussed in the report, with explanations of the differing features that reflect differing environmental conditions. 28 refs., 18 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Recent Advances in Cell Electrospining of Natural and Synthetic Nanofibers for Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Reza; Aval, Sedigheh Fekri; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2018-01-22

    The progression of nanotechnology provides opportunities to manipulate synthetic and natural materials to mimic the natural structure for tissue engineering applications. The electrospinning technique applies electrostatic principle to fabricate electrospun nanofibers. Nanofiber scaffolds are precisely similar to the native extracellular matrix (ECM) and support cell proliferation, adhesion, tendency to preserve their phenotypic shape and directed growth according to the nanofiber direction. This study reviewed both the natural and synthetic type of nanofibers and described the different properties used to trigger certain process in the tissue development. Also, the potential applications of electrospun scaffolds for regenerative medicine were summarized. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Integrating biological redesign: where synthetic biology came from and where it needs to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Jeffrey C; Collins, James J; Keasling, Jay D; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-03-27

    Synthetic biology seeks to extend approaches from engineering and computation to redesign of biology, with goals such as generating new chemicals, improving human health, and addressing environmental issues. Early on, several guiding principles of synthetic biology were articulated, including design according to specification, separation of design from fabrication, use of standardized biological parts and organisms, and abstraction. We review the utility of these principles over the past decade in light of the field's accomplishments in building complex systems based on microbial transcription and metabolism and describe the progress in mammalian cell engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Land-cover change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  14. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  15. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  16. Ballistic Performance of Mallow and Jute Natural Fabrics Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Marçal, Rubens Lincoln Santana Blazutti; Lima Júnior, Édio Pereira; Margem, Jean Igor

    2017-01-01

    Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites have recently been investigated as a component of multilayered armor system (MAS). These composites were found to present advantages when replacing conventional high strength synthetic aramid fabric laminate composite (KevlarTM, with same thickness, as MAS second layer. Continuous and loose natural fibers were up to now mostly used to reinforce these ballistic composites. Only two natural fabrics reinforced polymer composite were so far used with sa...

  17. A methodology for determining fabrication flaws in a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, G.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a program with the major objective of estimating the rate of occurrence of fabrication flaws in US light-water reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). In this study, RPV mate4rial was examined using the Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique for Ultrasonic Testing (SAFT-UT) to detect and characterize flaws created during fabrication. The inspection data obtained in this program has been analyzed to address the rates of flaw occurrence

  18. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that

  19. PIGMI mechanical fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prime goal of the mechanical design effort associated with the PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program is to investigate new materials and fabrication techniques in an effort to obtain increased machine efficiency and reliability at a reasonable cost. The following discussion deals with the modeling program that LASL is pursuing for 450-MHz and 1350-MHz PIGMI development. (author)

  20. Micromechanical Structures Fabrication; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, S

    2001-01-01

    Work in materials other than silicon for MEMS applications has typically been restricted to metals and metal oxides instead of more ''exotic'' semiconductors. However, group III-V and II-VI semiconductors form a very important and versatile collection of material and electronic parameters available to the MEMS and MOEMS designer. With these materials, not only are the traditional mechanical material variables (thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young's modulus, etc.) available, but also chemical constituents can be varied in ternary and quaternary materials. This flexibility can be extremely important for both friction and chemical compatibility issues for MEMS. In addition, the ability to continually vary the bandgap energy can be particularly useful for many electronics and infrared detection applications. However, there are two major obstacles associated with alternate semiconductor material MEMS. The first issue is the actual fabrication of non-silicon micro-devices and the second impediment is communicating with these novel devices. We have implemented an essentially material independent fabrication method that is amenable to most group III-V and II-VI semiconductors. This technique uses a combination of non-traditional direct write precision fabrication processes such as diamond turning, ion milling, laser ablation, etc. This type of deterministic fabrication approach lends itself to an almost trivial assembly process. We also implemented a mechanical, electrical, and optical self-aligning hybridization technique for these alternate-material MEMS substrates

  1. Fabrication activity for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Chung, Il-Sug; Carletti, Luca

    We present the fabrication and characterization of new structures and materials to be used in nanophotonics. The first structure presented is a fractal metallic metasurface designed to be used as a high-sensitivity sensor for 810nm wavelength. A second structure is a high index contrast grating...

  2. Advanced Drug Delivery Systems - a Synthetic and Biological Applied Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lise Nørkjær

    function as the targeting moiety on the surface of the liposomes. Several examples of synthetic procedures known from the literature are presented. The chapter is completed with a study covering the conjugation efficiencies of a variety of chemical functionalities. Large differences are revealed between...... to guide the uptake, in addition to an enzymatically cleavable peptide sequence, whose cleavage would result in removal of the polymer layer as well as uncovering cationic charges on the liposomal surface. These systems were shown to have superior drug efficacy in vitro....

  3. Diffusion-synthetic acceleration methods for discrete-ordinates problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    The diffusion-synthetic acceleration (DSA) method is an iterative procedure for obtaining numerical solutions of discrete-ordinates problems. The DSA method is operationally more complicated than the standard source-iteration (SI) method, but if encoded properly it converges much more rapidly, especially for problems with diffusion-like regions. In this article we describe the basic ideas behind the DSA method and give a (roughly chronological) review of its long development. We conclude with a discussion which covers additional topics, including some remaining open problems an the status of current efforts aimed at solving these problems

  4. Synthetic Aperture Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    The main objective of this project was to continue the development of a synthetic aperture vector flow estimator. This type of estimator is capable of overcoming two of the major limitations in conventional ultrasound systems: 1) the inability to scan large region of interest with high temporal......, this thesis showed that novel information can be obtained with vector velocity methods providing quantitative estimates of blood flow and insight into the complexity of the hemodynamics dynamics. This could give the clinician a new tool in assessment and treatment of a broad range of diseases....

  5. Synthetic Biology Guides Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Connor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of microbial processes for the production of renewable liquid fuels has increased with concerns about the current fuel economy. The development of advanced biofuels in particular has risen to address some of the shortcomings of ethanol. These advanced fuels have chemical properties similar to petroleum-based liquid fuels, thus removing the need for engine modification or infrastructure redesign. While the productivity and titers of each of these processes remains to be improved, progress in synthetic biology has provided tools to guide the engineering of these processes through present and future challenges.

  6. Oral two-generation reproduction toxicity study with NM-200 synthetic amorphous silica in Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, A.; Oosterwijk, T.; Schneider, S.; Landsiedel, R.; Groot, D. de; Ee, R. van; Wouters, M.; Sandt, H. van de

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) like NM-200 is used in a wide variety of technological applications and consumer products. Although SAS has been widely investigated the available reproductive toxicity studies are old and do not cover all requirements of current OECD Guidelines. As part of a

  7. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  8. Status report, canister fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika; Emilsson, Goeran

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  9. Tracking the emergence of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Philip; Kwon, Seokbeom; Youtie, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging domain that combines biological and engineering concepts and which has seen rapid growth in research, innovation, and policy interest in recent years. This paper contributes to efforts to delineate this emerging domain by presenting a newly constructed bibliometric definition of synthetic biology. Our approach is dimensioned from a core set of papers in synthetic biology, using procedures to obtain benchmark synthetic biology publication records, extract keywords from these benchmark records, and refine the keywords, supplemented with articles published in dedicated synthetic biology journals. We compare our search strategy with other recent bibliometric approaches to define synthetic biology, using a common source of publication data for the period from 2000 to 2015. The paper details the rapid growth and international spread of research in synthetic biology in recent years, demonstrates that diverse research disciplines are contributing to the multidisciplinary development of synthetic biology research, and visualizes this by profiling synthetic biology research on the map of science. We further show the roles of a relatively concentrated set of research sponsors in funding the growth and trajectories of synthetic biology. In addition to discussing these analyses, the paper notes limitations and suggests lines for further work.

  10. DNA recognition by synthetic constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-09-05

    The interaction of transcription factors with specific DNA sites is key for the regulation of gene expression. Despite the availability of a large body of structural data on protein-DNA complexes, we are still far from fully understanding the molecular and biophysical bases underlying such interactions. Therefore, the development of non-natural agents that can reproduce the DNA-recognition properties of natural transcription factors remains a major and challenging goal in chemical biology. In this review we summarize the basics of double-stranded DNA recognition by transcription factors, and describe recent developments in the design and preparation of synthetic DNA binders. We mainly focus on synthetic peptides that have been designed by following the DNA interaction of natural proteins, and we discuss how the tools of organic synthesis can be used to make artificial constructs equipped with functionalities that introduce additional properties to the recognition process, such as sensing and controllability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthetic Biology of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, De-Chuan; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters which have been extensively studied using synthetic biology and metabolic engineering methods for improving production and for widening its diversity. Synthetic biology has allowed PHA to become composition controllable random copolymers, homopolymers, and block copolymers. Recent developments showed that it is possible to establish a microbial platform for producing not only random copolymers with controllable monomers and their ratios but also structurally defined homopolymers and block copolymers. This was achieved by engineering the genome of Pseudomonas putida or Pseudomonas entomophiles to weaken the β-oxidation and in situ fatty acid synthesis pathways, so that a fatty acid fed to the bacteria maintains its original chain length and structures when incorporated into the PHA chains. The engineered bacterium allows functional groups in a fatty acid to be introduced into PHA, forming functional PHA, which, upon grafting, generates endless PHA variety. Recombinant Escherichia coli also succeeded in producing efficiently poly(3-hydroxypropionate) or P3HP, the strongest member of PHA. Synthesis pathways of P3HP and its copolymer P3HB3HP of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxypropionate were assembled respectively to allow their synthesis from glucose. CRISPRi was also successfully used to manipulate simultaneously multiple genes and control metabolic flux in E. coli to obtain a series of copolymer P3HB4HB of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB). The bacterial shapes were successfully engineered for enhanced PHA accumulation.

  12. Vectoring of parallel synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Tim; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Gomit, Guillaume

    2015-11-01

    A pair of parallel synthetic jets can be vectored by applying a phase difference between the two driving signals. The resulting jet can be merged or bifurcated and either vectored towards the actuator leading in phase or the actuator lagging in phase. In the present study, the influence of phase difference and Strouhal number on the vectoring behaviour is examined experimentally. Phase-locked vorticity fields, measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), are used to track vortex pairs. The physical mechanisms that explain the diversity in vectoring behaviour are observed based on the vortex trajectories. For a fixed phase difference, the vectoring behaviour is shown to be primarily influenced by pinch-off time of vortex rings generated by the synthetic jets. Beyond a certain formation number, the pinch-off timescale becomes invariant. In this region, the vectoring behaviour is determined by the distance between subsequent vortex rings. We acknowledge the financial support from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no. 277472).

  13. Synthetic membrane-targeted antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooturi, S K; Firestine, S M

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance continues to evolve and presents serious challenges in the therapy of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The rise of resistant strains like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) suggests that antimicrobial resistance is an inevitable evolutionary response to antimicrobial use. This highlights the tremendous need for antibiotics against new bacterial targets. Agents that target the integrity of bacterial membrane are relatively novel in the clinical armamentarium. Daptomycin, a lipopeptide is a classical example of membrane-bound antibiotic. Nature has also utilized this tactic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are found in all kingdoms, function primarily by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane. AMPs have several advantages over existing antibiotics including a broad spectrum of activity, rapid bactericidal activity, no cross-resistance with the existing antibiotics and a low probability for developing resistance. Currently, a small number of peptides have been developed for clinical use but therapeutic applications are limited because of poor bioavailability and high manufacturing cost. However, their broad specificity, potent activity and lower probability for resistance have spurred the search for synthetic mimetics of antimicrobial peptides as membrane-active antibiotics. In this review, we will discuss the different classes of synthetic membrane-bound antibiotics published since 2004.

  14. A novel approach for the fabrication of carbon nanofibre/ceramic porous structures

    KAUST Repository

    Walter, Claudia; Barg, Suelen; Ni, Na; Maher, Robert C.; Garcίa-Tuñ ó n, Esther; Zaiviji Ismail, Muhammad Muzzafar; Babot, Flora; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of hybrid ceramic/carbon scaffolds in which carbon nanofibres and multi-walled carbon nanotubes fully cover the internal walls of a microporous ceramic structure that provides mechanical stability. Freeze casting

  15. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  16. The National Land Cover Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Collin G.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  17. Fabrication of silicon condenser microphones using single wafer technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeper, P.R.; van der Donk, A.G.H.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1992-01-01

    A condenser microphone design that can be fabricated using the sacrificial layer technique is proposed and tested. The microphone backplate is a 1-¿m plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited (PECVD) silicon nitride film with a high density of acoustic holes (120-525 holes/mm2), covered with a thin

  18. Novel sensors for food inspection modelling, fabrication and experimentation

    CERN Document Server

    Abdul Rahman, Mohd Syaifudin; Yu, Pak-Lam

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses presents recent developments of novel planar interdigital sensors for food inspection. It covers the fundamentals of sensors, their design, modelling and simulations, fabrications, characterizations, experimental investigations and analyses. This book will be useful for the engineers and researchers especially higher undergraduate, postgraduate students as well as practitioners working on the development of Electromagnetic Sensors.

  19. Applications of ion plating in metals fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.T.; Thompson, J.C.

    1974-01-01

    Use of ion plating at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to solve problems encountered in metals fabrication and processing are discussed. Three typical areas are covered. The first is the use of strike coats on various substrates for subsequent electrodeposition. The second area in which ion plating is shown to contribute to a process is in cold welding or room temperature bonding of metals. The third application involves plating U to promote safe handling, fission-product retention, and corrosion protection in nuclear reactors

  20. Neural engineering from advanced biomaterials to 3D fabrication techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, David

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the principles of advanced 3D fabrication techniques, stem cells and biomaterials for neural engineering. Renowned contributors cover topics such as neural tissue regeneration, peripheral and central nervous system repair, brain-machine interfaces and in vitro nervous system modeling. Within these areas, focus remains on exciting and emerging technologies such as highly developed neuroprostheses and the communication channels between the brain and prostheses, enabling technologies that are beneficial for development of therapeutic interventions, advanced fabrication techniques such as 3D bioprinting, photolithography, microfluidics, and subtractive fabrication, and the engineering of implantable neural grafts. There is a strong focus on stem cells and 3D bioprinting technologies throughout the book, including working with embryonic, fetal, neonatal, and adult stem cells and a variety of sophisticated 3D bioprinting methods for neural engineering applications. There is also a strong focus on b...

  1. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures

  2. OPO fabric decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Bar, J.; Grujbar, V.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of five polypropylene-based man-made fabrics were studied with regard to the degree of contamination and possibilities of decontamination in order to assess their suitability as material for protective clothing in the nuclear industry. The contamination degree of the fabrics in an aqueous solution of a fission product mixture was found to be low. Soaking in a mixture of the Sapon detergent and sodium hexametaphosphate at a concentration of both materials of 1 g/l with subsequent washing in a solution of the Zenit detergent at a concentration of 3 g/l was suggested as the most suitable decontamination procedure. It reduces the initial contamination by almost 99%. (Z.M.)

  3. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  4. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  5. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  6. Mechanical alignment of particles for use in fabricating superconducting and permanent magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellis, W.J.; Maple, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of fabricating oriented compacts of superconducting and/or permanent magnetic material. It comprises: providing a base layer of support material, mechanically orienting aligned superconducting or permanently magnetic particles into the desired orientation on the base layer, without mixing the particles with a liquid, optionally covering the particles with a support material, fabricating the base layer and oriented particles assemblage into a desired construct and recovering the resulting fabricated material

  7. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA

    2017-01-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  8. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  9. Advanced fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the fabrication of advanced fuels, such as mixed oxides for Pressurized Water Reactors or mixed nitrides for Fast Breeder Reactors. Although an extensive production experience exists for the mixed oxides used in the FBR, important work is still needed to improve the theoretical and technical knowledge of the production route which will be introduced in the future European facility, named Melox, at Marcoule. Recently, the feasibility of nitride fuel fabrication in existing commercial oxide facilities was demonstrated in France. The process, based on carbothermic reduction of oxides with subsequent comminution of the reaction product, cold pressing and sintering provides (U, Pu)N pellets with characteristics suitable for irradiation testing. Two experiments named NIMPHE 1 and 2 fabricated in collaboration with ITU, Karlsruhe, involve 16 nitride and 2 carbide pins, operating at a linear power of 45 and 73 kW/m with a smear density of 75-80% TD and a high burn-up target of 15 at%. These experiments are currently being irradiated in Phenix, at Marcoule. (orig.)

  10. Synthetic approaches to uniform polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Monzur; Brocchini, Steve

    2006-12-30

    Uniform polymers are characterised by a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Uniformity is also defined by chemical structure in respect of (1) monomer orientation, sequence and stereo-regularity, (2) polymer shape and morphology and (3) chemical functionality. The function of natural polymers such as polypeptides and polynucleotides is related to their conformational structure (e.g. folded tertiary structure). This is only possible because of their high degree of uniformity. While completely uniform synthetic polymers are rare, polymers with broad structure and MWD are widely used in medicine and the biomedical sciences. They are integral components in final dosage forms, drug delivery systems (DDS) and in implantable devices. Increasingly uniform polymers are being used to develop more complex medicines (e.g. delivery of biopharmaceuticals, enhanced formulations or DDS's for existing actives). In addition to the function imparted by any new polymer it will be required to meet stringent specifications in terms of cost containment, scalability, biocompatibility and performance. Synthetic polymers with therapeutic activity are also being developed to exploit their polyvalent properties, which is not possible with low molecular weight molecules. There is need to utilise uniform polymers for applications where the polymer may interact with the systemic circulation, tissues or cellular environment. There are also potential applications (e.g. stimuli responsive coatings) where uniform polymers may be used for their more defined property profile. While it is not yet practical to prepare synthetic polymers to the same high degree of uniformity as proteins, nature also effectively utilises many polymers with lower degrees of uniformity (e.g. polysaccharides, poly(amino acids), polyhydroxyalkanoates). In recent years it has become possible to prepare with practical experimental protocols sufficient quantities of polymers that display many aspects of uniformity. This

  11. Synthetic Lipoproteins as Carriers for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hualiang

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic lipoprotein is an effective carrier of targeted delivery for drugs. It has the very small size, good biocompatibility, suitable half-life, and specific lipoprotein receptorbinding capacity. Compared with the traditional natural lipoprotein, synthetic lipoprotein not only retains the original biological characteristics and functions, but also exhibits the excellent characteristics in drug delivery. Herein, the advantages, development, applications, and prospect of synthetic lipoproteins as drug carriers were summarized.

  12. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  13. Cover Crops in Hillside Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our study focuses on the wet tropical hillsides of northern Honduras (Figure 1). ..... The eastern extreme of the region (Jutiapa) is a dry spot, with less rainfall (2 000 mm a-1) as a result ...... Paper presented at the International Workshop on Green Manure–Cover Crops for Smallholders in ..... Lamaster, J.P.; Jones, I.R. 1923.

  14. Cover times of random searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  15. High-density polymer microarrays: identifying synthetic polymers that control human embryonic stem cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne; Mjoseng, Heidi K; Zhang, Rong; Kalloudis, Michail; Koutsos, Vasileios; de Sousa, Paul A; Bradley, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of high-density polymer microarray is described, allowing the simultaneous and efficient evaluation of more than 7000 different polymers in a single-cellular-based screen. These high-density polymer arrays are applied in the search for synthetic substrates for hESCs culture. Up-scaling of the identified hit polymers enables long-term cellular cultivation and promoted successful stem-cell maintenance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  17. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  18. Synthetic biology assemblies for sustainable space exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work utilized synthetic biology to create sustainable food production processes by developing technology to efficiently convert inedible crop waste to...

  19. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  20. Preparation of synthetic standard minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrick, C.C.; Bustamante, S.J.; Charls, R.W.; Cowan, R.E.; Hakkila, E.A.; Hull, D.E.; Olinger, B.W.; Roof, R.B.; Sheinberg, H.; Herrick, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    A number of techniques for synthetic mineral preparations have been examined. These techniques include hot-pressing in graphite dies at moderate pressures, high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis in a piston and cylinder apparatus, isostatic pressing under helium gas pressures, hydrous mineral preparations using water as the pressure medium, explosion-generated shock waves, and radiofrequency heating. Minerals suitable for equation-of-state studies (three-inch, high-density discs), for thermodynamic property determinations (low-density powders) and for microprobe standards (fusion-cast microbeads) have been prepared. Mechanical stress-strain calculations in the piston-cylinder apparatus have been initiated and their integration with thermal stress calculations is currently under investigation

  1. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  2. Synthetic biology: a utilitarian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I examine the positive and negative features of synthetic biology ('SynBio') from a utilitarian ethical perspective. The potential beneficial outcomes from SynBio in the context of medicine are substantial; however it is not presently possible to predict precise outcomes due to the nascent state of the field. Potential negative outcomes from SynBio also exist, including iatrogenesis and bioterrorism; however it is not yet possible to quantify these risks. I argue that the application of a 'precautionary' approach to SynBio is ethically fraught, as is the notion that SynBio-associated knowledge ought to be restricted. I conclude that utilitarians ought to support a broadly laissez-faire stance in respect of SynBio. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Synthetic biology: engineering molecular computers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Complicated systems cannot survive the rigors of a chaotic environment, without balancing mechanisms that sense, decide upon and counteract the exerted disturbances. Especially so with living organisms, forced by competition to incredible complexities, escalating also their self-controlling plight. Therefore, they compute. Can we harness biological mechanisms to create artificial computing systems? Biology offers several levels of design abstraction: molecular machines, cells, organisms... ranging from the more easily-defined to the more inherently complex. At the bottom of this stack we find the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA, with their digital structure and relatively precise interactions. They are central enablers of designing artificial biological systems, in the confluence of engineering and biology, that we call Synthetic biology. In the first part, let us follow their trail towards an overview of building computing machines with molecules -- and in the second part, take the case study of iGEM Greece 201...

  4. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  5. Terminator Operon Reporter: combining a transcription termination switch with reporter technology for improved gene synthesis and synthetic biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Massimiliano; Mur, Luis A J; Rees Stevens, Pauline; Pachebat, Justin A; Newbold, C James; Hayes, Finbarr; Kingston-Smith, Alison

    2016-05-25

    Synthetic biology is characterized by the development of novel and powerful DNA fabrication methods and by the application of engineering principles to biology. The current study describes Terminator Operon Reporter (TOR), a new gene assembly technology based on the conditional activation of a reporter gene in response to sequence errors occurring at the assembly stage of the synthetic element. These errors are monitored by a transcription terminator that is placed between the synthetic gene and reporter gene. Switching of this terminator between active and inactive states dictates the transcription status of the downstream reporter gene to provide a rapid and facile readout of the accuracy of synthetic assembly. Designed specifically and uniquely for the synthesis of protein coding genes in bacteria, TOR allows the rapid and cost-effective fabrication of synthetic constructs by employing oligonucleotides at the most basic purification level (desalted) and without the need for costly and time-consuming post-synthesis correction methods. Thus, TOR streamlines gene assembly approaches, which are central to the future development of synthetic biology.

  6. A Comparison of Advanced Regression Algorithms for Quantifying Urban Land Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpona Okujeni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative methods for mapping sub-pixel land cover fractions are gaining increasing attention, particularly with regard to upcoming hyperspectral satellite missions. We evaluated five advanced regression algorithms combined with synthetically mixed training data for quantifying urban land cover from HyMap data at 3.6 and 9 m spatial resolution. Methods included support vector regression (SVR, kernel ridge regression (KRR, artificial neural networks (NN, random forest regression (RFR and partial least squares regression (PLSR. Our experiments demonstrate that both kernel methods SVR and KRR yield high accuracies for mapping complex urban surface types, i.e., rooftops, pavements, grass- and tree-covered areas. SVR and KRR models proved to be stable with regard to the spatial and spectral differences between both images and effectively utilized the higher complexity of the synthetic training mixtures for improving estimates for coarser resolution data. Observed deficiencies mainly relate to known problems arising from spectral similarities or shadowing. The remaining regressors either revealed erratic (NN or limited (RFR and PLSR performances when comprehensively mapping urban land cover. Our findings suggest that the combination of kernel-based regression methods, such as SVR and KRR, with synthetically mixed training data is well suited for quantifying urban land cover from imaging spectrometer data at multiple scales.

  7. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansley, S. P.; Betzel, G.T.; Meyer, J.; Metcalf, P.; Reinisch, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolu tion resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kY), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MY). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response S. P. Lansley () . G. T. Betzel . J. Meyer Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand e-mail: stuart.lansley canterbury.ac.nz S. P. Lansley The Macdiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand P. Metcalfe Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia L. Reinisch Department of Physical and Earth Sciences, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL, USA with dose (at 100 kY) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 Y compared to a bias of 61.75 Y used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the syn thetic diamond detector. Overall

  8. Rapid and accurate synthesis of TALE genes from synthetic oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Hefei; Gao, Jingxia; Chen, Fengjiao; Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Cuizhen; Peng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Custom synthesis of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) genes has relied upon plasmid libraries of pre-fabricated TALE-repeat monomers or oligomers. Here we describe a novel synthesis method that directly incorporates annealed synthetic oligonucleotides into the TALE-repeat units. Our approach utilizes iterative sets of oligonucleotides and a translational frame check strategy to ensure the high efficiency and accuracy of TALE-gene synthesis. TALE arrays of more than 20 repeats can be constructed, and the majority of the synthesized constructs have perfect sequences. In addition, this novel oligonucleotide-based method can readily accommodate design changes to the TALE repeats. We demonstrated an increased gene targeting efficiency against a genomic site containing a potentially methylated cytosine by incorporating non-conventional repeat variable di-residue (RVD) sequences.

  9. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kassianov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR. The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  10. Covering and Reimbursing Telehealth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers who are striving to achieve better health care, improved health outcomes and lower costs are considering new strategies and technologies. Telehealth is a tool that uses technology to provide health services remotely, and state leaders are looking to it now more than ever as a way to address workforce gaps and reach underserved patients. Among the challenges facing state lawmakers who are working to introduce or expand telehealth is how to handle covering patients and reimbursing providers.

  11. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  12. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  13. Mask fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

  14. Advanced fabrication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Plant is a multipurpose nuclear facility located on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington state. The facility is part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory which is operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Department of Energy. The Fuel Cycle Plant is currently being prepared to support the Liquid Metal Reactors Program with fuel fabrication services for the Fast Flux Test Facility and other LMR programs. This report describes the technical innovations to be utilized in the operation of this plant

  15. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  16. Study of seed for synthetical quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, C.K.; Torikai, D.

    1988-01-01

    Natural quartz blocks for seed (synthetic quartz technology) were studied by using various characterization techniques, such as X-ray topography, optical micrography, inspectoscopy, polariscopy and conoscopy, and etching. One of the most commonly found defect is the electrical or Dauphine twin. In The present research, we have developed a methodology to obtain a highly perfect seed for the synthetic quartz industries. (author) [pt

  17. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  18. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  19. Metal immobilization in soils using synthetic zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, L.A.; Lexmond, T.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2002-01-01

    In situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils is a technique to improve soil quality. Synthetic zeolites are potentially useful additives to bind heavy metals. This study selected the most effective zeolite in cadmium and zinc binding out of six synthetic zeolites (mordenite-type,

  20. Synthetic and Empirical Capsicum Annuum Image Dataset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, R.

    2016-01-01

    This dataset consists of per-pixel annotated synthetic (10500) and empirical images (50) of Capsicum annuum, also known as sweet or bell pepper, situated in a commercial greenhouse. Furthermore, the source models to generate the synthetic images are included. The aim of the datasets are to

  1. Synthetic aperture radar: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Yahya, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to synthetic aperture radar is presented. Synthetic aperture radar is a relatively new remote sensing platform and the technology has matured a lot in the last two decades. This paper introduces the concepts behind SAR principles as well as the major areas where this new technology has shown additional information. (author)

  2. Opportunities for microfluidic technologies in synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Shelly; Rouilly, Vincent; Niu, Xize; Chappell, James; Kitney, Richard I.; Edel, Joshua B.; Freemont, Paul S.; deMello, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce microfluidics technologies as a key foundational technology for synthetic biology experimentation. Recent advances in the field of microfluidics are reviewed and the potential of such a technological platform to support the rapid development of synthetic biology solutions is discussed.

  3. Steel desulphurization with synthetic slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heput, T.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, sulphur is considered a harmful element for steel quality, reason why all the technological steps are being taken in order to eliminate it from the metal bath. This paper deals with the influence of the chemical composition, on the slag quantity and of the bath stirring condition upon the desulphurization process in the casting ladle by treatment with synthetic slag. The experiments were made at an open-hearth plant with the steel tapping in two ladles (the desulphurization was made with synthetic slag at one ladle while the other one was considered standard and at the electric steel plant and for the synthetic slag formation a mix was used, made, according to several receipts, of: lime (50-75%, fluorine (0-17%, bauxite (0-32% and aluminous slag (8-22%. The data were processed in the calculation programs EXCEL and MATLAB, which resulted in a series of correlations between the desulphurization degree and the chemical composition of the slag, respectively the slag quantity both for the charges bubbled with Argon and the unbubbled ones.

    En general, el azufre es considerado un elemento nocivo para la calidad del acero y, por eso, en la práctica, se toman todas las medidas de orden tecnológico para su eliminación del baño metálico. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la composición química, de la cantidad de escoria y del estado de agitación del baño sobre el proceso de desulfuración en la cuchara para fundir por tratamiento con escoria sintética. Los experimentos se han realizado en una acería evacuando el acero en dos ollas (en una cuchara se efectuó la desulfuración con escoria sintética y a la otra se consideró como patrón y en un acería eléctrica y para la formación de la escoria sintética se utilizó una mezcla producida según muchas recetas, formada por: cal (50-75%, fluorina (0-17%, bauxita (0-32% y escoria aluminosa (8-22%. Los datos han sido procesados en los programas de c

  4. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: ronghuiguo214@126.com [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  5. Synthetic and Bio-Artificial Tactile Sensing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Carrozza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art of artificial tactile sensing, with a particular focus on bio-hybrid and fully-biological approaches. To this aim, the study of physiology of the human sense of touch and of the coding mechanisms of tactile information is a significant starting point, which is briefly explored in this review. Then, the progress towards the development of an artificial sense of touch are investigated. Artificial tactile sensing is analysed with respect to the possible approaches to fabricate the outer interface layer: synthetic skin versus bio-artificial skin. With particular respect to the synthetic skin approach, a brief overview is provided on various technologies and transduction principles that can be integrated beneath the skin layer. Then, the main focus moves to approaches characterized by the use of bio-artificial skin as an outer layer of the artificial sensory system. Within this design solution for the skin, bio-hybrid and fully-biological tactile sensing systems are thoroughly presented: while significant results have been reported for the development of tissue engineered skins, the development of mechanotransduction units and their integration is a recent trend that is still lagging behind, therefore requiring research efforts and investments. In the last part of the paper, application domains and perspectives of the reviewed tactile sensing technologies are discussed.

  6. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  7. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Krams, Rob

    2015-05-06

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON-OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Synthetic Organic Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Naeko; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Okubo, Ichiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2018-04-18

    Though synthetic organic colorants are used in various applications nowadays, there is the concern that impurities by-produced during the manufacturing and degradation products in some of these colorants are persistent organic pollutants and carcinogens. Thus, it is important to identify the synthetic organic colorants in various products, such as commercial paints, ink, cosmetics, food, textile, and plastics. Dyes, which are soluble in water and other solvents, could be analyzed by chromatographic methods. In contrast, it is difficult to analyze synthetic organic pigments by these methods because of their insolubility. This review is an overview of mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic organic pigments by various ionization methods. We highlight a recent study of textile samples by atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe MS. Furthermore, the mass spectral features of synthetic organic pigments and their separation from other components such as paint media and plasticizers are discussed.

  9. Structural analysis of hatch cover plates on Fuels and Materials Examination Facility high bay mezzanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixson, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    In order to move the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) trailer into position for testing on the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) 42 ft level mezzanine one of the trailer's wheels will have to sit on a circular hatch cover fabricated from one-inch thick steel plate. The attached calculations verify that the hatch cover plate is strong enough to support the weight of the INEL LDUA trailer's wheel

  10. Science with Synthetic Stellar Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Robyn Ellyn

    2018-04-01

    A new generation of observational projects is poised to revolutionize our understanding of the resolved stellar populations of Milky-Way-like galaxies at an unprecedented level of detail, ushering in an era of precision studies of galaxy formation. In the Milky Way itself, astrometric, spectroscopic and photometric surveys will measure three-dimensional positions and velocities and numerous chemical abundances for stars from the disk to the halo, as well as for many satellite dwarf galaxies. In the Local Group and beyond, HST, JWST and eventually WFIRST will deliver pristine views of resolved stars. The groundbreaking scale and dimensionality of this new view of resolved stellar populations in galaxies challenge us to develop new theoretical tools to robustly compare these surveys to simulated galaxies, in order to take full advantage of our new ability to make detailed predictions for stellar populations within a cosmological context. I will describe a framework for generating realistic synthetic star catalogs and mock surveys from state-of-the-art cosmological-hydrodynamical simulations, and present several early scientific results from, and predictions for, resolved stellar surveys of our Galaxy and its neighbors.

  11. Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Abhigyan; Vemparala, Satyavani; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-01-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance are now considered the most imperative global healthcare problem. In the search for new treatments, host defense, or antimicrobial, peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their various unique properties; however, attempts to develop in vivo therapies have been severely limited. Efforts to develop synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) have increased significantly in the last decade, and this review will focus primarily on the structural evolution of SMAMPs and their membrane activity. This review will attempt to make a bridge between the design of SMAMPs and the fundamentals of SMAMP-membrane interactions. In discussions regarding the membrane interaction of SMAMPs, close attention will be paid to the lipid composition of the bilayer. Despite many years of study, the exact conformational aspects responsible for the high selectivity of these AMPs and SMAMPs toward bacterial cells over mammalian cells are still not fully understood. The ability to design SMAMPs that are potently antimicrobial, yet nontoxic to mammalian cells has been demonstrated with a variety of molecular scaffolds. Initial animal studies show very good tissue distribution along with more than a 4-log reduction in bacterial counts. The results on SMAMPs are not only extremely promising for novel antibiotics, but also provide an optimistic picture for the greater challenge of general proteomimetics.

  12. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  13. Braids and coverings selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1989-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course taught by the author at the University of Maryland, USA. The lecture notes have been revised and augmented by examples. The work falls into two strands. The first two chapters develop the elementary theory of Artin Braid groups both geometrically and via homotopy theory, and discuss the link between knot theory and the combinatorics of braid groups through Markov's Theorem. The final two chapters give a detailed investigation of polynomial covering maps, which may be viewed as a homomorphism of the fundamental group of the base space into the Artin braid

  14. Biomimetic shark skin: design, fabrication and hydrodynamic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li; Weaver, James C; Lauder, George V

    2014-05-15

    Although the functional properties of shark skin have been of considerable interest to both biologists and engineers because of the complex hydrodynamic effects of surface roughness, no study to date has successfully fabricated a flexible biomimetic shark skin that allows detailed study of hydrodynamic function. We present the first study of the design, fabrication and hydrodynamic testing of a synthetic, flexible, shark skin membrane. A three-dimensional (3D) model of shark skin denticles was constructed using micro-CT imaging of the skin of the shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus). Using 3D printing, thousands of rigid synthetic shark denticles were placed on flexible membranes in a controlled, linear-arrayed pattern. This flexible 3D printed shark skin model was then tested in water using a robotic flapping device that allowed us to either hold the models in a stationary position or move them dynamically at their self-propelled swimming speed. Compared with a smooth control model without denticles, the 3D printed shark skin showed increased swimming speed with reduced energy consumption under certain motion programs. For example, at a heave frequency of 1.5 Hz and an amplitude of ± 1 cm, swimming speed increased by 6.6% and the energy cost-of-transport was reduced by 5.9%. In addition, a leading-edge vortex with greater vorticity than the smooth control was generated by the 3D printed shark skin, which may explain the increased swimming speeds. The ability to fabricate synthetic biomimetic shark skin opens up a wide array of possible manipulations of surface roughness parameters, and the ability to examine the hydrodynamic consequences of diverse skin denticle shapes present in different shark species. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Mixed U/Pu oxide fabrication facility for gel-sphere-pac fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This paper describes a conceptual plant which uses the gel-sphere-pac process to fabricate mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and covers (1) fabrication of co-processed MOX fuel and (2) fabrication of co-processed spiked MOX fuel, using 60 Co. The report describes: the fuel fabrication process and plant layout, including scrap and waste processing; and maintenance safety and ventilation measures. A description of the conversion of U and Pu nitrate using a gel sphere process is given in Appendix A

  16. Synthetic Biology: Mapping the Scientific Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Burton, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from Thomson Reuters Web of Science to map and analyse the scientific landscape for synthetic biology. The article draws on recent advances in data visualisation and analytics with the aim of informing upcoming international policy debates on the governance of synthetic biology by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. We use mapping techniques to identify how synthetic biology can best be understood and the range of institutions, researchers and funding agencies involved. Debates under the Convention are likely to focus on a possible moratorium on the field release of synthetic organisms, cells or genomes. Based on the empirical evidence we propose that guidance could be provided to funding agencies to respect the letter and spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity in making research investments. Building on the recommendations of the United States Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues we demonstrate that it is possible to promote independent and transparent monitoring of developments in synthetic biology using modern information tools. In particular, public and policy understanding and engagement with synthetic biology can be enhanced through the use of online interactive tools. As a step forward in this process we make existing data on the scientific literature on synthetic biology available in an online interactive workbook so that researchers, policy makers and civil society can explore the data and draw conclusions for themselves. PMID:22539946

  17. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lucy V; Morrison, Catriona M; Conway, Martin A

    2018-02-01

    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation times; however, IFAMs always took longer to construct than AMs. Finally, replicating previous findings, fewer IFAMs had a field perspective than AMs, IFAMs were less vivid than AMs, and IFAMs contained more motion words (indicative of increased cognitive load). Taken together, these findings show a pattern of systematic differences that mark out IFAMs, and they also show that IFAMs can be identified indirectly by lowered performance on concurrent tasks that increase cognitive load.

  18. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola ME; Brown T; Heitzenroeder P; Malinowski F; Reiersen W; Sutton L; Goranson P; Nelson B; Cole M; Manuel M; McCorkle D.

    2005-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120 o vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1-inch of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120 o vessel segments are formed by welding two 60 o segments together. Each 60 o segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8-inch (20.3 cm) wide spacer ''spool pieces''. The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10 -6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02(micro), and its contours must be within 0.188-inch (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006

  19. Synthetic Biology: game changer in intelectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Landeweerd

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology can be considered a game changer that plays an important role in the current NBIC, or BINC convergence of nano-, bio-, info and cognitive sciences. Although most synthetic biology experts are unaware of it, the field appeals to the imagination in its adherence to targets that were usually associated with premodern alchemist science. This paper elaborates several aspects of synthetic biology as well as its consequences for long held notions of intellectual property and the ontological categories of scientific discovery on the one hand and engineering on the other, the distinction between natural and artificial, the grown and the made.

  20. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen E.; Bonheyo, George T.; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    2017-08-01

    In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology. The team analyzes selected interactions within that network to better understand the risks raised by synthetic biology and identifies opportunities for risk mitigation. To introduce the concept, the article will briefly describe how an understanding of supply chains has been important in promoting nuclear nonproliferation objectives. The article concludes by assessing the structure and networks identified in the supply chains to reveal potential opportunities for future biodefense research and development; options for additional information exchange; and means to interdict, detect, or deter suspicious activity.

  1. [Smart therapeutics based on synthetic gene circuits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shuguang; Xie, Zhen

    2017-03-25

    Synthetic biology has an important impact on biology research since its birth. Applying the thought and methods that reference from electrical engineering, synthetic biology uncovers many regulatory mechanisms of life systems, transforms and expands a series of biological components. Therefore, it brings a wide range of biomedical applications, including providing new ideas for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review describes the latest advances in the field of disease diagnosis and therapy based on mammalian cell or bacterial synthetic gene circuits, and provides new ideas for future smart therapy design.

  2. Mouse-resistant insulated covers keep pipes from freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-01-15

    Fabric wellhead covers and insulated blankets are commonly used at well sites in the Wyoming coalbed methane field to keep surface pipes from freezing. These materials are often chewed up by mice who build nests close to the warm pipes. The mice attract rattlesnakes, a potentially serious problem for the workmen who check the wells daily. Kennon Products of Sheridan, Wyoming solved this problem by making a flexible covering material that has a coating of hardened guard plates that prevents mice from chewing through it. More than a hundred of Kennon's mouse-resistant wellhead covers have been used successfully in the gas fields for over a year. They can be installed in less than 30 minutes and cost only a fraction of what a fiberglass hut costs to purchase and install. Huts are being discouraged for use on federal lands because they alter the nesting patterns of eagles, who perch upon them to hunt rodents. Huts also trap methane gas, which is a potential safety hazard. Kennon's mouse-resistant wellhead covers are lower than the fiberglass huts and blend into the landscape. The company is working on camouflage colours to make wellheads less noticeable. In the future, the company plans to insulate water pipes. 1 fig.

  3. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  4. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics using crosslinking polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Chen, Zhenxing; Sun, Yongli; Yang, Huawei; Zhang, Hongjie; Dou, Haozhen; Zhang, Luhong

    2018-05-01

    With the aim of removing and recycling oil and organic solvent from water, a facile and low-cost crosslinking polymerization method was first applied on surface modification of cotton fabrics for water/oil separation. Micro-nano hierarchical rough structure was constructed by triethylenetetramine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) that formed a polymeric layer on the surface of the fabric and anchored Al2O3 nanoparticles firmly between the fabric surface and the polymer layer. Superhydrophobic property was further obtained through self-assembly grafting of hydrophobic groups on the rough surface. The as-prepared cotton fabric exhibited superoleophilicity in atmosphere and superhydrophobicity both in atmosphere and under oil with the water contact angle of 153° and 152° respectively. Water/oil separation test showed that the as-prepared cotton fabric can handle with various oil-water mixtures with a high separation efficiency over 99%. More importantly, the separation efficiency remained above 98% over 20 cycles of reusing without losing its superhydrophobicity which demonstrated excellent reusability in oil/water separation process. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton fabric possessed good contamination resistance ability and self-cleaning property. Simulation washing process test showed the superhydrophobic cotton fabric maintained high value of water contact angle above 150° after 100 times washing, indicating great stability and durability. In summary, this work provides a brand-new way to surface modification of cotton fabric and makes it a promising candidate material for oil/water separation.

  5. [Progress in synthetic biology of "973 Funding Program" in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews progresses made in China from 2011 in areas of "Synthetic Biology" supported by State Basic Research 973 Program. Till the end of 2014, 9 "synthetic biology" projects have been initiated with emphasis on "microbial manufactures" with the 973 Funding Program. Combined with the very recent launch of one project on "mammalian cell synthetic biology" and another on "plant synthetic biology", Chinese "synthetic biology" research reflects its focus on "manufactures" while not giving up efforts on "synthetic biology" of complex systems.

  6. Towards Biomimicking Wood: Fabricated Free-standing Films of Nanocellulose, Lignin, and a Synthetic Polycation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Karthik; Navarro Arzate, Fernando; Zhang, Wei; Renneckar, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Woody materials are comprised of plant cell walls that contain a layered secondary cell wall composed of structural polymers of polysaccharides and lignin. Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly process which relies on the assembly of oppositely charged molecules from aqueous solutions was used to build a freestanding composite film of isolated wood polymers of lignin and oxidized nanofibril cellulose (NFC). To facilitate the assembly of these negatively charged polymers, a positively charged polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethylammomium chloride) (PDDA), was used as a linking layer to create this simplified model cell wall. The layered adsorption process was studied quantitatively using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and ellipsometry. The results showed that layer mass/thickness per adsorbed layer increased as a function of total number of layers. The surface coverage of the adsorbed layers was studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Complete coverage of the surface with lignin in all the deposition cycles was found for the system, however, surface coverage by NFC increased with the number of layers. The adsorption process was carried out for 250 cycles (500 bilayers) on a cellulose acetate (CA) substrate. Transparent free-standing LBL assembled nanocomposite films were obtained when the CA substrate was later dissolved in acetone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured cross-sections showed a lamellar structure, and the thickness per adsorption cycle (PDDA-Lignin-PDDA-NC) was estimated to be 17 nm for two different lignin types used in the study. The data indicates a film with highly controlled architecture where nanocellulose and lignin are spatially deposited on the nanoscale (a polymer-polymer nanocomposites), similar to what is observed in the native cell wall. PMID:24961302

  7. Fabricating Synthetic Data in Support of Training for Domestic Terrorist Activity Data Mining Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    of Mannheim seeks to produce realistic digital images for student analysis ( Moch & Freiling, 2009). Using instructor generated scripts and the...laboratory. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, (pp. 262-294). Moch , C., & Freiling, F. (2009). The forensic image generator

  8. Fabrication and characterization of silica aerogel as synthetic tissues for medical imaging phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Eunji; Naguib, Hani

    2015-05-01

    Medical imaging plays an important role in the field of healthcare industry both in clinical settings and in research and development. It is used in prevention, early detection of disease, in choosing the optimal treatment, during surgical interventions and monitoring of the treatment effects. Despite much advancement in the last few decades, rapid change on its technology development and variety of imaging parameters that differ with the manufacturer restrict its further development. Imaging phantom is a calibrating medium that is scanned or imaged in the field of medical imaging to evaluate, analyze and tune the performance of various imaging devices. A phantom used to evaluate an imaging device should respond in a similar manner to how human tissue and organs would act in that specific imaging modality. There has been many research on the phantom materials; however, there has been no attempt to study on the material that mimics the structure of lung or fibrous tissue. So with the need for development of gel with such structure, we tried to mimic this structure with aerogel. Silica aerogels have unique properties that include low density (0.003g/cm) and mesoporosity (pore size 2-50nm), with a high thermal insulation value (0.005W/mK) and high surface area (500-1200m-2/g).] In this study, we cross-linked with di-isocyanate, which is a group in polyurethane to covalently bond the polymer to the surface of silica aerogel to enhance the mechanical properties. By formation of covalent bonds, the structure can be reinforced by widening the interparticle necks while minimally reducing porosity.

  9. [Anthropology and synthetic Darwinism in the Third Reich: The Evolution of Organisms (1943)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Junker, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    This essay will analyse early attempts to base anthropology on the theoretical model provided by the emerging synthetic Darwinism of the 1940s. In the first section we will investigate the historical context of the publication of one of the central documents of synthetic Darwinism in Germany: Gerhard Heberer's Die Evolution der Organismen (1943). Anthropology was covered extensively in this book. The second section will give an impression of the live and work of the five anthropologists represented in Heberer's book: Christian von Krogh, Wilhelm Gieseler, Otto Reche, Hans Weinert, and Gerhard Heberer. The third part of our paper will clarify whether these anthropologists shared a common theoretical outlook with the founders of synthetic Darwinism, and to what degree they were committed to the racial ideas of the Third Reich.

  10. CRISPR and the Rebirth of Synthetic Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidari, Raheleh; Shaw, David Martin; Elger, Bernice Simone

    Emergence of novel genome engineering technologies such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) has refocused attention on unresolved ethical complications of synthetic biology. Biosecurity concerns, deontological issues and human right aspects of genome editing have

  11. Thermodynamic Analysis of Ionic Compounds: Synthetic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Claude H.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how thermodynamic cycles can be used to understand trends in heats of formation and aqueous solubilities and, most importantly, how they may be used to choose synthetic routes to new ionic compounds. (JN)

  12. Synthetic biology platform technologies for antimicrobial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braff, Dana; Shis, David; Collins, James J

    2016-10-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance calls for new approaches in the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Likewise, improved diagnostic measures are essential in guiding the application of targeted therapies and preventing the evolution of therapeutic resistance. Discovery platforms are also needed to form new treatment strategies and identify novel antimicrobial agents. By applying engineering principles to molecular biology, synthetic biologists have developed platforms that improve upon, supplement, and will perhaps supplant traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics. Efforts in engineering bacteriophages and synthetic probiotics demonstrate targeted antimicrobial approaches that can be fine-tuned using synthetic biology-derived principles. Further, the development of paper-based, cell-free expression systems holds promise in promoting the clinical translation of molecular biology tools for diagnostic purposes. In this review, we highlight emerging synthetic biology platform technologies that are geared toward the generation of new antimicrobial therapies, diagnostics, and discovery channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthetic Sediments and Stochastic Groundwater Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    For over twenty years the groundwater community has pursued the somewhat elusive goal of describing the effects of aquifer heterogeneity on subsurface flow and chemical transport. While small perturbation stochastic moment methods have significantly advanced theoretical understanding, why is it that stochastic applications use instead simulations of flow and transport through multiple realizations of synthetic geology? Allan Gutjahr was a principle proponent of the Fast Fourier Transform method for the synthetic generation of aquifer properties and recently explored new, more geologically sound, synthetic methods based on multi-scale Markov random fields. Focusing on sedimentary aquifers, how has the state-of-the-art of synthetic generation changed and what new developments can be expected, for example, to deal with issues like conceptual model uncertainty, the differences between measurement and modeling scales, and subgrid scale variability? What will it take to get stochastic methods, whether based on moments, multiple realizations, or some other approach, into widespread application?

  14. Philosophy of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This entry aims to clarify how systems and synthetic biology contribute to and extend discussions within philosophy of science. Unlike fields such as developmental biology or molecular biology, systems and synthetic biology are not easily demarcated by a focus on a specific subject area or level...... of organization. Rather, they are characterized by the development and application of mathematical, computational, and synthetic modeling strategies in response to complex problems and challenges within the life sciences. Proponents of systems and synthetic biology often stress the necessity of a perspective...... that goes beyond the scope of molecular biology and genetic engineering, respectively. With the emphasis on systems and interaction networks, the approaches explicitly engage in one of the oldest philosophical discussions on the relationship between parts and wholes, or between reductionism and holism...

  15. Defining the Synthetic Biology Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazar, Sarah L; Hund, Gretchen E; Bonheyo, George T; Diggans, James; Bartholomew, Rachel A; Gehrig, Lindsey; Greaves, Mark

    Several recent articles have described risks posed by synthetic biology and spurred vigorous discussion in the scientific, commercial, and government communities about how to best detect, prevent, regulate, and respond to these risks. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) deep experience working with dual-use technologies for the nuclear industry has shown that analysis of supply chains can reveal security vulnerabilities and ways to mitigate security risk without hindering beneficial research and commerce. In this article, a team of experts in synthetic biology, data analytics, and national security describe the overall supply chain surrounding synthetic biology to illustrate new insights about the effectiveness of current regulations, the possible need for different screening approaches, and new technical solutions that could help identify or mitigate risks in the synthetic biology supply chain.

  16. Fabrication of a novel aluminum surface covered by numerous high-aspect-ratio anodic alumina nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Daiki; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Natsui, Shungo; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2015-01-01

    The formation behavior of anodic alumina nanofibers via anodizing in a concentrated pyrophosphoric acid under various conditions was investigated using electrochemical measurements and SEM/TEM observations. Pyrophosphoric acid anodizing at 293 K resulted in the formation of numerous anodic alumina nanofibers on an aluminum substrate through a thin barrier oxide and honeycomb oxide with narrow walls. However, long-term anodizing led to the chemical dissolution of the alumina nanofibers. The de...

  17. EVALUATION OF DATA APPLICABILITY FOR D-INSAR IN AREAS COVERED BY ABUNDANT VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the frequent geological disasters have caused enormous casualties and economic losses. Therefore, D-InSAR (differential interferometry synthetic aperture radar has been widely used in early-warning and post disaster assessment. However, large area of decorrelation often occurs in the areas covered with abundant vegetation, which seriously affects the accuracy of surface deformation monitoring. In this paper, we analysed the effect of sensor parameters and external environment parameters on special decorrelation. Then Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR datasets acquired by X-band TerraSAR-X, Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, and C-band Sentinel-1 in Guizhou province were collected and analysed to generate the maps of coherence, which were used to evaluating the applicability of datasets of different wavelengths for D-InSAR in forest area. Finally, we found that datasets acquired by ALOS-2 had the best monitoring effect.

  18. Process for fabrication of cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L [Livermore, CA

    2011-02-01

    Cermet comprising ceramic and metal components and a molten metal infiltration method and process for fabrication thereof. The light weight cermets having improved porosity, strength, durability, toughness, elasticity fabricated from presintered ceramic powder infiltrated with a molten metal or metal alloy. Alumina titanium cermets biocompatible with the human body suitable for bone and joint replacements.

  19. CW RFQ fabrication and engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, D.; Young, L.; Roybal, P.

    1998-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a four-vane RFQ to deliver a 100 mA CW proton beam at 6.7 MeV is described. This linac is an Oxygen-Free Electrolytic (OFE) copper structure 8 m in length and was fabricated using hydrogen furnace brazing as the joining technology

  20. Synthetic Sling Failure - Evaluations and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Mackey, Thomas C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall

  1. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  2. DRAPING SIMULATION OF WOVEN FABRICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, William [General Motors LLC; Jin, Xiaoshi [ESI Group NA; Zhu, Jiang [Optimal CAE; Wathen, Terrence [General Motors LLC; Doroudian2, Mark [ESI Group NA; Aitharaju, Venkat [General Motors LLC

    2016-09-07

    Woven fabric composites are extensively used in molding complex geometrical shapes due to their high conformability compared to other fabrics. Preforming is an important step in the overall process, where the two-dimensional fabric is draped to become the three-dimensional shape of the part prior to resin injection. During preforming, the orientation of the yarns may change significantly compared to the initial orientations. Accurate prediction of the yarn orientations after molding is important for evaluating the structural performance of the final part. This paper presents a systematic investigation of the angle changes during the preform operation for carbon fiber twill and satin weave fabrics. Preforming experiments were conducted using a truncated pyramid mold geometry designed and fabricated at the General Motors Research Laboratories. Predicted results for the yarn orientations were compared with experimental results and good agreement was observed

  3. Synthetic Biology and the Translational Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari Feidt, Raheleh; Ienca, Marcello; Elger, Bernice Simone; Folcher, Marc

    2017-12-18

    Advances at the interface between the biological sciences and engineering are giving rise to emerging research fields such as synthetic biology. Harnessing the potential of synthetic biology requires timely and adequate translation into clinical practice. However, the translational research enterprise is currently facing fundamental obstacles that slow down the transition of scientific discoveries from the laboratory to the patient bedside. These obstacles including scarce financial resources and deficiency of organizational and logistic settings are widely discussed as primary impediments to translational research. In addition, a number of socio-ethical considerations inherent in translational research need to be addressed. As the translational capacity of synthetic biology is tightly linked to its social acceptance and ethical approval, ethical limitations may-together with financial and organizational problems-be co-determinants of suboptimal translation. Therefore, an early assessment of such limitations will contribute to proactively favor successful translation and prevent the promising potential of synthetic biology from remaining under-expressed. Through the discussion of two case-specific inventions in synthetic biology and their associated ethical implications, we illustrate the socio-ethical challenges ahead in the process of implementing synthetic biology into clinical practice. Since reducing the translational lag is essential for delivering the benefits of basic biomedical research to society at large and promoting global health, we advocate a moral obligation to accelerating translational research: the "translational imperative."

  4. Synthetic biology era: Improving antibiotic's world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Trampe, Silvia; Ceapa, Corina D; Manzo-Ruiz, Monserrat; Sánchez, Sergio

    2017-06-15

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogen microorganisms is problematic in the context of the current spectrum of available medication. The poor specificity and the high toxicity of some available molecules have made imperative the search for new strategies to improve the specificity and to pursue the discovery of novel compounds with increased bioactivity. Using living cells as platforms, synthetic biology has counteracted this problem by offering novel pathways to create synthetic systems with improved and desired functions. Among many other biotechnological approaches, the advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to design and construct novel biological systems in order to look for new drugs with increased bioactivity. Advancements have also been made in the redesigning of RNA and DNA molecules in order to engineer antibiotic clusters for antibiotic overexpression. As for the production of these antibacterial compounds, yeasts and filamentous fungi as well as gene therapy are utilized to enhance protein solubility. Specific delivery is achieved by creating chimeras using plant genes into bacterial hosts. Some of these synthetic systems are currently in clinical trials, proving the proficiency of synthetic biology in terms of both pharmacological activities as well as an increase in the biosafety of treatments. It is possible that we may just be seeing the tip of the iceberg, and synthetic biology applications will overpass expectations beyond our present knowledge. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Synthetic cannabis and acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson-Leung, Miya E; Leung, Lester Y; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    An association between marijuana use and stroke has been previously reported. However, the health risks of newer synthetic cannabinoid compounds are less well known. We describe 2 cases that introduce a previously unreported association between synthetic cannabis use and ischemic stroke in young adults. A 22-year-old woman presented with dysarthria, left hemiplegia, and left hemianesthesia within hours of first use of synthetic cannabis. She was healthy and without identified stroke risk factors other than oral contraceptive use and a patent foramen ovale without venous thromboses. A 26-year-old woman presented with nonfluent aphasia, left facial droop, and left hemianesthesia approximately 12 hours after first use of synthetic cannabis. Her other stroke risk factors included migraine with aura, oral contraceptive use, smoking, and a family history of superficial thrombophlebitis. Both women were found to have acute, large-territory infarctions of the right middle cerebral artery. Our 2 cases had risk factors for ischemic stroke but were otherwise young and healthy and the onset of their deficits occurred within hours after first-time exposure to synthetic cannabis. Synthetic cannabis use is an important consideration in the investigation of stroke in young adults. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. International conference on design, fabrication and economy of metal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the International Conference on Design, Fabrication and Economy of Metal Structures held on 24-26 April 2013 in Miskolc, Hungary which contain 99 papers covering: Structural optimization Thin-walled structures Stability Fatigue Frames Fire Fabrication Welding technology Applications Steel-concrete composite Special problems The authors are from 23 different countries, ensuring that the themes covered are of worldwide interest and importance. The International Institute of Welding (IIW), the International Society of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (ISSMO), the TÁMOP 4.2.1.B-10/2/KONV-2010-0001 project entitled “Increasing the quality of higher education through the development of research - development and innovation program at the University of Miskolc supported by the European Union, co-financed by the European Social Fund” and many other sponsors helped organizers to collect these valuable studies, the results of which will provoke discussion, and provide an i...

  7. Offshore Wind Potential in South India from Synthetic Aperture Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Bingöl, Ferhat; Badger, Merete

    are from Wide Swath Mode and each cover approximately 400 km by 400 km. The ocean wind speed maps are retrieved and processed at Risø DTU. The results show wind energy density from 200 W/m2 to 500 W/m2 at 10 m height above sea level. QuikSCAT ocean winds are included as background information on the 10......The offshore wind energy potential for pre-feasibility in South India in the area from 77° to 80° Eastern longitude and 7° to 10° Northern latitude is observed from a total of 164 ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) satellite images during the years 2002 to 2011. All satellite scenes......-year mean and a general description of the winds and climate with monsoons in India is presented....

  8. Contaminated glove remover for rubber or synthetic gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counit, G.; Charvolin, M.

    1993-01-01

    The glove remover, especially for protective rubber or synthetic gloves used to handle toxic materials in the nuclear, chemical and other industries, consist of a housing with a chamber into which the gloved hand is inserted, an outer depression chamber and a perforated wall between the two. A vacuum unit creates a low pressure inside the chamber enabling the hand to be withdrawn from the glove, which is then drawn through the pipe into a container for disposal. The open end of the chamber is covered by a diaphragm which surrounds and seals the arm which is inserted into it with the gloved hand. The diaphragm can occupy three positions: closed, where it surrounds and seals the arm; open, allowing the hand to be inserted or withdrawn, and intermediate, when air can pass from the outside between the hand and glove. A similar chamber is used for removing boots

  9. Time-Mean Structure of Axisymmetric Synthetic Jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 161, 1-2 (2010), s. 217-224 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499; GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jet * similarity solution * fluid flow Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6THG-50B49R5-1&_user=640952&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1401478319&_rerunOrigin=scholar. google &_acct=C000034318&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=640952&md5=9c1ee293f204acab661943a9c5be6438

  10. Offshore wind potential in South India from synthetic aperture radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Bingoel, F.; Badger, M.; Karagali, I.; Sreevalsan, E.

    2011-10-15

    The offshore wind energy potential for pre-feasibility in South India in the area from 77 deg. to 80 deg. Eastern longitude and 7 deg. to 10 deg. Northern latitude is observed from a total of 164 ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) satellite images during the years 2002 to 2011. All satellite scenes are from Wide Swath Mode and each cover approximately 400 km by 400 km. The ocean wind speed maps are retrieved and processed at Risoe DTU. The results show wind energy density from 200 W/m2 to 500 W/m2 at 10 m height above sea level. QuikSCAT ocean winds are included as background information on the 10-year mean and a general description of the winds and climate with monsoons in India is presented. (Author)

  11. The value of snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  12. Dataset on analysis of dyeing property of natural dye from Thespesia populnea bark on different fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchekar Mohini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The natural dyes separated from plants are of gaining interest as substitutes for synthetic dyes in food and cosmetics. Thespesia populnea (T. populnea is widely grown plant and used in the treatment of various diseases. This study was aimed to separate natural dye from T. populnea bark and analysis of its dyeing property on different fabrics. In this investigation pharmacognostic study was carried out. The pharmacognostic study includes morphological study, microscopical examination, proximate analysis along with the phytochemical study. The dyeing of different fabric was done with a natural dye extracted from T. populnea bark. The fabrics like cotton, butter crep, polymer, chiken, lone, ulene and tarakasa were dye with plant extract. The various evaluation parameters were studied. It includes effect of washing with water, effect of soap, effect of sunlight, effect of alum, effect of Cupric sulphate, microscopical study of fabrics and visual analysis of dyeing by common people were studied. In results, natural dye isolated from T. populnea bark could be used for dyeing fabrics with good fastness properties. The studies reveals that, the dyeing property of fabrics after washing with water and soap, exposed to sunlight does not get affected. It was observed that cotton and tarakasa stains better as compared with other fabrics. It was concluded that the ethanolic extract having good dyeing property. Keywords: Plant, Thespesia populnea, Bark, Natural dye, Fabrics

  13. Fabric-skin models to assess infection transfer for impetigo contagiosa in a kindergarten scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardts, A; Henze, S V; Bockmühl, D; Höfer, D

    2015-06-01

    Children in community bodies like kindergartens are predisposed to suffer from impetigo. To consider important measures for infection prevention, direct and indirect transmission routes of pathogens must be revealed. Therefore, we studied the role of skin and fabrics in the spread of the impetigo pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and the strain Streptococcus equi (surrogate to Streptococcus pyogenes) in order to assess infection transfer in realistic scenarios. The transmission of test strains was studied with standardized fabric-skin models using a technical artificial skin and fabrics of different fiber types commonly occurring in German kindergartens. In synthetic pus, both test strains persisted on artificial skin and fabrics for at least 4 h. Friction enhanced transfer, depending on the fiber type or fabric construction. In a skin-to-skin setup, the total transfer was higher than via fabrics and no decrease in the transmission rates from donor to recipients could be observed after successive direct skin contacts. Children in kindergartens may be at risk of transmission for impetigo pathogens, especially via direct skin contact, but also by the joint use of fabrics, like towels or handicraft materials. Fabric-skin models used in this study enable further insight into the transmission factors for skin infections on the basis of a practical approach.

  14. Secure Automated Fabrication: an overview of remote breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Graham, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line is an automated, remotely controlled breeder fuel pin fabrication process which is to be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at Hanford and is scheduled for completion in 1984. The SAF line is scheduled for startup in 1987 and will produce mixed uranium-plutonium fuel pins for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The fabrication line and support systems are described

  15. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  16. Photonic crystals physics, fabrication and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtaka, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    "Photonic Crystals" details recent progress in the study of photonic crystals, ranging from fundamental aspects to up-to-date applications, in one unified treatment It covers most of the worldwide frontier fields in photonic crystals, including up-to-date fabrication techniques, recent and future technological applications, and our basic understanding of the various optical properties of photonic crystals Brand-new theoretical and experimental data are also presented The book is intended for graduate course students and specialists actively working in this field, but it will also be useful for newcomers, especially the extensive chapter dealing with fundamental aspects of photonic crystals, which paves the way to a full appreciation of the other topics addressed

  17. Plasma Chamber Design and Fabrication Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, B.; Bianchi, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Coletti, A.; Frosi, P.; Mazzone, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Ramogida, G.; Coppi, B.

    2006-10-01

    A fabrication procedure for a typical Plasma Chamber (PC) sector has been developed to cover all the manufacturing phases, from the raw materials specification (including metallurgical processes) to the machining operations, acceptance procedures and vacuum tests. Basically, the sector is made of shaped elements (forged or rolled) welded together using special fixtures and then machined to achieve the final dimensional accuracy. An upgraded design of the plasma chamber's vertical support that can withstand the estimated electromagnetic loads (Eddy and Halo current plus horizontal net force resulting from the worst plasma disruption scenario VDE, Vertical Displacement Event) has been completed. The maintenance of the radial support can take place hands-on with a direct access from outside the cryostat. With the present design, vacuum tightness is achieved by welding conducted with automatic welding heads. On the outer surface of the PC a dedicated duct system, filled by helium gas, is included to cool down the PC to room temperature when needed.

  18. Reverse-symmetry waveguides: Theory and fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horvath, R.; Lindvold, Lars René; Larsen, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    We present an extensive theoretical analysis of reverse-symmetry waveguides with special focus on their potential application as sensor components in aqueous media and demonstrate a novel method for fabrication of such waveguides. The principle of reverse symmetry is based on making the refractive...... index of the waveguide substrate less than the refractive index of the medium covering the waveguiding film (n(water) = 1.33). This is opposed to the conventional waveguide geometry, where the substrate is usually glass or polymers with refractive indices of approximate to1.5. The reverse configuration...... are combined with air-grooved polymer supports to form freestanding single-material polymer waveguides of reverse symmetry capable of guiding light....

  19. Frontiers in biomaterials the design, synthetic strategies and biocompatibility of polymer scaffolds for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volume 1" highlights the importance of biomaterials and their interaction with biological system. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues.This ebook covers the latest challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold overtime after implantation and discusses the requirement of innovative technologies and strategies f

  20. Biological armors under impact—effect of keratin coating, and synthetic bio-inspired analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achrai, B; Wagner, H D; Bar-On, B

    2015-01-01

    A number of biological armors, such as turtle shells, consist of a strong exoskeleton covered with a thin keratin coating. The mechanical role upon impact of this keratin coating has surprisingly not been investigated thus far. Low-velocity impact tests on the turtle shell reveal a unique toughening phenomenon attributed to the thin covering keratin layer, the presence of which noticeably improves the fracture energy and shell integrity. Synthetic substrate/coating analogues were subsequently prepared and exhibit an impact behavior similar to the biological ones. The results of the present study may improve our understanding, and even future designs, of impact-tolerant structures. (paper)

  1. MOX fuel fabrication at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimayuga, F.C.; Jeffs, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication activities are conducted in the Recycle Fuel Fabrication Laboratories (RFFL) at the Chalk River Laboratories. The RFFL facility is designed to produce experimental quantities of CANDU MOX fuel for reactor physics tests or demonstration irradiations. From 1979 to 1987, several MOX fuel fabrication campaigns were run in the RFFL, producing various quantities of fuel with different compositions. About 150 bundles, containing over three tonnes of MOX, were fabricated in the RFFL before operations in the facility were suspended. In late 1987, the RFFL was placed in a state of active standby, a condition where no fuel fabrication activities are conducted, but the monitoring and ventilation systems in the facility are maintained. Currently, a project to rehabilitate the RFFL and resume MOX fuel fabrication is nearing completion. This project is funded by the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). The initial fabrication campaign will consist of the production of thirty-eight 37-element (U,Pu)O 2 bundles containing 0.2 wt% Pu in Heavy Element (H.E.) destined for physics tests in the zero-power ZED-2 reactor. An overview of the Rehabilitation Project will be given. (author)

  2. Promoting microbiology education through the iGEM synthetic biology competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelwick, Richard; Bowater, Laura; Yeoman, Kay H; Bowater, Richard P

    2015-08-01

    Synthetic biology has developed rapidly in the 21st century. It covers a range of scientific disciplines that incorporate principles from engineering to take advantage of and improve biological systems, often applied to specific problems. Methods important in this subject area include the systematic design and testing of biological systems and, here, we describe how synthetic biology projects frequently develop microbiology skills and education. Synthetic biology research has huge potential in biotechnology and medicine, which brings important ethical and moral issues to address, offering learning opportunities about the wider impact of microbiological research. Synthetic biology projects have developed into wide-ranging training and educational experiences through iGEM, the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition. Elements of the competition are judged against specific criteria and teams can win medals and prizes across several categories. Collaboration is an important element of iGEM, and all DNA constructs synthesized by iGEM teams are made available to all researchers through the Registry for Standard Biological Parts. An overview of microbiological developments in the iGEM competition is provided. This review is targeted at educators that focus on microbiology and synthetic biology, but will also be of value to undergraduate and postgraduate students with an interest in this exciting subject area. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Health status of cows fed maize silage covered with oxo-biodegradable foil

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr SZTERK; Piotr DORSZEWSKI; Małgorzata GRABOWICZ; Lucyna PODKÓWKA

    2017-01-01

    In agricultural practice, silage production uses pure, low density polyethylene foil. This foil, after use, becomes farm waste, having a negative impact on the environment. Instead of conventional foil, an environmentally safe biodegradable foil can be used, made from naturally occurring polymers or from synthetic multiparticulates, easily degradable by microorganisms. Silage covered with this type of foil should be safe for animal health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether oxo...

  4. Synthetic bedding and wheeze in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Kemp, Andrew; Cochrane, Jennifer; Couper, David; Carmichael, Allan

    2003-01-01

    The reasons for the increase in childhood asthma over time are unclear. The indoor environment is of particular concern. An adverse role for synthetic bedding on asthma development in childhood has been suggested by cross-sectional studies that have found an association between synthetic pillow use and childhood wheeze. Prospective data on infant bedding have not been available. Bedding data at 1 month of age were available from an infant survey for children who were participating in a 1995 follow-up study (N = 863; 78% traced). The 1995 follow-up was embedded in a larger cross-sectional survey involving 6,378 seven year olds in Tasmania (N = 92% of eligible). Outcome measures included respiratory symptoms as defined in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol. Frequent wheeze was defined as more than 12 wheeze episodes over the past year compared with no wheeze. Synthetic pillow use at 1 month of age was associated with frequent wheeze at age 7 (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-5.5) independent of childhood exposure. Current synthetic pillow and quilt use was strongly associated with frequent wheeze (aRR = 5.2; CI = 1.3-20.6). Substantial trends were evident for an association of increasing number of synthetic bedding items with frequent wheeze and with increasing wheeze frequency. Among children with asthma, the age of onset of asthma occurred earlier if synthetic bedding was used in infancy. In this cohort, synthetic bedding was strongly and consistently associated with frequent childhood wheeze. The association did not appear to be attributable to bedding choice as part of an asthma management strategy.

  5. Statistical Monitoring of Changes to Land Cover

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil; Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Accurate detection of changes in land cover leads to better understanding of the dynamics of landscapes. This letter reports the development of a reliable approach to detecting changes in land cover based on remote sensing and radiometric data

  6. VT National Land Cover Dataset - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The NLCD2001 layer available from VCGI is a subset of the the National Land Cover Database 2001 land cover layer for mapping zone 65 was produced...

  7. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  8. 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — In 2008, an update of the 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) database was undertaken. The 1990 KLCP database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State...

  9. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  10. Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

    2013-07-25

    A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Climatological determinants of woody cover in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Stephen P.; Caylor, Kelly K.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence the distribution of woody vegetation cover and resolving the sensitivity of woody vegetation cover to shifts in environmental forcing are critical steps necessary to predict continental-scale responses of dryland ecosystems to climate change. We use a 6-year satellite data record of fractional woody vegetation cover and an 11-year daily precipitation record to investigate the climatological controls on woody vegetation cover across the African continent....

  12. [Snow cover pollution monitoring in Ufa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daukaev, R A; Suleĭmanov, R A

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of examining the snow cover polluted with heavy metals in the large industrial town of Ufa. The level of man-caused burden on the snow cover of the conventional parts of the town was estimated and compared upon exposure to a wide range of snow cover pollutants. The priority snow cover pollutants were identified among the test heavy metals.

  13. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...

  14. Quantum Bridge Fabrication Using Photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinones, R.

    2001-01-01

    The need for high-speed performance electronics in computers integrated circuits and sensors, require the fabrication of low energy consumption diodes. Nano fabrication methods require new techniques and equipment. We are currently developing a procedure to fabricate a diode based on quantum-effects. The device will act like a traditional diode, but the nanometer scale will allow it to reach high speeds without over heating. This new diode will be on a nano-bridge so it can be attenuated by an electromagnetic wave. The goal is to obtain similar current vs voltage response as in a silicon diode

  15. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  16. COMPARISON OF REACTIVITY OF SYNTHETIC AND BOVINE HYDROXYAPATITE IN VITRO UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA HORKAVCOVÁ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite materials prepared by two methods: synthetic (HA–S and bovine (HA-B granules were exposed to a longterm in vitro test under dynamic conditions. Testing cells, filled up to one fourth (¼V of their volume with the tested material, were exposed to continuous flow of simulated body fluid (SBF for 56 days. The objective of the experiment was to determine whether reactivity of the biomaterials (hydroxyapatites, prepared by different methods but identical in terms of their chemical and phase composition, in SBF were comparable. Analyses of the solutions proved that both materials were highly reactive from the very beginning of interaction with SBF (significant decrease of Ca2+ and (PO43- concentrations in the leachate. SEM/EDS images have shown that the surface of bovine HA-B was covered with a new hydroxyapatite (HAp phase in the first two weeks of the test while synthetic HA–S was covered after two weeks of the immersion in SBF. At the end of the test, day 56, both materials were completely covered with well developed porous HAp phase in form of nano-plates. A calculation of the rate of HAp formation from the concentration of (PO43- ions in SBF leachates confirmed that all removed ions were consumed for the formation of the HAp phase throughout the entire testing time for bovine HA–B and only during the second half of the testing time for synthetic HA–S.

  17. Natural fabric of Hildegardia populifolia composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Guduri, BBR

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Hildegardia populofolia fabric content, fabric orientation, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and silane coupling agent treatment on the surface properties of the fabric, mechanical and fracture properties of Hildegardia populifolia...

  18. Properties of natural fabric Polyalthia cerasoides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available of this fabric were compared with those of two natural fabrics reported in the literature. This uniaxial fabric has sufficient tensile modulus and can be used as reinforcement in the development of green composites....

  19. 21 CFR 73.1200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.1200 Section 73.1200 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of any one or any combination of synthetically prepared...

  20. 21 CFR 73.200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.200 Section 73.200 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of any one or any combination of synthetically prepared...

  1. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  2. Measuring and analyzing urban tree cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Rowan A. Rowntree; E. Gregory McPherson; Susan M. Sisinni; Esther R. Kirkmann; Jack C. Stevens

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of city tree cover can aid in urban vegetation planning, management, and research by revealing characteristics of vegetation across a city. Urban tree cover in the United States ranges from 0.4% in Lancaster, California, to 55% in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Two important factors that affect the amount of urban tree cover are the natural environment and land...

  3. Land cover changes in central Sonora Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Valdez-Zamudio; Alejandro Castellanos-Villegas; Stuart Marsh

    2000-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been demonstrated to be very effective tools to help detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover changes in natural areas of the world. Changes in land cover can generally be attributed to either natural or anthropogenic forces. Multitemporal satellite imagery and airborne videography were used to detect, analyze, and evaluate land cover...

  4. Extraction of land cover change information from ENVISAT-ASAR data in Chengdu Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbo; Fan, Jinlong; Huang, Jianxi; Tian, Yichen; Zhang, Yong

    2006-10-01

    Land cover data are essential to most global change research objectives, including the assessment of current environmental conditions and the simulation of future environmental scenarios that ultimately lead to public policy development. Chinese Academy of Sciences generated a nationwide land cover database in order to carry out the quantification and spatial characterization of land use/cover changes (LUCC) in 1990s. In order to improve the reliability of the database, we will update the database anytime. But it is difficult to obtain remote sensing data to extract land cover change information in large-scale. It is hard to acquire optical remote sensing data in Chengdu plain, so the objective of this research was to evaluate multitemporal ENVISAT advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR) data for extracting land cover change information. Based on the fieldwork and the nationwide 1:100000 land cover database, the paper assesses several land cover changes in Chengdu plain, for example: crop to buildings, forest to buildings, and forest to bare land. The results show that ENVISAT ASAR data have great potential for the applications of extracting land cover change information.

  5. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  6. Synthetic biology and the technicity of biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Adrian

    2013-06-01

    The principal existing real-world application of synthetic biology is biofuels. Several 'next generation biofuel' companies-Synthetic Genomics, Amyris and Joule Unlimited Technologies-claim to be using synthetic biology to make biofuels. The irony of this is that highly advanced science and engineering serves the very mundane and familiar realm of transport. Despite their rather prosaic nature, biofuels could offer an interesting way to highlight the novelty of synthetic biology from several angles at once. Drawing on the French philosopher of technology and biology Gilbert Simondon, we can understand biofuels as technical objects whose genesis involves processes of concretisation that negotiate between heterogeneous geographical, biological, technical, scientific and commercial realities. Simondon's notion of technicity, the degree of concretisation of a technical object, usefully conceptualises this relationality. Viewed in terms of technicity, we might understand better how technical entities, elements, and ensembles are coming into being in the name of synthetic biology. The broader argument here is that when we seek to identify the newness of disciplines, their newness might be less epistemic and more logistic. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. WISB: Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, John

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic biology promises to create high-impact solutions to challenges in the areas of biotechnology, human/animal health, the environment, energy, materials and food security. Equally, synthetic biologists create tools and strategies that have the potential to help us answer important fundamental questions in biology. Warwick Integrative Synthetic Biology (WISB) pursues both of these mutually complementary 'build to apply' and 'build to understand' approaches. This is reflected in our research structure, in which a core theme on predictive biosystems engineering develops underpinning understanding as well as next-generation experimental/theoretical tools, and these are then incorporated into three applied themes in which we engineer biosynthetic pathways, microbial communities and microbial effector systems in plants. WISB takes a comprehensive approach to training, education and outreach. For example, WISB is a partner in the EPSRC/BBSRC-funded U.K. Doctoral Training Centre in synthetic biology, we have developed a new undergraduate module in the subject, and we have established five WISB Research Career Development Fellowships to support young group leaders. Research in Ethical, Legal and Societal Aspects (ELSA) of synthetic biology is embedded in our centre activities. WISB has been highly proactive in building an international research and training network that includes partners in Barcelona, Boston, Copenhagen, Madrid, Marburg, São Paulo, Tartu and Valencia. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Cfd modeling of a synthetic jet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dghim, Marouane; Ben Chiekh, Maher; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic jet actuators show good promise as an enabling technology for innovative boundary layer flow control applied to external surfaces, like airplane wings, and to internal flows, like those occurring in a curved engine inlet. The appealing characteristics of a synthetic jet are zero-net-mass flux operation and an efficient control effect that takes advantages of unsteady fluid phenomena. The formation of a synthetic jet in a quiescent external air flow is only beginning to be understood and a rational understanding of these devices is necessary before they can be applied to the control of flows outside of the laboratory. The synthetic jet flow generated by a planar orifice is investigated here using computational approach. Computations of the 2D synthetic jet are performed with unsteady RANS modeled with the Realizable κ - ε turbulence model available in FLUENT environment. In this present work, the ability of the first order turbulence model, employed in our computations, to model the formation of the counter-rotating-vortex pair (CVP) that appears in the flow-field was investigated. Computational results were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The effectiveness of such control actuator was tested on separated boundary layer. Preliminary investigation were presented and discussed

  9. Synthetic cathinones: a new public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) have completely modified the drug scene and the current landscape of addiction. Synthetic substances, such as substituted or synthetic cathinones, also known as « legal highs », are often produced and used to mimic the effects of controlled drugs such as cocaine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), and methamphetamine. The overwhelming majority of synthetic cathinones are produced in China and South East Asian countries. The Internet has emerged as the new marketplace for NPS, playing a major role in providing information on acquisition, synthesis, extraction, identification, and substance use. All these compounds are intentionally mislabeled and sold on-line under slang terms such as bath salts, plant food, plant feeders and research chemicals. They are sometimes labeled « not for human use » or « not tested for hazards or toxicity ». The rapid spread of NPS forces member countries of the European Union to adapt their response to the potential new dangers that may cause. To date, not only health actors but also the general public need to be clearly informed and aware of dangers resulting from NPS spread and use. Here, we review the major clinical effects of synthetic cathinones to highlight their impact on public health. A literature search was conducted from 2009 to 2014 based on PubMed, Google Scholar, Erowid, and governmental websites, using the following keywords alone or in combination: "new psychoactive substances", "synthetic cathinones", "substituted cathinones", "mephedrone", "methylone", "MDPV", "4-MEC", "addiction", and "substance use disorder".

  10. Rheological characteristics of synthetic road binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon D. Airey; Musarrat H. Mohammed; Caroline Fichter [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    This paper deals with the synthesis of polymer binders from monomers that could in future be derived from renewable resources. These binders consist of polyethyl acrylate (PEA) of different molecular weight, polymethyl acrylate (PMA) and polybutyl acrylate (PBA), which were synthesised from ethyl acrylate, methyl acrylate and butyl acrylate, respectively, by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The fundamental rheological properties of these binders were determined by means of a dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) using a combination of temperature and frequency sweeps. The results indicate that PEA has rheological properties similar to that of 100/150 penetration grade bitumen, PMA similar rheological properties to that of 10/20 penetration grade bitumen, while PBA, due to its highly viscous nature and low complex modulus, cannot be used on its own as an asphalt binder. The synthetic binders were also combined with conventional penetration grade bitumen to produce a range of bitumen-synthetic polymer binder blends. These blends were batched by mass in the ratio of 1:1 or 3:1 and subjected to the same DSR rheological testing as the synthetic binders. The blends consisting of a softer bitumen (70/100 pen or 100/150 pen) with a hard synthetic binder (PMA) tended to be more compatible and therefore stable and produced rheological properties that combined the properties of the two components. The synthetic binders and particularly the extended bitumen samples (blends) produced rheological properties that showed similar characteristics to elastomeric SBS PMBs. 30 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. [Treatment approaches for synthetic drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ohji

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, synthetic drugs have emerged since late 2000s, and cases of emergency visits and fatal traffic accidents due to acute intoxication have rapidly increased. The synthetic drugs gained popularity mainly because they were cheap and thought to be "legal". The Japanese government restricted not only production and distribution, but also its possession and use in April 2014. As the synthetic drug dependent patients have better social profiles compared to methamphetamine abusers, this legal sanction may have triggered the decrease in the number of synthetic drug dependent patient visits observed at Kanagawa Psychiatric Center since July 2014. Treatment of the synthetic drug dependent patients should begin with empathic inquiry into the motives and positive psychological effects of the drug use. In the maintenance phase, training patients to trust others and express their hidden negative emotions through verbal communications is essential. The recovery is a process of understanding the relationship between psychological isolation and drug abuse, and gaining trust in others to cope with negative emotions that the patients inevitably would face in their subsequent lives.

  12. Cosmo Cassette: A Microfluidic Microgravity Microbial System For Synthetic Biology Unit Tests and Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Although methods in the design-build-test life cycle of the synthetic biology field have grown rapidly, the expansion has been non-uniform. The design and build stages in development have seen innovations in the form of biological CAD and more efficient means for building DNA, RNA, and other biological constructs. The testing phase of the cycle remains in need of innovation. Presented will be both a theoretical abstraction of biological measurement and a practical demonstration of a microfluidics-based platform for characterizing synthetic biological phenomena. Such a platform demonstrates a design of additive manufacturing (3D printing) for construction of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to be used in experiments carried out in space. First, the biocompatibility of the polypropylene chassis will be demonstrated. The novel MFCs will be cheaper, and faster to make and iterate through designs. The novel design will contain a manifold switchingdistribution system and an integrated in-chip set of reagent reservoirs fabricated via 3D printing. The automated nature of the 3D printing yields itself to higher resolution switching valves and leads to smaller sized payloads, lower cost, reduced power and a standardized platform for synthetic biology unit tests on Earth and in space. It will be demonstrated that the application of unit testing in synthetic biology will lead to the automatic construction and validation of desired constructs. Unit testing methodologies offer benefits of preemptive problem identification, change of facility, simplicity of integration, ease of documentation, and separation of interface from implementation, and automated design.

  13. Role of Synthetic and Dimensional Synthetic Organic Chemistry in Block Copolymer Micelle Nanosensor Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar

    This thesis investigated the role of amphiphilic triblock copolymer micelle nanomaterials in nanosensors, with emphasis on the synthesis of micelle particle sensors. The thesis is focused on the role of synthetic and dimensional synthetic organic chemistry in amphiphilic triblock core-shellcorona...

  14. Fabrication of integrated metallic MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators are characteri......A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators...

  15. Pilling Resistance of Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita BUSILIENĖ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knitted fabrics with different quantity of elastane, conspicuous by high viscosity and elasticity, having one of the most important performance properties - resistance to pilling are often used in the production of high quality sportswear. During technological process imitating operating conditions, the behaviour of knitted fabrics may be changed by different industrial softeners from 12 % to 20 % of active substance, for example fatty acid condensate (Tubingal 5051 or silicone micro emulsion (Tubingal SMF. The aim of this investigation is to define the influence of fibrous composition and chemical softeners to the propensity of fuzzing and pilling of plain and plated jersey pattern knitted fabrics. The results of investigations showed that fibrous composition and thickness of materials (up to 6 % and washing as well as softening (from 33 % to 67 % change the resistance of knitted fabrics to pilling.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.597

  16. Geoacoustic Physical Model Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Fabricates three-dimensional rough surfaces (e.g., fractals, ripples) out of materials such as PVC or wax to simulate the roughness properties associated...

  17. Fabricating plasmonic components for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed....

  18. Parametric Study of Synthetic-Jet-Based Flow Control on a Vertical Tail Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastero, Marianne; Lindstrom, Annika; Beyar, Michael; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Separation control over the rudder of the vertical tail of a commercial airplane using synthetic-jet-based flow control can lead to a reduction in tail size, with an associated decrease in drag and increase in fuel savings. A parametric, experimental study was undertaken using an array of finite span synthetic jets to investigate the sensitivity of the enhanced vertical tail side force to jet parameters, such as jet spanwise spacing and jet momentum coefficient. A generic wind tunnel model was designed and fabricated to fundamentally study the effects of the jet parameters at varying rudder deflection and model sideslip angles. Wind tunnel results obtained from pressure measurements and tuft flow visualization in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Subsonic Wind Tunnel show a decrease in separation severity and increase in model performance in comparison to the baseline, non-actuated case. The sensitivity to various parameters will be presented.

  19. Stretchable surfaces with programmable 3D texture morphing for synthetic camouflaging skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikul, J. H.; Li, S.; Bai, H.; Hanlon, R. T.; Cohen, I.; Shepherd, R. F.

    2017-10-01

    Technologies that use stretchable materials are increasingly important, yet we are unable to control how they stretch with much more sophistication than inflating balloons. Nature, however, demonstrates remarkable control of stretchable surfaces; for example, cephalopods can project hierarchical structures from their skin in milliseconds for a wide range of textural camouflage. Inspired by cephalopod muscular morphology, we developed synthetic tissue groupings that allowed programmable transformation of two-dimensional (2D) stretchable surfaces into target 3D shapes. The synthetic tissue groupings consisted of elastomeric membranes embedded with inextensible textile mesh that inflated to within 10% of their target shapes by using a simple fabrication method and modeling approach. These stretchable surfaces transform from flat sheets to 3D textures that imitate natural stone and plant shapes and camouflage into their background environments.

  20. Towards reinforcement solutions for urban fibre/fabric waste using bio-based biodegradable resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pramod; Hermes, Alina; Bapeer, Solaf; Luiken, Anton; Bouwhuis, Gerrit; Brinks, Ger

    2017-10-01

    The main research question is how to systematically define and characterize urban textile waste and how to effectively utilise it to produce reinforcement(s) with selected bio-based biodegradable resin(s). Several composite samples have been produced utilising predominantly natural and predominantly synthetic fibres by combining loose fibres with PLA, nonwoven fabric with PLA, woven fabric with PLA, two-layer composite & four-layer composite samples. Physio-chemical characterisations according to the established standards have been conducted. The present work is a step toward the circular economy and closing the loop in textile value chain.

  1. Fabrication of planar, layered nanoparticles using tri-layer resist templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Mingliang; Wilson, Robert J; Koh, Ai Leen; Wi, Jung-Sub; Tang, Mary; Sinclair, Robert; Wang, Shan X

    2011-05-06

    A simple and universal pathway to produce free multilayer synthetic nanoparticles is developed based on lithography, vapor phase deposition and a tri-layer resist lift-off and release process. The fabrication method presented in this work is ideal for production of a broad range of nanoparticles, either free in solution or still attached to an intact release layer, with unique magnetic, optical, radioactive, electronic and catalytic properties. Multi-modal capabilities are implicit in the layered architecture. As an example, directly fabricated magnetic nanoparticles are evaluated to illustrate the structural integrity of thin internal multilayers and the nanoparticle stability in aggressive biological environments, which is highly desired for biomedical applications.

  2. Engineered Metallic Nanostructures: Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohloul, Arash

    Metallic nanostructures have garnered a great deal of attention due to their fascinating optical properties, which differ from the bulk metal. They have been proven to exceed expectations in wide variety of applications including chemical and biological sensing. Nevertheless, high-throughput and low cost nanofabrication techniques are required to implant metallic nanostructures in widespread applications. With that vision, this thesis presents a versatile and reliable method for scalable fabrication of gold nanostructures. In this approach, a plasma-treated ordered array of polystyrene nanospheres acts as an initial mask. The key step in this process is the vapor-deposition of nickel as a sacrificial mask. Thereby, gold nanostructures are directly formed on the substrate through the nickel mask. This is an easy, powerful, and straightforward method that offers several degrees of freedom to precisely control the shape and size of nanostructures. We made a library of nanostructures including gold nanocrescents, double crescents, nanorings, and nanodisks with the ability to tune the size in the range of 150 to 650 nm. The fabricated nanostructures are highly packed and uniformly cover the centimeter scale substrate. The optical properties of metallic nanostructures were extensively studied by a combination of UV-Vis-NIR and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies, and correlation between optical response and geometrical parameters were investigated. In the next part of this thesis, highly sensitive surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) analysis was demonstrated on gold nanocrescent arrays. Theoretical modeling was confirmed that these substrates provide highly dense and strong hot-spots over the substrate, which is required for surface enhanced spectroscopic studies. Gold nanocrescent arrays exhibit highly tunable plasmon resonance to cover desired molecular vibrational bands. These substrates experimentally illustrated 3 orders of magnitude

  3. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  4. Safeguards through secure automated fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMerschman, A.W.; Carlson, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, a prime contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy, is constructing the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line for fabrication of mixed oxide breeder fuel pins. Fuel processing by automation, which provides a separation of personnel from fuel handling, will provide a means whereby advanced safeguards concepts will be introduced. Remote operations and the inter-tie between the process computer and the safeguards computer are discussed

  5. [Applications of synthetic biology in materials science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianxin; Zhong, Chao

    2017-03-25

    Materials are the basis for human being survival and social development. To keep abreast with the increasing needs from all aspects of human society, there are huge needs in the development of advanced materials as well as high-efficiency but low-cost manufacturing strategies that are both sustainable and tunable. Synthetic biology, a new engineering principle taking gene regulation and engineering design as the core, greatly promotes the development of life sciences. This discipline has also contributed to the development of material sciences and will continuously bring new ideas to future new material design. In this paper, we review recent advances in applications of synthetic biology in material sciences, with the focus on how synthetic biology could enable synthesis of new polymeric biomaterials and inorganic materials, phage display and directed evolution of proteins relevant to materials development, living functional materials, engineered bacteria-regulated artificial photosynthesis system as well as applications of gene circuits for material sciences.

  6. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehli, Tore; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    in synthetic biology. A number of tools exist to manipulate the steps in between gene sequence and functional protein in living cells, but out of these the most straight-forward approach is to alter the gene expression level by manipulating the promoter sequence. Some of the promoter tuning tools available......Synthetic and systems biologists need standardized, modular and orthogonal tools yielding predictable functions in vivo. In systems biology such tools are needed to quantitatively analyze the behavior of biological systems while the efficient engineering of artificial gene networks is central...... for accomplishing such altered gene expression levels are discussed here along with examples of their use, and ideas for new tools are described. The road ahead looks very promising for synthetic and systems biologists as tools to achieve just about anything in terms of tuning and timing multiple gene expression...

  7. Mammalian synthetic biology for studying the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Melina; Xiang, Joy S; Smolke, Christina D

    2017-01-02

    Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes. Continued development of quantitative standards and computational tools will expand capacities to probe cellular mechanisms with genetic devices to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the cell. In this study, we review synthetic biology tools that are being applied to effectively investigate diverse cellular processes, regulatory networks, and multicellular interactions. We also discuss current challenges and future developments in the field that may transform the types of investigation possible in cell biology. © 2017 Mathur et al.

  8. CSBB: synthetic biology research at Newcastle University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Wipat, Anil; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2017-06-15

    The Centre for Synthetic Biology and the Bioeconomy (CSBB) brings together a far-reaching multidisciplinary community across all Newcastle University's faculties - Medical Sciences, Science, Agriculture and Engineering, and Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences. The CSBB focuses on many different areas of Synthetic Biology, including bioprocessing, computational design and in vivo computation, as well as improving understanding of basic molecular machinery. Such breadth is supported by major national and international research funding, a range of industrial partners in the North East of England and beyond, as well as a large number of doctoral and post-doctoral researchers. The CSBB trains the next generation of scientists through a 1-year MSc in Synthetic Biology. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Is It Time for Synthetic Biodiversity Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, Antoinette J; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seddon, Philip J; Alphey, Luke; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Carlson, Robert H; Friedman, Robert M; Kanavy, Dona; Phelan, Ryan; Redford, Kent H; Rosales, Marina; Slobodian, Lydia; Wheeler, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Evidence indicates that, despite some critical successes, current conservation approaches are not slowing the overall rate of biodiversity loss. The field of synthetic biology, which is capable of altering natural genomes with extremely precise editing, might offer the potential to resolve some intractable conservation problems (e.g., invasive species or pathogens). However, it is our opinion that there has been insufficient engagement by the conservation community with practitioners of synthetic biology. We contend that rapid, large-scale engagement of these two communities is urgently needed to avoid unintended and deleterious ecological consequences. To this point we describe case studies where synthetic biology is currently being applied to conservation, and we highlight the benefits to conservation biologists from engaging with this emerging technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Bioinspired Chemical Communication between Synthetic Nanomotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanrui; Chang, Xiaocong; Teymourian, Hazhir; Ramírez-Herrera, Doris E; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Lu, Xiaolong; Li, Jinxing; He, Sha; Fang, Chengcheng; Liang, Yuyan; Mou, Fangzhi; Guan, Jianguo; Wang, Joseph

    2018-01-02

    While chemical communication plays a key role in diverse natural processes, the intelligent chemical communication between synthetic nanomotors remains unexplored. The design and operation of bioinspired synthetic nanomotors is presented. Chemical communication between nanomotors is possible and has an influence on propulsion behavior. A chemical "message" is sent from a moving activator motor to a nearby activated (receiver) motor by release of Ag + ions from a Janus polystyrene/Ni/Au/Ag activator motor to the activated Janus SiO 2 /Pt nanomotor. The transmitted silver signal is translated rapidly into a dramatic speed change associated with the enhanced catalytic activity of activated motors. Selective and successive activation of multiple nanomotors is achieved by sequential localized chemical communications. The concept of establishing chemical communication between different synthetic nanomotors paves the way to intelligent nanoscale robotic systems that are capable of cooperating with each other. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthetic aperture tissue and flow ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    imaging applied to medical ultrasound. It is divided into two major parts: tissue and blood flow imaging. Tissue imaging using synthetic aperture algorithms has been investigated for about two decades, but has not been implemented in medical scanners yet. Among the other reasons, the conventional scanning...... and beamformation methods are adequate for the imaging modalities in clinical use - the B-mode imaging of tissue structures, and the color mapping of blood flow. The acquisition time, however, is too long, and these methods fail to perform real-time three-dimensional scans. The synthetic transmit aperture......, on the other hand, can create a Bmode image with as little as 2 emissions, thus significantly speeding-up the scan procedure. The first part of the dissertation describes the synthetic aperture tissue imaging. It starts with an overview of the efforts previously made by other research groups. A classification...

  12. Engineering emergent multicellular behavior through synthetic adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, David; Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar

    In over a decade, synthetic biology has developed increasingly robust gene networks within single cells, but constructed very few systems that demonstrate multicellular spatio-temporal dynamics. We are filling this gap in synthetic biology's toolbox by developing an E. coli self-assembly platform based on modular cell-cell adhesion. We developed a system in which adhesive selectivity is provided by a library of outer membrane-displayed peptides with intra-library specificities, while affinity is provided by consistent expression across the entire library. We further provide a biophysical model to help understand the parameter regimes in which this tool can be used to self-assemble into cellular clusters, filaments, or meshes. The combined platform will enable future development of synthetic multicellular systems for use in consortia-based metabolic engineering, in living materials, and in controlled study of minimal multicellular systems. Stanford Bio-X Bowes Fellowship.

  13. Making Safe Surgery Affordable: Design of a Surgical Drill Cover System for Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Lawrence L; Black, Marianne S; Cancilla, Michael A; Huisman, Elise S; Kooyman, Jeremy J R; Nelson, Scott C; OʼHara, Nathan N; OʼBrien, Peter J; Blachut, Piotr A

    2015-10-01

    Many surgeons in low-resource settings do not have access to safe, affordable, or reliable surgical drilling tools. Surgeons often resort to nonsterile hardware drills because they are affordable, robust, and efficient, but they are impossible to sterilize using steam. A promising alternative is to use a Drill Cover system (a sterilizable fabric bag plus surgical chuck adapter) so that a nonsterile hardware drill can be used safely for surgical bone drilling. Our objective was to design a safe, effective, affordable Drill Cover system for scale in low-resource settings. We designed our device based on feedback from users at Mulago Hospital (Kampala, Uganda) and focused on 3 main aspects. First, the design included a sealed barrier between the surgical field and hardware drill that withstands pressurized fluid. Second, the selected hardware drill had a maximum speed of 1050 rpm to match common surgical drills and reduce risk of necrosis. Third, the fabric cover was optimized for ease of assembly while maintaining a sterile technique. Furthermore, with the Drill Cover approach, multiple Drill Covers can be provided with a single battery-powered drill in a "kit," so that the drill can be used in back-to-back surgeries without requiring immediate sterilization. The Drill Cover design presented here provides a proof-of-concept for a product that can be commercialized, produced at scale, and used in low-resource settings globally to improve access to safe surgery.

  14. Anisotropic evaluation of synthetic surgical meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberski, E R; Orenstein, S B; Novitsky, Y W

    2011-02-01

    The material properties of meshes used in hernia repair contribute to the overall mechanical behavior of the repair. The anisotropic potential of synthetic meshes, representing a difference in material properties (e.g., elasticity) in different material axes, is not well defined to date. Haphazard orientation of anisotropic mesh material can contribute to inconsistent surgical outcomes. We aimed to characterize and compare anisotropic properties of commonly used synthetic meshes. Six different polypropylene (Trelex(®), ProLite™, Ultrapro™), polyester (Parietex™), and PTFE-based (Dualmesh(®), Infinit) synthetic meshes were selected. Longitudinal and transverse axes were defined for each mesh, and samples were cut in each axis orientation. Samples underwent uniaxial tensile testing, from which the elastic modulus (E) in each axis was determined. The degree of anisotropy (λ) was calculated as a logarithmic expression of the ratio between the elastic modulus in each axis. Five of six meshes displayed significant anisotropic behavior. Ultrapro™ and Infinit exhibited approximately 12- and 20-fold differences between perpendicular axes, respectively. Trelex(®), ProLite™, and Parietex™ were 2.3-2.4 times. Dualmesh(®) was the least anisotropic mesh, without marked difference between the axes. Anisotropy of synthetic meshes has been underappreciated. In this study, we found striking differences between elastic properties of perpendicular axes for most commonly used synthetic meshes. Indiscriminate orientation of anisotropic mesh may adversely affect hernia repairs. Proper labeling of all implants by manufacturers should be mandatory. Understanding the specific anisotropic behavior of synthetic meshes should allow surgeons to employ rational implant orientation to maximize outcomes of hernia repair.

  15. Monitoring the performance of an alternative cover using caisson lysimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J.; Smith, G.M.; Mushovic, P.S.

    2004-02-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) office in Grand Junction, Colorado, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 8, collaborated on a series of field lysimeter studies to design and monitor the performance of an alternative cover for a uranium mill tailings disposal cell at the Monticello, Utah, Superfund Site. Because groundwater recharge is naturally limited at Monticello in areas with thick loess soils, DOE and EPA chose to design a cover for Monticello using local soils and a native plant community to mimic this natural soilwater balance. Two large drainage lysimeters fabricated of corrugated steel culvert lined with high-density polyethylene were installed to evaluate the hydrological and ecological performance of an alternative cover design constructed in 2000 on the disposal cell. Unlike conventional, lowpermeability designs, this cover relies on (1) the water storage capacity of a 163-cm soil “sponge” layer overlying a sand-and-gravel capillary barrier to retain precipitation while plants are dormant and (2) native vegetation to remove precipitation during the growing season. The sponge layer consists of a clay loam subsoil compacted to 1.65 g/cm2 in one lysimeter and a loam topsoil compacted to 1.45 g/cm2 in the other lysimeter, representing the range of as-built conditions constructed in the nearby disposal cell cover. About 0.1 mm of drainage occurred in both lysimeters during an average precipitation year and before they were planted, an amount well below the EPA target of <3.0 mm/yr. However, the cover with less compacted loam topsoil sponge had a 40% greater water storage capacity than the cover with overly compacted clay loam subsoil sponge. The difference is attributable in part to higher green leaf area and water extraction by plants in the loam topsoil. The lesson learned is that seemingly subtle differences in soil types, sources, and compaction can result in salient differences in performance. Diverse, seeded communities of

  16. Synthetic biology approaches to engineer T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yung; Rupp, Levi J; Roybal, Kole T; Lim, Wendell A

    2015-08-01

    There is rapidly growing interest in learning how to engineer immune cells, such as T lymphocytes, because of the potential of these engineered cells to be used for therapeutic applications such as the recognition and killing of cancer cells. At the same time, our knowhow and capability to logically engineer cellular behavior is growing rapidly with the development of synthetic biology. Here we describe how synthetic biology approaches are being used to rationally alter the behavior of T cells to optimize them for therapeutic functions. We also describe future developments that will be important in order to construct safe and precise T cell therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional mining of transporters using synthetic selections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genee, Hans Jasper; Bali, Anne Pihl; Petersen, Søren Dalsgård

    2016-01-01

    transporters, PnuT, which is widely distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. We demonstrate that with modular replacement of the biosensor, we could expand our method to xanthine and identify xanthine permeases from gut and soil metagenomes. Our results demonstrate how synthetic-biology approaches can......-responsive biosensor systems that enable selective growth of cells only if they encode a ligand-specific importer. We developed such a synthetic selection system for thiamine pyrophosphate and mined soil and gut metagenomes for thiamine-uptake functions. We identified several members of a novel class of thiamine...

  18. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Insik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  19. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  20. Parity-Time Synthetic Phononic Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Johan; Willatzen, Morten; Velasco, V. R.

    2016-01-01

    media, have been devised in many optical systems with the ground breaking potential to create nonreciprocal structures and one-way cloaks of invisibility. Here we demonstrate a feasible approach for the case of sound where the most important ingredients within synthetic materials, loss and gain......, are achieved through electrically biased piezoelectric semiconductors. We study first how wave attenuation and amplification can be tuned, and when combined, can give rise to a phononic PT synthetic media with unidirectional suppressed reflectance, a feature directly applicable to evading sonar detection....

  1. Synthetic biology of microbes synthesizing polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA have been produced as bioplastics for various purposes. Under the support of China National Basic Research 973 Project, we developed synthetic biology methods to diversify the PHA structures into homo-, random, block polymers with improved properties to better meet various application requirements. At the same time, various pathways were assembled to produce various PHA from glucose as a simple carbon source. At the end, Halomonas bacteria were reconstructed to produce PHA in changing morphology for low cost production under unsterile and continuous conditions. The synthetic biology will advance the PHA into a bio- and material industry.

  2. Purifying synthetic or fermentation ethyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-10-22

    Synthetic or fermentation grade ethanol is treated with an alkaki metal sulfite for about 10 hours then rectified to give a product free of odor and taste defects. For example, ethanol from molasses was treated with 10g Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/.7H/sub 2/O per liter of alcohol, (70/sup 0/ Gay-Lussac) for 10 hours. Synthetic ethanol was treated with 3g Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/.7H/sub 2/O for 10 hours.

  3. Purifying synthetic or fermentation ethyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1958-10-22

    Synthetic or fermentation grade ethanol is treated with an alkali metal sulfite for about 10 hours then rectified to give a product free of odor and taste defects. For example, ethanol from molasses was treated with 10g, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/.7H/sub 2/0 per liter of alcohol, (70/sup 0/ Gay-Lussac) for 10 hours. Synthetic ethanol was treated with 3 g Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/.7H/sub 2/O for 10 hours.

  4. Multi-antenna synthetic aperture radar

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-known remote sensing technique, but conventional single-antenna SAR is inherently limited by the minimum antenna area constraint. Although there are still technical issues to overcome, multi-antenna SAR offers many benefits, from improved system gain to increased degrees-of-freedom and system flexibility. Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar explores the potential and challenges of using multi-antenna SAR in microwave remote sensing applications. These applications include high-resolution imaging, wide-swath remote sensing, ground moving target indica

  5. [Salem witches, flying brooms, and synthetic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Tejero, Manuel; Castellanos Tejero, M de los Angeles

    2002-10-01

    As supplementary material to Health Education programs about synthetic drugs, the authors present a historical summary on LSD, stramonium and khat. "Tripis", Special K and other synthetic pills contain these substances and are being widely used by youths. The history of these main hallucinogenic active ingredients has a strong tie to the mythology of witchcraft and witches: a historically interesting time period bearing a large amount of religious intolerance. The objective of this review is to end the belief today's youth have that they are taking new substances which have no risks.

  6. Synthetic clay excels in 90Sr removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarneni, Sridhar; Kodama, Tatsuya; Paulus, William J.; Carlson, C.

    2000-01-01

    Tests with actual ground water from Hanford site, and fundamental studies of 2Na + →Sr 2+ exchange equilibria revealed that a synthetic clay is extremely selective for 90 Sr with a high capacity for uptake. Comparative studies with existing Sr selective ion exchangers clearly revealed that the present synthetic clay exhibited the best performance for 90 Sr removal from actual ground water collected from three different locations at Hanford. This novel Sr ion sieve is expected to be useful for the decontamination of the environment after accidental release and contamination with 90 Sr. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society

  7. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  8. Evaluation of burial ground soil covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    Solid radioactive waste burial at the Savannah River Plant between 1955 and 1972 filled a 76-acre site. Burial operations then were shifted to an adjacent site, and a program was begun to develop a land cover that would: (1) minimize soil erosion; and (2) protect the buried waste from deep-rooted plants, since radionuclides can be recycled by uptake through root systems. In anticipation of the need for a suitable soil cover, five grass species were planted on 20 plots (4 plots of each species) at the burial ground (Facility 643-G) in 1969. The grass plots were planted for evaluation of viability, root depth, and erosion protection existing under conditions of low fertility and minimum care. In addition, 16 different artificial soil covers were installed on 32 plots (each cover on two plots) to evaluate: (1) resistance of cover to deterioration from weathering; (2) resistance of cover to encroachment by deep-rooted plants; and (3) soil erosion protection provided by the cover. All test plots were observed and photographed in 1970 and in 1974. After both grass and artificial soil covers were tested five years, the following results were observed: Pensacola Bahia grass was the best of the five cover grasses tested; and fifteen of the sixteen artificial covers that were tested controlled vegetation growth and soil erosion. Photographs of the test plots will be retaken at five-year intervals for future documentation

  9. Thermophysiological Properties of Dry and Wet Functional Sportswear Made of Synthetic Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bogusławska – Bączek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, knitted fabrics made from synthetic fibres are being used increasingly for sportswear. This type of clothing should ensure thermal comfort in all weather conditions, regardless of the activity of the wearer. The most important thermal properties include thermal conductivity and resistance, as well as water vapour permeability. Sportswear often becomes wet (from sweat or due to a humid environment, which can have a signifi cant effect on thermal properties, while most testing methods only perform measurements in a dry state. This paper therefore presents our study of the thermal properties of different types of knitted fabrics in both dry and wet states. The presented research proved that wet knitwear results in a signifi cant loss of thermal comfort. This phenomenon is exacerbated when the moisture content of a material increases, and depends on the structure and filling of tested materials.

  10. New route to the fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Deepak; Morell, Gerardo; Palomino, Javier; Resto, Oscar; Gil, Jennifer; Weiner, Brad R.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films offer applications in various fields, but the existing synthetic approaches are cumbersome and destructive. A major breakthrough has been achieved by our group in the direction of a non-destructive, scalable, and economic process of NCD thin-film fabrication. Here, we report a cheap precursor for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond in the form of paraffin wax. We show that NCD thin films can be fabricated on a copper support by using simple, commonplace paraffin wax under reaction conditions of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD). Surprisingly, even the presence of any catalyst or seeding that has been conventionally used in the state-of-the-art is not required. The structure of the obtained films was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy recorded at the carbon K-edge region confirm the presence of nanocrystalline diamond. The process is a significant step towards cost-effective and non-cumbersome fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for commercial production

  11. Covering vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with a multiferroic compound

    KAUST Repository

    Mahajan, Amit; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Saravanan, K. Venkata; Ramana, E. Venkata; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Vilarinho, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    This work highlights the possible use of vertically-aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) as bottom electrodes for microelectronics, for example for memory applications. As a proof of concept BiFeO3 (BFO) films were fabricated in-situ deposited on the surface of VA-MWCNTs by RF (radio frequency) magnetron sputtering. For in situ deposition temperature of 400 °C and deposition time up to 2 h, BFO films cover the MWCNTs and no damage occurs either in the film or MWCNTs. In spite of the macroscopic lossy polarization behaviour, the ferroelectric nature, domain structure and switching of these conformal BFO films was verified by piezo force microscopy. G type antiferromagnetic ordering with weak ferromagnetic ordering loop was proved for BFO films on VA-MWCNTs having a coercive field of 700 Oe.

  12. Covering vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with a multiferroic compound

    KAUST Repository

    Mahajan, Amit

    2014-10-30

    This work highlights the possible use of vertically-aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) as bottom electrodes for microelectronics, for example for memory applications. As a proof of concept BiFeO3 (BFO) films were fabricated in-situ deposited on the surface of VA-MWCNTs by RF (radio frequency) magnetron sputtering. For in situ deposition temperature of 400 °C and deposition time up to 2 h, BFO films cover the MWCNTs and no damage occurs either in the film or MWCNTs. In spite of the macroscopic lossy polarization behaviour, the ferroelectric nature, domain structure and switching of these conformal BFO films was verified by piezo force microscopy. G type antiferromagnetic ordering with weak ferromagnetic ordering loop was proved for BFO films on VA-MWCNTs having a coercive field of 700 Oe.

  13. 77 FR 48733 - Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents-Definitions of Covered Business Method...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Office 37 CFR Part 42 Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents--Definitions of Covered... Business Method Patents-- Definitions of Covered Business Method Patent and Technological Invention AGENCY... forth in detail the definitions of the terms ``covered business method patent'' and ``technological...

  14. A facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Chengyu; Li, Jian

    2012-11-01

    A facile and novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic cotton fabrics is described in the present work. The superhydrophobic surface has been prepared by utilizing cationic poly (dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) and silica particles together with subsequent modification of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The size distribution of silica particles was measured by Particle Size Analyzer. The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, the superhydrophobic durability of coated cotton textiles has been evaluated by exposure, immersion and washing tests. The results show that the treated cotton fabrics exhibited excellent chemical stability and outstanding non-wettability with the WCA of 155 ± 2°, which offers an opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications.

  15. Enhanced impact properties of cementitious composites reinforced with pultruded flax/polymeric matrix fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi El-Messiry

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC has become increasingly applied in civil engineering in the last decades. Natural fiber fabric reinforced cement composites are considered to prevent damage resulting from an impact loading on the cementite plate. Flax woven fabric that has a high energy absorption capability was chosen. To increase the interfacial shear properties, the fabric was pultruded with different matrix properties that affect the strength and toughness of the pultruded fabric. In this study, three fabric structures are used to increase the anchoring of the cement in the fabric. The compressive strength and the impact energy were measured. The results revealed that pultruded fabric reinforced cement composite (PFRC absorbs much more impact energy. PFRC under impact loading has more micro cracks, while plain cement specimen shows brittle failure. The compressive test results of PFRC indicate that flax fiber fabric polymer enhanced compressive strength remarkably. Fiber reinforcement is a very effective in improving the impact resistance of PFRC. The study defines the influence factors that control the energy dissipation of the composite, which are the hardness of the polymer and the fabric cover factor. Significant correlation between impact energy and compressive strength was proved.

  16. Using synthetic polymers to reduce soil erosion after forest fires in Mediterranean soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Marcos; Ben-Hur, Meni; Inbar, Assaf

    2010-05-01

    Forest fires are a major environmental problem in the Mediterranean region because they result in a loss of vegetation cover, changes in biodiversity, increases in greenhouse gasses emission and a potential increase of runoff and soil erosion. The large increases in runoff and sediment yields after high severity fires have been attributed to several factors, among them: increase in soil water repellency; soil sealing by detached particles and by ash particles, and the loss of a surface cover. The presence of a surface cover increases infiltration, and decreases runoff and erosion by several mechanisms which include: rainfall interception, plant evapotranspiration, preservation of soil structure by increasing soil organic matter, and increasing surface roughness. The loss of vegetation cover as a result of fire leaves the surface of the soil exposed to the direct impact of the raindrops, and therefore the sensitivity of the soil to runoff generation and soil loss increases. In this work, we propose a new method to protect soils against post-fire erosion based on the application of synthetic polymers to the soil. Laboratory rainfall simulations and field runoff plots were used to analyze the suitability of the application of synthetic polymers to reduce soil erosion and stabilize soil structure in Mediterranean soils. The combination of these two processes will potentially favor a faster recovery of the vegetation structure. This method has been successfully applied in arable land, however it has not been tested in burnt forests. The outcome of this study may provide important managerial tools for forest management following fires.

  17. SYNTHETIC JET APPLIED TO DETECT POTENTIAL TERRORISTS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Peszyński, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2010), s. 229-234 ISSN 1231-3998 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760705; GA ČR GA101/07/1499 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jets * annular jets * terrorism Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  18. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    OpenAIRE

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems.

  19. Homogeneous nucleation of water in synthetic air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.A.L.J.; Sachteleben, E.; Hruby, J.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; DeMott, P.J.; O'Dowd, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    Homogeneous nucleation rates for water vapor in synthetic air are measured by means of a Pulse-Expansion Wave Tube (PEWT). A comparison of the experimental nucleation rates with the Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) shows that a more elaborated model is necessary to describe supercooled water

  20. A combinatorial approach to synthetic receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, P.; Reinhoudt, David

    1999-01-01

    Antibodies, the workhorses of every living organisms immune system, are characterized by their extraordinarily high binding affinity and selectivity for a particular antigen. Despite numerous efforts to mimic these binding properties in synthetic molecules, chemists have so far not been able to

  1. Raman spectrum of natural and synthetic stishovite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemley, R.J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Chao, E.C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Raman spectra of natural and synthetic samples of stishovite have been measured with a micro-optical spectrometer system. These spectra have a pattern that is characteristic of rutile-structured oxides. The spectrum of synthetic stishovite is characterized by well-resolved bands at 231, 589, 753, and 967 cm-1, which are assigned as the B1g, Eg, A1g, and B2g fundamentals, respectively, of the first-order Raman spectrum of the ideal, ordered structure. Natural stishovite obtained from Meteor Crater, Arizona has a first-order Raman spectrum that is fully consistent with that of the synthetic material. The observed spectrum of the natural sample, however, is weaker and has bands in addition to those identified as fundamentals in the spectrum of the synthetic material. A broad band at ???475 cm-1 may be indicative of glass or contaminants derived from the extraction procedure. Alternatively, this band may arise from multiphonon scattering that is enhanced by poor crystallinity or structural disorder in the natural shocked sample. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Synthetic tsunamis along the Israeli coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Joshua; Stiassnie, Michael

    2012-04-13

    The new mathematical model for tsunami evolution by Tobias & Stiassnie (Tobias & Stiassnie 2011 J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 116, C06026) is used to derive a synthetic tsunami database for the southern part of the Eastern Mediterranean coast. Information about coastal tsunami amplitudes, half-periods, currents and inundation levels is presented.

  3. DESCQA: Synthetic Sky Catalog Validation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yao-Yuan; Uram, Thomas D.; Zhou, Rongpu; Kovacs, Eve; Ricker, Paul M.; Kalmbach, J. Bryce; Padilla, Nelson; Lanusse, François; Zu, Ying; Tenneti, Ananth; Vikraman, Vinu; DeRose, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    The DESCQA framework provides rigorous validation protocols for assessing the quality of high-quality simulated sky catalogs in a straightforward and comprehensive way. DESCQA enables the inspection, validation, and comparison of an inhomogeneous set of synthetic catalogs via the provision of a common interface within an automated framework. An interactive web interface is also available at portal.nersc.gov/project/lsst/descqa.

  4. Evaluation of synthetic promoters in Physcomitrella patens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peramuna, Anantha; Bae, Hansol; Rasmussen, Erling Koch

    2018-01-01

    Securing a molecular toolbox including diverse promoters is essential for genome engineering. However, native promoters have limitations such as the available number or the length of the promoter. In this work, three short synthetic promoters were characterized by using the yellow fluorescent...

  5. Synthetic biology advances for pharmaceutical production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology enables a new generation of microbial engineering for the biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals and other high-value chemicals. This review presents an overview of recent advances in the field, describing new computational and experimental tools for the discovery, optimization and production of bioactive molecules, and outlining progress towards the application of these tools to pharmaceutical production systems. PMID:25744872

  6. News: Synthetic biology leading to specialty chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic biology can combine the disciplines of biology, engineering, and chemistry productively to form molecules of great scientific and commercial value. Recent advances in the new field are explored for their connection to new tools that have been used to elucidate productio...

  7. Synthetic biology for microbial heavy metal biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Sang Jun

    2018-02-01

    Using recombinant DNA technology, various whole-cell biosensors have been developed for detection of environmental pollutants, including heavy metal ions. Whole-cell biosensors have several advantages: easy and inexpensive cultivation, multiple assays, and no requirement of any special techniques for analysis. In the era of synthetic biology, cutting-edge DNA sequencing and gene synthesis technologies have accelerated the development of cell-based biosensors. Here, we summarize current technological advances in whole-cell heavy metal biosensors, including the synthetic biological components (bioparts), sensing and reporter modules, genetic circuits, and chassis cells. We discuss several opportunities for improvement of synthetic cell-based biosensors. First, new functional modules must be discovered in genome databases, and this knowledge must be used to upgrade specific bioparts through molecular engineering. Second, modules must be assembled into functional biosystems in chassis cells. Third, heterogeneity of individual cells in the microbial population must be eliminated. In the perspectives, the development of whole-cell biosensors is also discussed in the aspects of cultivation methods and synthetic cells.

  8. Design and construction of "synthetic species".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreno

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is an area of biological research that combines science and engineering. Here, I merge the principles of synthetic biology and regulatory evolution to create a new species with a minimal set of known elements. Using preexisting transgenes and recessive mutations of Drosophila melanogaster, a transgenic population arises with small eyes and a different venation pattern that fulfils the criteria of a new species according to Mayr's Biological Species Concept. The population described here is the first transgenic organism that cannot hybridize with the original wild type population but remains fertile when crossed with other identical transgenic animals. I therefore propose the term "synthetic species" to distinguish it from "natural species", not only because it has been created by genetic manipulation, but also because it may never be able to survive outside the laboratory environment. The use of genetic engineering to design artificial species barriers could help us understand natural speciation and may have practical applications. For instance, the transition from transgenic organisms towards synthetic species could constitute a safety mechanism to avoid the hybridization of genetically modified animals with wild type populations, preserving biodiversity.

  9. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  10. Synthetic analog computation in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ramiz; Rubens, Jacob R; Sarpeshkar, Rahul; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-05-30

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to achieve multi-signal integration and processing in living cells for diagnostic, therapeutic and biotechnology applications. Digital logic has been used to build small-scale circuits, but other frameworks may be needed for efficient computation in the resource-limited environments of cells. Here we demonstrate that synthetic analog gene circuits can be engineered to execute sophisticated computational functions in living cells using just three transcription factors. Such synthetic analog gene circuits exploit feedback to implement logarithmically linear sensing, addition, ratiometric and power-law computations. The circuits exhibit Weber's law behaviour as in natural biological systems, operate over a wide dynamic range of up to four orders of magnitude and can be designed to have tunable transfer functions. Our circuits can be composed to implement higher-order functions that are well described by both intricate biochemical models and simple mathematical functions. By exploiting analog building-block functions that are already naturally present in cells, this approach efficiently implements arithmetic operations and complex functions in the logarithmic domain. Such circuits may lead to new applications for synthetic biology and biotechnology that require complex computations with limited parts, need wide-dynamic-range biosensing or would benefit from the fine control of gene expression.

  11. Optimization of Synthetic Aperture Image Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture (SA) imaging produces high-quality images and velocity estimates of both slow and fast flow at high frame rates. However, grating lobe artifacts can appear both in transmission and reception. These affect the image quality and the frame rate. Therefore optimization of parameter...

  12. Simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of synthetic melanoidin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being an antioxidant, melanoidin removal through purely biodegradation has been inadequate. Consequently, in the current study, simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) was employed in a stirred tank system to remove melanoidin from synthetic wastewater. Mixed microbial consortium was immobilized onto ...

  13. Super-Resolution for Synthetic Zooming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical zooming is an important feature of imaging systems. In this paper, we investigate a low-cost signal processing alternative to optical zooming—synthetic zooming by super-resolution (SR techniques. Synthetic zooming is achieved by registering a sequence of low-resolution (LR images acquired at varying focal lengths and reconstructing the SR image at a larger focal length or increased spatial resolution. Under the assumptions of constant scene depth and zooming speed, we argue that the motion trajectories of all physical points are related to each other by a unique vanishing point and present a robust technique for estimating its D coordinate. Such a line-geometry-based registration is the foundation of SR for synthetic zooming. We address the issue of data inconsistency arising from the varying focal length of optical lens during the zooming process. To overcome the difficulty of data inconsistency, we propose a two-stage Delaunay-triangulation-based interpolation for fusing the LR image data. We also present a PDE-based nonlinear deblurring to accommodate the blindness and variation of sensor point spread functions. Simulation results with real-world images have verified the effectiveness of the proposed SR techniques for synthetic zooming.

  14. Preparation of Natural and Synthetic Porous Biodegradable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Preparation of Natural and Synthetic Porous Biodegradable Scaffolds for Infected Wounds. Characterised for their physical properties, pore size and release kinetics. Release kinetics of bioactive molecules (antibiotics) in a controlled fashion. Release pattern of the ...

  15. 21 CFR 175.250 - Paraffin (synthetic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrocarbons. Lower molecular-weight fractions are removed by distillation. The residue is hydrogenated and may... its components by a solvent separation method, using synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons... method E131-81a, “Standard Definitions of Terms and Symbols Relating to Molecular-Spectroscopy,” which is...

  16. Immobilization of radioiodine in synthetic boracite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babad, H.; Strachan, D.M.

    1982-09-23

    A nuclear waste storage product is disclosed in which radioiodine is incorporated in a synthetic boracite. The boracite may be prepared by reacting a transition metal iodide with an alkali horate under mild hydrothermal conditions, drying the reaction product, and then hot pressing.

  17. Sonar path correction in synthetic aperture processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, J.; Hansen, R.E.; Sabel, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    In the next generation of mine hunting sonars, in particular on Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs), Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) will play an important role. The benefit of SAS is to increase resolution and signal-tonoise ratio by coherent processing of successive pings. A challenge in SAS is

  18. Once more on Analytic vs. Synthetic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Materna, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2007), s. 3-43 ISSN 1425-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0451 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : analytic * synthetic * intensions * constructions * concepts * pragmatics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  19. SYNTHETIC AGB EVOLUTION .1. A NEW MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROENEWEGEN, MAT; DEJONG, T

    We have constructed a model to calculate in a synthetic way the evolution of stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). The evolution is started at the first thermal pulse (TP) and is terminated when the envelope mass has been lost due to mass loss or when the core mass reaches the Chandrasekhar

  20. Synthetic Aperture Beamformation using the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Schaa, Dana; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    A synthetic aperture ultrasound beamformer is implemented for a GPU using the OpenCL framework. The implementation supports beamformation of either RF signals or complex baseband signals. Transmit and receive apodization can be either parametric or dynamic using a fixed F-number, a reference...

  1. Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete

    Synthetic aperture radars (SAR), mounted on satellites or aircraft, have proven useful for ocean wind mapping. Wind speeds at the height 10 m may be retrieved from measurements of radar backscatter using empirical model functions. The resulting windfields are valuable in offshore wind energy plan...

  2. Synthetic biology between technoscience and thing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfert, Axel

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology presents a challenge to traditional accounts of biology: Whereas traditional biology emphasizes the evolvability, variability, and heterogeneity of living organisms, synthetic biology envisions a future of homogeneous, humanly engineered biological systems that may be combined in modular fashion. The present paper approaches this challenge from the perspective of the epistemology of technoscience. In particular, it is argued that synthetic-biological artifacts lend themselves to an analysis in terms of what has been called 'thing knowledge'. As such, they should neither be regarded as the simple outcome of applying theoretical knowledge and engineering principles to specific technological problems, nor should they be treated as mere sources of new evidence in the general pursuit of scientific understanding. Instead, synthetic-biological artifacts should be viewed as partly autonomous research objects which, qua their material-biological constitution, embody knowledge about the natural world-knowledge that, in turn, can be accessed via continuous experimental interrogation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship between Elastic Properties and Shear Fabric in Clay-Rich Fault Gouge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenigsberg, A.; Saffer, D. M.; Riviere, J.; Ryan, K. L.; Marone, C.

    2016-12-01

    The low mechanical strength of major crustal faults remains a fundamental problem in geophysics and earthquake mechanics. Although both clay abundance and shear fabric are known as key controls on the frictional weakening of faults, the detailed links between fabric, elastic properties, composition, and fault strength remain poorly understood. This gap in information is in part because data are lacking to fully characterize the evolution of gouge microstructures and elastic properties during shearing. Here, we use seismic wave propagation to probe gouge ultrasonic and elastic properties, as a proxy for the development of shear fabrics. We report on a suite of direct shear experiments that include ultrasonic wave transmission to monitor compressional and shear wave velocities (Vp, Vs), during progressive shear of synthetic, clay-rich fault gouge. In order to better understand when and how clay grain alignment and nano-coatings begin to dominate the affect of shear fabric and local gouge density on elastic properties and shear strength, we studied a suite of synthetic gouges composed of Ca-montmorillonite and quartz ranging from 0-100% clay. Our laboratory experiments document friction coefficients (μ) ranging from 0.21 for gouges composed of 100% smectite to 0.62 for 100% quartz, with μ decreasing as clay content increases. We find that Vp and Vs increases as shear progresses and porosity decreases. Ongoing analyses of ultrasonic waves will assess variations of Vp, Vs, and elastic moduli throughout shear and as a function of gouge composition. We anticipate that these variations will be linked to formation of fabric elements observed via microstructural analysis, and will be indicative of whether quartz or clay is dominating how the fabrics form. Finally, we expect that clay content will be the dominant factor controlling shear fabric evolution and, consequently, the key control on the evolution of elastic properties with shear.

  4. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO pool cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2001-11-01

    This report is for the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO Pool Cover in accordances with the requirement of the Technical Specification for Seismic Analysis of HANARO Pool Cover. For performing the seismic analysis and evaluating the structural integrity for HANARO Pool Cover, the finite element analysis model using ANSYS 5.7 was developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO Pool Cover under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values in HANARO Pool Cover for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an HANARO Pool Cover is installed in the upper part of the reactor pool

  5. Factors influencing radon attenuation by tailing covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silker, W.B.; Rogers, V.C.

    1981-07-01

    The US NRC, in its Generic Environmental Impact Statement on uranium milling has specified that the radon flux escaping a uranium mill tailings pile will be reduced to pCi/m 2 s by application of covering layers of soils and clays. These covers present a radon diffusion barrier, which sufficiently increases the time required for radon passage from the tailings to the atmosphere to allow for decay of 222 Rn within the cover. The depth of cover necessary to reduce the escaping radon flux to the prescribed level is to be determined by calculation, and requires precise knowledge of the radon diffusion coefficient in the covering media. A Radon Attenuation Test Facility was developed to determine rates of radon diffusion through candidate cover materials. This paper describes this facility and its application for determining the influence of physical properties of the soil column on the radon diffusion coefficient

  6. Geometric covers, graph orientations, counter games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglin, Edvin

    -directed graph is dynamic (can be altered by some outside actor), some orientations may need to be reversed in order to maintain the low out-degree. We present a new algorithm that is simpler than earlier work, yet matches or outperforms the efficiency of these results with very few exceptions. Counter games...... example is Line Cover, also known as Point-Line Cover, where a set of points in a geometric space are to be covered by placing a restricted number of lines. We present new FPT algorithms for the sub-family Curve Cover (which includes Line Cover), as well as for Hyperplane Cover restricted to R 3 (i...... are a type of abstract game played over a set of counters holding values, and these values may be moved between counters according to some set of rules. Typically they are played between two players: the adversary who tries to concentrate the greatest value possible in a single counter, and the benevolent...

  7. Fabrication of Nanoimprint stamps for photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouba, J; Kubenz, M; Mai, A; Ropers, G; Eberhardt, W; Loechel, B

    2006-01-01

    We report on fabrication of nanoimprint stamps for fabrication of two dimensional photonic crystals in visible range of spectra. Nanoimprint stamps made of silicon and/or nickel were successfully fabricated using electron beam lithography and advanced dry etching techniques. The quality of the stamps was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The fabricated stamps were also evaluated by imprinting them into suitable polymer materials

  8. 14 CFR 23.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 23.605 Section 23.605... Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a... fabrication method must be substantiated by a test program. [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30 FR...

  9. 14 CFR 29.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 29.605 Section 29.605... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a fabrication process...

  10. 14 CFR 27.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 27.605 Section 27.605... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a fabrication process (such as...

  11. 14 CFR 25.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 25.605 Section 25.605... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce a consistently sound structure. If a fabrication process...

  12. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  13. Synthetic Biology as an Enabling Technology for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and by re-supply. Thus materials brought from Earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches, a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because life can replicate and repair itself, and perform a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing through bioprinting will make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. This new approach and the resulting novel products will enable human exploration and settlement on Mars, while providing new manufacturing approaches for life on Earth.

  14. Modeling Vocal Fold Intravascular Flow using Synthetic Replicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Aaron D.; Ricks, Matthew T.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2017-11-01

    Vocal fold vibration that is induced by air flowing from the lungs is believed to decrease blood flow through the vocal folds. This is important due to the critical role of blood flow in maintaining tissue health. However, the precise mechanical relationships between vocal fold vibration and blood perfusion remain understudied. A platform for studying liquid perfusion in a synthetic, life-size, self-oscillating vocal fold replica has recently been developed. The replicas are fabricated using molded silicone with material properties comparable to those of human vocal fold tissues and that include embedded microchannels through which liquid is perfused. The replicas are mounted on an air flow supply tube to initiate flow-induced vibration. A liquid reservoir is attached to the microchannel to cause liquid to perfuse through replica in the anterior-posterior direction. As replica vibration is initiated and amplitude increases, perfusion flow rate decreases. In this presentation, the replica design will be presented, along with data quantifying the relationships between parameters such as replica vibration amplitude, stiffness, microchannel diameter, and perfusion flow rate. This work was supported by Grant NIDCD R01DC005788 from the National Institutes of Health.

  15. Synthetic biology for pharmaceutical drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trosset JY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Yves Trosset,1 Pablo Carbonell2,3 1Bioinformation Research Laboratory, Sup’Biotech, Villejuif, France; 2Faculty of Life Sciences, SYNBIOCHEM Centre, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 3Department of Experimental and Health Sciences (DCEXS, Research Programme on Biomedical Informatics (GRIB, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Synthetic biology (SB is an emerging discipline, which is slowly reorienting the field of drug discovery. For thousands of years, living organisms such as plants were the major source of human medicines. The difficulty in resynthesizing natural products, however, often turned pharmaceutical industries away from this rich source for human medicine. More recently, progress on transformation through genetic manipulation of biosynthetic units in microorganisms has opened the possibility of in-depth exploration of the large chemical space of natural products derivatives. Success of SB in drug synthesis culminated with the bioproduction of artemisinin by microorganisms, a tour de force in protein and metabolic engineering. Today, synthetic cells are not only used as biofactories but also used as cell-based screening platforms for both target-based and phenotypic-based approaches. Engineered genetic circuits in synthetic cells are also used to decipher disease mechanisms or drug mechanism of actions and to study cell–cell communication within bacteria consortia. This review presents latest developments of SB in the field of drug discovery, including some challenging issues such as drug resistance and drug toxicity. Keywords: metabolic engineering, plant synthetic biology, natural products, synthetic quorum sensing, drug resistance

  16. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the "myths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Catherine; Lentzos, Filippa; Marris, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology, a field that aims to "make biology easier to engineer," is routinely described as leading to an increase in the "dual-use" threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be "used" for peaceful purposes or "misused" for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the "de-skilling" of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of do-it-yourself (DIY) biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend toward greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify five "myths" that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these "myths" play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a "promissory" field of research and as an "emerging technology" in need of governance.

  17. Metallic Reactor Fuel Fabrication for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal fuel for an SFR has such advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant, and inherent passive safety 1. U-Zr metal fuel for SFR is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. The fabrication technology of metal fuel for SFR has been under development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of (1) fuel slug casting, (2) loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and (3) fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycled streams in this fabrication process. Fabrication on the rod type metallic fuel was carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Rod-type fuel slugs were fabricated by injection casting. Metallic fuel slugs fabricated showed a general appearance was smooth.

  18. Structure of roofing cover for NPP reactor compartment in India. Ustrojstvo krovel'nogo pokrytiya reaktornogo otdeleniya AEhS v Indii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Movchan, S V

    1990-04-01

    Technology of fabrication of the roofing cover for NPP reactor compartments in India is briefly described. The cover is two-layer. The underlying thermal-hydroinsulating layer with the thickness of 100 mm is produced of beaten brick on lime-sand mortar. Facing layer of ceramic tile is applied to it.

  19. Engineered covers for mud pit closures Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    Two abandoned drilling mud pits impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons were determined to require closure action at the Central Nevada Test Area. The UC-4 Mud Pit C is approximately 0.12 hectares (0.3 acres) and 1.2 meters (4 feet) in depth. The UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) is approximately 1.54 hectares (3.8 acres) and 2.4 meters (8 feet) in depth. Both mud pits contain bentonite drilling muds with a thin dry crust, low shear strength, low permeability, and high moisture content. The following closure methodologies were evaluated: stabilization by mixing/injection with soil, fly ash, and lime; excavation and disposal; on-site drying; thermal destruction; wick drains; administrative closure (postings and land-use restrictions); and engineered covers. Based upon regulatory closure criteria, implementation, and cost considerations, the selected remedial alternative was the construction of an engineered cover. A multilayered cover with a geo-grid and geo-synthetic clay liner (GCL) was designed and constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit C to evaluate the constructability and applicability of the design for the CMP cover. The geo-grid provided structural strength for equipment and material loads during cover construction, and the GCL was used as a moisture infiltration barrier. The design was determined to be constructable and applicable. To reduce project costs for the CMP cover, a vegetative cover was designed with drainage toward the center of the cover rather than the perimeter. The vegetative cover with the internal drainage design resulted in a fill volume reduction of approximately 63 percent compared to the multilayered cover design with a GCL

  20. Electromagnetic micropores: fabrication and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basore, Joseph R; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Baker, Lane A

    2010-12-21

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of electromagnetic micropores. These devices consist of a micropore encompassed by a microelectromagnetic trap. Fabrication of the device involves multiple photolithographic steps, combined with deep reactive ion etching and subsequent insulation steps. When immersed in an electrolyte solution, application of a constant potential across the micropore results in an ionic current. Energizing the electromagnetic trap surrounding the micropore produces regions of high magnetic field gradients in the vicinity of the micropore that can direct motion of a ferrofluid onto or off of the micropore. This results in dynamic gating of the ion current through the micropore structure. In this report, we detail fabrication and characterize the electrical and ionic properties of the prepared electromagnetic micropores.