WorldWideScience

Sample records for synthetic diamond probe

  1. Synthetic diamond in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskov, Yurii V

    1999-01-01

    The results of studies on the electrochemistry of diamond carried out during the last decade are reviewed. Methods for the preparation, the crystalline structure and the main electrophysical properties of diamond thin films are considered. Depending on the doping conditions, the diamond behaves as a superwide-gap semiconductor or as a semimetal. It is shown that the 'metal-like' diamond is corrosion-resistant and can be used advantageously as an electrode in the electrosynthesis (in particular, for the electroreduction of compounds that are difficult to reduce) and electroanalysis. Kinetic characteristics of some redox reactions and the impedance parameters for diamond electrodes are presented. The results of comparative studies of the electrodes made of diamond single crystals, polycrystalline diamond and amorphous diamond-like carbon, which reveal the effect of the crystalline structure (e.g., the influence of intercrystallite boundaries) on the electrochemical properties of diamond, are presented. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  2. Growth and optical spectroscopy of synthetic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudryj, A.V.; Larionova, T.P.; Shakin, I.A.; Gysakov, G.A.; Dubrov, G.A.; Tikhonov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    It is studied the growth and optical properties of synthetic diamonds, which may be used for detection of ionizing radiation, optical windows, heat removal, ultraviolet and thermo sensors, optoelectronic devices. Optical properties of diamonds (grown in different technological conditions) were studied in temperature range 78 - 300 K by means of measuring transmission in spectral band 0.2 - 25 μm, photoluminescence and registration of luminescence excitation spectra in spectral band 0.2 - 2 μm

  3. Optical studies of high quality synthetic diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of fundamental and defect induced optical properties of synthetic diamond grown using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthesis or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The primary technique used for investigation is cathodoluminescence (including imaging and decay-time measurements) in addition to other forms of optical spectroscopy. This thesis is timely in that the crystallinity and purity of synthetic diamond has increased ten fold over the last few years. The diamond exciton emission, which is easily quenched by the presence of defects, is studied in high quality samples in detail. In addition the ability now exists to engineer the isotopic content of synthetic diamond to a high degree of accuracy. The experimental chapters are divided as follows: Chapter 2: High resolution, low temperature spectra reveal a splitting of the free-exciton phonon recombination emission peaks and the bound-exciton zero phonon line. Included are measurements of the variation in intensity and decay-time as a function of temperature. Chapter 3: The shift in energy of the phonon-assisted free-exciton phonon replicas with isotopic content has been measured. The shift is in agreement with the results of interatomic force model for phonon scattering due to isotope disorder. Chapter 4: A study of the shift in energy with isotopic content of the diamond of the GR1 band due to the neutral vacancy has allowed a verification of the theoretical predictions due to the Jahn Teller effect. Chapter 5: The spatial distribution of the free-exciton luminescence is studied in HPHT synthetic and CVD diamond. A variation in intensity with distance from the surface is interpreted as a significant non-radiative loss of excitons to the surface. Chapter 6: The decay-times of all known self-interstitial related centres have been measured in order to calculate the concentration of these centres present in electron irradiated diamond. (author)

  4. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansley, S P; Betzel, G T; Metcalfe, P; Reinisch, L; Meyer, J

    2010-12-01

    Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolution resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high-quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kV), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MV). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response with dose (at 100 kV) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 V compared to a bias of 61.75 V used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the synthetic diamond detector. Overall, the synthetic diamond detector performed well in comparison to the natural diamond detector.

  5. Ion and electron beam studies and applications of natural and synthetic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellschop, J.P.F.; Connell, S.H.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Stemmet, M.C.; Naidoo, S.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Haricharun, H.

    1992-01-01

    'Nuclear' probes are shown to be powerful diagnostic analytical tools for the interrogation of diamond, whether natural or synthetic. The full sweep of such probes ranges from electrons to heavy ions, and spans energies over the keV to GeV range. Neutrons are singularly appropriate for the bulk trace element analysis of diamond, while charged particle (activation) analysis is appropriate for lighter element determination, and for surface and depth profiling specification. Energetic ions are effectively deployed for the study of the amorpisation and extrusion of diamond, and for ion implantation with the view to the production of devices in diamond. Resonant nuclear reactions are used effectively in establishing the 'macroscopic' distribution of dopants, while the used of pulsed ion beams in time dependent perturbed angular distribution studies gives information on 'microscopic' lattice location of impurities. Ion channeling in diamond sets near-theoretical parameterization of Lindhard channeling theory. Electron and positron channeling is interesting in its own right, and in the former case is shown to give rise to channeling radiation for few-MeV electron energies. At GeV electron energies, channeling is important as a powerful, polarized monochromatic photon source. Muons are an elegant tool in diamond studies, and the formation of muonium permits of (radiation damage-free) hydrogen-equivalent studies. Two relatively unused nuclear techniques, Moessbauer spectroscopy and Positron Annihilation, are shown to give unique information on diamond. Finally the use of diamond as a detector of radiation is indicated. (author)

  6. Engineering NV centres in Synthetic Diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthew Markham

    2014-01-01

    The quantum properties of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre in diamond has prompted rapid growth in diamond research. This initial growth was driven by the fact the NV centre provides an 'easy' to manipulate quantum system along with opening up the possibility of a new material to deliver a solid state quantum computer. The NV defect is now moving from a quantum curiosity to a commercial development platform for a range of application such as as gyroscopes, timing and magnetometry as well as the more traditional quantum technologies such as quantum encryption and quantum simulation. These technologies are pushing the development needs of the material, and the processing of that material. The paper will describes the advances in CVD diamond synthesis with special attention to getting NV defects close to the surface of the diamond and how to process the material for diamond quantum optical applications. (author)

  7. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lansley, S. P.; Betzel, G.T.; Meyer, J.; Metcalf, P.; Reinisch, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolu tion resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kY), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MY). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response S. P. Lansley () . G. T. Betzel . J. Meyer Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand e-mail: stuart.lansley canterbury.ac.nz S. P. Lansley The Macdiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand P. Metcalfe Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia L. Reinisch Department of Physical and Earth Sciences, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL, USA with dose (at 100 kY) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 Y compared to a bias of 61.75 Y used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the syn thetic diamond detector. Overall

  8. X-ray studies of synthetic radiation-counting diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Moore, Moreton (Royal Holloway and Bedford New Coll., Egham (UK). Dept. of Physics); Makepeace, Anthony (Bristol Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physiology)

    1990-10-01

    Synthetic diamonds with a nitrogen content less than 100 ppm may be used as radiation dosemeters in a conduction counting mode, and are especially useful in medical applications. Crystal imperfections, revealed by x-ray diffraction topography, were found to affect counting performance. The best quality diamond gave the highest photocurrent (500 nA at 50 V mm{sup -1} and 2.75 Gy min{sup -1}). Diamonds containing dislocations had lower photocurrents but had the advantage of shorter settling times (seconds rather than minutes). Placing contacts on two opposite cube {l brace}100{r brace} faces gave a higher photocurrent than on a pair of octahedral {l brace}111{r brace} faces. Higher photocurrents were also achieved when the majority of dislocations were perpendicular rather than parallel, to the electric field. Some recommendations for selecting synthetic diamonds for dosemeters are given. (author).

  9. Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry

    OpenAIRE

    Appel Patrick; Neu Elke; Ganzhorn Marc; Barfuss Arne; Batzer Marietta; Gratz Micha; Tschoepe Andreas; Maletinsky Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The electronic spin of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond forms an atomically sized, highly sensitive sensor for magnetic fields. To harness the full potential of individual NV centers for sensing with high sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution, NV centers have to be incorporated into scanning probe structures enabling controlled scanning in close proximity to the sample surface. Here, we present an optimized procedure to fabricate single-crystal, all-diamond scanning probes s...

  10. Synthetic diamond devices for medical dosimetry applied to radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, C.

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this thesis, lead in the framework of an integrated European project entitled M.A.E.S.T.R.O. for ' Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radio Oncology', was to develop and test synthetic diamond detector in clinical environment for new modalities used in radiotherapy. Diamond is a good candidate for the detection of high energy beams in medical fields. It can be used for passive dosimetry, as thermoluminescent dosimeters or for active dosimetry as ionisation chambers. These two applications are presented here. Concerning the thermoluminescence, several impurities or dopants (boron, phosphorus, and nitrogen) have been incorporated in the diamond films during growth, in order to modify the material dosimetric properties and a detailed study of nitrogen-containing films is proposed. The second part presents the results obtained in active dosimetry. Two guide lines were followed: the measurement set-up optimisation and the material modification. The first dosimetric studies under radiotherapy beams concerning nitrogen-containing polycrystalline diamond as well as high purity single crystal diamond are conclusive. The detectors behaviours are in agreement with the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  11. Nuclear probes in physical and geochemical studies of natural diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellschop, J.P.F.

    In this review the emphasis is directed to the use of nuclear particles for the analysis of impurities in diamond from an interest in both the observed physical properties and genesis of diamond and the inter-relation between these two aspects. However (nuclear) radiation can be used more specifically: from the inter-relation of elemental impurities chemical and geochemical information can be deduced, from energy variation depth distributions of selected impurities can be determined, the prospect of lattice location of impurities exists from the use of extremely finely collimated beams of nuclear particles, which are used also for probing the inter-atomic fields, and finally all nuclear probes excite luminescence in diamonds

  12. Nitrogen aggregation in Ib type synthetic diamonds at low pressure and high-temperature annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazyuchits, N.M.; Rusetskij, M.S.; Latushko, Ya.I.; Kazyuchits, V.N.; Zajtsev, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A new technique for annealing of diamonds at low pressure and high temperature (LPHT) is considered. The absorption spectra of synthetic Ib diamonds are given before and after annealing. This is evident from a comparison of the spectra that nitrogen aggregation process takes place at the LPHT annealing diamond. (authors)

  13. Development of a synthetic single crystal diamond dosimeter for dose measurement of clinical proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moignier, Cyril; Tromson, Dominique; de Marzi, Ludovic; Marsolat, Fanny; García Hernández, Juan Carlos; Agelou, Mathieu; Pomorski, Michal; Woo, Romuald; Bourbotte, Jean-Michel; Moignau, Fabien; Lazaro, Delphine; Mazal, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    The scope of this work was to develop a synthetic single crystal diamond dosimeter (SCDD-Pro) for accurate relative dose measurements of clinical proton beams in water. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out based on the MCNPX code in order to investigate and reduce the dose curve perturbation caused by the SCDD-Pro. In particular, various diamond thicknesses were simulated to evaluate the influence of the active volume thickness (e AV) as well as the influence of the addition of a front silver resin (250 µm in thickness in front of the diamond crystal) on depth-dose curves. The simulations indicated that the diamond crystal alone, with a small e AV of just 5 µm, already affects the dose at Bragg peak position (Bragg peak dose) by more than 2% with respect to the Bragg peak dose deposited in water. The optimal design that resulted from the Monte Carlo simulations consists of a diamond crystal of 1 mm in width and 150 µm in thickness with the front silver resin, enclosed by a water-equivalent packaging. This design leads to a deviation between the Bragg peak dose from the full detector modeling and the Bragg peak dose deposited in water of less than 1.2%. Based on those optimizations, an SCDD-Pro prototype was built and evaluated in broad passive scattering proton beams. The experimental evaluation led to probed SCDD-Pro repeatability, dose rate dependence and linearity, that were better than 0.2%, 0.4% (in the 1.0-5.5 Gy min-1 range) and 0.4% (for dose higher than 0.05 Gy), respectively. The depth-dose curves in the 90-160 MeV energy range, measured with the SCDD-Pro without applying any correction, were in good agreement with those measured using a commercial IBA PPC05 plane-parallel ionization chamber, differing by less than 1.6%. The experimental results confirmed that this SCDD-Pro is suitable for measurements with standard electrometers and that the depth-dose curve perturbation is negligible, with no energy dependence and no significant dose rate

  14. Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, R S; Brandon, J R; Clewes, S L; Dhillon, H K; Dodson, J M; Friel, I; Inglis, P N; Madgwick, T D; Markham, M L; Mollart, T P; Perkins, N; Scarsbrook, G A; Twitchen, D J; Whitehead, A J; Wilman, J J; Woollard, S M

    2009-01-01

    Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer audio, magnetometry and novel lasers. Often the material is synthesized in planar form; however, non-planar geometries are also possible and enable a number of key applications. This paper reviews the material properties and characteristics of single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond, and how these can be utilized, focusing particularly on optics, electronics and electrochemistry. It also summarizes how CVD diamond can be tailored for specific applications, on the basis of the ability to synthesize a consistent and engineered high performance product.

  15. 40Ar-39Ar laser probe dating of individual clinopyroxene inclusions in Premier eclogitic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.; Turner, G.; Laurenzi, M.; Harris, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The ages of seven individual clinopyroxene inclusions in Premier diamonds of eclogitic association have been determined using the 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating technique. Syngenetic inclusions weighing between 10 and 130 μg were exposed on cleaved surfaces of the diamonds and analysed using a laser probe. The inclusion ages were found to be in the range 1111±35 to 1254±38 Ma with an average of 1185±94 Ma. The ages obtained are in good agreement with previous determinations made on aggregates of eclogitic inclusions from Premier diamonds and demonstrate the applicability of the laser probe to dating individual diamond inclusions. (orig.)

  16. Growing of synthetic diamond boron-doped films for analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Rita de Cassia Mendes de; Suarez-Iha, Maria Encarnacion Vazquez; Corat, Evaldo Jose; Iha, Koshun

    1999-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology affords the possibility of producing synthetic diamond film electrodes, with several advantageous properties due the unique characteristics of diamond. In this work, we present the study of boron-doped diamond films growth on molybdenum and silicon substrates, using boron trioxide as dopant in a filament assisted CVD reactor. The objective was to obtain semiconductor diamond for use as electrode. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to confirm morphology and doping levels. We have assembled electrodes with the various samples, Pt, Mo, Si and diamond, by utilizing brass and left as base materials. The electrodes were tested in neutralization potentiometric titrations for future use in electroanalysis. Boron-doped electrodes have very good performance compared with Pt, widely used in analytical chemistry. (author)

  17. Zero bias thermally stimulated currents in synthetic diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R.; Miglio, S.; Bruzzi, M.; Bogani, F.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.

    2009-06-01

    Zero bias thermally stimulated currents (ZBTSCs) have been observed in single crystal high pressure high temperature (HPHT) and polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (pCVD) diamond films. The ZBTSC technique is characterized by an increased sensitivity with respect to a standard TSC analysis. Due to the absence of the thermally activated background current, new TSC peaks have been observed in both HPHT and pCVD diamond films, related to shallow activation energies usually obscured by the emission of the dominant impurities. The ZBTSC peaks are explained in terms of defect discharge in the nonequilibrium potential distribution created by a nonuniform traps filling at the metal-diamond junctions. The electric field due to the charged defects has been estimated in a quasizero bias TSC experiment by applying an external bias.

  18. Diamond-coated probe head for measurements in the deep SOL and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Xu, G. S.; Yan, Ning

    We have tested two cylindrical graphite probe heads coated by a layer of electrically isolating UNCD (Ultra Nano-Crystalline Diamond) using a CVD (Chemical Vapour Deposition) method. The probe heads were mounted on the reciprocating probe manipulator of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting T...

  19. ESR studies of high-energy phosphorus-ion implanted synthetic diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoya, J [University of Library and Information Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanda, H; Morita, Y; Ohshima, T

    1997-03-01

    Phosphorus is among potential n-type dopants in diamond. High pressure synthetic diamond crystals of type IIa implanted with high energy (9-18 MeV) phosphorus ions have been studied by using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The intensity and the linewidth of the ESR signal attributed to the dangling bond of the amorphous phase varied with the implantation dose, suggesting the nature of the amorphization varies with the dose. The ESR signals of point defects have been observed in the low dose as-implanted crystals and in the high dose crystals annealed at high temperature and at high pressure. (author)

  20. Recent developments of high quality synthetic diamond single crystals for synchrotron X-ray monochromators

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, A K; Sellschop, J P Friedel; Burns, R C; Rebak, M

    2001-01-01

    For several years now, the ESRF, the University of the Witwatersrand and Messrs. De Beers Industrial Diamonds (Pty) Ltd. through their Diamond Research Laboratory, have pursued a development programme to assess and improve the quality of synthetic diamonds. Recently, in an effort to study the influence of nitrogen impurities on the defect structure, X-ray excited optical luminescence and spatially resolved double-crystal diffractometry were employed as new techniques. The correlation between nitrogen impurities and the raw defect structure was clearly visible. It was confirmed that concentration variations are related to lattice imperfections, where tilts are much more important than lattice constant variations. High reflectivity was observed and quite large zones of a sample bigger than 1 cm sup 2 showed to be perfect to within better than 0.5 arcsec.

  1. Performance evaluation of synthetic diamond to realize ionisation chamber for radiotherapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Waryn, M.J.

    2005-09-01

    This work focuses on the optimisation of synthetic CVD diamond quality to realize ionisation chambers for radiotherapy. Diamonds samples have been synthesized and characterized using thermally stimulated measurement. These measurements showed the presence of trapping levels due to crystalline defects or impurities in material. The study of the response of these samples under irradiation has showed a correlation between the charged state of traps (priming and overshoot phenomena) and the response of the detector (stabilization of the signal). To remove the overshoot phenomenon which prevents from reproducible measurements, we used a specific operating set up controlling the device temperature. This technique enables to neutralize these instable phenomena and to use CVD diamond for ionisation chamber fabrication. (author)

  2. The effect of dose enhancement near metal interfaces on synthetic diamond based X-ray dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamoudi, D.; Lohstroh, A.; Albarakaty, H.

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates the effects of dose enhancement on the photocurrent performance at metallic interfaces in synthetic diamond detectors based X-ray dosimeters as a function of bias voltages. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with the BEAMnrc code were carried out to simulate the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and compared against the equivalent photocurrent ratio from experimental investigations. The MC simulation results show that the sensitive region for the absorbed dose distribution covers a few micrometers distances from the interface. Experimentally, two single crystals (SC) and one polycrystalline (PC) synthetic diamond samples were fabricated into detectors with carbon based electrodes by boron and carbon ion implantation. Subsequently; the samples were each mounted inside a tissue equivalent encapsulation to minimize unintended fluence perturbation. Dose enhancement was generated by placing copper, lead or gold near the active volume of the detectors using 50 kVp and 100 kVp X-rays relevant for medical dosimetry. The results show enhancement in the detectors' photocurrent performance when different metals are butted up to the diamond bulk as expected. The variation in the photocurrent measurement depends on the type of diamond samples, their electrodes' fabrication and the applied bias voltages indicating that the dose enhancement near the detector may modify their electronic performance.

  3. Characterization of a synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diode for radiotherapy electron beam dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Venanzio, C; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Falco, M D; Bagalà, P; Santoni, R; Pimpinella, M

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the dosimetric properties of synthetic single crystal diamond based Schottky diodes under irradiation with therapeutic electron beams from linear accelerators. A single crystal diamond detector was fabricated and tested under 6, 8, 10, 12, and 15 MeV electron beams. The detector performances were evaluated using three types of commercial detectors as reference dosimeters: an Advanced Markus plane parallel ionization chamber, a Semiflex cylindrical ionization chamber, and a p-type silicon detector. Preirradiation, linearity with dose, dose rate dependence, output factors, lateral field profiles, and percentage depth dose profiles were investigated and discussed. During preirradiation the diamond detector signal shows a weak decrease within 0.7% with respect to the plateau value and a final signal stability of 0.1% (1σ) is observed after about 5 Gy. A good linear behavior of the detector response as a function of the delivered dose is observed with deviations below ±0.3% in the dose range from 0.02 to 10 Gy. In addition, the detector response is dose rate independent, with deviations below 0.3% in the investigated dose rate range from 0.17 to 5.45 Gy∕min. Percentage depth dose curves obtained from the diamond detector are in good agreement with the ones from the reference dosimeters. Lateral beam profile measurements show an overall good agreement among detectors, taking into account their respective geometrical features. The spatial resolution of solid state detectors is confirmed to be better than that of ionization chambers, being the one from the diamond detector comparable to that of the silicon diode. A good agreement within experimental uncertainties was also found in terms of output factor measurements between the diamond detector and reference dosimeters. The observed dosimetric properties indicate that the tested diamond detector is a suitable candidate for clinical electron beam dosimetry.

  4. Near-infrared refractive index of synthetic single crystal and polycrystalline diamonds at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, V. Yu.; Bushuev, E. V.; Popovich, A. F.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Ashkinazi, E. E.; Ralchenko, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    We measured the refractive index n(T) and thermo-optical coefficient β(T) = (1/n)(dn/dT) of high quality synthetic diamonds from room temperature to high temperatures, up to 1520 K, in near-infrared spectral range at wavelength 1.56 μm, using a low-coherence interferometry. A type IIa single crystal diamond produced by high pressure-high temperature technique and a transparent polycrystalline diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition were tested and revealed a very close n(T) behavior, with n = 2.384 ± 0.001 at T = 300 K, monotonically increasing to 2.428 at 1520 K. The n(T) data corrected to thermal expansion of diamond are well fitted with 3rd order polynomials, and alternatively, with the Bose-Einstein model with an effective oscillator frequency of 970 cm-1. Almost linear n(T) dependence is observed above 800 K. The thermo-optical coefficient is found to increase monotonically from (0.6 ± 0.1) × 10-5 K-1 (300 K) to (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10-5 K-1 (1300 K) with a tendency to saturation at >1200 K. These β(T) values are an order of magnitude lower than those known for Si, GaAs, and InP. The obtained results significantly extend the temperature range, where the refractive index of diamond was previously measured.

  5. Synchrotron Bragg diffraction imaging characterization of synthetic diamond crystals for optical and electronic power device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, Thu Nhi; Morse, J; Caliste, D; Fernandez, B; Eon, D; Härtwig, J; Barbay, C; Mer-Calfati, C; Tranchant, N; Arnault, J C; Lafford, T A; Baruchel, J

    2017-04-01

    Bragg diffraction imaging enables the quality of synthetic single-crystal diamond substrates and their overgrown, mostly doped, diamond layers to be characterized. This is very important for improving diamond-based devices produced for X-ray optics and power electronics applications. The usual first step for this characterization is white-beam X-ray diffraction topography, which is a simple and fast method to identify the extended defects (dislocations, growth sectors, boundaries, stacking faults, overall curvature etc. ) within the crystal. This allows easy and quick comparison of the crystal quality of diamond plates available from various commercial suppliers. When needed, rocking curve imaging (RCI) is also employed, which is the quantitative counterpart of monochromatic Bragg diffraction imaging. RCI enables the local determination of both the effective misorientation, which results from lattice parameter variation and the local lattice tilt, and the local Bragg position. Maps derived from these parameters are used to measure the magnitude of the distortions associated with polishing damage and the depth of this damage within the volume of the crystal. For overgrown layers, these maps also reveal the distortion induced by the incorporation of impurities such as boron, or the lattice parameter variations associated with the presence of growth-incorporated nitrogen. These techniques are described, and their capabilities for studying the quality of diamond substrates and overgrown layers, and the surface damage caused by mechanical polishing, are illustrated by examples.

  6. A novel synthetic single crystal diamond device for in vivo dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, Marco; Prestopino, G.; Tonnetti, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Falco, M. D.; Bagalà, P.; Pimpinella, M.; Guerra, A. S.; De Coste, V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Aim of the present work is to evaluate the synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky photodiode developed at the laboratories of “Tor Vergata” University in Rome in a new dosimeter configuration specifically designed for offline wireless in vivo dosimetry (IVD) applications. Methods: The new diamond based dosimeter, single crystal diamond detector (SCDD-iv), consists of a small unwired detector and a small external reading unit that can be connected to commercial electrometers for getting the detector readout after irradiation. Two nominally identical SCDD-iv dosimeter prototypes were fabricated and tested. A basic dosimetric characterization of detector performances relevant for IVD application was performed under irradiation with "6"0Co and 6 MV photon beams. Preirradiation procedure, response stability, short and long term reproducibility, leakage charge, fading effect, linearity with dose, dose rate dependence, temperature dependence, and angular response were investigated. Results: The SCDD-iv is simple, with no cables linked to the patient and the readout is immediate. The range of response with dose has been tested from 1 up to 12 Gy; the reading is independent of the accumulated dose and dose rate independent in the range between about 0.5 and 5 Gy/min; its temperature dependence is within 0.5% between 25 and 38 °C, and its directional dependence is within 2% from 0° to 90°. The combined relative standard uncertainty of absorbed dose to water measurements is estimated lower than the tolerance and action level of 5%. Conclusions: The reported results indicate the proposed novel offline dosimeter based on a synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky photodiode as a promising candidate for in vivo dosimetry applications with photon beams

  7. Dosimetry of cone-defined stereotactic radiosurgery fields with a commercial synthetic diamond detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Johnny E; Crowe, Scott B; Hill, Robin; Freeman, Nigel; Trapp, J V

    2014-11-01

    Small field x-ray beam dosimetry is difficult due to lack of lateral electronic equilibrium, source occlusion, high dose gradients, and detector volume averaging. Currently, there is no single definitive detector recommended for small field dosimetry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a new commercial synthetic diamond detector, namely, the PTW 60019 microDiamond, for the dosimetry of small x-ray fields as used in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Small field sizes were defined by BrainLAB circular cones (4-30 mm diameter) on a Novalis Trilogy linear accelerator and using the 6 MV SRS x-ray beam mode for all measurements. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured and compared to an IBA SFD and a PTW 60012 E diode. Cross profiles were measured and compared to an IBA SFD diode. Field factors, ΩQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) , were calculated by Monte Carlo methods using BEAMnrc and correction factors, kQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) , were derived for the PTW 60019 microDiamond detector. For the small fields of 4-30 mm diameter, there were dose differences in the PDDs of up to 1.5% when compared to an IBA SFD and PTW 60012 E diode detector. For the cross profile measurements the penumbra values varied, depending upon the orientation of the detector. The field factors, ΩQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) , were calculated for these field diameters at a depth of 1.4 cm in water and they were within 2.7% of published values for a similar linear accelerator. The corrections factors, kQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) , were derived for the PTW 60019 microDiamond detector. The authors conclude that the new PTW 60019 microDiamond detector is generally suitable for relative dosimetry in small 6 MV SRS beams for a Novalis Trilogy linear equipped with circular cones.

  8. Synthetic diamond devices for radiotherapy applications: Thermoluminescent dosimeter and ionisation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, C.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Nesladek, M.; Bergonzo, P.

    2006-01-01

    In radiotherapy field, the major usage of dosimeters is in the measurement of the dose received by the patient during radiotherapy (in-vivo measurements) and in beam calibration and uniformity checks. Diamond exhibits several interesting characteristics that make it a good candidate for radiation detection. It is indeed soft-tissue equivalent (Z=6 compared to Z=7.42 for human tissue), mechanically robust and relatively insensitive to radiation damage, chemically stable and non toxic. Moreover, the recent availability of synthetic samples, grown under controlled conditions using the chemical vapour deposition (C.V.D.) technique, allowed decreasing the high cost and the long delivery time of diamond devices. Diamond can be use for off-line dosimetry as thermoluminescent dosimeters or for on-line dosimetry as ionisation chamber [2,3]. These both applications are reported here. For this study, samples were grown in the laboratory and devices were then tested under X-ray irradiations and in clinical environment under medical cobalt source. The work described in this paper was performed in the framework of the European Integrated Project M.A.E.S.T.R.O., Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radio-Oncology, (6. FP) which is granted by the European Commission.The first results of this study clearly show that C.V.D. diamond detectors are suitable for dosimetry in radiotherapy applications. Moreover, for both T.L. dosimeters and ionisation chambers applications, and even though the sensitivity is subsequently reduced, nitrogen incorporation in films seems to significantly improve the dosimetric characteristics of the devices. Therefore, the optimisation of the material quality appears as a very important issue in order to increase the dosimetric characteristics of devices and more particularly, for use as thermoluminescent dosimeters, other impurities (Nickel, Phosphorus) will be tested. For ionisation chamber applications, experiments with

  9. Fabrication and characterization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond-coated MEMS probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Robert; Sobaszek, Michał; Ficek, Mateusz; Kopiec, Daniel; Moczała, Magdalena; Orłowska, Karolina; Sawczak, Mirosław; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication processes of thin boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) films on silicon-based micro- and nano-electromechanical structures have been investigated. B-NCD films were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition method. The variation in B-NCD morphology, structure and optical parameters was particularly investigated. The use of truncated cone-shaped substrate holder enabled to grow thin fully encapsulated nanocrystalline diamond film with a thickness of approx. 60 nm and RMS roughness of 17 nm. Raman spectra present the typical boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond line recorded at 1148 cm-1. Moreover, the change in mechanical parameters of silicon cantilevers over-coated with boron-doped diamond films was investigated with laser vibrometer. The increase of resonance to frequency of over-coated cantilever is attributed to the change in spring constant caused by B-NCD coating. Topography and electrical parameters of boron-doped diamond films were investigated by tapping mode AFM and electrical mode of AFM-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The crystallite-grain size was recorded at 153 and 238 nm for boron-doped film and undoped, respectively. Based on the contact potential difference data from the KPFM measurements, the work function of diamond layers was estimated. For the undoped diamond films, average CPD of 650 mV and for boron-doped layer 155 mV were achieved. Based on CPD values, the values of work functions were calculated as 4.65 and 5.15 eV for doped and undoped diamond film, respectively. Boron doping increases the carrier density and the conductivity of the material and, consequently, the Fermi level.

  10. Thermal diffusivity of diamond nanowires studied by laser assisted atom probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldi, L.; Spies, M.; Houard, J.; Blum, I.; Etienne, A.; Ismagilov, R.; Obraztsov, A.; Vella, A.

    2018-04-01

    The thermal properties of single-crystal diamond nanowires (NWs) have been calculated from first principles but have never been measured experimentally. Taking advantage of the sharp geometry of samples analyzed in a laser assisted atom probe, this technique is used to measure the thermal diffusivity of a single NW at low temperature (ab-initio calculations and confirms that thermal diffusivity in nanoscale samples is lower than in bulk samples. The results impact the design and integration of diamond NWs and nanoneedles in nanoscale devices for heat dissipation.

  11. Engineered diamond nanopillars as mobile probes for high sensitivity metrology in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, P.; de Las Casas, C. F.; Heremans, F. J.; Awschalom, D. D.; Aleman, B. J.; Ohno, K.; Lee, J. C.; Hu, E. L.

    2015-03-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center`s optical addressability and exceptional spin coherence properties at room temperature, along with diamond`s biocompatibility, has put this defect at the frontier of metrology applications in biological environments. To push the spatial resolution to the nanoscale, extensive research efforts focus on using NV centers embedded in nanodiamonds (NDs). However, this approach has been hindered by degraded spin coherence properties in NDs and the lack of a platform for spatial control of the nanoparticles in fluid. In this work, we combine the use of high quality diamond membranes with a top-down patterning technique to fabricate diamond nanoparticles with engineered and highly reproducible shape, size, and NV center density. We obtain NDs, easily releasable from the substrate into a water suspension, which contain single NV centers exhibiting consistently long spin coherence times (up to 700 μs). Additionally, we demonstrate highly stable, three-dimensional optical trapping of the nanoparticles within a microfluidic circuit. This level of control enables a bulk-like DC magnetic sensitivity and gives access to dynamical decoupling techniques on contactless, miniaturized diamond probes. This work was supported by DARPA, AFOSR, and the DIAMANT program.

  12. 40Ar/39Ar laser-probe dating of diamond inclusions from the Premier kimberlite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.; Onstott, T.C.; Harris, J.W.; Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow

    1989-01-01

    Inclusions encapsulated by diamonds at the time of their formation provide a means for determining diamond crystallization ages and the chemistry of the surrounding upper mantle at that time. Sm-Nd studies of peridotitic inclusions, from Cretaceous-age kimberlites in southern Africa, suggest that the diamonds formed 3.3 Gyr ago. By contrast, eclogite-suite inclusions generally yield younger ages, sometimes approaching the time of kimberlite eruption. Here we report the results of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar laser-probe analyses of individual eclogitic clinopyroxene inclusions from Premier diamonds, which yield a mean age of 1,198±14 Myr. This age agrees well with Sm-Nd and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses on similar Premier inclusions, and is indistinguishable from the inferred time of emplacement of the host kimberlite (1,150-1,230 Myr), which implies that diamond formation was essentially synchronous with kimberlite generation. The extrapolated non-radiogenic 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of 334±102 is similar to the present-day atmospheric composition. This value is inconsistent with Sr and Nd isotopic signatures from Premier eclogite inclusions, which suggest a depleted mantle source ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar>20,000). Pre-entrapment equilibration of the inclusions with an 36 Ar-rich fluid is the most probable explanation for the low non-radiogenic ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) composition. (author)

  13. An investigation of the role of defect levels on the radiation response of synthetic diamond crystals when used as sensors for the detection of mammography X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluates the role of defects on the performances of synthetic diamond sensors on exposure to mammography X-rays. Through systematic investigations, the main cause of instability of response of examined sensors necessitating pre-irradiation was isolated and ascribed to the presence of ambient light which has the effect of emptying shallow trapping levels. The changes in response between measurements in light and dark conditions varied from 2.8 ± 1.2% to 63.0 ± 0.3%. Sensitivities between 0.4 and 6.7nCGy -1 mm -3 determined for the sensors varied with defect levels. The study indicates that differences in crystal quality due to the presence and influence of defects would cause a discrepancy in the dosimetric performances of various diamond detectors. Once a sensor plate is selected (based on the influence of defect levels) and coupled to the probe housing with the response of the diamond sensor stabilised and appropriately shielded from ambient light, daily priming is not needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Charge transfer effects, thermo and photochromism in single crystal CVD synthetic diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R U A; Martineau, P M; Cann, B L; Newton, M E; Twitchen, D J

    2009-09-09

    We report on the effects of thermal treatment and ultraviolet irradiation on the point defect concentrations and optical absorption profiles of single crystal CVD synthetic diamond. All thermal treatments were below 850 K, which is lower than the growth temperature and unlikely to result in any structural change. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy measurements showed that upon thermal treatment (823 K), various broad absorption features diminished: an absorption band at 270 nm (used to deduce neutral single substitutional nitrogen (N(S)(0)) concentrations) and also two broad features centred at approximately 360 and 520 nm. Point defect centre concentrations as a function of temperature were also deduced using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Above ∼500 K, we observed a decrease in the concentration of N(S)(0) centres and a concomitant increase in the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy-hydrogen (NVH) complex (NVH(-)) concentration. Both transitions exhibited an activation energy between 0.6 and 1.2 eV, which is lower than that for the N(S)(0) donor (∼1.7 eV). Finally, it was found that illuminating samples with intense short-wave ultraviolet light recovered the N(S)(0) concentration and also the 270, 360 and 520 nm absorption features. From these results, we postulate a valence band mediated charge transfer process between NVH and single nitrogen centres with an acceptor trap depth for NVH of 0.6-1.2 eV. Because the loss of N(S)(0) concentration is greater than the increase in NVH(-) concentration we also suggest the presence of another unknown acceptor existing at a similar energy to NVH. The extent to which the colour in CVD synthetic diamond is dependent on prior history is discussed.

  15. Studies of synthetic single crystal diamonds as reliable dosimeters for electromagnetic ionizing radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, Mario; Angelone, Maurizio; Almaviva, Salvatore; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, Enrico; Prestopino, Giuseppe; Tucciarone, Aldo; Verona, Claudio; Verona-Rinati, Gianluca; Baccaro, Stefania

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Spatial high resolution dosimetry is very important in all areas of radiation therapy and, in particular, whenever narrow photon beams are required for Stereotactic Radiotherapy (SRT) and small field segments are used for Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). The available detectors are often too large with respect to the beam size considered, which is characterized by high dose gradients and lack of charged particle equilibrium. An ideal solution is represented by single crystal diamond detectors, which are small solid state devices, radiation hard, tissue equivalent and capable of real time response. In the present work, synthetic CVD single crystal diamond dosimeters (SCD), fabricated at Rome 'Tor Vergata' University Laboratories, have been characterized. The devices consist of a p-type/intrinsic/metal layered structure. They have been analyzed in terms of reproducibility, linearity, depth dose distributions, energy, dose rate and field size dependence by using 6 and 10 MV Bremsstrahlung x-ray beams, produced by a CLINAC DHX Varian accelerator and the gamma irradiation facility CALLIOPE. The gamma Calliope plant is a pool-type irradiation facility equipped with the 60 Co γ-source in a high-volume (7 x 6 x 3.9m 3 ). Maximum dose rate is 9400 Gy/h. The measurements have been compared with a calibrated ionization chamber and a Fricke dosimeter. The SCD's response is shown to be linearly correlated with the ionization chamber output over the whole dose range explored. Reproducibility, energy and dose rate dependency lower than 1% were observed. A depth dose distribution and irradiation field dependence in agreement with those obtained by reference dosimeters within 2% of accuracy were demonstrated as well. The results of this study are very encouraging about the suitability of SCD for clinical dosimetry with photon beams. (author)

  16. Synchrotron Bragg diffraction imaging characterization of synthetic diamond crystals for optical and electronic power device applications1 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Thi, Thu Nhi; Morse, J.; Caliste, D.; Fernandez, B.; Eon, D.; Härtwig, J.; Mer-Calfati, C.; Tranchant, N.; Arnault, J. C.; Lafford, T. A.; Baruchel, J.

    2017-01-01

    Bragg diffraction imaging enables the quality of synthetic single-crystal diamond substrates and their overgrown, mostly doped, diamond layers to be characterized. This is very important for improving diamond-based devices produced for X-ray optics and power electronics applications. The usual first step for this characterization is white-beam X-ray diffraction topography, which is a simple and fast method to identify the extended defects (dislocations, growth sectors, boundaries, stacking faults, overall curvature etc.) within the crystal. This allows easy and quick comparison of the crystal quality of diamond plates available from various commercial suppliers. When needed, rocking curve imaging (RCI) is also employed, which is the quantitative counterpart of monochromatic Bragg diffraction imaging. RCI enables the local determination of both the effective misorientation, which results from lattice parameter variation and the local lattice tilt, and the local Bragg position. Maps derived from these parameters are used to measure the magnitude of the distortions associated with polishing damage and the depth of this damage within the volume of the crystal. For overgrown layers, these maps also reveal the distortion induced by the incorporation of impurities such as boron, or the lattice parameter variations associated with the presence of growth-incorporated nitrogen. These techniques are described, and their capabilities for studying the quality of diamond substrates and overgrown layers, and the surface damage caused by mechanical polishing, are illustrated by examples. PMID:28381981

  17. Kelvin probe characterization of buried graphitic microchannels in single-crystal diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, E.; Battiato, A.; Olivero, P.; Vittone, E.; Picollo, F.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present an investigation by Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM) of buried graphitic microchannels fabricated in single-crystal diamond by direct MeV ion microbeam writing. Metal deposition of variable-thickness masks was adopted to implant channels with emerging endpoints and high temperature annealing was performed in order to induce the graphitization of the highly-damaged buried region. When an electrical current was flowing through the biased buried channel, the structure was clearly evidenced by KPM maps of the electrical potential of the surface region overlying the channel at increasing distances from the grounded electrode. The KPM profiling shows regions of opposite contrast located at different distances from the endpoints of the channel. This effect is attributed to the different electrical conduction properties of the surface and of the buried graphitic layer. The model adopted to interpret these KPM maps and profiles proved to be suitable for the electronic characterization of buried conductive channels, providing a non-invasive method to measure the local resistivity with a micrometer resolution. The results demonstrate the potential of the technique as a powerful diagnostic tool to monitor the functionality of all-carbon graphite/diamond devices to be fabricated by MeV ion beam lithography

  18. Enhanced physicochemical properties of polydimethylsiloxane based microfluidic devices and thin films by incorporating synthetic micro-diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Sidra; Cabot, Joan M; Macdonald, Niall P; Kalsoom, Umme; Farajikhah, Syamak; Innis, Peter C; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Lewis, Trevor W; Breadmore, Michael C; Paull, Brett

    2017-11-08

    Synthetic micro-diamond-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite microfluidic chips and thin films were produced using indirect 3D printing and spin coating fabrication techniques. Microfluidic chips containing up to 60 wt% micro-diamond were successfully cast and bonded. Physicochemical properties, including the dispersion pattern, hydrophobicity, chemical structure, elasticity and thermal characteristics of both chip and films were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the micro-diamond particles were embedded and interconnected within the bulk material of the cast microfluidic chip, whereas in the case of thin films their increased presence at the polymer surface resulted in a reduced hydrophobicity of the composite. The elastic modulus increased from 1.28 for a PDMS control, to 4.42 MPa for the 60 wt% composite, along with a three-fold increase in thermal conductivity, from 0.15 to 0.45 W m -1 K -1 . Within the fluidic chips, micro-diamond incorporation enhanced heat dissipation by efficient transfer of heat from within the channels to the surrounding substrate. At a flow rate of 1000 μL/min, the gradient achieved for the 60 wt% composite chip equalled a 9.8 °C drop across a 3 cm long channel, more than twice that observed with the PDMS control chip.

  19. Probing condensed matter physics with magnetometry based on nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casola, Francesco; van der Sar, Toeno; Yacoby, Amir

    2018-01-01

    The magnetic fields generated by spins and currents provide a unique window into the physics of correlated-electron materials and devices. First proposed only a decade ago, magnetometry based on the electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects in diamond is emerging as a platform that is excellently suited for probing condensed matter systems; it can be operated from cryogenic temperatures to above room temperature, has a dynamic range spanning from direct current to gigahertz and allows sensor-sample distances as small as a few nanometres. As such, NV magnetometry provides access to static and dynamic magnetic and electronic phenomena with nanoscale spatial resolution. Pioneering work has focused on proof-of-principle demonstrations of its nanoscale imaging resolution and magnetic field sensitivity. Now, experiments are starting to probe the correlated-electron physics of magnets and superconductors and to explore the current distributions in low-dimensional materials. In this Review, we discuss the application of NV magnetometry to the exploration of condensed matter physics, focusing on its use to study static and dynamic magnetic textures and static and dynamic current distributions.

  20. SU-E-T-485: Investigation of a Synthetic Diamond Detector for Tomotherapy Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knill, C; Nalichowski, A; Halford, R [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Zakjevskii, V; Zhuang, L [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Snyder, M; Burmeister, J [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tomotherapy treatments are characterized by rotational deliveries of flattening-filter free fields resulting in high-gradient dose distributions. Small volume, rotationally independent detectors are needed for accurate dosimetry. PTWs microDiamond detector, with its small sensitive volume (0.004mm{sup 3}), could potentially be an ideal detector for Tomotherapy. The microDiamond detector was tested against a small volume Exradin A1SL ion chamber for Tomotherapy open-field and IMRT commissioning measurements. Methods: Custom detector holders were fabricated to allow A1SL and microDiamond measurements in the Tomotherapy Cheese phantom and a square solid water phantom. The microDiamond rotational dependence within the Tomotherapy phantom was tested by incrementally rotating the detector in between static-gantry angle Tomotherapy irradiations. Longitudinal Tomotherapy profiles, for all field sizes, were measured with the microDiamond and A1SL detectors at 1.5cm depth in the square phantom, and compared to film. Detector axes were aligned parallel to table motion. Per TG-119 recommendations, both detectors were calibrated to known doses in phantoms and used to measure high-dose points in TG-119 H and N and Prostate plans. The measurements were compared to the treatment planning system and subsequently compared to published TG-119 confidence limits. Results: The microDiamond angular dependence was less than 0.5%. The average difference between the detectors and film-measured longitudinal profile 80–20% penumbras were 0.03+/-0.04mm and 1.36+/-0.22mm for the microDiamond and A1SL, respectively. The average difference between the detector and filmmeasured field sizes were 0.07+/-0.01mm and 0.09+/-0.02mm for the microDiamond and A1SL, respectively. The measured confidence limits were 0.023 and 0.015 for microDiamond and A1SL, respectively. TG-119 reported a confidence limit of 0.034. Conclusion: The microDiamond measured open-field longitudinal Tomotherapy profiles

  1. Characterization of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector for dosimetry in spatially fractionated synchrotron x-ray fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Jayde, E-mail: Jayde.Livingstone@synchrotron.org.au; Häusermann, Daniel [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Stevenson, Andrew W. [Imaging and Medical Beamline, Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia and CSIRO Manufacturing, Clayton South, Victoria 3169 (Australia); Butler, Duncan J. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie, Victoria 3085 (Australia); Adam, Jean-François [Equipe d’accueil Rayonnement Synchrotron et Recherche Médicale, Université Grenoble Alpes, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility - ID17, Grenoble 38043, France and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, Grenoble 38043 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Modern radiotherapy modalities often use small or nonstandard fields to ensure highly localized and precise dose delivery, challenging conventional clinical dosimetry protocols. The emergence of preclinical spatially fractionated synchrotron radiotherapies with high dose-rate, sub-millimetric parallel kilovoltage x-ray beams, has pushed clinical dosimetry to its limit. A commercially available synthetic single crystal diamond detector designed for small field dosimetry has been characterized to assess its potential as a dosimeter for synchrotron microbeam and minibeam radiotherapy. Methods: Experiments were carried out using a synthetic diamond detector on the imaging and medical beamline (IMBL) at the Australian Synchrotron. The energy dependence of the detector was characterized by cross-referencing with a calibrated ionization chamber in monoenergetic beams in the energy range 30–120 keV. The dose-rate dependence was measured in the range 1–700 Gy/s. Dosimetric quantities were measured in filtered white beams, with a weighted mean energy of 95 keV, in broadbeam and spatially fractionated geometries, and compared to reference dosimeters. Results: The detector exhibits an energy dependence; however, beam quality correction factors (k{sub Q}) have been measured for energies in the range 30–120 keV. The k{sub Q} factor for the weighted mean energy of the IMBL radiotherapy spectrum, 95 keV, is 1.05 ± 0.09. The detector response is independent of dose-rate in the range 1–700 Gy/s. The percentage depth dose curves measured by the diamond detector were compared to ionization chambers and agreed to within 2%. Profile measurements of microbeam and minibeam arrays were performed. The beams are well resolved and the full width at halfmaximum agrees with the nominal width of the beams. The peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR) calculated from the profiles at various depths in water agrees within experimental error with PVDR calculations from Gafchromic film data

  2. Analysis of laser-generated plasma ionizing radiation by synthetic single crystal diamond detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marinelli, M.; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Cutroneo, M.; Torrisi, L.; Margarone, Daniele; Velyhan, Andriy; Krása, Josef; Krouský, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 272, May (2013), s. 104-108 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OPVK 3 Laser Zdroj(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279; OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087; 7FP LASERLAB-EUROPE(XE) 228334 Program:EE; FP7 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : single crystal diamond * diamond detector * laser-generated plasma * ionizing radiation * time-of-fight spectrometer Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2013

  3. Evaluation of a synthetic single-crystal diamond detector for relative dosimetry on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Reggiori, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.reggiori@humanitas.it; Stravato, Antonella; Gaudino, Anna; Lobefalo, Francesca; Palumbo, Valentina; Tomatis, Stefano [Physics Service of Radiation Oncology Department, Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20098 (Italy); Navarria, Piera; Ascolese, Anna; Scorsetti, Marta [Radiation Oncology Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy); Picozzi, Piero [Neurosurgery Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy); Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma 00133 (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the new commercial PTW-60019 synthetic single-crystal microDiamond detector (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for relative dosimetry measurements on a clinical Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system. Methods: Detector output ratios (DORs) for 4 and 8 mm beams were measured using a microDiamond (PTW-60019), a stereotactic unshielded diode [IBA stereotactic field detector (SFD)], a shielded diode (IBA photon field detector), and GafChromic EBT3 films. Both parallel and transversal acquisition directions were considered for PTW-60019 measurements. Measured DORs were compared to the new output factor reference values for Gamma Knife Perfexion (0.814 and 0.900 for 4 and 8 mm, respectively). Profiles in the three directions were also measured for the 4 mm beam to evaluate full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbra and to compare them with the corresponding Leksell GammaPlan profiles. Results: FWHM and penumbra for PTW-60019 differed from the calculated values by less than 0.2 and 0.3 mm, for the parallel and transversal acquisitions, respectively. GafChromic films showed FWHM and penumbra within 0.1 mm. The output ratio obtained with the PTW-60019 for the 4 mm field was 1.6% greater in transverse direction compared to the nominal value. Comparable differences up to 0.8% and 1.0% for, respectively, GafChromic films and SFD were found. Conclusions: The microDiamond PTW-60019 is a suitable detector for commissioning and routine use of Gamma Knife with good agreement of both DORs and profiles in the three directions.

  4. Evaluation of a synthetic single-crystal diamond detector for relative dosimetry on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Reggiori, Giacomo; Stravato, Antonella; Gaudino, Anna; Lobefalo, Francesca; Palumbo, Valentina; Tomatis, Stefano; Navarria, Piera; Ascolese, Anna; Scorsetti, Marta; Picozzi, Piero; Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the new commercial PTW-60019 synthetic single-crystal microDiamond detector (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for relative dosimetry measurements on a clinical Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system. Methods: Detector output ratios (DORs) for 4 and 8 mm beams were measured using a microDiamond (PTW-60019), a stereotactic unshielded diode [IBA stereotactic field detector (SFD)], a shielded diode (IBA photon field detector), and GafChromic EBT3 films. Both parallel and transversal acquisition directions were considered for PTW-60019 measurements. Measured DORs were compared to the new output factor reference values for Gamma Knife Perfexion (0.814 and 0.900 for 4 and 8 mm, respectively). Profiles in the three directions were also measured for the 4 mm beam to evaluate full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbra and to compare them with the corresponding Leksell GammaPlan profiles. Results: FWHM and penumbra for PTW-60019 differed from the calculated values by less than 0.2 and 0.3 mm, for the parallel and transversal acquisitions, respectively. GafChromic films showed FWHM and penumbra within 0.1 mm. The output ratio obtained with the PTW-60019 for the 4 mm field was 1.6% greater in transverse direction compared to the nominal value. Comparable differences up to 0.8% and 1.0% for, respectively, GafChromic films and SFD were found. Conclusions: The microDiamond PTW-60019 is a suitable detector for commissioning and routine use of Gamma Knife with good agreement of both DORs and profiles in the three directions

  5. Production and testing of a synthetic diamond film radiation dosimeter for radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Fidanzio, A; Venanzi, C; Pinzari, F; Piermattei, A

    2002-01-01

    A detector, constituted by a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond film, has been made for on-line radiotherapy beam analysis in terms of dose distributions in water equivalent material. Preliminary results are reported which evidence that the leakage current can be a limiting parameter for an efficient collection of the charge carriers produced by the ionizing radiation. A signal to noise ratio near to 100 has been obtained. A priming effect similar to that found in natural diamond devices has also been evidenced, and a stable detector response was obtained after an accumulated dose of 5 Gy. The linearity has been achieved between the detector reading and the dose. The detector sensitivity resulted was equal to 77 nC/Gy per mm sup 3 of detector sensitive volume. A power law with exponent DELTA less than one has been found between detector reading and dose rate. However, when the dose rate dependence was corrected, the percentage depth doses, along an X-ray beam central axis, was in agreement with ...

  6. Determination of small field synthetic single-crystal diamond detector correction factors for CyberKnife, Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion and linear accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselsky, T; Novotny, J; Pastykova, V; Koniarova, I

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine small field correction factors for a synthetic single-crystal diamond detector (PTW microDiamond) for routine use in clinical dosimetric measurements. Correction factors following small field Alfonso formalism were calculated by comparison of PTW microDiamond measured ratio M Qclin fclin /M Qmsr fmsr with Monte Carlo (MC) based field output factors Ω Qclin,Qmsr fclin,fmsr determined using Dosimetry Diode E or with MC simulation itself. Diode measurements were used for the CyberKnife and Varian Clinac 2100C/D linear accelerator. PTW microDiamond correction factors for Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) were derived using MC simulated reference values from the manufacturer. PTW microDiamond correction factors for CyberKnife field sizes 25-5 mm were mostly smaller than 1% (except for 2.9% for 5 mm Iris field and 1.4% for 7.5 mm fixed cone field). The correction of 0.1% and 2.0% for 8 mm and 4 mm collimators, respectively, needed to be applied to PTW microDiamond measurements for LGK Perfexion. Finally, PTW microDiamond M Qclin fclin /M Qmsr fmsr for the linear accelerator varied from MC corrected Dosimetry Diode data by less than 0.5% (except for 1 × 1 cm 2 field size with 1.3% deviation). Regarding low resulting correction factor values, the PTW microDiamond detector may be considered an almost ideal tool for relative small field dosimetry in a large variety of stereotactic and radiosurgery treatment devices. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Omics Methods for Probing the Mode of Action of Natural and Synthetic Phytotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Stephen O.; Bajsa, Joanna; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    For a little over a decade, omics methods (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and physionomics) have been used to discover and probe the mode of action of both synthetic and natural phytotoxins. For mode of action discovery, the strategy for each of these approaches is to generate an omics profile for phytotoxins with known molecular targets and to compare this library of responses to the responses of compounds with unknown modes of action. Using more than one omics approach enhances ...

  8. Synthetic diamond devices for medical dosimetry applied to radiotherapy; Etude et developpement de dispositifs en diamant synthetique pour la dosimetrie medicale: applications en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descamps, C

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this thesis, lead in the framework of an integrated European project entitled M.A.E.S.T.R.O. for ' Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radio Oncology', was to develop and test synthetic diamond detector in clinical environment for new modalities used in radiotherapy. Diamond is a good candidate for the detection of high energy beams in medical fields. It can be used for passive dosimetry, as thermoluminescent dosimeters or for active dosimetry as ionisation chambers. These two applications are presented here. Concerning the thermoluminescence, several impurities or dopants (boron, phosphorus, and nitrogen) have been incorporated in the diamond films during growth, in order to modify the material dosimetric properties and a detailed study of nitrogen-containing films is proposed. The second part presents the results obtained in active dosimetry. Two guide lines were followed: the measurement set-up optimisation and the material modification. The first dosimetric studies under radiotherapy beams concerning nitrogen-containing polycrystalline diamond as well as high purity single crystal diamond are conclusive. The detectors behaviours are in agreement with the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  9. Synthetic diamond devices for medical dosimetry applied to radiotherapy; Etude et developpement de dispositifs en diamant synthetique pour la dosimetrie medicale: applications en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descamps, C

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this thesis, lead in the framework of an integrated European project entitled M.A.E.S.T.R.O. for ' Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radio Oncology', was to develop and test synthetic diamond detector in clinical environment for new modalities used in radiotherapy. Diamond is a good candidate for the detection of high energy beams in medical fields. It can be used for passive dosimetry, as thermoluminescent dosimeters or for active dosimetry as ionisation chambers. These two applications are presented here. Concerning the thermoluminescence, several impurities or dopants (boron, phosphorus, and nitrogen) have been incorporated in the diamond films during growth, in order to modify the material dosimetric properties and a detailed study of nitrogen-containing films is proposed. The second part presents the results obtained in active dosimetry. Two guide lines were followed: the measurement set-up optimisation and the material modification. The first dosimetric studies under radiotherapy beams concerning nitrogen-containing polycrystalline diamond as well as high purity single crystal diamond are conclusive. The detectors behaviours are in agreement with the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  10. How can we probe the atom mass currents induced by synthetic gauge fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramekanti, Arun; Killi, Matthew; Trotzky, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    Ultracold atomic fermions and bosons in an optical lattice can have quantum ground states which support equilibrium currents in the presence of synthetic magnetic fields or spin orbit coupling. As a tool to uncover these mass currents, we propose using an anisotropic quantum quench of the optical lattice which dynamically converts the current patterns into measurable density patterns. Using analytical calculations and numerical simulations, we show that this scheme can probe diverse equilibrium bulk current patterns in Bose superfluids and Fermi fluids induced by synthetic magnetic fields, as well as detect the chiral edge currents in topological states of atomic matter such as quantum Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators. This work is supported by NSERC of Canada and the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.

  11. Energy gap and surface structure of superconducting diamond films probed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizaki, Terukazu; Takano, Yoshihiko; Nagao, Masanori; Takenouchi, Tomohiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Norio

    2007-01-01

    We have performed scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) experiments on (1 1 1)-oriented epitaxial films of heavily boron-doped diamond at T = 0.47 K. The STM topography shows two kinds of atomic structures: a hydrogenated 1 x 1 structure, C(1 1 1)1 x 1:H, and an amorphous structure. On the C(1 1 1)1 x 1:H region, the tunneling spectra show superconducting property with the energy gap Δ = 0.83 meV. The obtained gap ratio 2Δ/k B T c = 3.57 is consistent with the weak-coupling BCS theory

  12. Perspectives of application of synthetic diamonds in polyurethane compositions for development of new high thermal conductivity system of isolation of powerful turbogenerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kensits'kij, O.G.; Vigovs'kij, O.V.; Khvalyin, D.Yi.

    2017-01-01

    Reviewed and analyzed components of modern high-voltage insulation of electrical machines. The expediency of increasing of heat-conducting properties of the system of isolation of stator winding of powerful turbogenerators is justified. The main ways of improving heat transfer in the insulation system the stator windings of the turbogenerators are presented and analyzed. Perspectives of application of composite material based on polyurethane with additives of synthetic diamonds for development of new high thermal conductivity system of isolation of powerful electrical machines are analyzed. The technology by which was created the prototype of the insulating material with the application of diamond powder in a polyurethane composition is described. Executed laboratory experimental researches of the electrophysical parameters of the sample developed insulating material. That showed the perspective of this direction of perfection of isolation.

  13. Nanometer-scale isotope analysis of bulk diamond by atom probe tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirhagl, R.; Raatz, N.; Meijer, J.; Markham, M.; Gerstl, S. S. A.; Degen, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Atom-probe tomography (APT) combines field emission of atoms with mass spectrometry to reconstruct three-dimensional tomograms of materials with atomic resolution and isotope specificity. Despite significant recent progress in APT technology, application to wide-bandgap materials with strong

  14. Direct observation of the leakage current in epitaxial diamond Schottky barrier devices by conductive-probe atomic force microscopy and Raman imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Jose; Boutchich, M.; Kleider, J. P.; Teraji, T.; Koide, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the high leakage current measured in several vertical-type diamond Schottky devices is conjointly investigated by conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) and confocal micro-Raman/Photoluminescence (PL) imaging analysis. Local areas characterized by a strong decrease of the local resistance (5-6 orders of magnitude drop) with respect to their close surrounding have been identified in several different regions of the sample surface. The same local areas, also referenced ...

  15. Neuronal apoptotic signaling pathways probed and intervened by synthetically and modularly modified (SMM) chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Tak; Kaul, Marcus; Kumar, Santosh; Wang, Jun; Kumar, I M Krishna; Dong, Chang-Zhi; An, Jing; Lipton, Stuart A; Huang, Ziwei

    2007-03-09

    As the main coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, CXCR4 and CCR5 play important roles in HIV-associated dementia (HAD). HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 contributes to HAD by causing neuronal damage and death, either directly by triggering apoptotic pathways or indirectly by stimulating glial cells to release neurotoxins. Here, to understand the mechanism of CXCR4 or CCR5 signaling in neuronal apoptosis associated with HAD, we have applied synthetically and modularly modified (SMM)-chemokine analogs derived from natural stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha or viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II as chemical probes of the mechanism(s) whereby these SMM-chemokines prevent or promote neuronal apoptosis. We show that inherently neurotoxic natural ligands of CXCR4, such as stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha or viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II, can be modified to protect neurons from apoptosis induced by CXCR4-preferring gp120(IIIB), and that the inhibition of CCR5 by antagonist SMM-chemokines, unlike neuroprotective CCR5 natural ligands, leads to neurotoxicity by activating a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent pathway. Furthermore, we discover distinct signaling pathways activated by different chemokine ligands that are either natural agonists or synthetic antagonists, thus demonstrating a chemical biology strategy of using chemically engineered inhibitors of chemokine receptors to study the signaling mechanism of neuronal apoptosis and survival.

  16. Vickers Hardness of Diamond and cBN Single Crystals: AFM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Dub

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy in different operation modes (topography, derivative topography, and phase contrast was used to obtain 3D images of Vickers indents on the surface of diamond and cBN single crystals with high spatial resolution. Confocal Raman spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy were used to study the structure of the material in the indents. It was found that Vickers indents in diamond has no sharp and clear borders. However, the phase contrast operation mode of the AFM reveals a new viscoelastic phase in the indent in diamond. Raman spectroscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy revealed that the new phase in the indent is disordered graphite, which was formed due to the pressure-induced phase transformation in the diamond during the hardness test. The projected contact area of the graphite layer in the indent allows us to measure the Vickers hardness of type-Ib synthetic diamond. In contrast to diamond, very high plasticity was observed for 0.5 N load indents on the (001 cBN single crystal face. Radial and ring cracks were absent, the shape of the indents was close to a square, and there were linear details in the indent, which looked like slip lines. The Vickers hardness of the (111 synthetic diamond and (111 and (001 cBN single crystals were determined using the AFM images and with account for the elastic deformation of the diamond Vickers indenter during the tests.

  17. Kelvin probe force microscopy studies of the charge effects upon adsorption of carbon nanotubes and C60 fullerenes on hydrogen-terminated diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölsch, S.; Fritz, F.; Fenner, M. A.; Kurch, S.; Wöhrl, N.; Mayne, A. J.; Dujardin, G.; Meyer, C.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen-terminated diamond is known for its unusually high surface conductivity that is ascribed to its negative electron affinity. In the presence of acceptor molecules, electrons are expected to transfer from the surface to the acceptor, resulting in p-type surface conductivity. Here, we present Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements on carbon nanotubes and C60 adsorbed onto a hydrogen-terminated diamond(001) surface. A clear reduction in the Kelvin signal is observed at the position of the carbon nanotubes and C60 molecules as compared with the bare, air-exposed surface. This result can be explained by the high positive electron affinity of carbon nanotubes and C60, resulting in electron transfer from the surface to the adsorbates. When an oxygen-terminated diamond(001) is used instead, no reduction in the Kelvin signal is obtained. While the presence of a charged adsorbate or a difference in work function could induce a change in the KPFM signal, a charge transfer effect of the hydrogen-terminated diamond surface, by the adsorption of the carbon nanotubes and the C60 fullerenes, is consistent with previous theoretical studies.

  18. X-ray topographic studies and measurement of lattice parameter differences within synthetic diamonds grown by the reconstitution technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Moore, M.; Makepeace, A. P. W.; Yacoot, A.

    1991-10-01

    A 4 x 4 x 1.5 cu mm cuboctahedral diamond and two 0.7 mm thick slabs cut from a truncated octahedral diamond grown by the reconstitution technique were studied in different double-crystal arrangements with both conventional and synchrotron X-ray sources. The back-reflection double crystal topographs of large polished 001-plane-oriented faces intersecting different growth sectors, together with cathodoluminescence patterns, allowed identification of these sectors. A double-crystal arrangement, employing the -3 2 5 quartz reflection matching the symmetrical 004 diamond reflection in CuK(alpha 1) radiation, was used for measurement of lattice parameter differences with an accuracy of one and a half parts per million. The simultaneous investigation by means of Lang projection and section topography provided complementary information about the crystallographic defects and internal structures of growth sectors. Observation of the cuboctahedral diamond with a filter of peak transmittance at 430 nm revealed a 'Maltese cross' growth feature in the central (001) growth sector, which also affected the birefringence pattern. However, this feature only very slightly affected the double-crystal topographs.

  19. Direct observation of the leakage current in epitaxial diamond Schottky barrier devices by conductive-probe atomic force microscopy and Raman imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J.; Boutchich, M.; Kleider, J. P.; Teraji, T.; Koide, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The origin of the high leakage current measured in several vertical-type diamond Schottky devices is conjointly investigated by conducting probe atomic force microscopy and confocal micro-Raman/photoluminescence imaging analysis. Local areas characterized by a strong decrease of the local resistance (5-6 orders of magnitude drop) with respect to their close surrounding have been identified in several different regions of the sample surface. The same local areas, also referenced as electrical hot-spots, reveal a slightly constrained diamond lattice and three dominant Raman bands in the low-wavenumber region (590, 914 and 1040 cm-1). These latter bands are usually assigned to the vibrational modes involving boron impurities and its possible complexes that can electrically act as traps for charge carriers. Local current-voltage measurements performed at the hot-spots point out a trap-filled-limited current as the main conduction mechanism favouring the leakage current in the Schottky devices.

  20. Optical engineering of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Rabeau, James R

    2013-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  1. Clinopyroxenes still trapped in diamonds: high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction as a chemical probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Nicola; Nestola, Fabrizio; Alvaro, Matteo; Wilhelm, Heribert; Kleppe, Annette; Nimis, Paolo; Harris, Jeffrey W.

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxenes are mainly Ca-Na-Fe-Mg-silicates constituting a significant portion of the Earth's upper mantle up to 20% of such shell of our planet. They could be found as typical mineral inclusions in diamonds being diopsidic and omphacitic in composition and, together with garnets, cover a key role in providing indications concerning the source rock in which the diamond crystallize. In detail, it is well known that eclogitic diamonds are characterized by clinopyroxenes with omphacitic compositions (about Ca0.5Na0.5Mg0.5Al0.5Si2O6) whereas peridotitic diamonds show clinopyroxenes very rich in the diopside end-member (CaMgSi2O6). In order to get direct chemical composition on the inclusions, and therefore on the diamond origin source, it is obviously necessary to extract them breaking and/or polishing the diamond host. However, a non-destructive investigation of an inclusion still trapped in a diamond is useful and important for different reasons: (1) the inclusions could be under pressure and their crystal structure can be modified if the pressure is released by the extraction; (2) the residual pressure on the inclusion can provide information about the formation pressure of the diamond (e.g. Nestola et al. 2011 and references therein); (3) the morphology and growth relationships of the inclusion with the host diamond can provide indications about its protogenetic vs. syngenetic and/or epigenetic nature; and (4) preservation of the diamond surface growth features can maintain crucial information on late oxidation processes (Fedortchouk et al. 2011). However the available methods to measure the composition of the inclusions implies to destroy the sample. The aim of this work is to obtain chemical information on the inclusions still trapped in their diamond host and therefore to indicate the diamond origin without extracting the inclusions. The work was carried out by single crystal X-ray diffraction using a new experimental approach by high energy synchrotron

  2. Omics methods for probing the mode of action of natural and synthetic phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O; Bajsa, Joanna; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2013-02-01

    For a little over a decade, omics methods (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and physionomics) have been used to discover and probe the mode of action of both synthetic and natural phytotoxins. For mode of action discovery, the strategy for each of these approaches is to generate an omics profile for phytotoxins with known molecular targets and to compare this library of responses to the responses of compounds with unknown modes of action. Using more than one omics approach enhances the probability of success. Generally, compounds with the same mode of action generate similar responses with a particular omics method. Stress and detoxification responses to phytotoxins can be much clearer than effects directly related to the target site. Clues to new modes of action must be validated with in vitro enzyme effects or genetic approaches. Thus far, the only new phytotoxin target site discovered with omics approaches (metabolomics and physionomics) is that of cinmethylin and structurally related 5-benzyloxymethyl-1,2-isoxazolines. These omics approaches pointed to tyrosine amino-transferase as the target, which was verified by enzyme assays and genetic methods. In addition to being a useful tool of mode of action discovery, omics methods provide detailed information on genetic and biochemical impacts of phytotoxins. Such information can be useful in understanding the full impact of natural phytotoxins in both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  3. Cloned polynucleotide and synthetic oligonucleotide probes used in colony hybridization are equally efficient in the identification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfelt, H.; Kalland, K.H.; Raj, P.; Moseley, S.L.; Bhan, M.K.; Bjorvatn, B.

    1988-01-01

    Restriction endonuclease-generated polynucleotide and synthetically produced oligonucleotide gene probes used in colony hybridization assays proved to be efficient for the detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. To compare their relative efficiencies, these two sets of probes were radiolabeled with 32 P and were applied to 74 strains of E. coli with known enterotoxin profiles and to 156 previously unexamined E. coli isolates. The enterotoxigenic bacteria Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio cholerae non-O1 (NAG), Yersinia enterocolitica, and E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were examined for further evaluation of probe specificity. The two classes of probes showed a perfect concordance in their specific detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic E. coli. In the analysis of six strains, the signal strength on autoradiography after hybridization with oligonucleotides was weaker than that obtained after hybridization with polynucleotide probes. The probes did not hybridize with DNA from V. cholerae O1, V. cholerae non-O1 (NAG), or Y. enterocolitica. The strains of E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were, likewise, negative in the hybridization assays

  4. Cloned polynucleotide and synthetic oligonucleotide probes used in colony hybridization are equally efficient in the identification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerfelt, H.; Kalland, K.H.; Raj, P.; Moseley, S.L.; Bhan, M.K.; Bjorvatn, B.

    1988-11-01

    Restriction endonuclease-generated polynucleotide and synthetically produced oligonucleotide gene probes used in colony hybridization assays proved to be efficient for the detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. To compare their relative efficiencies, these two sets of probes were radiolabeled with /sup 32/P and were applied to 74 strains of E. coli with known enterotoxin profiles and to 156 previously unexamined E. coli isolates. The enterotoxigenic bacteria Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio cholerae non-O1 (NAG), Yersinia enterocolitica, and E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were examined for further evaluation of probe specificity. The two classes of probes showed a perfect concordance in their specific detection and differentiation of enterotoxigenic E. coli. In the analysis of six strains, the signal strength on autoradiography after hybridization with oligonucleotides was weaker than that obtained after hybridization with polynucleotide probes. The probes did not hybridize with DNA from V. cholerae O1, V. cholerae non-O1 (NAG), or Y. enterocolitica. The strains of E. coli harboring the plasmid vectors of the polynucleotide gene probes were, likewise, negative in the hybridization assays.

  5. Synthetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Manferdini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally materials have been associated with a series of physical properties that can be used as inputs to production and manufacturing. Recently we witnessed an interest in materials considered not only as ‘true matter’, but also as new breeds where geometry, texture, tooling and finish are able to provoke new sensations when they are applied to a substance. These artificial materials can be described as synthetic because they are the outcome of various qualities that are not necessarily true to the original matter, but they are the combination of two or more parts, whether by design or by natural processes. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of architectural surfaces to produce effects through the invention of new breeds of artificial matter, using micro-scale details derived from Nature as an inspiration.

  6. Thermal expansion of diamond at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V

    2010-02-26

    Temperature variation of a lattice parameter of a synthetic diamond crystal (type IIa) was measured using high-energy-resolution x-ray Bragg diffraction in backscattering. A 2 order of magnitude improvement in the measurement accuracy allowed us to directly probe the linear thermal expansion coefficient at temperatures below 100 K. The lowest value measured was 2x10{-9} K-1. It was found that the coefficient deviates from the expected Debye law (T3) while no negative thermal expansion was observed. The anomalous behavior might be attributed to tunneling states due to low concentration impurities.

  7. Process of optical excitation and relaxation of color center in synthetic diamond and its application to optoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Yoshio

    1989-01-01

    Irradiation of high-pressure synthesized diamond is carried out by using a nuclear reactor or a linac. Then, the effect of annealing on the color centers is observed. A study is made to identify different color centers and to provide techniques to control their introduction. Investigations cover the relation of color center formation with annealing temperature, dependence of color center formation on radiation dose, migration of H3 center and hydrogen, and applicability of five different color centers to optoelectronics. Next, a study is made of the formation and relaxation of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in a metastable excited state produced by optical excitation. An optical gain is essential to provide laser. Optical amplification is measured at the vibronic emission band of the NV center. An increase in absorption is detected, indicating that the NV center will not provide laser. In the optical excitation-relaxation process, the relaxation proceeds via a metastable state. Finally, hole burning of ZPL of the NV center is observed in the temperature range from 20K to 80K, and some of its features are described. (N.K.)

  8. Hoechst tagging: a modular strategy to design synthetic fluorescent probes for live-cell nucleus imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akinobu; Takigawa, Kazumasa; Kurishita, Yasutaka; Kuwata, Keiko; Ishida, Manabu; Shimoda, Yasushi; Hamachi, Itaru; Tsukiji, Shinya

    2014-06-11

    We report a general strategy to create small-molecule fluorescent probes for the nucleus in living cells. Our strategy is based on the attachment of the DNA-binding Hoechst compound to a fluorophore of interest. Using this approach, simple fluorescein, BODIPY, and rhodamine dyes were readily converted to novel turn-on fluorescent nucleus-imaging probes.

  9. Direct observation of the leakage current in epitaxial diamond Schottky barrier devices by conductive-probe atomic force microscopy and Raman imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J; Boutchich, M; Kleider, J P; Teraji, T; Koide, Y

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the high leakage current measured in several vertical-type diamond Schottky devices is conjointly investigated by conducting probe atomic force microscopy and confocal micro-Raman/photoluminescence imaging analysis. Local areas characterized by a strong decrease of the local resistance (5–6 orders of magnitude drop) with respect to their close surrounding have been identified in several different regions of the sample surface. The same local areas, also referenced as electrical hot-spots, reveal a slightly constrained diamond lattice and three dominant Raman bands in the low-wavenumber region (590, 914 and 1040 cm −1 ). These latter bands are usually assigned to the vibrational modes involving boron impurities and its possible complexes that can electrically act as traps for charge carriers. Local current–voltage measurements performed at the hot-spots point out a trap-filled-limited current as the main conduction mechanism favouring the leakage current in the Schottky devices. (paper)

  10. DNA polymorphisms in the Sahiwal breed of Zebu cattle revealed by synthetic oligonucleotide probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shashikanth; Yadav, B.R.

    2005-01-01

    Genomic DNA of 15 randomly selected unrelated animals and from two sire families (11 animals) of the Sahiwal breed of Zebu cattle were investigated. Four oligonucleotide probes - (GTG) 5 , (TCC) 5 , (GT) 8 and (GT) 12 - were used on genomic DNA digested with restriction enzymes AluI, HinfI, MboI, EcoRI and HaeIII in different combinations. All four probes produced multiloci fingerprints with differing levels of polymorphisms. Total bands and shared bands in the fingerprints of each individual were in the range of 2.5 to 23.0 KB. Band number ranged from 9 to 17, with 0.48 average band sharing. Probes (GT) 8 , (GT) 12 and (TCC) 5 produced fingerprinting patterns of medium to low polymorphism, whereas probe (GTG) 5 produced highly polymorphic patterns. Probe (GTG) 5 in combination with the HaeIII enzyme was highly polymorphic with a heterozygosity level of 0.85, followed by (GT) 8 , (TCC) 5 and (GT) 12 with heterozygosity levels of 0.70, 0.65 and 0.30, respectively. Probe GTG 5 or its complementary sequence CAC 5 produced highly polymorphic fingerprints, indicating that the probe can be used for analysing population structure, parentage verification and identifying loci controlling quantitative traits and fertility status. (author)

  11. Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Imaging with a Piezoelectric 2-D Row-Column Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    2016-01-01

    The synthetic aperture (SA) technique can be used for achieving real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D row-column addressed transducers. This paper investigates SA volumetric imaging performance of an in-house prototyped 3 MHz λ/2-pitch 62+62 element piezoelectric 2-D row-column addres......The synthetic aperture (SA) technique can be used for achieving real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D row-column addressed transducers. This paper investigates SA volumetric imaging performance of an in-house prototyped 3 MHz λ/2-pitch 62+62 element piezoelectric 2-D row...

  12. Application of synthetic DNA probes to the analysis of DNA sequence variants in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.B.; Petz, L.D.; Yam, P.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Oligonucleotide probes provide a tool to discriminate between any two alleles on the basis of hybridization. Random sampling of the genome with different oligonucleotide probes should reveal polymorphism in a certain percentage of the cases. In the hope of identifying polymorphic regions more efficiently, we chose to take advantage of the proposed hypermutability of repeated DNA sequences and the specificity of oligonucleotide hybridization. Since, under appropriate conditions, oligonucleotide probes require complete base pairing for hybridization to occur, they will only hybridize to a subset of the members of a repeat family when all members of the family are not identical. The results presented here suggest that oligonucleotide hybridization can be used to extend the genomic sequences that can be tested for the presence of RFLPs. This expands the tools available to human genetics. In addition, the results suggest that repeated DNA sequences are indeed more polymorphic than single-copy sequences. 28 references, 2 figures

  13. Medical applications of diamond particles & surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Roger J Narayan; Ryan D. Boehm; Anirudha V. Sumant

    2011-01-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and...

  14. Tracking developmentally regulated post-synthetic processing of homogalacturonan and chitin using reciprocal oligosaccharide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef; Kračun, Stjepan K.; Rydahl, Maja G.

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides are major components of extracellular matrices and are often extensively modified post-synthetically to suit local requirements and developmental programmes. However, our current understanding of the spatiotemporal dynamics and functional significance of these modifications is lim...... and animal systems. We demonstrated their potential for providing new biological insights by using them to study homogalacturonan processing during Arabidopsis thaliana root cap development and by analyzing sites of chitosan deposition in fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons....

  15. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  16. Image analysis of speckle patterns as a probe of melting transitions in laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ran; Matityahu, Shlomi; Melchior, Aviva; Nikolaevsky, Mark; Noked, Ori; Sterer, Eran

    2015-09-01

    The precision of melting curve measurements using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LHDAC) is largely limited by the correct and reliable determination of the onset of melting. We present a novel image analysis of speckle interference patterns in the LHDAC as a way to define quantitative measures which enable an objective determination of the melting transition. Combined with our low-temperature customized IR pyrometer, designed for measurements down to 500 K, our setup allows studying the melting curve of materials with low melting temperatures, with relatively high precision. As an application, the melting curve of Te was measured up to 35 GPa. The results are found to be in good agreement with previous data obtained at pressures up to 10 GPa.

  17. GENETIC VARIATION IN RED RASPBERRIES (RUBUS IDAEUS L.; ROSACEAE) FROM SITES DIFFERING IN ORGANIC POLLUTANTS COMPARED WITH SYNTHETIC TANDEM REPEAT DNA PROBES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two synthetic tandem repetitive DNA probes were used to compare genetic variation at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci among Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim. (Rosaceae) individuals sampled at eight sites contaminated by pollutants (N = 39) and eight adjacent...

  18. Diagnostics of capacitively-coupled hydrocarbon plasmas for deposition of diamond-like carbon films using quadrupole mass spectrometry and Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Akinori; Fukai, Shun; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Takayuki

    2015-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are the hydrogenated amorphous carbon films, which contains a mixture of sp2- and sp3-bonded carbon. The DLC films have been widely used for various applications, such as automotive, semiconductors, medical devices, since have excellent material properties in lower friction, higher chemical stability, higher hardness, higher wear resistance. Until now, numerous investigations on the DLC films using plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition have been done. For precise control of coating technique of DLC films, it is enormously important to clarify the fundamental properties in hydrocarbon plasmas, as a source of hydrocarbon ions and radicals. In this paper, the fundamental properties in a low pressure radio-frequency hydrocarbon (Ar/CH4 (1 %) gas mixture) plasmas have been diagnosed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (HIDEN ANARYTICAL Ltd., EQP-300) and Langmuir probe system (HIDEN ANARYTICAL Ltd., ESPion). This work was partly supported by KAKENHI (No.26420247), and a ``Grant for Advanced Industrial Technology Development (No.11B06004d)'' in 2011 from the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan.

  19. Diamond identifaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    X-ray topography on diamonds allows for unique identification of diamonds. The method described consists of the registration of crystal defects, inclusions etc. of a diamond, resulting in a 'finger print' of the individual jewel which can only be changed by its complete destruction

  20. Detection of defects in electron-irradiated synthetic silica quartz probed by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watauchi, Satoshi; Uedono, Akira; Ujihira, Yusuke; Yoda, Osamu.

    1994-01-01

    Defects in amorphous SiO 2 films, formed on MOS(metal/oxide/semiconductor) devices as gates, perturb its operation. The positron annihilation techniques, were applied to the study of the annealing behavior of the defects, introduced in the high purity synthetic quartz glass by the irradiation of 3-MeV electrons up to the 1x10 18 e - /cm 2 dosage. It was proved that the positron annihilation techniques were sufficiently sensitive to detect the defects in the electron-irradiated silica glasses. Three types of open-space defects were detected by the positron lifetime measurements. These can be attributed to monovacancy or divacancy type defects, vacancy clusters, and open-volume defects. A high formation probability (∼90%) of positroniums(Ps) was found in unirradiated specimens. These Ps were considered to be formed in open-volume defects. The formation probability of Ps was drastically decreased by the electron irradiation. But the size of open-volume defects was kept unchanged by the irradiation. These facts suggest that vacancy-type defects were introduced by the electron irradiation and that positrons were trapped in these defects. By the isochronal annealing in nitrogen atmosphere, the lifetime component (τ 2 ) and its relative intensity (I 2 ), attributed to positrons trapped in monovacancy or divacancy type defects and annihilated there, changed remarkably. τ 2 was constant in the temperature range up to 300degC, getting slightly shorter between 300degC and 700degC, and constant above 700degC. I 2 decreased gradually up to 300degC, constant between 300degC and 550degC, decreased above 550degC, and constant above 700degC. This revealed that the behavior of the defects, in which positrons were trapped, change by the elevation of the annealing temperature. (author)

  1. The Many Facets of Diamond Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri N. Palyanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is intended to serve as a multidisciplinary forum covering broad aspects of the science, technology, and application of synthetic and natural diamonds. This special issue contains 12 papers, which highlight recent investigations and developments in diamond research related to the diverse problems of natural diamond genesis, diamond synthesis and growth using CVD and HPHT techniques, and the use of diamond in both traditional applications, such as mechanical machining of materials, and the new recently emerged areas, such as quantum technologies. The results presented in the contributions collected in this special issue clearly demonstrate that diamond occupies a very special place in modern science and technology. After decades of research, this structurally very simple material still poses many intriguing scientific questions and technological challenges. It seems undoubted that diamond will remain the center of attraction for many researchers for many years to come.

  2. Diamond identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of producing sets of records of the internal defects of diamonds as a means of identification of the gems by x-ray topography are described. To obtain the records one can either use (a) monochromatic x-radiation reflected at the Bragg angle from crystallographically equivalent planes of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections from each such plane being recorded from a number of directions of view, or (b) white x-radiation incident upon the diamond in directions having a constant angular relationship to each equivalent axis of symmetry of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections being recorded for each direction of the incident x-radiation. By either method an overall point-to-point three dimensional representation of the diamond is produced. (U.K.)

  3. Increased detectability of somatic changes in the DNA from human tumours after probing with "synthetic" and "genome-derived" hypervariable multilocus probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagoda, P J; Seitz, G; Epplen, J T

    1989-01-01

    intensities were observed. Together the probes 33.15 and (CAC)5/(GTG)5 detected deviating fingerprint patterns in 63% of the colorectal carcinomas investigated. In mammary and stomach carcinomas, only 1/11 and 2/11 tumours, respectively, showed differences with either of the three probes, 33.15, (GACA)4...

  4. A FRET-based probe for epidermal growth factor receptor bound non-covalently to a pair of synthetic amphipathic helixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Reina E.; Kurokawa, Kazuo; Fujioka, Aki; Sharma, Alok; Mayer, Bruce J.; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2005-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor plays a pivotal role in a variety of cellular functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. To monitor the EGF receptor (EGFR) activity in living cells, we developed a probe for EGFR activity based on the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Previously, we developed a probe designated as Picchu (Phosphorylation indicator of the CrkII chimeric unit), which detects the tyrosine phosphorylation of the CrkII adaptor protein. We used a pair of synthetic amphipathic helixes, WinZipA2 and WinZipB1, to bind Picchu non-covalently to the carboxyl-terminus of the EGFR. Using this modified probe named Picchu-Z, the activity of EGFR was followed in EGF-stimulated Cos7 cells. We found that a high level of tyrosine phosphorylation of Picchu-Z probe remained after endocytosis until the point when the EGFR was translocated to the perinuclear region. These findings are in agreement with the previously reported 'signaling endosome' model. Furthermore, by pulse stimulation with EGF and by acute ablation of EGFR activity with AG1478, it was suggested that the phosphorylation of Picchu-Z probe, and probably the phosphorylation of EGFR also, underwent a rapid equilibrium (τ 1/2 < 2 min) between the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated states in the presence of EGF

  5. Diamond nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Beha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of p-type boron-doped IIb diamond large single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shang-Sheng; Li Xiao-Lei; Su Tai-Chao; Jia Xiao-Peng; Ma Hong-An; Huang Guo-Feng; Li Yong

    2011-01-01

    High-quality p-type boron-doped IIb diamond large single crystals are successfully synthesized by the temperature gradient method in a china-type cubic anvil high-pressure apparatus at about 5.5 GPa and 1600 K. The morphologies and surface textures of the synthetic diamond crystals with different boron additive quantities are characterized by using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope respectively. The impurities of nitrogen and boron in diamonds are detected by micro Fourier transform infrared technique. The electrical properties including resistivities, Hall coefficients, Hall mobilities and carrier densities of the synthesized samples are measured by a four-point probe and the Hall effect method. The results show that large p-type boron-doped diamond single crystals with few nitrogen impurities have been synthesized. With the increase of quantity of additive boron, some high-index crystal faces such as {113} gradually disappear, and some stripes and triangle pits occur on the crystal surface. This work is helpful for the further research and application of boron-doped semiconductor diamond. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Probing Growth-Induced Anisotropic Thermal Transport in High-Quality CVD Diamond Membranes by Multifrequency and Multiple-Spot-Size Time-Domain Thermoreflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhe; Bougher, Thomas; Bai, Tingyu; Wang, Steven Y; Li, Chao; Yates, Luke; Foley, Brian M; Goorsky, Mark; Cola, Baratunde A; Faili, Firooz; Graham, Samuel

    2018-02-07

    The maximum output power of GaN-based high-electron mobility transistors is limited by high channel temperature induced by localized self-heating, which degrades device performance and reliability. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is an attractive candidate to aid in the extraction of this heat and in minimizing the peak operating temperatures of high-power electronics. Owing to its inhomogeneous structure, the thermal conductivity of CVD diamond varies along the growth direction and can differ between the in-plane and out-of-plane directions, resulting in a complex three-dimensional (3D) distribution. Depending on the thickness of the diamond and size of the electronic device, this 3D distribution may impact the effectiveness of CVD diamond in device thermal management. In this work, time-domain thermoreflectance is used to measure the anisotropic thermal conductivity of an 11.8 μm-thick high-quality CVD diamond membrane from its nucleation side. Starting with a spot-size diameter larger than the thickness of the membrane, measurements are made at various modulation frequencies from 1.2 to 11.6 MHz to tune the heat penetration depth and sample the variation in thermal conductivity. We then analyze the data by creating a model with the membrane divided into ten sublayers and assume isotropic thermal conductivity in each sublayer. From this, we observe a two-dimensional gradient of the depth-dependent thermal conductivity for this membrane. The local thermal conductivity goes beyond 1000 W/(m K) when the distance from the nucleation interface only reaches 3 μm. Additionally, by measuring the same region with a smaller spot size at multiple frequencies, the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities are extracted. Through this use of multiple spot sizes and modulation frequencies, the 3D anisotropic thermal conductivity of CVD diamond membrane is experimentally obtained by fitting the experimental data to a thermal model. This work provides an improved

  8. Design of a synthetic luminescent probe from a biomolecule binding domain: selective detection of AU-rich mRNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibaut, Laurent; Vasseur, William; Shimberg, Geoffrey D; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Michel, Sarah L J; Sénèque, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    We report the design of a luminescent sensor based upon the zinc finger (ZF) protein TIS11d, that allows for the selective time-resolved detection of the UUAUUUAUU sequence of the 3'-untranslated region of messenger RNA. This sensor is composed of the tandem ZF RNA binding domain of TIS11d functionalized with a luminescent Tb 3+ complex on one of the ZFs and a sensitizing antenna on the other. This work provides the proof of principle that an RNA binding protein can be re-engineered as an RNA sensor and, more generally, that tunable synthetic luminescent probes for biomolecules can be obtained by modifying biomolecule-binding domains.

  9. Diamond Nanowires: A Novel Platform for Electrochemistry and Matrix-Free Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Szunerits

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, carbon-based nanostructures have generated a huge interest from both fundamental and technological viewpoints owing to their physicochemical characteristics, markedly different from their corresponding bulk states. Among these nanostructured materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and more recently graphene and its derivatives, hold a central position. The large amount of work devoted to these materials is driven not only by their unique mechanical and electrical properties, but also by the advances made in synthetic methods to produce these materials in large quantities with reasonably controllable morphologies. While much less studied than CNTs and graphene, diamond nanowires, the diamond analogue of CNTs, hold promise for several important applications. Diamond nanowires display several advantages such as chemical inertness, high mechanical strength, high thermal and electrical conductivity, together with proven biocompatibility and existence of various strategies to functionalize their surface. The unique physicochemical properties of diamond nanowires have generated wide interest for their use as fillers in nanocomposites, as light detectors and emitters, as substrates for nanoelectronic devices, as tips for scanning probe microscopy as well as for sensing applications. In the past few years, studies on boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs focused on increasing their electrochemical active surface area to achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity compared to planar diamond interfaces. The first part of the present review article will cover the promising applications of BDD NWS for label-free sensing. Then, the potential use of diamond nanowires as inorganic substrates for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, a powerful label-free approach for quantification and identification of small compounds, will be discussed.

  10. Diamond nanowires: a novel platform for electrochemistry and matrix-free mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2015-05-27

    Over the last decades, carbon-based nanostructures have generated a huge interest from both fundamental and technological viewpoints owing to their physicochemical characteristics, markedly different from their corresponding bulk states. Among these nanostructured materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and more recently graphene and its derivatives, hold a central position. The large amount of work devoted to these materials is driven not only by their unique mechanical and electrical properties, but also by the advances made in synthetic methods to produce these materials in large quantities with reasonably controllable morphologies. While much less studied than CNTs and graphene, diamond nanowires, the diamond analogue of CNTs, hold promise for several important applications. Diamond nanowires display several advantages such as chemical inertness, high mechanical strength, high thermal and electrical conductivity, together with proven biocompatibility and existence of various strategies to functionalize their surface. The unique physicochemical properties of diamond nanowires have generated wide interest for their use as fillers in nanocomposites, as light detectors and emitters, as substrates for nanoelectronic devices, as tips for scanning probe microscopy as well as for sensing applications. In the past few years, studies on boron-doped diamond nanowires (BDD NWs) focused on increasing their electrochemical active surface area to achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity compared to planar diamond interfaces. The first part of the present review article will cover the promising applications of BDD NWS for label-free sensing. Then, the potential use of diamond nanowires as inorganic substrates for matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, a powerful label-free approach for quantification and identification of small compounds, will be discussed.

  11. UV detectors based on epitaxial diamond films grown on single-crystal diamond substrates by vapor-phase synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharonov, G.V.; Petrov, S.A.; Bol'shakov, A.P.; Ral'chenko, V.G.; Kazyuchits, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for use of CVD-technology for epitaxial growth of single-crystal diamond films of instrumental quality in UHF plasma for the production of optoelectronic devices are discussed. A technology for processing diamond single crystals that provides a perfect surface crystal structure with roughness less than 0,5 nm was developed. It was demonstrated that selective UV detectors based on synthetic single-crystal diamond substrates coated with single-crystal films can be produced. A criterion for selecting clean and structurally perfect single crystals of synthetic diamond was developed for the epitaxial growth technology. (authors)

  12. SMM-chemokines: a class of unnatural synthetic molecules as chemical probes of chemokine receptor biology and leads for therapeutic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Choi, Won-Tak; Dong, Chang-Zhi; Madani, Navid; Tian, Shaomin; Liu, Dongxiang; Wang, Youli; Pesavento, James; Wang, Jun; Fan, Xuejun; Yuan, Jian; Fritzsche, Wayne R; An, Jing; Sodroski, Joseph G; Richman, Douglas D; Huang, Ziwei

    2006-01-01

    Chemokines and their receptors play important roles in numerous physiological and pathological processes. To develop natural chemokines into receptor probes and inhibitors of pathological processes, the lack of chemokine-receptor selectivity must be overcome. Here, we apply chemical synthesis and the concept of modular modifications to generate unnatural synthetically and modularly modified (SMM)-chemokines that have high receptor selectivity and affinity, and reduced toxicity. A proof of the concept was shown by transforming the nonselective viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II into new analogs with enhanced selectivity and potency for CXCR4 or CCR5, two principal coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 entry. These new analogs provided insights into receptor binding and signaling mechanisms and acted as potent HIV-1 inhibitors. These results support the concept of SMM-chemokines for studying and controlling the function of other chemokine receptors.

  13. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  14. Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.

    2014-12-01

    Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.

  15. Custom-Designed MLPA Using Multiple Short Synthetic Probes Application to Methylation Analysis of Five Promoter CpG Islands in Tumor and Urine Specimens from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizawa, R.R.; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.

    2010-01-01

    this assay to analyze DNA from tumor tissue and corresponding urine samples from patients with bladder cancer. Our data show that the use of multiple short synthetic probes provides a simple means for custom-designed MS-MLPA analysis. (J Mol Diagn 2010, 12:402-408; DOI: 10.2353/jmoldx.2010.090152)...

  16. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xuezhang; Wei Qiuping; Yu Zhiming; Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. ► The nucleation density was increased to 10 11 cm −2 . ► Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. ► Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp 3 -bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10 11 cm −2 , and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  17. Adherent diamond film deposited on Cu substrate by carbon transport from nanodiamond buried under Pt interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xuezhang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wei Qiuping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yu Zhiming, E-mail: zhiming@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Yang Taiming; Zhai Hao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adherent polycrystalline diamond films were grown on copper substrate by carbon transport. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nucleation density was increased to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond films were a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diamond nucleation was based by carbon dissolving from UDDs to Pt interlayer and formation of sp{sup 3}-bonded diamond clusters at the Pt surface. - Abstract: Diamond film deposited on Cu suffered from poor adhesion mainly due to the large mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients and the lack of affinity between carbon and Cu. Enhancing diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond through a Pt ultrathin interlayer, adherent diamond film was then deposited on Cu substrate without distinctly metallic interlayer. This novel nucleation mechanism increased diamond nucleation density to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, and developed diamond film with a composite structure of nano-crystalline diamond (NCD) layer and micro-crystalline diamond layer. Diamond film was characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscope, respectively. The composition of diamond film/Cu substrate interface was examined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The adhesion of diamond film was evaluated by indentation test. Those results show that a Pt ultrathin interlayer provides stronger chemically bonded interfaces and improve film adhesion.

  18. Enantioselective skin permeation of ibuprofen enantiomers: mechanistic insights from ATR-FTIR and CLSM studies based on synthetic enantiomers as naphthalimide fluorescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Qi-en; Quan, Peng; Mu, Mao; Zhang, Xinfu; Zhao, Hanqing; Zhang, Yu; You, Song; Xiao, Yi; Fang, Liang

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of different skin permeability of ibuprofen racemate and enantiomers. The percutaneous permeation of ibuprofen racemate and enantiomers through rabbit normal skin and damaged skin (without stratum corneum [SC]) was investigated in vitro using side-by-side diffusion cells. With the melting temperature-membrane transport model, the flux ratio of enantiomer/racemate was calculated from their thermodynamic properties obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) study was performed to evaluate the interaction between the enantiomers and the SC. New fluorescent probes were designed and utilized in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) study for visualization of the enantioselective permeation of the enantiomers through the intact rabbit skin. The flux of (S)-ibuprofen through normal skin was significantly higher than that of (RS)-ibuprofen and (R)-ibuprofen (p skin, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). The predicted flux ratio of (S)-ibuprofen/(RS)-ibuprofen (2.50) was in close agreement with the experimentally determined ratio (2.48). These results were supported by ATR-FTIR and CLSM studies that indicated that a chiral environment of the skin led to the enantioselective permeation of enantiomers. The chiral nature of the SC and the different physicochemical properties of the enantiomers should be taken into account in the assessment of different skin permeability of the racemate and enantiomers. The synthetic fluorescent probes used in this study could visualize the enantioselective permeation of the chiral compounds across the skin.

  19. Diamond MEMS: wafer scale processing, devices, and technology insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Diamond has long held the promise of revolutionary new devices: impervious chemical barriers, smooth and reliable microscopic machines, and tough mechanical tools. Yet it's been an outsider. Laboratories have been effectively growing diamond crystals for at least 25 years, but the jump to market viability has always been blocked by the expense of diamond production and inability to integrate with other materials. Advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes have given rise to a hierarchy of carbon films ranging from diamond-like carbon (DLC) to vapor-deposited diamond coatings, however. All have pros and cons based on structure and cost, but they all share some of diamond's heralded attributes. The best performer, in theory, is the purest form of diamond film possible, one absent of graphitic phases. Such a material would capture the extreme hardness, high Young's modulus and chemical inertness of natural diamond. Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc., Romeoville, Ill., is the first company to develop a distinct chemical process to create a marketable phase-pure diamond film. The material, called UNCD® (for ultrananocrystalline diamond), features grain sizes from 3 to 300 nm in size, and layers just 1 to 2 microns thick. With significant advantages over other thin films, UNCD is designed to be inexpensive enough for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, microelectromechanical machines (MEMS), cell phone circuitry, radio frequency devices, and even biosensors.

  20. Voltammetric and impedance behaviours of surface-treated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F. B.; Jing, B.; Cui, Y.; Di, J. J.; Qu, M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical performances of hydrogen- and oxygen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the surface morphologies, phase structures, and chemical states of the two diamond films were analysed by scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the potential window is narrower for the hydrogen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film than for the oxygen-terminated one. The diamond film resistance and capacitance of oxygen-terminated diamond film are much larger than those of the hydrogen-terminated diamond film, and the polarization resistances and double-layer capacitance corresponding to oxygen-terminated diamond film are both one order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to the hydrogen-terminated diamond film. The electrochemical behaviours of the two diamond film electrodes are discussed

  1. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitfils, A.

    2007-09-01

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  2. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  3. Diamond semiconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polowczyk, M.; Klugmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    Many efforts to apply the semiconducting diamond for construction of electronic elements: resistors, thermistors, photoresistors, piezoresistors, hallotrons, pn diodes, Schottky diodes, IMPATT diodes, npn transistor, MESFETs and MISFETs are reviewed. Considering the possibilities of acceptor and donor doping, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of diamond as well as high electric-field breakdown points, that diamond devices could be used at about 30-times higher frequency and more then 8200 times power than silicon devices. Except that, due to high heat resistant of diamond, it is concluded that diamond devices can be used in environment at high temperature, range of 600 o C. (author)

  4. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  5. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  6. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P [Kingwood, TX

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  7. Metastable State Diamond Growth and its Applications to Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, David Guang-Kai

    Diamond which consists of a dense array of carbon atoms joined by strong covalent bonds and formed into a tetrahedral crystal structure has remarkable mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties suitable for many industrial applications. With a proper type of doping, diamond is also an ideal semiconductor for high performance electronic devices. Unfortunately, natural diamond is rare and limited by its size and cost, it is not surprising that people continuously look for a synthetic replacement. It was believed for long time that graphite, another form of carbon, may be converted into diamond under high pressure and temperature. However, the exact condition of conversion was not clear. In 1939, O. I. Leipunsky developed an equilibrium phase diagram between graphite and diamond based on thermodynamic considerations. In the phase diagram, there is a low temperature (below 1000^ circC) and low pressure (below 1 atm) region in which diamond is metastable and graphite is stable, therefore establishes the conditions for the coexistence of the two species. Leipunsky's pioneer work opened the door for diamond synthesis. In 1955, the General Electric company (GE) was able to produce artificial diamond at 55k atm pressure and a temperature of 2000^ circC. Contrary to GE, B. Derjaguin and B. V. Spitzyn in Soviet Union, developed a method of growing diamonds at 1000^circC and at a much lower pressure in 1956. Since then, researchers, particularly in Soviet Union, are continuously looking for methods to grow diamond and diamond film at lower temperatures and pressures with slow but steady progress. It was only in the early 80's that the importance of growing diamond films had attracted the attentions of researchers in the Western world and in Japan. Recent progress in plasma physics and chemical vapor deposition techniques in integrated electronics technology have pushed the diamond growth in its metastable states into a new era. In this research, a microwave plasma

  8. Diamond network: template-free fabrication and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hao; Yang, Nianjun; Fu, Haiyuan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Chun; Huang, Nan; Jiang, Xin

    2015-03-11

    A porous diamond network with three-dimensionally interconnected pores is of technical importance but difficult to be produced. In this contribution, we demonstrate a simple, controllable, and "template-free" approach to fabricate diamond networks. It combines the deposition of diamond/β-SiC nanocomposite film with a wet-chemical selective etching of the β-SiC phase. The porosity of these networks was tuned from 15 to 68%, determined by the ratio of the β-SiC phase in the composite films. The electrochemical working potential and the reactivity of redox probes on the diamond networks are similar to those of a flat nanocrystalline diamond film, while their surface areas are hundreds of times larger than that of a flat diamond film (e.g., 490-fold enhancement for a 3 μm thick diamond network). The marriage of the unprecedented physical/chemical features of diamond with inherent advantages of the porous structure makes the diamond network a potential candidate for various applications such as water treatment, energy conversion (batteries or fuel cells), and storage (capacitors), as well as electrochemical and biochemical sensing.

  9. Alpha particle response study of polycrstalline diamond radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Topkar, Anita [Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Chemical vapor deposition has opened the possibility to grow high purity synthetic diamond at relatively low cost. This has opened up uses of diamond based detectors for wide range of applications. These detectors are most suitable for harsh environments where standard semiconductor detectors cannot work. In this paper, we present the fabrication details and performance study of polycrystalline diamond based radiation detector. Effect of different operating parameters such as bias voltage and shaping time for charge collection on the performance of detector has been studied.

  10. Detection of diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.; Blondeel, E.J.G.; Taylor, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond particles are distinguished from non-diamond, associated particles on the basis of their higher refractive index. The particles are brought to a specific location, typically in a stream of water flowing full in a vertical duct, and a beam of collimated electromagnetic radiation is directed at them. An array of radiation detectors is provided to detect refracted and/or reflected radiation. The array is so configured that the responses of the detectors, considered collectively, will be indicative of the presence of a diamond when a diamond is in fact present. However, when a particle having a substantially lower refractive index is present, the responses of the detectors will not be so indicative. The diamond and non-diamond particles can subsequently be sorted from one another

  11. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  12. Polycrystalline-Diamond MEMS Biosensors Including Neural Microelectrode-Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna H. Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diamond is a material of interest due to its unique combination of properties, including its chemical inertness and biocompatibility. Polycrystalline diamond (poly-C has been used in experimental biosensors that utilize electrochemical methods and antigen-antibody binding for the detection of biological molecules. Boron-doped poly-C electrodes have been found to be very advantageous for electrochemical applications due to their large potential window, low background current and noise, and low detection limits (as low as 500 fM. The biocompatibility of poly-C is found to be comparable, or superior to, other materials commonly used for implants, such as titanium and 316 stainless steel. We have developed a diamond-based, neural microelectrode-array (MEA, due to the desirability of poly-C as a biosensor. These diamond probes have been used for in vivo electrical recording and in vitro electrochemical detection. Poly-C electrodes have been used for electrical recording of neural activity. In vitro studies indicate that the diamond probe can detect norepinephrine at a 5 nM level. We propose a combination of diamond micro-machining and surface functionalization for manufacturing diamond pathogen-microsensors.

  13. Diamond Nucleation Using Polyethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor); Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Weiner, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  14. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  15. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  16. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  17. Investing in Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD

  18. Fermi level on hydrogen terminated diamond surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Saurer, C.; Nebel, C. E.; Stutzmann, M.; Ristein, J.; Ley, L.; Snidero, E.; Bergonzo, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 14 (2003), s. 2266-2268 ISSN 0003-6951 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) HPRN-CT-1999-00139 Grant - others:DFC(DE) NE524-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : atomic force microscope (AFM) * Kelvin probe experiments * diamond surface Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.049, year: 2003

  19. High speed dry machining of MMCs with diamond tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The increasing use of metal matrix composites (MMCs) has raised new issues in their machining. Industrial demands for higher speed and dry machining of MMCs with improved component production to closer tolerances have driven the development of new tool materials. In particular, the wear characteristics of synthetic diamond tooling satisfy many of the requirements imposed in cutting these highly abrasive workpieces. The use of diamond tool materials, such as polycrystalline diamond (PCD), has resulted in tool life improvements which, allied with environmental considerations, show great potential for the development of dry cutting. This paper explores the wear characteristics of PCD, which is highly suited to the dry machining of particulate silicon carbide MMCs. Also, two further diamond tool materials are evaluated - chemical vapor deposition (CVD) thick layer diamond and synthetic single crystal diamond. Their suitability for the efficient machining of high volume fraction MMC materials is shown and their potential impact an the subsequent acceptance and integration of MMCs into engineering components is discussed. (author)

  20. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    diamond's exceptional properties for quantum information processing [2], a topic on which there have been many recent papers, and where a diamond colour centre single photon source is already commercially available. Biomedical applications of diamond are recognised, partly tribological and partly electrochemical, but lie outside the present group of papers. Processing and controlling diamond surfaces and interfaces with other materials in their environment are critical steps en route to exploitation. Boron-doped diamond has already found application in electro-analysis and in the bulk oxidation of dissolved species in solution [3]. Energy-related applications—ranging from high-power electronics [3] to a potential first wall of fusion reactors [4]—are further exciting potential applications. Even small and ugly diamonds have value. Their mechanical properties [5] dominate, with significant niche applications such as thermal sinks. The major applications for diamond to date exploit only a fraction of diamond's special properties: visual for status diamonds, and mechanical for working diamonds. Diamond physics reaches well beyond the usual laboratory, to the geological diamond formation processes in the Earth's mantle. Characterization of natural gem diamonds [6, 7] is one part of the detective story that allows us to understand the conditions under which they formed. It was only half a century ago that the scientific and technological challenges of diamond synthesis were met systematically. Today, most of the recent research on diamond has concentrated on synthetics, whether created using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) techniques or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The HPHT synthesis of diamond has advanced dramatically [8, 9] to the extent that dislocation birefringence [10] can be largely eliminated. In silicon technology, the elimination of dislocations was a major step in microelectronics. Now, even diamond can be synthesised containing virtually no

  1. Critical role in CXCR4 signaling and internalization of the polypeptide main chain in the amino terminus of SDF-1α probed by novel N-methylated synthetically and modularly modified chemokine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chang-Zhi; Tian, Shaomin; Choi, Won-Tak; Kumar, Santhosh; Liu, Dongxiang; Xu, Yan; Han, Xiaofeng; Huang, Ziwei; An, Jing

    2012-07-31

    The replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be profoundly inhibited by the natural ligands of two major HIV-1 coreceptors, CXCR4 and CCR5. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a natural ligand of CXCR4. We have recently developed a synthetic biology approach of using synthetically and modularly modified (SMM)-chemokines to dissect various aspects of the structure-function relationship of chemokines and their receptors. Here, we used this approach to design novel SMM-SDF-1α analogues containing unnatural N-methylated residues in the amino terminus to investigate whether the polypeptide main chain amide bonds in the N-terminus of SDF-1α play a role in SDF-1α signaling via CXCR4 and/or receptor internalization. The results show that SDF-1α analogues with a modified N-methylated main chain at position 2, 3, or 5 retain significant CXCR4 binding and yet completely lose signaling activities. Furthermore, a representative N-methylated analogue has been shown to be incapable of causing CXCR4 internalization. These results suggest that the ability of SDF-1α to activate CXCR4 signaling and internalization is dependent upon the main chain amide bonds in the N-terminus of SDF-1α. This study demonstrates the feasibility and value of applying a synthetic biology approach to chemically engineer natural proteins and peptide ligands as probes of important biological functions that are not addressed by other biological techniques.

  2. Preliminary results from a novel CVD diamond detector system for molecular imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    A novel biomolecular imaging system incorporating a Chemical Vapour Deposition diamond detector is in development. The synthetic diamond is used as a UV detector to image nucleic acids in electrophoresis gels. The microstrip diamond detector currently has a spatial resolution of 30 μm. Preliminary results are presented which include: QE measurements of diamond detectors, detector time response, detector UV response and current detection limits of biomolecules in gel. The potential applications of the technology, and its significant advantages in speed and sensitivity over the current systems are discussed

  3. Assessment of CVD diamond as a thermoluminescence dosemeter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchi, E.; Furetta, C.; Leroy, C.

    1996-01-01

    Diamond has a low atomic number (Z = 6) and is therefore essentially soft tissue (Z = 7.4) equivalent. As such, diamond is an attractive material for applications in dosimetry in which the radiation absorption in the sensor material should be as close as possible to that of soft tissue. Synthetic diamond prepared by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) offers an attractive option for this application. The aim of the present work is to report results on the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of CVD diamond samples. The annealing procedures, the linearity of the TL response as a function of dose, a short-term fading experiment and some kinetic properties have been investigated and are reported here. (Author)

  4. Selective data analysis for diamond detectors in neutron fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Christina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Detectors based on synthetic chemical vapor deposition diamond gain importance in various neutron applications. The superior thermal robustness and the excellent radiation hardness of diamond as well as its excellent electronic properties make this material uniquely suited for rough environments, such as nuclear fission and fusion reactors. The intrinsic electronic properties of single-crystal diamond sensors allow distinguishing various interactions in the detector. This can be used to successfully suppress background of γ-rays and charged particles in different neutron experiments, such as neutron flux measurements in thermal nuclear reactors or cross-section measurements in fast neutron fields. A novel technique of distinguishing background reactions in neutron experiments with diamond detectors will be presented. A proof of principle will be given on the basis of experimental results in thermal and fast neutron fields.

  5. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D N; Prawer, S; Gonon, P; Walker, R; Dooley, S; Bettiol, A; Pearce, J [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Twinning of cubic diamond explains reported nanodiamond polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Péter; Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2015-12-01

    The unusual physical properties and formation conditions attributed to h-, i-, m-, and n-nanodiamond polymorphs has resulted in their receiving much attention in the materials and planetary science literature. Their identification is based on diffraction features that are absent in ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m). We show, using ultra-high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of natural and synthetic nanodiamonds, that the diffraction features attributed to the reported polymorphs are consistent with c-diamond containing abundant defects. Combinations of {113} reflection and rotation twins produce HRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from thickness effects of c-diamonds. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported nanodiamond polymorphs are in fact twinned c-diamond. We also report a new type of twin ( rotational), which can give rise to grains with dodecagonal symmetry. Our results show that twins are widespread in diamond nanocrystals. A high density of twins could strongly influence their applications.

  8. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs

  9. Twinning of cubic diamond explains reported nanodiamond polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Péter; Garvie, Laurence A J; Buseck, Peter R

    2015-12-16

    The unusual physical properties and formation conditions attributed to h-, i-, m-, and n-nanodiamond polymorphs has resulted in their receiving much attention in the materials and planetary science literature. Their identification is based on diffraction features that are absent in ordinary cubic (c-) diamond (space group: Fd-3m). We show, using ultra-high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of natural and synthetic nanodiamonds, that the diffraction features attributed to the reported polymorphs are consistent with c-diamond containing abundant defects. Combinations of {113} reflection and rotation twins produce HRTEM images and d-spacings that match those attributed to h-, i-, and m-diamond. The diagnostic features of n-diamond in TEM images can arise from thickness effects of c-diamonds. Our data and interpretations strongly suggest that the reported nanodiamond polymorphs are in fact twinned c-diamond. We also report a new type of twin ( rotational), which can give rise to grains with dodecagonal symmetry. Our results show that twins are widespread in diamond nanocrystals. A high density of twins could strongly influence their applications.

  10. Friction and wear properties of diamonds and diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of chemical vapor deposition techniques for diamond growth enables bearings to be designed which exploit diamond's low friction and extreme resistance to wear. However, currently produced diamond coatings differ from natural diamond surfaces in that they are polycrystalline and faceted, and often contain appreciable amounts of non-diamond material (i.e. graphitic or amorphous carbon). Roughness, in particular, influences the friction and wear properties; rough coatings severely abrade softer materials, and can even wear natural diamond sliders. Nevertheless, the best available coatings exhibit friction coefficients as low as those of natural diamond and are highly resistant to wear. This paper reviews the tribological properties of natural diamond, and compares them with those of chemical vapor deposited diamond coatings. Emphasis is placed on the roles played by roughness and material transfer in controlling frictional behavior. (orig.)

  11. The Response of HeLa Cells to Fluorescent NanoDiamond Uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelaar, Simon R; Saspaanithy, Babujhi; L'Hommelet, Severin R M; Perona Martinez, Felipe P; van der Laan, Kiran J; Schirhagl, Romana

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds are promising probes for nanoscale magnetic resonance measurements. Their physical properties predict them to have particularly useful applications in intracellular analysis. Before using them in intracellular experiments however, it should be clear whether diamond particles

  12. Solid-state 13C magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy characterization of particle size structural variations in synthetic nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Todd M.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-state 13 C magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy has been used to quantify the different carbon species observed in synthetically produced nanodiamonds. Two different diamond-like carbon species were observed using 13 C MAS NMR, which have been attributed to a highly ordered crystalline diamond phase and a disordered crystalline diamond phase. The relative ratio of these different diamond phases was found to vary with the particle size of the nanodiamond materials

  13. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.; El Tall, Omar; Raja, Inam U.

    2014-01-01

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  14. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.

    2014-10-21

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  15. Diamond Jubilee Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1994-10-01

    Oct 1, 1994 ... Science, Bangalore, the Diamond Jubilee Annual. Meeting will be held in ... "The fascination of statistics" .... on post Hartree-Fock methods, highly correlated systems ..... Gold Medal of the National Institute of Social. Sciences ...

  16. Quantum Computing in Diamond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prawer, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is to demonstrate the key elements needed to construct a logical qubit in diamond by exploiting the remarkable quantum properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) optical centre...

  17. Nanoscale temperature sensing using single defects in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp Neumann

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel nanoscale temperature sensing technique that is based on single atomic defects in diamonds, namely nitrogen vacancy color centers. Sample sizes range from millimeter down to a few tens of nanometers. In particular nanodiamonds were used as dispersed probes to acquire spatially resolved temperature profiles utilizing the sensitivity of the optically accessible electron spin level structure we achieve a temperature noise floor of 5mK/Mhz for bulk diamond and 130mK/Mhz for nanodiamonds and accuracies of 1mK. To this end we have developed a new decoupling technique in order to suppress to otherwise limiting effect of magnetic field fluctuations. In addition, high purity isotopically enriched 12C artificial diamonds is used. The high sensitivity to temperature changes adds to the well studied sensitivities to magnetic and electric fields and makes NV diamond a multipurpose nanoprobe. (author)

  18. Optical properties of implanted Xe color centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Russell; Ke, Li; Martin, Aiden; Wang, Ziyu; Kianinia, Mehran; Green, Ben; Gao, Wei-bo; Aharonovich, Igor

    2018-03-01

    Optical properties of color centers in diamond have been the subject of intense research due to their promising applications in quantum photonics. In this work we study the optical properties of Xe related color centers implanted into nitrogen rich (type IIA) and an ultrapure, electronic grade diamond. The Xe defect has two zero phonon lines at ∼794 nm and 811 nm, which can be effectively excited using both green and red excitation, however, its emission in the nitrogen rich diamond is brighter. Near resonant excitation is performed at cryogenic temperatures and luminescence is probed under strong magnetic field. Our results are important towards the understanding of the Xe related defect and other near infrared color centers in diamond.

  19. Probing Framework-Restricted Metal Axial Ligation and Spin State Patterns in a Post-Synthetically Reduced Iron-Porphyrin-Based Metal–Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheryavy, Pavel; Lahanas, Nicole; Velasco, Ever; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Lockard, Jenny V.

    2016-04-07

    An iron porphyrin-based metal organic framework, PCN-222(Fe) is investigated upon post-synthetic reduction with piperidine. Fe K-edge X-ray absorption and Kβ mainline emission spectroscopy measurements reveal the local coor-dination geometry, oxidation and spin state changes experi-enced by the Fe sites upon reaction with this axially coordi-nating reducing agent. Analysis and fitting of these data con-firm the binding pattern predicted by a space filling model of the structurally constrained pore environments. These results are further support by UV-vis diffuse reflectance, IR and Raman spectroscopy data.

  20. Photoluminescence and optical transmission of diamond and its imitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatov, E.I.; Avdeev, S.M.; Tarasenko, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Photoluminescence and optical transmission spectra of several samples of natural and synthetic diamond and its imitators - fianite and corundum - are investigated. The band-A of luminescence at 440 nm, the vibronic N3 system of luminescence and absorption at 415.2 nm, the fundamental absorption edge at 225 nm, and the secondary absorption below 308 nm are the main identifying markers of natural diamonds. For synthetic diamonds, however, such identifying markers are the free-exciton luminescence at 235 nm, the band-A, and the fundamental absorption edge. Fianites can be identified by the structureless wideband at 500 nm and the wide transmission band in the entire visible range. Colored corundum samples with chrome impurities emit the narrow line at 693 nm and show the absorption band in the 500-600 nm spectral range. A new method for diamond express identification is developed on the basis of measurement of photoluminescence and optical transmission spectra of the samples. It is shown that a diamond tester can be designed combining a spectrometer and a KrCl-excilamp radiating at 222 nm.

  1. Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aichi; Hara, Hiroshi; Irifune, Tetsuo; Adachi, Shintaro; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layers have been developed for electrical transport measurements under high pressure. These designed diamonds were grown on a bottom diamond anvil via a nanofabrication process combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and electron beam lithography. The resistance measurements of a high-quality FeSe superconducting single crystal under high pressure were successfully demonstrated by just putting the sample and gasket on the bottom diamond anvil directly. The superconducting transition temperature of the FeSe single crystal was increased to up to 43 K by applying uniaxial-like pressure.

  2. Finite element design for the HPHT synthesis of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Ding, Mingming; Shi, Tongfei

    2018-06-01

    The finite element method is used to simulate the steady-state temperature field in diamond synthesis cell. The 2D and 3D models of the China-type cubic press with large deformation of the synthesis cell was established successfully, which has been verified by situ measurements of synthesis cell. The assembly design, component design and process design for the HPHT synthesis of diamond based on the finite element simulation were presented one by one. The temperature field in a high-pressure synthetic cavity for diamond production is optimized by adjusting the cavity assembly. A series of analysis about the influence of the pressure media parameters on the temperature field are examined through adjusting the model parameters. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of wasteland was studied in detail. It indicates that the wasteland is inevitably exists in the synthesis sample, the distribution of growth region of the diamond with hex-octahedral is move to the center of the synthesis sample from near the heater as the power increasing, and the growth conditions of high quality diamond is locating at the center of the synthesis sample. These works can offer suggestion and advice to the development and optimization of a diamond production process.

  3. Diamond pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; Boer, W. de; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10 16 protons/cm 2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  4. Diamond pixel modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, D. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada); Barbero, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Cristinziani, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Costa, S. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Department of Energetics/INFN Florence (Italy); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dobos, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dulinski, W. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Duris, J. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eusebi, R. [FNAL, Batavia (United States); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2011-04-21

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  5. Ion implantation into diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    The graphitization and the change to amorphous state of diamond surface layer by ion implantation and its characteristics are reported. In the diamond surface, into which more than 10 16 ions/cm 2 was implanted, the diamond crystals are broken, and the structure changes to other carbon structure such as amorphous state or graphite. Accompanying this change of structure, the electric conductivity of the implanted layer shows two discontinuous values due to high resistance and low resistance. This control of structure can be done by the temperature of the base during the ion implantation into diamond. Also it is referred to that by the base temperature during implantation, the mutual change of the structure between amorphous state and graphite can be controlled. The change of the electric resistance and the optical characteristics by the ion implantation into diamond surface, the structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, and the control of the structure of the implanted layer by the base temperature during implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.; Breidt, D.; Cremer, R. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This history of CVD diamond synthesis goes back to the fifties of the last century. However, the scientific and economical potential was only gradually recognized. In the eighties, intensive worldwide research on CVD diamond synthesis and applications was launched. Industrial products, especially diamond-coated cutting tools, were introduced to the market in the middle of the nineties. This article shows the latest developments in this area, which comprises nanocrystalline diamond coating structures. (orig.)

  7. Atomic structure-colour relationship in natural diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, I S; Bangert, U

    2010-01-01

    Colour is a physical attribute that can be very difficult to characterise in diamond and consequently it receives regular attention from scientists working in the gem industry. In this work we compare natural brown (the most common colour) and colourless type IIa diamonds containing only trace quantities (< 1 at. ppm) of nitrogen. Numerous attempts have been made to trace the origin of brown tints in natural diamond, with the most likely culprits, i.e. dislocations and nitrogen impurities, ruled out through the application of various analytical techniques. Consequently more emphasis has recently been placed on the study of smaller defects in the diamond structure and their influence on colour. The focus of this research work is the analysis of vacancy defects having a size of the order of 1nm using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-STEM). The small electron probe size and depth of focus afforded by this technique allows such defect structures together with their position to be resolved far more readily than with conventional HR-TEM. Small-scale contrast variations are apparent in the lattice images of brown and not of colourless diamonds. These features have been compared to simulated phase contrast images of vacancy clusters in diamond. In addition, both experimental and simulated defocus series indicate that such features are not restricted to the surface of the specimen.

  8. Study on effect of plasma surface treatments for diamond deposition by DC arc plasmatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In-Je; Joa, Sang-Beom; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2013-11-01

    To improve the thermal conductivity and wear resistance of ceramic materials in the field of renewable energy technologies, diamond coating by plasma processing has been carried out in recent years. This study's goal is to improve diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates by plasma surface treatments. Before diamond deposition was carried out in a vacuum, plasma surface treatments using Ar gas were conducted to improve conditions for deposition. We also conducted plasma processing for diamond deposition on Al2O3 ceramic substrates using a DC arc Plasmatron. The Al2O3 ceramic substrates with diamond film (5 x 15 mm2), were investigated by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometer). Then, the C-H stretching of synthetic diamond films by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) was studied. We identified nanocrystalline diamond films on the Al2O3 ceramic substrates. The results showed us that the deposition rate of diamond films was 2.3 microm/h after plasma surface treatments. Comparing the above result with untreated ceramic substrates, the deposition rate improved with the surface roughness of the deposited diamond films.

  9. A twice-as-smart synthetic G-quartet: PyroTASQ is both a smart quadruplex ligand and a smart fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguerre, Aurélien; Stefan, Loic; Larrouy, Manuel; Genest, David; Novotna, Jana; Pirrotta, Marc; Monchaud, David

    2014-09-03

    Recent and unambiguous evidences of the formation of DNA and RNA G-quadruplexes in cells has provided solid support for these structures to be considered as valuable targets in oncology. Beyond this, they have lent further credence to the anticancer strategies relying on small molecules that selectively target these higher-order DNA/RNA architectures, referred to as G-quadruplex ligands. They have also shed bright light on the necessity of designing multitasking ligands, displaying not only enticing quadruplex interacting properties (affinity, structural selectivity) but also additional features that make them usable for detecting quadruplexes in living cells, notably for determining whether, when, and where these structures fold and unfold during the cell cycle and also for better assessing the consequences of their stabilization by external agents. Herein, we report a brand new design of such multitasking ligands, whose structure experiences a quadruplex-promoted conformational switch that triggers not only its quadruplex affinity (i.e., smart ligands, which display high affinity and selectivity for DNA/RNA quadruplexes) but also its fluorescence (i.e., smart probes, which behave as selective light-up fluorescent reporters on the basis of a fluorogenic electron redistribution). The first prototype of such multifunctional ligands, termed PyroTASQ, represents a brand new generation of quadruplex ligands that can be referred to as "twice-as-smart" quadruplex ligands.

  10. A study of defects in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Defects, intrinsic and extrinsic, in natural and synthetic diamond, have been studied using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and optical absorption techniques. EPR measurements have been used in conjunction with infrared absorption to identify the defect-induced one-phonon infrared spectra produced by ionised single substitutional nitrogen, N s + . This N s + spectrum is characterised by a sharp peak at the Raman energy, 1332 cm -1 , accompanied by several broader resonances at 950(5), 1050(5), and 1095(5) cm -1 . Detailed concentration measurements show that a concentration of 5.5(5) ppm gives rise to an absorption of 1 cm -1 at 1332 cm -1 . The optical absorption band ND1, identified as the negative vacancy (V - ), is frequently used by diamond spectroscopists to measure the concentration of V - . Isoya has identified V - in the EPR spectra of irradiated diamond. The accuracy of EPR in determining concentrations, has been used to correlate the integrated absorption of the ND1 zero-phonon line to the concentration of V - centres. The parameter derived from this correlation is ∼16 times smaller than the previously accepted value obtained by indirect methods. A systematic study has been made - using EPR and optical absorption techniques - of synthetic type IIa diamonds, which have been irradiated with 2 MeV electrons in a specially developed dewar, allowing irradiation down to a measured sample temperature of 100K. Measurement of defect creation rates of the neutral vacancy and EPR defects, show a radical difference in the production rate of the EPR defect R2 between irradiation with the sample held at 100K and 350K. At 100K its production rate is 1.1(1) cm -1 , ∼10 times greater that at 350K. Observation of the di- -split interstitial (Ri) after irradiation at 100K proves the self-interstitial in diamond must be mobile at 100K, under the conditions of irradiation. Further study of the properties of the R2 defect (the most dominant EPR after electron

  11. Vibrational spectroscopy at high external pressures the diamond anvil cell

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1984-01-01

    Vibrational Spectroscopy at High External Pressures: The Diamond Anvil Cell presents the effects of high pressure on the vibrational properties of materials as accomplished in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The DAC serves the dual purpose of generating the pressures and being transparent to infrared radiation, allowing the observation of changes caused by pressure. The optical probes highlighted will deal principally with infrared and Raman scattering, although some observations in the visible region will also be presented. The book begins with a discussion of the effects of pressure and pres

  12. Diamond monochromator for high heat flux synchrotron x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khounsary, A.M.; Smither, R.K.; Davey, S.; Purohit, A.

    1992-12-01

    Single crystal silicon has been the material of choice for x-ray monochromators for the past several decades. However, the need for suitable monochromators to handle the high heat load of the next generation synchrotron x-ray beams on the one hand and the rapid and on-going advances in synthetic diamond technology on the other make a compelling case for the consideration of a diamond mollochromator system. In this Paper, we consider various aspects, advantage and disadvantages, and promises and pitfalls of such a system and evaluate the comparative an monochromator subjected to the high heat load of the most powerful x-ray beam that will become available in the next few years. The results of experiments performed to evaluate the diffraction properties of a currently available synthetic single crystal diamond are also presented. Fabrication of diamond-based monochromator is within present technical means

  13. Biofunctionalization of diamond microelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitinger, Andreas Adam; Lud, Simon Quartus; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose Antonio [Walter Schottky Institut, TU Muenchen (Germany); Hutter, Naima Aurelia; Richter, Gerhard; Jordan, Rainer [WACKER-Chair of Macromolecular Chemistry, TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work we present two main routes for the biofunctionalization of nanocrystalline diamond films, aiming at the application of diamond microelectrodes as amperometric biosensors. We report on direct covalent grafting of biomolecules on nanocrystalline diamond films via diazonium monophenyls and biphenyls as well as other linker molecules, forming self-assembled monolayers on the diamond surface. Monolayers with different functional head groups have been characterized. Patterning of the available functional groups using electron beam-induced chemical lithography allows the selective preparation of well-localized docking sites for the immobilization of biomolecules. Furthermore, polymer brushes are expected to enable novel paths for designing more advanced biosensing schemes, incorporating multifunctional groups and a higher loading capacity for biomolecules. Here, we focus on the preparation of polymer grafts by self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization. Further chemical modification of the grafted polymer brushes results in the introduction of additional functional molecules, paving the way for the incorporation of more complex molecular structures such as proteins. In a comparative study we investigate the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches.

  14. CVD diamond - fundamental phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, W.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical processes involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.

  15. Influence of defects on diamond detection properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromson, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    This work focuses on the study of the influence of defects on the detection properties of diamond. Devices are fabricated using natural as well as synthetic diamond samples grown using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Optical studies with infrared and Raman spectrometry are used to characterise the material properties as well as thermoluminescence and thermally stimulated current measurements. These thermally stimulated analyses reveal the presence of several trapping levels with emission temperatures below or near room temperature as well as an important level near 550 K. The influence of these defects on the alpha and X-ray detector responses is studied as a function of the initial state of the detectors (thermal treatment, irradiation) and of the measurement conditions (time, temperature). The results show a significant correlation between the charged state of traps, namely filled or empty and the response of the detectors. It appears that filling and emptying the traps respectively enhances the sensitivity and stability of detection devices to be used at room temperature and decreases the detection properties at higher temperature. Localised measurements are also used to study the spatial inhomogeneity of natural and CVD diamond samples from the 2D mapping of the detector responses. Non uniformity are attributed to a non-isotropic distribution of defects in natural diamonds. By comparing the detector responses to the topographical map of CVD samples a correlation appears between grains and grain boundaries with the variation of the detector sensitivity. Devices fabricated for detection applications with CVD samples are presented and namely for the monitoring and profiling of synchrotron beams as well as dose rate measurements in harsh environments. (author) [fr

  16. Anodic oxidation with doped diamond electrodes: a new advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, Alexander; Stadelmann, Manuela; Blaschke, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond anodes allow to directly produce OH· radicals from water electrolysis with very high current efficiencies. This has been explained by the very high overvoltage for oxygen production and many other anodic electrode processes on diamond anodes. Additionally, the boron-doped diamond electrodes exhibit a high mechanical and chemical stability. Anodic oxidation with diamond anodes is a new advanced oxidation process (AOP) with many advantages compared to other known chemical and photochemical AOPs. The present work reports on the use of diamond anodes for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from several industrial wastewaters and from two synthetic wastewaters with malic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) acid. Current efficiencies for the COD removal between 85 and 100% have been found. The formation and subsequent removal of by-products of the COD oxidation has been investigated for the first time. Economical considerations of this new AOP are included

  17. Custom synthesized diamond crystals as state of the art radiation dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keddy, R.J.; Nam, T.L.; Fallon, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    The fact that as a radiation detector, diamond is a stable, non-toxic and tissue equivalent (Z = 6) material makes it an ideal candidate for in vivo radiation dosimetry or the dosimetry of general radiation fields in environmental monitoring. Natural diamond crystals, however, have the disadvantage that no two crystals can be guaranteed to have the same response characteristics. This disadvantage can be overcome by synthesizing the crystals under controlled conditions and by using very selective chemistry. Such synthetic diamonds can be used as thermoluminescence dosimeters where they exhibit characteristics comparable to presently available commercial TLD's or they can be used as ionization chambers to produce either ionization currents or pulses where the small physical size of the diamond (1 mm 3 ) and possibilities of digital circuitry makes miniaturization an extremely attractive possibility. It has also been found that they can perform as scintillation detectors. Aspects of the performance characteristics of such diamonds in all three modes are described

  18. Indigenous development of diamond detectors for monitoring neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Arvind; Amit Kumar; Topkar, Anita; Pithawa, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    High purity synthetic chemically vapor deposited (CVD) diamond has several outstanding characteristics that make it as an important material for detector applications specifically for extreme environmental conditions like high temperature, high radiation, and highly corrosive environments. Diamond detectors are especially considered promising for monitoring fast neutrons produced by the D-T nuclear fusion reactions in next generation fusion facilities such as ITER. When fast neutrons interact with carbon, elastic, inelastic and (n,α) type reactions can occur. These reactions can be employed for the detection of fast neutrons using diamond. We have initiated the development of diamond detectors based on synthetic CVD substrates. In this paper, the first test of a polycrystalline CVD diamond detector with fast neutrons is reported. The test results demonstrate that this detector can be used for monitoring fast neutrons. The diamond detectors have been fabricated using 5 mm x 5 mm, 300 μm polycrystalline diamond substrates. Aluminum metallization has been used on both sides of the detector to provide electrical contacts. The performance of fabricated detectors was first evaluated using current and capacitance measurements. The leakage current was observed to be stable and about a few pAs for voltages up to 300V. The capacitance-voltage characteristics showed a constant capacitance which is as expected. To confirm the response of the detector to charged particles, the pulse height spectrum (PHS) was obtained using 238 Pu- 239 Pu dual α- source. The PHS showed a continuum without any peak due to polycrystalline nature of diamond film. The response of the detector to fast neutrons has been studied using the fast neutron facility at NXF, BARC. The PHS obtained for a neutron yield of 4 x 10 8 n/s is shown. The average counts per second (cps) measured for diamond detector for different neutron yields is shown. The plot shows linearity with coefficient of determination R

  19. High-Density Near-Field Readout Using Diamond Solid Immersion Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Schaich, Thomas J.; van Oerle, Bart M.; Godfried, Herman P.; Kriele, Paul A. C.; Houwman, Evert P.; Nelissen, Wim H. M.; Pels, Gert J.; Spaaij, Paul G. M.

    2006-02-01

    We investigated high-density near-field readout using a diamond solid immersion lens (SIL). A synthetic single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond provides a high refractive index and a high transmission for a wide wavelength range. Since the refractive index at a wavelength of 405 nm is 2.458, we could design a solid immersion lens with an effective numerical aperture of 2.34. Using the diamond SIL, we observed the eye pattern of a 150-GB-capacity (104.3 Gbit/in.2) disk with a track pitch of 130 nm and a bit length of 47.6 nm.

  20. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  1. Investigation of planar channeling radiation on diamond and quartz crystals at electron energies between 14 and 34 MeV and probing the influence of ultrasonic waves on channeling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadegan, B.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of planar channeling radiation (CR) have been performed at the electron beam of ELBE within an energy range between 14 and 34 MeV and for thicknesses of the diamond crystals between 42.5 and 500 μm. Absolute CR photon yields have for the first time been obtained for the above given ranges of electron energy and crystal thickness. The square-root dependence of the planar CR photon yield on the thickness of diamond crystals has been confirmed. A systematic quantitative investigation of the influence of the crystal thickness on the CR line shape has for the first time been performed. The mean-squared multiple-scattering angle effective for planar CR observed in forward direction has been found to be weaker as assumed from scattering in amorphous targets. Scaling laws deduced from the measured CR data are of advantage for the operation of a CR source. The second part of this thesis deals with the possibility of stimulation of CR emission by means of ultrasonic vibrations excited in a piezoelectric single crystal. Since the knowledge of the CR spectra generated on undisturbed quartz crystals is a necessary precondition for some investigation of the influence of US, planar CR has for the first time been measured at medium electron energies for a variety of planes in quartz. As a consequence of the hexagonal structure of this crystal, relative intense CR could be registered even out of planes with indices larger than one. On the base of the non-linear optics method, occupation functions and spectral distributions of planar CR have been calculated for channeling of 20 MeV electrons in the (01 anti 15) plane of a 20 μm thick quartz crystal at resonant influence of ultrasound (US). The resonance frequencies have been deduced from the measurements of CR spectra performed on quartz. First experimental investigations of the influence of US on CR started at ELBE aimed at the study of the effect of non-resonant ultrasonic vibrations excited in a 500 μm thick

  2. Investigation of planar channeling radiation on diamond and quartz crystals at electron energies between 14 and 34 MeV and probing the influence of ultrasonic waves on channeling radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadegan, B.

    2007-11-15

    Measurements of planar channeling radiation (CR) have been performed at the electron beam of ELBE within an energy range between 14 and 34 MeV and for thicknesses of the diamond crystals between 42.5 and 500 {mu}m. Absolute CR photon yields have for the first time been obtained for the above given ranges of electron energy and crystal thickness. The square-root dependence of the planar CR photon yield on the thickness of diamond crystals has been confirmed. A systematic quantitative investigation of the influence of the crystal thickness on the CR line shape has for the first time been performed. The mean-squared multiple-scattering angle effective for planar CR observed in forward direction has been found to be weaker as assumed from scattering in amorphous targets. Scaling laws deduced from the measured CR data are of advantage for the operation of a CR source. The second part of this thesis deals with the possibility of stimulation of CR emission by means of ultrasonic vibrations excited in a piezoelectric single crystal. Since the knowledge of the CR spectra generated on undisturbed quartz crystals is a necessary precondition for some investigation of the influence of US, planar CR has for the first time been measured at medium electron energies for a variety of planes in quartz. As a consequence of the hexagonal structure of this crystal, relative intense CR could be registered even out of planes with indices larger than one. On the base of the non-linear optics method, occupation functions and spectral distributions of planar CR have been calculated for channeling of 20 MeV electrons in the (01 anti 15) plane of a 20 {mu}m thick quartz crystal at resonant influence of ultrasound (US). The resonance frequencies have been deduced from the measurements of CR spectra performed on quartz. First experimental investigations of the influence of US on CR started at ELBE aimed at the study of the effect of non-resonant ultrasonic vibrations excited in a 500 {mu}m thick

  3. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  4. Combined Scanning Nanoindentation and Tunneling Microscope Technique by Means of Semiconductive Diamond Berkovich Tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, O; Novikov, N; Gontar, A; Grushko, V; Shcherbakov, A

    2007-01-01

    A combined Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) - nanoindentation instrument enables submicron resolution indentation tests and in-situ scanning of structure surfaces. A newly developed technique is based on the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with integrated Berkovich diamond semiconductive tip. Diamond tips for a combined SPM were obtained using the developed procedure including the synthesis of the semiconductive borondoped diamond monocrystals by the temperature gradient method at high pressure - high temperature conditions and fabrication of the tips from these crystals considering their zonal structure. Separately grown semiconductive diamond single crystals were studied in order to find the best orientation of diamond crystals. Optimal scanning characteristics and experimental data errors were calculated by an analysis of the general functional dependence of the tunneling current from properties of the tip and specimen. Tests on the indentation and scanning of the gold film deposited on the silicon substrate employing the fabricated tips demonstrated their usability, acceptable resolution and sensitivity

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Diamond-Blackfan anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Diamond-Blackfan anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a disorder of the bone marrow . The ...

  6. Diamond turning of glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  7. Fast diamond photoconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochet, T.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results on the response of type Ib and IIa diamond photodetectors to fast laser pulse exposures at 265 and 530 nm are presented. The influence of the applied bias, the laser wavelengths and the light intensity on the detector sensitivity is studied. Also, recent measurements with 1.25 MeV gamma ray pulses are reported. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  8. Review: Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Okada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline diamond films have attracted considerable attention because they have a low coefficient of friction and a low electron emission threshold voltage. In this paper, the author reviews the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD of nanocrystalline diamond and mainly focuses on the growth of nanocrystalline diamond by low-pressure PE-CVD. Nanocrystalline diamond particles of 200–700 nm diameter have been prepared in a 13.56 MHz low-pressure inductively coupled CH4/CO/H2 plasma. The bonding state of carbon atoms was investigated by ultraviolet-excited Raman spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy identified sp2-bonded carbons around the 20–50 nm subgrains of nanocrystalline diamond particles. Plasma diagnostics using a Langmuir probe and the comparison with plasma simulation are also reviewed. The electron energy distribution functions are discussed by considering different inelastic interaction channels between electrons and heavy particles in a molecular CH4/H2 plasma.

  9. An evaluation of electron diamond type EDO2E and EDO3 diamond radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, D.A.; Wilson, R.

    1977-12-01

    Observations on the response of two d.c. mode (EDO2E) and three pulse mode (EDO3) diamond probes to beta and gamma radiation are reported. In the d.c. mode, response to gamma exposure rates from 1 R h -1 to >6x10 4 R h -1 were measured, currents of approximately 5x10 -13 A and approximately 3x10 -9 A respectively at 20 0 C being observed. The dark current was approximately 3x10 -13 A at 20 0 C and doubled for every 3 to 4 0 C temperature rise. In the pulse mode the count rate was approximately linear with gamma exposure rate from 10 mR h -1 to > 300 R h -1 . The detection of beta particles was limited to energies > or approximately equal 0.8 MeV. Over the temperature range -5 0 C to 50 0 C the count rate for one probe increased by a factor of 1.25 whereas a second probe showed a decrease of 1.4. There is scope for major improvement of diamond detectors as reported by Kozlov et al (1977a) who have eliminated certain undesirable effects by careful selection and the provision of special electrodes. (author)

  10. Ion channelling in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    1978-06-01

    Diamond is one of the most extreme cases from a channelling point of view, having the smallest thermal vibration amplitude and the lowest atomic number of commonly-encountered crystals. These are the two parameters most important for determining channelling behaviour. It is of consiberable interest therefore to see how well the theories explaining and predicting the channeling properties of other substance, succeed with diamond. Natural diamond, although the best available form for these experiments, is rather variable in its physical properties. Part of the project was devoted to considering and solving the problem of obtaining reproducible results representative of the ideal crystal. Channelling studies were performed on several good crystals, using the Rutherford backscattering method. Critical angles for proton channelling were measured for incident energies from 0.6 to 4.5 MeV, in the three most open axes and three most open planes of the diamond structure, and for α-particle channelling at 0.7 and 1.0 MeV (He + ) in the same axes and planes. For 1.0 MeV protons, the crystal temperature was varied from 20 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius. The results are presented as curves of backscattered yield versus angle in the region of each axis or plane, and summarised in the form of tables and graphs. Generally the critical angles, axial minimum yields, and temperature dependence are well predicted by the accepted theories. The most valuable overall conclusion is that the mean thermal vibration amplitude of the atoms in a crytical determines the critical approach distance to the channel walls at which an ion can remain channelled, even when this distance is much smaller than the Thomas-Fermi screening distance of the atomic potential, as is the case in diamond. A brief study was made of the radiation damage caused by α-particle bombardment, via its effect on the channelling phenomenon. It was possible to hold damage down to negligible levels during the

  11. Electrophoretic preparation and characterization of porous electrodes from diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Lyda La Torre; Soto, Keyla; Tryk, Donald A; Cabrera, Carlos R [Department of Chemistry and Center of Nanoscale Materials, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PO Box 23346 San Juan, PR 00931-3346 (Puerto Rico)

    2007-04-15

    We carried out chemical purification of commercially available diamond nanoparticles by refluxing in aqueous HNO{sub 3} and characterized the samples by spectroscopic and surface techniques before and after purification. As a first step in the preparation of electrodes for electrochemistry, we have electrophoretically deposited thin, highly uniform films of controlled thickness (1-8 {mu}m) on silicon substrates using the purified diamond nanoparticles. These have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All films obtained were homogeneous in thickness and without macroscopic holes or cracks. Such structures could also be used in many other applications such as fuel cells or lithium batteries. We have performed cyclic voltammetry experiments with these electrodes. The voltammograms of diamond nanoparticles electrophoretically deposited on silicon indicate hydrogen evolution. This demonstrates that the material is useful as electrocatalitic support. This conclusion is supported by the cyclic voltammograms obtained using ferrycyanide (III) chloride and hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride complexes as redox probes. However, these redox probes showed very small peak currents. This behavior could be improved by doping the diamond nanoparticles with an impurity such as boron.

  12. Electrophoretic preparation and characterization of porous electrodes from diamond nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros, Lyda La Torre; Soto, Keyla; Tryk, Donald A; Cabrera, Carlos R

    2007-01-01

    We carried out chemical purification of commercially available diamond nanoparticles by refluxing in aqueous HNO 3 and characterized the samples by spectroscopic and surface techniques before and after purification. As a first step in the preparation of electrodes for electrochemistry, we have electrophoretically deposited thin, highly uniform films of controlled thickness (1-8 μm) on silicon substrates using the purified diamond nanoparticles. These have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All films obtained were homogeneous in thickness and without macroscopic holes or cracks. Such structures could also be used in many other applications such as fuel cells or lithium batteries. We have performed cyclic voltammetry experiments with these electrodes. The voltammograms of diamond nanoparticles electrophoretically deposited on silicon indicate hydrogen evolution. This demonstrates that the material is useful as electrocatalitic support. This conclusion is supported by the cyclic voltammograms obtained using ferrycyanide (III) chloride and hexaamineruthenium (III) chloride complexes as redox probes. However, these redox probes showed very small peak currents. This behavior could be improved by doping the diamond nanoparticles with an impurity such as boron

  13. Diamond Pixel Detectors and 3D Diamond Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Results from detectors of poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposited (pCVD) diamond are presented. These include the first analysis of data of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). The DBM module consists of pCVD diamond sensors instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end electronics. Six diamond telescopes, each with three modules, are placed symmetrically around the ATLAS interaction point. The DBM tracking capabilities allow it to discriminate between particles coming from the interaction point and background particles passing through the ATLAS detector. Also, analysis of test beam data of pCVD DBM modules are presented. A new low threshold tuning algorithm based on noise occupancy was developed which increases the DBM module signal to noise ratio significantly. Finally first results from prototypes of a novel detector using pCVD diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk, forming a 3D diamond device, are discussed. 3D devices based on pCVD diamond were successfully tested with test beams at CERN. The measured charge is compared to that of a strip detector mounted on the same pCVD diamond showing that the 3D device collects significantly more charge than the planar device.

  14. Studies on synthesis of diamond at high pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailath, Ansu J.

    Diamond is an essential material of modern industry and probably the most versatile abrasive available today. It also has many other industrial applications attributable to its unique mechanical, optical, thermal and electrical properties. Its usage has grown to the extent that there is hardly a production process in modern industry in which industrial diamond does not play a part. Bulk diamond production today is a major industry. Diamonds can be produced in its thermodynamically stable regions either by direct static conversion, or shock-wave conversion. The pressures and temperatures required for direct static conversion are very high. In the catalyst-solvent method, the material used establishes a reaction path with lower activation energy than for direct transformation. This helps in a quicker transformation under more benign conditions. Hence, catalyst-solvent synthesis is readily accomplished and is now a viable and successful industrial process. Diamonds produced by shock wave are very small (approximately 60mu). Therefore this diamond is limited to applications such as polishing compounds only. The quality, quantity, size and morphology of the crystals synthesized by catalyst-solvent process depend on different conditions employed for synthesis. These details, because of commercial reasons are not disclosed in published literature. Hence, systematic studies have been planned to investigate the effect of various growth parameters on the synthesized crystals. During the growth of synthetic diamond crystals, some catalyst-solvent is retained into the crystals in some form and behaves like an impurity. Several physico-mechanical properties of the crystals are found to depend on the total quantity and distribution of these inclusions. Thus, detailed investigation of the crystallization medium and inclusions in synthesized diamonds was also undertaken in the present work. The work incorporated in this thesis has been divided into seven chapters. The first

  15. Surface temperature measurements of diamond

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond has the highest thermal conductivity among known materials, and as such finds uses as an industrial tool in areas where dissipation of excess heat is a requirement. In this investigation we set up a laser system to heat a diamond sample...

  16. Electrochemical applications of CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor-Moreno, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Diamond technology has claimed an important role in industry since non-expensive methods of synthesis such as chemical vapour deposition allow to elaborate cheap polycrystalline diamond. This fact has increased the interest in the scientific community due to the outstanding properties of diamond. Since Pleskov published in 1987 the first paper in electrochemistry, many researchers around the world have studied different aspects of diamond electrochemistry such as reactivity, electrical structure, etc. As part of this worldwide interest these studies reveal new information about diamond electrodes. These studies report investigation of diamond electrodes characterized using structural techniques like scanning electrode microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A new electrochemical theory based on surface states is presented that explains the metal and the semiconductor behaviour in terms of the doping level of the diamond electrode. In an effort to characterise the properties of diamond electrodes the band edges for hydrogen and oxygen terminated surface are located in organic solvent, hence avoiding possible interference that are present in aqueous solution. The determination of the band edges is performed by Mott-Schottky studies. These allow the calculation of the flat band potential and therefore the band edges. Additional cyclic voltammetric studies are presented for both types of surface termination. Mott-Schottky data and cyclic voltammograms are compared and explained in terms of the band edge localisation. Non-degenerately p-type semiconductor behaviour is presented for hydrogen terminated boron doped diamond. Graphitic surface states on oxidised surface boron doped diamond are responsible for the electrochemistry of redox couples that posses similar energy. Using the simple redox couple 1,4-benzoquinone effect of surface termination on the chemical behaviour of diamond is presented. Hydrogen sublayers in diamond electrodes seem to play an important role for the

  17. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  18. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  19. Diamond lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oitmaa, J.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate ground-state and high-temperature properties of the nearest-neighbour Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the three-dimensional diamond lattice, using series expansion methods. The ground-state energy and magnetization, as well as the magnon spectrum, are calculated and found to be in good agreement with first-order spin-wave theory, with a quantum renormalization factor of about 1.13. High-temperature series are derived for the free energy, and physical and staggered susceptibilities for spin S  =  1/2, 1 and 3/2, and analysed to obtain the corresponding Curie and Néel temperatures.

  20. Presolar Diamond in Meteorites

    OpenAIRE

    Amari, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    Presolar diamond, the carrier of the isotopically anomalous Xe component Xe-HL, was the first mineral type of presolar dust that was isolated from meteorites. The excesses in the light, p-process only isotopes 124Xe and 126Xe, and in the heavy, r-process only isotopes 134Xe and 136Xe relative to the solar ratios indicate that Xe-HL was produced in supernovae: they are the only stellar source where these two processes are believed to take place. Although these processes occur in supernovae, th...

  1. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  2. Eclogitic inclusions in diamonds: Evidence of complex mantle processes over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine; Sobolev, Vladimir N.; Yefimova, Emiliya S.; Sobolev, Nikolai V.

    1996-08-01

    The first ion-probe trace element analyses of clinopyroxene-garnet pairs both included within diamonds and from the eclogite host xenoliths are reported; these diamondiferous eclogites are from the Udachnaya and Mir kimberlite pipes, Yakutia, Russia. The major and trace element analyses of these diamond-inclusion and host-rock pairs are compared in order to determine the relative ages of the diamonds, confirm or deny genetic relationships between the diamonds and the eclogites, evaluate models of eclogite petrogenesis, and model igneous processes in the mantle before, during, and after diamond formation. The most striking aspect of the chemical compositions of the diamond inclusions is the diversity of relationships with their eclogite hosts. No single distinct pattern of variation from diamond inclusion minerals to host minerals is found for all four samples. Garnet and clinopyroxene inclusions in the diamonds from two samples (U-65/3 and U-66/3) have lower Mg#s, lower Mg, and higher Fe contents, and lower LREE than those in the host eclogite. We interpret such variations as due to metasomatism of the host eclogite after diamond formation. One sample, U-41/3 shows enrichment in diamond-inclusion MREE enrichment relative to the eclogite host and may indicate a metasomatic event prior to, or during, diamond formation. Bulanova [2] found striking differences between inclusions taken from within different portions of the very same diamond. Clinopyroxene inclusions taken from the central (early) portions of Yakutian diamonds were lower in Mg# and Mg contents (by up to 25%) than those later inclusions at the rims of diamonds. These trends are parallel to those between diamond inclusions and host eclogites determined for four of the five samples from the present study and may merely represent changing magmatic and/or P-T conditions in the mantle. Garnet trace element compositions are similar in relative proportions, but variable in abundances, between diamond inclusions

  3. Transmission diamond imaging detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, John, E-mail: smedley@bnl.gov; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.

  4. Diamonds in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, M.

    2004-12-01

    My first science fiction novel, Star Dragon, just recently available in paperback from Tor, features a voyage to the cataclysmic variable star system SS Cygni. My second novel, Spider Star, to appear early in 2006, takes place in and around a dark matter ``planet'' orbiting a neutron star. Both novels are ``hard'' science fiction, relying on accurate physics to inform the tales. It's possible to bring to life abstract concepts like special relativity, and alien environments like accretion disks, by using science fiction. Novels are difficult to use in a science class, but short stories offer intriguing possibilities. I'm planning to edit an anthology of hard science fiction stories that contain accurate science and emphasize fundamental ideas in modern astronomy. The working title is Diamonds in the Sky. The collection will be a mix of original stories and reprints, highlighting challenging concepts covered in a typical introductory astronomy course. Larry Niven's classic story, ``Neutron Star," is an excellent demonstration of extreme tidal forces in an astronomical context. Diamonds in the Sky will include forewards and afterwards to the stories, including discussion questions and mathematical formulas/examples as appropriate. I envision this project will be published electronically or through a print-on-demand publisher, providing long-term availabilty and keeping low cost. I encourage interested parties to suggest previously published stories, or to suggest which topics must be included.

  5. Thermal applications of low-pressure diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, R.; Lux, B.

    1997-01-01

    During the last decade several applications of low-pressure diamond were developed. Main products are diamond heat-spreaders using its high thermal conductivity, diamond windows with their high transparency over a wide range of wavelengths and wear resistant tool coatings because of diamonds superhardness. A short description of the most efficient diamond deposition methods (microwave, DC-glow discharge, plasma-jet and arc discharge) is given. The production and applications of diamond layers with high thermal conductivity will be described. Problems of reproducibility of diamond deposition, the influence of impurities, the heat conductivity in electronic packages, reliability and economical mass production will be discussed. (author)

  6. Investigation of the physics of diamond MEMS : diamond allotrope lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalizniak, I.; Olivero, P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Reichart, P.; Rubanov, S.; Petriconi, S.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel lithography process in which ion induced phase transfomations of diamond form sacrificial layers allowing the fabrication of small structures including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). We have applied this novel lithography to the fabrication of diamond microcavities, cantilevers and optical waveguides. In this paper we present preliminary experiments directed at the fabrication of suspended diamond disks that have the potential for operation as optical resonators. Such structures would be very durable and resistant to chemical attack with potential applications as novel sensors for extreme environments or high temperature radiation detectors. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  7. Natural occurrence of pure nano-polycrystalline diamond from impact crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Irifune, Tetsuo; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Yamashita, Tomoharu; Isobe, Futoshi; Afanasiev, Valentin P.; Pokhilenko, Nikolai P.

    2015-10-01

    Consolidated bodies of polycrystalline diamond with grain sizes less than 100 nm, nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD), has been experimentally produced by direct conversion of graphite at high pressure and high temperature. NPD has superior hardness, toughness and wear resistance to single-crystalline diamonds because of its peculiar nano-textures, and has been successfully used for industrial and scientific applications. Such sintered nanodiamonds have, however, not been found in natural mantle diamonds. Here we identified natural pure NPD, which was produced by a large meteoritic impact about 35 Ma ago in Russia. The impact diamonds consist of well-sintered equigranular nanocrystals (5-50 nm), similar to synthetic NPD, but with distinct [111] preferred orientation. They formed through the martensitic transformation from single-crystal graphite. Stress-induced local fragmentation of the source graphite and subsequent rapid transformation to diamond in the limited time scale result in multiple diamond nucleation and suppression of the overall grain growth, producing the unique nanocrystalline texture of natural NPD. A huge amount of natural NPD is expected to be present in the Popigai crater, which is potentially important for applications as novel ultra-hard material.

  8. New route to the fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Deepak; Morell, Gerardo; Palomino, Javier; Resto, Oscar; Gil, Jennifer; Weiner, Brad R.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin films offer applications in various fields, but the existing synthetic approaches are cumbersome and destructive. A major breakthrough has been achieved by our group in the direction of a non-destructive, scalable, and economic process of NCD thin-film fabrication. Here, we report a cheap precursor for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond in the form of paraffin wax. We show that NCD thin films can be fabricated on a copper support by using simple, commonplace paraffin wax under reaction conditions of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD). Surprisingly, even the presence of any catalyst or seeding that has been conventionally used in the state-of-the-art is not required. The structure of the obtained films was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy recorded at the carbon K-edge region confirm the presence of nanocrystalline diamond. The process is a significant step towards cost-effective and non-cumbersome fabrication of nanocrystalline diamond thin films for commercial production

  9. The construction of a diamond detector for ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgemeister, E.A.; Schouten, W.

    1984-01-01

    The construction, performance and radiotherapy applications of synthetic diamond detectors are described. A diamond with linear dimensions of 0.8 mm and two opposite faces of graphite is glued to the inside of an aluminium cap of 2 mm diameter and 0.1 mm wall thickness. An aluminium bar is glued to the other graphite face and fixed inside the cap. The cap and bar are connected to electrical leads, so that heavy metals are at some distance from the radiosensitive element. The response to 60 Co shows rotational symmetry when the detector is irradiated perpendicularly to its axis. The effective measurement point lies nearly on the axis. The radiosensitivity of diamond is independent of the photon energy at effective values between 0.2 and 3 MeV and decreases gradually below 0.2 MeV. Because of their small size, diamond detectors prove very useful for accurate measurement of steep dose gradients. They are therefore applied in electron beams and in the penumbra and build-up regions of megavolt photon beams. The construction and electrical specifications of the detector also allow for dosimetry in vivo, e.g. rectal dosimetry. (author)

  10. Diamond-based photoconductors for deep UV detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducci, A.; Bruzzi, M.; De Sio, A.; Donato, M.G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M.E.; Pace, E.; Pucella, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Scuderi, S.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2006-01-01

    This work reports on the development and characterization of bi-dimensional deep-UV sensor arrays based on synthetic diamond to address the requirements of space-born astrophysical experiments. The material was synthesized at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' where both heteroepitaxial polycrystalline diamond films and homoepitaxial single-crystal diamonds are grown using a tubular MWCVD reactor. The quality of chemical vapour deposited diamond was characterized by cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and thermally stimulated currents. Then, suitable samples were selected and used to fabricate photoconductive single-pixel and 2D array devices by evaporating metal contacts on the growth surface. The electro-optical characterization of the devices was carried out in a wide spectral region, ranging from 120 to 2400 nm. A deuterium lamp and a 0.5 m vacuum monochromator were used to measure the detector responsivity under continuous monochromatic irradiation in the 120-250 nm spectral range, while an optical parametric oscillator tunable laser producing 5 ns pulses was used as light source from 210 up to 2400 nm. Time response, signal-to-noise ratio, responsivity and visible rejection factor were evaluated and the results are hereafter summarized

  11. Diamond: a material for acoustic devices

    OpenAIRE

    MORTET, Vincent; WILLIAMS, Oliver; HAENEN, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Diamond has been foreseen to replace silicon for high power, high frequency electronic applications or for devices that operates in harsh environments. However, diamond electronic devices are still in the laboratory stage due to the lack of large substrates and the complexity of diamond doping. On another hand, surface acoustic wave filters based on diamond are commercially available. Diamond is especially suited for acoustic applications because of its exceptional mechanical properties. The ...

  12. Synthetic Rutile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burastero, J.

    1975-01-01

    This work is about the laboratory scale investigation of the conditions in the rutile synthetic production from one me nita in Aguas Dulces reservoir. The iron mineral is chlorinated and volatilized selectively leaving a residue enriched in titanium dioxide which can be used as a substitute of rutile mineral

  13. Photo-illuminated diamond as a solid-state source of solvated electrons in water for nitrogen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di; Zhang, Linghong; Ruther, Rose E; Hamers, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    The photocatalytic reduction of N₂ to NH₃ is typically hampered by poor binding of N₂ to catalytic materials and by the very high energy of the intermediates involved in this reaction. Solvated electrons directly introduced into the reactant solution can provide an alternative pathway to overcome such limitations. Here we demonstrate that illuminated hydrogen-terminated diamond yields facile electron emission into water, thus inducing reduction of N₂ to NH₃ at ambient temperature and pressure. Transient absorption measurements at 632 nm reveal the presence of solvated electrons adjacent to the diamond after photoexcitation. Experiments using inexpensive synthetic diamond samples and diamond powder show that photocatalytic activity is strongly dependent on the surface termination and correlates with the production of solvated electrons. The use of diamond to eject electrons into a reactant liquid represents a new paradigm for photocatalytic reduction, bringing electrons directly to reactants without requiring molecular adsorption to the surface.

  14. The Development of Open Water-lubricated Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Thrust Bearings for Use in Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Energy Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, Craig, H.; Khonsari, Michael,, M; Lingwall, Brent

    2012-11-28

    Polycrstalline diamond (PCD) bearings were designed, fabricated and tested for marine-hydro-kinetic (MHK) application. Bearing efficiency and life were evaluated using the US Synthetic bearing test facility. Three iterations of design, build and test were conducted to arrive at the best bearing design. In addition life testing that simulated the starting and stopping and the loading of real MHK applications were performed. Results showed polycrystalline diamond bearings are well suited for MHK applications and that diamond bearing technology is TRL4 ready. Based on life tests results bearing life is estimated to be at least 11.5 years. A calculation method for evaluating the performance of diamond bearings of round geometry was also investigated and developed. Finally, as part of this effort test bearings were supplied free of charge to the University of Alaska for further evaluation. The University of Alaska test program will subject the diamond bearings to sediment laden lubricating fluid.

  15. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraimovitch, D., E-mail: dimitryf@mail.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Lefeuvre, G. [Micron Semiconductor Ltd. Royal Buildings, Marlborough Road, Lancing Business Park, BN15 8SJ (United Kingdom); Ruzin, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-11

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  16. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraimovitch, D.; Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S.; Lefeuvre, G.; Ruzin, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  17. Diamond brazing - interfacial reactions and wetting; Loeten von Diamant - Grenzflaechenreaktionen und Benetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillmann, W.; Osmanda, A.M.; Yurchenko, S. [Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstofftechnologie, Universitaet Dortmund, Leonhard-Euler-Str. 2, 44227 Dortmund (Germany); Theisen, W. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Lehrstuhl Werkstofftechnik (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    Diamond tools are increasingly gaining importance as cutting materials for various construction materials. The quality of synthetic diamonds, monocrystalline as well as polycrystalline or CVD-diamonds has been significantly improved over the last years. Integrating these cutting materials requires adequate joining technologies that produce sound joints without exposing the temperature sensitive diamond to too elevated temperatures. The paper highlights current developments in the joining of synthetic diamonds to steel and cemented carbide. Owing to their covalent atomic bonding diamonds cannot easily be wetted and joined by employing conventional brazing alloys. Hence, active agents are needed to foster an interfacial reaction. Different active filler concepts are presented and discussed regarding their joint formation. The brazing temperatures influence not only possible diamond degradation but also the interfacial decomposition of the diamond due to the formation of corresponding reaction layers.Active brazing, monocrystalline. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Diamantwerkstoffe erlangen zunehmend Bedeutung als Schneidmaterialien in Diamantwerkzeugen fuer die Bearbeitung verschiedener Konstruktionswerkstoffe. Die Qualitaet von synthetischen Diamanten, sowohl monokristallinen als auch polykristallinen oder CVD-Diamantschichten konnte in den letzten Jahren deutlich verbessert werden. Die Integration dieser Schneidstoffe erfordert eine angepasste Fuegetechnologie, die fehlerfreie Verbunde bereitstellt, ohne die gegenueber hohen Temperaturen empfindlichen Diamanten zu hohen Temperaturen auszusetzen. Der Beitrag zeigt aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Fuegetechnik von synthetischen Diamanten mit Stahl und Hartmetall auf. Infolge ihrer kovalenten atomaren Bindungen koennen Diamanten nicht ohne weiteres mit herkoemmlichen Lotwerkstoffen benetzt und gefuegt werden. Daher sind reaktive Elemente notwendig, die eine Grenzflaechenreaktion forcieren

  18. Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials as Hydrogen Isotope Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, L.R.; Barbero, R.S.; Carroll, D.W.; Archuleta, T.; Baker, J.; Devlin, D.; Duke, J.; Loemier, D.; Trukla, M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop diamond and diamond-like thin-films as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. Hydrogen embrittlement limits the life of boost systems which otherwise might be increased to 25 years with a successful non-reactive barrier. Applications in tritium processing such as bottle filling processes, tritium recovery processes, and target filling processes could benefit from an effective barrier. Diamond-like films used for low permeability shells for ICF and HEDP targets were also investigated. Unacceptable high permeabilities for hydrogen were obtained for plasma-CVD diamond-like-carbon films

  19. Profiling of Current Transients in Capacitor Type Diamond Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Kazuchits, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    The operational characteristics of capacitor-type detectors based on HPHT and CVD diamond have been investigated using perpendicular and parallel injection of carrier domain regimes. Simulations of the drift-diffusion current transients have been implemented by using dynamic models based on Shockley-Ramo’s theorem, under injection of localized surface domains and of bulk charge carriers. The bipolar drift-diffusion regimes have been analyzed for the photo-induced bulk domain (packet) of excess carriers. The surface charge formation and polarization effects dependent on detector biasing voltage have been revealed. The screening effects ascribed to surface charge and to dynamics of extraction of the injected bulk excess carrier domain have been separated and explained. The parameters of drift mobility of the electrons μe = 4000 cm2/Vs and holes μh = 3800 cm2/Vs have been evaluated for CVD diamond using the perpendicular profiling of currents. The coefficient of carrier ambipolar diffusion Da = 97 cm2/s and the carrier recombination lifetime τR,CVD ≌ 110 ns in CVD diamond were extracted by combining analysis of the transients of the sensor current and the microwave probed photoconductivity. The carrier trapping with inherent lifetime τR,HPHT ≌ 2 ns prevails in HPHT diamond. PMID:26061200

  20. Experimental studies of N~+ implantation into CVD diamond thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛火平; 林成鲁; 王建新; 邹世昌; 石晓红; 林梓鑫; 周祖尧; 刘祖刚

    1997-01-01

    The effects of N+ implantation under various conditions on CVD diamond films were analyzed with Raman spectroscopy, four-point probe method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backseattering spectroscopy (RBS), ultraviolet photoluminescence spectroscopy (UV-PL), Fourier transformation infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the N+ implantation doping without any graphitization has been successfully realized when 100 keV N+ ions at a dosage of 2 × 1016 cm-2 were implanted into diamond films at 550℃ . UV-PL spectra indicate that the implanted N+ ions formed an electrically inactive deep-level impurity in diamond films. So the sheet resistance of the sample after N+ implantation changed little. Carbon nitride containing C≡N covalent bond has been successfully synthesized by 100 keV, 1.2×1018 N/cm2 N+ implantation into diamond films. Most of the implanted N+ ions formed C≡N covalent bonds with C atoms. The others were free state nitroge

  1. Laser spectroscopy of highly doped NV- centers in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shova D.; Fedorov, Vladimir V.; Peppers, Jeremy; Martyshkin, Dmitry V.; Mirov, Sergey B.; Shao, Linbo; Loncar, Marko

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, prospects of using diamond with NV- centers as a gain medium have been studied. Spectroscopic characterization of NV- centers in diamond as well as absorption saturation and pump-probe experiments have been carried out. Absorption and emission cross-sections were estimated to be 2.8 × 10-17 cm2 and 4.3 × 10-17 cm2 at the maximum of absorption and emission bands, respectively. It was observed from emission spectra under pulse excitation that some NV- are photoionized to NV0 centers with ZPL at 575 nm. Room temperature luminescence lifetime of NV- centers was measured to be 12ns, which is close to the previously reported lifetime in bulk diamond ( 13ns). Saturated transmission was only about 11% of calculated values even at energy fluence much higher than the saturation flux. Two excited state absorptions (ESAs) with different relaxation times ("fast-decay" and "slow-decay with relaxation times of 500 ns and several tens of microseconds, respectively) were revealed in transmission decay kinetics at 632 nm. Kinetics of transmission at 670 nm was dominated by "slow-decay" ESA process. Kinetics of dk/k0 in shorter wavelength were strongly dominated by "fast-decay" ESA process. These results definitively indicate that stimulated emission of NV- centers is suppressed by photoionization and ESAs and the possibility of diamond lasers based on NV- centers is low.

  2. Morphological Features of Diamond Crystals Dissolved in Fe0.7S0.3 Melt at 4 GPa and 1400°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonin, V. M.; Zhimulev, E. I.; Pomazanskiy, B. S.; Zemnuhov, A. L.; Chepurov, A. A.; Afanasiev, V. P.; Chepurov, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    An experimental study of the dissolution of natural and synthetic diamonds in a sulfur-bearing iron melt (Fe0.7S0.3) with high P-T parameters (4 GPa, 1400°C) was performed. The results demonstrated that under these conditions, octahedral crystals with flat faces and rounded tetrahexahedral diamond crystals are transformed into rounded octahedroids, which have morphological characteristics similar to those of natural diamonds from kimberlite. It was suggested that, taking into account the complex history of individual natural diamond crystals, including the dissolution stages, sulfur-bearing metal melts up to sulfide melts were not only diamond-forming media during the early evolution of the Earth, but also natural solvents of diamond in the mantle environment before the formation of kimberlitic melts.

  3. Method of dehalogenation using diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Ladner, Edward P.; Anderson, Richard R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  4. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Lončar, Marko; Faraon, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has

  5. CVD diamond detectors and dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredotti, C.; Fizzotti, F.; LoGiudice, A.; Paolini, C.; Oliviero, P.; Vittone, E.; Torino Univ., Torino

    2002-01-01

    Natural diamond, because of its well-known properties of tissue-equivalence, has recorded a wide spreading use in radiotherapy planning with electron linear accelerators. Artificial diamond dosimeters, as obtained by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) could be capable to offer the same performances and they can be prepared in different volumes and shapes. The dosimeter sensitivity per unit volume may be easily proved to be better than standard ionization microchamber. We have prepared in our laboratory CVD diamond microchamber (diamond tips) in emispherical shape with an external diameter of 200 μm, which can be used both as X-ray beam profilometers and as microdosimeters for small field applications like stereotaxy and also for in vivo applications. These dosimeters, which are obtained on a wire substrate that could be either metallic or SiC or even graphite, display good performances also as ion or synchrotron X-rays detectors

  6. DIAMONDS: Engineering Distributed Object Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Evan

    1997-01-01

    This report describes DIAMONDS, a research project at Syracuse University, that is dedicated to producing both a methodology and corresponding tools to assist in the development of heterogeneous distributed software...

  7. Modeling of diamond radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, L.; Mainwood, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have built up a computer simulation of the detection mechanism in the diamond radiation detectors. The diamond detectors can be fabricated from a chemical vapour deposition polycrystalline diamond film. In this case, the trapping-detrapping and recombination at the defects inside the grains and at the grain boundaries degrade the transport properties of the material and the charge induction processes. These effects may strongly influence the device's response. Previous simulations of this kind of phenomena in the diamond detectors have generally been restricted to the simple detector geometries and homogeneous distribution of the defects. In our model, the diamond film (diamond detector) is simulated by a grid. We apply a spatial and time discretization, regulated by the grid resolution, to the equations describing the charge transport and, by using the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we calculate the signal induced on the electrodes. In this way, we can simulate the effects of the nonhomogeneous distributions of the trapping, recombination, or scattering centers and can investigate the differences observed when different particles, energies, and electrode configurations are used. The simulation shows that the efficiency of the detector increases linearly with the average grain size, that the charge collection distance is small compared to the dimensions of a single grain, and that for small grains, the trapping at the intragrain defects is insignificant compared to the effect of the grain boundaries

  8. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Lončar, Marko

    2013-02-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has emerged as a powerful interface between optical elements such as optical fibers and lenses, and solid-state quantum objects such as luminescent color centers in diamond that can be used effectively to manipulate quantum information. While quantum science and technology has been the main driving force behind recent interest in diamond nanophotonics, such a platform would have many applications that go well beyond the quantum realm. For example, diamond\\'s transparency over a wide wavelength range, large third-order nonlinearity, and excellent thermal properties are of great interest for the implementation of frequency combs and integrated Raman lasers. Diamond is also an inert material that makes it well suited for biological applications and for devices that must operate in harsh environments. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2013.

  9. Electronic and optical properties of diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Wojciech; Garrido, Jose; Niedermeier, Martin; Stutzmann, Martin [Walter Schottky Institute, TU Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Williams, Oliver; Haenen, Ken [Institute for Materials Research, University of Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 1, BE-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    Different diamond substrates (single crystalline: SCD, poly-crystalline: PCD and nano-crystalline: NCD) were used to investigate the electronic and optical properties of the diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures. Layers of a poly[ethynyl-(2-decyloxy-5methoxy)benzene] - PEB, pentacene and 4-nitro-biphenyl-4-diazonium cations - Ph-Ph-NO{sub 2} were prepared by spin coating, thermal evaporation and grafting, respectively. The measurements of the electronic transport along the organic layer were performed using a Hg probe as well as Hall effect measurements in the temperature range 70-400 K. The I-V characteristics of the B-doped diamond/organic semiconductor heterostructures were measured at room temperature by means of the Hg probe. Undoped IIa and undoped PCD films were used for a study of the optical and optoelectronic properties of prepared heterostructures. The influence of the organic layer homogeneity and layer thickness on the optical properties will be discussed. Furthermore, preliminary data on perpendicular and parallel transport in the heterostructures layer will be reported.

  10. In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron X-ray diffraction ina diamond anvil cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk,Hans-Rudolf

    2007-06-29

    We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radialx-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup ofALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a samplein a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser whileprobing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cellis placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to thebeam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while thesample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparentboron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of(Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observedabove 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.

  11. Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

    2009-11-01

    The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly

  12. Custom-Designed MLPA Using Multiple Short Synthetic Probes Application to Methylation Analysis of Five Promoter CpG Islands in Tumor and Urine Specimens from Patients with Bladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serizawa, R.R.; Ralfkiaer, U.; Dahl, C.

    2010-01-01

    Ligation of two oligonucleotide probes hybridized adjacently to a DNA template has been widely used for detection of genome alterations. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique allows simultaneous screening of multiple target sequences in a single reaction by using p...

  13. Elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogiso, Hisato; Yoshida, Mikiko; Nakano, Shizuka; Yasui, Haruyuki; Awazu, Kaoru

    2006-01-01

    This research discusses the elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Two DLC film samples deposited by plasma based ion implantation (PBII) were prepared. The plasma generated by microwave (MW) was applied to one sample and the plasma by radio frequency (RF) to the other sample. The samples were evaluated for the elastic property image with nanometer resolution using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The film surface deposited by RF-PBII was very flat and homogeneous in elastic property. In contrast, the film surface by MW-PBII was more uneven than that by RF-PBII and both the locally hard and the locally soft regions were found at the film surface. The size of the structure in elastic property is several tens nanometer. We conclude that the film probably contains nano-scale diamond phase

  14. Elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiso, Hisato [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Yoshida, Mikiko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Nakano, Shizuka [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Yasui, Haruyuki [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa (IRII), Ro-1, Tomizu-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0233 (Japan); Awazu, Kaoru [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa (IRII), Ro-1, Tomizu-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0233 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    This research discusses the elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Two DLC film samples deposited by plasma based ion implantation (PBII) were prepared. The plasma generated by microwave (MW) was applied to one sample and the plasma by radio frequency (RF) to the other sample. The samples were evaluated for the elastic property image with nanometer resolution using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The film surface deposited by RF-PBII was very flat and homogeneous in elastic property. In contrast, the film surface by MW-PBII was more uneven than that by RF-PBII and both the locally hard and the locally soft regions were found at the film surface. The size of the structure in elastic property is several tens nanometer. We conclude that the film probably contains nano-scale diamond phase.

  15. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  16. Synthetic Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Brooke; Yepes, Andres; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs), also known under the brand names of "Spice," "K2," "herbal incense," "Cloud 9," "Mojo" and many others, are becoming a large public health concern due not only to their increasing use but also to their unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential. There are many types of SCBs, each having a unique binding affinity for cannabinoid receptors. Although both Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and SCBs stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), studies have shown that SCBs are associated with higher rates of toxicity and hospital admissions than is natural cannabis. This is likely due to SCBs being direct agonists of the cannabinoid receptors, whereas THC is a partial agonist. Furthermore, the different chemical structures of SCBs found in Spice or K2 may interact in unpredictable ways to elicit previously unknown, and the commercial products may have unknown contaminants. The largest group of users is men in their 20s who participate in polydrug use. The most common reported toxicities with SCB use based on studies using Texas Poison Control records are tachycardia, agitation and irritability, drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions, hypertension, nausea, confusion, dizziness, vertigo and chest pain. Acute kidney injury has also been strongly associated with SCB use. Treatment mostly involves symptom management and supportive care. More research is needed to identify which contaminants are typically found in synthetic marijuana and to understand the interactions between different SBCs to better predict adverse health outcomes.

  17. Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda M; Huang, Houjin; Carlson, Cataleya; Schlager, John J; Omacr Sawa, Eiji; Hussain, Saber M; Dai, Liming

    2007-01-11

    Finely divided carbon particles, including charcoal, lampblack, and diamond particles, have been used for ornamental and official tattoos since ancient times. With the recent development in nanoscience and nanotechnology, carbon-based nanomaterials (e.g., fullerenes, nanotubes, nanodiamonds) attract a great deal of interest. Owing to their low chemical reactivity and unique physical properties, nanodiamonds could be useful in a variety of biological applications such as carriers for drugs, genes, or proteins; novel imaging techniques; coatings for implantable materials; and biosensors and biomedical nanorobots. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the possible hazards of nanodiamonds to humans and other biological systems. We have, for the first time, assessed the cytotoxicity of nanodiamonds ranging in size from 2 to 10 nm. Assays of cell viability such as mitochondrial function (MTT) and luminescent ATP production showed that nanodiamonds were not toxic to a variety of cell types. Furthermore, nanodiamonds did not produce significant reactive oxygen species. Cells can grow on nanodiamond-coated substrates without morphological changes compared to controls. These results suggest that nanodiamonds could be ideal for many biological applications in a diverse range of cell types.

  18. Optical characterization of single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Li-fu; Zhao, Yun; Wei, Jun-jun; Liu, Jin-long; Li, Cheng-ming; Lü, Fan-xiu

    2017-12-01

    Optical centers of single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were examined using a low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) technique. The results show that most of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) complexes are present as NV- centers, although some H2 and H3 centers and B-aggregates are also present in the single-crystal diamond because of nitrogen aggregation resulting from high N2 incorporation and the high mobility of vacancies under growth temperatures of 950-1000°C. Furthermore, emissions of radiation-induced defects were also detected at 389, 467.5, 550, and 588.6 nm in the PL spectra. The reason for the formation of these radiation-induced defects is not clear. Although a Ni-based alloy was used during the diamond growth, Ni-related emissions were not detected in the PL spectra. In addition, the silicon-vacancy (Si-V)-related emission line at 737 nm, which has been observed in the spectra of many previously reported microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) synthetic diamonds, was absent in the PL spectra of the single-crystal diamond prepared in this work. The high density of NV- centers, along with the absence of Ni-related defects and Si-V centers, makes the single-crystal diamond grown by DC arc plasma jet CVD a promising material for applications in quantum computing.

  19. A new route to process diamond wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  20. High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polycrystalline diamond coatings; hot filament CVD; high vacuum tribology. 1. Introduction .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the (diamond ... coefficient of friction due to changes in substrate temperature. The average coefficient of.

  1. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Carbon is light-weight, strong, conductive and able to mimic natural materials within the body, making it ideal for many uses within biomedicine. Consequently a great deal of research and funding is being put into this interesting material with a view to increasing the variety of medical applications for which it is suitable. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications presents readers with the fundamental principles and novel applications of this versatile material. Part one provides a clear introduction to diamond based materials for medical applications. Functionalization of diamond particles and surfaces is discussed, followed by biotribology and biological behaviour of nanocrystalline diamond coatings, and blood compatibility of diamond-like carbon coatings. Part two then goes on to review biomedical applications of diamond based materials, beginning with nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications. Topics explored include ultrananocrystalline diamond for neural and ophthalmologi...

  2. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry; Proprietes thermoluminescentes du diamant CVD: applications a la dosimetrie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitfils, A

    2007-09-15

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  3. Synthetic neurosteroids on brain protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurosteroids, like allopregnanolone and pregnanolone, are endogenous regulators of neuronal excitability. Inside the brain, they are highly selective and potent modulators of GABA A receptor activity. Their anticonvulsant, anesthetics and anxiolytic properties are useful for the treatments of several neurological and psychiatric disorders via reducing the risks of side effects obtained with the commercial drugs. The principal disadvantages of endogenous neurosteroids administration are their rapid metabolism and their low oral bioavailability. Synthetic steroids analogues with major stability or endogenous neurosteroids stimulation synthesis might constitute promising novel strategies for the treatment of several disorders. Numerous studies indicate that the 3α-hydroxyl configuration is the key for binding and activity, but modifications in the steroid nucleus may emphasize different pharmacophores. So far, several synthetic steroids have been developed with successful neurosteroid-like effects. In this work, we summarize the properties of various synthetic steroids probed in trials throughout the analysis of several neurosteroids-like actions.

  4. Design of a synthetic luminescent probe from a biomolecule binding domain: selective detection of AU-rich mRNA sequences† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of synthetic procedures of LTISTb, recombinant expression of TTP-2D and spectroscopic characterization of LTISTb and its RNA-binding properties. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04086a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibaut, Laurent; Vasseur, William; Shimberg, Geoffrey D.; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    We report the design of a luminescent sensor based upon the zinc finger (ZF) protein TIS11d, that allows for the selective time-resolved detection of the UUAUUUAUU sequence of the 3′-untranslated region of messenger RNA. This sensor is composed of the tandem ZF RNA binding domain of TIS11d functionalized with a luminescent Tb3+ complex on one of the ZFs and a sensitizing antenna on the other. This work provides the proof of principle that an RNA binding protein can be re-engineered as an RNA sensor and, more generally, that tunable synthetic luminescent probes for biomolecules can be obtained by modifying biomolecule-binding domains. PMID:28451295

  5. Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.

    1990-10-01

    Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.

  6. Organophosphonate biofunctionalization of diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, R; Csiki, R; Wiesinger, M; Sachsenhauser, M; Stutzmann, M; Garrido, J A; Cattani-Scholz, A; Speranza, Giorgio; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K

    2014-08-27

    The modification of the diamond surface with organic molecules is a crucial aspect to be considered for any bioapplication of this material. There is great interest in broadening the range of linker molecules that can be covalently bound to the diamond surface. In the case of protein immobilization, the hydropathicity of the surface has a major influence on the protein conformation and, thus, on the functionality of proteins immobilized at surfaces. For electrochemical applications, particular attention has to be devoted to avoid that the charge transfer between the electrode and the redox center embedded in the protein is hindered by a thick insulating linker layer. This paper reports on the grafting of 6-phosphonohexanoic acid on OH-terminated diamond surfaces, serving as linkers to tether electroactive proteins onto diamond surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the formation of a stable layer on the surface. The charge transfer between electroactive molecules and the substrate is studied by electrochemical characterization of the redox activity of aminomethylferrocene and cytochrome c covalently bound to the substrate through this linker. Our work demonstrates that OH-terminated diamond functionalized with 6-phosphonohexanoic acid is a suitable platform to interface redox-proteins, which are fundamental building blocks for many bioelectronics applications.

  7. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion...... performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order...

  8. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  9. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  10. Properties of planar structures based on Policluster films of diamond and AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanin, A. F.; Luchnikov, A. P.; Nalimov, S. A.; Bagdasarian, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    AlN films doped with zinc were grown on Si substrates by RF magnetron reactive sputtering of a compound target. Policluster films of diamond doped with boron were formed on layered Si/AlN substrates from the gas phase hydrogen and methane, activated arc discharge. By electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy the composition and structure of synthetic policluster films of diamond and AlN films were studied. Photovoltaic devices based on the AlN/PFD layered structure are presented.

  11. Synthetic Brainbows

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

  12. Synthetic Botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian R; Pollak, Bernardo; Purswani, Nuri; Patron, Nicola; Haseloff, Jim

    2017-07-05

    Plants are attractive platforms for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering. Plants' modular and plastic body plans, capacity for photosynthesis, extensive secondary metabolism, and agronomic systems for large-scale production make them ideal targets for genetic reprogramming. However, efforts in this area have been constrained by slow growth, long life cycles, the requirement for specialized facilities, a paucity of efficient tools for genetic manipulation, and the complexity of multicellularity. There is a need for better experimental and theoretical frameworks to understand the way genetic networks, cellular populations, and tissue-wide physical processes interact at different scales. We highlight new approaches to the DNA-based manipulation of plants and the use of advanced quantitative imaging techniques in simple plant models such as Marchantia polymorpha. These offer the prospects of improved understanding of plant dynamics and new approaches to rational engineering of plant traits. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Diamonds at the golden point

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Alongside the CMS Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) – installed last month (see here) – lie diamond detectors. No ordinary gems, these lab-grown diamonds will be playing a vital role in Run 2: differentiating signals from collision products with those from the beam background.   The BCM detector's green "c-shaped" printed circuit board is mounted on the PLT/BCM carbon-fibre carriage ready for installation. Earlier this year, the CMS BRIL project installed beam condition monitors (BCM) at the heart of the CMS detector. Designed to measure the online luminosity and beam background as close as possible to the LHC beam pipe, the BCMs use radiation-hard diamonds to differentiate between background and collision signals. The BCM also protects the CMS silicon trackers from damaging beam losses, by aborting the beam if the signal currents measured are above an acceptable threshold. These new BCMs are designed with Run 2 bunches in mind. &ldq...

  14. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; LeNormand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Re, V.; Riester, G. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1998-11-01

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given.

  15. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao; Luo Fei; Long Hua; Hu Shaoliu; Li Bo; Wang Youqing

    2005-01-01

    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials

  16. Morphology of Diamond Layers Grown on Different Facets of Single Crystal Diamond Substrates by a Microwave Plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 Gas Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny E. Ashkinazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Epitaxial growth of diamond films on different facets of synthetic IIa-type single crystal (SC high-pressure high temperature (HPHT diamond substrate by a microwave plasma CVD in CH4-H2-N2 gas mixture with the high concentration (4% of nitrogen is studied. A beveled SC diamond embraced with low-index {100}, {110}, {111}, {211}, and {311} faces was used as the substrate. Only the {100} face is found to sustain homoepitaxial growth at the present experimental parameters, while nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films are produced on other planes. This observation is important for the choice of appropriate growth parameters, in particular, for the production of bi-layer or multilayer NCD-on-microcrystalline diamond (MCD superhard coatings on tools when the deposition of continuous conformal NCD film on all facet is required. The development of the film morphology with growth time is examined with SEM. The structure of hillocks, with or without polycrystalline aggregates, that appear on {100} face is analyzed, and the stress field (up to 0.4 GPa within the hillocks is evaluated based on high-resolution mapping of photoluminescence spectra of nitrogen-vacancy NV optical centers in the film.

  17. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Real time monitoring of filament-assisted chemically vapor deposited diamond by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Cong; An, I.; Vedam, K.; Collins, R.W.; Nguyen, H.V.; Messier, R.

    1991-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry over the range 1.5-4.5 eV was applied as a real time probe of the processes occurring in the initial nucleation of thin film diamond by heated-filament assisted chemical vapor deposition. Using both untreated and diamond-polished c-Si substrates, as well as both carburized and uncarburized tungsten filaments, it was possible to separate and characterize competing phenomena, including the increase in surface temperature induced by filament ignition, the formation of carbide layers, contamination of the substrate by tungsten from the filament, annealing of diamond polishing damage, and, finally, diamond nucleation. An accurate measurement of the true temperature of the substrate surface averaged over the top 500 A can be obtained from the energy position of critical points in the c-Si band structure. For diamond deposition, we operated with an initial excess flow of CH 4 to stimulate nucleation. We applied real time feedback and manual control to reduce the CH 4 flow in the first monolayers of deposition. The thickness of diamond and an estimate of its nucleation density can be obtained from real time spectra, and the latter was in good agreement with that obtained from scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  19. Graphene grown out of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changzhi; Li, Wuxia; Xu, Jing; Xu, Shicong; Lu, Chao; Xu, Lifang; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-10-01

    Most applications of graphene need a suitable support substrate to present its excellent properties. But transferring graphene onto insulators or growing graphene on foreign substrates could cause properties diminishing. This paper reports the graphene growth directly out of diamond (111) by B doping, guided by first-principles calculations. The spontaneous graphene formation occurred due to the reconstruction of the diamond surface when the B doping density and profile are adequate. The resulting materials are defect free with high phase purity/carrier mobility, controllable layer number, and good uniformity, which can be potentially used directly for device fabrication, e.g., high-performance devices requiring good thermal conductivity.

  20. Electrolysis with diamond anodes: Eventually, there are refractory species!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Ismael F; Cotillas, Salvador; Díaz, Elena; Sáez, Cristina; Rodríguez, Juan J; Cañizares, P; Mohedano, Ángel F; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2018-03-01

    In this work, synthetic wastewater polluted with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (Bmim) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf 2 ) undergoes four electrolytic treatments with diamond anodes (bare electrolysis, electrolysis enhanced with peroxosulfate promoters, irradiated with UV light and with US) and results obtained were compared with those obtained with the application of Catalytic Wet Peroxide Oxidation (CWPO). Despite its complex heterocyclic structure, Bmim + cation is successfully depleted with the five technologies tested, being transformed into intermediates that eventually can be mineralized. Photoelectrolysis attained the lowest concentration of intermediates, while CWPO is the technology less efficient in their degradation. However, the most surprising result is that concentration of NTf 2 - anion does not change during the five advanced oxidation processes tested, pointing out its strong refractory character, being the first species that exhibits this character in wastewater undergoing electrolysis with diamond. This means that the hydroxyl and sulfate radicals mediated oxidation and the direct electrolysis are inefficient for breaking the C-S, C-F and S-N bounds of the NTf 2 - anion, which is a very interesting mechanistic information to understand the complex processes undergone in electrolysis with diamond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material

  2. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  3. Recent results on CVD diamond radiation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilhammer, P.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; v. d. Eijk, R.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Fried, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knopfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; LeNormand; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Plano, R.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff; Rudge, A.; Schieber, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; RD 42 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    CVD diamond radiation sensors are being developed for possible use in trackers in the LHC experiments. The diamond promises to be radiation hard well beyond particle fluences that can be tolerated by Si sensors. Recent results from the RD 42 collaboration on charge collection distance and on radiation hardness of CVD diamond samples will be reported. Measurements with diamond tracking devices, both strip detectors and pixel detectors, will be discussed. Results from beam tests using a diamond strip detector which was read out with fast, 25 ns shaping time, radiation-hard pipeline electronics will be presented.

  4. Diamond Sensors for Energy Frontier Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetzer, Steve

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of diamond sensors in high-energy, high-i ntensity collider experiments. Re- sults from diamond sensor based beam conditions monitors in the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented and pla ns for diamond based luminosity monitors for the upcoming LHC run are described. We describe recent measurements on single crystal diamond sensors that indicate a polarization effec t that causes a reduction of charge col- lection efficiency as a function of particle flux. We conclude by describing new developments on the promising technology of 3D diamond sensors.

  5. Alignment of the diamond nitrogen vacancy center by strain engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karin, Todd [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Dunham, Scott [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fu, Kai-Mei [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a sensitive probe of magnetic field and a promising qubit candidate for quantum information processing. The performance of many NV-based devices improves by aligning the NV(s) parallel to a single crystallographic direction. Using ab initio theoretical techniques, we show that NV orientation can be controlled by high-temperature annealing in the presence of strain under currently accessible experimental conditions. We find that (89 ± 7)% of NVs align along the [111] crystallographic direction under 2% compressive biaxial strain (perpendicular to [111]) and an annealing temperature of 970 °C.

  6. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  7. Lateral overgrowth of diamond film on stripes patterned Ir/HPHT-diamond substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Chang, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhangcheng; Liu, Zongchen; Fu, Jiao; Zhao, Dan; Shao, Guoqing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Shaopeng; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Tianfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2018-05-01

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of diamond films on patterned Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates have been carried out by microwave plasma CVD system. Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates are fabricated by photolithographic and magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology of the as grown ELO diamond film is characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The quality and stress of the ELO diamond film are investigated by surface etching pit density and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two ultraviolet photodetectors are fabricated on ELO diamond area and non-ELO diamond area prepared on same substrate, and that one on ELO diamond area indicates better photoelectric properties. All results indicate quality of ELO diamond film is improved.

  8. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  9. Perfect alignment and preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers during chemical vapor deposition diamond growth on (111) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michl, Julia; Zaiser, Sebastian; Jakobi, Ingmar; Waldherr, Gerald; Dolde, Florian; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Doherty, Marcus W.; Manson, Neil B.; Isoya, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic diamond production is a key to the development of quantum metrology and quantum information applications of diamond. The major quantum sensor and qubit candidate in diamond is the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center. This lattice defect comes in four different crystallographic orientations leading to an intrinsic inhomogeneity among NV centers, which is undesirable in some applications. Here, we report a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond growth technique on (111)-oriented substrates, which yields perfect alignment (94% ± 2%) of as-grown NV centers along a single crystallographic direction. In addition, clear evidence is found that the majority (74% ± 4%) of the aligned NV centers were formed by the nitrogen being first included in the (111) growth surface and then followed by the formation of a neighboring vacancy on top. The achieved homogeneity of the grown NV centers will tremendously benefit quantum information and metrology applications

  10. Characterization of coating probe with Ti-DLC for electrical scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shia Xiaolei; Guo Liqiu; Bai Yang; Qiao Lijie

    2011-01-01

    In electrical scanning probe microscope (ESPM) applications, the wear and conductivity of the probe are undoubtedly serious concerns since they affect the integrity of the measurements. This study investigates the characterization of Ti doped diamond-like-carbon (DLC) as coating material on a silicon cantilever for ESPM. We deposited a layer of Ti-DLC thin film on the surface of Si cantilever by magnetron sputtering. The morphology and composition of the Ti-DLC films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. We also compared the wear resistance, electric conductivity and scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes with those of commercially available conductive probes. The results showed that the electric conductivity and the scanning image quality of the Ti-DLC-coated probes were the same as the commercial conductive probes, while the wear resistance and service life was significantly better.

  11. Low-control and robust quantum refrigerator and applications with electronic spins in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammady, M. Hamed; Choi, Hyeongrak; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Bayat, Abolfazl; Englund, Dirk; Omar, Yasser

    2018-04-01

    We propose a general protocol for low-control refrigeration and thermometry of thermal qubits, which can be implemented using electronic spins in diamond. The refrigeration is implemented by a probe, consisting of a network of interacting spins. The protocol involves two operations: (i) free evolution of the probe; and (ii) a swap gate between one spin in the probe and the thermal qubit we wish to cool. We show that if the initial state of the probe falls within a suitable range, and the free evolution of the probe is both unital and conserves the excitation in the z direction, then the cooling protocol will always succeed, with an efficiency that depends on the rate of spin dephasing and the swap-gate fidelity. Furthermore, measuring the probe after it has cooled many qubits provides an estimate of their temperature. We provide a specific example where the probe is a Heisenberg spin chain, and suggest a physical implementation using electronic spins in diamond. Here, the probe is constituted of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers, while the thermal qubits are dark spins. By using a novel pulse sequence, a chain of NV centers can be made to evolve according to a Heisenberg Hamiltonian. This proposal allows for a range of applications, such as NV-based nuclear magnetic resonance of photosensitive molecules kept in a dark spot on a sample, and it opens up possibilities for the study of quantum thermodynamics, environment-assisted sensing, and many-body physics.

  12. Recent Advances in Diamond Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Trischuk, W.

    2008-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2012, ATLAS and CMS are planning for detector upgrades for their innermost layers requiring radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is now planned for all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as an alternate sensor for use very close to the interaction region of the super LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences available. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10^16 protons/cm^2 showing that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve allowing one t...

  13. Grating-assisted coupling to nanophotonic circuits in microcrystalline diamond thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Rath

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic diamond films can be prepared on a waferscale by using chemical vapour deposition (CVD on suitable substrates such as silicon or silicon dioxide. While such films find a wealth of applications in thermal management, in X-ray and terahertz window design, and in gyrotron tubes and microwave transmission lines, their use for nanoscale optical components remains largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that CVD diamond provides a high-quality template for realizing nanophotonic integrated optical circuits. Using efficient grating coupling devices prepared from partially etched diamond thin films, we investigate millimetre-sized optical circuits and achieve single-mode waveguiding at telecoms wavelengths. Our results pave the way towards broadband optical applications for sensing in harsh environments and visible photonic devices.

  14. Quantum measurement of a rapidly rotating spin qubit in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alexander A; Lilette, Emmanuel; Fein, Yaakov Y; Tomek, Nikolas; McGuinness, Liam P; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Scholten, Robert E; Martin, Andy M

    2018-05-01

    A controlled qubit in a rotating frame opens new opportunities to probe fundamental quantum physics, such as geometric phases in physically rotating frames, and can potentially enhance detection of magnetic fields. Realizing a single qubit that can be measured and controlled during physical rotation is experimentally challenging. We demonstrate quantum control of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center within a diamond rotated at 200,000 rpm, a rotational period comparable to the NV spin coherence time T 2 . We stroboscopically image individual NV centers that execute rapid circular motion in addition to rotation and demonstrate preparation, control, and readout of the qubit quantum state with lasers and microwaves. Using spin-echo interferometry of the rotating qubit, we are able to detect modulation of the NV Zeeman shift arising from the rotating NV axis and an external DC magnetic field. Our work establishes single NV qubits in diamond as quantum sensors in the physically rotating frame and paves the way for the realization of single-qubit diamond-based rotation sensors.

  15. Polarity Control of Heteroepitaxial GaN Nanowires on Diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzl, Martin; Kraut, Max; Hoffmann, Theresa; Stutzmann, Martin

    2017-06-14

    Group III-nitride materials such as GaN nanowires are characterized by a spontaneous polarization within the crystal. The sign of the resulting sheet charge at the top and bottom facet of a GaN nanowire is determined by the orientation of the wurtzite bilayer of the different atomic species, called N and Ga polarity. We investigate the polarity distribution of heteroepitaxial GaN nanowires on different substrates and demonstrate polarity control of GaN nanowires on diamond. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy is used to determine the polarity of individual selective area-grown and self-assembled nanowires over a large scale. At standard growth conditions, mixed polarity occurs for selective GaN nanowires on various substrates, namely on silicon, on sapphire and on diamond. To obtain control over the growth orientation on diamond, the substrate surface is modified by nitrogen and oxygen plasma exposure prior to growth, and the growth parameters are adjusted simultaneously. We find that the surface chemistry and the substrate temperature are the decisive factors for obtaining control of up to 93% for both polarity types, whereas the growth mode, namely selective area or self-assembled growth, does not influence the polarity distribution significantly. The experimental results are discussed by a model based on the interfacial bonds between the GaN nanowires, the termination layer, and the substrate.

  16. Implantation sites of Ce and Gd in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Bharuth-Ram, K; Hofsäss, H C; Ronning, C; Dietrich, M

    2002-01-01

    The implantation sites of rare earth (RE) probes /sup 141/Ce (t/sub 1 /2/=32 d) and /sup 149/Gd (t/sub 1/2/=9.28 d) in diamond have been investigated using the emission channeling (EC) technique. Parent isotopes /sup 141/Cs and /sup 149/Dy were implanted into type IIa, diamond samples at an energy of 60 keV at the online isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. /sup 141/Cs decays through the chain /sup 141/Cs-/sup 141/Ba-/sup 141/La-/sup 141/Ce-/sup 141/ Pr. EC measurements were made on the 102 keV conversion electrons emitted in the decay of /sup 141/Pr to its ground state. The decay of /sup 149 /Dy follows the chain /sup 149/Dy-/sup 149/Tb-/sup 149/Gd-/sup 149 /Eu-/sup 149/Sm. EC measurements were made on the 101 keV electrons emitted in the decay of /sup 149/Eu. Two-dimensional channeling patterns of the conversion electrons were obtained along and axial directions by raster scans with a Si surface barrier detector. Comparison of the observed patterns with simulated spectra show that in diamond 45-50% of the RE...

  17. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  18. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Synthetic Organic Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Naeko; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Okubo, Ichiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2018-04-18

    Though synthetic organic colorants are used in various applications nowadays, there is the concern that impurities by-produced during the manufacturing and degradation products in some of these colorants are persistent organic pollutants and carcinogens. Thus, it is important to identify the synthetic organic colorants in various products, such as commercial paints, ink, cosmetics, food, textile, and plastics. Dyes, which are soluble in water and other solvents, could be analyzed by chromatographic methods. In contrast, it is difficult to analyze synthetic organic pigments by these methods because of their insolubility. This review is an overview of mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic organic pigments by various ionization methods. We highlight a recent study of textile samples by atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe MS. Furthermore, the mass spectral features of synthetic organic pigments and their separation from other components such as paint media and plasticizers are discussed.

  19. Test results of a diamond double-crystal monochromator at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.; Krasnicki, S.; Lee, W.; Mills, D.M.; Rogers, C.S.; Assoufid, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have tested the first diamond double-crystal monochromator at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The monochromator consisted of two synthetic type 1b (111) diamond plates in symmetric Bragg geometry. We tested two pairs of single-crystal plates: the first pair was 6 mm by 5 mm by 0.25 mm and 6 mm by 5 mm by 0.37 mm; the second set was 7 mm by 5.5 mm by 0.44 mm. The monochromator first crystal was indirectly cooled by edge contact with a water-cooled copper holder. We studied the performance of the monochromator under the high-power x-ray beam delivered by the APS undulator A. We found no indication of thermal distortions or strains even at the highest incident power (280 watts) and power density (123W/mm 2 at normal incidence). The calculated maximum power and power density absorbed by the first crystal were 37 watts and 4.3W/mm 2 , respectively. We also compared the maximum intensity delivered by the diamond monochromator and by a silicon (111) cryogenically cooled monochromator. For energies in the range of 6 to 10 keV, the flux through the diamond monochromator was about a factor of two less than through the silicon monochromator, in good agreement with calculations. We conclude that water-cooled diamond monochromators can handle the high-power beams from the undulator beamlines at the APS. As single-crystal diamond plates of larger size and better quality become available, the use of diamond monochromators will become a very attractive option. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Custom synthesized diamond crystals as state of the art radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keddy, R.J.; Nam, T.L.; Fallon, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The fact that as a radiation detector, diamond is a stable, non-toxic and tissue equivalent (Z=6) material, makes it an ideal candidate for in vivo radiation dosimetry or the dosimetry of general radiation fields in environmental monitoring. Natural diamond crystals have the disadvantage, however, that no two crystals can be guaranteed to have the same response characteristics. This disadvantage can be overcome by synthesizing the crystals under controlled conditions and by using very selective chemistry. Such synthetic diamonds can be used as thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) where they exhibit characteristics comparable to presently available commercial TLDs or they can be used as ionization chambers to produce either ionization currents or pulses where the small physical size of the diamond (1 mm 3 ) and possibilities of digital circuitry makes miniaturization an extremely attractive possibility. It has also been found that they can perform as scintillation detectors. This contribution describes aspects of the performance characteristics of such diamonds in all three modes. 24 refs., 14 figs

  1. Characterization of a microDiamond detector in high-dose-per-pulse electron beams for intra operative radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Venanzio, C; Marinelli, Marco; Tonnetti, A; Verona-Rinati, G; Falco, M D; Pimpinella, M; Ciccotelli, A; De Stefano, S; Felici, G; Marangoni, F

    2015-12-01

    To characterize a synthetic diamond dosimeter (PTW Freiburg microDiamond 60019) in high dose-per-pulse electron beams produced by an Intra Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) dedicated accelerator. The dosimetric properties of the microDiamond were assessed under 6, 8 and 9 MeV electron beams by a NOVAC11 mobile accelerator (Sordina IORT Technologies S.p.A.). The characterization was carried out with dose-per-pulse ranging from 26 to 105 mGy per pulse. The microDiamond performance was compared with an Advanced Markus ionization chamber and a PTW silicon diode E in terms of dose linearity, percentage depth dose (PDD) curves, beam profiles and output factors. A good linearity of the microDiamond response was verified in the dose range from 0.2 Gy to 28 Gy. A sensitivity of 1.29 nC/Gy was measured under IORT electron beams, resulting within 1% with respect to the one obtained in reference condition under (60)Co gamma irradiation. PDD measurements were found in agreement with the ones by the reference dosimeters, with differences in R50 values below 0.3 mm. Profile measurements evidenced a high spatial resolution of the microDiamond, slightly worse than the one of the silicon diode. The penumbra widths measured by the microDiamond resulted approximately 0.5 mm larger than the ones by the Silicon diode. Output factors measured by the microDiamond were found within 2% with those obtained by the Advanced Markus down to 3 cm diameter field sizes. The microDiamond dosimeter was demonstrated to be suitable for precise dosimetry in IORT applications under high dose-per-pulse conditions. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Copper-micrometer-sized diamond nanostructured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, D; Livramento, V; Fernandes, H; Silva, C; Carvalho, P A; Shohoji, N; Correia, J B

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement of a copper matrix with diamond enables tailoring the properties demanded for thermal management applications at high temperature, such as the ones required for heat sink materials in low activated nuclear fusion reactors. For an optimum compromise between thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, a novel approach based on multiscale diamond dispersions is proposed: a Cu-nanodiamond composite produced by milling is used as a nanostructured matrix for further dispersion of micrometer-sized diamondDiamond). A series of Cu-nanodiamond mixtures have been milled to establish a suitable nanodiamond fraction. A refined matrix with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles was obtained with 4 at.% μDiamond for posterior mixture with microdiamond and subsequent consolidation. Preliminary consolidation by hot extrusion of a mixture of pure copper and μDiamond has been carried out to define optimal processing parameters. The materials produced were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.

  3. Diamond nanowires: fabrication, structure, properties, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2014-12-22

    C(sp(3) )C-bonded diamond nanowires are wide band gap semiconductors that exhibit a combination of superior properties such as negative electron affinity, chemical inertness, high Young's modulus, the highest hardness, and room-temperature thermal conductivity. The creation of 1D diamond nanowires with their giant surface-to-volume ratio enhancements makes it possible to control and enhance the fundamental properties of diamond. Although theoretical comparisons with carbon nanotubes have shown that diamond nanowires are energetically and mechanically viable structures, reproducibly synthesizing the crystalline diamond nanowires has remained challenging. We present a comprehensive, up-to-date review of diamond nanowires, including a discussion of their synthesis along with their structures, properties, and applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Optical patterning of trapped charge in nitrogen-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Harishankar; Henshaw, Jacob; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Pagliero, Daniela; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Manson, Neil B.; Albu, Remus; Doherty, Marcus W.; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-08-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond is emerging as a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing and nanoscale metrology. Of interest in these applications is the manipulation of the NV charge, which can be attained by optical excitation. Here, we use two-colour optical microscopy to investigate the dynamics of NV photo-ionization, charge diffusion and trapping in type-1b diamond. We combine fixed-point laser excitation and scanning fluorescence imaging to locally alter the concentration of negatively charged NVs, and to subsequently probe the corresponding redistribution of charge. We uncover the formation of spatial patterns of trapped charge, which we qualitatively reproduce via a model of the interplay between photo-excited carriers and atomic defects. Further, by using the NV as a probe, we map the relative fraction of positively charged nitrogen on localized optical excitation. These observations may prove important to transporting quantum information between NVs or to developing three-dimensional, charge-based memories.

  5. The Toucan's Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Southern constellation Tucana (the Toucan) is probably best known as the home of the Small Magellanic Cloud, one of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. But Tucana also hosts another famous object that shines thousands of lights, like a magnificent, oversized diamond in the sky: the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. More popularly known as 47 Tuc, it is surpassed in size and brightness by only one other globular cluster, Omega Centauri. Globular clusters are gigantic families of stars, comprising several tens of thousands of stars, all thought to be born at the same time from the same cloud of gas [1]. As such, they constitute unique laboratories for the study of how stars evolve and interact. This is even more so because they are located at the same distance, so the brightness of different types of stars, at different stages in their evolution can be directly compared. The stars in globular clusters are held together by their mutual gravity which gives them their spherical shape, hence their name. Globular clusters are thought to be among the oldest objects in our Milky Way galaxy, and contain therefore mostly old, low-mass stars. ESO PR Photo 20/06 ESO PR Photo 20/06 Globular Cluster 47 Tuc 47 Tucanae is an impressive globular cluster that is visible with the unaided eye from the southern hemisphere. It was discovered in 1751 by the French astronomer Nicholas Louis de Lacaille who cataloged it in his list of southern nebulous objects. Located about 16 000 light years away, it has a total mass of about 1 million times the mass of the Sun and is 120 light years across, making it appear on the sky as big as the full moon. The colour image of 47 Tucanae presented here was taken with FORS1 on ESO's Very Large Telescope in 2001. The image covers only the densest, very central part of the cluster. The globular cluster extends in reality four times further away! As can be seen however, the density of stars rapidly drops off when moving away from the centre. The red

  6. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  7. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  8. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  9. Characterization of diamond amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    Single crystal diamond has been implanted at 1 MeV with 2 x 10 20 Ar/m 2 . Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in a channeled geometry revealed a broad amorphized region underlying a thin, partially crystalline layer. Raman spectroscopy disclosed modifications in the bonding characteristic of the appearance of non-diamond carbon. The complementary nature of the two analysis techniques is demonstrated. The Knoop hardness of the implanted diamond was reduced by implantation

  10. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  11. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Diamond. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000, 84, 5160−5163. (31) Ownby, P. D.; Yang, X.; Liu, J. Calculated X-Ray-Diffraction Data for Diamond Polytypes. J. Am. Ceram...Surfaces from Ab-Initio Calculations . Phys. Rev. B 1995, 51, 14669−14685. (39) Ferrari, A. C.; Robertson, J. Raman Spectroscopy of Amorphous, Nanostructured...Y.; Takami, S.; Kubo , M.; Belosludov, R. V.; Miyamoto, A.; Imamura, A.; Gamo, M. N.; Ando, T. First-Principle Study on Reactions of Diamond (100

  12. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Haehl, Felix M.; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.

    2016-08-01

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be reorganized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2 d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglemententropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  13. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Jan de [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haehl, Felix M. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2016-08-29

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  14. Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor M. Shakhov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A major problem challenging specialists in present-day materials sciences is the development of compact, cheap to fabricate heat sinks for electronic devices, primarily for computer processors, semiconductor lasers, high-power microchips, and electronics components. The materials currently used for heat sinks of such devices are aluminum and copper, with thermal conductivities of about 250 W/(m·K and 400 W/(m·K, respectively. Significantly, the thermal expansion coefficient of metals differs markedly from those of the materials employed in semiconductor electronics (mostly silicon; one should add here the low electrical resistivity metals possess. By contrast, natural single-crystal diamond is known to feature the highest thermal conductivity of all the bulk materials studied thus far, as high as 2,200 W/(m·K. Needless to say, it cannot be applied in heat removal technology because of high cost. Recently, SiC- and AlN-based ceramics have started enjoying wide use as heat sink materials; the thermal conductivity of such composites, however, is inferior to that of metals by nearly a factor two. This prompts a challenging scientific problem to develop diamond-based composites with thermal characteristics superior to those of aluminum and copper, adjustable thermal expansion coefficient, low electrical conductivity and a moderate cost, below that of the natural single-crystal diamond. The present review addresses this problem and appraises the results reached by now in studying the possibility of developing composites in diamond-containing systems with a view of obtaining materials with a high thermal conductivity.

  15. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  16. Diamond coating in accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.

    1998-08-01

    The future accelerators with 1 GeV/m gradient will give rise to hundreds of degrees instantaneous temperature rise on the copper surface. Due to its extraordinary thermal and electric properties, diamond coating on the surface is suggested to remedy this problem. Multi-layer structure, with the promise of even more temperature reduction, is also discussed, and a proof of principle experiment is being carried out

  17. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  18. Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio

    2018-04-27

    Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.

  19. 76 FR 37684 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems AGENCY... inspections of the Diamond Model DA 40 airplanes equipped with a VCS installed per Premier Aircraft Service... GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems: Docket No...

  20. Comparison between beryllium and diamond-backing plates in diamond-anvil cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Nestola, Fabrizio; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2011-01-01

    A direct comparison between two complete intensity datasets, collected on the same sample loaded in two identical diamond-anvil pressure cells equipped, respectively, with beryllium and diamond backing plates was performed. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of diamond-backing plates...

  1. Wetting of the diamond surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The surface conditions which lead to a wide variation in the wettability of diamond surfaces have been investigated using macroscopic surfaces to allow for the crystal anisotropy. A wetting balance method of calculating adhesion tension and hence contact angle has been used for diamonds having major faces near the [111] and [110] lattice planes. Three classes of behaviour have been identified. Surface analyses by Rutherford Backscattering of helium ions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) have been used to define the role of the oxygen coverage of the surface in the transition I → O → H. Ferric ion has a hydrophilizing effect on the diamond surface, thought to be the consequence of attachment to the hydroxyl groups at the surface by a ligand mechanism. Other transition metal ions did not show this effect. The phenomenon of hydration of the surface, i.e. progressively more hydrophilic behaviour on prolonged exposure to liquid water, has been quantified. Imbibition or water penetration at microcracks are thought unlikely, and a water cluster build-up at hydrophilic sites is thought to be the best explanation. Dynamic studies indicate little dependence of the advancing contact angle on velocity for velocities up to 10 -4 m/s, and slight dependence of the receding contact angle. Hence advancing angles by this technique are similar to equilibrated contact angles found by optical techniques, but the receding angles are lower than found by other non-dynamic measurements

  2. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorisek, A. [CERN (Switzerland)]. E-mail: andrej.gorisek@cern.ch; Cindro, V. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Dolenc, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fotec (Austria); Griesmayer, E. [Fotec (Austria); Kagan, H. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Korpar, S. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Kramberger, G. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Mandic, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Meyer, M. [CERN (Switzerland); Mikuz, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Pernegger, H. [CERN (Switzerland); Smith, S. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto (Canada); Weilhammer, P. [CERN (Switzerland); Zavrtanik, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia)

    2007-03-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm{sup 2} area and 500{mu}m thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented.

  3. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, A.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Griesmayer, E.; Kagan, H.; Korpar, S.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Meyer, M.; Mikuz, M.; Pernegger, H.; Smith, S.; Trischuk, W.; Weilhammer, P.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm 2 area and 500μm thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented

  4. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterr. Akademie d. Wissenschaften, Nikolsdorferg. 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bauer, C. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bogani, F. [LENS, Florence (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R. [LEPSI, CRN Strasbourg (France); Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M. [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E. [LEPES, Grenoble (France); Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fallou, A. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Foulon, F. [Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Hall-Wilton, R. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Han, S.; Ziock, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Research Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kania, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Mishina, M. [FNAL, Batavia, IL (United States); Pan, L.S. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-11-21

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Status of diamond particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R.; Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M.; Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G.; Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E.; Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F.; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M.; Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Ziock, H.; Kania, D.; Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Mishina, M.; Pan, L.S.; Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J.; Trischuk, W.

    1998-01-01

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Gorišek, A; Dolenc, I; Frais-Kölbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Kagan, H; Korpar, S; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Meyer, M; Mikuz, M; Pernegger, H; Smith, S; Trischuk, W; Weilhammer, P; Zavrtanik, M

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at . Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam–beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of area and thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test bea...

  7. Direct Coating of Nanocrystalline Diamond on Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Kazuo; Kawaki, Shyunsuke; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates without any substrate pretreatments to promote diamond nucleation, including the formation of interlayers. A low-temperature growth technique, 400 °C or lower, in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a surface-wave plasma has cleared up problems in diamond growth on ferrous materials, such as the surface graphitization, long incubation time, substrate softening, and poor adhesion. The deposited nanocrystalline diamond films on stainless steel exhibit good adhesion and tribological properties, such as a high wear resistance, a low friction coefficient, and a low aggression strength, at room temperature in air without lubrication.

  8. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-05-25

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  9. Undoped CVD diamond films for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinska, Lidia; Fabisiak, Kazimierz; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Kowalska, Magdalena; Popielarski, Pawel; Szybowicz, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    By using different deposition conditions, the CVD diamond films with different qualities and orientation were grown by the hot-filament CVD technique. The object of this article is to summarize and discuss relation between structural, physical and electrochemical properties of different diamond electrodes. The physical properties of the Hot Filament CVD microcrystalline diamond films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In presented studies two different electrodes were used of the diamond grain sizes around 200 nm and 10 μm, as it was estimated from SEM picture. The diamond layers quality was checked on basis of FWHM (Full width at Half Maximum) of 1332 cm −1 diamond Raman peak. The ratio of sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds was determined by 1550 cm −1 G band and 1350 cm −1 D band in the Raman spectrum. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using (CV) cyclic voltammetry measurements in aqueous solutions. The sensitivity of undoped diamond electrodes depends strongly on diamond film quality and concentration of amorphous carbon phase in the diamond layer

  10. CVD diamond substrates for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.

    1996-03-01

    In this study the applicability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond as a material for heat spreaders was investigated. Economical evaluations on the production of heat spreaders were also performed. For the diamond synthesis the hot-filament and microwave method were used respectively. The deposition parameters were varied in a way that free standing diamond layers with a thickness of 80 to 750 microns and different qualities were obtained. The influence of the deposition parameters on the relevant film properties was investigated and discussed. With both the hot-filament and microwave method it was possible to deposit diamond layers having a thermal conductivity exceeding 1200 W/mK and therefore to reach the quality level for commercial uses. The electrical resistivity was greater than 10 12 Ωcm. The investigation of the optical properties was done by Raman-, IR- and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Because of future applications of diamond-aluminium nitride composites as highly efficient heat spreaders diamond deposition an AIN was investigated. An improved substrate pretreatment prior to diamond deposition showed promising results for better performance of such composite heat spreaders. Both free standing layers and diamond-AIN composites could be cut by a CO2 Laser in Order to get an exact size geometry. A reduction of the diamond surface roughness was achieved by etching with manganese powder or cerium. (author)

  11. Atomic composition of WC/ and Zr/O-terminated diamond Schottky interfaces close to ideality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñero, J.C., E-mail: josecarlos.pinero@uca.es [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Araújo, D. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Fiori, A. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Traoré, A. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, av. des Martyrs, Grenoble,38042 France (France); Villar, M.P. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz,11510 (Spain); Eon, D.; Muret, P.; Pernot, J. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, av. des Martyrs, Grenoble,38042 France (France); Teraji, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Metal/O-terminated diamond interfaces are analyzed by a variety of TEM techniques. • Thermal treatment is shown to modify structural and chemical interface properties. • Electrical behavior vs annealing is shown to be related with interface modification. • Interfaces are characterized with atomic resolution to probe inhomogeneities. • Oxide formation and modification is demonstrated in both Schottky diodes. - Abstract: Electrical and nano-structural properties of Zr and WC-based Schottky power diodes are compared and used for investigating oxide-related effects at the diamond/metal interface. Differences in Schottky barrier heights and ideality factors of both structures are shown to be related with the modification of the oxygen-terminated diamond/metal interface configuration. Oxide formation, oxide thickness variations and interfacial oxygen redistribution, associated with thermal treatment are demonstrated. Ideality factors close to ideality (n{sub WC} = 1.02 and n{sub Zr} = 1.16) are obtained after thermal treatment and are shown to be related with the relative oxygen content at the surface (OCR{sub WC} = 3.03 and OCR{sub Zr} = 1.5). Indeed, thermal treatment at higher temperatures is shown to promote an escape of oxygen for the case of the WC diode, while it generates a sharper accumulation of oxygen at the metal/diamond interface for the case of Zr diode. Therefore, the metal-oxygen affinity is shown to be a key parameter to improve diamond-based Schottky diodes.

  12. Growth of high quality AlN films on CVD diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-xian; Liu, Hao; Liu, Sheng; Li, Cheng-ming; Wang, Yi-chao; An, Kang; Hua, Chen-yi; Liu, Jin-long; Wei, Jun-jun; Hei, Li-fu; Lv, Fan-xiu

    2018-02-01

    A highly oriented AlN layer has been successfully grown along the c-axis on a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Structural, morphological and mechanical properties of the heterostructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nano-indentation and Four-probe meter. A compact AlN film was demonstrated on the diamond layer, showing columnar grains and a low surface roughness of 1.4 nm. TEM results revealed a sharp AlN/diamond interface, which was characterized by the presence of a distinct 10 nm thick buffer layer resulting from the initial AlN growth stage. The FWHM of AlN (002) diffraction peak and its rocking curve are as low as 0.41° and 3.35° respectively, indicating a highly preferred orientation along the c-axis. AlN sputtered films deposited on glass substrates show a higher bulk resistivity (up to 3 × 1012 Ω cm), compared to AlN films deposited on diamond (∼1010 Ω cm). Finally, the film hardness and Young's modulus of AlN films on diamond are 25.8 GPa and 489.5 GPa, respectively.

  13. Diamond film growth with modification properties of adhesion between substrate and diamond film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setasuwon P.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond film growth was studied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A special equipment was build in-house, employing a welding torch, and substrate holder with a water-cooling system. Acetylene and oxygen were used as combustion gases and the substrate was tungsten carbide cobalt. It was found that surface treatments, such as diamond powder scratching or acid etching, increase the adhesion and prevent the film peel-off. Diamond powder scratching and combined diamond powder scratching with acid etching gave the similar diamond film structure with small grain and slightly rough surface. The diamond film obtained with both treatments has high adhesion and can withstand internal stress better than ones obtained by untreated surface or acid etching alone. It was also found that higher substrate temperature produced smoother surface and more uniform diamond grain.

  14. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...... to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning....

  15. Optical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.; Decaudin, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The probe includes optical means of refractive index n, refracting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n1>n and reflecting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n2 [fr

  16. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Robust diamond meshes with unique wettability properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yizhou; Li, Hongdong; Cheng, Shaoheng; Zou, Guangtian; Wang, Chuanxi; Lin, Quan

    2014-03-18

    Robust diamond meshes with excellent superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties have been fabricated. Superhydrophobicity is observed for water with varying pH from 1 to 14 with good recyclability. Reversible superhydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be easily controlled. The diamond meshes show highly efficient water-oil separation and water pH droplet transference.

  19. Conflict diamonds — unfinished business | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Jul 22, 2011 ... ... diamonds reached this year will not be effective if it is not monitored, and if the countries ... What we do know is that 75 percent of the world's gem diamonds are mined in ... It makes the Kimberley accord weaker than any other international ... a British NGO, have been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.

  20. Chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyrovets, I.I.; Gritsyna, V.I.; Dudnik, S.F.; Opalev, O.A.; Reshetnyak, O.M.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The brief review of the literature is devoted to synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond films. It is shown that the CVD method is an effective way for deposition of such nanostructures. The basic technological methods that allow limit the size of growing diamond crystallites in the film are studied.

  1. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).

  2. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  3. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described

  4. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual

  5. Bending diamonds by femtosecond laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Peter; Esberg, Jakob; Kirsebom, Kim

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method based on femtosecond laser ablation for the fabrication of statically bent diamond crystals. Using this method, curvature radii of 1 m can easily be achieved, and the curvature obtained is very uniform. Since diamond is extremely tolerant to high radiation doses, partly due...

  6. Diamond sensors for future high energy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmair, Felix, E-mail: bachmair@phys.ethz.ch

    2016-09-21

    With the planned upgrade of the LHC to High-Luminosity-LHC [1], the general purpose experiments ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with more radiation tolerant technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition CVD diamond is one such technology. CVD diamond sensors are an established technology as beam condition monitors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. The RD42-collaboration at CERN is leading the effort to use CVD diamond as a material for tracking detectors operating in extreme radiation environments. An overview of the latest developments from RD42 is presented including the present status of diamond sensor production, a study of pulse height dependencies on incident particle flux and the development of 3D diamond sensors.

  7. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczemska, Anna T.; Witkowski, Dariusz; Ralchenko, Victor; Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry; Lysko, Jan M.; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Bodzenta, Jerzy; Hassard, John

    2011-01-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare TM was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  8. Diamond detector technology: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Harris; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H P; Bellini,, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; De Boer, W; Dehning, B; Dorfer, C; Dunser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Mcfadden, N; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Reichmann, M; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz, D; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Schreiner, T; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Taylor, Aaron; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, Stephen; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2017-01-01

    The status of material development of poly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident par-ticle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition the first beam test results from 3D detectors made with poly-crystalline CVD diamond are presented. Finally the first analysis of LHC data from the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) which is based on pixelated poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors bump-bonded to pixel readout elec-tronics is shown.

  9. Nanostructured Diamond Device for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, M; Karczemska, A; Lysko, J M; Zybala, R; KozaneckI, M; Filipczak, P; Ralchenko, V; Walock, M; Stanishevsky, A; Mitura, S

    2015-02-01

    Diamond is increasingly used in biomedical applications because of its unique properties such as the highest thermal conductivity, good optical properties, high electrical breakdown voltage as well as excellent biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Diamond has also been introduced as an excellent substrate to make the functional microchip structures for electrophoresis, which is the most popular separation technique for the determination of analytes. In this investigation, a diamond electrophoretic chip was manufactured by a replica method using a silicon mold. A polycrystalline 300 micron-thick diamond layer was grown by the microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) technique onto a patterned silicon substrate followed by the removal of the substrate. The geometry of microstructure, chemical composition, thermal and optical properties of the resulting free-standing diamond electrophoretic microchip structure were examined by CLSM, SFE, UV-Vis, Raman, XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and by a modified laser flash method for thermal property measurements.

  10. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczemska, Anna T., E-mail: anna.karczemska@p.lodz.pl [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Witkowski, Dariusz [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Ralchenko, Victor, E-mail: ralchenko@nsc.gpi.ru [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Lysko, Jan M., E-mail: jmlysko@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalkowski, Mateusz, E-mail: petr.louda@vslib.cz [Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Czech Republic); Bodzenta, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.bodzenta@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 2 Krzywoustego str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Hassard, John, E-mail: j.hassard@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare{sup TM} was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  11. Shock compression of diamond crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...

  12. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films

  13. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  15. Cold cathodes on ultra-dispersed diamond base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimova, A.N.; Zhirnov, V.V.; Chubun, N.N.; Belobrov, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    Prospects of application of nano diamond powders for fabrication of cold cathodes are discussed.Cold cathodes based on silicon pointed structures with nano diamond coatings were prepared.The deposition technique of diamond coating was dielectrophoresis from suspension of nano diamond powder in organic liquids.The cathodes were tested in sealed prototypes of vacuum electronic devices

  16. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  17. DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelino, J

    1993-12-31

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with {sup 32}P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism`s genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens 10 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2002-05-01

    September 11, 2001 will live in infamy. Ideological differences have also led to senseless atrocities in Angola, Congo Republic, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Hundreds of thousands have died, scores mutilated, and millions displaced. These have gone virtually unnoticed for decades. Unnoticed that is until it became evident that these barbaric acts were fueled by the sale or bartering of diamonds for arms, or by more ingenious ways that are less traceable. There is no end in sight. Industry has long recognized that about 20% of diamonds reaching the open market are smuggled from operating mines, and more recently that an additional 4% originates from conflict diamond sources. Diamond identification by laser inscription, ion implantation, or certification protocols are subject to fraudulent tampering. And these applied methods are thwarted if cutting and polishing centers are infiltrated, or if terrorist facilities are independently established. Mark ups are substantial (40-60%) from raw material to finished product. Tracking the paths of rough stones from mines to faceted gems is impractical because some 30-50 million cts of top quality material, or about 100 million stones, would require branding each year. Moreover, the long standing tradition of site-holdings and the bourse system of mixing or matching diamonds, inadvertently ensures regional anonymity. Conflict diamonds are mined in primary kimberlites and from widely dispersed alluvial fields in tropical jungle. Landscapes, eroded by 1-5 vertical km over 100 Ma, have transformed low grade primary deposits into unconsolidated sedimentary bonanzas. The current value of stones retrieved, by motivated diggers and skillful jiggers, in rebel held territories, is impossible to determine, but in 1993 amounted to tens of millions USD. Diamonds over 100 cts continue to surface at premier prices. Borders are porous, diamonds flow easily, and armed networks are permeable and mobile. Diamonds form at great depths (over 200 km

  20. STRUCTURING OF DIAMOND FILMS USING MICROSPHERE LITHOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Domonkos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond thin films is demonstrated. The structuring of the diamond films is performed using the technique of microsphere lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Specifically, this paper presents a four-step fabrication process: diamond deposition (microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition, mask preparation (by the standard Langmuir-Blodgett method, mask modification and diamond etching. A self-assembled monolayer of monodisperse polystyrene (PS microspheres with close-packed ordering is used as the primary template. Then the PS microspheres and the diamond films are processed in capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma  using different plasma chemistries. This fabrication method illustrates the preparation of large arrays of periodic and homogeneous hillock-like structures. The surface morphology of processed diamond films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The potential applications of such diamond structures in various fields of nanotechnology are also briefly discussed.

  1. Thin diamond films for tribological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.S.; Meilunas, R.; Ong, T.P.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diamond films have been deposited on Si, Mo and many other substrates by microwave and radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Although the adhesion between the diamond film and most of the metal substrates is poor due to residual thermal stress from the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients, the authors have developed processes to promote the growth of uniform and continuous diamond films with enhanced adhesion to metal substrates for tribological applications. The tribological properties of these films are measured using a ring-on-block tribotester. The coefficients of friction of diamond films sliding against a 52100 steel ring under the same experimental conditions are found to be significantly different depending on the morphology, grain size and roughness of the diamond films. However, under all cases tested, it is found that for uniform and continuous diamond films with small grain size of 1-3 micrometers, the coefficient of friction of the diamond film sliding against a steel ring under lubrication of a jet of mineral oil is about 0.04

  2. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Guizard, B.; Marshall, R.D.; Foulon, F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-industrial basis, CVD diamond detectors have been fabricated for nuclear industry applications in hostile environments. Such devices can operate in harsh environments and overcome limitations encountered with the standard semiconductor materials. Of these, this paper presents devices for the monitoring of the alpha activity in corrosive nuclear waste solutions, such as those encountered in nuclear fuel assembly reprocessing facilities, as well as diamond-based thermal neutron detectors exhibiting a high neutron to gamma selectivity. All these demonstrate the effectiveness of a demanding industrial need that relies on the remarkable resilience of CVD diamond

  3. Phosphorylated nano-diamond/ Polyimide Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel route to synthesize polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond films with improved thermal and mechanical properties was developed. Surface phosphorylation of nano-diamond was performed in dichloromethane. Phosphorylation dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of nano-diamond. Poly(amic acid) (PAA), which is the precursor of PI, was successfully synthesized with 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA) in the solution of N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). Pure BTDA-ODA polyimide films and phosphorylated nanodiamond containing BTDA-ODA PI films were prepared. The PAA displayed good compatibility with phosphorylated nano-diamond. The morphology of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the phosphorylated nano-diamond was successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results showed that the thermal stability of (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond film was increased

  4. Effect of a Nitrogen Impurity on the Fundamental Raman Band of Diamond Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakov, G. A.; Samtsov, M. P.; Voropay, E. S.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of nitrogen defects in natural and synthetic diamond single crystals on the position and half-width of the fundamental Raman band was investigated. Samples containing the main types of nitrogen lattice defects at impurity contents of 1-1500 ppm were studied. The parameters of the Stokes and anti-Stokes components in Raman spectra of crystals situated in a cell with distilled water to minimize the influence of heating by the exciting laser radiation were analyzed to determine the effect of a nitrogen impurity in the diamond crystal lattice. It was shown that an increase of impurity atoms in the crystals in the studied concentration range resulted in broadening of the Raman band from 1.61 to 2.85 cm-1 and shifting of the maximum to lower frequency from 1332.65 to 1332.3 cm-1. The observed effect was directly proportional to the impurity concentration and depended on the form of the impurity incorporated into the diamond lattice. It was found that the changes in the position and half-width of the fundamental Raman band for diamond were consistent with the magnitude of crystal lattice distortions due to the presence of impurity defects and obeyed the Gruneisen law.

  5. Dedicated multichannel readout ASIC coupled with single crystal diamond for dosimeter application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, A; Notaristefani, F De; Galasso, M; Cencelli, V Orsolini; Falco, M D; Marinelli, M; Tortora, L; Verona, C; Rinati, G Verona

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the tests of a low-noise, multi-channel readout integrated circuit used as a readout electronic front-end for a diamond multi-pixel dosimeter. The system is developed for dose distribution measurement in radiotherapy applications. The first 10-channel prototype chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 um CMOS process. Every channel includes a charge integrator with a 10 pF capacitor and a double slope A/D converter. The diamond multi-pixel detector, based on CVD synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diodes, is made by a 3 × 3 sensor matrix. The overall device has been tested under irradiation with 6 MeV radio therapeutic photon beams at the Policlinico ''Tor Vergata'' (PTV) hospital. Measurements show a 20 fA RMS leakage current from the front-end input stage and a negligible dark current from the diamond detector, a stable temporal response and a good linear behaviour as a function of both dose and dose rate. These characteristics were common to each tested channel.

  6. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M [Downers Grove, IL

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  7. Diamond-Based Supercapacitors: Realization and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Nebel, Christoph E

    2016-10-26

    In this Spotlight on Applications, we describe our recent progress on the fabrication of surface-enlarged boron-doped polycrystalline diamond electrodes, and evaluate their performance in supercapacitor applications. We begin with a discussion of the fabrication methods of porous diamond materials. The diamond surface enlargement starts with a top-down plasma etching method. Although the extra surface area provided by surface roughening or nanostructuring provides good outcome for sensing applications, a capacitance value <1 mF cm -2 or a surface-enlargement factor <100 fail to meet the requirement of a practical supercapacitor. Driven by the need for large surface areas, we recently focused on the tempated-growth method. We worked on both supported and free-standing porous diamond materials to enhance the areal capacitance to the "mF cm -2 " range. With our newly developed free-standing diamond paper, areal capacitance can be multiplied by stacking multilayers of the electrode material. Finally, considering the fact that there is no real diamond-based supercapacitor device up to now, we fabricated the first prototype pouch-cell device based on the free-standing diamond paper to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that the diamond paper is suitable for operation in high potential windows (up to 2.5 V) in aqueous electrolyte with a capacitance of 0.688 mF cm -2 per layer of paper (or 0.645 F g -1 ). Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the operation frequency of the device exceeds 30 Hz. Because of the large potential window and the ability to work at high frequency, the specific power of the device reached 1 × 10 5 W kg -1 . In the end, we made estimations on the future target performance of diamond supercapacitors based on the existing information.

  8. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, F.; Reinoso, M.; Huck, H.; Rosenbusch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp 2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Physics and applications of CVD diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Nesladek, Milos

    2008-01-01

    Here, leading scientists report on why and how diamond can be optimized for applications in bioelectronic and electronics. They cover such topics as growth techniques, new and conventional doping mechanisms, superconductivity in diamond, and excitonic properties, while application aspects include quantum electronics at room temperature, biosensors as well as diamond nanocantilevers and SAWs.Written in a review style to make the topic accessible for a wider community of scientists working in interdisciplinary fields with backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, this is e

  10. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  12. Amorphous Diamond MEMS and Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, JOHN P.; FRIEDMANN, THOMAS A.; ASHBY, CAROL I.; DE BOER, MAARTEN P.; SCHUBERT, W. KENT; SHUL, RANDY J.; HOHLFELDER, ROBERT J.; LAVAN, D.A.

    2002-06-01

    This report describes a new microsystems technology for the creation of microsensors and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using stress-free amorphous diamond (aD) films. Stress-free aD is a new material that has mechanical properties close to that of crystalline diamond, and the material is particularly promising for the development of high sensitivity microsensors and rugged and reliable MEMS. Some of the unique properties of aD include the ability to easily tailor film stress from compressive to slightly tensile, hardness and stiffness 80-90% that of crystalline diamond, very high wear resistance, a hydrophobic surface, extreme chemical inertness, chemical compatibility with silicon, controllable electrical conductivity from insulating to conducting, and biocompatibility. A variety of MEMS structures were fabricated from this material and evaluated. These structures included electrostatically-actuated comb drives, micro-tensile test structures, singly- and doubly-clamped beams, and friction and wear test structures. It was found that surface micromachined MEMS could be fabricated in this material easily and that the hydrophobic surface of the film enabled the release of structures without the need for special drying procedures or the use of applied hydrophobic coatings. Measurements using these structures revealed that aD has a Young's modulus of {approx}650 GPa, a tensile fracture strength of 8 GPa, and a fracture toughness of 8 MPa{center_dot}m {sup 1/2}. These results suggest that this material may be suitable in applications where stiction or wear is an issue. Flexural plate wave (FPW) microsensors were also fabricated from aD. These devices use membranes of aD as thin as {approx}100 nm. The performance of the aD FPW sensors was evaluated for the detection of volatile organic compounds using ethyl cellulose as the sensor coating. For comparable membrane thicknesses, the aD sensors showed better performance than silicon nitride based sensors. Greater

  13. ULTRAFINE FLUORESCENT DIAMONDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuk M. I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.

  14. The Response of HeLa Cells to Fluorescent NanoDiamond Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R. Hemelaar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent nanodiamonds are promising probes for nanoscale magnetic resonance measurements. Their physical properties predict them to have particularly useful applications in intracellular analysis. Before using them in intracellular experiments however, it should be clear whether diamond particles influence cell biology. While cytotoxicity has already been ruled out in previous studies, we consider the non-fatal influence of fluorescent nanodiamonds on the formation of reactive oxygen species (an important stress indicator and potential target for intracellular sensing for the first time. We investigated the influence of different sizes, shapes and concentrations of nanodiamonds on the genetic and protein level involved in oxidative stress-related pathways of the HeLa cell, an important model cell line in research. The changes in viability of the cells and the difference in intracellular levels of free radicals, after diamond uptake, are surprisingly small. At lower diamond concentrations, the cellular metabolism cannot be distinguished from that of untreated cells. This research supports the claims of non-toxicity and includes less obvious non-fatal responses. Finally, we give a handhold concerning the diamond concentration and size to use for non-toxic, intracellular measurements in favour of (cancer research in HeLa cells.

  15. The Response of HeLa Cells to Fluorescent NanoDiamond Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelaar, Simon R; Saspaanithy, Babujhi; L'Hommelet, Severin R M; Perona Martinez, Felipe P; van der Laan, Kiran J; Schirhagl, Romana

    2018-01-26

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds are promising probes for nanoscale magnetic resonance measurements. Their physical properties predict them to have particularly useful applications in intracellular analysis. Before using them in intracellular experiments however, it should be clear whether diamond particles influence cell biology. While cytotoxicity has already been ruled out in previous studies, we consider the non-fatal influence of fluorescent nanodiamonds on the formation of reactive oxygen species (an important stress indicator and potential target for intracellular sensing) for the first time. We investigated the influence of different sizes, shapes and concentrations of nanodiamonds on the genetic and protein level involved in oxidative stress-related pathways of the HeLa cell, an important model cell line in research. The changes in viability of the cells and the difference in intracellular levels of free radicals, after diamond uptake, are surprisingly small. At lower diamond concentrations, the cellular metabolism cannot be distinguished from that of untreated cells. This research supports the claims of non-toxicity and includes less obvious non-fatal responses. Finally, we give a handhold concerning the diamond concentration and size to use for non-toxic, intracellular measurements in favour of (cancer) research in HeLa cells.

  16. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  17. Ultra-fast calculations using diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2011-01-01

    TU Delft researchers have managed to use a piece of diamond to hold four quantum bits that can be spun, flipped and entangled with each other. This is an important step towards a working quantum computer

  18. Short-range order in irradiated diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, S.S.; Glazkov, V.P.; Nikolaenko, V.A.; Somenkov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes in irradiated diamond with a change in its density were studied. Natural diamond powders with average particle size from 14-20 μm to 0.5 mm, irradiated in beryllium block of the MR reactor up to a fluence of 1.51 x 10 21 were used as samples. Using the neutron-diffraction method, it has been established that, when density in irradiated diamonds varies, a transition from a diamond-like amorphous structure to a graphite-like structure occurs. The transition occurs at a density ρ ∼ 2.7-2.9 g/cm 3 and is accompanied by a sharp change in resistivity [ru

  19. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanaliloo, Behzad; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Lake, David P.; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Barclay, Paul E.

    2015-10-01

    Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200 nm . The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7 ×105 and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5 fm /√{Hz } sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  20. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Khanaliloo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200  nm. The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7×10^{5} and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5  fm/sqrt[Hz] sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  1. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergonzo, P; Tromson, D; Mer, C; Guizard, B; Marshall, R D; Foulon, F

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-i...

  2. Diamond detectors for high energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäni, L.; Alexopoulos, A.; Artuso, M.; Bachmair, F.; Bartosik, M.; Beacham, J.; Beck, H.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Bentele, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bes, A.; Brom, J.-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Cerv, M.; Chiodini, G.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Collot, J.; Cumalat, J.; Dabrowski, A.; D'Alessandro, R.; Dauvergne, D.; de Boer, W.; Dorfer, C.; Dünser, M.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Forcolin, G.; Forneris, J.; Frais-Kölbl, H.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Gallin-Martel, M. L.; Gan, K. K.; Gastal, M.; Giroletti, C.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Golubev, A.; Gorišek, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grummer, A.; Gui, B.; Guthoff, M.; Haughton, I.; Hiti, B.; Hits, D.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hofmann, T.; Hosslet, J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hügging, F.; Hutton, C.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Kagan, H.; Kanxheri, K.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R.; Kassel, F.; Kis, M.; Konovalov, V.; Kramberger, G.; Kuleshov, S.; Lacoste, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Lo Giudice, A.; Lukosi, E.; Maazouzi, C.; Mandic, I.; Mathieu, C.; Menichelli, M.; Mikuž, M.; Morozzi, A.; Moss, J.; Mountain, R.; Murphy, S.; Muškinja, M.; Oh, A.; Oliviero, P.; Passeri, D.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Picollo, F.; Pomorski, M.; Potenza, R.; Quadt, A.; Re, A.; Reichmann, M.; Riley, G.; Roe, S.; Sanz, D.; Scaringella, M.; Schaefer, D.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Scorzoni, A.; Seidel, S.; Servoli, L.; Smith, S.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanier, S.; Stenson, K.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Tannenwald, B.; Taylor, A.; Traeger, M.; Tromson, D.; Trischuk, W.; Tuve, C.; Uplegger, L.; Velthuis, J.; Venturi, N.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, S.; Wallny, R.; Wang, J. C.; Weingarten, J.; Weiss, C.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Yamouni, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2018-01-01

    Beam test results of the radiation tolerance study of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond against different particle species and energies is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition functionality of poly-crystalline CVD diamond 3D devices was demonstrated in beam tests and 3D diamond detectors are shown to be a promising technology for applications in future high luminosity experiments.

  3. Diamond Detector Technology: Status and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Reichmann, M; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H; Bellini, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; Dauvergne, D; de Boer, W; Dorfer, C; Dünser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gallin-Martel, L; Gallin-Martel, M L; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kagan, H; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Konovalov, V; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz-Becerra, D A; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Tannenwald, B; Taylor, A; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, S; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2018-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC to the High-Luminosity-LHC will push the luminosity limits above the original design values. Since the current detectors will not be able to cope with this environment ATLAS and CMS are doing research to find more radiation tolerant technologies for their innermost tracking layers. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond is an excellent candidate for this purpose. Detectors out of this material are already established in the highest irradiation regimes for the beam condition monitors at LHC. The RD42 collaboration is leading an effort to use CVD diamonds also as sensor material for the future tracking detectors. The signal behaviour of highly irradiated diamonds is presented as well as the recent study of the signal dependence on incident particle flux. There is also a recent development towards 3D detectors and especially 3D detectors with a pixel readout based on diamond sensors.

  4. Modified diamond dies for laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, R.A.

    1978-06-21

    A modified wire drawing die for spatial filtering techniques is described. It was designed for use in high power laser systems. The diamond aperture is capable of enduring high intensity laser frequency without damaging the laser beam profile. The diamond is mounted at the beam focus in a vacuum of 1 x 10/sup -5/ Torr. The vacuum prevents plasma forming at the diamond aperture, thus enabling the beam to pass through without damaging the holder or aperture. The spatial filters are fitted with a manipulator that has three electronic stepping motors, can position the aperture in three orthogonal directions, and is capable of 3.2 ..mu..m resolution. Shiva laser system is using 105 diamond apertures for shaping the High Energy Laser Beam.

  5. The DIAMOND Model of Peace Support Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Peter

    2005-01-01

    DIAMOND (Diplomatic And Military Operations in a Non-warfighting Domain) is a high-level stochastic simulation developed at Dstl as a key centerpiece within the Peace Support Operations (PSO) 'modelling jigsaw...

  6. Dosimetry in radiotherapy with natural diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, C.; Onori, S.; Pacilio, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Raffaele, L.; Bucciolini, M.; Mazzocchi, S.

    2002-01-01

    There is wide interest in the use of diamond detectors for dosimetry in radiotherapy mainly because of the small dimensions, radiation hardness, nearly tissue equivalence of sensitive material and capability to deliver the dosimetric response 'on line'. In order to assess the dosimetric properties of PTW Riga diamond detectors type 60003, experiments were performed in conventional (high energy photon and electron) therapy beams as well as in proton therapy beams. The main detector features investigated were reproducibility of response, dose-signal relationship, temperature dependence, dose-rate dependence, energy dependence and angular dependence. High energy photons (6-25 MV) and electrons (6-22 MeV), available at the Radiotherapy Department of the Florence University, were used for investigating the general properties. Two different PTW diamond detectors of the same type were used to evidence inter-sample differences. The beam quality dependence of the detector response is probably the most critical point and this statement is of particular relevance for proton dosimetry since the proton LET changes with depth in the medium. Mainly because of the little information available on detector sensitivity variations with beam energy, the use of diamonds for clinical proton dosimetry is not widespread. In two recent papers a sensitivity dependence on proton energy of a natural PTW diamond detector has been reported. Due to the necessity to characterise each diamond detector individually the PTW Riga natural diamond detector in operation at the LNS-INFN, Catania, Italy was tested with the local proton beam line. This experiment is of main concern because this proton beam, produced by a superconducting cyclotron and used for ocular melanoma treatment, is available only since 2001 (CATANA beam). The first patient has been treated in February 2002. Proton irradiations were performed with non modulated and modulated 62 MeV beams. Attention was focused on diamond sensitivity

  7. Polycrystalline Diamond Schottky Diodes and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ganming

    In this work, four-hot-filament CVD techniques for in situ boron doped diamond synthesis on silicon substrates were extensively studied. A novel tungsten filament shape and arrangement used to obtain large-area, uniform, boron doped polycrystalline diamond thin films. Both the experimental results and radiative heat transfer analysis showed that this technique improved the uniformity of the substrate temperature. XRD, Raman and SEM studies indicate that large area, uniform, high quality polycrystalline diamond films were obtained. Schottky diodes were fabricated by either sputter deposition of silver or thermal evaporation of aluminum or gold, on boron doped diamond thin films. High forward current density and a high forward-to-reverse current ratio were exhibited by silver on diamond Schottky diodes. Schottky barrier heights and the majority carrier concentrations of both aluminum and gold contacted diodes were determined from the C-V measurements. Furthermore, a novel theoretical C-V-f analysis of deep level boron doped diamond Schottky diodes was performed. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased I-V characteristics of the diamond Schottky diodes, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. The stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. This result shows that CVD diamond device has potential for mechanical transducer applications. The quantitative photoresponse characteristics of the diodes were studied in the spectral range of 300 -1050 nm. Semi-transparent gold contacts were used for better photoresponse. Quantum efficiency as high as 50% was obtained at 500 nm, when a reverse bias of over 1 volt was applied. The Schottky barrier heights between either gold or

  8. Mammalian synthetic biology for studying the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Melina; Xiang, Joy S; Smolke, Christina D

    2017-01-02

    Synthetic biology is advancing the design of genetic devices that enable the study of cellular and molecular biology in mammalian cells. These genetic devices use diverse regulatory mechanisms to both examine cellular processes and achieve precise and dynamic control of cellular phenotype. Synthetic biology tools provide novel functionality to complement the examination of natural cell systems, including engineered molecules with specific activities and model systems that mimic complex regulatory processes. Continued development of quantitative standards and computational tools will expand capacities to probe cellular mechanisms with genetic devices to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the cell. In this study, we review synthetic biology tools that are being applied to effectively investigate diverse cellular processes, regulatory networks, and multicellular interactions. We also discuss current challenges and future developments in the field that may transform the types of investigation possible in cell biology. © 2017 Mathur et al.

  9. Long-term data storage in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...

  10. Diamond nanostructured devices for chemical sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the area of CVD single crystal diamond plates of which only recently has been made commercially available saw significant advancements during the last decade. In parallel to that, detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles also now widely made accessible for requisition are provoking a lot of scientific investigations. The remarkable properties of diamond including its extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction, chemical inertness, biocompatibility, high thermal c...

  11. Optical absorption analysis on diamond crystals modified by H2+ implantation and subsequent annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.Q.; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Goppelt-Langer, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The optical absorption analysis on synthetic diamond irradiated by molecular hydrogen ions (H 2 + ) with 40 keV, 10 15 -10 17 H/cm 2 , at 100 K, showed that the absorption coefficient (α) of modified layer in UV-VIS range was increased with the implanted dose and decreased with thermal annealing. While its relative optical band gap (E r,opt ) was decreased with ion fluence and proportional to the annealing temperature. The possible microstructure of atomic coordination for as-implanted and subsequent annealing samples was discussed tentatively. In addition the optical inhomogeneity of the type Ib diamond has been revealed by absorption topograph at λ=430 nm. (author)

  12. Diamond carbon sources: a comparison of carbon isotope models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkley, M.B.; Otter, M.L.; Gurney, J.J.; Hill, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The carbon isotope compositions of approximately 500 inclusion-bearing diamonds have been determined in the past decade. 98 percent of these diamonds readily fall into two broad categories on the basis of their inclusion mineralogies and compositions. These categories are peridotitic diamonds and eclogitic diamonds. Most peridotitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -10 and -1 permil, whereas eclogitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -28 and +2 permil. Peridotitic diamonds may represent primordial carbon, however, it is proposed that initially inhomogeneous δ 13 C values were subsequently homogenized, e.g. during melting and convection that is postulated to have occurred during the first billion years of the earth's existence. If this is the case, then the wider range of δ 13 C values exhibited by eclogitic diamonds requires a different explanation. Both the fractionation model and the subduction model can account for the range of observed δ 13 C values in eclogitic diamonds. 16 refs., 2 figs

  13. Graphitization of diamond with a metallic coating on ferritic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Stenio Cavalier; Oliveira, Hellen Cristine Prata de; Filgueira, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    Iron is a strong catalyst of graphitization of diamonds. This graphitization occurs mainly during the processing of composites - conventional sintering or hot pressing, and during cutting operations. Aiming to avoid or minimize this deleterious effect, there is increasing use of diamond coated with metallic materials in the production of diamond tools processed via powder metallurgy. This work studies the influence of Fe on diamond graphitization diamond-coated Ti after mixing of Fe-diamonds, hot pressing parameters were performed with 3 minutes/35MPa/900 deg C - this is the condition of pressing hot used in industry for production of diamond tools. Microstructural features were observed by SEM, diffusion of Fe in diamond was studied by EDS. Graphitization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe not activate graphitization on the diamond under the conditions of hot pressing. (author)

  14. Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin; Huang Guoliang; Li Qiang; Chen Shengyi, E-mail: tshgl@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the 'Diamond ID' and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.

  15. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  16. Diamond growth in oxygen-acetylene flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Mario S.; Nagai, Y. Ernesto; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    1995-01-01

    What was supposed to be a laboratory curiosity in the 80's, in recent years the low pressure process for the production of man-made diamond turned out to be a major target for research and development of many high-tech companies. The main reason for such an interest stems on the possibility of coating many materials with a diamond film possessing the same amazing properties of the bulk natural diamond. Polycrystalline diamond film has been deposited on Mo substrate by using oxygen-acetylene flame of a welding torch. The substrate temperature has been held constant about 700 d eg C by means of a water cooled mount designed properly. Precision flowmeters have been used to control the flow ratio oxygen/acetylene, a key parameter for the success in diamond growth. Diamond has been detected by X-ray diffraction, a fast foolproof technique for crystal identification. Another method of analysis often used in Raman spectroscopy, which is able to exhibit amorphous structure besides crystalline phase. (author)

  17. CVD diamond deposition onto dental burs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Sein, H.

    2001-01-01

    A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system has been modified to enable non-planar substrates, such as metallic wires and dental burs, to be uniformly coated with thin polycrystalline diamond films. Initially, diamond deposition was carried out on titanium and tantalum wires in order to test and optimize the system. High growth rates of the order of approx. 8 /hr were obtained when depositing diamond on titanium wires using the vertical filament arrangement. However, lower growth rates of the order of 4-5meu m/hr were obtained with diamond deposition on tantalum wires. To extend the work towards a practical biomedical application tungsten carbide dental burs were coated with diamond films. The as-grown films were found to be polycrystalline and uniform over the cutting tip. Finally, the costs relating to diamond CVD onto dental burs have been presented in this paper. The costs relating to coating different number of burs at a time and the effect of film thickness on costs have been included in this investigation. (author)

  18. Development of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fisch, D; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zoeller, M M

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionizing radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow a diamond detector to be used in high ra diation, high temperature and in aggressive chemical media. We have constructed charged particle detectors using high quality CVD diamond. Characterization of the diamond samples and various detect ors are presented in terms of collection distance, $d=\\mu E \\tau$, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart under the influence of an electric field, where $\\mu$ is the sum of carrier mo bilities, $E$ is the applied electric field, and $\\tau$ is the mobility weighted carrier lifetime. Over the last two years the collection distance increased from $\\sim$ 75 $\\mu$m to over 200 $\\mu$ m. With this high quality CVD diamond a series of micro-strip and pixel particle detectors have been constructed. These devices were tested to determine their position resolution and signal to n oise performance. Diamond detectors w...

  19. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Liquid jet impingement cooling with diamond substrates for extremely high heat flux applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienhard V, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of impinging jets and diamond substrates may provide an effective solution to a class of extremely high heat flux problems in which very localized heat loads must be removed. Some potential applications include the cooling of high-heat-load components in synchrotron x-ray, fusion, and semiconductor laser systems. Impinging liquid jets are a very effective vehicle for removing high heat fluxes. The liquid supply arrangement is relatively simple, and low thermal resistances can be routinely achieved. A jet's cooling ability is a strong function of the size of the cooled area relative to the jet diameter. For relatively large area targets, the critical heat fluxes can approach 20 W/mm 2 . In this situation, burnout usually originates at the outer edge of the cooled region as increasing heat flux inhibits the liquid supply. Limitations from liquid supply are minimized when heating is restricted to the jet stagnation zone. The high stagnation pressure and high velocity gradients appear to suppress critical flux phenomena, and fluxes of up to 400 W/mm 2 have been reached without evidence of burnout. Instead, the restrictions on heat flux are closely related to properties of the cooled target. Target properties become an issue owing to the large temperatures and large temperature gradients that accompany heat fluxes over 100 W/mm 2 . These conditions necessitate a target with both high thermal conductivity to prevent excessive temperatures and good mechanical properties to prevent mechanical failures. Recent developments in synthetic diamond technology present a possible solution to some of the solid-side constraints on heat flux. Polycrystalline diamond foils can now be produced by chemical vapor deposition in reasonable quantity and at reasonable cost. Synthetic single crystal diamonds as large as 1 cm 2 are also available

  1. Pushing the boundaries of high power lasers: low loss, large area CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Benjamin; Schoofs, Frank; Olsson-Robbie, Stefan; Bennett, Andrew; Balmer, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic CVD diamond has exceptional properties, including broad spectral transmission, physical and chemical robustness, and the highest thermal conductivity of any known material, making diamond an attractive material for medium to high power optical and laser applications, minimizing the detrimental effects of thermal lensing and radiation damage. Example applications include ATR prisms, Raman laser crystals, extra- and intra-cavity laser cooling. In each case the demands on the fundamental material properties and fabrication routes are slightly different. In recent years, there has been good progress in the development of low-loss, single crystal diamond, suitable for higher power densities, higher pulse rates and more demanding intra- and extra-cavity thermal management. The adoption of single crystal diamond in this area has however, been hindered by the availability of large area, low birefringence plates. To address this, we report a combination of CVD growth and processing methods that have enabled the manufacture of large, low defect substrates. A final homoepitaxial, low absorption synthesis stage has produced plates with large area (up to 16 mm edge length), low absorption (α<0.005 cm-1 at 1064 nm), and low birefringence (Δn <10-5), suitable for double-sided intra-cavity cooling. We demonstrate the practical advances in synthesis, including increasing the size while reducing in-use losses compared to previous generations of single crystal material, and practical developments in processing and implementation of the single crystal diamond parts, optimizing them for use in a state-of-the-art femto-second pulsed Ti:Sa thin disk gain module, all made in collaboration with the wider European FP7 funded Ti:Sa TD consortium.

  2. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz Alfaro, Marco Antonio; Ferro, Sergio; Martinez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto; Vong, Yunny Meas

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes. (author)

  3. Optimizing biosensing properties on undecylenic Acid-functionalized diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu Lin; Chong, Kwok Feng; May, Paul W; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Loh, Kian Ping

    2007-05-08

    The optimization of biosensing efficiency on a diamond platform depends on the successful coupling of biomolecules on the surface, and also on effective signal transduction in the biorecognition events. In terms of biofunctionalization of diamond surfaces, surface electrochemical studies of diamond modified with undecylenic acid (UA), with and without headgroup protection, were performed. The direct photochemical coupling method employing UA was found to impart a higher density of carboxylic acid groups on the diamond surface compared to that using trifluoroethyl undecenoate (TFEU) as the protecting group during the coupling process. Non-faradic impedimetric DNA sensing revealed that lightly doped diamond gives better signal transduction sensitivity compared to highly doped diamond.

  4. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfaro Marco Antonio Quiroz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes.

  5. Recognition of diamond grains on surface of fine diamond grinding wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwei HUO; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG; Dongming GUO; Chun YANG

    2008-01-01

    The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel sur-face topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simu-lation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distri-bution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturb-ance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteris-tics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface pro-filer based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  6. Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke

    2014-06-24

    The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer.

  7. Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.

  8. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, James C. [KINIK Company, 64, Chung-San Rd., Ying-Kuo, Taipei Hsien 239, Taiwan (China) and National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China) and National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sung@kinik.com.tw; Sung, Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sung, Emily [Johnson and Johnson, Freemont, CA (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry.

  9. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, James C.; Sung, Michael; Sung, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry

  10. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  11. The Anvils as Pressure Calibrants in the Hydrothermal Diamond Anvil Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M. K.; Panero, W. R.; Stixrude, L. P.

    2003-12-01

    Throughout the crust and the upper part of the mantle, water is an important agent of heat and mass transport in processes ranging from metasomatism to magma generation in arc environments. One of the important properties of water in this regime: its ability to dissolve significant amounts of solids, presents a substantial challenge to the experimental study of water-rich systems. Many commonly used pressure standards, such as quartz and ruby, dissolve in water under the conditions accessible to the hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (up to 1200 K and 5 GPa). For this reason, it is important to develop alternative pressure calibrants. Two methods have been developed by other groups for pressure calibration in the HDAC in the presence of water. One method relies on the equation of state of the ambient fluid and the observation that the sample chamber remains approximately isochoric on heating. Disadvantages of this method include our imperfect knowledge of the equation of state of water over the relevant pressure-temperature interval, possible changes in fluid composition, and sample chamber assembly relaxation at temperatures above 800 K. The second method is based on the Raman signal from diamond chips loaded with the sample. Synthetic 13C diamond is used to avoid overlap with the much stronger signal from the anvils. Diamond is an ideal pressure sensor since it is chemically inert and unaffected by water. Therefore, we use the tips of the diamond anvils as "internal" sensors. The primary disadvantage of this method is that the stress distribution inside the anvils is non-hydrostatic and inhomogeneous, although the normal stress across the diamond-sample interface must be continuous. Using confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy we are able to characterize both the inhomogeneity and the non-hydrostaticity of the diamond stress field by combining axial and radial transects with peak shapes. We find that on room temperature loading there is substantial inhomogeneity in the

  12. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  13. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  14. Spectrally dependent photovoltages in Schottky photodiode based on (100) B-doped diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čermák, Jan; Rezek, Bohuslav; Koide, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Spectrally and spatially resolved photovoltages were measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on a Schottky photo-diode made of a 4 nm thin tungsten-carbide (WC) layer on a 500 nm oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond epitaxial layer (O-BDD) that was grown on a Ib (100) diamond substrate. The diode was grounded by the sideways ohmic contact (Ti/WC), and the semitransparent Schottky contact was let unconnected. The electrical potentials across the device were measured in dark (only 650 nm LED of KPFM being on), under broad-band white light (halogen lamp), UV (365 nm diode), and deep ultraviolet (deuterium lamp) illumination. Illumination induced shift of the electrical potential remains within 210 mV. We propose that the photovoltage actually corresponds to a shift of Fermi level inside the BDD channel and thereby explains orders of magnitude changes in photocurrent

  15. Spectrally dependent photovoltages in Schottky photodiode based on (100) B-doped diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čermák, Jan; Koide, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2014-02-01

    Spectrally and spatially resolved photovoltages were measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on a Schottky photo-diode made of a 4 nm thin tungsten-carbide (WC) layer on a 500 nm oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond epitaxial layer (O-BDD) that was grown on a Ib (100) diamond substrate. The diode was grounded by the sideways ohmic contact (Ti/WC), and the semitransparent Schottky contact was let unconnected. The electrical potentials across the device were measured in dark (only 650 nm LED of KPFM being on), under broad-band white light (halogen lamp), UV (365 nm diode), and deep ultraviolet (deuterium lamp) illumination. Illumination induced shift of the electrical potential remains within 210 mV. We propose that the photovoltage actually corresponds to a shift of Fermi level inside the BDD channel and thereby explains orders of magnitude changes in photocurrent.

  16. Study of indium-defect interactions in diamond using 2-D CEEC

    CERN Document Server

    Storbeck, E J; Wahl, U; Connell, S H; Sellschop, J P Friedel

    2000-01-01

    Channeling has, since its inception, proven to be a valuable tool in locating the geometric position of atoms in the crystal lattice. Allied with powerful theoretical models, it can yield detailed information on the positions that these impurities occupy. $^{111}$In, a radioactive isotope with a conveniently short half-life, is an often-used probe of heavy-atom doping of materials. Previous work has centred on the lattice location of $^{111}$In implanted in type IIa diamond. Theoretical calculations on this `pure' system have also recently been made. We have performed the first studies of $^{111}$In implanted into various carefully selected, defect-rich diamond systems and obtained fractions for the sites occupied. The defect systems investigated include nitrogen in various configurations, boron, hydrogen and vacancies. The use of two-dimensional conversion-electron emission channeling (CEEC) has enabled the system to be studied in greater detail than with conventional one-dimensional CEEC. Coupled with the a...

  17. Guided assembly of nanoparticles on electrostatically charged nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verveniotis Elisseos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We apply atomic force microscope for local electrostatic charging of oxygen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD thin films deposited on silicon, to induce electrostatically driven self-assembly of colloidal alumina nanoparticles into micro-patterns. Considering possible capacitive, sp2 phase and spatial uniformity factors to charging, we employ films with sub-100 nm thickness and about 60% relative sp2 phase content, probe the spatial material uniformity by Raman and electron microscopy, and repeat experiments at various positions. We demonstrate that electrostatic potential contrast on the NCD films varies between 0.1 and 1.2 V and that the contrast of more than ±1 V (as detected by Kelvin force microscopy is able to induce self-assembly of the nanoparticles via coulombic and polarization forces. This opens prospects for applications of diamond and its unique set of properties in self-assembly of nano-devices and nano-systems.

  18. Spectrally dependent photovoltages in Schottky photodiode based on (100) B-doped diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čermák, Jan, E-mail: cermakj@fzu.cz; Rezek, Bohuslav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnická 10, 16200 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Koide, Yasuo [Sensor Materials Center, National Institute for Material Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Takeuchi, Daisuke [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-02-07

    Spectrally and spatially resolved photovoltages were measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on a Schottky photo-diode made of a 4 nm thin tungsten-carbide (WC) layer on a 500 nm oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond epitaxial layer (O-BDD) that was grown on a Ib (100) diamond substrate. The diode was grounded by the sideways ohmic contact (Ti/WC), and the semitransparent Schottky contact was let unconnected. The electrical potentials across the device were measured in dark (only 650 nm LED of KPFM being on), under broad-band white light (halogen lamp), UV (365 nm diode), and deep ultraviolet (deuterium lamp) illumination. Illumination induced shift of the electrical potential remains within 210 mV. We propose that the photovoltage actually corresponds to a shift of Fermi level inside the BDD channel and thereby explains orders of magnitude changes in photocurrent.

  19. The Diamond machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heron, M.T.; Lay, S.; Chernousko, Y.; Hamadyk, P.; Rotolo, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source Machine Protection System (MPS) manages the hazards from high power photon beams and other hazards to ensure equipment protection on the booster synchrotron and storage ring. The system has a shutdown requirement, on a beam mis-steer of under 1 msec and has to manage in excess of a thousand interlocks. This is realised using a combination of bespoke hardware and programmable logic controllers. The MPS monitors a large number of interlock signals from diagnostics instrumentation, vacuum instrumentation, photon front ends and plant monitoring subsystems. Based on logic it can then remove the source of the energy to ensure protection of equipment. Depending on requirements, interlocks are managed on a Local or a Global basis. The Global system is structured as two layers, and supports fast- and slow-response-time interlock requirements. A Global MPS module takes the interlock permits for a given interlock circuit from each of the cells of the accelerator, and, subject to all interlocks being good, produces a permit to operate the source of energy: the RF amplifier for vessel protection and the PSU for magnet protection. The Local MPS module takes fast Interlock inputs from one cell of the Storage Ring or one quadrant of the Booster. Fast interlocks are those that must drop the beam in under 400 μsec (the maximum speed of the interlock) in the event of failure. EPIC provides the user interface to the MPS system

  20. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.; Aulbach, S.; Deines, P.

    Diamonds from the Kankan area in Guinea formed over a large depth profile beginning within the cratonic mantle lithosphere and extending through the asthenosphere and transition zone into the lower mantle. The carbon isotopic composition, the concentration of nitrogen impurities and the nitrogen aggregation level of diamonds representing this entire depth range have been determined. Peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds of lithospheric origin from Kankan have carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C: peridotitic -5.4 to -2.2‰ eclogitic -19.7 to -0.7‰) and nitrogen characteristics (N: peridotitic 17-648 atomic ppm; eclogitic 0-1,313 atomic ppm; aggregation from IaA to IaB) which are generally typical for diamonds of these two suites worldwide. Geothermobarometry of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusion parageneses (worldwide sources) indicates that both suites formed under very similar conditions within the cratonic lithosphere, which is not consistent with a derivation of diamonds with light carbon isotopic composition from subducted organic matter within subducting oceanic slabs. Diamonds containing majorite garnet inclusions fall to the isotopically heavy side (δ13C: -3.1‰ to +0.9‰) of the worldwide diamond population. Nitrogen contents are low (0-126 atomic ppm) and one of the two nitrogen-bearing diamonds shows such a low level of nitrogen aggregation (30% B-centre) that it cannot have been exposed to ambient temperatures of the transition zone (>=1,400 °C) for more than 0.2 Ma. This suggests rapid upward transport and formation of some Kankan diamonds pene-contemporaneous to Cretaceous kimberlite activity. Similar to these diamonds from the asthenosphere and the transition zone, lower mantle diamonds show a small shift towards isotopic heavy compositions (-6.6 to -0.5‰, mode at -3.5‰). As already observed for other mines, the nitrogen contents of lower mantle diamonds were below detection (using FTIRS). The mutual shift of sublithospheric diamonds towards

  1. Critical components for diamond-based quantum coherent devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greentree, Andrew D; Olivero, Paolo; Draganski, Martin; Trajkov, Elizabeth; Rabeau, James R; Reichart, Patrick; Gibson, Brant C; Rubanov, Sergey; Huntington, Shane T; Jamieson, David N; Prawer, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The necessary elements for practical devices exploiting quantum coherence in diamond materials are summarized, and progress towards their realization documented. A brief review of future prospects for diamond-based devices is also provided

  2. Prospects for the synthesis of large single-crystal diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khmelnitskiy, R A

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of diamond have stimulated the study of and search for its applications in many fields, including optics, optoelectronics, electronics, biology, and electrochemistry. Whereas chemical vapor deposition allows the growth of polycrystalline diamond plates more than 200 mm in diameter, most current diamond application technologies require large-size (25 mm and more) single-crystal diamond substrates or films suitable for the photolithography process. This is quite a challenge, because the largest diamond crystals currently available are 10 mm or less in size. This review examines three promising approaches to fabricating large-size diamond single crystals: growing large-size single crystals, the deposition of heteroepitaxial diamond films on single-crystal substrates, and the preparation of composite diamond substrates. (reviews of topical problems)

  3. Architecting boron nanostructure on the diamond particle surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, H.; Dai, D.; Yu, J.H.; Nishimura, K.; Sasaoka, S.; Jiang, N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides an efficient approach for nano-functionalization of diamond powders. Boron nanostructure can be grown on diamond particle entire surface by a simple heat-treatment process. After treatment, various boron nanoforms were grown on the diamond particle surface at different processing temperature. High-density boron nanowires (BNWs) grow on the diamond particle entire surface at 1333 K, while nanopillars cover diamond powders when the heat treatment process is performed at 1393 K. The influence of the pretreatment temperature on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of Cu/diamond composites were investigated. Cu/diamond composites with high thermal conductivity of 670 W (m K) −1 was obtained, which was achieved by the formation of large number of nanowires and nanopillars on the diamond particle surface.

  4. Development of diamond coated tool and its performance in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India ... chemical inertness of diamond coating towards the work material, did not show any .... CVD diamond coated carbide tools, Ph D Thesis, Indian.

  5. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  6. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  7. Encapsulation of electroless copper patterns into diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenov, S.M.; Shafeev, G.A.; Lavrischev, S.V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The results are reported on encapsulating copper lines into diamond films grown by a DC plasma CVD. The process includes the steps of (i) laser activation of diamond for electroless metal plating, (ii) electroless copper deposition selectively onto the activated surface regions, and (iii) diamond regrowth on the Cu-patterned diamond films. The composition and electrical properties of the encapsulated copper lines were examined, revealing high purity and low electrical resistivity of the encapsulated electroless copper.

  8. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  9. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Harris (Ohio State University)

    2008-06-24

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  10. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  11. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  12. Improvements in or relating to artefacts incorporating industrial diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, N.E.W.; Poole, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A process for improving the wear characteristics of industrial diamonds is described which consists of implanting into the surface regions of the diamonds, ions of a material having an atomic weight greater than one and such as to affect the surface properties of the diamonds. Examples of the invention, in which N + and C + ions have been used, are cited. (U.K.)

  13. An assessment of radiotherapy dosimeters based on CVD grown diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, S.; Buttar, C.M.; Conway, J.; Whitehead, A.J.; Sussman, R.S.; Hill, G.; Walker, S.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as a dosimeter for radiotherapy. Its radiation hardness, the near tissue equivalence and chemical inertness are some of the characteristics of diamond, which make it well suited for its application as a dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology have resulted in the improvement in the quality of material and increased its suitability for radiotherapy applications. We report in this paper, the response of prototype dosimeters based on two different types (CVD1 and CVD2) of CVD diamond to X-rays. The diamond devices were assessed for sensitivity, dependence of response on dose and dose rate, and compared with a Scanditronix silicon photon diode and a PTW natural diamond dosimeter. The diamond devices of CVD1 type showed an initial increase in response with dose, which saturates after ∼6 Gy. The diamond devices of CVD2 type had a response at low fields ( 1162.8 V/cm), the CVD2-type devices showed polarisation and dose-rate dependence. The sensitivity of the CVD diamond devices varied between 82 and 1300 nC/Gy depending upon the sample type and the applied voltage. The sensitivity of CVD diamond devices was significantly higher than that of natural diamond and silicon dosimeters. The results suggest that CVD diamond devices can be fabricated for successful use in radiotherapy applications

  14. Coesite inclusions in diamonds of Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardukhinov, L. D.; Spetsius, Z. V.; Monkhorov, R. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the study of diamonds with inclusions of high-pressure modification of SiO2 (coesite) by Raman spectroscopy are reported. It is established that the octahedral crystal from the Zapolyarnaya pipe is characterized by the highest residual pressure (2.7 ± 0.07 GPa). An intermediate value of this parameter (2.1 ± 0.07 GPa) was obtained for a crystal of transitional habit from the Maiskaya pipe. The minimal Raman shift was registered for coesite in diamond from the Komsomol'skaya-Magnitnaya pipe and provided a calculated residual pressure of 1.8 ± 0.03 GPa. The residual pressures for crystals from the placer deposits of the Kuoika and Bol'shaya Kuonamka rivers are 2.7 ± 0.07 and 3.1 ± 0.1 GPa, respectively. Octahedral crystals were formed in the mantle at a higher pressure than rhombododecahedral diamonds.

  15. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, M; Bauer, C; Berfermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2*4 cm/sup 2/ have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a beta source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (16 refs).

  16. Recent results with CVD diamond trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-08-01

    We present recent results on the use of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for charged particle tracking. A series of detectors was fabricated using 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} diamonds. Good signal-to-noise ratios were observed using both slow and fast readout electronics. For slow readout electronics, 2 {mu}s shaping time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 50 to 1. For fast readout electronics, 25 ns peaking time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 7 to 1. Using the first 2 x 4 cm{sup 2} diamond from a production CVD reactor with slow readout electronics, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 23 to 1. The spatial resolution achieved for the detectors was consistent with the digital resolution expected from the detector pitch.

  17. Recent results with CVD diamond trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    We present recent results on the use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for charged particle tracking. A series of detectors was fabricated using 1*1 cm/sup 2/ diamonds. Good signal-to-noise ratios were observed using both slow and fast readout electronics. For slow readout electronics, 2 mu s shaping time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 50 to 1. For fast readout electronics, 25 ns peaking time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 7 to 1. Using the first 2*4 cm/sup 2/ diamond from a production CVD reactor with slow readout electronics, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 23 to 1. The spatial resolution achieved for the detectors was consistent with the digital resolution expected from the detector pitch. (6 refs).

  18. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M. E-mail: markus.friedl@cern.ch; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2x4 cm{sup 2} have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a {beta} source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (author)

  19. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2×4 cm2 have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a β source or in a testbeam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5×10 15 cm-2 to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics.

  20. Photoluminescent properties of single crystal diamond microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykhin, Sergey A.; Ismagilov, Rinat R.; Tuyakova, Feruza T.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Fedotov, Pavel V.; Ermakova, Anna; Siyushev, Petr; Katamadze, Konstantin G.; Jelezko, Fedor; Rakovich, Yury P.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2018-01-01

    Single crystal needle-like diamonds shaped as rectangular pyramids were produced by combination of chemical vapor deposition and selective oxidation with dimensions and geometrical characteristics depending on the deposition process parameters. Photoluminescence spectra and their dependencies on wavelength of excitation radiation reveal presence of nitrogen- and silicon-vacancy color centers in the diamond crystallites. Photoluminescence spectra, intensity mapping, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy indicate that silicon-vacancy centers are concentrated at the crystallites apex while nitrogen-vacancy centers are distributed over the whole crystallite. Dependence of the photoluminescence on excitation radiation intensity demonstrates saturation and allows estimation of the color centers density. The combination of structural parameters, geometry and photoluminescent characteristics are prospective for advantageous applications of these diamond crystallites in quantum information processing and optical sensing.

  1. Diamond as a scaffold for bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kate; Palamara, Joseph; Judge, Roy; Greentree, Andrew D

    2013-04-01

    Diamond is an attractive material for biomedical implants. In this work, we investigate its capacity as a bone scaffold. It is well established that the bioactivity of a material can be evaluated by examining its capacity to form apatite-like calcium phosphate phases on its surface when exposed to simulated body fluid. Accordingly, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition were exposed to simulated body fluid and assessed for apatite growth when compared to the bulk silicon. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that both UNCD and PCD are capable of acting as a bone scaffold. The composition of deposited apatite suggests that UNCD and PCD are suitable for in vivo implantation with UNCD possible favoured in applications where rapid osseointegration is essential.

  2. Conductivity and superconductivity in heavily vacant diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Jafari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .

  3. Note: Evaluation of microfracture strength of diamond materials using nano-polycrystalline diamond spherical indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, H.; Hamaki, K.; Harano, K.

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-hard and high-strength spherical indenters with high precision and sphericity were successfully prepared from nanopolycrystalline diamond (NPD) synthesized by direct conversion sintering from graphite under high pressure and high temperature. It was shown that highly accurate and stable microfracture strength tests can be performed on various super-hard diamond materials by using the NPD spherical indenters. It was also verified that this technique enables quantitative evaluation of the strength characteristics of single crystal diamonds and NPDs which have been quite difficult to evaluate.

  4. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueter, Nico; Soesilo, Joko; Fedortchouk, Yana; Nestola, Fabrizio; Belluco, Lorenzo; Troch, Juliana; Wälle, Markus; Guillong, Marcel; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Driesner, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo (Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia) provide the largest known deposit of these so-called "headless" diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation. Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area (247 stones) and in West Borneo (Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones) points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Pressure of formation estimates for the peridotitic garnet at independently derived temperatures of 930-1250 °C are between 4.8 and 6.0 GPa. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. By analyzing almost 1400 zircons for trace element concentrations with laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) we tested the mineral's potential as an alternative kimberlite indicator. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make

  5. Electron field emission for ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, A. R.; Auciello, O.; Ding, M. Q.; Gruen, D. M.; Huang, Y.; Zhirnov, V. V.; Givargizov, E. I.; Breskin, A.; Chechen, R.; Shefer, E. (and others)

    2001-03-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films 0.1--2.4 {mu}m thick were conformally deposited on sharp single Si microtip emitters, using microwave CH{sub 4}--Ar plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in combination with a dielectrophoretic seeding process. Field-emission studies exhibited stable, extremely high (60--100 {mu}A/tip) emission current, with little variation in threshold fields as a function of film thickness or Si tip radius. The electron emission properties of high aspect ratio Si microtips, coated with diamond using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process were found to be very different from those of the UNCD-coated tips. For the HFCVD process, there is a strong dependence of the emission threshold on both the diamond coating thickness and Si tip radius. Quantum photoyield measurements of the UNCD films revealed that these films have an enhanced density of states within the bulk diamond band gap that is correlated with a reduction in the threshold field for electron emission. In addition, scanning tunneling microscopy studies indicate that the emission sites from UNCD films are related to minima or inflection points in the surface topography, and not to surface asperities. These data, in conjunction with tight binding pseudopotential calculations, indicate that grain boundaries play a critical role in the electron emission properties of UNCD films, such that these boundaries: (a) provide a conducting path from the substrate to the diamond--vacuum interface, (b) produce a geometric enhancement in the local electric field via internal structures, rather than surface topography, and (c) produce an enhancement in the local density of states within the bulk diamond band gap.

  6. Test of a high-heat-load double-crystal diamond monochromator at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.; Lee, W.-K.; Mills, D.M.; Rogers, C.S.; Assoufid, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have tested the first diamond double-crystal monochromator at the advanced photon source (APS). The monochromator consisted of two synthetic type 1b (111) diamond plates in symmetric Bragg geometry. The single-crystal plates were 6 mm x 5 mm x 0.25 mm and 6 mm x 5 mm x 0.37 mm and showed a combination of mosaic spread/strain of the order of 2-4 arcsec over a central 1.4 mm-wide strip. The monochromator first crystal was indirectly cooled by edge contact with a water-cooled copper holder. We studied the performance of the monochromator under the high-power X-ray beam delivered by the APS undulator A. By changing the undulator gap, we varied the power incident on the first crystal and found no indication of thermal distortions or strains even at the highest incident power (200 W) and power density (108 W/mm 2 in normal incidence). The calculated maximum power and power density absorbed by the first crystal were 14.5 W and 2.4 W/mm 2 , respectively. We also compared the maximum intensity delivered by this monochromator and by a silicon (111) cryogenically cooled monochromator. For energies in the range 6-10 keV, the flux through the diamond monochromator was about a factor of two less than through the silicon monochromator, in good agreement with calculations. We conclude that water-cooled diamond monochromators can handle the high-power beams from the undulator beamlines at the APS. As single-crystal diamond plates of larger size and better quality become available, the use of diamond monochromators will become a very attractive option. (orig.)

  7. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  8. Technical Assessment: Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pfizer, Bausch & Lomb, Coca - Cola , and other Fortune 500 companies 8 Data estimated by the... financial prize for ideas to drive forward the production of a sensor relying on synthetic organisms that can detect exposure to 500 specific chemicals

  9. Clinical dosimeter based on diamond detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervjakov, A.M.; Ljalina, L.I.; Ljutina, G.J.; Khrunov, V.S.; Martynov, S.S.; Popov, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Diamond detectors have found application in the relative dosimetry and their parameters have been described elsewhere. Today, the exclusive producer of the diamond detector is the Institute of Physical and Technical Problems, Russia, and exclusive dealer is the PTW-Freiburg. The main features of the diamond detector are good long time stability, suitable range of the energy dependence for photon and electron beams in clinical use, independence of the measured date from temperature and pressure. The high sensitivity per volume unit of the diamond detector (1500 times higher than ionization chamber) allowed using detectors with very small volume (1-5 mm 3 ) and rather simple electronics for ionization current registration. The new dosimeter consists of the diamond detector itself, 40 m registration cable, pre-amplifier, micro-processor block for data handling and absorbed dose calculation using the calibration factor of diamond detector in terms of absorbed dose to water. Dosimeter has the possibility to work with PC using standard RS-232 interface. The main features of the dosimeter are as follows: the range of dose rate measurements for photon, electron and proton beams is within 0.01-1.0 Gy/s; the energy ranges for photons are 0.08-25 MeV, and 4-25 MeV for electrons, with energy dependence no more than ±2%; the main uncertainty of the dose measurements is within ±2%; the pre-irradiation dose for diamond detector is no more than 10 Gy; the sensitive volume of the used diamond detectors is within 1-5 mm 3 ; the weight of the dosimeter no more than 2 kg. The new dosimeter was evaluated at the Central Research Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology, St. Petersburg, Russia to verify its performance. The dosimeter was used as a reference instrument for dose measurements at Cobalt-60 unit, SL75-5 and SL-20 linear accelerators and the test results have shown that the device have met the specifications. It is planned to produce dosimeter as serial device by

  10. Progress of Diamond-like Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Qing-yun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon(DLC films had many unique and outstanding properties such as high thermal conductivity, high hardness, excellent chemical inertness, low friction coefficients and wear coefficients. The properties and combinations were very promising for heat sink, micro-electromechanical devices, radiation hardening, biomedical devices, automotive industry and other technical applications, more research and a lot of attention were attracted in recent years. The research progress of diamond-like films and the nucleation mechanism of film were summarized, and application prospect of DLC films were demonstrated. The aim of this paper is to provide insights on the research trend of DLC films and the industry applications.

  11. Diamond drilling for nuclear waste QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, Martin.

    1990-01-01

    Specialised diamond core drilling equipment could soon have a role to play in the safe disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW). Equipment to core and extract samples for quality checking from cement-filled steel waste drums by techniques compatible with eventual remote-handling operations in a 'hot-cell' is being developed. All coring tests carried out to date have been on simulant waste: 200 litre drums containing mixtures of Ordinary Portland Cement, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Pulverised Fuel Ash. No radioactive materials have yet been used for the coring trials. The coring equipment and the diamond coring bits are described. (author)

  12. D.C. Arcjet Diamond Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Derrek Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films synthesized by a D.C. (direct current) arcjet device was reported for the first time in 1988. This device is capable of higher diamond growth rates than any other form of diamond CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process due to its inherent versatility with regard to the enthalpy and fluid properties of the diamond-depositing vapor. Unfortunately, the versatility of this type of device is contrasted by many difficulties such as arc stability and large heat fluxes which make applying it toward diamond deposition a difficult problem. The purpose of this work was to convert the dc arcjet, which is primarily a metallurgical device, into a commercially viable diamond CVD process. The project was divided into two parts: process development and diagnostics. The process development effort concentrated on the certain engineering challenges. Among these was a novel arcjet design that allowed the carbon-source gas to be injected downstream of the tungsten cathode while still facilitating mixture with the main gas feed. Another engineering accomplishment was the incorporation of a water -cooled substrate cooler/spinner that maintained the substrate at the proper temperature, provided the substrate with a large thermal time constant to reduce thermal shock of the diamond film, and enabled the system to achieve a four -inch diameter growth area. The process diagnostics effort concentrated on measurements aimed at developing a fundamental understanding of the properties of the plasma jet such as temperature, plasma density, Mach number, pressure at the substrate, etc. The plasma temperature was determined to be 5195 K by measuring the rotational temperature of C _2 via optical emission spectroscopy. The Mach number of the plasma jet was determined to be ~6.0 as determined by the ratio of the stagnation pressures before and after the shock wave in the plasma jet. The C_2 concentration in the plasma jet was determined to be {~10 }^{12} cm^ {-3} by

  13. Thermal diffusivity of diamond films using a laser pulse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, S.; Winfree, W.P.; Crews, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. A laser pulse technique was developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of diamond films deposited on a silicon substrate. The effective thermal diffusivity of a diamond film on silicon was measured by observing the phase and amplitude of the cyclic thermal waves generated by laser pulses. An analytical model is presented to calculate the effective inplane (face-parallel) diffusivity of a two-layer system. The model is used to reduce the effective thermal diffusivity of the diamond/silicon sample to a value for the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of the diamond film

  14. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Royen, J V

    2002-01-01

    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  15. Application of CVD diamond film for radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Haiyang; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhan Rujuan

    2005-01-01

    With the development of diamond synthesis at low pressure, the CVD diamond properties including electronic characteristics have improved continuously. Now the fabrication of electronic devices based on the CVD diamond has been one of hot research subjects in this field. Due to many unique advantages, such as high signal-noise ratio, fast time response, and normal output in extremely harsh surrounding, the CVD diamond radiation detector has attracted more and more interest. In this paper, we have reviewed the development and status of the CVD diamond radiation detector. The prospect of this detector is described. (authors)

  16. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P S; Prawer, S; Nugent, K W; Bettiol, A A; Kostidis, L I; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Study on the Effect of Diamond Grain Size on Wear of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rani, A. M.; Che Sidid, Adib Akmal Bin; Adzis, Azri Hamim Ab

    2018-03-01

    Drilling operation is one of the most crucial step in oil and gas industry as it proves the availability of oil and gas under the ground. Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bit is a type of bit which is gaining popularity due to its high Rate of Penetration (ROP). However, PDC bit can easily wear off especially when drilling hard rock. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between the grain sizes of the diamond and wear rate of the PDC cutter using simulation-based study with FEA software (ABAQUS). The wear rates of a PDC cutter with a different diamond grain sizes were calculated from simulated cuttings of cutters against granite. The result of this study shows that the smaller the diamond grain size, the higher the wear resistivity of PDC cutter.

  19. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 μm 2 . After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs

  20. X-ray topographic study of diamonds: implications for the genetic nature of inclusions in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrosì, Giovanna; Nestola, Fabrizio; Tempesta, Gioacchino; Bruno, Marco; Scandale, Eugenio; Harris, Jeff W.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, several studies have focused on the growth conditions of the diamonds through the analysis of the mineral inclusions trapped in them (Howell, 2012 and references therein). Nevertheless, to obtain rigorous information about chemical and physical conditions of diamond formation, it is crucial to determine if the crystallization of the inclusions occurred before (protogenetic nature), during (syngenetic nature) or after (epigenetic nature) the growth of diamond (Wiggers de Vries et al., 2011). X-ray topography (XRDT) can be a helpful tool to verify the genetic nature of inclusions in diamond. This technique characterizes the extended defects and reconstructs the growth history of the samples (Agrosì et al., 2013 and references therein) and, consequently contributes to elucidation of the relationship between the inclusions and the host-diamond. With this aim a diamond from the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberia, was investigated. The diamond crystal was the one previously studied by Nestola et al. (2011) who performed in-situ crystal structure refinement of the inclusions to obtain data about the formation pressure. The inclusions were iso-oriented olivines that did not show evident cracks and subsequently could not be considered epigenetic. Optical observations revealed an anomalous birefringence in the adjacent diamond and the inclusions had typical "diamond-imposed cubo-octahedral" shape for the largest olivine. The diffraction contrast study shows that the diamond exhibits significant deformation fields related to plastic post growth deformation. The crystallographic direction of strains was established applying the extinction criterion. Section topographs were taken to minimize the overlapping of the strain field associate with the different defects and revealed that no dislocations nucleated from the olivine inclusions. Generally, when a solid inclusion has been incorporated in the growing crystal, the associated volume distortion can be minimized by

  1. Adsorption of polar aromatic hydrocarbons on synthetic calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene; Grahl-Madsen, Laila; Grøn, Christian

    1996-01-01

    The wettability of hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. A model system of synthetic call cite, cyclohexane and the three probe molecules: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine, have been...

  2. One step deposition of highly adhesive diamond films on cemented carbide substrates via diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Hao; Jiang, Xin, E-mail: xin.jiang@uni-siegen.de

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite gradient interlayers were synthesized. • The interlayer features a cross-sectional gradient with increasing diamond content. • Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process. • The adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. • The stress was suppressed by manipulating the distribution of diamond and silicon carbide. - Abstract: Deposition of adherent diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrates has been realized by application of diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite interlayers. Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. Two different kinds of interlayers have been employed, namely, gradient interlayer and interlayer with constant composition. The distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide phases was precisely controlled by manipulating the gas phase composition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the existence of diamond, beta-silicon carbide and cobalt silicides (Co{sub 2}Si, CoSi) phases, as well as the quality of diamond crystal and the residual stress in the films. Rockwell-C indentation tests were carried out to evaluate the film adhesion. It is revealed that the adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. This is mainly influenced by the residual stress in the diamond top layer, which is induced by the different thermal expansion coefficient of the film and the substrate. It is even possible to further suppress the stress by manipulating the distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide in the interlayer. The most adhesive diamond film on cemented carbide is thus obtained by employing a gradient composite interlayer.

  3. Mechanical pretreatment for improved adhesion of diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Mohlfeld, A.; Gey, C.; Winkler, J.

    1999-01-01

    Diamond coatings are mainly used in cutting processes due to their tribological characteristics. They show a high hardness, low friction coefficient, high wear resistance and good chemical inertness. In relation to polycrystalline diamond (PCD)-tipped cutting inserts, especially the advantageous chemical stability of diamond coatings is superior as no binder phases between diamond grains are used. However, the deposition of adherent high-quality diamond coatings has been found difficult. Thus, substrate pretreatment is utilised to improve film adhesion. This investigation is based on water peening of the substrate material before coating. The investigation revealed best results for diamond film adhesion on pretreated substrates compared to conventional diamond coatings on cemented carbide tools applied with the CVD hot-filament process. In final cutting tests with increased film adhesion trough water peened cutting tools an improved wear behavior was detected. (orig.)

  4. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of chemically vapour deposited diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Weiser, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Polarized micro-Raman spectra of chemically vapour deposited diamond films are presented. It is shown that important parameters often extracted from the Raman spectra such as the ratio of the diamond to non-diamond component of the films and the estimation of the level of residual stress depend on the orientation of the diamond crystallites with respect to the polarization of the incident laser beam. The dependence originates from the fact that the Raman scattering from the non-diamond components in the films is almost completely depolarized whilst the scattering from the diamond components is strongly polarized. The results demonstrate the importance of taking polarization into account when attempting to use Raman spectroscopy in even a semi-quantitative fashion for the assessment of the purity, perfection and stress in CVD diamond films. 8 refs., 1 tab. 2 figs

  5. ROLE OF DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTERS IN HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of using diamond secondary emitter in a high average current electron injector to amplify the current from the photocathode and to isolate the cathode and the injector from each other to increase the life time of the cathode and preserve the performance of the injector. Secondary electron yield of 225 and current density of 0.8 a/cm 2 have been measured in the transmission mode from type 2 a natural diamond. Although the diamond will be heated during normal operation in the injector, calculations indicate that by cryogenically cooling the diamond, the temperature gradient along the diamond can be maintained within the acceptable range. The electron energy and temporal distributions are expected to be narrow from this device resulting in high brightness beams. Plans are underway to measure the SEY in emission mode, fabricate photocathode-diamond capsule and test diamond and capsule in superconducting RF injector

  6. Diamond particle detectors systems in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Kock Kiam

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using diamond detect or s has matured from devices based on a rather large pads to highly granular pixelated device s . The ATLAS experiment has recently installed a diamond pixel detector, the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), to measure the luminosity in the upgraded LHC with higher instantaneous luminosity. Polycrystalline diamonds were used to fabricate the diamond pixel modules. The design , production, and test beam result s are described. CMS also has a similar plan to construct a diamond based luminosity monitor, the Pixel Luminos ity Telescope s (PLT) . In a pilot run using single crystal diamond, the pulse height was found to depend on the luminosity . Consequently the collaboration decided to use silicon instead due to time constrain ts .

  7. Graphene-on-diamond devices with increased current-carrying capacity: carbon sp2-on-sp3 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Liu, Guanxiong; Sumant, Anirudha V; Goyal, Vivek; Balandin, Alexander A

    2012-03-14

    Graphene demonstrated potential for practical applications owing to its excellent electronic and thermal properties. Typical graphene field-effect transistors and interconnects built on conventional SiO(2)/Si substrates reveal the breakdown current density on the order of 1 μA/nm(2) (i.e., 10(8) A/cm(2)), which is ~100× larger than the fundamental limit for the metals but still smaller than the maximum achieved in carbon nanotubes. We show that by replacing SiO(2) with synthetic diamond, one can substantially increase the current-carrying capacity of graphene to as high as ~18 μA/nm(2) even at ambient conditions. Our results indicate that graphene's current-induced breakdown is thermally activated. We also found that the current carrying capacity of graphene can be improved not only on the single-crystal diamond substrates but also on an inexpensive ultrananocrystalline diamond, which can be produced in a process compatible with a conventional Si technology. The latter was attributed to the decreased thermal resistance of the ultrananocrystalline diamond layer at elevated temperatures. The obtained results are important for graphene's applications in high-frequency transistors, interconnects, and transparent electrodes and can lead to the new planar sp(2)-on-sp(3) carbon-on-carbon technology. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. Diamond Beamline I16 (Materials and Magnetism)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S. P.; Bombardi, A.; Marshall, A. R.; Williams, J. H.; Barlow, G.; Day, A. G.; Pearson, M. R.; Woolliscroft, R. J.; Walton, R. D.; Beutier, G.; Nisbet, G.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the key features and performance specifications of a facility for high-resolution single-crystal x-ray diffraction at Diamond Light Source. The scientific emphasis of the beamline is materials- and x-ray-physics, including resonant and magnetic scattering. We highlight some of the more novel aspects of the beamline design.

  9. Diamond Light Source: status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materlik, Gerhard; Rayment, Trevor; Stuart, David I

    2015-03-06

    Diamond Light Source, a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facility in the UK, celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2012. A private limited company was set up in April 2002 to plan, construct and operate the new user-oriented SR facility, called in brief Diamond. It succeeded the Synchrotron Radiation Source in Daresbury, a second-generation synchrotron that opened in 1980 as the world's first dedicated X-ray-providing facility, closing finally in 2008, by which time Diamond's accelerators and first beamlines were operating and user experiments were under way. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A gives some examples of the rich diversity of research done in the initial five years, with some glimpses of activity up to 2014. Speakers at the 10 year anniversary symposium were drawn from a small number of major thematic areas and each theme was elaborated by a few speakers whose contributions were placed into a broader context by a leading member of the UK academic community in the role of rapporteur. This introduction gives a summary of the design choices and strategic planning of Diamond as a coherent user facility, a snapshot of its present status and some consideration of future perspectives. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Structuring of diamond films using microsphere lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domonkos, Mária; Ižák, Tibor; Štolcová, L.; Proška, J.; Demo, Pavel; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2014), s. 320-324 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanostructuring * diamond thin films * polystyrene microspheres * reactive ion etching * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  11. HFCVD Diamond-Coated Mechanical Seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Simões

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical seal promotes the connection between systems or mechanisms, preventing the escape of fluids to the exterior. Nonetheless, due to extreme working conditions, premature failure can occur. Diamond, due to its excellent properties, is heralded as an excellent choice to cover the surface of these devices and extend their lifetime. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to deposit diamond films over mechanical seals and test the coated seals on a water pump, under real working conditions. The coatings were created by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD and two consecutive layers of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond were deposited. One of the main difficulties is the attainment of a good adhesion between the diamond films and the mechanical seal material (WC-Co. Nucleation, deposition conditions, and pre-treatments were studied to enhance the coating. Superficial wear or delamination of the film was investigated using SEM and Raman characterization techniques, in order to draw conclusions about the feasibility of these coatings in the WC-Co mechanical seals with the purpose of increasing their performance and life time. The results obtained gave a good indication about the feasibility of this process and the deposition conditions used, with the mechanical seals showing no wear and no film delamination after a real work environment test.

  12. Quantum sensors based on single diamond defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelezko Fedor

    2014-01-01

    NV centers in diamond are promising sensors able to detect electric and magnetic fields at nanoscale. Here we report on the detection of biomolecules using magnetic noise induced by their electron and nuclear spins. Presented results show first steps towards establishing novel sensing technology for visualizing single proteins and study of their dynamics. (author)

  13. Grain boundary effects in nanocrystalline diamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef; Nesládek, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 9 (2008), 2163-2168 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond film * grain boundary * superconductivity * noise * ballistic transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2008

  14. Diamond structures grown from polymer composite nanofibers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Štěpán; Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav; Martinová, L.; Pokorný, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 519-521 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemical vapour deposition * composite polymer * nanocrystalline diamond * nanofiber sheet * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  15. Laser systems with diamond optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    High power laser systems with optical elements of diamond having a thermal conductivity of at least 10 W/cm. 0 K at 300 0 K and an optical absorption at the laser beam wavelength of no more than 10 to 20 percent are described. (U.S.)

  16. Trading diamonds for guns | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... ... from war zones to Belgian brokers to jewellery stores wasn't easy. ... The UN Security Council began to take a major interest in Sierra Leone and its ... and industry and government to play in the regulatory body for diamonds ...

  17. Tribology: Diamonds are forever - or are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The friction and wear of materials is part of our everyday experience, and yet these processes are not well understood. The example of diamond highlights wear processes that result from bumping atoms, showing that the devil is indeed in the details.

  18. Point contact to single-crystalline diamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Uxa, Štěpán; Krištofik, Jozef; Kozak, Halyna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2012), 1-4 ISSN 0268-1242 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : point-contact * diamond * space-charge–limited transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.921, year: 2012

  19. Diamond-based single-photon emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonovich, I; Castelletto, S; Simpson, D A; Su, C-H; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation of emerging quantum technologies requires efficient fabrication of key building blocks. Sources of single photons are extremely important across many applications as they can serve as vectors for quantum information-thereby allowing long-range (perhaps even global-scale) quantum states to be made and manipulated for tasks such as quantum communication or distributed quantum computation. At the single-emitter level, quantum sources also afford new possibilities in terms of nanoscopy and bio-marking. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, as they are a photostable solid-state source of single photons at room temperature. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of diamond-based single-photon emitters and highlight their fabrication methodologies. We present the experimental techniques used to characterize the quantum emitters and discuss their photophysical properties. We outline a number of applications including quantum key distribution, bio-marking and sub-diffraction imaging, where diamond-based single emitters are playing a crucial role. We conclude with a discussion of the main challenges and perspectives for employing diamond emitters in quantum information processing.

  20. Diamond Turning Of Infra-Red Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, B.; Lettington, A. H.; Stillwell, P. F. T. C.

    1986-05-01

    Single point diamond machining of infra-red optical components such as aluminium mirrors, germanium lenses and zinc sulphide domes is potentially the most cost effective method for their manufacture since components may be machined from the blanks to a high surface finish, requiring no subsequent polishing, in a few minutes. Machines for the production of flat surfaces are well established. Diamond turning lathes for curved surfaces however require a high capital investment which can be justified only for research purposes or high volume production. The present paper describes the development of a low cost production machine based on a Bryant Symons diamond turning lathe which is able to machine spherical components to the required form and finish. It employs two horizontal spindles one for the workpiece the other for the tool. The machined radius of curvature is set by the alignment of the axes and the radius of the tool motion, as in conventional generation. The diamond tool is always normal to the workpiece and does not need to be accurately profiled. There are two variants of this basic machine. For machining hemispherical domes the axes are at right angles while for lenses with positive or negative curvature these axes are adjustable. An aspherical machine is under development, based on the all mechanical spherical machine, but in which a ± 2 mm aspherecity may be imposed on the best fit sphere by moving the work spindle under numerical control.

  1. A nitrogen doped low-dislocation density free-standing single crystal diamond plate fabricated by a lift-off process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokuno, Yoshiaki, E-mail: mokuno-y@aist.go.jp; Kato, Yukako; Tsubouchi, Nobuteru; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Hideaki; Shikata, Shinichi [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2014-06-23

    A nitrogen-doped single crystal diamond plate with a low dislocation density is fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a high pressure high temperature synthetic type IIa seed substrate by ion implantation and lift-off processes. To avoid sub-surface damage, the seed surface was subjected to deep ion beam etching. In addition, we introduced a nitrogen flow during the CVD step to grow low-strain diamond at a relatively high growth rate. This resulted in a plate with low birefringence and a dislocation density as low as 400 cm{sup −2}, which is the lowest reported value for a lift-off plate. Reproducing this lift-off process may allow mass-production of single crystal CVD diamond plates with low dislocation density and consistent quality.

  2. AG, TL, and IRSL dosimetric properties in X-ray irradiated HPHT diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Tolano, M.I. [Programa de Posgrado, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A. P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190, Mexico (Mexico); Melendrez, R.; Lancheros-Olmos, J.C.; Soto-Puebla, D.; Chernov, V.; Pedroza-Montero, M.; Barboza-Flores, M. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A. P. 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83190, Mexico (Mexico); Castaneda, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000, Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    HPHT diamonds have been studied for several years for their potential in different applications. In previous studies it has been found that the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of ''as-grown'' HPHT diamonds are non-reproducible. In this work, we study the afterglow (AG), thermoluminescent (TL), and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of commercial samples of synthetic HPHT type-Ib diamond crystals exposed to X-ray irradiation (0.75 mA, 35 kV) at a dose rate of 0.624 Gy/s, after a high gamma ({sup 60}Co) dose irradiation of 500 kGy followed by a thermal treatment at 1073 K for 1 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Deconvolution of the TL glow curves shows four peaks, located around 379, 509, 561, and 609 K. The crystals exhibit evident AG recorded for 300 s immediately after X-ray irradiation, due to the thermal emptying of the traps responsible for the low-temperature TL peaks (below 400 K). The stimulation of irradiated crystals with 870-nm light, creates pronounced OSL and destroys all TL peaks with the exception of the high-temperature peak at 609 K. The dose responses of the integrated AG, TL, and OSL are linear in the range of 0.6-5 Gy and saturated at higher doses. The reproducibility of AG, TL, and OSL measurements is about 5%. The fading in the first hour of storage in dark conditions at RT of TL signal of HPHT diamond is mainly associated to the emptying of the traps responsible for the 379-K TL peaks. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Diamond turning of small Fresnel lens array in single crystal InSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinevicius, R G; Duduch, J G; Cirino, G A; Pizani, P S

    2013-01-01

    A small Fresnel lens array was diamond turned in a single crystal (0 0 1) InSb wafer using a half-radius negative rake angle (−25°) single-point diamond tool. The machined array consisted of three concave Fresnel lenses cut under different machining sequences. The Fresnel lens profiles were designed to operate in the paraxial domain having a quadratic phase distribution. The sample was examined by scanning electron microscopy and an optical profilometer. Optical profilometry was also used to measure the surface roughness of the machined surface. Ductile ribbon-like chips were observed on the cutting tool rake face. No signs of cutting edge wear was observed on the diamond tool. The machined surface presented an amorphous phase probed by micro Raman spectroscopy. A successful heat treatment of annealing was carried out to recover the crystalline phase on the machined surface. The results indicated that it is possible to perform a ‘mechanical lithography’ process in single crystal semiconductors. (paper)

  4. Hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell: Application to studies of geologic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming

    2003-01-01

    The hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC) was designed to simulate the geologic conditions of crustal processes in the presence of water or other fluids. The HDAC has been used to apply external pressure to both synthetic and natural fluid inclusions in quartz to minimize problems caused by stretching or decrepitation of inclusions during microthermometric analysis. When the HDAC is loaded with a fluid sample, it can be considered as a large synthetic fluid inclusion and therefore, can be used to study the PVTX properties as well as phase relations of the sample fluid. Because the HDAC has a wide measurement pressure-temperature range and also allows in-situ optical observations, it has been used to study critical phenomena of various chemical systems, such as the geologically important hydrous silicate melts. It is possible, when the HDAC is combined with synchrotron X-ray sources, to obtain basic information on speciation and structure of metal including rare-earth elements (REE) complexes in hydrothermal solutions as revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra. Recent modifications of the HDAC minimize the loss of intensity of X-rays due to scattering and absorption by the diamonds. These modifications are especially important for studying elements with absorption edges below 10 keV and therefore particularly valuable for our understanding of transport and deposition of first-row transition elements and REE in hydrothermal environments.

  5. High sensitivity thermal sensors on insulating diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Job, R. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices; Denisenko, A.V. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices; Zaitsev, A.M. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices; Melnikov, A.A. [Belarussian State Univ., Minsk (Belarus). HEII and FD; Werner, M. [VDI/VDE-IT, Teltow (Germany); Fahrner, W.R. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices

    1996-12-15

    Diamond is a promising material to develop sensors for applications in harsh environments. To increase the sensitivity of diamond temperature sensors the effect of thermionic hole emission (TE) over an energetic barrier formed in the interface between highly boron-doped p-type and intrinsic insulating diamond areas has been suggested. To study the TE of holes a p-i-p diode has been fabricated and analyzed by electrical measurements in the temperature range between 300 K and 700 K. The experimental results have been compared with numerical simulations of its electrical characteristics. Based on a model of the thermionic emission of carriers into an insulator it has been suggested that the temperature sensitivity of the p-i-p diode on diamond is strongly affected by the re-emission of holes from a group of donor-like traps located at a level of 0.7-1.0 eV above the valence band. The mechanism of thermal activation of the current includes a spatial redistribution of the potential, which results in the TE regime from a decrease of the immobilized charge of the ionized traps within the i-zone of the diode and the correspondent lowering of the forward biased barrier. The characteristics of the p-i-p diode were studied with regard to temperature sensor applications. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR=-0.05 K{sup -1}) for temperatures above 600 K is about four times larger than the maximal attainable TCR for conventional boron-doped diamond resistors. (orig.)

  6. Measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, J. H.; Coles, D. E.

    Some measurements in a synthetic turbulent boundary layer (SBL) are reported. The main diagnostic tool is an X-wire probe. The velocity of the large eddies is determined to be 0.842 times the freestream velocity. The mean properties of the SBL are reasonably close to those of a natural turbulent boundary layer. The large eddy in the SBL appears to be a pair of counterrotating eddies in the stream direction, inclined at a shallow angle and occupying much of the boundary-layer thickness.

  7. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  8. Probe Techniques. Introductory Remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeleus, K. G. [School of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    1968-04-15

    In this brief introduction to the session on probes, the history of theii development is first touched on briefly. Reference is then made to the significance of the work to be described by Medicus, for conductivity and recombination calculations, and by Lam and Su, for a wide range of medium and higher pressure plasmas. Finally, a number of other probe topics are mentioned, including multiple probes; probes in electronegative plasmas; resonance probes; probes in noisy discharges; probes as oscillation detectors; use of probes where space-charge is not negligible. (author)

  9. Infrared absorption studies of the annealing of irradiated diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    Natural (types Ia and IIa) and synthetic (type Ib) diamonds have been irradiated with energetic electrons and neutrons and then heated at temperatures up to 1400 deg C. Attendant changes in the infrared absorption spectra, especially above the Raman frequency (1332 cm -1 ), have been monitored. The most prominent absorption to develop in the infrared region proper, on annealing both type Ia and type Ib specimens, whether electron- or neutron-irradiated is the H1a line at 1450 cm -1 . Measurements taken of neutron-irradiated type Ia specimens show that the strength of this line is specimen-dependent, and that it is a linear function of radiation dose. Isochronal annealing studies show that the onset of the line occurs during heating at 250 deg C for type Ia specimens and at 650 deg C for type Ib specimens. The absorption begins to weaken during heating at 1100 deg C, but it is very persistent, surviving an anneal of 4 hours at 1400 deg C, albeit with diminished intensity. Three other weaker lines at 1438, 1358 and 1355 cm -1 develop with the 1450 cm -1 line, but differ from it and from each other in subsequent annealing behaviour. Other lines were observed; these are reported and discussed. (author)

  10. Applications of diamond films and related materials; Proceedings of the 1st International Conference, Auburn, AL, Aug. 17-22, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua (Editor); Yoshikawa, Manasori (Editor); Murakawa, Masao (Editor); Feldman, Albert (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference discusses the nucleation and growth of diamond from hydrocarbons, the cutting tool performance of CVD thick-film diamond, the characterization of CVD diamond grinding powder, industrial applications of crystalline diamond-coated tools, standardized SEM tribometry of diamond-coated substrates, residual stress in CVD diamond films, the optical properties of CVD diamond films, polycrystalline diamond films for optical applications, and diamond growth on ferrous metals. Also discussed are ion beam-irradiation smoothing of diamond films, electronic circuits on diamond substrates, diamond-laminated surfaces for evaporative spray cooling, electron devices based on the unique properties of diamond, diamond cold cathodes, thin-film diamond microstructure applications, Schottky diodes from flame-grown diamond, diamond films for thermionic applications, methods of diamond nucleation and selective deposition, high-rate/large-area diamond film production, halogen-assisted diamond growth, the economics of diamond technology, and the optical and mechanical properties of diamondlike films.

  11. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Quanchao [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Yunnan Copper Smelting and Processing Complex, Yunnan Copper (Group) CO., LTD., Kunming 650102 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Peng, Jinghui [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Xu, Lei, E-mail: xulei_kmust@aliyun.com [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Srinivasakannan, C. [Chemical Engineering Department, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); and others

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  12. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Quanchao; Peng, Jinghui; Xu, Lei; Srinivasakannan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  13. Micro-texturing into DLC/diamond coated molds and dies via high density oxygen plasma etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunata Ersyzario Edo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD-diamond films have been widely utilized not only as a hard protective coating for molds and dies but also as a functional substrate for bio-MEMS/NEMS. Micro-texturing into these hard coated molds and dies provides a productive tool to duplicate the original mother micro-patterns onto various work materials and to construct any tailored micro-textures for sensors and actuators. In the present paper, the high density oxygen plasma etching method is utilized to make micro-line and micro-groove patterns onto the DLC and diamond coatings. Our developing oxygen plasma etching system is introduced together with characterization on the plasma state during etching. In this quantitative plasma diagnosis, both the population of activated species and the electron and ion densities are identified through the emissive light spectroscopy and the Langmuir probe method. In addition, the on-line monitoring of the plasmas helps to describe the etching process. DLC coated WC (Co specimen is first employed to describe the etching mechanism by the present method. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD diamond coated WC (Co is also employed to demonstrate the reliable capacity of the present high density oxygen plasma etching. This oxygen plasma etching performance is discussed by comparison of the etching rates.

  14. Assessment of MicroDiamond PTW 60019 detector and its comparison with other detectors for relative dosimetry in small radiosurgery fields of the Leksell gamma knife perfexion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J. Jr.; Kozubikova, P.; Pastykova, V.; Pipek, J.; Bhatnagar, J. P.; Huq, M. S.; Veselsky, T.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of relative output factors (ROF) for the Leksell Gamma Knife (LGK) is not a trivial task due to strict demands of an accurate set up and small size of measured radiosurgery fields. The purpose of this study was to perform an assessment of a new synthetic single crystal MicroDiamond PTW 60019 detector (volume 0.004 mm 3 ) for measurement of ROFs for 4 mm and 8 mm collimators for the LGK Perfexion. Small sensitive volume of this detector, near water equivalence and low energy dependence make it an attractive candidate for small field dosimetry. Results obtained in this study were compared with results measured by broad variety of different detectors and also Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. MicroDiamond detector connected to PTW UNIDOS electrometer was positioned in ELEKTA spherical phantom and pre-irradiated to dose of 5 Gy. Measurements were performed in two different detector positions: 1) parallel with table axis, 2) orthogonal to table axis. Electrometer timer of 1 min was used to measure subsequently signal from 16 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm beams. Altogether ten measurements were performed for each of three collimator sizes. Results from MicroDiamond were compared with those obtained from various types of detectors used in the past by authors for measurement of LGK ROFs. New synthetic single crystal MicroDiamond PTW 60019 detector appears to be a very promising detector for relative output factor measurements in very small radiosurgery fields. (authors)

  15. What Are Synthetic Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... years, synthetic cannabinoid mixtures have been easy to buy in drug paraphernalia shops, novelty stores, gas stations, and over ... abuse, authorities have made it illegal to sell, buy, or possess some of ... use is that standard drug tests cannot easily detect many of the chemicals ...

  16. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  17. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  18. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  19. Synthetic Metabolic Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Synthetic Metabolic Pathways: Methods and Protocols aims to ensure successful results in the further study...

  20. A density functional theory study of models for the N3 and OK1 EPR centres in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etmimi, K M; Goss, J P; Briddon, P R; Gsiea, A M

    2010-01-01

    The defects observed in natural and synthetic diamonds provide a fingerprint of their differing growth conditions, as well as the thermal and mechanical processes they have experienced. Of the first row elements it is perhaps surprising that little evidence exists for oxygen in the form of distributed point-defects. Paramagnetic centres labelled N3 and OK1 have been assigned to two structural arrangements of pairs of substitutional nitrogen and oxygen, but there is no direct evidence for the involvement of the oxygen. In this paper we present the results of density functional simulations of N-O pairs in diamond, and review them in light of the experimental evidence. We also present analysis for other structures proposed in the literature (Ti-N, Ti-V-N, NV 2 and NVO), and show that none are particularly plausible.

  1. Performance and characterisation of CVD diamond coated, sintered diamond and WC-Co cutting tools for dental and micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein, Htet; Ahmed, Waqar; Jackson, Mark; Woodwards, Robert; Polini, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Diamond coatings are attractive for cutting processes due to their high hardness, low friction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and chemical inertness. The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools was the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size 1-3 μm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates, it is necessary to etch away the surface Co and prepare the surface for subsequent diamond growth. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films. Diamond film quality and purity have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The performance of diamond coated WC-Co bur, uncoated WC-Co bur, and diamond embedded (sintered) bur have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human teeth, borosilicate glass and porcelain teeth. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools. The materials subjected to cutting processes have been examined to assess the quality of the finish. Diamond coated WC-Co microdrills and uncoated microdrills were also tested on aluminium alloys. Results show that there was a 300% improvement when the drills were coated with diamond compared to the uncoated tools

  2. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K. [eds.

    1993-01-01

    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  3. Protecting a Diamond Quantum Memory by Charge State Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Simon, Patrick; Antonov, Denis; Thiering, Gergő; Burk, Sina; Fávaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Denisenko, Andrej; Fedder, Helmut; Meijer, Jan; Garrido, Jose A; Gali, Adam; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Isoya, Junichi; Doherty, Marcus William; Alkauskas, Audrius; Gallo, Alejandro; Grüneis, Andreas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-10-11

    In recent years, solid-state spin systems have emerged as promising candidates for quantum information processing. Prominent examples are the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, phosphorus dopants in silicon (Si:P), rare-earth ions in solids, and V Si -centers in silicon-carbide. The Si:P system has demonstrated that its nuclear spins can yield exceedingly long spin coherence times by eliminating the electron spin of the dopant. For NV centers, however, a proper charge state for storage of nuclear spin qubit coherence has not been identified yet. Here, we identify and characterize the positively charged NV center as an electron-spin-less and optically inactive state by utilizing the nuclear spin qubit as a probe. We control the electronic charge and spin utilizing nanometer scale gate electrodes. We achieve a lengthening of the nuclear spin coherence times by a factor of 4. Surprisingly, the new charge state allows switching of the optical response of single nodes facilitating full individual addressability.

  4. MD#1182: Calibration of diamond particle detectors in IP6

    CERN Document Server

    Valette, Matthieu; Lindstrom, Bjorn Hans Filip; Wiesner, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In case of an asynchronous beam dump with a fully filled LHC machine it is expected that all standard ionisation chamber Beam Loss Monitors (IC BLM) around the LHC dumping region in IP6 will be saturated. Diamond Beam Loss Monitors (dBLM) were therefore installed next to the movable dump protection absorber (TCDQ) downstream of the extraction kickers. These detectors allow resolving losses at a nanosecond timescale and with an dynamic range of several orders of magnitude; thus, allowing to know the number of nominal bunches impacting the TCDQ. After a first series of calibrations using asynchronous beam dump tests, an experiment was conducted during MD#1182 to demonstrate the possibility of resolving a nominal bunch hitting the TCDQ. The impact parameter of the bunches on the TCDQ was first scanned using probe bunches with lower intensity then tests were done with nominal bunches (1.1e11 p/bunch) at injection energy. High energy calibration of the losses was also attempted unsuccessfully. Due to different beh...

  5. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: desio@arcetri.astro.it; Pace, E. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, v. G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Achard, J.; Tallaire, A. [LIMHP-CNRS, University of Paris XIII, 99 Avenue JB Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2007-07-15

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices.

  6. Diamond based adsorbents and their application in chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peristyy, Anton A; Fedyanina, Olga N; Paull, Brett; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2014-08-29

    The idea of using diamond and diamond containing materials in separation sciences has attracted a strong interest in the past decade. The combination of a unique range of properties, such as chemical inertness, mechanical, thermal and hydrolytic stability, excellent thermal conductivity with minimal thermal expansion and intriguing adsorption properties makes diamond a promising material for use in various modes of chromatography. This review summarises the recent research on the preparation of diamond and diamond based stationary phases, their properties and chromatographic performance. Special attention is devoted to the dominant retention mechanisms evident for particular diamond containing phases, and their subsequent applicability to various modes of chromatography, including chromatography carried out under conditions of high temperature and pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vertically aligned nanowires from boron-doped diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nianjun; Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Osawa, Eiji; Nebel, Christoph E

    2008-11-01

    Vertically aligned diamond nanowires with controlled geometrical properties like length and distance between wires were fabricated by use of nanodiamond particles as a hard mask and by use of reactive ion etching. The surface structure, electronic properties, and electrochemical functionalization of diamond nanowires were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as electrochemical techniques. AFM and STM experiments show that diamond nanowire etched for 10 s have wire-typed structures with 3-10 nm in length and with typically 11 nm spacing in between. The electrode active area of diamond nanowires is enhanced by a factor of 2. The functionalization of nanowire tips with nitrophenyl molecules is characterized by STM on clean and on nitrophenyl molecule-modified diamond nanowires. Tip-modified diamond nanowires are promising with respect to biosensor applications where controlled biomolecule bonding is required to improve chemical stability and sensing significantly.

  8. Investigation of defects in CVD diamond: Influence for radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, M.J.; Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P.; Barrett, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we present the potentialities of CVD diamond as an ionisation chamber for radiotherapy applications. Trapping levels present in CVD diamond are characterised using Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) method with X-ray sources. The influence of the corresponding defects on the detector response is investigated and compared to those observed in natural diamond. Also, their spatial distribution across a large area polycrystalline diamond ionisation chamber is discussed. Results show the relative influence of two different populations of trapping levels in CVD diamond whose effect is crucial for radiotherapy applications. To partially overcome the defect detrimental effects, we propose to use CVD diamond ionisation chambers at moderate temperatures from 70 to 100 deg. C that could be provided by self heating of the device, for a dramatically improved stability and reproducibility

  9. Use of the diamond to the detection of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer, C.; Tromson, D.; Brambilla, A.; Foulon, F.; Guizard, B.; Bergonzo

    2001-01-01

    Diamond synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a valuable material for the detection of particles: broad forbidden energy band, high mobility of electron-hole pairs, and a short life-time of charge carriers. Diamond layers have been used in alpha detectors or gamma dose ratemeters designed to be used in hostile environment. Diamond presents a high resistance to radiation and corrosion. The properties of diamond concerning the detection of particles are spoilt by the existence of crystal defects even in high quality natural or synthesized diamond. This article presents recent works that have been performed in CEA laboratories in order to optimize the use of CVD diamond in particle detectors. (A.C.)

  10. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sio, A.; Pace, E.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices

  11. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Andreas; Schmich, Evelyn; Garrido, Jose A; Hernando, Jorge; Catharino, Silvia C R; Walter, Stefan; Feulner, Peter; Kromka, Alexander; Steinmüller, Doris; Stutzmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.

  12. Isotopically pure single crystal epitaxial diamond films and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banholzer, W.F.; Anthony, T.R.; Williams, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the production of single crystal diamond consisting of isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. In the present invention, isotopically pure single crystal diamond is grown on a single crystal substrate directly from isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. One method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises the steps of placing in a reaction chamber a single substrate heated to an elevated diamond forming temperature. Another method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises diffusing isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13 through a metallic catalyst under high pressure to a region containing a single crystal substrate to form an isotopically pure single crystal diamond layer on said single crystal substrate

  13. A sandwich-like differential B-dot based on EACVD polycrystalline diamond slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P.; Yu, Y.; Xu, L.; Zhou, H. Y.; Qiu, C. J.

    2018-06-01

    In this article, we present a method of mass production of a standardized high-performance differential B-dot magnetic probe together with the magnetic field measurement in a pulsed current device with the current up to hundreds of kilo-Amperes. A polycrystalline diamond slice produced in an Electron Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition device is used as the base and insulating material to imprint two symmetric differential loops for the magnetic field measurement. The SP3 carbon bond in the cubic lattice structure of diamond is confirmed by Raman spectra. The thickness of this slice is 20 μm. A gold loop is imprinted onto each surface of the slice by using the photolithography technique. The inner diameter, width, and thickness of each loop are 0.8 mm, 50 μm, and 1 μm, respectively. It provides a way of measuring the pulsed magnetic field with a high spatial and temporal resolution, especially in limited space. This differential magnetic probe has demonstrated a very good common-mode rejection rate through the pulsed magnetic field measurement.

  14. 78 FR 52363 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Diamond...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... causes of diamond darter habitat loss. Water quality degradation and siltation also played key roles. See... quantitatively define specific water quality standards required by the diamond darter. These organizations noted... conductivity poses to the diamond [[Page 52368

  15. Characterization of boron doped nanocrystalline diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterlevitz, A C; Manne, G M; Sampaio, M A; Quispe, J C R; Pasquetto, M P; Iannini, R F; Ceragioli, H J; Baranauskas, V

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured diamond doped with boron was prepared using a hot-filament assisted chemical vapour deposition system fed with an ethyl alcohol, hydrogen and argon mixture. The reduction of the diamond grains to the nanoscale was produced by secondary nucleation and defects induced by argon and boron atoms via surface reactions during chemical vapour deposition. Raman measurements show that the samples are nanodiamonds embedded in a matrix of graphite and disordered carbon grains, while morphological investigations using field electron scanning microscopy show that the size of the grains ranges from 20 to 100 nm. The lowest threshold fields achieved were in the 1.6 to 2.4 V/μm range

  16. Dislocation density and graphitization of diamond crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantea, C.; Voronin, G.A.; Zerda, T.W.; Gubicza, J.; Ungar, T.

    2002-01-01

    Two sets of diamond specimens compressed at 2 GPa at temperatures varying between 1060 K and 1760 K were prepared; one in which graphitization was promoted by the presence of water and another in which graphitization of diamond was practically absent. X-ray diffraction peak profiles of both sets were analyzed for the microstructure by using the modified Williamson-Hall method and by fitting the Fourier coefficients of the measured profiles by theoretical functions for crystallite size and lattice strain. The procedures determined mean size and size distribution of crystallites as well as the density and the character of the dislocations. The same experimental conditions resulted in different microstructures for the two sets of samples. They were explained in terms of hydrostatic conditions present in the graphitized samples

  17. Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

  18. Diamond turning on advanced machine tool prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Specular-quality metal mirrors are being machined for use in laser optical systems. The fabrication process incorporates special quality diamond tools and specially constructed turning machines. The machines are controlled by advanced control techniques and are housed in an environmentally controlled laboratory to insure ultimate machine stability and positional accuracy. The materials from which these mirrors are primarily produced are the softer face-center-cubic structure metals, such as gold, silver, copper, and aluminum. Mirror manufacturing by the single-point diamond machining process is in an early stage of development, but it is anticipated that this method will become the most economical way for producing high-quality metal mirrors. (U.S.)

  19. Diamond wire cutting of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, T.R.; Bjerler, J.

    1991-01-01

    With the change-out of equipment at nuclear power plants comes large quantities of low level contaminated metallic waste. Of particular concern are large heat exchangers, preheaters and steam generators. These bulky items consume huge volumes of burial space. The need for volume reduction and recycling of these metals has created new demands for 'how' to cut heat exchangers into useful sizes for decontamination, melting or compaction. This paper reviews the cutting solution provided by a diamond wire system, with particular regard for cutting of a Ringhals Preheater Bundle at Studsvik Nuclear in 1989. The background of diamond wire sawing is discussed and basic components of wire sawing are explained. Other examples of wire cutting decommissioned components are also given. (author)

  20. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  1. Property of the diamond radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochor, V.; Cechak, T.; Sopko, B.

    2008-01-01

    The outstanding properties of diamond, such as radiation hardness, high carrier mobility, high band gap and breakdown field, distinguish it as a good candidate for radiation detectors. In the dosimetry for radiotherapy is permanently searched the detector with high sensitivity, high stability, linear dependence of the response, small size, tissue equivalent material and fast response, for the measuring of the temporal and space variations of the dose. The diamond detector properties as high sensitivity, good spatial and temporal resolution, low Leakage currents, low capacitance, possibility to fabricate robust and compact device and high temperature operation make it possible to use these detectors in many fields from high energy physics till radiation monitoring, from Medical therapy dosimetry till synchrotron radiation measurement. (authors)

  2. Cluster Ion Implantation in Graphite and Diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Cluster ion beam technique is a versatile tool which can be used for controllable formation of nanosize objects as well as modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on an atomic scale. The current paper present an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of graphite...... and diamond samples implanted by keV-energy size-selected cobalt and argon clusters. One of the emphases is put on pinning of metal clusters on graphite with a possibility of following selective etching of graphene layers. The other topic of concern is related to the development of scaling law for cluster...... implantation. Implantation of cobalt and argon clusters into two different allotropic forms of carbon, namely, graphite and diamond is analysed and compared in order to approach universal theory of cluster stopping in matter....

  3. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for mechanical seals applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J A; Neto, V F; Ruch, D; Grácio, J

    2012-08-01

    A mechanical seal is a type of seal used in rotating equipment, such as pumps and compressors. It consists of a mechanism that assists the connection of the rotating shaft to the housings of the equipments, preventing leakage or avoiding contamination. A common cause of failure of these devices is end face wear out, thus the use of a hard, smooth and wear resistant coating such as nanocrystalline diamond would be of great importance to improve their working performance and increase their lifetime. In this paper, different diamond coatings were deposited by the HFCVD process, using different deposition conditions. Additionally, the as-grown films were characterized for, quality, morphology and microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The topography and the roughness of the films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  4. Diamond window and its application to ITER gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, K.

    1999-01-01

    On the background of having to reduce the overall cost for ITER to 50% it is proposed to replace conventional glass windows on gyrotrons by diamonds. The successful production and testing of such diamond windows is reported. A diamond window can transmit 5 times more power than usual double disk transmission windows while only costing 3 times as much. As a tradeoff, the gyrotrons could be replaced by more powerful ones and one would need fewer of them

  5. Diamond deposition using a planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, S. P.; Tucker, D. A.; Stoner, B. R.; Glass, J. T.; Hooke, W. M.

    1995-06-01

    A planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma has been used to deposit diamond onto scratched silicon. This plasma source has been developed recently for use in large area semiconductor processing and holds promise as a method for scale up of diamond growth reactors. Deposition occurs in an annulus which coincides with the area of most intense optical emission from the plasma. Well-faceted diamond particles are produced when the substrate is immersed in the plasma.

  6. A CVD diamond beam telescope for charged particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; de Boer, Wim; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dulinski, W; Doroshenko, J; Doucet, M; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fischer, P; Fizzotti, F; Kania, D R; Gan, K K; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Keil, M; Knöpfle, K T; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Meuser, S; Lo Giudice, A; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Menichelli, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Weilhammer, Peter; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond is a radiation hard sensor material which may be used for charged particle tracking near the interaction region in experiments at high luminosity colliders. The goal of the work described here is to investigate the use of several detector planes made of CVD diamond strip sensors for charged particle tracking. Towards this end a tracking telescope composed entirely of CVD diamond planes has been constructed. The telescope was tested in muon beams and its tracking capability has been investigated.

  7. Diamond-based structures to collect and guide light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelletto, S [Centre for Micro-Photonics, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail H 34 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Harrison, J P; Marseglia, L; Stanley-Clarke, A C; Hadden, J P; Ho, Y-L D; O' Brien, J L; Rarity, J G [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H H Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); Gibson, B C; Fairchild, B A; Ganesan, K; Huntington, S T; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne VIC 3010 (Australia); Hiscocks, M P; Ladouceur, F, E-mail: scastelletto@swin.edu.au, E-mail: luca.marseglia@bristol.ac.uk [School of EE and T, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    We examine some promising photonic structures for collecting and guiding light in bulk diamond. The aim of this work is to optimize single photon sources and single spin read-out from diamond color centers, specifically NV{sup -} centers. We review the modeling and fabrication (by focused ion beam and reactive ion etching) of solid immersion lenses, waveguides and photonic crystal cavities in monolithic diamond.

  8. Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Anderson, Richard J.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L.; Rye, Michael J.

    2017-04-11

    A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

  9. 3D characterisation of tool wear whilst diamond turning silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Durazo-Cardenas, Isidro Sergio; Shore, Paul; Luo, X.; Jacklin, T.; Impey, S. A.; Cox, A.

    2006-01-01

    Nanometrically smooth infrared silicon optics can be manufactured by the diamond turning process. Due to its relatively low density, silicon is an ideal optical material for weight sensitive infrared (IR) applications. However, rapid diamond tool edge degradation and the effect on the achieved surface have prevented significant exploitation. With the aim of developing a process model to optimise the diamond turning of silicon optics, a series of experimental trials were devi...

  10. Nanomechanical resonant structures in single-crystal diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Burek, Michael J.; Ramos, Daniel; Patel, Parth; Frank, Ian W.; Lončar, Marko

    2013-01-01

    With its host of outstanding material properties, single-crystal diamond is an attractive material for nanomechanical systems. Here, the mechanical resonance characteristics of freestanding, single-crystal diamond nanobeams fabricated by an angled-etching methodology are reported. Resonance frequencies displayed evidence of significant compressive stress in doubly clamped diamond nanobeams, while cantilever resonance modes followed the expected inverse-length-squared trend. Q-factors on the o...

  11. Signaling Pathways in Pathogenesis of Diamond Blackfan Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0590 TITLE: SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIAMOND BLACKFAN ANEMIA PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: KATHLEEN M...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0590 SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIAMOND BLACKFAN ANEMIA 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT: Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a disorder that results in pure red cell aplasia, congenital

  12. Photovoltage effects in polypyrrole-diamond nanosystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Čermák, Jan; Kromka, Alexander; Ledinský, Martin; Kočka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, 2-3 (2009), 249-252 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond * polymers * heterojunction * Kelvin force microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.822, year: 2009

  13. Application of diamond tools when decontaminating concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, B.L.; Gossett, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization of diamond concrete cutting tools offers new potential approaches to the recurring problems of removing contaminated concrete. Innovative techniques can provide exacting removal within a dust-free environment. Present day technology allows remote control operated equipment to perform tasks heretofore considered impossible. Experience gained from years of removing concrete within the construction industry hopefully can contribute new and improved methods to D and D projects

  14. Diamond surface: atomic and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental studies of the diamond surface (with primary emphasis on the (111) surface) are presented. Aspects of the diamond surface which are addressed include (1) the electronic structure, (2) the atomic structure, and (3) the effect of termination of the lattice by foreign atoms. Limited studies of graphite are discussed for comparison with the diamond results. Experimental results from valence band and core level photoemission spectroscopy (PES), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and carbon 1s near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy (both the total electron yield (TEY) and Auger electron yield (AEY) techniques) are used to study and characterize both the clean and hydrogenated surface. In addition, the interaction of hydrogen with the diamond surface is examined using results from vibrational high resolution low energy electron loss spectroscopy (in collaboration with Waclawski, Pierce, Swanson, and Celotta at the National Bureau of Standards) and photon stimulated ion desorption (PSID) yield at photon energies near the carbon k-edge (hv greater than or equal to 280 eV). Both EELS and PSID verify that the mechanically polished 1 x 1 surface is hydrogen terminated and also that the reconstructed surface is hydrogen free. The (111) 2 x 2/2 x 1 reconstructed surface is obtained from the hydrogenated (111) 1 x 1:H surface by annealing to approx. = 1000 0 C. We observe occupied intrinsic surface states and a surface chemical shift (0.95 +- 0.1 eV) to lower binding energy of the carbon 1s level on the hydrogen-free reconstructed surface. Atomic hydrogen is found to be reactive with the reconstructed surface, while molecular hydrogen is relatively inert. Exposure of the reconstructed surface to atomic hydrogen results in chemisorption of hydrogen and removal of the intrinsic surface state emission in and near the band gap region

  15. Nano Mechanical Machining Using AFM Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam

    and burr formations through intermittent cutting. Combining the AFM probe based machining with vibration-assisted machining enhanced nano mechanical machining processes by improving the accuracy, productivity and surface finishes. In this study, several scratching tests are performed with a single crystal diamond AFM probe to investigate the cutting characteristics and model the ploughing cutting forces. Calibration of the probe for lateral force measurements, which is essential, is also extended through the force balance method. Furthermore, vibration-assisted machining system is developed and applied to fabricate different materials to overcome some of the limitations of the AFM probe based single point nano mechanical machining. The novelty of this study includes the application of vibration-assisted AFM probe based nano scale machining to fabricate micro/nano scale features, calibration of an AFM by considering different factors, and the investigation of the nano scale material removal process from a different perspective.

  16. Noble gas studies in vapor-growth diamonds: Comparison with shock-produced diamonds and the origin of diamonds in ureilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Junichi; Fukunaga, Kazuya; Ito, Keisuke (Kobe Univ. (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    The authors synthesized vapor-trowth diamonds by two kinds of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using microwave (MWCVD) and hot filament (HFCVD) ionization of gases, and examined elemental abundances and isotopic compositions of the noble gases trapped in the diamonds. It is remarkable that strong differences existed in the noble gas concentrations in the two kinds of CVD diamonds: large amounts of noble gases were trapped in the MWCVD diamonds, but not in the HFCVD diamonds. The heavy noble gases (Ar to Xe) in the MWCVD diamonds were highly fractionated compared with those in the ambient atmosphere, and are in good agreement with the calculated fractionation patterns for plasma at an electron temperature of 7,000-9,000 K. These results strongly suggest that the trapping mechanism of noble gases in CVD diamonds is ion implantation during diamond growth. The degrees of fractionation of heavy noble gases were also in good agreement with those in ureilites. The vapor-growth hypothesis is discussed in comparison with the impact-shock hypothesis as a better model for the origin of diamonds in ureilites. The diamond (and graphite, amorphous carbon, too) may have been deposited on early condensates such as Re, Ir, W, etc. This model explains the chemical features of vein material in ureilites; the refractory siderophile elements are enriched in carbon and noble gases and low in normal siderophiles. The vapor-growth model is also compatible with the oxygen isotopic data of ureilites which suggests that nebular processes are primarily responsible for the composition of ureilites.

  17. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation

  18. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  19. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV - ) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV - optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV - ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV - ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  20. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.