WorldWideScience

Sample records for synthesized methoxynaphthalene dyad

  1. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic investigations on intramolecular electron transfer processes within a synthesized methoxynaphthalene dyad by using a nematic liquid crystal medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, Munmun; Mandal, Paulami; De, Asish; Kumar De, Avijit; Chowdhury, Joydeep; Ganguly, Tapan

    2010-01-01

    UV-vis, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic investigations were made on photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination processes involved within a novel synthesized dyad, 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-naphthalen-1-yl)-propenone (MNCA) where the donor 1-methoxynaphthalene (MNT) and the acceptor p-choloroacetophenone (PCA) moieties are connected by a short unsaturated olefinic bond. The measurements were made within the pseudo-ordered domain (just above nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature, >308 K) of a nematic liquid crystal, 4-(n-pentyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). Results observed are compared with those obtained from the similar measurements in isotropic media. The charge separation and recombination rates remain more-or-less unchanged within the experimental error irrespective of the polarity of the environment, whether in pseudo-ordered domain (ε S ∼10.5) of a nematic liquid crystal 5CB or in highly polar isotropic medium ACN (ε S ∼37.5). The structural rigidity of the dyad MNCA having stable elongated form both in the ground as well as in the photoexcited states seems to be the reason for this unique behavior of solvent insensitivity. The theoretical predictions done by ab initio method density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311 G (d, p) basis function correlate well with experimental observations of formations of only one stable elongated (E-type) conformer both in the ground and electronic excited state.

  2. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic investigations on intramolecular electron transfer processes within a synthesized methoxynaphthalene dyad by using a nematic liquid crystal medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardhan, Munmun; Mandal, Paulami; De, Asish; Kumar De, Avijit [Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Joydeep [Sammilani Mahavidyalaya Baghajatin Station, West Bengal (India); Ganguly, Tapan, E-mail: sptg@mahendra.iacs.res.i [Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India)

    2010-06-15

    UV-vis, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic investigations were made on photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination processes involved within a novel synthesized dyad, 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-naphthalen-1-yl)-propenone (MNCA) where the donor 1-methoxynaphthalene (MNT) and the acceptor p-choloroacetophenone (PCA) moieties are connected by a short unsaturated olefinic bond. The measurements were made within the pseudo-ordered domain (just above nematic-isotropic (N-I) phase transition temperature, >308 K) of a nematic liquid crystal, 4-(n-pentyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). Results observed are compared with those obtained from the similar measurements in isotropic media. The charge separation and recombination rates remain more-or-less unchanged within the experimental error irrespective of the polarity of the environment, whether in pseudo-ordered domain (epsilon{sub S}approx10.5) of a nematic liquid crystal 5CB or in highly polar isotropic medium ACN (epsilon{sub S}approx37.5). The structural rigidity of the dyad MNCA having stable elongated form both in the ground as well as in the photoexcited states seems to be the reason for this unique behavior of solvent insensitivity. The theoretical predictions done by ab initio method density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311 G (d, p) basis function correlate well with experimental observations of formations of only one stable elongated (E-type) conformer both in the ground and electronic excited state.

  3. Photoinduced electron transfer within a novel synthesized short-chain dyad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sudeshna; Bardhan, Munmun; Kumar De, Avijit; De, Asish; Ganguly, Tapan

    2010-01-01

    The investigations were made by using electrochemical, steady state and time resolved spectroscopic (time correlated single photon counting and laser flash photolysis) techniques on a novel synthesized dyad, 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-naphthalen-1-yl)-propenone (MNCA) where the donor 1-methoxy-naphthalene (MNT) is connected with the acceptor p-chloroacetophenone (PCA) by an unsaturated olefinic bond. This dyad possesses mainly extended (E-type) conformation both in the ground and excited state. The unchanged conformational geometry of this dyad even after photoexcitation makes it different from the previously studied benzothiophene-p-chloroacetophenone dyads, though both the donors present are isosteric molecules. In the cases of the latter dyads though E-type isomeric structure dominates in the ground state, considerable amount of Z-type (folded) species are produced in the excited state. It is hinted that the proximity effect of methoxy functionality in donor moiety, may be the reason for the formation of mostly E-isomeric species in the case of the present dyad MNCA system. The observed unchanged values of charge recombination and ion-pair lifetime, estimated from the analysis of transient absorption spectra of the dyad in presence of βCD and without it, confirm the proposition about the maintenance of the extended conformation even upon photoexcitation. From the transient absorption measurements it appears that due to increase of delay times between the exciting and probe pulses, higher triplet T n of the donor being generated gets involved in PET reactions with the surrounding medium ACN. From the present findings, MNCA in aqueous medium seems to be better candidate to build light energy conversion devices than the previously studied benzothiophene dyads where artificial devices like βCD were used to make elongated geometry. This geometry would help to prevent charge recombination processes within the redox components due to minimal overlapping between

  4. Photoinduced electron transfer within a novel synthesized short-chain dyad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Sudeshna; Bardhan, Munmun; Kumar De, Avijit [Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); De, Asish [Department of Physics, Belda College, Midnapore, West Bengal (India); Ganguly, Tapan, E-mail: sptg@mahendra.iacs.res.i [Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India)

    2010-07-15

    The investigations were made by using electrochemical, steady state and time resolved spectroscopic (time correlated single photon counting and laser flash photolysis) techniques on a novel synthesized dyad, 1-(4-chloro-phenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-naphthalen-1-yl)-propenone (MNCA) where the donor 1-methoxy-naphthalene (MNT) is connected with the acceptor p-chloroacetophenone (PCA) by an unsaturated olefinic bond. This dyad possesses mainly extended (E-type) conformation both in the ground and excited state. The unchanged conformational geometry of this dyad even after photoexcitation makes it different from the previously studied benzothiophene-p-chloroacetophenone dyads, though both the donors present are isosteric molecules. In the cases of the latter dyads though E-type isomeric structure dominates in the ground state, considerable amount of Z-type (folded) species are produced in the excited state. It is hinted that the proximity effect of methoxy functionality in donor moiety, may be the reason for the formation of mostly E-isomeric species in the case of the present dyad MNCA system. The observed unchanged values of charge recombination and ion-pair lifetime, estimated from the analysis of transient absorption spectra of the dyad in presence of betaCD and without it, confirm the proposition about the maintenance of the extended conformation even upon photoexcitation. From the transient absorption measurements it appears that due to increase of delay times between the exciting and probe pulses, higher triplet T{sub n} of the donor being generated gets involved in PET reactions with the surrounding medium ACN. From the present findings, MNCA in aqueous medium seems to be better candidate to build light energy conversion devices than the previously studied benzothiophene dyads where artificial devices like betaCD were used to make elongated geometry. This geometry would help to prevent charge recombination processes within the redox components due to minimal

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of novel N-substituted-6-methoxynaphthalene-2-carboxamides as potential chemosensitizing agents for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, Tushar Narendra; Viswanathan, Chelakara Lakshmann; Juvekar, Aarti Shashikant

    2008-07-01

    A novel class of molecules with structure N-[3-(heteroaryl)propyl]-6-methoxynaphthalene-2-carboxamides 8-13 were synthesized by condensing 6-methoxy-2-naphthoyl chloride 1 with 3-(heteroaryl)propyl amines 2-7. Compounds 8-12 were evaluated in vitro, in P388 murine lymphocytic leukemia cell line (P388) using SRB assay for cytotoxicity and in adriamycin resistant P388 murine lymphocytic leukemia cell line (P388/ADR) using MTT assay for resistant reversal activity. Compounds 8-12 were non-toxic at lower dose of 20 microg/ml, and effectively reversed adriamycin resistance. However, at higher doses (40, 80 microg/ml) they showed significant cytotxicity and hence reversal potency was not determined at these concentrations.

  6. Alkylation of phenols and acylation 2-methoxynaphthalene over SSZ-33, SSZ-35 and SSZ-42 zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vitvarová, Dana; Lupínková, Lenka; Kubů, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 210, JUL 2015 (2015), s. 133-141 ISSN 1387-1811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/11/0819 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : phenol alkylation * 2-methoxynaphthalene acylation * SSZ-33 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.349, year: 2015

  7. The rates of charge separation and energy destructive charge recombination processes within an organic dyad in presence of metal-semiconductor core shell nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Gopa; Bhattacharya, Sudeshna; Das, Subrata; Ganguly, Tapan

    2012-01-01

    Steady state and time resolved spectroscopic measurements were made at the ambient temperature on an organic dyad, 1-(4-Chloro-phenyl)-3-(4-methoxy-naphthalen-1-yl)-propenone (MNCA), where the donor 1-methoxynaphthalene (1 MNT) is connected with the acceptor p-chloroacetophenone (PCA) by an unsaturated olefinic bond, in presence of Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles. Time resolved fluorescence and absorption measurements reveal that the rate parameters associated with charge separation, k(CS), within the dyad increases whereas charge recombination rate k(CR) reduces significantly when the surrounding medium is changed from only chloroform to mixture of chloroform and Ag@TiO2 (noble metal-semiconductor) nanocomposites. The observed results indicate that the dyad being combined with core-shell nanocomposites may form organic-inorganic nanocomposite system useful for developing light energy conversion devices. Use of metal-semiconductor nanoparticles may provide thus new ways to modulate charge recombination processes in light energy conversion devices. From comparison with the results obtained in our earlier investigations with only TiO2 nanoparticles, it is inferred that much improved version of light energy conversion device, where charge-separated species could be protected for longer period of time of the order of millisecond, could be designed by using metal-semiconductor core-shell nanocomposites rather than semiconductor nanoparticles only.

  8. Syntheses, experimental and theoretical studies on absorption/emission properties of pyrazoline-containing aryl/methoxy naphthyl substituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trilleras, Jorge; González-López, Edwin; León-Jaramillo, Jhair; Pérez-Gamboa, Alfredo; Puello-Polo, Esneyder, E-mail: jorgetrilleras@mail.uniatlantico.edu.co [Universidad del Atlántico (Colombia); Romo, Pablo; Ortíz, Alejandro; Quiroga, Jairo [Centre for Bioinformatics and Photonics, Cali (Colombia)

    2018-05-01

    5-Aryl-3-(2-methoxynaphthalen-6-yl)-1-phenylpyrazoline derivatives were synthesized starting from (E)-1-(3-aryl)-(2-methoxynaphthalen-6-yl)-prop-2-en-1-one and phenylhydrazine. The compounds were characterized by {sup 1} H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analyses and mass spectrometry. Some compounds showed promising luminescence properties in solution and in solid state; the absorption and emission characteristics were measured and the fluorescence quantum yield of two of the derivatives [4,5-dihydro-3-(2-methoxynaphthalen6-yl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1- phenyl-1H-pyrazoline and 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro3-(2-methoxynaphthalen-6-yl)-1-phenyl-1H- pyrazoline] were found to have excellent values compared to rhodamine B standard. Theoretical calculations at time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) level are in agreement with the experimental measurements and are helpful to explain the electronic behavior. (author)

  9. Photophysical properties of novel Porphyrin-Flavin Dyads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, S.

    2001-10-01

    Photosynthesis belongs to the fundamentals of life on earth, therefore it is an important matter in natural sciences. The basic principle of photosynthesis is the transformation of solar light into chemical energy. The starting steps of photosynthesis are light-induced energy- and electron-transfer-steps with singular efficiency. One attempt to enlighten the molecular processes involved is to synthesize simpler model systems with similar properties. Important research goals are the dependencies of light-induced processes on distance and orientation of donor and acceptor. A second aim next to the clarification of the molecular conditions of photosynthesis is to create molecular light-driven machines. The most simple so-called biomimetic model system consists of an electron-donor connected to an electron-acceptor via a spacer-group. This simplest form is also referred to as dyad. Beyond dyads far more complicated compounds have been introduced consisting of several donors and/or acceptors, so-called triads, tetrads, pentads etc. Usually porphyrin serves as electron-donor. Next to chinones several other electron-acceptors are used, e.g. anthracene, pyromellitimide and fullerene. Artificial photosynthetic centers are often more stable and/or the excited states are easier to detect compared to the natural photosynthetic center. The photophysical characteristics of four dyads are reported in this work. The dyads consist of porphyrin (either free-base or zinc-metallated) and flavin, connected by different spacers. These dyads reveal photo-induced electron transfer from porphyrin to flavin and energy-transfer in the reversed direction with different efficiencies. The object of the study is the dependency of these processes on the structural features. The spacer of the dyads 1a-1c is an aromatic bridge which leads to well defined donor-acceptor distances. Because of this structure conjugation through the spacer is increased, whereas the absorption in the visible and near UV

  10. Dyads, a generalisation of monads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkinga, M.M.

    The concept of dyad is defined as the least common generalisation of monads and co-monads. So, taking some of the ingredients to be the identity, the concept specialises to the concept of monad, and taking other ingredients to be the identity it specialises to co-monads. Except for one axiom, all

  11. A preliminary conceptual framework for cancer couple dyads: live with love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuping; Loke, Alice Y

    2015-01-01

    With the research focus on family caregiving shifting from the individual to the dyadic level, there is a need to develop a conceptual framework that focused on caregiver-patient dyads. The aim of this study was to develop a preliminary conceptual framework for cancer couple dyads, to "Live With Love." A literature search was conducted among 4 electronic databases to identify couple-based intervention studies related to couples coping with cancer. This report differs from a traditional literature review in that we synthesized the models or frameworks used in these studies rather than the outcomes of the studies. A preliminary Live With Love Conceptual Framework (P-LLCF) for cancer couple dyads was developed based on the conceptual frameworks adopted in related literature on spousal caregiving for patients with cancer. This P-LLCF contains 3 domains: event situation, dyadic mediators, and caregiver-patient dyads (appraisal, coping, and adjustment/outcomes). The various components in this P-LLCF will work together to benefit the positive dyadic adjustment/outcomes of the spousal caregiver-patient dyads in the cancer dyads' journey of coping with cancer. This P-LLCF sheds new light on the study of cancer couple dyads. It will be potentially valuable for guiding the related research and development of interventions on cancer couple dyads. Future research is needed to assess the outcome of interventions that focus on different components. It is also needed to develop measurements to assess dyadic adjustment/outcomes in nursing practice.

  12. Relational uncertainty in service dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    in service dyads and how they resolve it through suitable organisational responses to increase the level of service quality. Design/methodology/approach: We apply the overall logic of Organisational Information-Processing Theory (OIPT) and present empirical insights from two industrial case studies collected...... the relational uncertainty increased the functional quality while resolving the partner’s organisational uncertainty increased the technical quality of the delivered service. Originality: We make two contributions. First, we introduce relational uncertainty to the OM literature as the inability to predict...... and explain the actions of a partnering organisation due to a lack of knowledge about their abilities and intentions. Second, we present suitable organisational responses to relational uncertainty and their effect on service quality....

  13. Designing efficient photochromic dithienylethene dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihey, Arnaud; Jacquemin, Denis

    2015-06-01

    Aiming at designing more efficient multiphotochromes, we investigate with the help of ab initio tools the impact of the substitution on a series of dimers constituted of two dithienylethene (DTE) moieties, strongly coupled to each other through an ethynyl linker. The electronic structure and the optical properties of a large panel of compounds, substituted on different positions by various types of electroactive groups, have been compared with the aim of designing a dyad in which the three possible isomers (open-open, closed-open, closed-closed) can be reached. We show that appending the reactive carbons atoms of the DTE core with electroactive groups on one of the two photochromes allows cyclisation to be induced on a specific moiety, which leads to the formation of the desired closed-open isomer. Substituting the lateral positions of the thiophene rings provides further control of the topology of the frontier molecular orbitals, so that the electronic transition inducing the second ring closure stands out in the spectrum of the intermediate isomer.

  14. Medical students' perception of dyad practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Rasmussen, Maria Birkvad; Bjørck, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Training in pairs (dyad practice) has been shown to improve efficiency of clinical skills training compared with single practice but little is known about students' perception of dyad practice. The aim of this study was to explore the reactions and attitudes of medical students who were instructed....... The students felt dyad practice improved their self-efficacy through social interaction with peers, provided useful insight through observation, and contributed with shared memory of what to do, when they forgot essential steps of the physical examination of the patient. However, some students were concerned...

  15. Synthesis of mesogenic phthalocyanine-C60 donor–acceptor dyads designed for molecular heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Henri Geerts

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of phthalocyanine-C60 dyads 2a–d was synthesized. Key steps in their synthesis are preparation of the low symmetry phthalocyanine intermediate by the statistical condensation of two phthalonitriles, and the final esterification of the fullerene derivative bearing a free COOH group. Structural characterization of the molecules in solution was performed by NMR spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Preliminary studies suggest formation of liquid crystalline (LC mesophases for some of the prepared dyads. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of LC phthalocyanine-C60 dyads.

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies of (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible and DFT) 4-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) butan-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy, P; Gunasekaran, S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in the range 4000-50 cm(-1) and 4000-450 cm(-1) respectively for 4-(6-methoxynaphthalen-2-yl) butan-2-one (abbreviated as 4MNBO) molecule. Theoretical calculations were performed by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method using 6-311G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The difference between the observed and calculated wavenumber value of most of the fundamentals were very small. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The UV-Vis spectrum was recorded in the methanol solution. The energy, wavelength and oscillator's strength were calculated by Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) and matched to the experimental findings. The intramolecular contacts have been interpreted using natural bond orbital (NBO) and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) analysis. Thermodynamic properties of 4MNBO at different temperature have been calculated. The molecular electrostatic potential surface (MESP) and Frontier molecular orbital's (FMO's) analysis were investigated using theoretical calculations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electric field dependent photocurrent generation in a thin-film organic photovoltaic device with a [70]fullerene-benzodifuranone dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmann, Pirmin A; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Matsuo, Yutaka; Xiao, Zuo; Soga, Iwao; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2011-12-21

    A [70]fullerene-benzodifuranone acceptor dyad synthesized by a Ag⁺-mediated coupling reaction was used to construct a thin-film organic solar cell. The fullerene and the benzodifuranone dye in the dyad have close-lying LUMO levels in the range of 3.7-3.9 eV, so that energy transfer from the dye to the fullerene can take place. A p-n heterojunction photovoltaic device consisting of a tetrabenzoporphyrin and a [70]fullerene-benzodifuranone dyad showed a weak but discernible contribution from light absorption of the dyad to the photocurrent under both a positive and a negative effective bias. These results indicate that the benzodifuranone moiety attached to the acceptor contributes to light-harvesting by energy transfer.

  18. A framework for studying relationship marketing dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Although coined more than 15 years ago, relationship marketing remains an ambiguous concept with plenty of rhetoric but few publications on empirical evidence in support of a relationship marketing paradigm shift. A research project is currently studying marketing dyads in the international food

  19. Relational demography in coach-athlete dyads | Zhang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used an adapted version of Zhang's (2004) trust questionnaire to examine perceived characteristic and trust differences between coach and athlete dyads that differ in gender or ethnicity as well as in dyads that were similar. The four different gender dyad groups were male athlete with male coach (MAMC), ...

  20. Consonance perception of complex-tone dyads and chords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marc; Santurette, Sébastien; MacDonald, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Sensory consonance and dissonance are perceptual attributes of musical intervals conveying pleasant- ness, tension, and harmony in musical phrases. For complex-tone dyads, corresponding to two musical notes played simultaneously, consonance is known to vary with the ratio in fundamental frequency...... for a potential role of frequency selectivity for consonance perception of dyads, might not hold for chords...

  1. A Multi-Addressable Dyad with Switchable CMY Colors for Full-Color Rewritable Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tianyou; Han, Jiaqi; Geng, Yue; Ju, Le; Sheng, Lan; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2018-06-23

    Reversible multicolor displays on solid media using single molecule pigments have been a long-awaited goal. Herein, a new and simple molecular dyad, which can undergo switchable CMY color changes both in solution and solid substrate upon exposure to light, water/acid, and nucleophiles, is designed and synthesized. The stimuli used in this work can be applied independent of each other, which is beneficial for color changes without mutual interference. As a comparison, the mixtures of the two molecular switching motifs forming the basis of the dyad were also studied. The dyad greatly outperforms the corresponding mixed system with respect to reversible color-switching on the paper substrate. Its potential for full-color rewritable paper with excellent reversibility has been demonstrated. Legible multicolor prints, that is, high color contrast and resolution, good dispersion, excellent reversibility, were achieved using common water-jet and light-based printers. This work provides a very promising approach for further development of full-color switchable molecules, materials and displays. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Light induced intramolecular electron and energy transfer events in rigidly linked borondipyrromethene: Corrole Dyad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giribabu, Lingamallu, E-mail: giribabu@iict.res.in [Inorganic & Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, Telangana (India); Jain, Kanika [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences & Pharmacy, Central University of Rajasthan, Kishangarh, Dist. Ajmer, Rajasthan 305817 (India); Sudhakar, Kolanu; Duvva, Naresh [Inorganic & Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007, Telangana (India); Chitta, Raghu, E-mail: raghuchitta@curaj.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences & Pharmacy, Central University of Rajasthan, Kishangarh, Dist. Ajmer, Rajasthan 305817 (India)

    2016-09-15

    We have designed and synthesized a photo-induced energy/electron donor–acceptor conjugate comprising of corrole linked to BODIPY at the 5-position via ester linkage. The dyad was characterized by elemental analysis, MALDI-MS, UV-Visible, {sup 1}H NMR fluorescence spectroscopy (steady-state and time-resolved) as well as electrochemical methods. A comparison of the UV–visible and {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the dyad with those of the corresponding individual model compounds (i.e., BODIPY-CO{sub 2}H and BPFC-OH) reveal that there exist minimum π–π interactions between BODIPY and corrole π-planes. Quenched emission of BODIPY and corrole part of the dyad has been observed in five different solvents. Excitation spectral data provided evidence for an intramolecular excitation energy transfer (EET) from the singlet BODIPY to the corrole and an intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from singlet state of corrole to ground state of BODIPY. Detailed analysis of the data suggests that Forster's dipole–dipole mechanism does not adequately explain this energy transfer but, an electron exchange mediated mechanism can, in principle, contribute to the intramolecular EET.

  3. Evidence for unintentional emotional contagion beyond dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Dezecache

    Full Text Available Little is known about the spread of emotions beyond dyads. Yet, it is of importance for explaining the emergence of crowd behaviors. Here, we experimentally addressed whether emotional homogeneity within a crowd might result from a cascade of local emotional transmissions where the perception of another's emotional expression produces, in the observer's face and body, sufficient information to allow for the transmission of the emotion to a third party. We reproduced a minimal element of a crowd situation and recorded the facial electromyographic activity and the skin conductance response of an individual C observing the face of an individual B watching an individual A displaying either joy or fear full body expressions. Critically, individual B did not know that she was being watched. We show that emotions of joy and fear displayed by A were spontaneously transmitted to C through B, even when the emotional information available in B's faces could not be explicitly recognized. These findings demonstrate that one is tuned to react to others' emotional signals and to unintentionally produce subtle but sufficient emotional cues to induce emotional states in others. This phenomenon could be the mark of a spontaneous cooperative behavior whose function is to communicate survival-value information to conspecifics.

  4. Hydroquinone–pyrrole dyads with varied linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of pyrroles functionalized in the 3-position with p-dimethoxybenzene via various linkers (CH2, CH2CH2, CH=CH, C≡C has been synthesized. Their electronic properties have been deduced from 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV–vis spectra to detect possible interactions between the two aromatic subunits. The extent of conjugation between the subunits is largely controlled by the nature of the linker, with the largest conjugation found with the trans-ethene linker and the weakest with the aliphatic linkers. DFT calculations revealed substantial changes in the HOMO–LUMO gap that correlated with the extent of conjugation found experimentally. The results of this work are expected to open up for use of the investigated compounds as components of redox-active materials in sustainable, organic electrical energy storage devices.

  5. Broadband Two-Photon Absorption Characteristics of Highly Photostable Fluorenyl-Dicyanoethylenylated [60]Fullerene Dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seaho Jeon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized four C60-(light-harvesting antenna dyads C60 (>CPAF-Cn (n = 4, 9, 12, or 18 1-Cn for the investigation of their broadband nonlinear absorption effect. Since we have previously demonstrated their high function as two-photon absorption (2PA materials at 1000 nm, a different 2PA wavelength of 780 nm was applied in the study. The combined data taken at two different wavelength ranges substantiated the broadband characteristics of 1-Cn. We proposed that the observed broadband absorptions may be attributed by a partial π-conjugation between the C60 > cage and CPAF-Cn moieties, via endinitrile tautomeric resonance, giving a resonance state with enhanced molecular conjugation. This transient state could increase its 2PA and excited-state absorption at 800 nm. In addition, a trend of concentration-dependent 2PA cross-section (σ2 and excited-state absorption magnitude was detected showing a higher σ value at a lower concentration that was correlated to increasing molecular separation with less aggregation for dyads C60(>CPAF-C18 and C60(>CPAF-C9, as better 2PA and excited-state absorbers.

  6. Emotional Availability and Touch in Deaf and Hearing Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Grace; Koester, Lynne Sanford

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the development of deaf children, though few studies have included Deaf parents. The present study examined emotional availability (EA) and functions of touch used by Deaf or hearing parents with hearing or deaf infants during free play. Sixty dyads representing four hearing status groups…

  7. Analysis of Relational Communication in Dyads: New Measurement Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. Edna; Farace, Richard

    Relational communication refers to the control or dominance aspects of message exchange in dyads--distinguishing it from the report or referential aspects of communication. In relational communicational analysis, messages as transactions are emphasized; major theoretical concepts which emerge are symmetry, transitoriness, and complementarity of…

  8. Verbal and nonverbal behavior of ability-grouped dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Carter, Glenda

    In this study we describe the social interactions of ability-grouped dyads as they constructed knowledge of balance concepts to elucidate the relationship between interactions and conceptual growth. The verbal and nonverbal behaviors of 30 fifth-grade students were recorded as they completed three activities related to balance. These student interactions were examined within a framework of social cognition. For each dyad, characteristics of ability-grouped dyads were identified. Results revealed that high-achieving students effectively used prior experiences, maintained focus on the learning task, and were able to manipulate the equipment effectively to construct knowledge. Low-achieving students exhibited off-task behavior, lacked a metacognitive framework for organizing the learning tasks, centered on irrelevant features of the equipment, and were unable to use language effectively to mediate learning. Within low-high student dyads, high-achieving students typically modeled thinking processes and strategies for manipulating equipment. In addition, they focused the low-achieving students on the components of the tasks while verbally monitoring their progress, thus enabling low students to identify the critical features necessary for concept construction. These results highlighted the differences that students have in the use of language and tools. Low students' inefficient use of tools has implications for the ways science teachers structure lessons and group students for laboratory work.Received: 8 March 1993; Revised: 6 January 1994;

  9. Humor style similarity and difference in friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C; Fox, Claire L; Jones, Siân E

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective (fall to spring) associations between four different humor styles to assess the degree to which stable friendships are characterized by similarity, and to assess whether best friends' humor styles influence each other's later use of humor. Participants were aged 11-13 years, with 87 stable, reciprocal best friend dyads. Self-report assessments of humor styles were completed on both occasions. Results indicated that there was no initial similarity in dyads' levels of humor. However, dyads' use of humor that enhances interpersonal relationships (Affiliative humor) became positively correlated by spring. Additionally, young people's use of this humor style was positively associated with their best friend's later use of the same. No such effects were present for humor which was aggressive, denigrating toward the self, or used to enhance the self. These results have clear implications for theories of humor style development, highlighting an important role for Affiliative humor within stable friendship dyads. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of dyad training on medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Candice; Huang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of dyadic training on medical students' resuscitation performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training.We provided students with a 2-hour training session on CPR for simulated cardiac arrest. Student teams were split into double groups (Dyad training groups: Groups A and B) or Single Groups. All groups received 2 CPR simulation rounds. CPR simulation training began with peer demonstration for Group A, and peer observation for Group B. Then the 2 groups switched roles. Single Groups completed CPR simulation without peer observation or demonstration. Teams were then evaluated based on leadership, teamwork, and team member skills.Group B had the highest first simulation round scores overall (P = 0.004) and in teamwork (P = 0.001) and team member skills (P = 0.031). Group B also had the highest second simulation round scores overall (P training groups with those of Single Groups in overall scores, leadership scores, teamwork scores, and team member scores. In the second simulation, Dyad training groups scored higher in overall scores (P = 0.002), leadership scores (P = 0.044), teamwork scores (P = 0.005), and team member scores (P = 0.008). Dyad training groups also displayed higher improvement in overall scores (P = 0.010) and team member scores (P = 0.022).Dyad training was effective for CPR training. Both peer observation and demonstration for peers in dyad training can improve student resuscitation performance.

  11. Effect of dyad training on medical students’ cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Candice; Huang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the effects of dyadic training on medical students’ resuscitation performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. We provided students with a 2-hour training session on CPR for simulated cardiac arrest. Student teams were split into double groups (Dyad training groups: Groups A and B) or Single Groups. All groups received 2 CPR simulation rounds. CPR simulation training began with peer demonstration for Group A, and peer observation for Group B. Then the 2 groups switched roles. Single Groups completed CPR simulation without peer observation or demonstration. Teams were then evaluated based on leadership, teamwork, and team member skills. Group B had the highest first simulation round scores overall (P = 0.004) and in teamwork (P = 0.001) and team member skills (P = 0.031). Group B also had the highest second simulation round scores overall (P training groups with those of Single Groups in overall scores, leadership scores, teamwork scores, and team member scores. In the second simulation, Dyad training groups scored higher in overall scores (P = 0.002), leadership scores (P = 0.044), teamwork scores (P = 0.005), and team member scores (P = 0.008). Dyad training groups also displayed higher improvement in overall scores (P = 0.010) and team member scores (P = 0.022). Dyad training was effective for CPR training. Both peer observation and demonstration for peers in dyad training can improve student resuscitation performance. PMID:28353555

  12. Exciplex mediated photoinduced electron transfer reactions of phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemi, Marja; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Efimov, Alexander; Lehtivuori, Heli; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    Evidences of an intramolecular exciplex intermediate in a photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reaction of double-linked free-base and zinc phthalocyanine-C-60 dyads were found. This was the first time for a dyad with phthalocyanine donor. Excitation of the phthalocyanine moiety of the dyads results

  13. Structure of health-care dyad leadership: an organization's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anurag; Davies, Maura; Philippon, Don

    2018-05-08

    Purpose This study aims to explore the structural aspects (roles, responsibilities and reporting) of dyad leadership in one health-care organization (HCO). Design/methodology/approach The perceptions of 32 leaders (17 physician leaders and 15 dyad co-leaders) in formal leadership positions (six first-level with formal authority limited to teams or divisions, 23 middle-level with wider departmental or program responsibility and three senior-level with institution-wide authority) were obtained through focus groups and surveys. In addition, five senior leaders were interviewed. Descriptive statistics was used for quantitative data, and qualitative data were analyzed for themes by coding and categorization. Findings There are a large number of shared responsibilities in the hybrid model, as most activities in HCOs bridge administrative and professional spheres. These span the leadership (e.g. global performance and quality improvement) and management (e.g. human resources, budgets and education delivery) domains. The individual responsibilities, except for staff and physician engagement are in the management domain (e.g. operations and patient care). Both partners are responsible for joint decision-making, projecting a united front and joint reporting through a quadrat format. The mutual relationship and joint accountability are key characteristics and are critical to addressing potential conflicts and contradictions and achieving coherence. Practical implications Clarity of role will assist development of standardized job descriptions and required competencies, recruitment and leadership development. Originality/value This is an original empirical study presenting an integrated view of dyad leaders and senior leadership, meaningful expansion of shared responsibilities including academic functions and developing mutual relationship and emphasizing the central role of stability generating management functions.

  14. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjewar, Swapnil S; Chhabra, Lovely; Chaubey, Vinod K; Joshi, Saurabh; Kulkarni, Ganesh; Kothagundla, Chandrasekhar; Kaul, Sudesh; Spodick, David H

    2013-01-01

    The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration. We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were computed and compared between the two subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1) between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy. The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.

  15. Ultrafast spectroscopic investigation of a fullerene poly(3-hexylthiophene) dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Natalie; Seifter, Jason; Wang, Mingfeng; Vauthey, Eric; Wudl, Fred; Heeger, Alan J.

    2011-08-01

    We present the femtosecond spectroscopic investigation of a covalently linked dyad, PCB-P3HT, formed by a segment of the conjugated polymer P3HT (regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene)) that is end capped with the fullerene derivative PCB ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid ester), adapted from PCBM. The fluorescence of the P3HT segment in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution is reduced by 64% in the dyad compared to a control compound without attached fullerene (P3HT-OH). Fluorescence upconversion measurements reveal that the partial fluorescence quenching of PCB-P3HT in THF is multiphasic and occurs on an average time scale of 100 ps, in parallel to excited-state relaxation processes. Judging from ultrafast transient absorption experiments, the origin of the quenching is excitation energy transfer from the P3HT donor to the PCB acceptor. Due to the much higher solubility of P3HT compared to PCB in THF, the PCB-P3HT dyad molecules self-assemble into micelles. When pure C60 is added to the solution, it is incorporated into the fullerene-rich center of the micelles. This dramatically increases the solubility of C60 but does not lead to significant additional quenching of the P3HT fluorescence by the C60 contained in the micelles. In PCB-P3HT thin films drop-cast from THF, the micelle structure is conserved. In contrast to solution, quantitative and ultrafast (microscopy images. Ultrafast charge separation occurs also for the fibrous morphology, but the transient absorption experiments show fast loss of part of the charge carriers due to intensity-induced recombination and annihilation processes and monomolecular interfacial trap-mediated or geminate recombination. The yield of the long-lived charge carriers in the highly organized fibers is however comparable to that obtained with annealed P3HT:PCBM blends. PCB-P3HT can therefore be considered as an active material in organic photovoltaic devices.

  16. Interactions between perceived uncertainty types in service dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    to avoid business failure. A conceptual framework of four uncertainty types is investigated: environmental, technological, organisational, and relational uncertainty. We present insights from four empirical cases of service dyads collected via multiple sources of evidence including 54 semi-structured...... interviews, observations, and secondary data. The cases show seven interaction paths with direct knock-on effects between two uncertainty types and indirect knock-on effects between three or four uncertainty types. The findings suggest a causal chain from environmental, technological, organisational......, to relational uncertainty. This research contributes to the servitization literature by (i) con-firming the existence of uncertainty types, (ii) providing an in-depth characterisation of technological uncertainty, and (iii) showing the interaction paths between four uncertainty types in the form of a causal...

  17. Light-Induced Activation of a Molybdenum Oxotransferase Model within a Ru(II)-Mo(VI) Dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Aurélien B; Coulson, Ben A; Perutz, Robin N; Duhme-Klair, Anne-Kathrin

    2016-12-19

    Nature uses molybdenum-containing enzymes to catalyze oxygen atom transfer (OAT) from water to organic substrates. In these enzymes, the two electrons that are released during the reaction are rapidly removed, one at a time, by spatially separated electron transfer units. Inspired by this design, a Ru(II)-Mo(VI) dyad was synthesized and characterized, with the aim of accelerating the rate-determining step in the cis-dioxo molybdenum-catalyzed OAT cycle, the transfer of an oxo ligand to triphenyl phosphine, via a photo-oxidation process. The dyad consists of a photoactive bis(bipyridyl)-phenanthroline ruthenium moiety that is covalently linked to a bioinspired cis-dioxo molybdenum thiosemicarbazone complex. The quantum yield and luminescence lifetimes of the dyad [Ru(bpy) 2 (L 2 )MoO 2 (solv)] 2+ were determined. The major component of the luminescence decay in MeCN solution (τ = 1149 ± 2 ns, 67%) corresponds closely to the lifetime of excited [Ru(bpy) 2 (phen-NH 2 )] 2+ , while the minor component (τ = 320 ± 1 ns, 31%) matches that of [Ru(bpy) 2 (H 2 -L 2 )] 2+ . In addition, the (spectro)electrochemical properties of the system were investigated. Catalytic tests showed that the dyad-catalyzed OAT from dimethyl sulfoxide to triphenyl phosphine proceeds significantly faster upon irradiation with visible light than in the dark. Methylviologen acts as a mediator in the photoredox cycle, but it is regenerated and hence only required in stoichiometric amounts with respect to the catalyst rather than sacrificial amounts. It is proposed that oxidative quenching of the photoexcited Ru unit, followed by intramolecular electron transfer, leads to the production of a reactive one-electron oxidized catalyst, which is not accessible by electrochemical methods. A significant, but less pronounced, rate enhancement was observed when an analogous bimolecular system was tested, indicating that intramolecular electron transfer between the photosensitizer and the catalytic center

  18. Diagnostic electrocardiographic dyad criteria of emphysema in left ventricular hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanjewar SS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Swapnil S Lanjewar,1 Lovely Chhabra,1 Vinod K Chaubey,1 Saurabh Joshi,1 Ganesh Kulkarni,1 Chandrasekhar Kothagundla,1 Sudesh Kaul,1 David H Spodick21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Saint Vincent Hospital, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: The electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad of emphysema, namely a combination of the frontal vertical P-vector and a narrow QRS duration, can serve as a quasidiagnostic marker for emphysema, with specificity close to 100%. We postulated that the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy in emphysema may affect the sensitivity of this electrocardiographic criterion given that left ventricular hypertrophy generates prominent left ventricular forces and may increase the QRS duration.Methods: We reviewed the electrocardiograms and echocardiograms for 73 patients with emphysema. The patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy. The P-vector, QRS duration, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 were computed and compared between the two subgroups.Results: There was no statistically significant difference in qualitative lung function (FEV1 between the subgroups. There was no statistically significant difference in mean P-vector between the subgroups. The mean QRS duration was significantly longer in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy as compared with those without left ventricular hypertrophy.Conclusion: The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may not affect the sensitivity of the P-vector verticalization when used as a lone criterion for diagnosing emphysema. However, the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy may significantly reduce the sensitivity of the electrocardiographic diagnostic dyad in emphysema, as it causes a widening of the QRS duration.Keywords: emphysema, electrocardiogram, left ventricular hypertrophy, chronic

  19. Curricular Goals and Personal Goals in Master's Thesis Projects: Dutch Student-Supervisor Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…

  20. Perceptions of vocational interest : Self- and other-reports in student-parent dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtrop, Djurre; Born, Marise Ph.; de Vries, Reinout Everhard

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated how self- and other-ratings of vocational interests converge among student–parent dyads. Using the Personal Globe Inventory–Short, we obtained data from a pooled sample of 271 (high school senior and university) student–parent dyads. Participants rated their own

  1. Perceptions of vocational interest: Self- and other-reports in student-parent dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtrop, Djurre; Born, Marise Ph; de Vries, Reinout E.

    The current study investigated how self- and other-ratings of vocational interests converge among student–parent dyads. Using the Personal Globe Inventory–Short, we obtained data from a pooled sample of 271 (high school senior and university) student–parent dyads. Participants rated their own

  2. Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents’ Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12–16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison group). To test our hypothesis, we applied a multigroup actor–partner interdependence model to 3 friendship types that started and ended at different time points during the 2 waves of data collection. Results showed that adolescents reported levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up that were similar to those of their best friends. Socialization processes explained the increase in similarity exclusively in female dyads, whereas no evidence for friendship selection emerged for either male or female dyads. Additional analyses revealed that similarity between friends was particularly evident in the actual best friend dyads (i.e., true best friends), in which evidence for socialization processes emerged for both female and male friend dyads. Findings highlight the importance of examining friendship relations as a potential context for the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:21639621

  3. Evaluative Language Used by Mandarin-Chinese-Speaking Dyads in Personal Narratives: Age and Socioeconomic Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen-Feng; Chen, Yen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of age and family socioeconomic status (SES) on the evaluative language performance of Mandarin-Chinese-speaking young children and their mothers. The participants were 65 mother-child dyads recruited in Taiwan. Thirty-four of these dyads were from middle-class families and 31 were from…

  4. Symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state of meso-linked BODIPY dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Whited, Matthew T.; Patel, Niral M.; Roberts, Sean T.; Allen, Kathryn; Djurovich, Peter I.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of symmetric BODIPY dyads where the chromophores are attached at the meso position, using either a phenylene bridge or direct linkage. Both molecules undergo symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state, and the directly linked dyad serves as a visible-light-absorbing analogue of 9,9′-bianthryl.

  5. Autonomy and control in dyads: effects on interaction quality and joint creative performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Hodgins, Holley S; Ryan, Richard M

    2010-12-01

    Two studies examined interaction quality and joint performance on two creative tasks in unacquainted dyads primed for autonomy or control orientations. It was hypothesized that autonomy-primed dyads would interact more constructively, experience more positive mood, and engage the task more readily, and as a result these dyads would perform better. To test this, Study 1 primed orientation and explored verbal creative performance on the Remote Associates Task (RAT). In Study 2, dyads were primed with autonomy and control orientation and videotaped during two joint creative tasks, one verbal (RAT) and one nonverbal (charades). Videotapes were coded for behavioral indicators of closeness and task engagement. Results showed that autonomy-primed dyads felt closer, were more emotionally and cognitively attuned, provided empathy and encouragement to partners, and performed more effectively. The effects of primed autonomy on creative performance were mediated by interpersonal quality, mood, and joint engagement.

  6. How Not to Let Secrets Out When Conducting Qualitative Research With Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummel, Deborah; Achille, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Confidentiality is one of the cornerstones of research involving human participants. Researchers are the frontline gatekeepers of their participants' right to confidentiality, and situations can arise that challenge this responsibility. This is the case when individuals who have shared a common experience (i.e., dyads) are interviewed separately, but interview results are disseminated within the context of dyads. Based on our experience of conducting research with dyads and given how little literature is available to serve as guide, we set out to write this article to share the knowledge we acquired and the solutions we found. We will describe both the ethical challenges and the methodological decisions involved in conducting qualitative research with dyads. The article also describes different modalities of dyadic analysis, their benefits and drawbacks. This endeavor seems especially relevant as research with dyads is emerging in several domains involving couples, families, caregivers and health. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Monodispersed Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle-Dye Dyads and Triads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladfelter, Wayne L. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Blank, David A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Mann, Kent R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-06-22

    The overall energy conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells depends on the combined efficiencies of light absorption, charge separation and charge transport. Dye-sensitized solar cells are photovoltaic devices in which a molecular dye absorbs light and uses this energy to initiate charge separation. The most efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) use nanocrystal titanium dioxide films to which are attached ruthenium complexes. Numerous studies have provided valuable insight into the dynamics of these and analogous photosystems, but the lack of site homogeneity in binding dye molecules to metal oxide films and nanocrystals (NCs) is a significant impediment to extracting fundamental details about the electron transfer across the interface. Although zinc oxide is emerging as a potential semiconducting component in DSSCs, there is less known about the factors controlling charge separation across the dye/ZnO interface. Zinc oxide crystallizes in the wurtzite lattice and has a band gap of 3.37 eV. One of the features that makes ZnO especially attractive is the remarkable ability to control the morphology of the films. Using solution deposition processes, one can prepare NCs, nanorods and nanowires having a variety of shapes and dimensions. This project solved problems associated with film heterogeneity through the use of dispersible sensitizer/ZnO NC ensembles. The overarching goal of this research was to study the relationship between structure, energetics and dynamics in a set of synthetically controlled donor-acceptor dyads and triads. These studies provided access to unprecedented understanding of the light absorption and charge transfer steps that lie at the heart of DSSCs, thus enabling significant future advances in cell efficiencies. The approach began with the construction of well-defined dye-NC dyads that were sufficiently dispersible to allow the use of state of the art pulsed laser spectroscopic and kinetic methods to understand the charge transfer

  8. Measles Antibodies in Mother-Infant Dyads in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Matthew L; Wang, Xiexiu; Wagner, Abram L; Zhang, Ying; Carlson, Bradley F; Gillespie, Brenda W; Ding, Yaxing

    2017-11-27

    Many measles cases in Tianjin, China, occur in infants whose mothers were born after widespread vaccination programs. We assessed age-specific decreases in maternal measles antibodies in infants and examined maternal and infant characteristics in relation to infant antibody titers. Infant and mother dyads were enrolled from a sample of immunization clinics in all Tianjin districts. Participants' antibody titers were measured from dried blood spots. A multivariable log-linear model regressed infant antibody titers onto infant and mother characteristics. Among 551 infants aged ≤8 months, protective levels of measles antibodies were observed in infants whose mothers had measles titers ≥800 IU/mL (mean antibody titer, 542.5 IU/mL) or 400 to measles and an accordingly low efficiency of transplacental transmission to a fetus. Current vaccination programs, which target children aged 8 months through adolescence may be ineffective in controlling transmission of measles to infants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Dyad conversations about self-stigma in two Scottish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Rob; Bradstreet, Simon; McArthur, Andy; Dunion, Linda

    2015-06-01

    This study explored self-stigma in 2 Scottish communities and strategies for challenging stigma and discrimination. A mixed-methods approach was used encompassing a survey including the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Inventory (ISMI) and facilitated dyad conversations with people with lived experience of mental illness. Self-reported experience of self-stigma across 2 communities was most closely associated with the ISMI Alienation cluster, accompanied by a high level of agreement with the Stigma Resistance cluster. Some 44% agreed that stereotypes about people with mental health problems applied to them, and almost 2/3 felt that having a mental health problem had spoiled their lives. Many participants reported reduced confidence, loss of hope, a sense of failure, and protecting oneself through social withdrawal. The findings also offer hope through narratives from people who have "pushed back" and are striving to reduce their own self-stigma by engaging with others and managing their own recovery journey. The journey through self-stigma and beyond has to be informed by what we know works with recovery from a mental health problem. At a policy and practice level, we recommend emphasis on 4 priorities: (a) refocusing antistigma and discrimination efforts more on the experiences of people who report stigma, (b) rights-based approaches, (c) identity-based work, and (d) information sharing and educational strategies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. BODIPY-pyrene and perylene dyads as heavy atom-free singlet oxygen sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.

    2018-02-23

    Dyads combining BODIPY as an electron acceptor and pyrene or perylene as electron donor subunits were prepared and studied their photophysical properties studied by steady-state and transient spectroscopy. Depending on the structure of the subunits and polarity of the media, the dyads show either bright fluorescence or photo-induced electron transfer (PeT) in solution. Charge-transfer (CT) states formed as a result of PeT and were found to yield triplet excited states of the BODIPY. In the presence of molecular oxygen, the dyads sensitize singlet oxygen (1O2) with quantum yields of up to 0.75.

  11. BODIPY-pyrene and perylene dyads as heavy atom-free singlet oxygen sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.; Karuthedath, Safakath; Polestshuk, Pavel M.; Callaghan, Susan; Flanagan, Keith J.; Wiesner, Thomas; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Senge, Mathias O.

    2018-01-01

    Dyads combining BODIPY as an electron acceptor and pyrene or perylene as electron donor subunits were prepared and studied their photophysical properties studied by steady-state and transient spectroscopy. Depending on the structure of the subunits and polarity of the media, the dyads show either bright fluorescence or photo-induced electron transfer (PeT) in solution. Charge-transfer (CT) states formed as a result of PeT and were found to yield triplet excited states of the BODIPY. In the presence of molecular oxygen, the dyads sensitize singlet oxygen (1O2) with quantum yields of up to 0.75.

  12. Analysis of Participant Reactivity in Dyads Performing a Videotaped Conflict-Management Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, Yulia Y; Riesch, Susan K

    2011-01-01

    Videotaping is used frequently in nursing research. A threat to the validity of videotaping is participant reactivity, that is, being recorded by a camera may influence the behavior of interest. This paper's purpose is to report how youth ages 10 to 14 years old and their parent viewed participation in a videotaped conflict-management task. Five dyads, who were part of a randomized clinical trial testing an intervention to promote parent-child communication, participated in a structured interview. All parents were mothers. Youth were eighth graders. Three were boys and two were girls. Findings indicated that (a) dyads felt that the videotaped interaction had a progression of feeling unnatural in the beginning to feeling natural toward the end, (b) dyads found it relatively easy to choose a topic of discussion, and (c) dyads felt that the discussions were meaningful. Based on these data, recommendations for researchers to reduce participant reactivity are provided.

  13. The effect of dyad versus individual simulation-based ultrasound training on skills transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin G; Madsen, Mette E; Oxlund, Birgitte S

    2015-01-01

    : This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of simulation-based ultrasound training in pairs (dyad practice) with that of training alone (single-student practice) on skills transfer. METHODS: In a non-inferiority trial, 30 ultrasound novices were randomised to dyad (n = 16) or single-student (n...... through pre-, post- and transfer tests. The transfer test involved the assessment of a transvaginal ultrasound scan by one of two clinicians using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS). RESULTS: Thirty participants completed the simulation-based training and 24...... interactions between training type and performance (p = 0.59). The dyad group demonstrated higher training efficiency in terms of simulator score per number of attempts compared with the single-student group (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Dyad practice improves the efficiency of simulation-based training and is non...

  14. Psychobiological Factors Affecting Cortisol Variability in Human-Dog Dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Schöberl

    Full Text Available Stress responses within dyads are modulated by interactions such as mutual emotional support and conflict. We investigated dyadic psychobiological factors influencing intra-individual cortisol variability in response to different challenging situations by testing 132 owners and their dogs in a laboratory setting. Salivary cortisol was measured and questionnaires were used to assess owner and dog personality as well as owners' social attitudes towards the dog and towards other humans. We calculated the individual coefficient of variance of cortisol (iCV = sd/mean*100 over the different test situations as a parameter representing individual variability of cortisol concentration. We hypothesized that high cortisol variability indicates efficient and adaptive coping and a balanced individual and dyadic social performance. Female owners of male dogs had lower iCV than all other owner gender-dog sex combinations (F = 14.194, p<0.001, whereas owner Agreeableness (NEO-FFI scaled positively with owner iCV (F = 4.981, p = 0.028. Dogs of owners high in Neuroticism (NEO-FFI and of owners who were insecure-ambivalently attached to their dogs (FERT, had low iCV (F = 4.290, p = 0.041 and F = 5.948, p = 0.016, as had dogs of owners with human-directed separation anxiety (RSQ or dogs of owners with a strong desire of independence (RSQ (F = 7.661, p = 0.007 and F = 9.192, p = 0.003. We suggest that both owner and dog social characteristics influence dyadic cortisol variability, with the human partner being more influential than the dog. Our results support systemic approaches (i.e. considering the social context in science and in counselling.

  15. Exciplex formation and excited state deactivation of difluoroborondipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benniston, Andrew C; Copley, Graeme; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V

    2010-06-07

    Two series of geometrically-related dyads are discussed based on the difluoroborondipyrromethene (Bodipy) unit, and incorporating covalently attached hydroquinone/quinone groups. These units are anchored directly, or via a phenylene spacer, to the Bodipy core at the meso position in one series (BD-MHQ, BD-MQ, BD-MPHQ, BD-MPQ), but for the second series the attachment site is the 2-position (BD-SHQ, BD-SQ, BD-SPHQ, BD-SPQ). The compounds show various levels of fluorescence depending on the oxidation state of the appended group and the substitution pattern. In non-polar solvents such as toluene, diethyl ether and dichlorobenzene, the S(1) state deactivation of the Bodipy unit in BD-SPQ and BD-MPQ is dominated by (1, 3)exciplex formation, which has not been reported for Bodipy derivatives so far. In the latter molecule, the decay of the exciplex is divided between population of the Bodipy triplet state (13 %-21 %) and ground state reformation. This partitioning is not seen for the side-on substituted derivative, BD-SPQ, and only ground state reformation is observed following decay of the exciplex. This difference in behavior is explained by the radical-pair inter-system-crossing mechanism, which more effectively operates in BD-MPQ because of the orthogonality of the donor-acceptor units. In the more polar solvent CH(3)CN all the quinone derivatives show fast formation of the charge-separated state (k(CS)) followed by slower charge recombination (k(CR)). The ratio k(CS)/k(CR)

  16. The Clinical Learning Dyad Model: An Innovation in Midwifery Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Susanna R; Thomas, Celeste R; Gerard, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    There is a national shortage of women's health and primary care providers in the United States, including certified nurse-midwives and certified midwives. This shortage is directly related to how many students can be trained within the existing system. The current model of midwifery clinical training is based on apprenticeship, with one-on-one interaction between a student and preceptor. Thus, the number of newly trained midwifery providers is limited by the number of available and willing preceptors. The clinical learning dyad model (CLDM), which pairs 2 beginning midwifery students with one preceptor in a busy practice, addresses this problem. In addition, this model brings in a senior midwife student as a near-peer mentor when the students are first oriented into outpatient clinical practice. The model began as a pilot project to improve the quality of training and increase available student spots in clinical education. This article discusses the origins of the model, the specifics of its design, and the results of a midterm and one-year postintervention survey. Students and preceptors involved in this model identified several advantages to the program, including increased student accountability, enhanced socialization into the profession, improved learning, and reduced teaching burden on preceptors. An additional benefit of the CLDM is that students form a learning community and collaborate with preceptors to care for women in busy clinical settings. Challenges of the model will also be discussed. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLDM. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  17. Dansyl-anthracene dyads for ratiometric fluorescence recognition of Cu2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kuljit; Kumar, Subodh

    2011-03-21

    Dansyl-anthracene dyads 1 and 2 in CH(3)CN-H(2)O (7:3) selectively recognize Cu(2+) ions amongst alkali, alkaline earth and other heavy metal ions using both absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy. In absorbance, the addition of Cu(2+) to the solution of dyads 1 or 2 results in appearance of broad absorption band from 200 nm to 725 nm for dyad 1 and from 200 nm to 520 nm for dyad 2. This is associated with color change from colorless to blue (for 1) and fluorescent green (for 2). This bathochromic shift of the spectrum could be assigned to internal charge transfer from sulfonamide nitrogen to anthracene moiety. In fluorescence, under similar conditions dyads 1 and 2 on addition of Cu(2+) selectively quench fluorescence due to dansyl moiety between 520-570 nm (for 1)/555-650 nm (for 2) with simultaneous fluorescence enhancement at 470 nm and 505 nm for dyads 1 and 2, respectively. Hence these dyads provide opportunity for ratiometric analysis of 1-50 μM Cu(2+). The other metal ions viz. Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Hg(2+), Ag(+), Pb(2+), Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Ba(2+) do not interfere in the estimation of Cu(2+) except Cr(3+) in case of dyad 1. The coordination of dimethylamino group of dansyl unit with Cu(2+) causes quenching of fluorescence due to dansyl moiety between 520-600 nm and also restricts the photoinduced electron transfer from dimethylamino to anthracene moiety to release fluorescence between 450-510 nm. This simultaneous quenching and release of fluorescence respectively due to dansyl and anthracene moieties emulates into Cu(2+) induced ratiometric change.

  18. Patient and caregiver congruence: the importance of dyads in heart failure care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retrum, Jessica H; Nowels, Carolyn T; Bekelman, David B

    2013-01-01

    Informal (family) caregivers are integrally involved in chronic heart failure (HF) care. Few studies have examined HF patients and their informal caregiver as a unit in a relationship, or a dyad. Dyad congruence, or consistency in perspective, is relevant to numerous aspects of living with HF and HF care. Incongruence or lack of communication could impair disease management and advance care planning. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine for congruence and incongruence between HF patients and their informal (family) caregivers. Secondary analyses examined the relationship of congruence to emotional distress and whether dyad relationship characteristics (eg, parent-child vs spouse) were associated with congruence. Thirty-four interviews consisting of HF patients and their current informal caregiver (N = 17 dyads) were conducted. Each dyad member was asked similar questions about managing HF symptoms, psychosocial care, and planning for the future. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the general inductive approach. Congruence, incongruence, and lack of communication between patients and caregivers were identified in areas such as managing illness, perceived care needs, perspectives about the future of HF, and end-of-life issues. Seven dyads were generally congruent, 4 were incongruent, and 6 demonstrated a combination of congruence and incongruence. Much of the tension and distress among dyads related to conflicting views about how emotions should be dealt with or expressed. Dyad relationship (parent-child vs spouse) was not clearly associated with congruence, although the relationship did appear to be related to perceived caregiving roles. Several areas of HF clinical and research relevance, including self-care, advance care planning, and communication, were affected by congruence. Further research is needed to define how congruence is related to other relationship characteristics, such as relationship quality, how congruence can best be

  19. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  20. Efficient sensitization of dye-sensitized solar cells by novel triazine-bridged porphyrin-porphyrin dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervaki, Galateia E; Roy, Mahesh S; Panda, Manas K; Angaridis, Panagiotis A; Chrissos, Emmanouel; Sharma, Ganesh D; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G

    2013-09-03

    Two novel porphyrin-porphyrin dyads, the symmetrical Zn[Porph]-Zn[Porph] (2) and unsymmetrical Zn[Porph]-H2[Porph] (4), where Zn[Porph] and H2[Porph] are the metalated and free-base forms of 5-(4-aminophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin, respectively, in which two porphyrin units are covalently bridged by 1,3,5-triazine, have been synthesized via the stepwise amination of cyanuric chloride. The dyads are also functionalized by a terminal carboxylic acid group of a glycine moiety attached to the triazine group. Photophysical measurements of 2 and 4 showed broaden and strengthened absorptions in their visible spectra, while electrochemistry experiments and density functional theory calculations revealed negligible interaction between the two porphyrin units in their ground states but appropriate frontier orbital energy levels for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The 2- and 4-based solar cells have been fabricated and found to exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.61% and 4.46%, respectively (under an illumination intensity of 100 mW/cm(2) with TiO2 films of 10 μm thickness). The higher PCE value of the 4-based DSSC, as revealed by photovoltaic measurements (J-V curves) and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectra of the two cells, is attributed to its enhanced short-circuit current (J(sc)) under illumination, high open-circuit voltage (V(oc)), and fill factor (FF) values. Electrochemical impedance spectra demonstrated shorter electron-transport time (τd), longer electron lifetime (τe), and high charge recombination resistance for the 4-based cell, as well as larger dye loading onto TiO2.

  1. Depression impacts the physiological responsiveness of mother–daughter dyads during social interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, Marlissa C.; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Swartz, Holly A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal depression is associated with increased risk of psychiatric illness in offspring. While risk may relate to depressed mothers' difficulties regulating emotions in the context of interacting with offspring, physiological indicators of emotion regulation have rarely been examined during mother–child interactions—and never among mother–adolescent dyads in which both mother and adolescent have histories of major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods We examined changes in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), an indicator of parasympathetic (vagal) function that has been related to depression, stress, social engagement, and emotion regulation, in 46 mother–daughter dyads (23 in which both mother and daughter had an MDD history and 23 never-depressed controls). Hierarchical linear models evaluated changes in HF-HRV while mother–daughter dyads engaged in discussions about shared pleasant events and relationship conflicts. Results While control dyads displayed positive slopes (increases) in HF-HRV during both discussions, MDD dyads displayed minimal change in HF-HRV across discussions. Among controls, HF-HRV slopes were positively correlated between mothers and daughters during the pleasant events' discussion. In contrast, HF-HRV slopes were negatively correlated between MDD mothers and daughters during both discussions. Conclusions Vagal responses observed in control mother–daughter dyads suggest a pattern of physiological synchrony and reciprocal positive social engagement, which may play a role in adolescent development of secure social attachments and healthy emotion regulation. In contrast, MDD mothers and daughters displayed diminished and discordant patterns of vagal responsiveness. More research is needed to understand the development and consequences of these patterns of parasympathetic responses among depressed mother–daughter dyads. PMID:28060443

  2. Depression impacts the physiological responsiveness of mother-daughter dyads during social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, Marlissa C; Cyranowski, Jill M; Wright, Aidan G C; Swartz, Holly A

    2017-02-01

    Maternal depression is associated with increased risk of psychiatric illness in offspring. While risk may relate to depressed mothers' difficulties regulating emotions in the context of interacting with offspring, physiological indicators of emotion regulation have rarely been examined during mother-child interactions-and never among mother-adolescent dyads in which both mother and adolescent have histories of major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined changes in high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), an indicator of parasympathetic (vagal) function that has been related to depression, stress, social engagement, and emotion regulation, in 46 mother-daughter dyads (23 in which both mother and daughter had an MDD history and 23 never-depressed controls). Hierarchical linear models evaluated changes in HF-HRV while mother-daughter dyads engaged in discussions about shared pleasant events and relationship conflicts. While control dyads displayed positive slopes (increases) in HF-HRV during both discussions, MDD dyads displayed minimal change in HF-HRV across discussions. Among controls, HF-HRV slopes were positively correlated between mothers and daughters during the pleasant events' discussion. In contrast, HF-HRV slopes were negatively correlated between MDD mothers and daughters during both discussions. Vagal responses observed in control mother-daughter dyads suggest a pattern of physiological synchrony and reciprocal positive social engagement, which may play a role in adolescent development of secure social attachments and healthy emotion regulation. In contrast, MDD mothers and daughters displayed diminished and discordant patterns of vagal responsiveness. More research is needed to understand the development and consequences of these patterns of parasympathetic responses among depressed mother-daughter dyads. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Souper: A Synthesizing Superoptimizer

    OpenAIRE

    Sasnauskas, Raimondas; Chen, Yang; Collingbourne, Peter; Ketema, Jeroen; Lup, Gratian; Taneja, Jubi; Regehr, John

    2017-01-01

    If we can automatically derive compiler optimizations, we might be able to sidestep some of the substantial engineering challenges involved in creating and maintaining a high-quality compiler. We developed Souper, a synthesizing superoptimizer, to see how far these ideas might be pushed in the context of LLVM. Along the way, we discovered that Souper's intermediate representation was sufficiently similar to the one in Microsoft Visual C++ that we applied Souper to that compiler as well. Shipp...

  4. Recruitment of Older Adult Patient-Caregiver Dyads for an Online Caregiver Resource Program: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Orwig, Denise; Resnick, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Bellantoni, Michele; Sterling, Robert

    2012-01-12

    Hip fracture is a significant health problem for older adults and generally requires surgery followed by intensive rehabilitation. Informal caregivers (CGs) can provide vital assistance to older adults recovering from hip fracture. Caregiving is a dyadic process that affects both CGs and care recipients (CRs). In a feasibility study, we assessed the effects of using a theory-based online hip fracture resource program for CGs on both CGs and CRs. In this article, we discuss our recruitment process and the lessons learned. Participants were recruited from six acute hospitals, and CGs used the online resource program for 8 weeks. A total of 256 hip fracture patients were screened, and 164 CRs were ineligible. CG screening was initiated when CRs were determined to be eligible. Among 41 eligible dyads, 36 dyads were recruited. Several challenges to the recruitment of these dyads for online studies were identified, including a low number of eligible dyads in certain hospitals and difficulty recruiting both the CR and the CG during the short hospital stay. Field nurses often had to make multiple trips to the hospital to meet with both the CR and the CG. Thus, when a subject unit is a dyad recruited from acute settings, the resources required for the recruitment may be more than doubled. These challenges could be successfully alleviated with careful planning, competent field staff members, collaboration with hospital staff members, and efficient field operations.

  5. The Relations of Family Members’ Unique and Shared Perspectives of Family Dysfunction to Dyad Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    Among a community sample of families (N = 128), this study examined how family members’ shared and unique perspectives of family dysfunction relate to dyad members’ shared views of dyad adjustment within adolescent-mother, adolescent-father, and mother-father dyads. Independent of a family’s family perspective (shared perspective of family dysfunction), the adolescent’s unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with both mother and father, the father’s unique perspective was associated with lower security and higher conflict with the adolescent as well as lower marital quality with mother, and the mother unique perspective was associated with lower marital quality with the father. Moreover, for adolescent-parent dyads, compared to the parent unique perspective, the adolescent unique perspective was more strongly associated with dyad adjustment. These findings indicate that both shared and unique views of the family system – the adolescent’s unique view in particular - independently relate to the health of family subsystems. They also suggest that research as well as therapeutic interventions that focus on just the shared view of the family may miss important elements of family dysfunction. PMID:24884682

  6. A trident dithienylethene-perylenemonoimide dyad with super fluorescence switching speed and ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Yan, Hui; Zhao, Ling-Xi; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Hu, Zhe; Huang, Zhen-Li; Zhu, Ming-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Photoswitchable fluorescent diarylethenes are promising in molecular optical memory and photonic devices. However, the performance of current diarylethenes is far from satisfactory because of the scarcity of high-speed switching capability and large fluorescence on-off ratio. Here we report a trident perylenemonoimide dyad modified by triple dithienylethenes whose photochromic fluorescence quenching ratio at the photostationary state exceeds 10,000 and the fluorescence quenching efficiency is close to 100% within seconds of ultraviolet irradiation. The highly sensitive fluorescence on/off switching of the trident dyad enables recyclable fluorescence patterning and all-optical transistors. The prototype optical device based on the trident dyad enables the optical switching of incident light and conversion from incident light wavelength to transmitted light wavelength, which is all-optically controlled, reversible and wavelength-convertible. In addition, the trident dyad-staining block copolymer vesicles are observed via optical nanoimaging with a sub-100 nm resolution, portending a potential prospect of the dithienylethene dyad in super-resolution imaging.

  7. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Dyads for Estimating Global Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A; Axelrod, Bradley N; Patel, Ronak; Crawford, John R

    2015-08-01

    All possible two-subtest combinations of the core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) subtests were evaluated as possible viable short forms for estimating full-scale IQ (FSIQ). Validity of the dyads was evaluated relative to FSIQ in a large clinical sample (N = 482) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Sample validity measures included correlations, mean discrepancies, and levels of agreement between dyad estimates and FSIQ scores. In addition, reliability and validity coefficients were derived from WAIS-IV standardization data. The Coding + Information dyad had the strongest combination of reliability and validity data. However, several other dyads yielded comparable psychometric performance, albeit with some variability in their particular strengths. We also observed heterogeneity between validity coefficients from the clinical and standardization-based estimates for several dyads. Thus, readers are encouraged to also consider the individual psychometric attributes, their clinical or research goals, and client or sample characteristics when selecting among the dyadic short forms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Rectifying behaviour of self assembled porphyrin/fullerene dyads on Au(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matino, F; Arima, V; Maruccio, G; Phaneuf, R J; Sole, R Del; Mele, G; Vasapollo, G; Cingolani, R; Rinaldi, R

    2007-01-01

    Here we present an Ultra High Vacuum Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (UHVSTM) and Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy (STS) study of self assembled donor-acceptor conjugate dyads, consisting of fulleropyrrolidines and metallo-porphyrins immobilized on gold. The coverage in the fulleropyrrolidine layers was optimized up to obtain isolated protrusions which we identify with isolated dyads since their lateral dimensions are consistent with the fullerene size. The STS study reveals a diode-like asymmetric behaviour of the dyads, different from the surrounding areas. We investigate also the influence of the tunneling conditions on the rectifying ratio which is found to be dependent on the initial set point conditions and to increase by increasing the tip-sample distance

  9. Rectifying behaviour of self assembled porphyrin/fullerene dyads on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matino, F [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (CNR-INFM)- Distretto Tecnologico ISUFI-Universita degli studi di Lecce - via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (CNR-INFM)- Distretto Tecnologico ISUFI-Universita degli studi di Lecce - via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Maruccio, G [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (CNR-INFM)- Distretto Tecnologico ISUFI-Universita degli studi di Lecce - via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Phaneuf, R J [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (CNR-INFM)- Distretto Tecnologico ISUFI-Universita degli studi di Lecce - via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Sole, R Del [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione - Universita degli Studi di Lecce- via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Mele, G [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione - Universita degli Studi di Lecce- via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Vasapollo, G [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione - Universita degli Studi di Lecce- via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cingolani, R [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (CNR-INFM)- Distretto Tecnologico ISUFI-Universita degli studi di Lecce - via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Rinaldi, R [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (CNR-INFM)- Distretto Tecnologico ISUFI-Universita degli studi di Lecce - via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Here we present an Ultra High Vacuum Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (UHVSTM) and Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy (STS) study of self assembled donor-acceptor conjugate dyads, consisting of fulleropyrrolidines and metallo-porphyrins immobilized on gold. The coverage in the fulleropyrrolidine layers was optimized up to obtain isolated protrusions which we identify with isolated dyads since their lateral dimensions are consistent with the fullerene size. The STS study reveals a diode-like asymmetric behaviour of the dyads, different from the surrounding areas. We investigate also the influence of the tunneling conditions on the rectifying ratio which is found to be dependent on the initial set point conditions and to increase by increasing the tip-sample distance.

  10. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) dyad monthly association rates by demographic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary data from GPS-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota indicated wolves had low association rates with packmates during summer. However, aerial-telemetry locations of very high frequency (VHF)-radioed wolves in this same area showed high associations among packmates during winter. We analyzed aerial-telemetry-location data from VHF-collared wolves in several packs (n=18 dyads) in this same area from 1994-2012 by month, and found lowest association rates occurred during June. While other studies have found low association among wolf packmates during summer, information on differences in association patterns depending on the wolf associates’ demographics is sparse. During May-July, association rates were greatest for breeding pairs, followed by sibling dyads, and lowest for parent– offspring dyads. Our findings improve our understanding of how individual wolf relationships affect monthly association rates. We highlight some important remaining questions regarding wolf packmate associations.

  11. Detection of cyanide anion by zinc porphyrin-spiropyran dyad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, Young Min; Hur, Dae Young; Shin, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    Versatile methods of the sensitive and selective detection for cyanide anion to monitor toxic cyanide have been developed. These include colorimetric, colorimetric, chromatographic, and electrochemical analyses. Among those methods for cyanide detection, optical methods based on absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are relatively simple, inexpensive, and sensitive. A number of organic sensors for cyanide anion have been designed and synthesized. Absorption and/or fluorescence spectra of these sensors are changed by forming coordination complex or bonding covalently with cyanide. Compared with other anions, cyanide anion has some characteristic properties, such as its strong nucleophilicity and high binding affinity toward metal ions, and is superior and useful for the development of the sensors. Both covalent bond-based sensors and coordination complex-based sensors have been developed for cyanide detection. The results indicate that ZnP-SP plays a role as a CN"- selective, colorimetric sensor either without or with UV irradiation

  12. Detection of cyanide anion by zinc porphyrin-spiropyran dyad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kho, Young Min; Hur, Dae Young; Shin, Eun Ju [Dept. of Chemistry, Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Versatile methods of the sensitive and selective detection for cyanide anion to monitor toxic cyanide have been developed. These include colorimetric, colorimetric, chromatographic, and electrochemical analyses. Among those methods for cyanide detection, optical methods based on absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are relatively simple, inexpensive, and sensitive. A number of organic sensors for cyanide anion have been designed and synthesized. Absorption and/or fluorescence spectra of these sensors are changed by forming coordination complex or bonding covalently with cyanide. Compared with other anions, cyanide anion has some characteristic properties, such as its strong nucleophilicity and high binding affinity toward metal ions, and is superior and useful for the development of the sensors. Both covalent bond-based sensors and coordination complex-based sensors have been developed for cyanide detection. The results indicate that ZnP-SP plays a role as a CN{sup -} selective, colorimetric sensor either without or with UV irradiation.

  13. Widely tunable THz synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Eliet, S.; Guinet, M.; Cuisset, A.; Bocquet, R.; Yasui, T.; Rovera, D.

    2011-09-01

    The generation of cw-THz radiation by photomixing is particularly suited to the high resolution spectroscopy of gases; nevertheless, until recently, it has suffered from a lack of frequency metrology. Frequency combs are a powerful tool that can transfer microwave frequency standards to optical frequencies and a single comb has permitted accurate (10-8) THz frequency synthesis with a limited tuning range. A THz synthesizer composed of three extended cavity laser diodes phase locked to a frequency comb has been constructed and its utility for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy demonstrated. The third laser diode allows a larger tuning range of up to 300 MHz to be achieved without the need for large frequency excursions, while the frequency comb provides a versatile link to be established from any traceable microwave frequency standard. The use of a single frequency comb as a reference for all of the cw-lasers eliminates the dependency of synthesized frequency on the carrier envelope offset frequency. This greatly simplifies the frequency comb stabilization requirements and leads to a reduced instrument complexity.

  14. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, W.K.; McKinnon, A.D.; Miley, H.S.; Panisko, M.E.; Savard, R.M.

    1994-07-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a use r to specify physical characteristics of a gamma-ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the type and thickness of absorbers, the size and composition of the detector (Ge or NaI), and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function vs energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results will be presented

  15. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, W.K.; McKinnon, A.D.; Miley, H.S.; Panisko, M.E.; Savard, R.M.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented

  16. A Study of the Effect of Dyad Practice Versus That of Individual Practice on Simulation-Based Complex Skills Learning and of Students’ Perceptions of How and Why Dyad Practice Contributes to Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räder, Sune Bernd Emil Werner; Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Butrymovich, Vitalij

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of this study were (1) to explore the effectiveness of dyad practice compared with individual practice on a simulator for learning a complex clinical skill and (2) to explore medical students' perceptions of how and why dyad practice on a simulator contributes to learning...... a complex skill. METHOD: In 2011, the authors randomly assigned 84 medical students to either the dyad or the individual practice group to learn coronary angiography skills using instruction videos and a simulator. Two weeks later, participants each performed two video-recorded coronary angiographies...... of the two groups (mean±standard deviation, 68%±13% for individual versus 63%±16% for dyad practice; P=.18). Dyad practice participants noted that several key factors contributed to their learning: being equal-level novices, the quality of the cooperation between partners, observational learning and overt...

  17. Homo- or Hetero- Triplet-Triplet Annihilation? A Case Study with Perylene-Bodipy Dyads/Triads

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xiaoneng; El-Zohry, Ahmed M.; Wang, Zhijia; Zhao, Jianzhang; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    The photophysical processes of intramolecular ‘ping-pong’ energy transfers in the iodinated reference dyad BDP-I2-Py, as well as the uniodinated dyad BDP-Py and triad BDP-2Py, were studied. For BDP-I2-Py, a forward Förster resonance energy transfer

  18. Observed Sensitivity during Family Interactions and Cumulative Risk: A Study of Multiple Dyads per Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dillon T.; Leckie, George; Prime, Heather; Perlman, Michal; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the family, individual, and dyad-specific contributions to observed cognitive sensitivity during family interactions. Moreover, the influence of cumulative risk on sensitivity at the aforementioned levels of the family was examined. Mothers and 2 children per family were observed interacting in a round robin…

  19. Acceptability and Feasibility Results of a Strength-Based Skills Training Program for Dementia Caregiving Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Katherine S.; Yarry, Sarah J.; Orsulic-Jeras, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The current article provides an in-depth description of a dyadic intervention for individuals with dementia and their family caregivers. Using a strength-based approach, caregiving dyads received skills training across 5 key areas: (a) education regarding dementia and memory loss, (b) effective communication, (c) managing memory loss, (d)…

  20. Determination of the protonation state of the Asp dyad: conventional molecular dynamics versus thermodynamic integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Yali; Sun, Bin; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Junjun

    2016-03-01

    The protonation state of the Asp dyad is important as it can reveal enzymatic mechanisms, and the information this provides can be used in the development of drugs for proteins such as memapsin 2 (BACE-1), HIV-1 protease, and rennin. Conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been successfully used to determine the preferred protonation state of the Asp dyad. In the present work, we demonstrate that the results obtained from conventional MD simulations can be greatly influenced by the particular force field applied or the values used for control parameters. In principle, free-energy changes between possible protonation states can be used to determine the protonation state. We show that protonation state prediction by the thermodynamic integration (TI) method is insensitive to force field version or to the cutoff for calculating nonbonded interactions (a control parameter). In the present study, the protonation state of the Asp dyad predicted by TI calculations was the same regardless of the force field and cutoff value applied. Contrary to the intuition that conventional MD is more efficient, our results clearly show that the TI method is actually more efficient and more reliable for determining the protonation state of the Asp dyad.

  1. Effects of a Cooperative Learning Program on the Elaborations of Students Working in Dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, K.; Janssen, J.J.H.M.; Veenman, S.A.M.; Linden, A.A.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of a school improvement program on cooperative learning (CL) with respect to the elaborations of 6th-grade students working in mixed-ability and mixed-sex dyads on 2 cooperative tasks were examined. A posttest-only design with a control group was used to investigate the

  2. Identity Styles and Conflict Resolution Styles: Associations in Mother-Adolescent Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad.…

  3. Antecedents of Toddler Aggression: Dysfunctional Parenting in Mother-Toddler Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Tamara; O'Leary, Susan G.

    2006-01-01

    Aggression is stable as early as 2 years of age and predicts many negative adult outcomes. Although longitudinal predictors of child aggression have been identified, information is lacking regarding the proximal precursors of toddlers' aggression. During a 30-min interaction, 54 mother-toddler dyads were observed. Toddlers were categorized as…

  4. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

  5. Structural Features of Sibling Dyads and Attitudes toward Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Heidi R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sibling-dyad structural variables (sex composition, age difference, current coresidence, position adjacency, family size, respondent and/or sibling ordinal position) and attitudes toward adult sibling relationships. A sample of 1,053 young adults (M age = 22.1 years) described one sibling using the Lifespan Sibling Relationship…

  6. PATTERNS OF EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN MOTHER-INFANT DYADS: ASSOCIATIONS WITH MULTIPLE LEVELS OF CONTEXT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, M Verónica; Easterbrooks, M Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study explored emotional availability (EA)- an individual's emotional responsiveness and attunement to another's needs and goals (R.N. Emde, 1980)- among a high social risk group of 226 adolescent mothers and their infants (average = 12 months old). The aim was to identify dyadic patterns of EA and to examine their association with multiple indicators of the ecological context. Maternal sensitivity, maternal nonhostility, and child responsiveness were assessed with the Emotional Availability Scales, Third Edition (Z. Biringen, J. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, 1998) during free play and teaching observations at home. Four EA patterns were identified using k-means cluster analysis: (a) "low functioning," (b) "high functioning," (c) "low functioning dyads with nonhostile mothers," and (d) "inconsistently sensitive mother and responsive child." These patterns had distinct associations with (a) mothers' parenting attitudes regarding children's power and independence and parent-child role reversal, (b) mothers' strategies in conflict resolution with their partners and their children, and (c) the dyads' living arrangements. This study makes a contribution to the understanding of the mother-child relationship from a systemic and relational perspective and explores the association of EA patterns with the dyads' relational context. Implications for programs and treatment approaches aimed at supporting dyads at social risk are discussed. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Enhanced intersystem crossing via a high energy charge transfer state in a perylenediimide-perylenemonoimide dyad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, D.; Chopin-Cado, S.M.A; Meskers, S.C.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic relaxation processes of a photoexcited linear perylenediimide-perylenemonoimide (PDI-PMI) acceptor-donor dyad were studied. PDI-PMI serves as a model compound for donor-acceptor systems in photovoltaic devices and has been designed to have a high-energy PDI--PMI + charge transfer (CT)

  8. Exciplex mediated photoinduced electron transfer reactions of phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Marja; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Efimov, Alexander; Lehtivuori, Heli; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2008-07-31

    Evidences of an intramolecular exciplex intermediate in a photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reaction of double-linked free-base and zinc phthalocyanine-C60 dyads were found. This was the first time for a dyad with phthalocyanine donor. Excitation of the phthalocyanine moiety of the dyads results in rapid ET from phthalocyanine to fullerene via an exciplex state in both polar and nonpolar solvents. Relaxation of the charge-separated (CS) state Pc(*+)-C60(*-) in a polar solvent occurs directly to the ground state in 30-70 ps. In a nonpolar solvent, roughly 20% of the molecules undergo transition from the CS state to phthalocyanine triplet state (3)Pc*-C60 before relaxation to the ground state. Formation of the CS state was confirmed with electron spin resonance measurements at low temperature in both polar and nonpolar solvent. Reaction schemes for the photoinduced ET reactions of the dyads were completed with rate constants obtained from the time-resolved absorption and emission measurements and with state energies obtained from the fluorescence, phosphorescence, and voltammetric measurements.

  9. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Friendships in Non-Clinical Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Allison L.; Block, Nicole; Donnellan, M. Brent; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    The broader autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of subclinical traits qualitatively similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorders. The current study sought to elucidate the association between self- and informant-reports of the BAP and friendships, in a non-clinical sample of college student dyads. Self-informant agreement of the BAP and…

  10. Working in Dyads and Alone: Examining Process Variables in Solving Insight Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidikis, Viktoria; Ash, Ivan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of working in dyads and their associated gender composition on performance (solution rate and time) and process variables (number of impasses, number of passed solutions, and number of problem solving suggestions and interactions) in a set of classic insight problem solving tasks. Two types of insight problems…

  11. Photoinduced electron transfer and photocurrent in multicomponent organic molecular films containing oriented porphyrin-fullerene dyad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaunisto, Kimmo; Vuorinen, Tommi; Vahasalo, Heidi; Chukharev, Vladimir; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Efimov, Alexander; Tolkki, Antti; Lehtivuori, Heli; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    Layers of poly(3-hexylthiophene), PHT, phenyl vinyl thiophene, PVT3, poly(p-phenylene-2,3′-bis(3,2′-diphenyl)-quinoxaline-7-7′- diyl), PPQ, and covalently linked porphyrin-fullerene donor-acceptor dyad, P-F, were deposited as various multilayer films, which then were used to study photoinduced

  12. Influences on Infant Feeding: Perceptions of Mother-Father Parent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Wilson; Thullen, Matthew J; Davis, Alexandra N; Sethi, Tarunjot K

    The purpose of this study was to examine interrelational-, organizational-, and community-level influences on how coparents collaborate about infant and toddler feeding. Using qualitative methods, we interviewed mother-father parent dyads to explore the potential influences on infant and toddler feeding. Participants were purposively recruited from two Midwest, rural, university-system pediatric clinics. Thematic analysis was used to code the data. Mother-father dyadic interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview schedule. Twenty-four mother-father dyads who had a child between the ages of 6 and 36 months were interviewed together. Major themes include interpersonal factors (peer behavior reinforcement, dyad and important others infant feeding conflict, conflict resolution proactiveness), organizational factors (healthcare provider infant-feeding support, workplace flexibility), and community factors (public perception on breastfeeding and social media influence). Community-based collaboration can be a platform for mother-father dyads, researchers, public health nurses, and other healthcare providers to proactively create interventions that include opportunity for building coparenting skills and infant-feeding knowledge that promote team management of common early childhood feeding challenges.

  13. Adolescent-Parent Dyad Descriptions of the Decision to Start the HPV Vaccine Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jane; Ipp, Lisa S; de Roche, Ariel M; Catallozzi, Marina; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2018-02-01

    To examine how adolescent-parent dyads describe decision-making regarding initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series, specifically who they viewed as making the final decision. Semistructured interviews with adolescent-parent dyads were audio-recorded and transcribed. Responses to the question: "How did you make a decision about whether or not to receive the HPV vaccine series?" were content-coded for each individual member of the dyad. Adolescent medicine clinics of 2 large urban medical centers and through snowball sampling. Adolescents 14-17 years of age and a parent (N = 262). Qualitative analyses were conducted for those who agreed that they were offered and started the HPV vaccine series (n = 109). None. Descriptions of the decision-making included 1 person (adolescent or parent) making the decision or joint decision-making by the adolescent and parent together. More than half of the dyads did not agree on who made the decision to start the vaccine. Most adolescents and parents described a similar account about when they were offered the HPV vaccine, although the interpretation of the event in terms of the decision-maker might have differed. More than half of adolescents and parents individually mentioned the health care provider in their description of the HPV vaccine decision-making process even though they were not queried about the role of the provider. Understanding the range of descriptions of these dyads is helpful to guide interventions to promote vaccine uptake in a manner that balances provider expertise, adolescent autonomy, and parental involvement. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Autonomous Motivation and Fruit/Vegetable Intake in Parent–Adolescent Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura A.; Bolger, Niall; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Patrick, Heather; Oh, April Y.; Nebeling, Linda C.; Hennessy, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Autonomous motivation (motivation to engage in a behavior because of personal choice, interest, or value) is often associated with health behaviors. The present study contributes to research on motivation and eating behaviors by examining: (1) how autonomous motivation is correlated within parent–adolescent dyads; and (2) whether parent- and adolescent-reported autonomous motivation predicts the parent–adolescent correlation in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake frequency. Methods Data were drawn from the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study, a cross-sectional U.S. survey of parent–adolescent dyads led by the National Cancer Institute and fielded between April and October 2014. In 2016, data were analyzed from dyads who had responses on a six-item self-report measure of daily frequency of FV consumption and a two-item self-report measure of autonomous motivation for consuming FVs. Results Parents' and adolescents' reports of autonomous motivation and FV intake frequency were positively correlated. Both parents' and adolescents' autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of their own FV intake frequency and that of their dyad partner (p-values ≤0.001). These effects of autonomous motivation explained 22.6% of the parent–adolescent correlation in FV intake frequency. Actor effects (one's motivation predicting their own FV intake frequency) were stronger than partner effects (one's motivation predicting their partner's FV intake frequency). Conclusions Parent–adolescent similarity in autonomous motivation for healthy eating may contribute to similarity in eating behaviors. Future research should further examine how individual-level health behavior correlates influence health behaviors within dyads. PMID:28526363

  15. Autonomous Motivation and Fruit/Vegetable Intake in Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Laura A; Bolger, Niall; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Patrick, Heather; Oh, April Y; Nebeling, Linda C; Hennessy, Erin

    2017-06-01

    Autonomous motivation (motivation to engage in a behavior because of personal choice, interest, or value) is often associated with health behaviors. The present study contributes to research on motivation and eating behaviors by examining (1) how autonomous motivation is correlated within parent-adolescent dyads and (2) whether parent- and adolescent-reported autonomous motivation predicts the parent-adolescent correlation in fruit and vegetable (FV) intake frequency. Data were drawn from the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating (FLASHE) Study, a cross-sectional U.S. survey of parent-adolescent dyads led by the National Cancer Institute and fielded between April and October 2014. In 2016, data were analyzed from dyads who had responses on a six-item self-report measure of daily frequency of FV consumption and a two-item self-report measure of autonomous motivation for consuming FVs. Parents' and adolescents' reports of autonomous motivation and FV intake frequency were positively correlated. Both parents' and adolescents' autonomous motivation predicted higher levels of their own FV intake frequency and that of their dyad partner (p-values ≤0.001). These effects of autonomous motivation explained 22.6% of the parent-adolescent correlation in FV intake frequency. Actor effects (one's motivation predicting their own FV intake frequency) were stronger than partner effects (one's motivation predicting their partner's FV intake frequency). Parent-adolescent similarity in autonomous motivation for healthy eating may contribute to similarity in eating behaviors. Future research should further examine how individual-level health behavior correlates influence health behaviors within dyads. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Dansyl-naphthalimide dyads as molecular probes: effect of spacer group on metal ion binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Balaraman H; Ramaiah, Danaboyina

    2011-11-17

    Interaction of a few dansyl-naphthalimide conjugates 1a-e linked through polymethylene spacer groups with various metal ions was investigated through absorption, fluorescence, NMR, isothermal calorimetric (ITC), and laser flash photolysis techniques. The characteristic feature of these dyads is that they exhibit competing singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) and photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes, both of which decrease with the increase in spacer length. Depending on the spacer group, these dyads interact selectively with divalent Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions, as compared to other mono- and divalent metal ions. Jobs plot analysis showed that these dyads form 2:3 complexes with Cu(2+) ions, while 1:1 complexes were observed with Zn(2+) ions. The association constants for the Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) complexes were determined and are found to be in the order 10(3)-10(5) M(-1). Irrespective of the length of the spacer group, these dyads interestingly act as fluorescence ratiometric molecular probes for Cu(2+) ions by altering the emission intensity of both dansyl and naphthalimide chromophores. In contrast, only the fluorescence intensity of the naphthalimide chromophore of the lower homologues (n = 1-3) was altered by Zn(2+) ions. (1)H NMR and ITC measurements confirmed the involvement of both sulfonamide and dimethylamine groups in the complexation with Cu(2+) ions, while only the latter group was involved with Zn(2+) ions. Laser excitation of the dyads 1a-e showed formation of a transient absorption which can be attributed to the radical cation of the naphthalimide chromophore, whereas only the triplet excited state of the dyads 1a-e was observed in the presence of Cu(2+) ions. Uniquely, the complexation of 1a-e with Cu(2+) ions affects both PET and SSET processes, while only the PET process was partially inhibited by Zn(2+) ions in the lower homologues (n = 1-3) and the higher homologues exhibited negligible changes in their emission properties. Our results

  17. Anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like activities of MCL0129 (1-[(S)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-isopropylpiperadin-1-yl)ethyl]-4-[4-(2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)butyl]piperazine), a novel and potent nonpeptide antagonist of the melanocortin-4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Shigeyuki; Hirota, Shiho; Funakoshi, Takeo; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Suetake, Sayoko; Okubo, Taketoshi; Ishii, Takaaki; Nakazato, Atsuro; Okuyama, Shigeru

    2003-02-01

    We investigated the effects of a novel melanocortin-4 (MC4) receptor antagonist,1-[(S)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-isopropylpiperadin-1-yl)ethyl]-4-[4-(2-methoxynaphthalen-1-yl)butyl]piperazine (MCL0129) on anxiety and depression in various rodent models. MCL0129 inhibited [(125)I][Nle(4)-D-Phe(7)]-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) binding to MC4 receptor with a K(i) value of 7.9 nM, without showing affinity for MC1 and MC3 receptors. MCL0129 at 1 microM had no apparent affinity for other receptors, transporters, and ion channels related to anxiety and depression except for a moderate affinity for the sigma(1) receptor, serotonin transporter, and alpha(1)-adrenoceptor, which means that MCL0129 is selective for the MC4 receptor. MCL0129 attenuated the alpha-MSH-increased cAMP formation in COS-1 cells expressing the MC4 receptor, whereas MCL0129 did not affect basal cAMP levels, thereby indicating that MCL0129 acts as an antagonist at the MC4 receptor. Swim stress markedly induced anxiogenic-like effects in both the light/dark exploration task in mice and the elevated plus-maze task in rats, and MCL0129 reversed the stress-induced anxiogenic-like effects. Under nonstress conditions, MCL0129 prolonged time spent in the light area in the light/dark exploration task and suppressed marble-burying behavior. MCL0129 shortened immobility time in the forced swim test and reduced the number of escape failures in inescapable shocks in the learned helplessness test, thus indicating an antidepressant potential. In contrast, MCL0129 had negligible effects on spontaneous locomotor activity, Rotarod performance, and hexobarbital-induced anesthesia. These observations indicate that MCL0129 is a potent and selective MC4 antagonist with anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like activities in various rodent models. MC4 receptor antagonists may prove effective for treating subjects with stress-related disorders such as depression and/or anxiety.

  18. Mutual regulation between infant facial affect and maternal touch in depressed and nondepressed dyads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Ida; Cordes, Katharina; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    2017-01-01

    research suggests that touch is an important means through which parents regulate their infants’ affects. Also, previous research has shown that post-partum depressed (PPD) mothers and nonclinical mothers differ in their touching behaviors when interacting with their infants. We examined the affect......-regulating function of affectionate, caregiving and playful maternal touch in 24 PPD and 47 nonclinical mother-infant dyads when infants were four months old. In order to investigate the direction of effects and to account for repeated observations, the data were analysed using time-window sequential analysis......, only in the PPD dyads, were the mothers more likely to initiate affectionate touch when their infants were displaying negative facial affect. Our results also showed that mothers use specific touch types to regulate infants’ negative and positive affects; infants are more likely to initiate positive...

  19. Interplay between singlet and triplet excited states in a conformationally locked donor–acceptor dyad

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.

    2015-10-13

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a palladium(II) porphyrin – anthracene dyad bridged via short and conformationally rigid bicyclo[2.2.2]octadiene spacer were achieved. A spectroscopic investigation of the prepared molecule in solution has been undertaken to study electronic energy transfer in excited singlet and triplet states between the anthracene and porphyrin units. By using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy it was shown that excitation of the singlet excited state of the anthracene leads to energy transfer to the lower-lying singlet state of porphyrin. Alternatively, excitation of the porphyrin followed by intersystem crossing to the triplet state leads to very fast energy transfer to the triplet state of anthracene. The rate of this energy transfer has been determined by transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparative studies of the dynamics of triplet excited states of the dyad and reference palladium octaethylporphyrin (PdOEP) have been performed.

  20. Daily Associations of Stress and Eating in Mother-Child Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi; Belcher, Britni R; Maher, Jaclyn P; O'Connor, Sydney; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-06-01

    This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in mother-child dyads to examine the day-level associations of stress and eating. Mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children ( N = 167 dyads) completed between three (weekday) and eight (weekend) EMA survey prompts per day at random nonschool times across 8 days. EMA measured perceived stress, and past 2-hour healthy (i.e., fruit and vegetables) and unhealthy (e.g., pastries/sweets, soda/energy drinks) eating. Children reported more healthy and unhealthy eating on days when their mothers also engaged in more healthy and unhealthy eating, respectively. On days when mothers' perceived stress was greater than usual, they reported more healthy eating. Eating behaviors were coupled between mothers and children at the day level. Mothers' stress was related to their own eating but not to children's eating.

  1. Interplay between singlet and triplet excited states in a conformationally locked donor–acceptor dyad

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.; Etzold, Fabian; Gehrig, Dominik; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Busko, Dmitri; Landfester, Katharina; Baluschev, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and photophysical characterization of a palladium(II) porphyrin – anthracene dyad bridged via short and conformationally rigid bicyclo[2.2.2]octadiene spacer were achieved. A spectroscopic investigation of the prepared molecule in solution has been undertaken to study electronic energy transfer in excited singlet and triplet states between the anthracene and porphyrin units. By using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy it was shown that excitation of the singlet excited state of the anthracene leads to energy transfer to the lower-lying singlet state of porphyrin. Alternatively, excitation of the porphyrin followed by intersystem crossing to the triplet state leads to very fast energy transfer to the triplet state of anthracene. The rate of this energy transfer has been determined by transient absorption spectroscopy. Comparative studies of the dynamics of triplet excited states of the dyad and reference palladium octaethylporphyrin (PdOEP) have been performed.

  2. Interpersonal Attraction in Dyads and Groups: Effects of the Hearts of the Beholder and the Beheld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Thomas E

    2018-04-01

    Dyadic interpersonal attraction (IA) was studied within groups of very highly acquainted family members, friends and co-workers. IA was determined by the perceiver (i.e., the heart of the beholder), the target (i.e., the heart of the beheld), and in specific dyads, by the unique combination of the two. The consistency of one's attraction to others and others' attraction to the person across groups were addressed using the key person design . Attraction to a person in one group was independent of attraction to that person in another, although people predicted that members of different groups were similarly attracted to them. A new model (ARRMA) was specified to simultaneously study assumed reciprocity, actual reciprocity, and metaperception accuracy of attraction (i.e., accurate predictions of others' attraction to oneself). Assumed reciprocity of IA was substantial at the individual and dyadic levels. Reciprocity of attraction at the individual level, a heretofore unconfirmed "plausible hypothesis" (Newcomb, 1979), was supported; dyadic reciprocity was weak. Meta-accuracy of IA was observed among individuals but was weak in dyads. Perceived interpersonal similarity predicted IA among individuals and in specific dyads. Considering dyadic attraction within and between groups, and the use of componential analysis permitted the specification of new IA phenomena and resolved a long standing theoretical problem regarding the reciprocity of attraction.

  3. Conceptual Diagnosis Model Based on Distinct Knowledge Dyads for Interdisciplinary Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian VIZITIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has a synergic dual purpose of bringing a psychological and neuroscience related perspective oriented towards decision making and knowledge creation diagnosis in the frame of Knowledge Management. !e conceptual model is built by means ofCognitive-Emotional and Explicit-Tacit knowledge dyads and structured on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP according to the hypothesis which designates the first dyad as an accessing mechanism of knowledge stored in the second dyad. Due to the well acknowledged needsconcerning new advanced decision making instruments and enhanced knowledge creation processes in the field of technical space projects emphasized by a high level of complexity, the herein study tries also to prove the relevance of the proposed conceptual diagnosis modelin Systems Engineering (SE methodology which foresees at its turn concurrent engineering within interdisciplinary working environments. !e theoretical model, entitled DiagnoSE, has the potential to provide practical implications to space/space related business sector butnot merely, and on the other hand, to trigger and inspire other knowledge management related researches for refining and testing the proposed instrument in SE or other similar decision making based working environment.

  4. Effect of Conjugation Length on Photoinduced Charge-Transfer in π-Conjugated Oligomer-Acceptor Dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Junlin

    2017-05-25

    A series of -conjugated oligomer-acceptor dyads were synthesized that feature oligo(phenylene ethynylene) (OPE) conjugated backbones end-capped with a naphthalene diimide (NDI) acceptor. The OPE segments vary in length from 4 to 8 phenylene ethynene units (PEn-NDI, where n = 4, 6 and 8). Fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that intramolecular OPE NDI charge transfer dominates the deactivation of excited states of the PEn-NDI oligomers. Both charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) are strongly exothermic (G0CS ~ -1.1 and G0CR ~ -2.0 eV), and the driving forces do not vary much across the series because the oxidation and reduction potentials and singlet energies of the OPEs do not vary much with their length. Bimolecular photoinduced charge transfer between model OPEs that do not contain the NDI acceptors with methyl viologen was studied, and the results reveal that the absorption of the cation radical state (OPE+•) remains approximately constant ( ~ 575 nm) regardless of oligomer length. This finding suggests that the cation radical (polaron) of the OPE is relatively localized, effectively occupying a confined segment of n 4 repeat units in the longer oligomers. Photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer dynamics in the PEn-NDI series was investigated by UV-visible femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with visible and mid-infrared probes. Charge separation occurs on the 1 – 10 ps timescale, with the rates decreasing slightly with increased oligomer length (βCS ~ 0.15 Å-1). The rate for charge-recombination decreases in the sequence PE4-NDI > PE6-NDI ~ PE8-NDI. The discontinuous distance dependence in the rate for charge recombination may be related to the spatial localization of the positive polaron state in the longer oligomers.

  5. Effect of Conjugation Length on Photoinduced Charge-Transfer in π-Conjugated Oligomer-Acceptor Dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Junlin; Alsam, Amani Abdu; Wang, Shanshan; Aly, Shawkat Mohammede; Pan, Zhenxing; Mohammed, Omar F.; Schanze, Kirk S.

    2017-01-01

    A series of -conjugated oligomer-acceptor dyads were synthesized that feature oligo(phenylene ethynylene) (OPE) conjugated backbones end-capped with a naphthalene diimide (NDI) acceptor. The OPE segments vary in length from 4 to 8 phenylene ethynene units (PEn-NDI, where n = 4, 6 and 8). Fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopy reveals that intramolecular OPE NDI charge transfer dominates the deactivation of excited states of the PEn-NDI oligomers. Both charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) are strongly exothermic (G0CS ~ -1.1 and G0CR ~ -2.0 eV), and the driving forces do not vary much across the series because the oxidation and reduction potentials and singlet energies of the OPEs do not vary much with their length. Bimolecular photoinduced charge transfer between model OPEs that do not contain the NDI acceptors with methyl viologen was studied, and the results reveal that the absorption of the cation radical state (OPE+•) remains approximately constant ( ~ 575 nm) regardless of oligomer length. This finding suggests that the cation radical (polaron) of the OPE is relatively localized, effectively occupying a confined segment of n 4 repeat units in the longer oligomers. Photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer dynamics in the PEn-NDI series was investigated by UV-visible femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy with visible and mid-infrared probes. Charge separation occurs on the 1 – 10 ps timescale, with the rates decreasing slightly with increased oligomer length (βCS ~ 0.15 Å-1). The rate for charge-recombination decreases in the sequence PE4-NDI > PE6-NDI ~ PE8-NDI. The discontinuous distance dependence in the rate for charge recombination may be related to the spatial localization of the positive polaron state in the longer oligomers.

  6. Control of triplet state generation in heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads by media polarity and structural factors

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.; Karuthedath, Safakath; Polestshuk, Pavel M; Callaghan, Susan; Flanagan, Keith; Telitchko, Maxime; Wiesner, Thomas; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Senge, Mathias O

    2018-01-01

    A family of heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads (BADs) exhibiting triplet excited state formation from charge-transfer states is reported. Four types of BODIPY scaffolds, different in the alkyl substitution pattern, and four anthracene derivatives have been used to access BADs. The fluorescence and intersystem crossing (ISC) in these dyads depend on donor-acceptor couplings and can be accurately controlled by the substitution or media polarity. Under conditions that do not allow charge transfer (CT), the dyads exhibit fluorescence with high quantum yields. Formation of charge-transfer states triggers ISC and the formation of long-lived triplet excited states in the dyads. The excited state properties were studied by steady-state techniques and ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to determine the parameters of the observed processes. Structural information for various BADs was derived from single crystal X-ray structure determinations alongside DFT molecular geometry optimization, revealing the effects of mutual orientation of subunits on the photophysical properties. The calculations showed that alkyl substituents on the BODIPY destabilize CT states in the dyads, thus controlling the charge transfer between the subunits. The effect of the dyad structure on the ISC efficiency was considered at M06-2X level of theory and a correlation between mutual orientation of the subunits and the energy gap between singlet and triplet CT states was studied using multireference CASSCF method.

  7. Control of triplet state generation in heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads by media polarity and structural factors

    KAUST Repository

    Filatov, Mikhail A.

    2018-02-12

    A family of heavy atom-free BODIPY-anthracene dyads (BADs) exhibiting triplet excited state formation from charge-transfer states is reported. Four types of BODIPY scaffolds, different in the alkyl substitution pattern, and four anthracene derivatives have been used to access BADs. The fluorescence and intersystem crossing (ISC) in these dyads depend on donor-acceptor couplings and can be accurately controlled by the substitution or media polarity. Under conditions that do not allow charge transfer (CT), the dyads exhibit fluorescence with high quantum yields. Formation of charge-transfer states triggers ISC and the formation of long-lived triplet excited states in the dyads. The excited state properties were studied by steady-state techniques and ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to determine the parameters of the observed processes. Structural information for various BADs was derived from single crystal X-ray structure determinations alongside DFT molecular geometry optimization, revealing the effects of mutual orientation of subunits on the photophysical properties. The calculations showed that alkyl substituents on the BODIPY destabilize CT states in the dyads, thus controlling the charge transfer between the subunits. The effect of the dyad structure on the ISC efficiency was considered at M06-2X level of theory and a correlation between mutual orientation of the subunits and the energy gap between singlet and triplet CT states was studied using multireference CASSCF method.

  8. D-π-A-A-π-D prototype 2,2'-bipyridine dyads exhibiting large structure and environment-sensitive fluorescence: synthesis, photophysics, and computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Monima; Chatterjee, Tanmay; Ghanta, Susanta; Das, Samar K

    2012-01-06

    A series of 4,4'-π-conjugated-2,2'-bipyridine chromophores (MS 1-8) were synthesized, and their photophysical and thermal properties were investigated. The title "push-pull' chromophores", except MS 1, were integrated with both alkoxy and alkylamino donor functionalities that differ in their donation capabilities. The oligophenylenevinylene (OPV) chromophores MS 4-8 are associated with a π-extended backbone in which the position and the number of alkoxy donors were systematically varied. All of the studied systems possess a D-π-A-A-π-D dyad archetype in which the A-A is the central 2,2'-bipyridine acceptor core that is electronically attached with the donor termini through π-linkers. The fluorescence quantum yields of the synthesized chromophores are found to be sensitive to the molecular archetype and the solvent medium. Out of the eight fluorescent compounds reported in this article, the compound MS 5 exhibits fluorescence in the solid state also. The modulating effect of the nature, position, and number of donor functionalities on the optical properties of these classes of compounds has further been comprehended on the basis of DFT and TD-DFT computation in a solvent reaction field.

  9. Fully automated parallel oligonucleotide synthesizer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebl, M.; Burger, Ch.; Ellman, B.; Heiner, D.; Ibrahim, G.; Jones, A.; Nibbe, M.; Thompson, J.; Mudra, Petr; Pokorný, Vít; Poncar, Pavel; Ženíšek, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2001), s. 1299-1314 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : automated oligonucleotide synthesizer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2001

  10. A trouble shared is a trouble halved: social context and status affect pain in mouse dyads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    Full Text Available In mice behavioral response to pain is modulated by social status. Recently, social context also has been shown to affect pain sensitivity. In our study, we aimed to investigate the effects of interaction between status and social context in dyads of outbred CD-1 male mice in which the dominance/submission relationship was stable. Mice were assessed for pain response in a formalin (1% concentration test either alone (individually tested-IT, or in pairs of dominant and subordinate mice. In the latter condition, they could be either both injected (BI or only one injected (OI with formalin. We observed a remarkable influence of social context on behavioral response to painful stimuli regardless of the social status of the mice. In the absence of differences between OI and IT conditions, BI mice exhibited half as much Paw-licking behavior than OI group. As expected, subordinates were hypoalgesic in response to the early phase of the formalin effects compared to dominants. Clear cut-differences in coping strategies of dominants and subordinates appeared. The former were more active, whereas the latter were more passive. Finally, analysis of behavior of the non-injected subjects (the observers in the OI dyads revealed that dominant observers were more often involved in Self-grooming behavior upon observation of their subordinate partner in pain. This was not the case for subordinate mice observing the pain response of their dominant partner. In contrast, subordinate observers Stared at the dominant significantly more frequently compared to observer dominants in other dyads. The observation of a cagemate in pain significantly affected the observer's behavior. Additionally, the quality of observer's response was also modulated by the dominance/submission relationship.

  11. Ratiometric Fluorescent Detection of Pb2+ by FRET-Based Phthalocyanine-Porphyrin Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongli; Zhu, Mengliang; Zhao, Luyang; Zhang, Jinghui; Wang, Kang; Qi, Dongdong; Zhou, Yang; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2017-12-04

    Sensitive and selective detection of Pb 2+ is a very worthwhile endeavor in terms of both human health and environmental protection, as the heavy metal is fairly ubiquitous and highly toxic. In this study, we designed phthalocyanine-porphyrin (Pc-Por) heterodyads, namely, H 2 Pc-α-ZnPor (1) and H 2 Pc-β-ZnPor (2), by connecting a zinc(II) porphyrin moiety to the nonperipheral (α) or peripheral (β) position of a metal-free phthalocyanine moiety. Upon excitation at the porphyrin Soret region (420 nm), both of the dyads exhibited not only a porphyrin emission (605 nm) but also a phthalocyanine emission (ca. 700 nm), indicating the occurrence of intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) processes from the porphyrin donor to the phthalocyanine acceptor. The dyads can selectively bind Pb 2+ in the phthalocyanine core leading to a red shift of the phthalocyanine absorption and thus a decrease of spectral overlap between the porphyrin emission and phthalocyanine absorption, which in turn suppresses the intramolecular FRET. In addition, the binding of Pb 2+ can highly quench the emission of phthalocyanine by heavy-metal ion effects. The synergistic coupled functions endow the dyads with remarkable ratiometric fluorescent responses at two distinct wavelengths (F 605 /F 703 for 1 and F 605 /F 700 for 2). The emission intensity ratio increased as a linear function to the concentration of Pb 2+ in the range of 0-4.0 μM, whereas the detection limits were determined to be 3.4 × 10 -9 and 2.2 × 10 -8 M for 1 and 2, respectively. Furthermore, by comparative study of 1 and 2, the effects of distance and relative orientation between Pc and ZnPor fluorophores on the FRET efficiency and sensing performance were highlighted, which is helpful for further optimizing such FRET systems.

  12. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    OpenAIRE

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-01-01

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lac...

  13. Estimating time-varying RSA to examine psychophysiological linkage of marital dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Kathleen M; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Sandsten, Maria; Blandon, Alysia Y

    2015-08-01

    One of the primary tenets of polyvagal theory dictates that parasympathetic influence on heart rate, often estimated by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), shifts rapidly in response to changing environmental demands. The current standard analytic approach of aggregating RSA estimates across time to arrive at one value fails to capture this dynamic property within individuals. By utilizing recent methodological developments that enable precise RSA estimates at smaller time intervals, we demonstrate the utility of computing time-varying RSA for assessing psychophysiological linkage (or synchrony) in husband-wife dyads using time-locked data collected in a naturalistic setting. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Exciplex-exciplex energy transfer and annihilation in solid films of porphyrin-fullerene dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtivuori, Heli; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V

    2006-12-20

    Exciplex-exciplex annihilation was observed for the first time in porphyrin-fullerene molecular films. The films were prepared using Langmuir-Blodgett and drop casting methods. The exciplex-exciplex interactions were studied using femtosecond pump-probe method. The exciplex-exciplex annihilation can be seen as a fast (within few picoseconds) decay of the transient absorption at excitation densities higher than 0.4 mJ/cm2. Analysis of the excitation density dependences indicates that in average four dyads are involved in the exciplex-exciplex interaction, suggesting that an exciplex-exciplex energy transfer may precede the annihilation.

  15. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  16. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-23

    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  17. Mediation in dyadic data at the level of the dyads: a Structural Equation Modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Thomas; Macho, Siegfried

    2009-10-01

    An extended version of the Common Fate Model (CFM) is presented to estimate and test mediation in dyadic data. The model can be used for distinguishable dyad members (e.g., heterosexual couples) or indistinguishable dyad members (e.g., homosexual couples) if (a) the variables measure characteristics of the dyadic relationship or shared external influences that affect both partners; if (b) the causal associations between the variables should be analyzed at the dyadic level; and if (c) the measured variables are reliable indicators of the latent variables. To assess mediation using Structural Equation Modeling, a general three-step procedure is suggested. The first is a selection of a good fitting model, the second a test of the direct effects, and the third a test of the mediating effect by means of bootstrapping. The application of the model along with the procedure for assessing mediation is illustrated using data from 184 couples on marital problems, communication, and marital quality. Differences with the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and the analysis of longitudinal mediation by using the CFM are discussed.

  18. On the Role of Physical Interaction on Performance of Object Manipulation by Dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keivan Mojtahedi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human physical interactions can be intrapersonal, e.g., manipulating an object bimanually, or interpersonal, e.g., transporting an object with another person. In both cases, one or two agents are required to coordinate their limbs to attain the task goal. We investigated the physical coordination of two hands during an object-balancing task performed either bimanually by one agent or jointly by two agents. The task consisted of a series of static (holding and dynamic (moving phases, initiated by auditory cues. We found that task performance of dyads was not affected by different pairings of dominant and non-dominant hands. However, the spatial configuration of the two agents (side-by-side vs. face-to-face appears to play an important role, such that dyads performed better side-by-side than face-to-face. Furthermore, we demonstrated that only individuals with worse solo performance can benefit from interpersonal coordination through physical couplings, whereas the better individuals do not. The present work extends ongoing investigations on human-human physical interactions by providing new insights about factors that influence dyadic performance. Our findings could potentially impact several areas, including robotic-assisted therapies, sensorimotor learning and human performance augmentation.

  19. Absorption and emission spectroscopic characterisation of a pyrene-flavin dyad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirdel, J.; Penzkofer, A.; Prochazka, R.; Shen, Z.; Strauss, J.; Daub, J.

    2007-01-01

    The pyrene-flavin (isoalloxazine) dyad, PFD {C 44 H 31 N 5 O 5 ; CA Index name: 1-pyrenepropanoic acid, α-[[4,10-dihydro-2,4-dioxo-10- phenylbenzo[g]pteridin-3(2H)-yl)acetyl]amino]-, phenylmethyl ester (αR)-(9Cl); CA Registry number: 618907-57-6}, dissolved in either dichloromethane or acetonitrile is characterized by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Absorption cross-section spectra, stimulated emission cross-section spectra, fluorescence quantum distributions, quantum yields, and degrees of fluorescence polarisation are determined. The fluorescence decay after femtosecond pulse excitation is determined by fluorescence up-conversion. The ground-state absorption recovery is determined by picosecond pump and probe transmission measurements. The dye photo-stability is investigated by observation of absorption spectral changes due to prolonged blue-light excitation. The absorption spectrum of PFD dyad resembles the superposition of the absorption of isoalloxazine (flavin) and 1-methylpyrene. Long-wavelength photo-excitation of the flavin moiety causes fluorescence quenching by ground-state electron transfer from pyrene to isoalloxazine. Short-wavelength photo-excitation of the pyrene moiety causes (i) excited-state electron transfer from pyrene to isoalloxazine, and (ii) Foerster-type energy transfer from pyrene to flavin followed by ground-state electron transfer from pyrene to flavin.

  20. Student nurse dyads create a community of learning: proposing a holistic clinical education theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth-Sahd, Lisa A

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of students' experiences of cooperative learning in the clinical setting. Although cooperative learning is often used successfully in the classroom, it has not been documented in the clinical setting with sophomore nursing students being paired with other sophomore nursing students. Using a grounded theory methodology a sample of 64 participants (32 student nurse dyads, eight clinical groups, in two different acute care institutions) were observed on their first day in the clinical setting while working as cooperative partners. Interviews were also conducted with students, patients and staff preceptors. Data were collected in the fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009 and the spring of 2010 using semi-structured interviews and reflective surveys. Data were analysed using the constant comparative method. A holistic clinical education theory for student nurses was identified from the data. This theory includes a reciprocal relationship among five categories relevant to a community of learning: supportive clinical experience; improved transition into practice; enhanced socialization into the profession; increased accountability and responsibility; and emergence of self-confidence as a beginning student nurse. The use of student dyads creates a supportive learning environment while students were able to meet the clinical learning objectives. Cooperative learning in the clinical setting creates a community of learning while instilling very early in the education process the importance of teamwork. This approach to clinical instruction eases the transition from the classroom to the clinical learning environment, and improves patient outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. 2-{[(2-Methoxynaphthalen-1-ylmethyl]amino}phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mahdjoub

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C18H17NO2, contains two independent molecules (A and B. The dihedral angle between the naphthalene ring system and the benzene ring is 74.67 (10° in molecule A and 78.81 (9° in molecule B. In the crystal, molecules are linked by a series of C—H...π interactions, forming sheets parallel to the ab plane.

  2. A triphenylamine-based push-pull – σ – C60 dyad as photoactive molecular material for single-component organic solar cells: synthesis, characterizations and photophysical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Labrunie, Antoine; Gorenflot, Julien; Babics, Maxime; Aleveque, Olivier; Dabos-Seignon, Sylvie; Balawi, Ahmed H.; Kan, Zhipeng; Wohlfahrt, Markus; Levillain, Eric; Hudhomme, Pietrick; Beaujuge, Pierre; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Cabanetos, Clé ment; Blanchard, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    A push-pull – σ – C60 molecular dyad was synthesized via Huisgen-type click-chemistry and used as photoactive material for single-component organic solar cells. Steady-state photoluminescence (PL) experiments of the dyad in solution show a significant quenching of the emission of the push-pull moiety. Spin-casting of a solution of the dyad results in homogenous and smooth thin-films, which exhibit complete PL quenching in line with ultrafast photo-induced electron-transfer in the solid-state. Spectro-electrochemistry reveals the optical signatures of radical cations and radical anions. Evaluation of the charge carrier mobility by space-charge limited current measurements gives an electron-mobility of μe = 4.3 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1, ca. 50 times higher than the hole-mobility. Single-component organic solar cells yield an open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.73 V and a short-circuit current density of 2.1 mA cm-2 however, a poor fill-factor FF (29%) is obtained, resulting in low power conversion efficiency of only 0.4%. Combined TA and time-delayed collection field (TDCF) experiments show mostly ultrafast photon-to-charge conversion and a small component of diffusion-limited exciton dissociation, revealing the presence of pure fullerene domains. Furthermore, a strong field dependence of charge generation is observed, governing the device fill factor, which is further reduced by a competition between extraction and fast recombination of separated charges.

  3. A triphenylamine-based push-pull – σ – C60 dyad as photoactive molecular material for single-component organic solar cells: synthesis, characterizations and photophysical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Labrunie, Antoine

    2018-04-23

    A push-pull – σ – C60 molecular dyad was synthesized via Huisgen-type click-chemistry and used as photoactive material for single-component organic solar cells. Steady-state photoluminescence (PL) experiments of the dyad in solution show a significant quenching of the emission of the push-pull moiety. Spin-casting of a solution of the dyad results in homogenous and smooth thin-films, which exhibit complete PL quenching in line with ultrafast photo-induced electron-transfer in the solid-state. Spectro-electrochemistry reveals the optical signatures of radical cations and radical anions. Evaluation of the charge carrier mobility by space-charge limited current measurements gives an electron-mobility of μe = 4.3 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1, ca. 50 times higher than the hole-mobility. Single-component organic solar cells yield an open-circuit voltage Voc of 0.73 V and a short-circuit current density of 2.1 mA cm-2 however, a poor fill-factor FF (29%) is obtained, resulting in low power conversion efficiency of only 0.4%. Combined TA and time-delayed collection field (TDCF) experiments show mostly ultrafast photon-to-charge conversion and a small component of diffusion-limited exciton dissociation, revealing the presence of pure fullerene domains. Furthermore, a strong field dependence of charge generation is observed, governing the device fill factor, which is further reduced by a competition between extraction and fast recombination of separated charges.

  4. Designing of an artificial light energy converter in the form of short-chain dyad when combined with core-shell gold/silver nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta Pal, Gopa; Paul, Somnath; Bardhan, Munmun; De, Asish; Ganguly, Tapan

    2017-06-05

    UV-vis absorption, steady state and time resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopic investigations demonstrate that the short chain dyad MNTMA when combined with gold-silver core-shell (Au@Ag) nanocomposite , forms elongated conformers in the excited state whereas for the dyad - Ag (spherical) system the majority of dyads remains in a folded conformation. In the dyad-core-shell nanocomposite system, energy wasting charge recombination rate slows down primarily due to elongated conformation and thus it may be anticipated that this hybrid nanocomposite system may serve as a better light energy conversion device. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Charge-transfer state and large first hyperpolarizability constant in a highly electronically coupled zinc and gold porphyrin dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortage, Jérôme; Scarpaci, Annabelle; Viau, Lydie; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Falkenström, Magnus; Hammarström, Leif; Asselberghs, Inge; Kellens, Ruben; Libaers, Wim; Clays, Koen; Eng, Mattias P; Odobel, Fabrice

    2009-09-14

    We report the synthesis and the characterizations of a novel dyad composed of a zinc porphyrin (ZnP) linked to a gold porphyrin (AuP) through an ethynyl spacer. The UV/Vis absorption spectrum and the electrochemical properties clearly reveal that this dyad exhibits a strong electronic coupling in the ground state as evidenced by shifted redox potentials and the appearance of an intense charge-transfer band localized at lambda = 739 nm in dichloromethane. A spectroelectrochemical study of the dyad along with the parent homometallic system (i.e., ZnP-ZnP and AuP-AuP) was undertaken to determine the spectra of the reduced and oxidized porphyrin units. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopic analysis showed that the photoexcitation of the heterometallic dyad leads to an ultrafast formation of a charge-separated state ((+)ZnP-AuP(*)) that displays a particularly long lifetime (tau = 4 ns in toluene) for such a short separation distance. The molecular orbitals of the dyad were determined by DFT quantum-chemical calculations. This theoretical study confirms that the observed intense band at lambda = 739 nm corresponds to an interporphyrin charge-transfer transition from the HOMO orbital localized on the zinc porphyrin to LUMO orbitals localized on the gold porphyrin. Finally, a Hyper-Rayleigh scattering study shows that the dyad possesses a large first molecular hyperpolarizability coefficient (beta = 2100x10(-30) esu at lambda = 1064 nm), thus highlighting the valuable nonlinear optical properties of this new type of push-pull porphyrin system.

  6. Perylenediimide--metal ion dyads for photo-induced electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Bond, Andrew D; Nielsen, Anne

    2008-01-01

    A novel perylene diimide incorporating a tetradentate ligand was synthesized and the photophysical properties of its Cu(+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) complexes were investigated by fluorescence experiments....

  7. Drug-protein interactions assessed by fluorescence measurements in the real complexes and in model dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Ignacio; Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Lhiaubet-Vallet, Virginie; Jiménez, M. Consuelo; Miranda, Miguel A.

    2010-02-01

    In the present work, a systematic fluorescence study on supramolecular systems using two serum albumins (HSA or BSA) as hosts and the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs carprofen (CPF) or naproxen (NPX) as guests has been undertaken. In parallel, model dyads containing Tyr or Trp covalently linked to CPF or NPX have also been investigated. In HSA/(S)-CPF and BSA/(S)-CPF ( λexc = 266 nm), at 1:1 M ratio, an important degree (more than 40%) of singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) was observed to take place. The distance ( r) calculated for energy transfer from the SAs to (S)-CPF through a FRET mechanism was found to be ca. 21 Å. In the case of HSA/(S)-NPX and BSA/(S)-NPX, energy transfer occurred to a lower extent (ca. 7%), and r was determined as ca. 24 Å. In order to investigate the possible excited state interactions between bound ligands and the relevant amino acids present in the protein binding sites, four pairs of model dyads were designed and synthesised, namely ( S, S)-TyrCPF, ( S, R)-TyrCPF, ( S, S)-TrpCPF, ( S, R)-TrpCPF, ( S, S)-TyrNPX, ( S, R)-TyrNPX, ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX. A complete SSET was observed from Tyr or Trp to CPF, since no contribution from the amino acids was present in the emission of the dyads. Likewise, a very efficient Tyr or Trp to NPX energy transfer was observed. Remarkably, in ( S, S)-TrpNPX and ( S, R)-TrpNPX a configuration-dependent reduction in the emission intensity was observed, revealing a strong and stereoselective intramolecular quenching. This effect can be attributed to exciplex formation and is dynamic in nature, as the fluorescence lifetimes were much shorter in ( S, R)- and ( S, S)-TrpNPX (1.5 and 3.1 ns, respectively) than in (S)-NPX (11 ns).

  8. Influence of environmental health in the cow-calf dyad system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Barcelos Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Health factors influence the cow-calf dyad system in the postpartum period until the first suckling. The use of maternity paddock is a recommended management to facilitate the monitoring of parturient cows and calves. However, side effects occur due to environmental health conditions of maternity paddock that can affect the behaviour of the cow and result in the separation of calf from the mother, undermining sucking and the formation of the cow-calf dyad. To improve the understanding of this complex and dynamic system we built a conceptual model using the technique of causal loop diagram, Figure 1. By hypothesis, the environmental variables that act in maternity paddock influence the variable "Sources of pathogens in maternity". Those sources present a positive effect (in the same direction in the infection process of the calf and cow. Thus, a recommended practice is exposing the parturient cow to pathogens in maternity for sufficient period to stimulate their immune system and build disease resistance. That process contributes to improve the quality of colostrum that will be consumed by the calf during the first hours postpartum which has the function of increasing calf immunity, minimizing the occurrence of infections. In the model, sanitary environmental factors work in two Balance feedback loops (B1 and B2. The B1 cycle refers to the production of a healthy cow with a low level of infection by means of the variables: “Vaccine”, "Stimulation of cow immune system" and "Health resistance" with delay. The variable "Cow infection" has a negative influence (in the opposite direction in the "Maternal behaviour", thus the more infected the cow, the less investment will occur in maternal behaviour. The B2 cycle refers to the calf’s health condition, which is positively influenced by “Calf infection” which, in turn, has positive influence, contributing to the increase of "Calf diseases". The increase in “Calf diseases” generates an

  9. Solid phase syntheses of oligoureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, K.; Linthicum, D.S.; Russell, D.H.; Shin, H.; Shitangkoon, A.; Totani, R.; Zhang, A.J.; Ibarzo, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-02-19

    Isocyanates 7 were formed from monoprotected diamines 3 or 6, which in turn can be easily prepared from commercially available N-BOC- or N-FMOC-protected amino acid derivatives. Isocyanates 7, formed in situ, could be coupled directly to a solid support functionalized with amine groups or to amino acids anchored on resins using CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as solvent and an 11 h coupling time at 25 {degree}C. Such couplings afforded peptidomimetics with an N-phthaloyl group at the N-terminus. The optimal conditions identified for removal of the N-phthaloyl group were to use 60% hydrazine in DMF for 1-3 h. Several sequences of amino acids coupled to ureas (`peptidic ureas`) and of sequential urea units (`oligoureas`) were prepared via solid phase syntheses and isolated by HPLC. Partition coefficients were measured for two of these peptidomimetics, and their water solubilities were found to be similar to the corresponding peptides. A small library of 160 analogues of the YGGFL-amide sequence was prepared via Houghten`s tea bag methodology. This library was tested for binding to the anti-{beta}-endorphin monoclonal antibody. Overall, this paper describes methodology for solid phase syntheses of oligourea derivatives with side chains corresponding to some of the protein amino acids. The chemistry involved is ideal for high-throughput syntheses and screening operations. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. A highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe for Hg2+ based on bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad and for live cells imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Wang, Sheng; Lv, Yingnian; Son, Young-A; Cao, Derong

    2014-07-15

    A new photochromic diarylethene derivative bearing rhodamine 6G dimmer as a fluorescent molecular probe is designed and synthesized successfully. All the compounds are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The bisthienylethene-rhodamine 6G dyad exhibit excellent phtochromism with reversibly color and fluorescence changes alternating irradiation with ultraviolet and visible light. Upon addition of Hg(2+), its color changes from colorless to red and its fluorescence is remarkably enhanced. Whereas other ions including K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Fe(3+), Al(3+), Cr(3+) and so on induce basically no spectral changes, which constitute a highly selective and sensitive photoswitchable fluorescent probe toward Hg(2+). Furthermore, by means of laser confocal scanning microscopy experiments, it is demonstrated that this probe can be applied for live cell imaging and monitoring Hg(2+) in living lung cancer cells with satisfying results, which shows its value of potential application in environmental and biological systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Photoinduced electron transfer in covalent ruthenium-anthraquinone dyads: relative importance of driving-force, solvent polarity, and donor-bridge energy gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankache, Jihane; Wenger, Oliver S

    2012-02-28

    Four rigid rod-like molecules comprised of a Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) photosensitizer, a 9,10-anthraquinone electron acceptor, and a molecular bridge connecting the two redox partners were synthesized and investigated by optical spectroscopic and electrochemical means. An attempt was made to assess the relative importance of driving-force, solvent polarity, and bridge variation on the rates of photoinduced electron transfer in these molecules. Expectedly, introduction of tert-butyl substituents in the bipyridine ligands of the ruthenium complex and a change in solvent from dichloromethane to acetonitrile lead to a significant acceleration of charge transfer rates. In dichloromethane, photoinduced electron transfer is not competitive with the inherent excited-state deactivation processes of the photosensitizer. In acetonitrile, an increase in driving-force by 0.2 eV through attachment of tert-butyl substituents to the bpy ancillary ligands causes an increase in electron transfer rates by an order of magnitude. Replacement of a p-xylene bridge by a p-dimethoxybenzene spacer entails an acceleration of charge transfer rates by a factor of 3.5. In the dyads from this study, the relative order of importance of individual influences on electron transfer rates is therefore as follows: solvent polarity ≥ driving-force > donor-bridge energy gap.

  12. Quality of social interaction in foster dyads at child age 2 and 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Heidi; Vang, Kristin Alvestad; Lindahl, Karoline Mentzoni; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Smith, Lars; Moe, Vibeke

    2018-06-30

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the quality of social interaction between 60 foster parents and their foster children compared to a group of 55 non-foster families at 2 (T1) and again at 3 (T2) years of age. Video observations were used to investigate child-parent interaction at both time-points. "This is My Baby" interview was administered to investigate foster parents' commitment at T1. The main results revealed significant group differences at T1 on all child-parent social interaction measures, although not at T2. Further, a significant group by time interaction was identified for parental sensitivity, revealing a positive development over time in the foster group. Finally, a significant positive relation was found between commitment at T1 and parental sensitivity. The results convey an optimistic view of the possibilities for foster dyads to develop positive patterns of social interaction over time.

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production from an MCM-41-immobilized photosensitizer-[Fe-Fe] hydrogenase mimic dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Yu, Tianjun; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Jinping; Yang, Guoqiang; Li, Yi

    2014-11-01

    A covalently linked photosensitizer-catalytic center dyad Ps-Hy, consisting of two bis(2-phenylpyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine)iridium(iii) chromophores (Ps) and a diiron hydrogenase mimic (Hy) was constructed by using click reaction. Ps-Hy was incorporated into K(+)-exchanged molecular sieve MCM-41 to form a composite (Ps-Hy@MCM-41), which has been successfully applied to the photochemical production of hydrogen. The catalytic activity of Ps-Hy@MCM-41 is ∼3-fold higher as compared with that of Ps-Hy in the absence of MCM-41. The incorporation of Ps-Hy into MCM-41 stabilizes the catalyst, and consequently, advances the photocatalysis. The present study provides a potential strategy for improving catalytic efficiency of artificial photosynthesis systems using mesoporous molecular sieves.

  14. Time-resolved fluorescence study of exciplex formation in diastereomeric naproxen-pyrrolidine dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramtsova, Ekaterina A; Plyusnin, Viktor F; Magin, Ilya M; Kruppa, Alexander I; Polyakov, Nikolay E; Leshina, Tatyana V; Nuin, Edurne; Marin, M Luisa; Miranda, Miguel A

    2013-12-19

    The influence of chirality on the elementary processes triggered by excitation of the (S,S)- and (R,S)- diastereoisomers of naproxen-pyrrolidine (NPX-Pyr) dyads has been studied by time-resolved fluorescence in acetonitrile-benzene mixtures. In these systems, the quenching of the (1)NPX*-Pyr singlet excited state occurs through electron transfer and exciplex formation. Fluorescence lifetimes and quantum yields revealed a significant difference (around 20%) between the (S,S)- and (R,S)- diastereomers. In addition, the quantum yields of exciplexes differed by a factor of 2 regardless of solvent polarity. This allows us to suggest a similar influence of the chiral centers on the local charge transfer resulting in exciplex and full charge separation that leads to ion-biradicals. A simplified scheme is proposed to estimate a set of rate constant values (k1-k5) for the elementary stages in each solvent system.

  15. Maternal Obesity, 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Concentration, and Bone Density in Breastfeeding Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sarbattama; Penfield-Cyr, Annie; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and bone density in mother-infant pairs. The study was a secondary analysis of 234 exclusively breastfeeding dyads who were recruited in the first postpartum month for a randomized controlled trial of maternal vs infant vitamin D supplementation. Mean 25(OH)D concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD) were compared by BMI group. The adjusted association between maternal BMI and 25(OH)D and bone density was examined at 1, 4, and 7 months postpartum. Obese breastfeeding women had lower 25(OH)D concentrations and higher BMD than lean women at all 3 time points (P  maternal BMI was associated with lower maternal serum levels of 25(OH)D at 1, 4, and 7 months postpartum (adjusted β = -0.45 ng/ml per kg/m 2 , 95% CI -.076, -0.14, at 1 month) and higher BMD at the same time points (β = 0.006 BMD z score; 95% CI 0.003, 0.01 at 1 month). Seventy-six percent of infants were vitamin D deficient at 1 month of age. Infants born to overweight and obese mothers had lower 25(OH)D concentrations than infants of lean mothers (P maternal supplementation group, higher maternal BMI was associated with lower 25(OH)D concentrations at 4 months (β = -0.68; 95% CI -1.17, -0.20) and lower bone density at 7 months (β = -0.001; 95% CI -0.002, -0.0001). In exclusively breastfeeding dyads, maternal obesity is associated with lower maternal and infant serum 25(OH)D concentrations, which may impact infant bone density. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00412074. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond the 'dyad': a qualitative re-evaluation of the changing clinical consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Roberts, Celia; Li, Shuangyu; Weber, Orest; Singy, Pascal

    2014-09-29

    To identify characteristics of consultations that do not conform to the traditionally understood communication 'dyad', in order to highlight implications for medical education and develop a reflective 'toolkit' for use by medical practitioners and educators in the analysis of consultations. A series of interdisciplinary research workshops spanning 12 months explored the social impact of globalisation and computerisation on the clinical consultation, focusing specifically on contemporary challenges to the clinician-patient dyad. Researchers presented detailed case studies of consultations, taken from their recent research projects. Drawing on concepts from applied sociolinguistics, further analysis of selected case studies prompted the identification of key emergent themes. University departments in the UK and Switzerland. Six researchers with backgrounds in medicine, applied linguistics, sociolinguistics and medical education. One workshop was also attended by PhD students conducting research on healthcare interactions. The contemporary consultation is characterised by a multiplicity of voices. Incorporation of additional voices in the consultation creates new forms of order (and disorder) in the interaction. The roles 'clinician' and 'patient' are blurred as they become increasingly distributed between different participants. These new consultation arrangements make new demands on clinicians, which lie beyond the scope of most educational programmes for clinical communication. The consultation is changing. Traditional consultation models that assume a 'dyadic' consultation do not adequately incorporate the realities of many contemporary consultations. A paradox emerges between the need to manage consultations in a 'super-diverse' multilingual society, while also attending to increasing requirements for standardised protocol-driven approaches to care prompted by computer use. The tension between standardisation and flexibility requires addressing in educational

  17. Bidirectional Associations Between Externalizing Behavior Problems and Maladaptive Parenting Within Parent-Son Dyads Across Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besemer, Sytske; Loeber, Rolf; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-10-01

    Coercive parent-child interaction models posit that an escalating cycle of negative, bidirectional interchanges influences the development of boys' externalizing problems and caregivers' maladaptive parenting over time. However, longitudinal studies examining this hypothesis have been unable to rule out the possibility that between-individual factors account for bidirectional associations between child externalizing problems and maladaptive parenting. Using a longitudinal sample of boys (N = 503) repeatedly assessed eight times across 6-month intervals in childhood (in a range between 6 and 13 years), the current study is the first to use novel within-individual change (fixed effects) models to examine whether parents tend to increase their use of maladaptive parenting strategies following an increase in their son's externalizing problems, or vice versa. These bidirectional associations were examined using multiple facets of externalizing problems (i.e., interpersonal callousness, conduct and oppositional defiant problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity) and parenting behaviors (i.e., physical punishment, involvement, parent-child communication). Analyses failed to support the notion that when boys increase their typical level of problem behaviors, their parents show an increase in their typical level of maladaptive parenting across the subsequent 6 month period, and vice versa. Instead, across 6-month intervals, within parent-son dyads, changes in maladaptive parenting and child externalizing problems waxed and waned in concert. Fixed effects models to address the topic of bidirectional relations between parent and child behavior are severely underrepresented. We recommend that other researchers who have found significant bidirectional parent-child associations using rank-order change models reexamine their data to determine whether these findings hold when examining changes within parent-child dyads.

  18. Cocaine self-administration in social dyads using custom-built operant conditioning chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Ryan T; Strickland, Justin C; Smith, Mark A

    2014-10-30

    Traditionally, the analysis of intravenous drug self-administration is limited to conditions in which subjects are tested in isolation. This limits the translational appeal of these studies because drug use in humans often occurs in the presence of others. We used custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed social dyads visual, olfactory, auditory, and limited tactile contact while concurrently self-administering cocaine. Male rats were trained to respond according to a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement (with a limited hold) in order to determine if patterns of cocaine (0.75mg/kg/infusion) self-administration became more similar over time in social pairs. Cocaine self-administration was tested across five days according to a 10-min fixed interval schedule (with a 5-min limited hold). Quarter-life values (time at which 25% of responses were emitted per interval) were analyzed using intraclass correlations. The total number of reinforcers obtained did not vary across the five days of testing; however, quarter-life values became progressively more similar between individuals within the social dyads. Standard operant conditioning chambers are unable to assess responding in multiple animals due to their small size, the need to prevent subjects from responding on the lever of their partner, and the need to prevent infusion lines from entangling. By using custom-built social operant conditioning chambers, we assessed the effects of social contact on cocaine self-administration. Social operant conditioning chambers can be used as a preclinical method to examine social influences on drug self-administration under conditions that approximate human substance use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Maternal Factors in Sibling Relationship Quality: A Multilevel Study of Multiple Dyads per Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and…

  20. Branded into submission: Brand attributes and hierarchisation behavior in same-sex and mixed-sex dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the role of brand attributes in the process of nonconscious hierarchization in dyadic interactions was examined. Experiment 1 showed that in same-sex dyads, brands that are associated with an agent and that are rated high on the brand personality dimension of competence (Aaker,

  1. Observed normativity and deviance in friendship dyads' conversations about sex and the relations with youths' perceived sexual peer norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongardt, D. van de; Reitz, E.; Overbeek, G.J.; Boislard, M.A.; Burk, W.J.; Dekovic, M.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between observed normativity and deviance during adolescents' and young adults' conversations about sex with their friends and their individual perceptions of sexual peer norms. Participants were 16-21-year-old same-sex friendship dyads (31 male and 30 female

  2. Protege and Mentor Self-Disclosure: Levels and Outcomes within Formal Mentoring Dyads in a Corporate Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanberg, Connie R.; Welsh, Elizabeth T.; Kammeyer-Mueller, John

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of self-disclosure within protege/mentor dyads in formal mentoring partnerships within a corporate context as a means of learning more about specific relationship processes that may enhance the positive outcomes of mentoring. While both proteges and mentors self-disclosed in their relationships, proteges disclosed at a…

  3. Photodynamics of charge separation and recombination in solid alternating films of phthalocyanine or phthalocyanine-fullerene dyad and perylene dicarboximide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehtivuori, Heli; Kumpulainen, Tatu; Hietala, Matti; Efimov, Alexander; Helge, Lemmetyinen; Kira, Aiko; Imahori, Hiroshi; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.

    2009-01-01

    Alternate bilayer structures of N,N'-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4,9,10- perylene dicarboximide (PDI), freebase phthalocyanines (Pc), and double-linked free-base phthalocyanine-fullerene dyad (Pc-C 60) were prepared by the Langmuir-Schäfer method and studied using a range of optical spectroscopy

  4. Multivariate Models of Parent-Late Adolescent Gender Dyads: The Importance of Parenting Processes in Predicting Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Although parent-adolescent interactions have been examined, relevant variables have not been integrated into a multivariate model. As a result, this study examined a multivariate model of parent-late adolescent gender dyads in an attempt to capture important predictors in late adolescents' important and unique transition to adulthood. The sample…

  5. What Happens When Parents and Children Go Grocery Shopping? An Observational Study of Latino Dyads in Southern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Joanna; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Elder, John P; Belch, George E; Castro, Iana A; Weibel, Nadir; Pickrel, Julie

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe parent-child interactions in tiendas, limited assortment food stores catering to Latinos in the United States, and to examine the extent to which child involvement influenced these interactions and their purchase outcomes. Two confederates, one posing as a tienda employee and one posing as a customer, observed the entire shopping trip of 100 Latino parent-child (mean age = 8 years) dyads and coded the following: number and type of parent- and child-initiated request interactions, types of purchase influence attempts used by children and how parents responded, and whether the product was purchased. Level of child involvement was examined as a potential influencing factor on purchasing. The observations were relatively short (mean duration of 10 minutes), reflecting the "quick trip" nature of the observed shopping trips. From the 100 parent-child dyads, 144 request interactions were observed, and among dyads with at least 1 request interaction during the shopping trip, the average number of request interactions per dyad was 2. Children initiated most of the request interactions by asking for a product or simply placing it in the basket; parents initiated 24% of the request interactions. Child involvement in shopping and checkout were associated with spending and purchase outcomes. These results indicate that children and parents influence each other during grocery shopping, and children who are more involved have greater influence over purchases. Furthermore, this study identified a number of targets for future family/parent and consumer food environment interventions.

  6. Commercial exchanges in B2B Dyads. A new model of decision-making in fast changing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Bragado, Elisa

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation presents a Model of Commercial Exchanges in B2B Dyads. This model explains how buying and selling decisions are made in industrial markets that are subject to continuous change, particularly the market for telecommunication products and services.Buying and selling decision-making

  7. Homo- or Hetero- Triplet-Triplet Annihilation? A Case Study with Perylene-Bodipy Dyads/Triads

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xiaoneng

    2017-07-06

    The photophysical processes of intramolecular ‘ping-pong’ energy transfers in the iodinated reference dyad BDP-I2-Py, as well as the uniodinated dyad BDP-Py and triad BDP-2Py, were studied. For BDP-I2-Py, a forward Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the perylene (Py) unit to the diiodoBDP unit (7 ps) and a backward triplet energy transfer (TTET, 3 ns) from the diiodoBDP unit to the Py unit were observed. For the BDP-Py and BDP-2Py systems, a FRET (5 ~ 8 ps) and a photo-induced electron transfer (PET) (1-1.5 ns) were observed in acetonitrile. The uniodinated dyad and triad were used as the triplet energy acceptor and emitter for a TTA upconversion with palladium tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin as the triplet photosensitizer. A maximum upconversion quantum yield of 12.6 % was measured. Given that the dyad (BDP-Py) contains one BDP unit and one Py unit, while the triad (BDP-2Py) contains two Py units and one BDP unit, and based on the results from steady-state femtosecond and nanosecond transient optical spectroscopies, it is concluded that neither intramolecular homo- triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) nor intramolecular hetero-TTA is possible during a TTA upconversion for those upconversion systems.

  8. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  9. Optical fusions and proportional syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert-Vanel, Michel

    2002-06-01

    A tragic error is being made in the literature concerning matters of color when dealing with optical fusions. They are still considered to be of additive nature, whereas experience shows us somewhat different results. The goal of this presentation is to show that fusions are, in fact, of 'proportional' nature, tending to be additive or subtractive, depending on each individual case. Using the pointillist paintings done in the manner of Seurat, or the spinning discs experiment could highlight this intermediate sector of the proportional. So, let us try to examine more closely what occurs in fact, by reviewing additive, subtractive and proportional syntheses.

  10. Congruence of therapeutic bond perceptions and its relation to treatment outcome: Within- and between-dyad effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Julian A; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Atzil-Slonim, Dana; Schmidt, Sebastian; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigates the association between congruence of patients' and therapists' perceptions of the therapeutic bond and symptom improvement. Bond congruence-outcome associations were examined on the within- and between-dyad level for 580 patients (mainly depression and anxiety) receiving cognitive-behavioral therapy. Symptom change was assessed on a session-to-session level as well as from pre- to posttreatment. For the between-dyad analyses, the truth and bias model was applied. For the within-dyad analyses, polynomial regression and response surface analysis were conducted. On the between-dyad level, higher temporal congruence between patients' and therapists' bond ratings (i.e., their correlation) was associated with better treatment outcomes. Additionally, the average discrepancy between therapists' and patients' bond ratings showed a significant quadratic association with treatment outcome. A tendency for therapists to moderately rate the bond lower than their patients' showed lowest posttreatment symptom scores. On the within-dyad level, we found that when patients' and therapists' ratings were in "agreement," higher bond scores were associated with fewer next-session symptoms. For "disagreement," the results showed that if therapists rated the bond as weak, whereas their patients rated it as strong, higher subsequent symptom distress was observed than if patients rated the bond as weak and their therapists rated it as strong. The present study highlights the importance of therapists being vigilant to session-to-session changes in the therapeutic bond to adjust their interventions accordingly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Quality of life in stroke survivor-caregiver dyads: a new conceptual framework and longitudinal study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Serenella; Buck, Harleah G; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Simeone, Silvio; Pucciarelli, Gianluca; Fida, Roberta; Matarese, Maria; Alvaro, Rosaria; Vellone, Ercole

    2015-03-01

    To describe a new conceptual framework and the research protocol of a study designed to examine the quality of life in stroke survivor-caregiver dyads. Stroke has a significant impact on the patient-caregiver dyad. Few studies have been guided by a specific conceptual framework which considers the interactions among pre-existing situations prior to stroke, the new situation caused by the stroke and the moderating effects of environmental and caregiver-related variables. Longitudinal study. A sample of stroke survivor-caregiver dyads will be enrolled at patient discharge from rehabilitation hospitals and will be surveyed every 3 months for 1-year. Hypotheses generated from the conceptual framework will test predictors, mediators and moderators of stroke survivor and caregiver quality of life from the pre-existing situation prior to the stroke, the new situation mediation poststroke and situation moderators. The study is supported by a grant from the Centre of Excellence for Nursing Scholarship, Rome, December 2013. This study seeks to identify variables in the pre-existing situation prior to the stroke (e.g. living condition), the new situation mediation poststroke (e.g. type of stroke and caregiver burden) as well as situation moderators (e.g. social support) that influence stroke survivor-caregiver dyad's quality of life across the stroke trajectory. Also, the study will inform clinical practice and research by identifying variables that are potentially modifiable and therefore amenable to intervention. The proposed framework will also be helpful for future research focused on stroke survivor-caregiver dyads. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Carborane-stilbene dyads: the influence of substituents and cluster isomers on photoluminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Ugalde, A; Cabrera-González, J; Juárez-Pérez, E J; Teixidor, F; Pérez-Inestrosa, E; Montenegro, J M; Sillanpää, R; Haukka, M; Núñez, R

    2017-02-14

    Two novel styrene-containing meta-carborane derivatives substituted at the second carbon cluster atom (C c ) with either a methyl (Me) or a phenyl (Ph) group are introduced herein along with a new set of stilbene-containing ortho- (o-) and meta- (m-) carborane dyads. The latter set of compounds have been prepared from styrene-containing carborane derivatives via a Heck coupling reaction. High regioselectivity has been achieved for these compounds by using a combination of palladium complexes [Pd 2 (dba) 3 ]/[Pd(t-Bu 3 P) 2 ] as a catalytic system, yielding exclusively E isomers. All compounds have been fully characterised and the crystal structures of seven of them were analysed by X-ray diffraction. The absorption spectra of these compounds are similar to those of their respective fluorophore groups (styrene or stilbene), showing a very small influence of the substituent (Me or Ph) linked to the second C c atom or the cluster isomer (o- or m-). On the other hand, fluorescence spectroscopy revealed high emission intensities for Me-o-carborane derivatives, whereas their Ph-o-carborane analogues evidenced an almost total lack of fluorescence, confirming the significant role of the substituent bound to the adjacent C c in o-carboranes. In contrast, all the m-carborane derivatives display similar photoluminescence (PL) behavior regardless of the substituent attached to the second C c , demonstrating its small influence on emission properties. Additionally, m-carborane derivatives are significantly more fluorescent than their o-counterparts, reaching quantum yield values as high as 30.2%. Regarding solid state emission, only stilbene-containing Ph-o-carborane derivatives, which showed very low fluorescence in solution, exhibited notable PL emission in films attributed to aggregation-induced emission. DFT calculations were performed to successfully complement the photoluminescence studies, supporting the experimentally observed photophysical behavior of the styrene and

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Ru(II) Tris(1,1O-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads Incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium Cation or N-Benzyl-N'-methyl-viologen. Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Optical Oxygen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monen M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2004-01-01

    The title compounds (1 and 2, above) were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions of appropriate Ru(1I) complexes with the electron a cceptors. Characterization was conducted in solution and in frozen ma trices. Finally, the title compounds were evaluated as dopants of sol-gel materials. It was found that the intramolecular quenching efficie ncy of 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridinium cation in solution depends on the solvent: photoluminescence is quenched completely in CH,CN, but not i n methanol or ethanol. On the other hand, intramolecular emission que nching by 4-benzyl-N-methyl viologen is complete in all solvents. The difference between the two quenchers is traced electrochemically to t he solvation of the 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridiniums by alcohol. In froze n matrices or adsorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both Ru(I1) complex/electron acceptor dyads of this study are photoluminescent, and the absence of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigi dity. When doped aerogels are cooled at 77 K, the emission intensity increases by approximately 4x, and the spectra shift to the blue, analogous to what is observed with Ru(I1) complexes in solutions undergoi ng fluid-to-rigid transition. However, in contrast to frozen solution s, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at low tempe ratures are still accessible to gas-phase quenchers diffusing through the mesopores, leading to more sensitive platforms for sensors than o ther room-temperature configurations. Thus the photoluminescence of o ur Ru(I1) complex dyads adsorbed on aerogel is quenchable by O2 both at room temperature and at 77 K. Furthermore, it was also found that O 2 modulates the photoluminescence of aerogels doped with 4-benzoyl -N -methylpyridinium-based dyads over a wider dynamic range compared wi th aerogels doped with either our vislogen-based dyads or with Ru(I1) tris(1,lO-phenanthroline) itself.

  14. Dyads affected by chronic heart failure: a randomized study evaluating effects of education and psychosocial support to patients with heart failure and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Susanna; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Hjelm, Carina; Strömberg, Anna

    2012-05-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) causes great suffering for both patients and their partners. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an integrated dyad care program with education and psychosocial support to patients with CHF and their partners during a postdischarge period after acute deterioration of CHF. One hundred fifty-five patient-caregiver dyads were randomized to usual care (n = 71) or a psychoeducation intervention (n = 84) delivered in 3 modules through nurse-led face-to-face counseling, computer-based education, and other written teaching materials to assist dyads to develop problem-solving skills. Follow-up assessments were completed after 3 and 12 months to assess perceived control, perceived health, depressive symptoms, self-care, and caregiver burden. Baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of dyads in the experimental and control groups were similar at baseline. Significant differences were observed in patients' perceived control over the cardiac condition after 3 (P effect was seen for the caregivers.No group differences were observed over time in dyads' health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms, patients' self-care behaviors, and partners' experiences of caregiver burden. Integrated dyad care focusing on skill-building and problem-solving education and psychosocial support was effective in initially enhancing patients' levels of perceived control. More frequent professional contact and ongoing skills training may be necessary to have a higher impact on dyad outcomes and warrants further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brush Polymer of Donor-Accepter Dyads via Adduct Formation between Lewis Base Polymer Donor and All Carbon Lewis Acid Acceptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic method that taps into the facile Lewis base (LB→Lewis acid (LA adduct forming reaction between the semiconducting polymeric LB and all carbon LA C60 for the construction of covalently linked donor-acceptor dyads and brush polymer of dyads is reported. The polymeric LB is built on poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT macromers containing either an alkyl or vinyl imidazolium end group that can be readily converted into the N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC LB site, while the brush polymer architecture is conveniently constructed via radical polymerization of the macromer P3HT with the vinyl imidazolium chain end. Simply mixing of such donor polymeric LB with C60 rapidly creates linked P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads in which C60 is covalently linked to the NHC junction connecting the vinyl polymer main chain and the brush P3HT side chains. Thermal behaviors, electronic absorption and emission properties of the resulting P3HT-C60 dyads and brush polymer of dyads have been investigated. The results show that a change of the topology of the P3HT-C60 dyad from linear to brush architecture enhances the crystallinity and Tm of the P3HT domain and, along with other findings, they indicate that the brush polymer architecture of donor-acceptor domains provides a promising approach to improve performances of polymer-based solar cells.

  16. Communication strategies to reduce cancer disparities: Insights from African-American mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Wilson Genderson, Maureen; Ports, Katie A; Carlyle, Kellie E

    2015-12-01

    Mothers and daughters share a powerful and unique bond, which has potential for the dissemination of information on a variety of women's health issues, including the primary and secondary prevention of breast and cervical cancer. This study presents formative research from a long-term project examining the potential of mother-daughter communication in promoting cancer screening among African American women. Thirty-two mother-daughter pairs (N = 64) completed orally administered surveys regarding their cancer knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and barriers to care. This study compares the attitudes and beliefs of low-income, urban, African American mothers and their adolescent daughters regarding cervical and breast cancer screening. Both mothers and daughters had fairly high levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer. In addition, there was a high concordance rate between mothers' and daughters' responses, suggesting a potential sharing of health knowledge between mother and daughter. These results have implications for selecting communication strategies to reduce health disparities, and support that the mother-daughter dyad could be a viable unit to disseminate targeted screening information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Contaminated and uncontaminated feeding influence perceived intimacy in mixed-sex dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R

    2012-06-01

    It was expected that viewers watching adult mixed-sex pairs dining together will give higher ratings of the perceived intimacy and involvement of the pair if feeding is displayed while eating, especially if the feeding involves contaminated (i.e., with potential germ transfer) foods. Our hypotheses were tested using a design in which participants viewed five videotapes in varying order. Each video showed different mixed-sex pairs of actors sharing meal and included a distinct form of food sharing or none. These were shown to 50 small groups of young adults in quasi-random sequences to control for order effects. Immediately after each video, viewers were asked about the attractiveness, attraction and intimacy in the dyad they had just observed. As predicted, videos featuring contaminated feeding consistently produced higher ratings on involvement and attraction than those showing uncontaminated feeding which, in turn, mostly produced higher ratings on involvement and attraction than those showing no feeding behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Educational processes in the family: Linkage between the quality of dyad and triad relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research presented in this paper is to describe the relations between educational styles as dyad and co-parenting relations, as well as triad relations in the family which include processes of upbringing and taking care of the child. The sample comprised families with an adolescent. Data were obtained from 200 respondents, of the average age of 18. Respondents evaluated educational styles of their parents (separately father's, separately mother's in the Questionnaire for evaluating parenting style, and then also the quality of co-parenting cooperation in their families in the questionnaire Co-parenting relations in the family. The results indicate a significant correlation between the dimensions of parental styles and co-parenting relation. In that process, more prominent is the contribution of affective dimensions of parenting style, and what was also perceived and described are the differences in mutual relations of educational styles and co-parenting cooperation regarding parent's gender. The effects of the evaluated co-parental cooperation on educational behavior of the father are more evident.

  19. The dyad palindromic glutathione transferase P enhancer binds multiple factors including AP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diccianni, M B; Imagawa, M; Muramatsu, M

    1992-10-11

    Glutathione Transferase P (GST-P) gene expression is dominantly regulated by an upstream enhancer (GPEI) consisting of a dyad of palindromically oriented imperfect TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-responsive elements (TRE). GPEI is active in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well in AP1-containing HeLa cells. Despite GPEI's similarity to a TRE, c-jun co-transfection has only a minimal effect on transactivation. Antisense c-jun and c-fos co-transfection experiments further demonstrate the lack of a role for AP1 in GPEI mediated trans-activation in F9 cells, although endogenously present AP1 can influence GPEI in HeLa cells. Co-transfection of delta fosB with c-jun, which forms an inactive c-Jun/delta FosB heterodimer that binds TRE sequences, inhibits GPEI-mediated transcription in AP1-lacking F9 cells as well as AP1-containing HeLa cells. These data suggest novel factor(s) other than AP1 are influencing GPEI. Binding studies reveal multiple nucleoproteins bind to GPEI. These factors are likely responsible for the high level of GPEI-mediated transcription observed in the absence of AP1 and during hepatocarcinogenesis.

  20. Surrogate utility estimation by long-term partners and unfamiliar dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, Richard J; Ziegler, Fenja V

    2015-01-01

    To what extent are people able to make predictions about other people's preferences and values?We report two experiments that present a novel method assessing some of the basic processes in surrogate decision-making, namely surrogate-utility estimation. In each experiment participants formed dyads who were asked to assign utilities to health related items and commodity items, and to predict their partner's utility judgments for the same items. In experiment one we showed that older adults in long-term relationships were able to accurately predict their partner's wishes. In experiment two we showed that younger adults who were relatively unfamiliar with one another were also able to predict other people's wishes. Crucially we demonstrated that these judgments were accurate even after partialling out each participant's own preferences indicating that in order to make surrogate utility estimations people engage in perspective-taking rather than simple anchoring and adjustment, suggesting that utility estimation is not the cause of inaccuracy in surrogate decision-making. The data and implications are discussed with respect to theories of surrogate decision-making.

  1. Surrogate utility estimation by long-term partners and unfamiliar dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Tunney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To what extent are people able to make predictions about other people’s preferences and values? We report two experiments that present a novel method assessing some of the basic processes in surrogate decision-making, namely surrogate-utility estimation. In each experiment participants formed dyads who were asked to assign utilities to health related items and commodity items, and to predict their partner’s utility judgments for the same items. In experiment one we showed that older adults in long-term relationships were able to accurately predict their partner’s wishes. In experiment two we showed that younger adults who were relatively unfamiliar with one another were also able to predict other people’s wishes. Crucially we demonstrated that these judgments were accurate even after partialling out each participant’s own preferences indicating that in order to make surrogate utility estimations people engage in perspective-taking rather than simple anchoring and adjustment, suggesting that utility estimation is not the cause of inaccuracy in surrogate decision-making. The data and implications are discussed with respect to theories of surrogate decision-making.

  2. Emotion suppression, emotional eating, and eating behavior among parent-adolescent dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Oh, April Y; Hennessy, Erin; Dwyer, Laura A

    2017-10-01

    Emotion suppression may lead to ironic increases in emotional experience. More important, suppression is a transactional process, creating stress and disrupting interactions for the suppressor and those in social interactions with individuals who are suppressing emotion. However, no research has examined the behavioral consequences of emotion suppression in close relationships. We examine the possibility that emotion suppression will predict eating behaviors as a secondary emotion regulatory strategy among 1,556 parent-adolescent dyads (N = 3,112), consistent with evidence suggesting that suppression influences eating at the individual-level. Actor-partner interdependence models and structural equation modeling demonstrate that one's own emotion suppression was associated with emotional eating; greater consumption of hedonic-low nutrient, high energy dense-foods; and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables (actor effects). One's partner's emotion suppression was also independently associated with one's own emotional eating; lower consumption of fruits and vegetables; and greater consumption of hedonic foods (partner effects), although this association was most consistent for adolescents' suppression and parents' eating (compared with the converse). These analyses suggest that dyadic emotion regulatory processes have implications on eating behavior. Moreover, analyses suggest that emotion suppression has potential implications on eating behaviors of others within close relationships with a suppressor, consistent with the notion that emotion regulation is a transactional process. These findings suggest that interventions to improve eating habits of parents and their adolescent children should consider dyadic emotion regulatory processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Simulation of solution phase electron transfer in a compact donor-acceptor dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Tim; Wang, Lee-Ping; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2011-10-27

    Charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) rates in photosynthetic architectures are difficult to control, yet their ratio can make or break photon-to-current conversion efficiencies. A rational design approach to the enhancement of CS over CR requires a mechanistic understanding of the underlying electron-transfer (ET) process, including the role of the environment. Toward this goal, we introduce a QM/MM protocol for ET simulations and use it to characterize CR in the formanilide-anthraquinone dyad (FAAQ). Our simulations predict fast recombination of the charge-transfer excited state, in agreement with recent experiments. The computed electronic couplings show an electronic state dependence and are weaker in solution than in the gas phase. We explore the role of cis-trans isomerization on the CR kinetics, and we find strong correlation between the vertical energy gaps of the full simulations and a collective solvent polarization coordinate. Our approach relies on constrained density functional theory to obtain accurate diabatic electronic states on the fly for molecular dynamics simulations, while orientational and electronic polarization of the solvent is captured by a polarizable force field based on a Drude oscillator model. The method offers a unified approach to the characterization of driving forces, reorganization energies, electronic couplings, and nonlinear solvent effects in light-harvesting systems.

  4. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog–human dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog–human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog–human relationships and how these may influence dogs’ perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog–human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog–human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog–human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. PMID:25750549

  5. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog-human dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elyssa; Bennett, Pauleen C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent research concerning dog-human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog-human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog-human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog-human relationships and how these may influence dogs' perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog-human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog-human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog-human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives.

  6. Garden of Ambivalence The Topology of the Mother-child Dyad in Grey Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defne Tüzün

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Maysles brothers’ 1975 documentary, Grey Gardens, portrays the lives of Edith Bouvier Beale and her daughter, Edith, known as Little Edie, the aunt and first cousin, respectively, of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis. The mother and daughter live together in their East Hampton house that is literally falling apart. As their identical names imply, the Beales share a symbiotic relationship which is reflected in every aspect of their life. I argue that Grey Gardens calls for Julia Kristeva’s insistence on abjection as a crucial struggle with “spatial ambivalence (inside/outside uncertainty” and an attempt to mark out a space in the undifferentiated field of the mother-child symbiosis. In Powers of Horror, Kristeva (1982 states, “abjection preserves what existed in the archaism of pre-objectal relationship” (p. 10. Grey Gardens portrays the topology of the mother-child dyad, which pertains to a particular spatio-temporality: where this primordial relationship is concerned, object and subject crumble, and the distinction between past and present is irrelevant.

  7. The mother-offspring dyad: microbial transmission, immune interactions and allergy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenmalm, M C

    2017-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero. During pregnancy, there is a close immunological interaction between the mother and her offspring, which provides important opportunities for the maternal microbial environment to influence the immune development of the child. In support of this theory, combined pre- and postnatal supplementations seem to be crucial for the preventive effect of probiotics on infant eczema. Here, the influence of microbial and immune interactions within the mother-offspring dyad on childhood allergy development will be discussed. In addition, how perinatal transmission of microbes and immunomodulatory factors from mother to offspring may shape appropriate immune maturation during infancy and beyond, potentially via epigenetic mechanisms, will be examined. Deeper understanding of these interactions between the maternal and offspring microbiome and immunity is needed to identify efficacious preventive measures to combat the allergy epidemic. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  8. Interdependence of attachment styles and relationship quality in parent-adolescent dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chong Man; Hart, Ellen; Ellis, Lillian; Tan, Cin Cin

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined how attachment styles of parents and adolescents may jointly influence the quality of their relationship. Parent-adolescent (N dyads  = 77) pairs were recruited from a Midwestern town in the United States. The mean of adolescents' age was 16.25. Both members reported their attachment styles, relationship closeness, and relationship discord. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) showed that both members' attachment avoidance was associated with self-report lower levels of closeness. Parents' attachment anxiety was related to relationship discord. Parents with higher avoidant attachment reported lower closeness when adolescents were higher in avoidant attachment. Higher parents' anxious attachment was related to higher relationship closeness when adolescents were higher on anxious attachment. Such an association was negative when adolescents had lower anxious attachment. Higher parents' anxious attachment was related to greater discord when adolescents were lower on anxiety attachment. This study reveals the complex dyadic dynamics of relationship quality in parent-adolescent pairs. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors of parent-child interaction style in dyads with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudry, Kristelle; Aldred, Catherine; Wigham, Sarah; Green, Jonathan; Leadbitter, Kathy; Temple, Kathryn; Barlow, Katherine; McConachie, Helen

    2013-10-01

    Parent synchrony has been shown to be developmentally important for the growth of communication skills in young children with autism. Understanding individual-differences in parent synchrony and other associated features of dyadic interaction therefore presents as an important step toward the goal of appreciating how and why some parent-child dyads come to adopt more optimal interaction styles, while for others, parent interaction is more asynchronous and less developmentally facilitative. Within the large, well-characterized Preschool Autism Communication Trial (PACT) cohort, baseline parent-child interaction samples were coded for three key aspects of dyadic interaction style; - Parent Synchrony, Child Initiation, and Shared Attention. We explored associations among these measures, demographic characteristics and standardized child assessment scores. While various child factors were associated with each of the interaction measures, very few associations were observed with parent/familial factors. Child language age-equivalence was a significant positive predictor of variation in each interaction measure, while child repetitive symptoms predicted reduced Shared Attention. The three interaction measures were moderately positively inter-related. In the context of childhood autism, variation in dyadic interaction style appears to be driven more by child language and repetitive behaviors than age, social-communication symptoms and non-verbal ability. Parent/family factors contributed little to explaining variability in parent-child interaction, in the current study. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Resident Dyads Providing Transition Care to Adolescents and Young Adults With Chronic Illnesses and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Richard J; Jasien, Joan; Maslow, Gary R

    2017-04-01

    Youth with special health care needs often experience difficulty transitioning from pediatric to adult care. These difficulties may derive in part from lack of physician training in transition care and the challenges health care providers experience establishing interdisciplinary partnerships to support these patients. This educational innovation sought to improve pediatrics and adult medicine residents' interdisciplinary communication and collaboration. Residents from pediatrics, medicine-pediatrics, and internal medicine training programs participated in a transitions clinic for patients with chronic health conditions aged 16 to 26 years. Residents attended 1 to 4 half-day clinic sessions during 1-month ambulatory rotations. Pediatrics/adult medicine resident dyads collaboratively performed psychosocial and medical transition consultations that addressed health care navigation, self-care, and education and vocation topics. Two to 3 attending physicians supervised each clinic session (4 hours) while concurrently seeing patients. Residents completed a preclinic survey about baseline attitudes and experiences, and a postclinic survey about their transitions clinic experiences, changes in attitudes, and transition care preparedness. A total of 46 residents (100% of those eligible) participated in the clinic and completed the preclinic survey, and 25 (54%) completed the postclinic survey. A majority of respondents to the postclinic survey reported positive experiences. Residents in both pediatrics and internal medicine programs reported improved preparedness for providing transition care to patients with chronic health conditions and communicating effectively with colleagues in other disciplines. A dyadic model of collaborative transition care training was positively received and yielded improvements in immediate self-assessed transition care preparedness.

  11. A Concise Synthesis and the Antibacterial Activity of 5,6-Dimethoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    GÖKSU, Süleyman; UĞUZ, Metin Tansu

    2014-01-01

    5,6-Dimethoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid was synthesized in 7 steps and with an overall yield of 46%. Bromination of 2-naphthol, and methylation with dimethyl sulfate followed by Friedel-Crafts acylation with AcCl gave 2-acetyl-5-bromo-6-methoxynaphthalene. 2-Acetyl-5-bromo-6-methoxynaphthalene was converted to 5-bromo-6- methoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid by a haloform reaction. The esterification of the acid with methanol, methoxylation with NaOCH3 in the presence of CuI and s...

  12. A parent-child dyad approach to the assessment of health status and health-related quality of life in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Wendy J; Boydell, Katherine; Dell, Sharon; Feldman, Brian M; Marshall, Deborah; Willan, Andrew; Wright, James G

    2012-08-01

    Assessment of health state and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) are limited by a child's age and cognitive ability. Parent-proxy reports are known to differ from children's reports. Simultaneous assessment using a parent-child dyad is an alternative approach. Our objective was to assess the validity, reliability and responsiveness of a parent-child dyad approach to utility and HR-QOL assessment of paediatric asthma health states. The setting was specialist care in a hospital-based asthma clinic. Participants were 91 girls and boys with asthma aged 8 to 17 years and 91 parents. The intervention employed was parent-child dyad administration of the Health Utilities Index (HUI) 2 and 3, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) Core and Asthma modules, and the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Questionnaires were administered by interview to children and parents separately and then together as a dyad to assess the child's health state. The dyad interview was repeated at the next clinic visit. Dyad-child agreement was measured by intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient; Spearman correlations were used to assess convergent validity. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 28 children who remained clinically stable between visits with a two-way ICC coefficient. Responsiveness to change from baseline was assessed with Spearman coefficients in 30 children who demonstrated clinical change between visits. There was no significant agreement between parent and child for the HUI2 or HUI3 whereas agreement between dyad and child was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36, 0.69) for the HUI2 and 0.74 (95% CI 0.61, 0.82) for the HUI3 overall. With respect to dyad performance characteristics, both HUI2 and HUI3 overall scores demonstrated moderate convergent validity with the generic PedsQL™ Core domains (range r = 0.30-0.52; p  0.4; p < 0.05) was observed for dyad HUI2 total score change over time as correlated with dyad

  13. Exciplex-like emission from a closely-spaced, orthogonally-sited anthracenyl-boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) molecular dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benniston, Andrew C; Harriman, Anthony; Whittle, Victoria L; Zelzer, Mischa; Harrington, Ross W; Clegg, William

    2010-07-30

    A molecular dyad, , has been prepared that incorporates a boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) group functionalized at the meso position with an anthracenyl unit. Emission from the dyad contains contributions from both localized fluorescence from the Bodipy unit and exciplex-like emission associated with an intramolecular charge-transfer state. The peak position, intensity and lifetime of this exciplex emission are solvent dependent and the shift in the emission maximum shows a linear relationship to the solvent polarity function (Deltaf). The calculated dipole moment for the exciplex is 22.5 +/- 2.2 D. The radiative rate constant (k(RAD)) for exciplex emission decreases progressively with increasing solvent polarity. In this latter case, k(RAD) shows an obvious dependence on the energy gap between the exciplex state and the first-excited singlet state resident on the Bodipy unit. The emission characteristics for dissolved in perfluorooctane are used to characterize the refractive index and dielectric constant of the solvent.

  14. Health Disparities Score Composite of Youth and Parent Dyads from an Obesity Prevention Intervention: iCook 4-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D. Olfert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available iCook 4-H is a lifestyle intervention to improve diet, physical activity and mealtime behavior. Control and treatment dyads (adult primary meal preparer and a 9–10-year-old youth completed surveys at baseline and 4, 12, and 24 months. A Health Disparity (HD score composite was developed utilizing a series of 12 questions (maximum score = 12 with a higher score indicating a more severe health disparity. Questions came from the USDA short form U.S. Household Food Security Survey (5, participation in food assistance programs (1, food behavior (2, level of adult education completed (1, marital status (1, and race (1 adult and 1 child. There were 228 dyads (control n = 77; treatment n = 151 enrolled in the iCook 4-H study. Baseline HD scores were 3.00 ± 2.56 among control dyads and 2.97 ± 2.91 among treatment dyads, p = 0.6632. There was a significant decline in the HD score of the treatment group from baseline to 12 months (p = 0.0047 and baseline to 24 months (p = 0.0354. A treatment by 12-month time interaction was found (baseline mean 2.97 ± 2.91 vs. 12-month mean 1.78 ± 2.31; p = 0.0406. This study shows that behavioral change interventions for youth and adults can help improve factors that impact health equity; although, further research is needed to validate this HD score as a measure of health disparities across time.

  15. Neighborhood Qualification of the Association between Parenting and Problem Behavior Trajectories among Mexican-origin Father-Adolescent Dyads

    OpenAIRE

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Knight, George P.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-01-01

    To address the combined importance of fathers and neighborhoods for adolescent adjustment, we examined whether associations between fathers' parenting and adolescents' problem behaviors were qualified by neighborhood adversity. We captured both mainstream (e.g., authoritative) and alternative (e.g., no-nonsense, reduced involvement) parenting styles and examined parenting and neighborhood effects on changes over time in problem behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin father-adolescent dyad...

  16. Psychological adaptation to life-threatening injury in dyads: the role of dysfunctional disclosure of trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pielmaier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain modes of trauma disclosure have been found to be associated with more severe symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS in different trauma populations: the reluctance to disclose trauma-related thoughts and feelings, a strong urge to talk about it, and physical as well as emotional reactions during disclosure. Although social-contextual influences gain more and more interest in trauma research, no study has yet investigated these “dysfunctional disclosure tendencies” and their association with PTS from an interpersonal perspective.(1 To replicate previous findings on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies in patients with life-threatening injury and their significant others and (2 to study interpersonal associations between dysfunctional disclosure style and PTS at a dyadic level.PTS symptom severity and self-reports on dysfunctional disclosure tendencies were assessed in N=70 dyads comprising one individual with severe traumatic brain injury and a significant other (“proxy” 3 months after injury.Regression analyses predicting PTS symptom severity revealed dysfunctional disclosure tendencies to have incremental validity above and beyond sex, age, and trauma severity within the individual (both patient and proxy, with moderate effect sizes. The interaction between patient's and proxy's disclosure style explained additional portions of the variance in patients’ PTS symptom severity.Findings suggest that dysfunctional disclosure tendencies are related to poorer psychological adaptation to severe traumatic brain injury. This intrapersonal association may be exacerbated by dysfunctional disclosure tendencies on the part of a significant other. Although the results require replication in other trauma samples without brain injury to further generalize the findings beyond the observed population, the study contributes to the expanding literature on the crucial role of interpersonal relationships in trauma recovery.For the abstract or full

  17. Perceptions about family planning and contraceptive practice in a marital dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taewha; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyun Mi; Jang, Younkyoung; Shin, Hyejeong; Kim, Myeong Seon

    2014-04-01

    To examine couple interactions to predict wives' contraceptive use as well as that of their husbands in rural Ethiopia. Previous studies stated that men's power and their preferences regarding family planning have a significant role in the adoption of contraception, as well as women's general reproductive health. Spousal communication on reproductive matters helped couples to be aware of each other's perspectives and enhanced the usage of family planning through shared decision-making. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to analyse the Actor and Partner effects within the marital dyad. The study sample included 389 married couples who were recruited from households in seven enumeration areas randomly selected from Hetosa Woreda in Ethiopia. We used a face-to-face interview survey. Data were collected between 22 October and 21 November 2010 and analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, t-test, Pearson's correlation and the Actor-Partner interdependence model. There were significant differences in perceptions about family planning, contraceptive knowledge and contraceptive use between wives and husbands. Wives' perceptions about family planning affected theirs as well as that of their husbands' knowledge and use of contraceptive methods. However, husbands' perceptions about family planning did not affect their knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, but did influence their wives'. The application of couple data enhanced our understanding of the complex interactions between wives and husbands, which may lead to novel dyadic-based interventions to improve family planning practice. Couples must be educated and informed not only about the adoption of contraception, but also about reproductive rights and responsibilities through changes in educational and motivational strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Current perspectives on attachment and bonding in the dog–human dyad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Elyssa Payne,1 Pauleen C Bennett,2 Paul D McGreevy1 1Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University, Bendigo, VIC, Australia Abstract: This article reviews recent research concerning dog–human relationships and how attributes that arise from them can be measured. It highlights the influence of human characteristics on dog behavior, and consequently, the dog–human bond. Of particular importance are the influences of human attitudes and personality. These themes have received surprisingly little attention from researchers. Identifying human attributes that contribute to successful dog–human relationships could assist in the development of a behavioral template to ensure dyadic potential is optimized. Additionally, this article reveals how dyadic functionality and working performance may not necessarily be mutually inclusive. Potential underpinnings of various dog–human relationships and how these may influence dogs' perceptions of their handlers are also discussed. The article considers attachment bonds between humans and dogs, how these may potentially clash with or complement each other, and the effects of different bonds on the dog–human dyad as a whole. We review existing tools designed to measure the dog–human bond and offer potential refinements to improve their accuracy. Positive attitudes and affiliative interactions seem to contribute to the enhanced well-being of both species, as reflected in resultant physiological changes. Thus, promoting positive dog–human relationships would capitalize on these benefits, thereby improving animal welfare. Finally, this article proposes future research directions that may assist in disambiguating what constitutes successful bonding between dogs and the humans in their lives. Keywords: human–animal bond, personality, attitudes, social learning, affective state, dog

  19. Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Attachment in Subclinically Depressed Mothers: Dyads at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Hannah F; Konrad, Kerstin; Goecke, Tamme W; Fakhrabadi, Roya; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    -child relationship. Therefore, early interventions are needed that focus on the mother-child dyad and target not only clinically but also subclinically depressed mothers. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Contrasting intermolecular and intramolecular exciplex formation of a 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Mitsutaka; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Hisaji; Tamaki, Akihiro; Takeda, Motonori; Mizuno, Kazuhiko

    2010-05-07

    An intramolecular exciplex is formed upon excitation of the cyclohexane solution of the 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad, but little if any intramolecular CT complex exists in the ground state of this substance in solution. In contrast, in the crystalline state, the dyad forms an intermolecular mixed-stack CT complex in the ground state and an intermolecular exciplex when it is photoexcited.

  1. Perception of Paralinguistic Traits in Synthesized Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Along with the rise of artificial intelligence and the internet-of-things, synthesized voices are now common in daily–life, providing us with guidance, assistance, and even companionship. From formant to concatenative synthesis, the synthesized voice continues to be defined by the same traits we...

  2. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun

    2013-04-30

    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  3. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children’s food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Methods Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver’s Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ were also obtained from the mother. Results The children’s average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%, Haitian (34% and Latino (30%. Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother’s perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56 with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01. Conclusions Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing

  4. Feeding styles and child weight status among recent immigrant mother-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Hennessy, Erin; Pirie, Alex; Must, Aviva; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R; Kamins, Christina Luongo; Hughes, Sheryl O; Boulos, Rebecca; Sliwa, Sarah; Galvão, Heloisa; Economos, Christina D

    2012-05-29

    Research has shown that parental feeding styles may influence children's food consumption, energy intake, and ultimately, weight status. We examine this relationship, among recent immigrants to the US. Given that immigrant parents and children are at greater risk for becoming overweight/obese with increased time in the US, identification of risk factors for weight gain is critical. Baseline data was collected on 383 mother-child dyads enrolled in Live Well, a community-based, participatory, randomized controlled lifestyle intervention to prevent weight gain in recent immigrant mothers. Socio-demographic information together with heights and weights were collected for both mother and child. Acculturation, behavioral data, and responses to the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) were also obtained from the mother. The children's average age was 6.2 ± 2.7 years, 58% male. Mothers had been in the country for an average of 6.0 ± 3.3 years, and are Brazilian (36%), Haitian (34%) and Latino (30%). Seventy-two percent of the mothers were overweight/obese, while 43% of the children were overweight/obese. Fifteen percent of mothers reported their feeding style as being high demanding/high responsive; 32% as being high demanding/low responsive; 34% as being low demanding/high responsive and 18% as being low demanding/low responsive. In bivariate analyses, feeding styles significantly differed by child BMIz-score, ethnic group, and mother's perceived stress. In multiple linear regression, a low demanding/high responsive feeding style was found to be positively associated (ß = 0.56) with a higher child weight as compared to high demanding/high responsive, controlling for known covariates (p = 0.01). Most mothers report having a low demanding/high responsive feeding style, which is associated with higher child weight status in this diverse immigrant population. This finding adds to the growing literature that suggests this type of feeding style may be a risk

  5. Long-range electron transfer in zinc-phthalocyanine-oligo(phenylene-ethynylene)-based donor-bridge-acceptor dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson, Erik; Boixel, Julien; Fortage, Jérôme; Jacquemin, Denis; Becker, Hans-Christian; Blart, Errol; Hammarström, Leif; Odobel, Fabrice

    2012-11-05

    In the context of long-range electron transfer for solar energy conversion, we present the synthesis, photophysical, and computational characterization of two new zinc(II) phthalocyanine oligophenylene-ethynylene based donor-bride-acceptor dyads: ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) and ZnPc-OPE-C(60). A gold(III) porphyrin and a fullerene has been used as electron accepting moieties, and the results have been compared to a previously reported dyad with a tin(IV) dichloride porphyrin as the electron acceptor (Fortage et al. Chem. Commun. 2007, 4629). The results for ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) indicate a remarkably strong electronic coupling over a distance of more than 3 nm. The electronic coupling is manifested in both the absorption spectrum and an ultrafast rate for photoinduced electron transfer (k(PET) = 1.0 × 10(12) s(-1)). The charge-shifted state in ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) recombines with a relatively low rate (k(BET) = 1.0 × 10(9) s(-1)). In contrast, the rate for charge transfer in the other dyad, ZnPc-OPE-C(60), is relatively slow (k(PET) = 1.1 × 10(9) s(-1)), while the recombination is very fast (k(BET) ≈ 5 × 10(10) s(-1)). TD-DFT calculations support the hypothesis that the long-lived charge-shifted state of ZnPc-OPE-AuP(+) is due to relaxation of the reduced gold porphyrin from a porphyrin ring based reduction to a gold centered reduction. This is in contrast to the faster recombination in the tin(IV) porphyrin based system (k(BET) = 1.2 × 10(10) s(-1)), where the excess electron is instead delocalized over the porphyrin ring.

  6. Emotional reactions of mothers facing premature births: study of 100 mother-infant dyads 32 gestational weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Lempp, Franziska; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Dodane, Catherine; Bednarek, Nathalie; De Mare, Laurence; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A "depressed" score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth.

  7. Emotional reactions of mothers facing premature births: study of 100 mother-infant dyads 32 gestational weeks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Eutrope

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. METHODS: A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A "depressed" score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth.

  8. A Small Number of Residues Can Determine if Linker Histones Are Bound On or Off Dyad in the Chromatosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing-Rui; Feng, Hanqiao; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Li, Shipeng; Schwieters, Charles D; Bai, Yawen

    2016-10-09

    Linker histones bind to the nucleosome and regulate the structure and function of chromatin. We have previously shown that the globular domains of chicken H5 and Drosophila H1 linker histones bind to the nucleosome with on- or off-dyad modes, respectively. To explore the determinant for the distinct binding modes, we investigated the binding of a mutant globular domain of H5 to the nucleosome. This mutant, termed GH5_pMut, includes substitutions of five globular domain residues of H5 with the corresponding residues in the globular domain of Drosophila H1. The residues at these five positions play important roles in nucleosome binding by either H5 or Drosophila H1. NMR and spin-labeling experiments showed that GH5_pMut bound to the nucleosome off the dyad. We further found that the nucleosome array condensed by either the GH5_pMut or the globular domain of Drosophila H1 displayed a similar sedimentation coefficient, whereas the same nucleosome array condensed by the wild-type globular domain of H5 showed a much larger sedimentation coefficient. Moreover, NMR and spin-labeling results from the study of the nucleosome in complex with the full-length human linker histone H1.0, whose globular domain shares high sequence conservation with the corresponding globular domain of H5, are consistent with an on-dyad binding mode. Taken together, our results suggest that a small number of residues in the globular domain of a linker histone can control its binding location on the nucleosome and higher-order chromatin structure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of Self-esteem, Optimism, and Perceived Control on Depressive Symptoms in Stroke Survivor-Spouse Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Misook L; Bakas, Tamilyn; Plue, Laura D; Williams, Linda S

    2016-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in stroke survivors and their family caregivers. Given the interdependent relationship between the members of dyads in poststroke management, improving depressive symptoms in dyads may depend on their partner's characteristics. Self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control, all known to be associated with depressive symptoms in an individual, may also contribute to their partner's depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study is to examine actor and partner effects of self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control on depression in stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers. A total of 112 ischemic stroke survivors (78% white, 34% women; mean age, 62.5 ± 12.3 years) and their spouses (mean age, 60.6 ± 12.9 years) completed surveys in which depressive symptoms, self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Revised Life Orientation Test, and the Sense of Control Scale. Multilevel modeling, actor-partner interdependence model regression was used to determine influences on depressive symptoms within the dyad. Individuals with lower self-esteem, optimism, and perceived control had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Stroke survivors whose spouses had lower levels of self-esteem (B = -0.338, P self-esteem (B = -0.047, P = .036) also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. We found significant partner effects of self-esteem on depression for both members and partner effect of optimism on patient's depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that further research is needed to determine if dyadic interventions may help to improve self-esteem, optimism, and depressive symptoms in both patients and their caregivers.

  10. Social dominance in prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in continuous competitive dyads: Effects on body growth, metabolic status, and reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, C; Carriquiry, M; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the body weight (BW) and size, metabolic status, and reproductive development of dominant and subordinate prepubertal dairy heifers allocated in competitive dyads. Sixteen Holstein and Jersey × Holstein prepubertal heifers (means ± SEM; 250.8 ± 9.8 d; 208.5 ± 13.9 kg of BW) were assigned to 8 homogeneous dyads according to breed, age, and BW. Dyads were housed in pens separated 1 m from each other during 120 d, receiving a total mixed ration on a 5% restriction of their potential dry matter intake, and had access to the same feeder (60 cm) throughout the experiment. Dominant and subordinate heifers were defined based on the winning agonistic interactions in each dyad. Body development was recorded every 20 d in all heifers, and blood samples were collected on the same days to determine endocrine and metabolic status. The maximum follicle diameter, number of follicles >6 mm, and the presence of corpus luteum were observed weekly by ultrasound. Heifer BW (269.3 vs. 265.3 ± 1.5 kg) and average daily gains (0.858 vs. 0.770 ± 0.02 kg/d) were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers. On d 30, 37, and 53, dominant heifers had more follicles than subordinate heifers, and maximum follicle diameter was greater in dominant than in subordinate heifers (10.0 vs. 9.0 ± 0.3 mm). Dominant heifers achieved puberty earlier than subordinate heifers (313.9 ± 4.9 vs. 329.6 ± 5.7 d) with similar BW (279.4 ± 2.6 vs. 277.4 ± 5.8 kg). Glucose concentrations were greater in dominant than subordinate heifers (89.2 vs. 86.8 ± 1.2 mg/dL), but cholesterol concentrations were greater in subordinate than dominant heifers (86.1 vs. 90.2 ± 2.6 mg/dL). We concluded that, under continuous competitive situations, dominant heifers were more precocious than subordinate ones, achieving an earlier puberty. Dominant heifers had greater body growth and glucose concentrations than subordinate heifers, which may be responsible, at least in part, for

  11. Do mothers affect daughter's behaviors? Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors in Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Lemia H; Vaccaro, Joan A; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate 169 Kuwaiti mother-daughter dyads and their associations with health behaviors for eating healthy, engaging in physical activity, daughters perceived body weight, time spent with computer/video, and time viewing television. Female students aged 10-14 years were selected from private and public schools in the State of Kuwait. Results demonstrated that daughters exhibited similar behaviors to their mothers in their perceived eating behavior, physical activity, computer/video game use, and TV screen time. Future research is essential to determine the role of mothers in effective health behavior intervention strategies for female Kuwaiti adolescents.

  12. Method to synthesize metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2016-12-13

    Metal chalcogenide monolayer nanomaterials can be synthesized from metal alkoxide precursors by solution precipitation or solvothermal processing. The synthesis routes are more scalable, less complex and easier to implement than other synthesis routes.

  13. nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor m

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (M=Co, Cu) nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor method ... The structural characterization was carried out using an X-ray Diffractometer (Rikagu Miniflex, Japan) ..... His current area of interest includes magnetic nanomaterials.

  14. Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and luminescence behaviour of terephthalate bridged heptacoordinated dinuclear lead(II) complexes containing a pentadentate N-donor Schiff base. SUBHASIS ROYa, SOMNATH CHOUBEYa, SUMITAVA KHANa, KISHALAY BHARa,. PARTHA MITRAb and BARINDRA ...

  15. Synthese en chemotherapeutisch onderzoek van sulfanilamidopyrimidinen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grevenstuk, Anton Bernard

    1942-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of substitution in the pyrimidine nucleous on the activity of the three isomeric sulfanilamidopyrimidines (2, 5 and 6), a number of substituted sulfanilamidopyrimidines were synthesized and tested on chemotherapeutic activity. ... Zie: Summary

  16. CAMAC programmable-control frequency synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumaguzin, T.Kh.; Vyazovkin, D.E.; Nazirov, Eh.P.; Tuktarov, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Synthesizer allows to set frequency with 0.015% accuracy and to scan it with variable step. Frequency controlled divider with further summing-up of divided frequency with fundamental one is used in synthesizer, and it has allowed to use digit of the input code and to obtain 3-4 MHz frequency range. Variation of operation flowsheet in the other frequency range is possible. K-155 and K-531 series microcircuits were used during development

  17. Operational Design that Synthesizes Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Feb - May 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPERATIONAL DESIGN THAT SYNTHESIZES ART AND SCIENCE 5a...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Operational Design That Synthesizes Art And Science 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...proponents of EBO view warfare as only a science and not a combination of art and science . 9 Another main point of contention centered on the term

  18. Raman assisted lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level.......We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level....

  19. Long Term Follow-Up after a Randomized Integrated Educational and Psychosocial Intervention in Patient-Partner Dyads Affected by Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Liljeroos

    Full Text Available To date, contemporary heart failure care remains patient-focused, but awareness of the partners' and families' situation is increasing. Randomized studies have mainly evaluated the short-term effects of dyadic interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the 24-month effects of an intervention with psych-educational support in dyads of heart failure patients and their partners.This study used a randomized study design and 155 patient-partner dyads were enrolled. The intervention included a nurse-led program of three sessions addressing psychoeducational support.The intervention did not have any effect on health, depressive symptoms or perceived control among the patient-partner dyads after 24 months. Furthermore, time to first event did not differ significantly between the intervention group and the control patients.This study may be regarded as a first step in trying to understand dyads' need for supportive care. Individualized and more targeted interventions seem necessary to achieve a higher impact on dyad outcomes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02398799.

  20. High-resolution noncontact AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy investigations of self-assembled photovoltaic donor–acceptor dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Grévin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled donor–acceptor dyads are used as model nanostructured heterojunctions for local investigations by noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM. With the aim to probe the photo-induced charge carrier generation, thin films deposited on transparent indium tin oxide substrates are investigated in dark conditions and upon illumination. The topographic and contact potential difference (CPD images taken under dark conditions are analysed in view of the results of complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM experiments. After in situ annealing, it is shown that the dyads with longer donor blocks essentially lead to standing acceptor–donor lamellae, where the acceptor and donor groups are π-stacked in an edge-on configuration. The existence of strong CPD and surface photo-voltage (SPV contrasts shows that structural variations occur within the bulk of the edge-on stacks. SPV images with a very high lateral resolution are achieved, which allows for the resolution of local photo-charging contrasts at the scale of single edge-on lamella. This work paves the way for local investigations of the optoelectronic properties of donor–acceptor supramolecular architectures down to the elementary building block level.

  1. Parent-adolescent dyads: association of parental autonomy support and parent-adolescent shared diabetes care responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, K M; Dashiff, C J; Stump, T E; Weaver, M T

    2013-09-01

    Parent-adolescent shared responsibility for diabetes care is advocated by experts to achieve beneficial diabetes and psychosocial outcomes for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Parental autonomy support may be a way to facilitate this sharing. In this dyadic study, we examined parental diabetes-specific autonomy support experienced by adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents (n = 89 dyads), and its association with their experience of shared diabetes care responsibility. Path analysis was used to test an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model for parental autonomy support effects on shared responsibility. This was a secondary analysis of data from 89 parent-early/mid-adolescent dyads. Actor effects were identified. Parents' and adolescents' perceptions of parental autonomy support were associated with their respective reports of shared diabetes care responsibility. One partner effect was identified. Adolescents' reports of parental autonomy support were associated with parents' reports of shared responsibility. Parents and adolescents held similar views of autonomy support but discrepant views of shared responsibility. Older adolescents perceived less parental autonomy support. Increasing parental autonomy support may facilitate parent-adolescent sharing of diabetes care responsibility. Adolescent and parent perceptions influence each other and need to be considered when working with them to strengthen parental autonomy support. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sunscreen-Based Photocages for Topical Drugs: A Photophysical and Photochemical Study of A Diclofenac-Avobenzone Dyad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Aparici-Espert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Photosensitization by drugs is a problem of increasing importance in modern life. This phenomenon occurs when a chemical substance in the skin is exposed to sunlight. Photosensitizing drugs are reported to cause severe skin dermatitis, and indeed, it is generally advised to avoid sunbathing and to apply sunscreen. In this context, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID diclofenac is a photosensitive drug, especially when administered in topical form. In this work, efforts have been made to design and study an innovative pro-drug/pro-filter system containing diclofenac and the UVA filter avobenzone in order to develop a safer use of this topical drug. The design is based on the presence of a well-established photoremovable phenacyl group in the avobenzone structure. Steady-state photolysis of the dyad in hydrogen-donor solvents, monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HPLC, confirms the simultaneous photorelease of diclofenac and avobenzone. Laser flash photolysis and phosphorescence emission experiments allow us to gain insight into the photoactive triplet excited-state properties of the dyad. Finally, it is shown that avobenzone provides partial photoprotection to diclofenac from photocyclization to carbazole derivatives.

  3. The role of maternal factors in sibling relationship quality: a multilevel study of multiple dyads per family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Rasbash, Jon; Leckie, George; Gass, Krista; Dunn, Judy

    2012-06-01

      Although many children grow up with more than one sibling, we do not yet know if sibling dyads within families show similarities to one another on sibling affection and hostility. In the present study the hypotheses were tested that (a) there will be significant between family variation in change in sibling affection and hostility and (b) this between family variation will be explained by maternal affective climate, operationalized as positive and negative ambient parenting, differential parenting and maternal malaise.   A general population sample of families with single and multiple sibling dyads were visited twice, 2 years apart. Up to 2 children in a family acted as informants; 253 relationships were rated in 118 families. A cross-classified, multilevel model was fit to separate between-family and within-family variance in sibling relationships while simultaneously controlling for informant and partner influences.   Thirty-seven percent of the variance in change in sibling affection and 32% of the variance in change in sibling hostility was between family variance. The measured maternal affective climate including, maternal malaise and maternal ambient and differential hostility and affection explained between family differences.   Sibling relationship quality clusters in families and is partly explained by maternal affective climate. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Quantitative analysis of intramolecular exciplex and electron transfer in a double-linked zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Subi, Ali Hanoon; Niemi, Marja; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2012-10-04

    Photoinduced charge transfer in a double-linked zinc porphyrin-fullerene dyad is studied. When the dyad is excited at the absorption band of the charge-transfer complex (780 nm), an intramolecular exciplex is formed, followed by the complete charge separated (CCS) state. By analyzing the results obtained from time-resolved transient absorption and emission decay measurements in a range of solvents with different polarities, we derived a dependence between the observable lifetimes and internal parameters controlling the reaction rate constants based on the semiquantum Marcus electron-transfer theory. The critical value of the solvent polarity was found to be ε(r) ≈ 6.5: in solvents with higher dielectric constants, the energy of the CCS state is lower than that of the exciplex and the relaxation takes place via the CCS state predominantly, whereas in solvents with lower polarities the energy of the CCS state is higher and the exciplex relaxes directly to the ground state. In solvents with moderate polarities the exciplex and the CCS state are in equilibrium and cannot be separated spectroscopically. The degree of the charge shift in the exciplex relative to that in the CCS state was estimated to be 0.55 ± 0.02. The electronic coupling matrix elements for the charge recombination process and for the direct relaxation of the exciplex to the ground state were found to be 0.012 ± 0.001 and 0.245 ± 0.022 eV, respectively.

  5. Effects of big-five personality traits on the quality of relationship and satisfaction in Chinese coach-athlete dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S X; Jowett, S; Chan, D K C

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the influence of personality traits on the quality of the Chinese coach-athlete relationship and satisfaction through a dyadic research design. A total of 350 coach-athlete dyads completed a self-report instrument that assessed personality traits, as well as perceptions of relationship quality and satisfaction with training. Results revealed that: (a) actor effects (i.e., actor's personality will predict his or her own perceptions of relationship quality) of personality traits, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on both coaches' and athletes' perceptions of relationship quality and (b) partner effects (an actor's own personality will predict his or her partner's perceptions of relationship quality) of only athletes' personality, namely, conscientiousness, extroversion, and neuroticism, on their coaches' perceptions of relationship quality. The findings suggested that each relationship member's personality trait contributed independently to relationship quality, and both actor and partner effects of the relationship quality on satisfaction with training were found to be significant. In Chinese sports culture, there presents a unique dynamics of personality and relationship quality among coach-athlete dyad. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Posttraumatic growth in cancer patients and partners--effects of role, gender and the dyad on couples' posttraumatic growth experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwahlen, Diana; Hagenbuch, Niels; Carley, Margaret I; Jenewein, Josef; Buchi, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about factors influencing positive effects in couples facing a cancer diagnosis. A heterogeneous sample of 224 couples from a multi-site study (four oncology units) completed questionnaire surveys including the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) as a measure of positive psychological effects. The data demonstrated that all three investigated factors--gender, role (patient vs partner) and the dyad (belonging to any of the 224 couples)--significantly contributed to variation in PTGI total scores and subscales. Variability between couples (factor dyad) appeared stronger than variability between patient and partner participants (factor role) and between male and female participants (factor gender). Role and gender analysis showed that patients demonstrated higher levels of posttraumatic growth than partners; and female participants scored higher on PTGI than males. Male patient-female partner pairs show greater association in their experience of posttraumatic growth than female patient-male partner pairs. Correlations also suggested that, regardless of the gender and role composition, patients and partners may experience parallel growth. Our findings indicate that positive psychological experiences may be shared by partners affected by cancer in similar ways as have been shown for negative psychological effects. Intra-couple similarities or processes may have a more important function in experiencing benefits than factors like gender or being the patient or the partner. These results underline the importance of a family approach to understanding negative and positive psychological effects of cancer. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Synthesizing Modular Invariants for Synchronous Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loic Garoche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore different techniques to synthesize modular invariants for synchronous code encoded as Horn clauses. Modular invariants are a set of formulas that characterizes the validity of predicates. They are very useful for different aspects of analysis, synthesis, testing and program transformation. We describe two techniques to generate modular invariants for code written in the synchronous dataflow language Lustre. The first technique directly encodes the synchronous code in a modular fashion. While in the second technique, we synthesize modular invariants starting from a monolithic invariant. Both techniques, take advantage of analysis techniques based on property-directed reachability. We also describe a technique to minimize the synthesized invariants.

  8. Families that fire together smile together: Resting state connectome similarity and daily emotional synchrony in parent-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Miernicki, Michelle E; Telzer, Eva H

    2017-05-15

    Despite emerging evidence suggesting a biological basis to our social tiles, our understanding of the neural processes which link two minds is unknown. We implemented a novel approach, which included connectome similarity analysis using resting state intrinsic networks of parent-child dyads as well as daily diaries measured across 14 days. Intrinsic resting-state networks for both parents and their adolescent child were identified using independent component analysis (ICA). Results indicate that parents and children who had more similar RSN connectome also had more similar day-to-day emotional synchrony. Furthermore, dyadic RSN connectome similarity was associated with children's emotional competence, suggesting that being neurally in-tune with their parents confers emotional benefits. We provide the first evidence that dyadic RSN similarity is associated with emotional synchrony in what is often our first and most essential social bond, the parent-child relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Latina Mother–Daughter Dyads: Relations Between Attachment and Sexual Behavior Under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Frank R.; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and nonsubstance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mother’s substance abuse all influenced the daughter’s sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed. PMID:19399605

  10. Neighborhood Qualification of the Association between Parenting and Problem Behavior Trajectories among Mexican-origin Father-Adolescent Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Knight, George P.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-01-01

    To address the combined importance of fathers and neighborhoods for adolescent adjustment, we examined whether associations between fathers' parenting and adolescents' problem behaviors were qualified by neighborhood adversity. We captured both mainstream (e.g., authoritative) and alternative (e.g., no-nonsense, reduced involvement) parenting styles and examined parenting and neighborhood effects on changes over time in problem behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin father-adolescent dyads (N = 462). Compared to their counterparts in low-adversity neighborhoods, adolescents in high-adversity neighborhoods experienced greater initial benefits from authoritative fathering, greater long-term benefits from no-nonsense fathering, and fewer costs associated with reduced involvement fathering. The combined influences of alternative paternal parenting styles and neighborhood adversity may set ethnic and racial minority adolescents on different developmental pathways to competence. PMID:28453217

  11. Friendly fire: Longitudinal effects of exposure to violent video games on aggressive behavior in adolescent friendship dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, William J.; Stoltz, Sabine E. M. J.; van den Berg, Yvonne H. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2018-01-01

    Research on gaming effects has focused on adolescence, a developmental period in which peer relationships become increasingly salient. However, the impact of peers on the effects of violent gaming on adolescents has been understudied. This study examined whether adolescents’ exposure to violent video games predicted their own and their friend's aggression one year later. Among 705 gaming adolescents, 141 dyads were identified based on reciprocated best friend nominations (73.8% male, Mage = 13.98). Actor‐Partner Interdependence Models indicated that adolescent males’ (but not females’) exposure to violent games positively predicted the aggression of their best friend 1 year later. This effect appeared regardless of whether the friends played video games together or not. The study illustrates the importance of peers in the association between violent gaming and aggression. PMID:29363767

  12. Neighborhood Qualification of the Association Between Parenting and Problem Behavior Trajectories Among Mexican-Origin Father-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A; Knight, George P; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-12-01

    To address the combined importance of fathers and neighborhoods for adolescent adjustment, we examined whether associations between fathers' parenting and adolescents' problem behaviors were qualified by neighborhood adversity. We captured both mainstream (e.g., authoritative) and alternative (e.g., no-nonsense, reduced involvement) parenting styles and examined parenting and neighborhood effects on changes over time in problem behaviors among a sample of Mexican-origin father-adolescent dyads (N = 462). Compared to their counterparts in low-adversity neighborhoods, adolescents in high-adversity neighborhoods experienced greater initial benefits from authoritative fathering, greater long-term benefits from no-nonsense fathering, and fewer costs associated with reduced involvement fathering. The combined influences of alternative paternal parenting styles and neighborhood adversity may set ethnic and racial minority adolescents on different developmental pathways to competence. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  13. Friendly fire: Longitudinal effects of exposure to violent video games on aggressive behavior in adolescent friendship dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Geert P; Burk, William J; Stoltz, Sabine E M J; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2018-05-01

    Research on gaming effects has focused on adolescence, a developmental period in which peer relationships become increasingly salient. However, the impact of peers on the effects of violent gaming on adolescents has been understudied. This study examined whether adolescents' exposure to violent video games predicted their own and their friend's aggression one year later. Among 705 gaming adolescents, 141 dyads were identified based on reciprocated best friend nominations (73.8% male, M age  = 13.98). Actor-Partner Interdependence Models indicated that adolescent males' (but not females') exposure to violent games positively predicted the aggression of their best friend 1 year later. This effect appeared regardless of whether the friends played video games together or not. The study illustrates the importance of peers in the association between violent gaming and aggression. © 2018 The Authors. Aggressive Behavior Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Observed Normativity and Deviance in Friendship Dyads' Conversations About Sex and the Relations With Youths' Perceived Sexual Peer Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bongardt, Daphne; Reitz, Ellen; Overbeek, Geertjan; Boislard, Marie-Aude; Burk, Bill; Deković, Maja

    2017-08-01

    The current study examined the relations between observed normativity and deviance during adolescents' and young adults' conversations about sex with their friends and their individual perceptions of sexual peer norms. Participants were 16-21-year-old same-sex friendship dyads (31 male and 30 female dyads) who performed a peer interaction task that consisted of five discussion assignments focusing on party planning, sexual double standards, condom use, homosexuality, and consensual sex. Videotaped discussions were coded to capture the amounts of normative talk (e.g., consistent with notions of healthy sexuality) and deviant talk (e.g., consistent with notions of risky sexuality), and the verbal or nonverbal reinforcement thereof. Participants also completed individual questionnaires to assess their perceived sexual descriptive norms, injunctive norms, pressure, and risk norms among their peers. Actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) results revealed that youths' perceived descriptive, injunctive, and risk norms, but not their experienced peer pressure, were related to both their own (actor effects) and their friends' (partner effects) normativity and deviance. Overall, more deviance was related to perceiving friends to be more sexually active, more approving of having sex, and engaging in more risky sex, whereas more normativity was related to these perceptions in the opposite direction. Gender differences in the APIMs indicated that interactive normativity and deviance was related to perceived descriptive, injunctive, and risk norms for boys, but only to perceived injunctive norms for girls. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing the dyadic nature of youths' sexual communication with friends, their relation to individual sexual peer norm perceptions, and gender differences therein.

  15. Maternal Food-Related Practices, Quality of Diet, and Well-Being: Profiles of Chilean Mother-Adolescent Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Grunert, Klaus G; Lobos, Germán; Miranda-Zapata, Edgardo; Denegri, Marianela; Hueche, Clementina

    2018-04-03

    To identify mother-adolescent dyad profiles according to food-related parenting practices and to determine differences in diet quality, family meal frequency, life satisfaction, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional study. Mothers and children were surveyed in their homes or at schools in Temuco, Chile. A total of 300 mothers (average age, 41.6 years) and their adolescent children (average age, 13.2 years; 48.7% female). Maternal feeding practices using the abbreviated Family Food Behavior Survey (AFFBS), life satisfaction, food-related and family life satisfaction, diet quality, and eating habits. Principal component factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to verify Family Food Behavior Survey components in mother and adolescent subsamples. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify profiles. Three AFFBS components were detected: maternal control of child snacking behavior, maternal presence during eating, and child involvement in food consumption. Cluster analysis identified 3 mother-adolescent dyad profiles with different food-related parenting practices (P ≤ .001), mother (P ≤ .05) and child (P ≤ .001) diet quality, frequency of shared family meals (P ≤ .001), and mother (P ≤ .001) and child (P ≤ .05) life satisfaction levels. Results indicated that maternal well-being increased with an increased frequency of shared mealtime. Significantly, in contrast to the findings of previous studies, greater control over child eating habits was shown to affect adolescent well-being positively. These findings, among others, may contribute to the development of strategies for improving diet quality, overall well-being, and well-being in the food and family domains for all family members. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing a Preliminary Live with Love Conceptual Framework for cancer couple dyads: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuping; Xu, Yinghua; Zhou, Huiya; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the previous proposed Preliminary Live with Love Conceptual Framework (P-LLCF) that focuses on spousal caregiver-patient couples in their journey of coping with cancer as dyads. A mixed-methods study that included qualitative and quantitative approaches was conducted. Methods of concept and theory analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied in testing the P-LLCF. In the qualitative approach in testing the concepts included in the P-LLCF, a comparison was made between the P-LLCF with a preliminary conceptual framework derived from focus group interviews among Chinese couples' coping with cancer. The comparison showed that the concepts identified in the P-LLCF are relevant to the phenomenon under scrutiny, and attributes of the concepts are consistent with those identified among Chinese cancer couple dyads. In the quantitative study, 117 cancer couples were recruited. The findings showed that inter-relationships exist among the components included in the P-LLCF: event situation, dyadic mediators, dyadic appraisal, dyadic coping, and dyadic outcomes. In that the event situation will impact the dyadic outcomes directly or indirectly through Dyadic Mediators. The dyadic mediators, dyadic appraisal, and dyadic coping are interrelated and work together to benefit the dyadic outcomes. This study provides evidence that supports the interlinked components and the relationship included in the P-LLCF. The findings of this study are important in that they provide healthcare professionals with guidance and directions according to the P-LLCF on how to plan supportive programs for couples coping with cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Syntheses of copper complexes of nicotinohydroxamic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotinohydroxamic acid (NHA) and isonicotinohydroxamic acid (INHA) were synthesized, characterized by electronic and spectral studies,magnetic measurements and their pKa determined spectrophotometrically as 8.68 ± 0.02 in aqueous medium of 0.1mol dm-3 I=ionic strength. The composition of the complexes was ...

  18. SYNTHESES AND PROPERTIES OF SOME ORGANOSILANE POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xinghua; Robert West

    1984-01-01

    Some organosilane polymers with high molecular weights have been synthesized by cocondensation of organosilicon dihalide monomers with sodium metal in toluene. These polymers are both soluble in common solvents and meltable at lower temperatures, and can be molded, cast into films or drawn into fibers. Exposure of the solid polymers to ultraviolet light leads to degradation or crosslinking.

  19. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The C. halicacabum leaf extract synthesized AgNPs efficiency were tested against different bacterial pathogens MTCC-426 Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-2453 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MTCC-96 Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-441 Bacillus subtilis andMTCC-735 Salmonella paratyphi, and fungal pathogens Alternaria solani ...

  20. Synthesizing chaotic maps with prescribed invariant densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Alan; Shorten, Robert; Heffernan, Daniel M.

    2004-01-01

    The Inverse Frobenius-Perron Problem (IFPP) concerns the creation of discrete chaotic mappings with arbitrary invariant densities. In this Letter, we present a new and elegant solution to the IFPP, based on positive matrix theory. Our method allows chaotic maps with arbitrary piecewise-constant invariant densities, and with arbitrary mixing properties, to be synthesized

  1. Cytotoxicity of Nanoliposomal Cisplatin Coated with Synthesized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of pegylated nanoliposomal cisplatin on human ovarian cancer cell line A2780CP. Methods: Synthesized methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) propionaldehyde was characterized by 1Hnuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and used ...

  2. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  3. Another Look Inside the Gap: Ecological Contributions to the Transmission of Attachment in a Sample of Adolescent Mother-Infant Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabulsy, George M.; Bernier, Annie; Provost, Marc A.; Maranda, Johanne; Larose, Simon; Moss, Ellen; Larose, Marie; Tessier, Rejean

    2005-01-01

    Ecological contributions to attachment transmission were studied in a sample of 64 adolescent mother-infant dyads. Maternal sensitivity was assessed when infants were 6 and 10 months old, and infant security was assessed at 15 and 18 months. Maternal attachment state of mind was measured with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) after the 1st…

  4. Similarities amid the Difference: Caregiving Burden and Adaptation Outcomes in Dyads of Parents and Their Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carona, C.; Crespo, C.; Canavarro, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study had two main objectives: first, to examine the direct and indirect effects, via social support, of caregiving burden on the adaptation outcomes of children/adolescents with cerebral palsy and their parents; and second, to assess the invariance of such models in clinical vs. healthy subsamples. Participants were 210 dyads of…

  5. Taking Stress Response out of the Box: Stability, Discontinuity, and Temperament Effects on HPA and SNS across Social Stressors in Mother-Infant Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated continuity and stability of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response measures in mother-infant dyads across 2 different types of social stress sessions. Synchrony of response trajectories across systems (SNS-HPA coordination) and partners (mother-infant attunement) was addressed, as…

  6. The impact of a pilot cooking intervention for parent-child dyads on the consumption of foods prepared away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Shannon M; Stough, Cathleen Odar; Stark, Lori J

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of a parent-child dyad cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home. Eating away from home often results in consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that can contribute to excess energy consumption in children. A pre-post design to evaluate a 10-week cooking intervention on reducing eating dinner away from home, energy intake, and improving diet quality was implemented. The intervention was delivered at an instructional kitchen on a university campus and assessments were completed at a children's academic medical center. Subjects included six parent-child dyads whom reported eating dinner away from home ≥3 times/week and in which the parent was overweight based on their body mass index (BMI) of ≥25 kg/m(2). Parents were a mean age of 34.7 (SD = 3.9) years, and children were a mean age of 8.7 (SD = 2.0) years. Two-thirds of parents self-identified themselves and their children as White. Results showed the proportion of dinners consumed by parent-child dyads away from home significantly decreased (F (1,161) = 16.1, p cooking between baseline and post-treatment. A cooking intervention that involves parent-child dyads and incorporates behavior management strategies and nutrition education may be an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Research Experience for American Indian Undergraduates: Utilizing an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to Examine the Student-Mentor Dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R.; McMahon, Tracey R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2017-01-01

    The majority of research examining Undergraduate Research Experiences focuses singularly on student-reported outcomes, often overlooking assessment of the mentor role in student learning and outcomes after these experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the student-mentor dyad at the beginning and end of a 10-week summer research…

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Does Neuroimaging Support the DSM-5 Proposal for a Symptom Dyad? A Systematic Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Fraguas, David; Boada, Leticia; Janssen, Joost; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of 208 studies comprising functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with "autism spectrum disorder" (ASD) was conducted, in order to determine whether these data support the forthcoming DSM-5 proposal of a social communication and behavioral symptom dyad. Studies consistently reported…

  9. Global analysis of the high temperature infrared emission spectrum of (12)CH4 in the dyad (ν2/ν4) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyay, Badr; Louviot, Maud; Pirali, Olivier; Georges, Robert; Vander Auwera, Jean; Boudon, Vincent

    2016-01-14

    We report new assignments of vibration-rotation line positions of methane ((12)CH4) in the so-called dyad (ν2/ν4) region (1100-1500 cm(-1)), and the resulting update of the vibration-rotation effective model of methane, previously reported by Nikitin et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10071 (2013)], up to and including the tetradecad. High resolution (0.01 cm(-1)) emission spectra of methane have been recorded up to about 1400 K using the high-enthalpy source developed at Institut de Physique de Rennes associated with the Fourier transform spectrometer of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility (AILES beamline). Analysis of these spectra allowed extending rotational assignments in the well-known cold band (dyad-ground state (GS)) and related hot bands in the pentad-dyad system (3000 cm(-1)) up to Jmax = 30 and 29, respectively. In addition, 8512 new transitions belonging to the octad-pentad (up to J = 28) and tetradecad-octad (up to J = 21) hot band systems were successfully identified. As a result, the MeCaSDa database of methane was significantly improved. The line positions assigned in this work, together with the information available in the literature, were fitted using 1096 effective parameters with a dimensionless standard deviation σ = 2.09. The root mean square deviations dRMS are 3.60 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for dyad-GS cold band, 4.47 ×10(-3) cm(-1) for the pentad-dyad, 5.43 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for the octad-pentad, and 4.70 × 10(-3) cm(-1) for the tetradecad-octad hot bands. The resulting new line list will contribute to improve opacity and radiative transfer models for hot atmospheres, such as those of hot-Jupiter type exoplanets.

  10. Measuring child awareness for adult symptomatic HIV using a verbal assessment tool: concordance between adult-child dyads on adult HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Elisabeth; Kuo, Caroline; Operario, Don; Moshabela, Mosa; Cluver, Lucie

    2015-11-01

    This study assessed children's awareness for adult HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses using a verbal assessment tool by analysing inter-rater reliability between adult-child dyads. This study also evaluated sociodemographic and household characteristics associated with child awareness of adult symptomatic HIV. A cross-sectional survey using a representative community sample of adult-child dyads (N=2477 dyads) was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Analyses focused on a subsample (n=673 adult-child dyads) who completed verbal assessment interviews for symptomatic HIV. We used an existing validated verbal autopsy approach, originally designed to determine AIDS-related deaths by adult proxy reporters. We adapted this approach for use by child proxy reporters for reporting on HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses among living adults. Analyses assessed whether children could reliably report on adult HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses and adult provisional HIV status. Adult-child pairs concurred above the 65th percentile for 9 of the 10 HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses with sensitivities ranging from 10% to 100% and specificities ranging from 20% to 100%. Concordant reporting between adult-child dyads for the adult's provisional HIV status was 72% (sensitivity=68%, specificity=73%). Children were more likely to reliably match adult's reports of provisional HIV status when they lived in households with more household members, and households with more robust socioeconomic indicators including access to potable water, food security and television. Children demonstrate awareness of HIV-associated symptoms and illnesses experienced by adults in their household. Children in households with greater socioeconomic resources and more household members were more likely to reliably report on the adult's provisional HIV status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Enzymatic synthesizing of phytosterol oleic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinxin; Chen, Biqiang; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zhul, Biyun; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    A method of synthesizing the phytosterol esters from oleic acid and sterols was studied, using immobilized lipase Candida sp. 99-125 as catalyst. Molar ratio (oleic acid/phytosterols), temperature, reaction period, organic solvents, catalyst, and silica-gel drier were optimized, and the result showed that 93.4% of the sterols had been esterified under the optimal synthetic condition: the molar ratio of oleic acid/phytosterol is 1:1 in 10 mL iso-octane, immobilized lipase (w, 140% of the sterols), incubated in an orbital shaker (200 rpm) at a temperature of 45 °C for 24 h. The immobilized lipase could be reused for at least 13 times with limited loss of esterification activity. The conversion still maintained up to 86.6%. Hence, this developed process for synthesizing phytosterol esters could be considered as simple and low-energy consumption compared to existing chemical processes.

  12. Syntheses and studies of organosilicon compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Ren [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    The syntheses of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as silicon carbide ceramic precursors have been active research areas in the Barton Research Group. In this thesis, the work is focused on the preparation of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as stoichiometric silicon carbide precursor polymers. The syntheses of the precursor polymers are discussed and the conversions of these precursors to silicon carbide via pyrolysis are reported. The XRD pattern and elemental analyses of the resulting silicon carbide ceramics are presented. Silicon monoxide is an important intermediate in the production of silicon metal. The existence of silicon monoxide in gap phase has been widely accepted. In the second part of this thesis, the generation of gaseous silicon monoxide in four different reactors and the reactions of gaseous silicon monoxide towards organic compounds are discussed.

  13. SYNTHESES AND CHARACTERIZATIONS OF THE CYANIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-28

    (Received October 28, 2015; revised June 25, 2016) ... suggest that the Ni(II) ion is four coordinate with four cyanide-carbon atoms in ... However, there have been many studies on octahedral [M(CN)6]n- but little ... were synthesized and investigated by vibrational spectral (FT-IR and ..... Karaağaç, D.; Kürkçüoğlu, G.S. Bull.

  14. Molecular trees: from syntheses towards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardoin, N.; Astruc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Molecular trees, also called dendrimers, arborols, cauliflowers, cascades or hyperbranched molecules, have been synthesized since their first observation in 1978 by divergent, convergent or combined methods, with various functions on the branches. The potential applications of these nanoscopic molecules are in the fields of biology (gene therapy, virus mimicking an vectorization) and molecular materials sciences (new polymers, adhesion, liquid crystals, etc). (authors). 236 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs., 8 schemes

  15. Novel stereocontrolled syntheses of tashiromine and epitashiromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loránd Kiss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel stereocontrolled approach has been developed for the syntheses of tashiromine and epitashiromine alkaloids from cyclooctene β-amino acids. The synthetic concept is based on the azetidinone opening of a bicyclic β-lactam, followed by oxidative ring opening through ring C–C double bond and reductive ring-closure reactions of the cis- or trans-cyclooctene β-amino acids.

  16. Spurious in PLL-DDS frequency synthesizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Věnceslav František; Štursa, Jarmil

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2002), s. 48-51 ISSN 1335-8243. [Digital Signal Processing and Multimedia Communications DSP-MCOM 2001 /5./. Košice, 27.11.2001-29.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : frequency synthesizers * phase locked loops * direct digital synthesis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  17. Self-assembled via axial coordination magnesium porphyrin-imidazole appended fullerene dyad: spectroscopic, electrochemical, computational, and photochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Francis; El-Khouly, Mohamed E; Gadde, Suresh; McCarty, Amy L; Karr, Paul A; Zandler, Melvin E; Araki, Yasuyaki; Ito, Osamu

    2005-05-26

    Spectroscopic, redox, and electron transfer reactions of a self-assembled donor-acceptor dyad formed by axial coordination of magnesium meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (MgTPP) and fulleropyrrolidine appended with an imidazole coordinating ligand (C(60)Im) were investigated. Spectroscopic studies revealed the formation of a 1:1 C(60)Im:MgTPP supramolecular complex, and the anticipated 1:2 complex could not be observed because of the needed large amounts of the axial coordinating ligand. The formation constant, K(1), for the 1:1 complex was found to be (1.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(4) M(-1), suggesting fairly stable complex formation. The geometric and electronic structures of the dyads were probed by ab initio B3LYP/3-21G() methods. The majority of the highest occupied frontier molecular orbital (HOMO) was found to be located on the MgTPP entity, while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) was on the fullerene entity, suggesting that the charge-separated state of the supramolecular complex is C(60)Im(*-):MgTPP(*+). Redox titrations involving MgTPP and C(60)Im allowed accurate determination of the oxidation and reduction potentials of the donor and acceptor entities in the supramolecular complex. These studies revealed more difficult oxidation, by about 100 mV, for MgTPP in the pentacoordinated C(60)Im:MgTPP compared to pristine MgTPP in o-dichlorobenzene. A total of six one-electron redox processes corresponding to the oxidation and reduction of the zinc porphyrin ring and the reduction of fullerene entities was observed within the accessible potential window of the solvent. The excited state events were monitored by both steady state and time-resolved emission as well as transient absorption techniques. In o-dichlorobenzene, upon coordination of C(60)Im to MgTPP, the main quenching pathway involved electron transfer from the singlet excited MgTPP to the C(60)Im moiety. The rate of forward electron transfer, k(CS), calculated from the picosecond time-resolved emission

  18. ANALISYS OF FRACTIONAL-N FREQUENCY SYNTHESIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Shakhtarin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern information and control systems cannot be imagined without synchronization subsystems. These are the basic elements that provide tracking of the frequency and phase of reference and information signals, the evaluation of information parameters, and the synthesis of reference and clock signals. Frequency synthesizers (FS are widely used due to the high speed of frequency setting, a wide range of frequency grids and minimal phase noise in the operating frequency range. Since with the mass appearance of specialized microprocessors and with the improvement of automatic design systems, the feasibility and repeatability of products has become simpler, digital FS are increasingly being used. The most widely used are FS with a frequency divider on digital elements, which serves to convert the signal of a reference oscillator and a controlled generator. For FS using a divisor with an integer division factor in the feedback loop, there are a number of limitations, such as the lower frequency of the FS and the frequency step of the FS. To solve this problem, divisors with fractional-variable division factors in the feedback loop are used, which allow to obtain the required range and the grid frequency step of the FS. The methods of improving the quality of spectral and dynamic characteristics of digital synthesizers in a given band of frequency detuning are analyzed. The principles of the FS operation with a divisor with a fractionalvariable fission coefficient are described, and structural schemes are given. The results of imitation simulation in the Simulink system of the software package MATLAB of frequency synthesizers with a divisor with a fractional-variable fission factor implemented in various ways are presented, and a comparative analysis of the spectral characteristics of the obtained models is carried out. 

  19. Biocompatibility of poly allylamine synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, E.; Enriquez, M.A.; Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.J.; Morales, J.; Olayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the electric and hydrophilic properties of poly allylamine (PAI) synthesized by plasma whose structure contains N-H, C-H, C-O and O-H bonds is presented, that promote the biocompatibility with the human body. To study the PAI hydrolytic affinity, solutions of salt concentration similar to those of the human body were used. The results indicate that the solutions modify the charge balance in the surfaces reducing the hydrophobicity in the poly allylamine whose contact angle oscillates among 10 and 16 degrees and the liquid-solid surface tension between 4 and 8 dina/cm. (Author)

  20. Synthese monitoring mestmarkt 2006-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Koeijer, de, T.J.; Luesink, H.H.; Daatselaar, C.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    De aanvoer en afzet van dierlijke mest via de mestmarkt in Nederland zijn op verzoek van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) voor de periode 2006-2012 in beeld gebracht. Dit is gedaan op basis van analyses van de Vervoersbewijzen Dierlijke Mest (VDM’s) van RVO.nl (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland) en op basis van modelberekeningen met MAMBO. Dit WOt-technical report geeft een synthese van de resultaten. Op basis van vergelijkbare meststromen is het aanbod op basis van de VDM’s 73 ...

  1. Maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, C; Pretorius, K; Mohamed, A; Laughton, B; Madhi, S; Cotton, M F; Steyn, B; Seedat, S

    2010-05-01

    Maternal postpartum depression poses significant risks for mother-child interaction and long-term infant outcomes. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status has also been implicated in the development of postpartum depression, but the association between maternal depression and infant social behavior in the context of HIV infection has not been fully investigated. First, we examined the relationship between maternal postpartum depression and infant social withdrawal at 10-12 months of age in HIV-infected mothers and infants. Second, we ascertained whether infant social withdrawal could be significantly predicted by maternal postpartum depression. The sample consisted of 83 HIV-infected mother-infant dyads. Mothers were assessed for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and infant social withdrawal behavior was rated using the Modified Alarm Distress Baby Scale (m-ADBB). 42.2% of the mothers scored above the cut-off point for depression on the EPDS, and a third of infants (31%) were socially withdrawn. Notably, maternal depression did not predict infant social withdrawal as measured by the m-ADBB. Infant social withdrawal was also not significantly associated with failure to thrive or gender. These preliminary findings need further investigation with respect to the impact on long-term neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes.

  2. Photoswitchable and Water-Soluble Fluorescent Nano-Aggregates Based on a Diarylethene-Dansyl Dyad and Liposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongbo; Ma, Pin; Wang, Yanan; Hu, Guofei; Fang, Shibi; Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan

    2017-01-17

    In this work, a unique approach is developed to generate photoswitchable and water-soluble fluorescent nano-aggregates. Initially, a new light-controlled diarylethene-dansyl dyad DAE 1 is formed by linking two dansyl fluorophores covalently to a symmetrical dithienylethene backbone, whose photophysical properties can be reversibly switched by optical stimuli. Subsequently, the water insolubility of the molecular switch 1 is overcome by incorporating it into the bilayer of liposome DPPC (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) in water. This strategy creates stable fluorescent nano-aggregates OF-1@DPPC (≈25 nm diameter) that are soluble in an aqueous medium. The nano-aggregates OF-1@DPPC retain and even improve the photoswitchable fluorescence properties of DAE 1. More importantly, OF-1@DPPC exhibits a remarkable photostability and fatigue resistance after 5 cycles of irradiation with UV and visible light, which is crucial for its practical application. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Altruistic reasoning in adolescent-parent dyads considering participation in a hypothetical sexual health clinical trial for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Noé Rubén; Williams, Camille Y; Ipp, Lisa S; Catallozzi, Marina; Rosenthal, Susan L; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2016-04-01

    Altruism is a well-established reason underlying research participation. Less is known about altruism in adolescent-parent decision-making about clinical trials enrolling healthy adolescents. This qualitative investigation focused on identifying spontaneous statements of altruism within adolescent-parent (dyadic) discussions of participation in a hypothetical phase I clinical trial related to adolescent sexual health. Content analysis revealed several response patterns to each other's altruistic reasoning. Across 70 adolescent-parent dyads in which adolescents were 14-17 years of age and 91% of their parents were mothers, a majority (61%) of dyadic discussions included a statement reflecting altruism. Parents responded to adolescents' statements of altruism more frequently than adolescents responded to parents' statements. Responses included: expresses concern, reiterates altruistic reasoning, agrees with altruistic reasoning, and adds to/expands altruistic reasoning. Since an altruistic perspective was often balanced with concerns about risk or study procedures, researchers cannot assume that altruism will directly lead to study participation. Optimizing the informed consent process for early phase clinical trials involving healthy adolescents may include supporting parents to have conversations with their adolescents which will enhance their capacity to consider all aspects of trial participation.

  4. Rough-and-tumble play and the regulation of aggression: an observational study of father-child play dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Joseph L; Leo, Vanessa; Paquette, Daniel; Pihl, Robert O; Séguin, Jean R

    2009-01-01

    Rough-and-tumble play (RTP) is a common form of play between fathers and children. It has been suggested that RTP can contribute to the development of selfregulation. This study addressed the hypothesis that the frequency of father-child RTP is related to the frequency of physically aggressive behavior in early childhood. This relationship was expected to be moderated by the dominance relationship between father and son during play. Eighty-five children between the ages of 2 and 6 years were videotaped during a free-play session with their fathers in their homes and questionnaire data was collected about father-child RTP frequency during the past year. The play dyads were rated for the degree to which the father dominated play interactions. A significant statistical interaction revealed that RTP frequency was associated with higher levels of physical aggression in children whose fathers were less dominant. These results indicate that RTP is indeed related to physical aggression, though this relationship is moderated by the degree to which the father is a dominant playmate. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Abhijeet, E-mail: abhijeet.singh@jaipur.manipal.edu; Sharma, Madan Mohan [Manipal University Jaipur (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO{sub 3} via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  6. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Abhijeet; Sharma, Madan Mohan

    2016-01-01

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO_3 via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  7. Required Equipment for Photo-Switchable Donor-Acceptor (D-A) Dyad Interfacial Self-Assembled Monolayers for Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-24

    Interfacial Tuning via Electron-Blocking/Hole-Transport Layers and Indium Tin Oxide Surface Treatment in Bulk- Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Cells...devices Figure 3 shows the compounds we prepared to assemble on gold (Au) surfaces. Results of TPA-C60 dyads (1 and 2) self-assembled on Au electrodes...surface hydroxyl groups, respectively, we decided to prepare compounds 5-7 to attach as SAMs, see Figure 5. Difficulties and unexpected problems

  8. Cyanuric acid hydrolase from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571: crystal structure and insights into a new class of Ser-Lys dyad proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghee Cho

    Full Text Available Cyanuric acid hydrolase (CAH catalyzes the hydrolytic ring-opening of cyanuric acid (2,4,6-trihydroxy-1,3,5-triazine, an intermediate in s-triazine bacterial degradation and a by-product from disinfection with trichloroisocyanuric acid. In the present study, an X-ray crystal structure of the CAH-barbituric acid inhibitor complex from Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS 571 has been determined at 2.7 Å resolution. The CAH protein fold consists of three structurally homologous domains forming a β-barrel-like structure with external α-helices that result in a three-fold symmetry, a dominant feature of the structure and active site that mirrors the three-fold symmetrical shape of the substrate cyanuric acid. The active site structure of CAH is similar to that of the recently determined AtzD with three pairs of active site Ser-Lys dyads. In order to determine the role of each Ser-Lys dyad in catalysis, a mutational study using a highly sensitive, enzyme-coupled assay was conducted. The 10⁹-fold loss of activity by the S226A mutant was at least ten times lower than that of the S79A and S333A mutants. In addition, bioinformatics analysis revealed the Ser226/Lys156 dyad as the only absolutely conserved dyad in the CAH/barbiturase family. These data suggest that Lys156 activates the Ser226 nucleophile which can then attack the substrate carbonyl. Our combination of structural, mutational, and bioinformatics analyses differentiates this study and provides experimental data for mechanistic insights into this unique protein family.

  9. Modulation of ICT probability in bi(polyarene)-based O-BODIPYs: towards the development of low-cost bright arene-BODIPY dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzia-Rivero, Leire; Sánchez-Carnerero, Esther M; Jiménez, Josue; Bañuelos, Jorge; Moreno, Florencio; Maroto, Beatriz L; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo; de la Moya, Santiago

    2017-09-12

    We report the synthesis, and spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of a selected library of novel spiranic O-BODIPYs bearing a phenol-based bi(polyarene) unit tethered to the boron center through oxygen atoms. These dyes constitute an interesting family of arene-BODIPY dyads useful for the development of photonic applications due to their synthetic accessibility and tunable photonic properties. It is demonstrated that the electron-donor capability of the involved arene moiety switches on a non-emissive intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state, which restricts the fluorescence efficiency of the dyad. Interestingly, the influence of this non-radiative deactivation channel can be efficiently modulated by the substitution pattern, either at the dipyrrin ligand or at the polyarene moiety. Thus, dyads featuring electron-rich dipyrrin and electron-poor polyarene show lower or almost negligible ICT probability, and hence display bright fluorescence upon dual excitation at far-away spectral regions. This synthetic approach has allowed the easy development of low-cost efficient ultraviolet-absorbing visible-emitting cassettes by selecting properly the substitution pattern of the involved key units, dipyrrin and bi(polyarene), to modulate not only absorption and emission wavelengths, but also fluorescence efficiencies.

  10. Similarities amid the difference: caregiving burden and adaptation outcomes in dyads of parents and their children with and without cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carona, C; Crespo, C; Canavarro, M C

    2013-03-01

    This study had two main objectives: first, to examine the direct and indirect effects, via social support, of caregiving burden on the adaptation outcomes of children/adolescents with cerebral palsy and their parents; and second, to assess the invariance of such models in clinical vs. healthy subsamples. Participants were 210 dyads of children/adolescents and one of their parents (total N=420), divided in 93 dyads of children/adolescents with cerebral palsy and 117 dyads of children/adolescents with no medical diagnosis. Data on caregiving burden, social support and adaptation outcomes were obtained through self-report questionnaires. Caregiving burden was linked to parents and their children's psychological maladjustment and quality of life both directly (except for children's quality of life) and indirectly through social support. Findings were invariant across clinical and healthy subsamples. Caregiving burden may influence adaptation outcomes of children/adolescents with CP and their parents both directly and via their social support perceptions. These patterns are similar to those observed in typically developing children/adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.

    2007-01-01

    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  12. Methods for synthesizing metal oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kumar, Vivekanand; Kim, Jeong H.; Clark, Ezra Lee

    2016-08-09

    A method of synthesizing a metal oxide nanowire includes the steps of: combining an amount of a transition metal or a transition metal oxide with an amount of an alkali metal compound to produce a mixture; activating a plasma discharge reactor to create a plasma discharge; exposing the mixture to the plasma discharge for a first predetermined time period such that transition metal oxide nanowires are formed; contacting the transition metal oxide nanowires with an acid solution such that an alkali metal ion is exchanged for a hydrogen ion on each of the transition metal oxide nanowires; and exposing the transition metal oxide nanowires to the plasma discharge for a second predetermined time period to thermally anneal the transition metal oxide nanowires. Transition metal oxide nanowires produced using the synthesis methods described herein are also provided.

  13. Sorption of mercury on chemically synthesized polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remya Devi, P.S.; Verma, R.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and methyl mercury, on chemically synthesized polyaniline, in 0.1-10N HCl solutions has been studied. Hg 2+ is strongly sorbed at low acidities and the extent of sorption decreases with increase in acidity. The sorption of methyl mercury is very low in the HCl concentration range studied. Sorption of Hg 2+ on polyaniline in 0.1-10N LiCl and H 2 SO 4 solutions has also been studied. The analysis of the data indicates that the sorption of Hg 2+ depends on the degree of protonation of polyaniline and the nature of mercury(II) chloride complexes in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS) of polyaniline sorbed with mercury show that mercury is bound as Hg 2+ . Sorbed mercury is quantitatively eluted from polyaniline with 0.5N HNO 3 . Polyaniline can be used for separation and pre-concentration of inorganic mercury from aqueous samples. (author)

  14. [Aerobic methylobacteria are capable of synthesizing auxins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E G; Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2001-01-01

    Obligately and facultatively methylotrophic bacteria with different pathways of C1 metabolism were found to be able to produce auxins, particularly indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in amounts of 3-100 micrograms/ml. Indole-3-pyruvic acid and indole-3-acetamide were detected only in methylobacteria with the serine pathway of C1 metabolism, Methylobacterium mesophilicum and Aminobacter aminovorans. The production of auxins by methylobacteria was stimulated by the addition of tryptophan to the growth medium and was inhibited by ammonium ions. The methylobacteria under study lacked tryptophan decarboxylase and tryptophan side-chain oxidase. At the same time, they were found to contain several aminotransferases. IAA is presumably synthesized by methylobacteria through indole-3-pyruvic acid.

  15. Synthesizing biomolecule-based Boolean logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari

    2013-02-15

    One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, and hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications.

  16. Structure of the enzymatically synthesized fructan inulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyer, A.G.; Schroeer, B.; Radosta, S.; Wolff, D.; Czapla, S.; Springer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Construction, purification and characterization of a fusion protein of maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli and the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans is described. With the purified protein, in vitro synthesis of inulin was performed. The obtained polysaccharide was characterized by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and static light scattering (SLS) in dilute aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide solution. For all samples very high molecular weights between 60x10 6 and 90x10 6 g/mol and a remarkable small polydispersity index of 1.1 have been determined. Small root-mean-square radii of gyration point to a compact conformation in dilute solution. No difference between native and enzymatically synthesized inulin was observed by X-ray powder diffraction and thermoanalysis of solid samples. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  17. Structure of the enzymatically synthesized fructan inulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, A.G.; Schroeer, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 25, 14476 Golm (Germany); Radosta, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Angewandte Polymerforschung, Postfach 126, 14504 Teltow (Germany); Wolff, D.; Czapla, S.; Springer, J. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, FG Makromolekulare Chemie, Str. des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-15

    Construction, purification and characterization of a fusion protein of maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli and the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans is described. With the purified protein, in vitro synthesis of inulin was performed. The obtained polysaccharide was characterized by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and static light scattering (SLS) in dilute aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide solution. For all samples very high molecular weights between 60x10{sup 6} and 90x10{sup 6} g/mol and a remarkable small polydispersity index of 1.1 have been determined. Small root-mean-square radii of gyration point to a compact conformation in dilute solution. No difference between native and enzymatically synthesized inulin was observed by X-ray powder diffraction and thermoanalysis of solid samples. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Synthesizing lattice structures in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lingzhen; Marthaler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In one dimensional systems, it is possible to create periodic structures in phase space through driving, which is called phase space crystals (Guo et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 205303). This is possible even if for particles trapped in a potential without periodicity. In this paper we discuss ultracold atoms in a driven optical lattice, which is a realization of such a phase space crystals. The corresponding lattice structure in phase space is complex and contains rich physics. A phase space lattice differs fundamentally from a lattice in real space, because its coordinate system, i.e., phase space, has a noncommutative geometry, which naturally provides an artificial gauge (magnetic) field. We study the behavior of the quasienergy band structure and investigate the dissipative dynamics. Synthesizing lattice structures in phase space provides a new platform to simulate the condensed matter phenomena and study the intriguing phenomena of driven systems far away from equilibrium. (paper)

  19. Synthesized Mammography: Clinical Evidence, Appearance, and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Durand

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT has improved conventional mammography by increasing cancer detection while reducing recall rates. However, these benefits come at the cost of increased radiation dose. Synthesized mammography (s2D has been developed to provide the advantages of DBT with nearly half the radiation dose. Since its F.D.A. approval, multiple studies have evaluated the clinical performance of s2D. In clinical practice, s2D images are not identical to conventional 2D images and are designed for interpretation with DBT as a complement. This article reviews the present literature to assess whether s2D is a practical alternative to conventional 2D, addresses the differences in mammographic appearance of findings, and provides suggestions for implementation into clinical practice.

  20. Synthesized Mammography: Clinical Evidence, Appearance, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Melissa A

    2018-04-04

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has improved conventional mammography by increasing cancer detection while reducing recall rates. However, these benefits come at the cost of increased radiation dose. Synthesized mammography (s2D) has been developed to provide the advantages of DBT with nearly half the radiation dose. Since its F.D.A. approval, multiple studies have evaluated the clinical performance of s2D. In clinical practice, s2D images are not identical to conventional 2D images and are designed for interpretation with DBT as a complement. This article reviews the present literature to assess whether s2D is a practical alternative to conventional 2D, addresses the differences in mammographic appearance of findings, and provides suggestions for implementation into clinical practice.

  1. Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari

    2012-01-01

    One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588

  2. [Facultative and obligate aerobic methylobacteria synthesize cytokinins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E G; Doronina, N V; Shepeliakovskaia, A O; Laman, A G; Brovko, F A; Trotsenko, Iu A

    2000-01-01

    The presence and expression of genes controlling the synthesis and secretion of cytokinins by the pink-pigmented facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium mesophilicum VKM B-2143 with the serine pathway and nonpigmented obligate methylotroph Methylovorus mays VKM B-2221 with the ribulose monophosphate pathway of C1 metabolism were shown using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR methods. The presence of the corresponding mRNA in M. mesophilicum cells grown on methanol or succinate suggests that the expression of these genes is constitutive. The cytokinin activity of culture liquid and its fractions was determined by a biotest with Amarantus caudatus L. seedlings. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis, we detected zeatin (riboside) in the culture liquid of both bacteria studied. The data obtained show that the aerobic methylobacteria are phytosymbionts that are able to utilize the single- and polycarbon compounds secreted by symbiotic plants and to synthesize cytokinins.

  3. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  4. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  5. Synthesizing Earth's geochemical data for hydrogeochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Kubicki, J.; Miller, D.; Richter, D.; Giles, L.; Mitra, P.

    2007-12-01

    For over 200 years, geochemical, microbiological, and chemical data have been collected to describe the evolution of the surface earth. Many of these measurements are data showing variations in time or in space. To forward predict hydrologic response to changing tectonic, climatic, or anthropogenic forcings requires synthesis of these data and utilization in hydrogeochemical models. Increasingly, scientists are attempting to synthesize such data in order to make predictions for new regions or for future time periods. However, to make such complex geochemical data accessible requires development of sophisticated cyberinfrastructures that both invite uploading as well as usage of data. Two such cyberinfrastructure (CI) initiatives are currently developing, one to invite and promote the use of environmental kinetics data (laboratory time course data) through ChemxSeer, and the other to invite and promote the use of spatially indexed geochemical data for the Earth's Critical Zone through CZEN.org. The vision of these CI initiatives is to provide cyber-enhanced portals that encourage domain scientists to upload their data before publication (in private cyberspace), and to make these data eventually publicly accessible (after an embargo period). If the CI can be made to provide services to the domain specialist - e.g. to provide data analysis services or data comparison services - we envision that scientists will upload data. In addition, the CI can promote the use and comparison of datasets across disciplines. For example, the CI can facilitate the use of spatially indexed geochemical data by scientists more accustomed to dealing with time-course data for hydrologic flow, and can provide user-friendly interfaces with CI established to facilitate the use of hydrologic data. Examples of the usage of synthesized data to predict soil development over the last 13ky and its effects on active hydrological flow boundaries in surficial systems will be discussed for i) a N

  6. Porous oxides synthesized by the combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo L, V.

    2005-01-01

    The result of this work, seeks to be a contribution for the treatment of radioactive wastes, with base to the sorption properties that present those porous oxides, synthesized by a method that allows to increase the sorption capacity. The main objective of the present investigation has been the modification of the structural characteristics of the oxides of Fe, Mg and Zn to increase its capacity of sorption of 60 Co in particular. It was studied the effect of the synthesis method by combustion in the inorganic oxides; the obtained solids were characterized using the following techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), semiquantitative elementary analysis by Dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS) and determination of surface area by the Brunauner-Emmett-Teller method (BET). Also was carried out batch type experiments for the sorption of Co 2+ , with the purpose of studying the sorption capacity of each one of the prepared oxides. In accordance with that previously exposed, the working plan that was carried out in this investigation is summarized in the following stages: 1. Preparation of inorganic oxides by two different methods, studying the effect of the temperature in the synthesis process. 2. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by XRD, by means of which those were chosen the solids with better properties. 3. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by SEM and EDS where it was studied the morphology of the synthesized materials and the semiquantitative elemental composition. 4. Realization of a sorption experiment type Batch with non radioactive Co 2+ to simulate the sorption of 60 Co and determination of the sorption capacity by means of neutron activation of the non radioactive cobalt. 5. Determination of the surface area by the (BET) technique of the inorganic oxides with better sorption properties. (Author)

  7. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method in aqueous media from zinc nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a crystalline structure with hexagonal structure of the wurtzite. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles presented a spherical ...

  8. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun; Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways

  9. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C. [Department of Immunology, Biogen Idec, 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142 (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways.

  10. Mealtime television viewing and dietary quality in low-income African American and Caucasian mother-toddler dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2010-07-01

    To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy.

  11. Patient-Centered Medical Home Features and Health Care Expenditures of Medicare Beneficiaries with Chronic Disease Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Lindsey M; Stockbridge, Erica L; Padrón, Norma A; Pagán, José A

    2016-06-01

    Three out of 4 Medicare beneficiaries have multiple chronic conditions, and managing the care of this growing population can be complex and costly because of care coordination challenges. This study assesses how different elements of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model may impact the health care expenditures of Medicare beneficiaries with the most prevalent chronic disease dyads (ie, co-occurring high cholesterol and high blood pressure, high cholesterol and heart disease, high cholesterol and diabetes, high cholesterol and arthritis, heart disease and high blood pressure). Data from the 2007-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey suggest that increased access to PCMH features may differentially impact the distribution of health care expenditures across health care service categories depending on the combination of chronic conditions experienced by each beneficiary. For example, having no difficulty contacting a provider after regular hours was associated with significantly lower outpatient expenditures for beneficiaries with high cholesterol and diabetes (n = 635; P = 0.038), but it was associated with significantly higher inpatient expenditures for beneficiaries with high blood pressure and high cholesterol (n = 1599; P = 0.015), and no significant differences in expenditures in any category for beneficiaries with high blood pressure and heart disease (n = 1018; P > 0.05 for all categories). However, average total health care expenditures are largely unaffected by implementing the PCMH features considered. Understanding how the needs of Medicare beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions can be met through the adoption of the PCMH model is important not only to be able to provide high-quality care but also to control costs. (Population Health Management 2016;19:206-211).

  12. High-resolution spectroscopy and analysis of the ν1/ν3 stretching dyad of osmium tetroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louviot, M.; Boudon, V.; Manceron, L.; Roy, P.; Balcon, D.

    2012-01-01

    OsO 4 is a heavy tetrahedral molecule that may constitute a benchmark for quantum chemistry calculations. Its favorable spin statistics (due to the zero nuclear spin of oxygen atoms) is such that only A 1 and A 2 rovibrational levels are allowed, leading to a dense, but quite easily resolved spectrum. Most lines are single ones, instead of complex line clusters as in the case of other heavy spherical-tops like SF 6 , for instance. It is thus possible to fully assign and fit the spectrum and to obtain precise experimental effective molecular parameters. The strong ν 3 stretching fundamental has been studied a long time ago as an isolated band [McDowell RS, Radziemski LJ, Flicker H, Galbraith HW, Kennedy RC, Nereson NG, et al. Journal of Chemical Physics 1978;88:1513-21; Bobin B, Valentin A, Henry L. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 1987;122:229-41]. We reinvestigate here this region and perform new assignments and effective Hamiltonian parameter fits for the four main isotopologues ( 192 OsO 4 , 190 OsO 4 , 189 OsO 4 , 188 OsO 4 ), by considering the ν 1 /ν 3 stretching dyad. A new experimental spectrum has been recorded at room temperature, thanks to a Bruker IFS 125 HR interferometer and using a natural abundance OsO 4 sample. Assignments and analyses were performed thanks to the SPVIEW and XTDS softwares, respectively [Wenger Ch, Boudon V, Rotger M, Sanzharov M, Champion J-P. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 2008;251:102-13]. We provide precise effective Hamiltonian parameters, including band centers and Coriolis interaction parameters. We discuss isotopic shifts and estimate the band centers for the three minor isotopologues ( 187 OsO 4 , 186 OsO 4 , 184 OsO 4 ). The Q branches of the first two of them are clearly identified in the experimental spectrum.

  13. Patterns of mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months among dyads with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqveland, Torill S; Haabrekke, Kristin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of mother-infant interaction patterns from 3 to 12 months among three groups of mother-baby pairs recruited during pregnancy: one group from residential substance abuse treatment (n=28), a second group from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n=22), and a third group from well-baby clinics (n=30). The mother-infant interaction at 3 and 12 months was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA), which consists of maternal, child and dyadic subscales (Clark, 2006). Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze group differences and the changes in mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months. At 3 months, pairwise comparisons showed that the group with psychiatric problems had significantly more difficulties in the mother-infant interaction than the two other groups. The group with substance abuse problems was not significantly different from the two other groups. At 12 months, the mother-infant pairs in the substance abuse group showed significantly more relational disturbances than the non-clinical pairs, as well as a poorer affective quality of interaction than the dyads in the group with psychiatric problems. Analysis of change from 3 to 12 months showed that difficulties in the interaction increased among the mother-baby pairs in the substance abuse group, while improvements were displayed in the two other groups. These results underline that mother-infant pairs at double risk due to maternal substance abuse and other non-optimal factors, are in need for long-term follow up in order to prevent the development of negative interactional patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Global analysis of the high temperature infrared emission spectrum of {sup 12}CH{sub 4} in the dyad (ν{sub 2}/ν{sub 4}) region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amyay, Badr, E-mail: badr.amyay@gmail.com, E-mail: vincent.boudon@u-bourgogne.fr; Louviot, Maud; Boudon, Vincent, E-mail: badr.amyay@gmail.com, E-mail: vincent.boudon@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Avenue A. Savary, BP 47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Pirali, Olivier [Ligne AILES, Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France and Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay (ISMO), CNRS, Université Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91405 Orsay (France); Georges, Robert [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251, Campus de Beaulieu, Université de Rennes 1/CNRS, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Vander Auwera, Jean [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, C.P. 160/09, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Avenue F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-01-14

    We report new assignments of vibration-rotation line positions of methane ({sup 12}CH{sub 4}) in the so-called dyad (ν{sub 2}/ν{sub 4}) region (1100–1500 cm{sup −1}), and the resulting update of the vibration-rotation effective model of methane, previously reported by Nikitin et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15, 10071 (2013)], up to and including the tetradecad. High resolution (0.01 cm{sup −1}) emission spectra of methane have been recorded up to about 1400 K using the high-enthalpy source developed at Institut de Physique de Rennes associated with the Fourier transform spectrometer of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility (AILES beamline). Analysis of these spectra allowed extending rotational assignments in the well-known cold band (dyad-ground state (GS)) and related hot bands in the pentad–dyad system (3000 cm{sup −1}) up to J{sub max} = 30 and 29, respectively. In addition, 8512 new transitions belonging to the octad–pentad (up to J = 28) and tetradecad-octad (up to J = 21) hot band systems were successfully identified. As a result, the MeCaSDa database of methane was significantly improved. The line positions assigned in this work, together with the information available in the literature, were fitted using 1096 effective parameters with a dimensionless standard deviation σ = 2.09. The root mean square deviations d{sub RMS} are 3.60 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for dyad-GS cold band, 4.47 ×10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for the pentad–dyad, 5.43 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for the octad–pentad, and 4.70 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup −1} for the tetradecad–octad hot bands. The resulting new line list will contribute to improve opacity and radiative transfer models for hot atmospheres, such as those of hot-Jupiter type exoplanets.

  15. [Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano

    2017-01-01

    The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.

  16. Mechanochemically Driven Syntheses of Boride Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Richard G.

    Solid state metathesis reactions have proven to be a viable route to the production of unfunctionalized nanomaterials. However, current implementations of this approach are limited to self-propagating reactions. We have been investigating mechanically driven metathesis reactions. The use of high-energy ball mills allows control of crystallite sizes without the use of a capping group. Reinforcement materials with crystallite sizes on the order of 5-30 nm can be produced in such a manner. Borides are of particular interest due to their strength, high melting point, and electrical conductivity. The ultimate goal of this work is to prepare oxide and capping group-free nanoparticles suitable for incorporation in thermoelectric, polymer, and ceramic composites. Ultimately this work will facilitate the production of improved thermoelectric materials that will provide robust, deployable, power generation modules to supplement or replace fuel cell, Stirling, and battery-derived power sources. It will also result in scalable, bulk syntheses of tough, refractory, conductive nanomaterials for polymer composites with improved electrical properties, ceramic composites with enhanced fracture toughness, and composites with enhanced neutron reflectance and/or absorbance.

  17. Study of photoconductor polymers synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enriquez P, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work the photoconductivity in poly thiophene (PTh), poly pyrrole (PPy) and doped poly pyrrole with iodine (PPy/I) is studied, whose structures depend of the intensity of the electric field applied during the synthesis by plasma. The conjugated organic polymers possess double alternated bonds in its chemical structure that its allow the one movement of π electrons through the polymeric chains. The plasma is produced by means of splendor discharges to 13.5 MHz, resistive coupling, at one pressure that oscillates in the interval from 2 to 3x10 -1 mbar, 180 min and powers of 10, 24, 40, 60 , 80 and 100 W. Its were used heteroaromatic polymers like PTh and PPy/I, due to their potential applications in optoelectronics. The influence of the iodine is evaluated as dopant in PPy and it is compared with their similar one without doping in the light absorption/emission processes. The polymers synthesized by plasma can ramify or to intersect due to the energy applied during the synthesis. However, if the polymer intersects, the aromaticity can continue through the polymeric chains. The absorptions obtained by infrared spectroscopy, suggest that the polymer conserves the aromatic structure of the monomer fundamentally with substitutions that indicate inter crossing and partial fragmentation. The structure of most of the polymers spreads to be amorphous because they don't possess any classification. However, the PPy/I and PTh synthesized by this technique present crystalline segments whose intensity diminishes with the power of the discharge. In PTh, the average crystallinity diminishes from 19.8% to 9.9%, and in PPy/I of 15.9% to 13.3% in the interval of 10 to 100 W of power. In this work, however, its were crystalline arrangements in all the studied powers. The classification of the polymeric structure favors the formation of trajectories of transfer of electric loads among the chains, that which influences in the global electric conductivity of the material. In UV

  18. Sequence determination of synthesized chondroitin sulfate dodecasaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Watanabe, Hideto; Sugiura, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear acidic polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. The polysaccharide is modified with sulfate groups at different positions by a variety of sulfotransferases. CS chains exhibit various biological and pathological functions by interacting with cytokines and growth factors and regulating their signal transduction. The fine structure of the CS chain defines its specific biological roles. However, structural analysis of CS has been restricted to disaccharide analysis, hampering the understanding of the structure-function relationship of CS chains. Here, we chemo-enzymatically synthesized CS dodecasaccharides having various sulfate modifications using a bioreactor system of bacterial chondroitin polymerase mutants and various CS sulfotransferases. We developed a sequencing method for CS chains using the CS dodecasaccharides. The method consists of (i) labeling a reducing end with 2-aminopyridine (PA), (ii) partial digestion of CS with testicular hyaluronidase, followed by separation of PA-conjugated oligosaccharides with different chain lengths, (iii) limited digestion of these oligosaccharides with chondroitin lyase AC II into disaccharides, followed by labeling with 2-aminobenzamide, (iv) CS disaccharide analysis using a dual-fluorescence HPLC system (reversed-phase ion-pair and ion-exchange chromatography), and (v) estimation of the composition by calculating individual disaccharide ratios. This CS chain sequencing allows characterization of CS-modifying enzymes and provides a useful tool toward understanding the structure-function relationship of CS chains. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Attenuation of reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad by gentiopicroside through downregulation of GluN2B receptors in the amygdala of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shui-bing; Zhao, Rong; Li, Xu-sheng; Guo, Hong-ju; Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Nan; Gao, Guo-dong; Zhao, Ming-gao

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate that pain frequently occurs comorbid with depression. Gentiopicroside (Gent) is a secoiridoid compound isolated from Gentiana lutea that exhibits analgesic properties and inhibits the expression of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice. However, the effects of Gent on the reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. Reserpine administration (1 mg/kg subcutaneous daily for 3 days) caused a significant decrease in the nociceptive threshold as evidenced by the reduced paw withdrawal latency in response to a radiant heat source and mechanical allodynia. Behavioral detection indicated a significant increase in immobility time during a forced swim test, as well as decreased time in the central area and total travel distance in an open field test. Furthermore, reserpinized animals exhibited increased oxidative stress. Systemic Gent administration dose-dependently ameliorated the behavioral deficits associated with reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad. At the same time, the decrease in biogenic amine levels (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin) was integrated with the increase in caspase-3 levels and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the amygdala of the reserpine-injected mice. Gent significantly reversed the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, caspase-3, and GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in amygdala. However, Gent did not affect the expression of GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors. The inhibitory effects of Gent on oxidative stress were occluded by simultaneous treatment of GluN2B receptors antagonist Ro25-6981. Our study provides strong evidence that Gent inhibits reserpine-induced pain/depression dyad by downregulating GluN2B receptors in the amygdala.

  20. Communication: Charge-transfer rate constants in zinc-porphyrin-porphyrin-derived dyads: A Fermi golden rule first-principles-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, Arun K.; Dunietz, Barry D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate photoinduced charge transfer (CT) processes within dyads consisting of porphyrin derivatives in which one ring ligates a Zn metal center and where the rings vary by their degree of conjugation. Using a first-principles approach, we show that molecular-scale means can tune CT rates through stabilization affected by the polar environment. Such means of CT tuning are important for achieving high efficiency optoelectronic applications using organic semiconducting materials. Our fully quantum mechanical scheme is necessary for reliably modeling the CT process across different regimes, in contrast to the pervading semi-classical Marcus picture that grossly underestimates transfer in the far-inverted regime

  1. Rolling cycle amplification based single-color quantum dots–ruthenium complex assembling dyads for homogeneous and highly selective detection of DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chen; Liu, Yufei; Ye, Tai; Xiang, Xia; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike, E-mail: zhkhe@whu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A universal, label-free, homogeneous, highly sensitive, and selective fluorescent biosensor for DNA detection is developed by using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) based single-color quantum dots–ruthenium complex (QDs–Ru) assembling dyads. - Highlights: • The single-color QDs–Ru assembling dyads were applied in homogeneous DNA assay. • This biosensor exhibited high selectivity against base mismatched sequences. • This biosensor could be severed as universal platform for the detection of ssDNA. • This sensor could be used to detect the target in human serum samples. • This DNA sensor had a good selectivity under the interference of other dsDNA. - Abstract: In this work, a new, label-free, homogeneous, highly sensitive, and selective fluorescent biosensor for DNA detection is developed by using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) based single-color quantum dots–ruthenium complex (QDs–Ru) assembling dyads. This strategy includes three steps: (1) the target DNA initiates RCA reaction and generates linear RCA products; (2) the complementary DNA hybridizes with the RCA products to form long double-strand DNA (dsDNA); (3) [Ru(phen){sub 2}(dppx)]{sup 2+} (dppx = 7,8-dimethyldipyrido [3,2-a:2′,3′-c] phenanthroline) intercalates into the long dsDNA with strong fluorescence emission. Due to its strong binding propensity with the long dsDNA, [Ru(phen){sub 2}(dppx)]{sup 2+} is removed from the surface of the QDs, resulting in restoring the fluorescence of the QDs, which has been quenched by [Ru(phen){sub 2}(dppx)]{sup 2+} through a photoinduced electron transfer process and is overlaid with the fluorescence of dsDNA bonded Ru(II) polypyridyl complex (Ru-dsDNA). Thus, high fluorescence intensity is observed, and is related to the concentration of target. This sensor exhibits not only high sensitivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) ssDNA with a low detection limit (0.5 pM), but also excellent selectivity in the complex matrix. Moreover

  2. Syntheses of F-18 Labeled Fluoroalkyltyrosine Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Kyo Chul; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Dae Yoon [Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) offers the highest resolution of all nuclear medicine imaging modalities and allows quantitation of tracer concentration in tissues. For more than 60 years, some of C-11 or F-18 labeled amino acids have been synthesized and evaluated for potential use in oncology, neurology and psychiatric disorders. Besides, a variety of radioisotope labeled amino acids have proven to be useful for imaging tumors, especially for brain tumor, lung tumor and breast tumor. These amino acids can be subdivided into two categories. The first category is represented by radiolabled naturally occurring amino acids and structurally similar analogues. Although these radiolabeled amino acids have proven useful in detecting brain and systemic tumors, it is susceptible to in vivo metabolism through multiple pathways that give rise to numerous radiolabled metabolites. On the other side, structurally similar amino acid analogues have some significant advantages over the natural amino acids. These nonnatural amino acids are not metabolized, which simplifieds the kinetic analysis of their uptake. On the basis of the promising results obtained with these nonnatural amino acids in preclinical studies, recent efforts have focused on the development of new F-18 labeled nonnatural amino acids. Recently, O-(2-[{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET), O-(3-[{sup 18}F]Fluoropropyl)-L-tyrosine (FPT) were developed and evaluated among structurally similar to a new amino acid analogue. FET has shown high uptake in activated inflammatory cells using an experimental acute abscess model and in inflammation within lymph nodes. FPT was superior to FDG and had a slight advantage over FET in the differentiation of tumor from inflammation, and, like FET, it appeared to be a potential amino acid tracer for tumor imaging with PET. In this paper, we elected to introduce fluoroethyl and fluoropropyl groups at the R{sub 1} positions and OCH{sub 3} at R{sub 2} position to the same effect

  3. Syntheses of F-18 Labeled Fluoroalkyltyrosine Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Kyo Chul; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo; Chi, Dae Yoon

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) offers the highest resolution of all nuclear medicine imaging modalities and allows quantitation of tracer concentration in tissues. For more than 60 years, some of C-11 or F-18 labeled amino acids have been synthesized and evaluated for potential use in oncology, neurology and psychiatric disorders. Besides, a variety of radioisotope labeled amino acids have proven to be useful for imaging tumors, especially for brain tumor, lung tumor and breast tumor. These amino acids can be subdivided into two categories. The first category is represented by radiolabled naturally occurring amino acids and structurally similar analogues. Although these radiolabeled amino acids have proven useful in detecting brain and systemic tumors, it is susceptible to in vivo metabolism through multiple pathways that give rise to numerous radiolabled metabolites. On the other side, structurally similar amino acid analogues have some significant advantages over the natural amino acids. These nonnatural amino acids are not metabolized, which simplifieds the kinetic analysis of their uptake. On the basis of the promising results obtained with these nonnatural amino acids in preclinical studies, recent efforts have focused on the development of new F-18 labeled nonnatural amino acids. Recently, O-(2-[ 18 F]Fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET), O-(3-[ 18 F]Fluoropropyl)-L-tyrosine (FPT) were developed and evaluated among structurally similar to a new amino acid analogue. FET has shown high uptake in activated inflammatory cells using an experimental acute abscess model and in inflammation within lymph nodes. FPT was superior to FDG and had a slight advantage over FET in the differentiation of tumor from inflammation, and, like FET, it appeared to be a potential amino acid tracer for tumor imaging with PET. In this paper, we elected to introduce fluoroethyl and fluoropropyl groups at the R 1 positions and OCH 3 at R 2 position to the same effect of FET. Herein, we wish

  4. Syntheses and electronic structures of decamethylmetallocenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    The synthesis of decamethylmanganocene [(eta-C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) 2 Mn or (Me 5 Cp) 2 Mn)] is described. Magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show that (Me 5 Cp) 2 Mn is a low-spin, 17-electron compound with an orbitally degenerate, 2 E/sub 2g/ [e/sub 2g/ 3 a/sub 1g/ 2 ] ground state. An x-ray crystallographic study of (Me 5 Cp) 2 Mn shows that it is a monomeric, D/sub 5d/ decamethylmetallocene with metal to ring carbon distances that are about 0.3 A shorter than those determined for high-spin manganocenes. The syntheses of new (Me 5 Cp) 2 M (M = Mg,V,Cr,Co, and Ni) and [(Me 5 Cp) 2 M]PF 6 (M = Cr,Co, and Ni) compounds are described. In addition, a preparative route to a novel, dicationic decamethylmetallocene, [(Me 5 Cp) 2 Ni](PF 6 ) 2 is reported. Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and/or x-ray crystallographic studies indicate that all the above compounds are D/sub 5d/ or D/sub 5h/ decamethylmetallocenes with low-spin electronic configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies verify the reversibility and the one-electron nature of the (Me 5 Cp) 2 M → [(Me 5 Cp) 2 M] + (M = Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni), [(Me 5 Cp) 2 Mn] - → (Me 5 Cp) 2 Mn and [(Me 5 Cp) 2 Ni] + → [Me 5 Cp) 2 Ni] 2+ redox reactions. These studies reveal that the neutral decamethylmetallocenes are much more easily oxidized than their metallocene counterparts. This result attests to the electron-donating properties of the ten substituent methyl groups. Proton and carbon-13 NMR data are reported for the diamagnetic Mg(II), Mn(I), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(IV) decamethylmetallocenes and for [(Me 5 Cp) 2 V(CO) 2 ] + . The uv-visible absorption spectra of the 15-, 18- and 20- electron decamethylmetallocenes are also reported

  5. Modification of Lime Mortars with Synthesized Aluminosilicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganina, Valentina I.; Sadovnikova, Marija E.; Jezierski, Walery; Małaszkiewicz, Dorota

    2017-10-01

    The increasing attention for restoration of buildings of historical and architectural importance has increased the interest for lime-based binders, which could be applied for manufacturing repair mortars and plasters compatible with historical heritage. Different additives, admixtures or fibers may be incorporated to improve mechanical and thermal features of such materials. In this study synthesized aluminosilicates (SA) were applied as an additive for lime mortar. The technology of synthesis consisted in the deposition of aluminosilicates from a sodium liquid glass by the aluminum sulphate Al2(SO4)3. The goal of this investigation was developing a new method of aluminosilicates synthesis from a sodium liquid glass and using this new material as a component for a lime mortar. Aluminosilicates were precipitated from the solution of aluminum sulphate Al2(SO)3 and sodium silicate. SA were then used as an additive to calcareous compositions and their influence was tested. Mortars were prepared with commercial air lime and siliceous river sand. Air lime binder was replaced by 5 and 10 wt.% of SA. Calcareous composition specimens were formed at water/lime ratio 1.0. The following analyses were made: grain size distribution of SA, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), sorption properties, plastic strength and compressive strength of lime mortars. XRD pattern of the SA shows the presence of thenardite, gibbsite and amorphous phase represented by aggregate of nano-size cristobalite-like crystallites. Application of SA leads to increase of compressive strength after 90 days of hardening by 28% and 53% at SA content 5 and 10% respectively comparing to specimens without this additive. Contents of chemically bound lime in the reference specimens after 28 days of hardening in air-dry conditions was 46.5%, while in specimens modified with SA contained 50.0-55.3% of bound lime depending on filtrate pH. This testifies to high activity of calcareous composition. The new blended lime

  6. Syntheses and electronic structures of decamethylmetallocenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    The synthesis of decamethylmanganocene ((eta-C/sub 5/(CH/sub 3/)/sub 5/)/sub 2/Mn or (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn)) is described. Magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show that (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn is a low-spin, 17-electron compound with an orbitally degenerate, /sup 2/E/sub 2g/ (e/sub 2g//sup 3/ a/sub 1g//sup 2/) ground state. An x-ray crystallographic study of (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn shows that it is a monomeric, D/sub 5d/ decamethylmetallocene with metal to ring carbon distances that are about 0.3 A shorter than those determined for high-spin manganocenes. The syntheses of new (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M (M = Mg,V,Cr,Co, and Ni) and ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M)PF/sub 6/ (M = Cr,Co, and Ni) compounds are described. In addition, a preparative route to a novel, dicationic decamethylmetallocene, ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)(PF/sub 6/)/sub 2/ is reported. Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and/or x-ray crystallographic studies indicate that all the above compounds are D/sub 5d/ or D/sub 5h/ decamethylmetallocenes with low-spin electronic configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies verify the reversibility and the one-electron nature of the (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M ..-->.. ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M)/sup +/ (M = Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni), ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn)/sup -/ ..-->.. (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn and ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)/sup +/ ..-->.. (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)/sup 2 +/ redox reactions. These studies reveal that the neutral decamethylmetallocenes are much more easily oxidized than their metallocene counterparts. This result attests to the electron-donating properties of the ten substituent methyl groups. Proton and carbon-13 NMR data are reported for the diamagnetic Mg(II), Mn(I), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(IV) decamethylmetallocenes and for ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/V(CO)/sub 2/)/sup +/. The uv-visible absorption spectra of the 15-, 18- and 20- electron decamethylmetallocenes are also reported.

  7. Uncertainty Evaluation for SMART Synthesized Power Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. Y.; Song, J. S.; Lee, C. C.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, K. Y.; Lee, K. H.

    2010-07-01

    This report performs the uncertainty analysis for the SMART synthesis power distribution generated by a SSUN (SMART core SUpporting system coupled by Nuclear design code) code. SSUN runs coupled with the MASTER neutronics code and generates the core 3-D synthesis power distribution by using DPCM3D. The MASTER code plays a role to provide the DPCM3D constants to the SSUN code for the current core states. The uncertainties evaluated in this report are the form of 95%/95% probability/confidence one-sided tolerance limits and can be used in conjunction with Technical Specification limits on these quantities to establish appropriate LCO (Limiting Conditions of Operation) and LSSS (Limiting Safety System Settings) limits. This report is applicable to SMART nuclear reactor using fixed rhodium detector systems. The unknown true power distribution should be given for the uncertainty evaluation of the synthesis power distribution. This report produces virtual distributions for the true power distribution by imposing the CASMO-3/MASTER uncertainty to the MASTER power distribution. Detector signals are generated from these virtual distribution and the DPCM3D constants are from the MASTER power distribution. The SSUN code synthesizes the core 3-D power distribution by using these detector signals and the DPCM3D constants. The following summarizes the uncertainty evaluation procedure for the synthesis power distribution. (1) Generation of 3-D power distribution by MASTER -> Determination of the DPCM3D constants. (2) Generation of virtual power distribution (assumed to be true power distribution) -> Generation of detector signals. (3) Generation of synthesis power distribution. (4) Uncertainty evaluation for the synthesis power distribution. Chi-Square normality test rejects the hypothesis of normal distribution for the synthesis power error distribution. Therefore, the KRUSKAL WALLIS test and the non-parametric statistics are used for data pooling and the tolerance limits. The

  8. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaokun

    ,1-phenylene)bismaleimide (MDPB). It showed the same healing ability as 2MEP4F while all starting materials are cheaper and commercially available. To further improve the mechanical strength of the PFA-MDPB healable polymer, epoxy as a strengthening component was mixed with PFA-MDPB healable polymer. The PFA, MDPB and epoxy composite polymers were further reinforced by carbon fiber as done with 2MEP4F matrix and the final composites were proved to have higher short beam shear strength than 2MEP4F while exhibiting a similar healing efficiency. Healable polymer MDPB (a two maleimide groups monomer) -- FGEEDR (a four furan groups monomer) was also designed and synthesized for transparent healable polymer. The MDPB-FGEEDR healable polymer was composited with silver nanowires (AgNWs) to afford healable transparent composite conductor. Razer blade cuts in the composite conductor could heal upon heating to recover the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the composite. The healing could be repeated for multiple times on the same cut location. The healing process was as fast as 3 minutes for conductivity to recover 97% of the original value. For electroactive polymer polypyrrole, the fast volume change upon electrical field change due to electrochemical oxidization or reduction was studied for actuation targeting toward a robotic application. The flexibility of polypyrrole was improved via copolymerization with pyrrole derivatives. Actuator devices are fabricated that more suitable for implantable medical device application than pyrrole homopolymer. The change of dipole re-orientation and thus dielectric constant of ferroelectric polymers and ceramics upon electrical field may be exploited for electrocaloric effect (ECE) and solid state refrigeration. For ferroelectric ceramics, we synthesized a series of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 8-12 nm and characterized their dielectric and ferroelectric properties through hysteresis measurement. It was

  9. Communication, coping, and quality of life of breast cancer survivors and family/friend dyads: a pilot study of Chinese-Americans and Korean-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Won

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to understand the dyadic relationships between family communication and quality of life (QOL) and between coping and QOL in Chinese-American and Korean-American breast cancer survivor (BCS)-family member dyads. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 32 Chinese-American and Korean-American BCS-family member dyads were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program and area hospitals in Los Angeles County, California, USA. The dyadic data were analyzed using a pooled regression actor-partner interdependence model. The study findings demonstrated that the survivors' general communication and use of reframing coping positively predicted their own QOL. The survivors' and family members' general communication was also a strong predictor of the family members' physical-related QOL score specifically. Meanwhile, each person's use of mobilizing coping negatively predicted his or her partner's QOL. The study findings add important information to the scarce literature on the QOL of Asian-American survivors of breast cancer. The findings suggest that Chinese-American and Korean-American BCS and their family members may benefit from interventions that enhance communication and coping within the family unit. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Functional resistance activities to impact frailty: A protocol for a randomized controlled trial involving home care aide and frail older adult dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret K. Danilovich, PT, DPT, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of older adults use in-home Medicaid Waiver Home and Community Based services (HCBS to facilitate aging-in-place. A primary service of this program is Home Care Aide assistance with activities of daily living and homemaker needs. Despite the known benefits of exercise, exercise programs are currently not offered to clients in the Medicaid Waiver system. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe a six-month Home Care Aide-led resistance exercise intervention protocol for frail older adults receiving Medicaid waiver services. Methods/design: A randomized controlled trial will be used. We will enroll 126 Home Care Aide-client dyads for a 6-month exercise intervention. The intervention will consist of training phases to promote muscle strength, power, and endurance. We will use an intention to treat principle using mixed effects models for the quantitative outcomes. To analyze qualitative outcomes, we will use conventional content analysis to examine themes from participant program evaluations. Discussion: As greater numbers of adults age in place with frailty and employ Home Care Aides to help manage functional limitations, interventions embedded within usual care services play a critical role in bringing exercise into the home setting. The research described in this protocol will provide important knowledge about the impact of a Home Care Aide-led exercise intervention in reducing frailty in older adults. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02942992; Keywords: Frailty, Dyad, Formal caregivers, Resistance exercise

  11. Infection disclosure in the injecting dyads of Hungarian and Lithuanian injecting drug users who self-reported being infected with hepatitis C virus or human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, V Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Li, Nan; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Caplinskiene, Irma; Caplinskas, Saulius; Latkin, Carl A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of disclosure to network members of being hepatitis C virus (HCV)- or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected among injecting dyads of infected injection drug users (IDUs) in Budapest, Hungary and Vilnius, Lithuania,. Multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to assess associations. Very strong infection disclosure norms exist in Hungary, and HCV disclosure was associated with using drugs and having sex within the dyad. Non-ethnic Russian IDUs in Lithuania were more likely to disclose HCV infection to non-Roma, emotionally close and HCV-infected network members, and to those with whom they shared cookers, filters, drug solutions or rinse water or got used syringes from, and if they had fewer non-IDU or IDU network members. Ethnic Russian Lithuanian IDUs were more likely to disclose HCV if they had higher disclosure attitude and knowledge scores, 'trusted' network members, and had lower non-injecting network density and higher injecting network density. HIV-infected Lithuanian IDUs were more likely to disclose to 'trusted' network members. Disclosure norms matched disclosure behaviour in Hungary, while disclosure in Lithuania to 'trusted' network members suggests possible stigmatization. Ongoing free and confidential HCV/HIV testing services for IDUs are needed to emphasize and strengthen disclosure norms, and to decrease stigma.

  12. What they bring: baseline psychological distress differentially predicts neural response in social exclusion by children's friends and strangers in best friend dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddam, Suman; Laws, Holly; Crawford, Jessica L; Wu, Jia; Bolling, Danielle Z; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Friendships play a major role in cognitive, emotional and social development in middle childhood. We employed the online Cyberball social exclusion paradigm to understand the neural correlates of dyadic social exclusion among best friends assessed simultaneously. Each child played with their friend and an unfamiliar player. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were assessed via electroencephalogram during exclusion by friend and unfamiliar peer. Data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling to account for nesting of children within friendship dyads. Results showed that stranger rejection was associated with larger P2 and positive slow wave ERP responses compared to exclusion by a friend. Psychological distress differentially moderated the effects of friend and stranger exclusion such that children with greater psychological distress were observed to have larger neural responses (larger P2 and slow wave) to exclusion by a stranger compared to exclusion by a friend. Conversely, children with lower levels of psychological distress had larger neural responses for exclusion by a friend than by a stranger. Psychological distress within the dyad differentially predicted the P2 and slow wave response. Findings highlight the prominent, but differential role of individual and dyadic psychological distress levels in moderating responses to social exclusion in middle childhood. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. The development of [18F]FDG synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, M. G.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, J. Y.; Yang, S. D.; Jun, G. S.

    2003-01-01

    The automatic system for [ 18 F]FDG production using for the diagnosis of cancer has been developed. This automation system was consisted of a synthesizer module, a PLC based controller and a PMU for graphic user interface. By this system, the radiochemical purity was over 98%, the production yield was over 30% after synthesize and elapsed time was 35 minute

  14. Syntheses and absorption-structure relationships of some new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New biheterocyclic compound was synthesized as starting material to prepare new photosensitizers mono-, tri-, substituted tri-, azadimethine and mixed cyanine dyes. Absorption-structure relationship of the synthesized cyanine dyes were determined by studying their electronic spectral behaviour in ethanol. The structure of ...

  15. A supramolecular ''Double-cable'' structure with a 129{sub 44} helix in a columnar porphyrin-C{sub 60} dyad and its application in polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chien-Lung [College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Hao-Jan; Van Horn, Ryan M.; Kulkarni, Rahul R.; Tsai, Chi-Chun; Gong, Xiong; Cheng, Stephen Z.D. [College of Polymer Science and Polymer Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States); Hsu, Chain-Shu [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lotz, Bernard [Institut Charles Sadron, Strasbourg (France)

    2012-11-15

    A novel porphyrin-C{sub 60} dyad (PCD1) is designed and synthesized to investigate and manipulate the supramolecular structure where geometrically isotropic [such as [60]fullerene (C{sub 60})] and anisotropic [such as porphyrin (Por)] units coexist. It is observed that PCD1 possesses an enantiomeric phase behavior. The melting temperature of the stable PCD1 thermotropic phase is 160 C with a latent heat ({Delta}H) of 18.5 kJ mol{sup -1}. The phase formation is majorly driven by the cooperative intermolecular Por-Por and C{sub 60}-C{sub 60} interactions. Structural analysis reveals that this stable phase possesses a supramolecular ''double-cable'' structure with one p-type Por core columnar channel and three helical n-type C{sub 60} peripheral channels. These ''double-cable'' columns further pack into a hexagonal lattice with a = b = 4.65 nm, c = 41.3 nm, {alpha} = {beta} = 90 , and {gamma} = 120 . The column repeat unit is determined to possess a 129{sub 44} helix. With both donor (D; Pro) and acceptor (A; C{sub 60}) units having their own connecting channels as well as the large D/A interface within the supramolecular ''double-cable'' structure, PCD1 has photogenerated carriers with longer lifetimes compared to the conventional electron acceptor [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester. A phase-separated columnar morphology is observed in a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) material made by the physical blend of a low band-gap conjugated polymer, poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothia-diazole)] (PCPDTBT), and PCD1. With a specific phase structure in the solid state and in the blend, PCD1 is shown to be a promising candidate as a new electron acceptor in high performance BHJ polymer solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Assessment voice synthesizers for reading in digital books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérvulo Fernandes da Silva Neto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The digital accessibility shows ways to information access in digital media that assist people with different types of disabilities to a better interaction with the computer independent of its limitations. Of these tools are composed by voice synthesizers, that supposedly simplifying their access to any recorded knowledge through digital technologies. However such tools have emerged originally in countries foreign language. Which brings us to the following research problem: the voice synthesizers are appropriate for reading digital books in the Portuguese language? The objective of this study was to analyze and classify different software tools voice synthesizers in combination with software digital book readers to support accessibility to e-books in Portuguese. Through literature review were identified applications software voice synthesizers, composing the sample analyzed in this work. We used a simplified version of the method of Multiple Criteria Decision Support - MMDA, to assess these. In the research 12 were considered readers of e-books and 11 software voice synthesizer, tested with six formats of e-books (E-pub, PDF, HTML, DOC, TXT, and Mobi. In accordance with the results, the software Virtual Vision achieved the highest score. Relative to formats, it was found that the PDF has measured a better score when summed the results of the three synthesizers. In the studied universe contacted that many synthesizers simply cannot be used because they did not support the Portuguese language.

  17. Single-step electron transfer on the nanometer scale: ultra-fast charge shift in strongly coupled zinc porphyrin-gold porphyrin dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortage, Jérôme; Boixel, Julien; Blart, Errol; Hammarström, Leif; Becker, Hans Christian; Odobel, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis, electrochemical properties, and photoinduced electron transfer processes of a series of three novel zinc(II)-gold(III) bisporphyrin dyads (ZnP--S--AuP(+)) are described. The systems studied consist of two trisaryl porphyrins connected directly in the meso position via an alkyne unit to tert-(phenylenethynylene) or penta(phenylenethynylene) spacers. In these dyads, the estimated center to center interporphyrin separation distance varies from 32 to 45 A. The absorption, emission, and electrochemical data indicate that there are strong electronic interactions between the linked elements, thanks to the direct attachment of the spacer on the porphyrin ring through the alkyne unit. At room temperature in toluene, light excitation of the zinc porphyrin results in almost quantitative formation of the charge shifted state (.+)ZnP--S--AuP(.), whose lifetime is in the order of hundreds of picoseconds. In this solvent, the charge-separated state decays to the ground state through the intermediate population of the zinc porphyrin triplet excited state. Excitation of the gold porphyrin leads instead to rapid energy transfer to the triplet ZnP. In dichloromethane the charge shift reactions are even faster, with time constants down to 2 ps, and may be induced also by excitation of the gold porphyrin. In this latter solvent, the longest charge-shifted lifetime (tau=2.3 ns) was obtained with the penta-(phenylenethynylene) spacer. The charge shift reactions are discussed in terms of bridge-mediated super-exchange mechanisms as electron or hole transfer. These new bis-porphyrin arrays, with strong electronic coupling, represent interesting molecular systems in which extremely fast and efficient long-range photoinduced charge shift occurs over a long distance. The rate constants are two to three orders of magnitude larger than for corresponding ZnP--AuP(+) dyads linked via meso-phenyl groups to oligo-phenyleneethynylene spacers. This study demonstrates the critical

  18. High resolution study of MSiH4 (M=28, 29, 30) in the Dyad Region: Analysis of line positions, intensities and half-widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulenikov, O. N.; Gromova, O. V.; Bekhtereva, E. S.; Raspopova, N. I.; Kashirina, N. V.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Sydow, C.; Bauerecker, S.

    2017-12-01

    The infrared spectra of SiH4 in natural abundance (92.23% of 28SiH4, 4.68% of 29SiH4, and 3.09% of 30SiH4) were measured in the region of 600-1200 cm-1 with a Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer, analyzed and compared with the results available in the literature. More than 3500 transitions with Jmax. = 27 were assigned to the dyad bands ν4 and ν2 of 28SiH4 (the band ν2 is allowed in Raman, but forbidden in absorption spectra for symmetry reasons, and its transitions appear in absorption spectra only because of strong Coriolis interaction with the ν4 band). Rotational, centrifugal distortion, tetrahedral splitting, and interaction parameters for the ground, (0100) and (0001) vibrational states were determined from the fit of experimental line positions. The obtained set of parameters reproduces the initial experimental data with accuracy close to experimental uncertainties. The results of the analogous analyses of the 29SiH4 and 30SiH4 isotopologues are also presented (the numbers of the assigned transitions are here more than 1360 and 1120). An further analysis of about 790 experimental ro-vibrational lines in the dyad region of 28SiH4 was performed using the Voigt profile to simulate the measured line shape and to determine experimental line intensities. A set of 4 effective dipole moment parameters for the dyad of 28SiH4 was obtained on that basis from the weighted fit, which reproduce the initial experimental intensities of about 790 lines with the drms = 5.6 % . Analogous analyses were made for the two other isotopic species, 29SiH4, and 30SiH4. A detailed line list of transitions in the region of 750-1150 cm-1 is generated. The half-widths of 40 ro-vibrational lines (Jup.max. = 16) are studied from the multi-spectrum analysis, and self-pressure broadening coefficients are determined.

  19. Photoactive Molecular Dyads [Ru(bpy)3-M(ttpy)2] n+ on Gold (M = Co(III), Zn(II)): Characterization, Intrawire Electron Transfer, and Photoelectric Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Quang, Long; Farran, Rajaa; Lattach, Youssef; Bonnet, Hugues; Jamet, Hélène; Guérente, Liliane; Maisonhaute, Emmanuel; Chauvin, Jérôme

    2018-04-23

    We propose in this work a stepwise approach to construct photoelectrodes. This takes advantage of the self-assembly interactions between thiol with a gold surface and terpyridine ligands with first-row transition metals. Here, a [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 2+ photosensitive center bearing a free terpyridine group has been used to construct two linear dyads on gold (Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ and Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ ). The stepwise construction was characterized by electrochemistry, quartz crystal microbalance, and atomic force microscopy imaging. The results show that the dyads behave as rigid layers and are inhomogeneously distributed on the surface. The surface coverages are estimated to be in the order of 10 -11 mol cm -2 . The kinetics of the heterogeneous electron transfer is determined on modified gold ball microelectrodes using Laviron's formula. The oxidation rates of the terminal Ru(II) subunits are estimated to be 700 and 2300 s -1 for Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ and Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ , respectively. In the latter case, the rate is limited by the kinetics of electron transfer between an intermediate Co(II) center and the gold surface. For Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ , the Zn-bis-terpyridine center is not involved in the electron-transfer process and the oxidation of the Ru(II) subunit occurs through a superexchange process. In the presence of a tertiary amine in solution, the electrodes at a bias of 0.12 V behave as photoanodes when subjected to visible light irradiation. The magnitude of the photocurrent is around 10 μA cm -2 for Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ and 5 μA cm -2 for Au/[Zn II -Ru II ] 4+ , proving the importance of an electron relay on the photon-to-current conversion. The results suggest an efficient conversion for Au/[Co III -Ru II ] 5+ , since each bound dyad, once excited, injects an electron around 10 times per second.

  20. Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedecke Julia H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International studies suggest ethnic differences in obesity prevalence may be due, in part, to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction between groups. Further, there is evidence to suggest that there is a familial resemblance in body image between mothers and their younger (preadolescent daughters. This research was therefore conducted to specifically identify the extent to which family status (presented as mother-daughter resemblance and ethnicity impact on body image attitudes and perceptions of South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Methods Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status, their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score. Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Results Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308, regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI. The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685. The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960 regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342 between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p

  1. Aeon: Synthesizing Scheduling Algorithms from High-Level Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Jean-Noël; Deville, Yves; van Hentenryck, Pascal

    This paper describes the aeon system whose aim is to synthesize scheduling algorithms from high-level models. A eon, which is entirely written in comet, receives as input a high-level model for a scheduling application which is then analyzed to generate a dedicated scheduling algorithm exploiting the structure of the model. A eon provides a variety of synthesizers for generating complete or heuristic algorithms. Moreover, synthesizers are compositional, making it possible to generate complex hybrid algorithms naturally. Preliminary experimental results indicate that this approach may be competitive with state-of-the-art search algorithms.

  2. Study of as-synthesized and calcined hydrocalumites as possible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ments. Finally, these solids were tested as antacids by using a synthetic gastric juice. Results showed that calcined samples were able to neutralize the synthetic gastric juice in more extension as an as-synthesized ..... D 2010 Appl. Clay Sci.

  3. Syntheses, Protonation Constants and Antimicrobial Activity of 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carboxaldehyde and N-alkylimidazole-2-methanol derivatives [alkyl = benzyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, heptyl, octyl and decyl] have been synthesized and the protonation constants determined. The antimicrobial properties of the compounds were tested ...

  4. Characterization of combustion synthesized zirconia powder by UV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . The surface acidbase properties of these samples were also investigated by indicator titration method. The catalytic activity was probed with transfer hydrogenation reaction in liquid phase. It was found that combustion synthesized zirconia did ...

  5. Bilateral Manipulandum to Synthesize Ground Referenced and Interlimb Viscoelastic Loads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallasch, E

    2001-01-01

    .... The mechatronics consists of two angular voice coil actuators (+/- 40 Nm) with embedded rotary (+/- 20 degrees) and torque sensors driven by voltage controlled current sources, DSP software routines to synthesize isotonic...

  6. Exploitation of rare earth catalysts in polymer syntheses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Zhiquan

    2006-01-01

    The studies over forty years on rare earth catalysts in polymer syntheses of diene,alkyne,alkylene oxide,thiirane, carbon dioxide copolymerization, lactide,caprolactone,cyclic carbonate and so forth in China have been reviewed.

  7. Multiblock copolymers synthesized in aqueous dispersions using multifunctional RAFT agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussels, R.; Bergman-Göttgens, C.M.; Meuldijk, J.; Koning, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Triblock copolymers were synthesized in aqueous dispersions in two polymerization steps using a low molar mass difunctional dithiocarbamate-based RAFT agent, and in merely one polymerization step using a macromolecular difunctional dithiocarbamate-based RAFT agent. Segmented block copolymers

  8. Sol–gel synthesized mesoporous anatase titanium dioxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications. R GOVINDARAJ1,∗, M ... DSSC than rutile phase. In this work, we have synthesized hierarchically structured ... Hydrolysis and polycondensation reaction mechanism of sol–gel process. 2.

  9. GaN Nanowires Synthesized by Electroless Etching Method

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Ben Slimane, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-long Gallium Nitride Nanowires is synthesized via metal-electroless etching method. The morphologies and optical properties of GaN NWs show a single crystal GaN with hexagonal Wurtzite structure and high luminescence properties.

  10. Sensibilidade e aleitamento materno em díades com recém-nascidos de risco Breastfeeding and maternal sensitivity in dyads with infants born at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alfaya

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a relação entre o tipo de alimentação do bebê (aleitamento materno, fórmula e alimentação mista e os comportamentos de interação mãe-bebê, a partir do conceito de sensibilidade materna. Participaram 20 díades com bebês nascidos pré-termos (Grupo I que necessitaram de tratamento intensivo neonatal, 14 díades com bebês nascidos a termo (Grupo II que necessitaram de tratamento intensivo neonatal, e 24 díades com bebês nascidos a termo sadios (Grupo III. O risco do recém-nascido foi considerado a partir de sua necessidade de tratamento intensivo neonatal. A interação mãe-bebê foi filmada durante a situação de face-a-face, aos dois meses de idade do bebê, e avaliada conforme o Protocolo de Interação Mãe-Bebê (Schermann et al. 1994 que pontua itens referentes aos comportamentos interativos da mãe, do bebê e da díade mãe-bebê. Os resultados mostraram que a sensibilidade materna diferiu entre os três grupos investigados (p = 0,039, havendo maior incidência no Grupo III (grupo controle. A partir do estudo realizado, é possível inferir que a sensibilidade materna é mais favorável em mães de bebês nascidos a termo e sadios do que em mães de bebês nascidos com risco neonatal. O aleitamento materno é um importante fator que promove o estabelecimento de uma sensibilidade materna mais favorável, sendo fundamental o incentivo da amamentação mesmo para recém-nascidos pré-termo e a termo de risco.The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the kinds of infant's feeding (breastfeeding, complement and mixed and the mother-infant interactional behaviors. The participants included 20 dyads of pre-term infant (Group I who had needed intensive care, 14 dyads of full-term infant (Group II who had needed intensive care, and 24 dyads of full-term health infants (Group III. The risk was considered by the neonatal intensive care needed. The mother-infant interaction was

  11. Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Verfahrens zur enzymkatalysierten Synthese eines strukturierten Triglycerides

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Hans-Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Ausgangspunkt für die in der vorliegenden Arbeit durchgeführten Entwicklung eines kontinuierlichen Verfahrens zur Synthese des strukturierten Triglycerides 1,3-Oleyl-2-palmitoylglycerin war die von Schmid [Schmid 1999] entwickelte lipase-katalysierte Zwei-Schritt-Synthese für strukturierte Triglyceride vom Typ ABA [European Patent Application; EP 0 882 797 A2]. In der ersten Reaktionsstufe dieser zweistufigen Umesterung wird in einer Folgereaktion das Substrat Tripalmitin mit Hilfe ein...

  12. Proteins synthesized in tobacco mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, R.

    1979-01-01

    The author deals with research on the multiplication of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaf cell protoplasts. An attempt is made to answer three questions: (1) Which proteins are synthesized in TMV infected protoplasts as a result of TMV multiplication. (2) Which of the synthesized proteins are made under the direction of the TMV genome and, if any, which of the proteins are host specific. (3) In which functions are these proteins involved. (Auth.)

  13. Design of a synthesizer for magnetic resonance equipment using FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonora A

    2006-01-01

    This paper exposes the design of a direct digital synthesizer in FPGA. This desing can generate a sine wave output up to 4MHZ with 3,33 mHz of precision. The frequency is set by 32bit word of phase increment in 350ns. The desing was made for Magnetic Resonance scanners and uses a 97% of logic resources of device. Functions for the synthesizer control are implemented in the same chip

  14. SYNTHESIZER CONTROLLED BEAM TRANSFER FROM THE AGS TO RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DELONG, J.; BRENNAN, J.M.; FISCHER, W.; HAYES, T.; SMITH, K.; VALENTINO, S.

    2001-01-01

    To ensure minimal losses and to preserve longitudinal emittance, beam is transferred from the AGS to the RHIC bunch to bucket. This requires precision frequency and phase control for synchronization and kicker timing. The required precision is realized with a set of Direct Digital Synthesizers. Each synthesizer can be frequency and phase modulated to align the AGS bunch to the target bucket in the RHIC phase

  15. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, L M; Kaminsky, R G; Taren, D L; Shaw, E; Sander, J K

    2001-02-01

    Despite vitamin A supplementation programs, vitamin A deficiency in children remains a public health concern in Honduras. We investigated the effectiveness of short-term dietary supplementation of mothers with red palm oil as a strategy for improving the vitamin A status of the mother-infant dyad. Lactating mothers in Colonia Los Pinos, a barrio of Tegucigalpa, Honduras, consumed a total of 90-mg beta-carotene as red palm oil (n = 32) supplements (n = 36) or placebo (n = 18) in six equal doses over 10 days. Carotenoids and retinol in maternal and infant serum, and breastmilk carotenoids and retinol were measured before and after supplementation. Maternal diet was evaluated by 24-hour recall. Maternal serum alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations were increased 2 fold by palm oil compared with 1.2 fold by beta-carotene supplements. Changes were significantly different in infant serum alpha-carotene but not beta-carotene among the three experimental groups. Increases in breastmilk beta-carotene were greater for the palm oil group (2.5 fold) than for the beta-carotene supplement group (1.6 fold) and increases in milk alpha-carotene concentrations (3.2 fold) were slightly greater than those of beta-carotene. There were also small but significant changes among groups in breastmilk lutein and lycopene. Breastmilk retinol was not significantly different among the groups over the treatment period. Red palm oil in the maternal diet increases provitamin A carotenoids in breastmilk and serum of the mother-infant dyad. The use of dietary red palm oil to improve the vitamin A status of this population should be further investigated.

  16. Determination of preferential molecular orientation in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seregin, A. Y.; D' Yakova, Y. A.; Yakunin, S. N.; Makhotkin, I. A.; Alekseev, A. S.; Klechkovskaya, V. V.; Tereschenko, E. Y.; Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H.; Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    Monolayers of porphyrin-fullerene dyad molecules with zinc atoms incorporated into the porphyrin ring (ZnDHD6ee) on the surface of aqueous subphase and on Si substrates have been investigated by the X-ray standing-wave method and X-ray reflectometry. The experiments have been performed under

  17. A low-power CMOS frequency synthesizer for GPS receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yunfeng; Xiao Shimao; Zhuang Haixiao; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun; Yue Jianlian

    2010-01-01

    A low-power frequency synthesizer for GPS/Galileo L1/E1 band receivers implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process is introduced. By adding clock-controlled transistors at latch outputs to reduce the time constant at sensing time, the working frequency of the high-speed source-coupled logic prescaler supplying quadrature local oscillator signals has been increased, compared with traditional prescalers. Measurement results show that this synthesizer achieves an in-band phase noise of -87 dBc/Hz at 15 kHz offset, with spurs less than -65 dBc. The whole synthesizer consumes 6 mA in the case of a 1.8 V supply, and its core area is 0.6 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Mesoporous Akaganeite of Adjustable Pore Size Synthesized using Mixed Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Ge, D. L.; Ren, H. P.; Fan, Y. J.; Wu, L. M.; Sun, Z. X.

    2017-12-01

    Mesoporous akaganeite with large and adjustable pore size was synthesized through a co-template method, which was achieved by the combined interaction between PEG2000 and alkyl amines with different lengths of the straight carbon chain. The characterized results indicate that the synthesized samples show comparatively narrow BJH pore size distributions and centered at 14.3 nm when PEG and HEPA was used, and it could be enlarged to 16.8 and 19.4 nm respectively through changing the alkyl amines to DDA and HDA. Meanwhile, all the synthesized akaganeite possess relativity high specific surface area ranging from 183 to 281 m2/g and high total pore volume of 0.98 to 1.5 cm3/g. A possible mechanism leading to the pore size changing was also proposed.

  19. Zinc Oxide Nano crystals Synthesized by Quenching Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhayati Abu Bakar; Akrajas Ali Umar; Muhamad Mat Salleh; Muhammad Yahya

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt to synthesize non toxic zinc oxide (ZnO) nano crystals using a simple quenching technique. The hot zinc oxide powder was quenched in hexane solution to obtain ZnO nano crystals. As the result, diameter size of the synthesized ZnO is 200 nm. It was also exhibited a good crystalline with wurtzite phase. The nano crystals properties of ZnO were revealed from good absorbance and green luminescence under UV exposure. This may be related with oxygen vacancy ionization during the annealing process. (author)

  20. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Amardeep; Goyal, Navdeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  1. Study on magnetite nanoparticles synthesized by chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Wenli; Kumada, H.; Natusme, T.; Saito, H.; Ishio, S.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles with controlled size were synthesized by chemical method. Higher deposition temperature and a rapid-raising temperature procedure are favorable to particle size distribution and fabrication of monodisperse nanoparticles. The larger nanoparticles can be synthesized by the two-step method. The large nanoparticle (up to 25 nm) without agglomeration was successfully produced. The saturation magnetization of 11 nm magnetite particles was 45 emu/g at room temperature, which is smaller than that of bulk magnetite due to surface effect. Hysteresis of the magnetite nanoparticle was very small, indicating superparamagnetic behavior. The magnetic domains of the 11 nm magnetite nanoparticles were successfully observed by MFM

  2. Influenza Transmission in the Mother-Infant Dyad Leads to Severe Disease, Mammary Gland Infection, and Pathogenesis by Regulating Host Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Stéphane G; Banner, David; Huang, Stephen S H; Almansa, Raquel; Leon, Alberto; Xu, Luoling; Bartoszko, Jessica; Kelvin, David J; Kelvin, Alyson A

    2015-10-01

    Seasonal influenza viruses are typically restricted to the human upper respiratory tract whereas influenza viruses with greater pathogenic potential often also target extra-pulmonary organs. Infants, pregnant women, and breastfeeding mothers are highly susceptible to severe respiratory disease following influenza virus infection but the mechanisms of disease severity in the mother-infant dyad are poorly understood. Here we investigated 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection and transmission in breastfeeding mothers and infants utilizing our developed infant-mother ferret influenza model. Infants acquired severe disease and mortality following infection. Transmission of the virus from infants to mother ferrets led to infection in the lungs and mother mortality. Live virus was also found in mammary gland tissue and expressed milk of the mothers which eventually led to milk cessation. Histopathology showed destruction of acini glandular architecture with the absence of milk. The virus was localized in mammary epithelial cells of positive glands. To understand the molecular mechanisms of mammary gland infection, we performed global transcript analysis which showed downregulation of milk production genes such as Prolactin and increased breast involution pathways indicated by a STAT5 to STAT3 signaling shift. Genes associated with cancer development were also significantly increased including JUN, FOS and M2 macrophage markers. Immune responses within the mammary gland were characterized by decreased lymphocyte-associated genes CD3e, IL2Ra, CD4 with IL1β upregulation. Direct inoculation of H1N1 into the mammary gland led to infant respiratory infection and infant mortality suggesting the influenza virus was able to replicate in mammary tissue and transmission is possible through breastfeeding. In vitro infection studies with human breast cells showed susceptibility to H1N1 virus infection. Together, we have shown that the host-pathogen interactions of influenza virus

  3. Dielectric properties of CdS nanoparticles synthesized by soft ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    If the field applied to the condenser is time-dependent (as in an alternating current), so ... tematically the dielectric properties of CdS synthesized by a soft chemical method .... The real parts of conductivity spectra can be explained by the power ...

  4. Is Synthesizing MRI Contrast Useful for Inter-modality Analysis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Konukoglu, Ender; Zikic, Darko

    2013-01-01

    Availability of multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) databases opens up the opportunity to synthesize different MRI contrasts without actually acquiring the images. In theory such synthetic images have the potential to reduce the amount of acquisitions to perform certain analyses. However...

  5. Antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticle synthesized by marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi resistance to antibiotics is a serious and disseminated clinical problem, common to several new compounds that block the resistance mechanism. The present study aimed at the comparative study of silver nanoparticles synthesized through actinomycetes and their antimicrobial metabolites with standard antibiotic.

  6. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING SOL-GEL SYNTHESIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the effectiveness of TiO2 nanoparticles in arsenic adsorption was examined. TiO2 particles (LS) were synthesized via sol-gel techniques and characterized for their crystallinity, surface area and pore volume. Batch adsorption studies were perf...

  7. Radiolitically Synthesized Hybrid Nanosystems for Bio-Nano-Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krkljes, A., E-mail: krkljes@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry and Physics, ' ' GAMMA' ' (030), P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-07-01

    In this report a review of the main results and the studies carried out under the scope of the IAEA CRP project: Nanoscale Radiation Engineering of Advanced Materials for Potential Biomedical Application is presented. In particular two topics are discussed: radiation synthesizing of Ag nanoparticles in hydrogels for potential biomedical application and decoration of carbon nanotubes with Ag clusters by gamma irradiation. (author)

  8. Bioactive nanocrystalline wollastonite synthesized by sol–gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sol–gel combustion method was employed to synthesize the nanocrystalline wollastonite by taking the raw eggshell powder as a calcium source and TEOS as a source of silicate. Glycine was .... 94·37% CaCO3, hence in order to prepare 1 M Ca2+ ion solu- ... requires an acid or base catalyst hence the pH of the solu-.

  9. Bioactive nanocrystalline wollastonite synthesized by sol–gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sol–gel combustion method was employed to synthesize the nanocrystalline wollastonite by taking the raw eggshell powder as a calcium source and TEOS as a source of silicate. Glycine was used as a reductant or fuel and nitrate ions present in metal nitrate acts as an oxidizer. The phase purity of the wollastonite was ...

  10. Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2014-05-28

    Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.

  11. Biomedical applications of green synthesized Nobel metal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Khan, Amjad; Chen, Yongmei; Shah, Noor S; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Arif Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Khan, Faheem Ullah; Murtaza, Behzad; Hassan, Sadaf Ul; Qaisrani, Saeed Ahmad; Wan, Pingyu

    2017-08-01

    Synthesis of Nobel metal nanoparticles, play a key role in the field of medicine. Plants contain a substantial number of organic constituents, like phenolic compounds and various types of glycosides that help in synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles by green method is one of the best and environment friendly methods. The major significance of the green synthesis is lack of toxic by-products produced during metal nanoparticle synthesis. The nanoparticles, synthesized by green method show various significant biological activities. Most of the research articles report the synthesized nanoparticles to be active against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Some of these bacteria include Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The synthesized nanoparticles also show significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton simii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum as well as different types of cancer cells such as breast cancer cell line. They also exhibit significant antioxidant activity. The activities of these Nobel metal nano-particles mainly depend on the size and shape. The particles of small size with large surface area show good activity in the field of medicine. The synthesized nanoparticles are also active against leishmanial diseases. This research article explores in detail the green synthesis of the nanoparticles and their uses thereof. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from serine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaprakash, N. [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); SRM Valliammai Engineering College, Department of Chemistry, Chennai 603 203 (India); Judith Vijaya, J., E-mail: jjvijayaloyola@yahoo.co.in [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); John Kennedy, L. [Materials Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Chennai Campus, Chennai 600 048 (India); Priadharsini, K.; Palani, P. [Department of Center for Advanced Study in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent and serine as a reducing agent. UV–Visible spectra were used to confirm the formation of Ag NPs by observing the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 443 nm. The emission spectrum of Ag NPs showed an emission band at 484 nm. In the presence of microwave radiation, serine acts as a reducing agent, which was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) were used to investigate the morphology of the synthesized sample. These images showed the sphere-like morphology. The elemental composition of the sample was determined by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) was used to find the crystalline nature of the Ag NPs. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized Ag NPs was analyzed by the cyclic voltammetry (CV). Antibacterial experiments showed that the prepared Ag NPs showed relatively similar antibacterial activities, when compared with AgNO{sub 3} against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. - Highlights: • Microwave irradiation method is used to synthesize silver nanoparticles. • Highly stable silver nanoparticles are produced from serine. • A detailed study of antibacterial activities is discussed. • Formation mechanism of silver microspheres has been proposed.

  13. Accurate simulation of Raman amplified lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Olesen, Anders Sig; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    A lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper using a Raman amplifier for loss compensation is presented together with a numerical model capable of predicting the shape of individual pulses as well as the overall envelope of more than 100 pulses. The generated pulse envelope consists of 116 pulses wi...

  14. Microstructural characterization of gold nanoparticles synthesized by solution plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung-Pyo; Bratescu, Maria Antoaneta; Takai, Osamu; Saito, Nagahiro

    2011-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) fabricated by solution plasma processing (SPP) in reverse micelle solutions have been studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The synthesized Au NPs, with an average size of 6.3 ± 1.4 nm, have different crystal characteristics; fcc single-crystalline particles, multiply twinned particles (MTPs), and incomplete MTPs (single-nanotwinned fcc configuration). The crystal structure characteristics of the Au NPs synthesized by the SPP method were analyzed and compared with similar-size Au NPs obtained by the conventional chemical reduction synthesis (CRS) method. The TEM analysis results show that the Au NPs synthesized by the CRS method have shapes and crystal structures similar to those nanoparticles obtained by the SPP method. However, from the detailed HRTEM analysis, the relative number of the Au MTPs and incomplete MTPs to the total number of the Au NPs synthesized by the SPP method was observed to be around 94%, whereas the relative number of these kinds of crystal structures fabricated by the CRS method was about 63%. It is most likely that the enhanced formation of the Au MTPs is due to the fact that the SPP method generates highly reaction-activated species under low environmental temperature conditions.

  15. Nanoscale grain growth behaviour of CoAl intermetallic synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Grain growth behaviour of the nanocrystalline CoAl intermetallic compound synthesized by mechanical alloying has been studied by isothermal annealing at different temperatures and durations. X-ray diffraction method was employed to investigate structural evolutions during mechanical alloying and annealing processes.

  16. Electrodeposition route to synthesize cigs films – an economical way ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrodeposition route to synthesize cigs films – an economical way to harness solar energy. ... for solar cells, how the charge separation in this nano scale photovoltaic (PV) materials occurs which help in absorption of radiation, and the electro-deposition route, a low cost one, produces thin film solar cells are analyzed.

  17. Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to

  18. Proteins synthesized in tobacco mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huber, R.

    1979-01-01

    The study described here concerns the proteins, synthesized as a result of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) multiplication in tobacco protoplasts and in cowpea protoplasts. The identification of proteins involved in the TMV infection, for instance in the virus RNA replication, helps to elucidate

  19. hydrazines and their nickel(II) complexes: Syntheses, structures and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Narendra Babu

    Abstract. The Schiff bases N-(acyl)-N -(ferrocenylidene)hydrazines (HFcah (1) and HFcbh (2), where acyl = acetyl in 1 and benzoyl in 2 and H represents the dissociable amide proton) were synthesized in high yields (74 and 81%) by condensation reactions of equimolar amounts of ferrocene-carboxaldehyde and the ...

  20. Investigation of formation constant of complex of a new synthesized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complex formation between a newly synthesized tripodal ligand and the cation Cu2+ in water and surfactant media was studied spectrophotometrically using rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA). According to molar ratio data the stoichiometry of complexation between the ligand and the cation Cu2+ was 1:1.

  1. Characterization of chemically synthesized CdS nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Similar to the effects of charge carriers on optical properties, confinement of optical and acoustic phonons leads to interesting changes in the phonon spectra. In the present work, we have synthesized nanoparticles of CdS using chemical precipitation technique. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles are studied ...

  2. Evaluation of Biological Activities of Chemically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A. A.; Solkamy, E.N.; Sayed, Sh. R. M.; Khan, M.; Shaik, M.R.; Al-Warthan, A.; Adil, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the earlier reported methods. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV/Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The synthesized materials were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. TEM micrograph showed the spherical morphology of AgNPs with size range of 40-60 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles showed a strong antimicrobial activity and their effect depends upon bacterial strain as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.1 mm) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.8?mm) and S. pyogenes (13.6 mm) while the least activity was observed for Salmonella typhi (12.5 mm) at concentration of 5 μg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs against S. aureus was 2.5 μg/disc and less than 2.5 μg/disc for P. aeruginosa. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agent for infectious control in medical field.

  3. A frequency tracking synthesizer for beam diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.; Marriner, J.

    1991-01-01

    In low and medium energy synchrotrons the beam revolution frequency changes by a large factor during the acceleration process. High production rates require that these machines cycle rapidly. In attempting to diagnose instabilities which develop during the acceleration process it is useful to be able to select some frequency segment between revolution harmonics for viewing. Most types of test equipment operating in the frequency domain, such as spectrum analyzers and network analyzers, are not suited to making direct measurements on such rapidly sweeping signals. Ideally, one would want to set the frequency frame of reference to the spot in the accelerating revolution harmonic domain where the measurements are to be made. A scheme using a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) was developed to provide this moving reference frame. This paper describes a synthesizer scheme combining digital and analog synthesizer techniques to allow tracking of signals during acceleration. Virtually any ratio of synthesizer to beam revolution frequency may be generated by this scheme. Details of hardware and measurement results are presented

  4. Synthesizing Knowledge on Internet of Things (IoT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Tan, Chee-Wee; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2016-01-01

    Research on Internet of Things (IoT) has been booming for past couple of years due to technological advances and its potential for application. Nonetheless, the rapid growth of IoT articles as well as the heterogeneous nature of IoT pose challenges in synthesizing prior research on the phenomenon...

  5. Radiolitically Synthesized Hybrid Nanosystems for Bio-Nano-Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krkljes, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this report a review of the main results and the studies carried out under the scope of the IAEA CRP project: Nanoscale Radiation Engineering of Advanced Materials for Potential Biomedical Application is presented. In particular two topics are discussed: radiation synthesizing of Ag nanoparticles in hydrogels for potential biomedical application and decoration of carbon nanotubes with Ag clusters by gamma irradiation. (author)

  6. Nanoscale grain growth behaviour of CoAl intermetallic synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Grain growth behaviour of the nanocrystalline CoAl intermetallic compound synthesized by mechanical alloying has been studied by isothermal annealing at different temperatures and durations. X-ray diffraction method was employed to investigate structural evolutions during mechanical alloying and anneal-.

  7. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of structural order in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, Andrei S.; Orekhov, Anton S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gainutdinov, R. V.; Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail: klechvv@ns.crys.ras.ru; Tereschenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    The structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers formed on the surface of aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough and transferred onto solid substrates has been studied. The data obtained are interpreted using simulation of the structure of isolated molecules and their packing in monolayer and modeling of diffraction patterns from molecular aggregates having different sizes and degrees of order. Experiments on the formation of condensed ZnDHD6ee monolayers are described. The structure of these monolayers on a water surface is analyzed using {pi}-A isotherms. The structure of the monolayers transferred onto solid substrates is investigated by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The unit-cell parameters of two-dimensional domains, which are characteristic of molecular packing in monolayers and deposited films, are determined. Domains are found to be organized into a texture (the molecular axes are oriented by the [001] direction perpendicular to the substrate). The monolayers contain a limited number of small 3D domains.

  9. Adult patients with schizophrenia using violence towards their parents: a phenomenological study of views and experiences of violence in parent-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Mei-Chi; Tu, Chun-Hsien

    2014-02-01

    To describe the lived experiences of aggression and violence among patients with schizophrenia and their victimized biological parent as the major caregiver being aggressed by their child (parent-adult-child dyads), and to gain an understanding of the precipitating factors influencing violence. Child-to-parent violence, particularly in the mentally ill adult child, is arguably the most stressful and under-researched issue of family violence. Violence in patients with mental illness is most frequently targeted at family members, and most often takes place at home. Both patients and their parents' experiences of violence are relatively unexplored. Qualitative study design. Data were collected using individual in-depth interviews between August 2010-August 2011 in Taiwan. Purposive sample of 14 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia who had aggression and violence in the past year directed towards their biological parent of either gender. Five main themes were identified: violence occurring beyond control in a particular situation translated into parent and patient's possible endangerment, the repetitive nature of violence, distress, ineffective communication, and management of violence and help-seeking. Repetitive violent episodes and tension made both the parent and patient feel uncontrollable. Parents had a perceived fear of adverse consequences such as being punished by receiving more retribution and they also had concerns related to their parental responsibility. Health professionals should be aware of the complexity of phenomena and the interplay of factors inducing violence. A comprehensive dyadic parent-child intervention is suggested for violence prevention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother–Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Chebaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother–infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum and in Cambodia (assessed between 3–27 weeks post-partum. Canadian mothers (n = 124 consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers (n = 69 were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI in pmol/L were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747, 452 (400, 504, and 506 (459, 552; in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687, 317 (256, 378, and 357 (312, 402. The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L: 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated (p < 0.05; only maternal and infant vitamin B12 were correlated among the Cambodians (p < 0.001.

  11. Brain-to-brain synchrony in parent-child dyads and the relationship with emotion regulation revealed by fNIRS-based hyperscanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reindl, Vanessa; Gerloff, Christian; Scharke, Wolfgang; Konrad, Kerstin

    2018-05-25

    Parent-child synchrony, the coupling of behavioral and biological signals during social contact, may fine-tune the child's brain circuitries associated with emotional bond formation and the child's development of emotion regulation. Here, we examined the neurobiological underpinnings of these processes by measuring parent's and child's prefrontal neural activity concurrently with functional near-infrared spectroscopy hyperscanning. Each child played both a cooperative and a competitive game with the parent, mostly the mother, as well as an adult stranger. During cooperation, parent's and child's brain activities synchronized in the dorsolateral prefrontal and frontopolar cortex (FPC), which was predictive for their cooperative performance in subsequent trials. No significant brain-to-brain synchrony was observed in the conditions parent-child competition, stranger-child cooperation and stranger-child competition. Furthermore, parent-child compared to stranger-child brain-to-brain synchrony during cooperation in the FPC mediated the association between the parent's and the child's emotion regulation, as assessed by questionnaires. Thus, we conclude that brain-to-brain synchrony may represent an underlying neural mechanism of the emotional connection between parent and child, which is linked to the child's development of adaptive emotion regulation. Future studies may uncover whether brain-to-brain synchrony can serve as a neurobiological marker of the dyad's socio-emotional interaction, which is sensitive to risk conditions, and can be modified by interventions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Longitudinal associations between maternal disrupted representations, maternal interactive behavior and infant attachment: a comparison between full-term and preterm dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R A S; Hoffenkamp, H N; Tooten, A; Braeken, J; Vingerhoets, A J J M; van Bakel, H J A

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study examined whether or not a mother's representations of her infant were more often disrupted after premature childbirth. Furthermore, the study examined if different components of maternal interactive behavior mediated the relation between maternal disrupted representations and infant attachment. The participants were mothers of full-term (n = 75), moderately preterm (n = 68) and very preterm infants (n = 67). Maternal representations were assessed by the Working Model of the Child Interview at 6 months post-partum. Maternal interactive behavior was evaluated at 6 and 24 months post-partum, using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Care Research Network mother-infant observation scales. Infant attachment was observed at 24 months post-partum and was coded by the Attachment Q-Set. The results reveal that a premature childbirth does not necessarily generate disrupted maternal representations of the infant. Furthermore, maternal interactive behavior appears to be an important mechanism through which maternal representations influence the development of infant attachment in full-term and preterm infants. Early assessment of maternal representations can identify mother-infant dyads at risk, in full-term and preterm samples.

  13. Fruits and vegetables as a healthier snack throughout the day among families with older children: findings from a survey of parent-child dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Pinard, Courtney A; Byker Shanks, Carmen; Wethington, Holly; Blanck, Heidi M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2015-04-01

    Most U.S. youth fail to eat the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (FV) however many consume too many calories as added sugars and solid fats, often as snacks. The aim of this study was to assess factors associated with serving FV as snacks and with meals using parent-child dyads. A cross-sectional sample of U.S. children aged 9 to 18, and their caregiver/parent (n=1522) were part of a Consumer Panel of households for the 2008 YouthStyles mail survey. Chi-square test of independence and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess associations between serving patterns of FV as snacks with variations in serving patterns, and covariates including dietary habits. Most parents (72%) reported serving FV at meals and as snacks. Fruit was most frequently served as a snack during the day (52%) and vegetables were most frequently served as a snack during the day (22%) but rarely in the morning. Significant differences in child FV intake existed among FV as a snack serving patterns by parents. Compared to children whose parents served FV only at meals, children whose parents reported serving FV as snacks in addition to meals were significantly more likely to have consumed FV the day before (using a previous day screener), Psnacks, may increase FV intake among older children and adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. RFC-1 80G>A polymorphism in case-mother/control-mother dyads is associated with risk of nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvão-de-Azevedo, Rafaela; Vasconcelos, Gisele M; Vargas, Fernando R; Thuler, Luiz Claudio; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2015-02-01

    Embryonic tumors are associated with an interruption during normal organ development; they may be related to disturbances in the folate pathway involved in DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Prenatal supplementation with folic acid is associated with a decreased risk of neuroblastoma, brain tumors, retinoblastoma, and nephroblastoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR rs1801133 (C677T) and RFC-1 rs1051266 (G80A) genotypes with the risk of developing nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma. Case-mother/control-mother dyad study. Samples from Brazilian children with nephroblastoma (n=80), neuroblastoma (n=66), healthy controls (n=453), and their mothers (case n=93; control n=75) were analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells and/or buccal cells and genotyped to identify MTHFR C677T and RFC-1 G80A polymorphisms. Differences in genotype distribution between patients and controls were tested by multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk for nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma was two- to fourfold increased among children with RFC-1 polymorphisms. An increased four- to eightfold risk for neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma was seen when the child and maternal genotypes were combined. Our results suggest that mother and child RFC-1 G80A genotypes play a role on the risk of neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma since this polymorphism may impair the intracellular levels of folate, through carrying fewer folate molecules to the cell interior, and thus, the intracellular concentration is not enough to maintain regular DNA synthesis and methylation pathways.

  15. A research experience for American Indian undergraduates: Utilizing an actor–partner interdependence model to examine the student–mentor dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Emily R.; McMahon, Tracey R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2016-01-01

    The majority of research examining Undergraduate Research Experiences focuses singularly on student-reported outcomes, often overlooking assessment of the mentor role in student learning and outcomes following these experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the student-mentor dyad at the beginning and end of a 10-week summer research experience for American Indian undergraduates utilizing a series of actor-partner interdependence models within SEM. Participants included 26 undergraduate interns (50% American Indian; 50% American Indian and White; M age = 24) and 27 mentors (89% White; M age = 47). Findings indicated that in accounting for all potential paths between students and mentors, the partner path between mentor beliefs at the beginning of the program and students’ skills related to autonomy (β =.59, p = .01) and academic resilience (β =.44, p = .03) at the end of the program were significant. These findings suggest the important impact of mentor beliefs on student outcomes, a relationship that should be adequately assessed and continue to be important focus of undergraduate research experiences. Findings further indicate the important role of mentors for American Indian undergraduates. PMID:28289486

  16. Application of Dyadic Data Analysis in Pediatric Psychology: Cystic Fibrosis Health-Related Quality of Life and Anxiety in Child–Caregiver Dyads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatschneider, Christopher; McGinnity, Kelly; Modi, Avani C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the use of the actor–partner interdependence model (APIM) of dyadic relationships in a sample of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and their caregivers. Methods Multilevel modeling evaluated relations between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and anxiety in 29 child–caregiver dyads. The following effects were evaluated: actor and partner, and the respondent (i.e., child or caregiver) × HRQOL interaction. Results This study demonstrated a practical application of the APIM. Significant actor effects were found (i.e., lower child HRQOL was associated with increased child anxiety, caregiver anxiety increased as caregiver perceptions of their child's HRQOL decreased), but not partner effects. The significant interaction indicated that the effects were different for children and caregivers. Conclusions The APIM has the potential to increase pediatric researchers’ understanding of how social relationships and environments impact health outcomes. Future research should consider using dyadic data analysis when youth and caregiver data are available. PMID:22523403

  17. Psychosocial resiliency is associated with lower emotional distress among dyads of patients and their informal caregivers in the neuroscience intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Riklin, Eric; Jacobs, Jamie M; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of patients' and their informal caregivers' psychosocial resiliency factors with their own and their partners' emotion domains (distress, anxiety, depression, and anger) after admission to the neuroscience intensive care unit (Neuro-ICU). Eighty-three dyads of patients (total n = 87) and their informal caregivers (total n = 99) participated in this observational, cross-sectional study by self-reporting demographics and measures of resiliency factors (mindfulness [Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale Revised], coping [Measure of Coping Status-A], intimate bond [Intimate Bond Measure], self-efficacy [patients: General Self-Efficacy Scale; caregivers: Revised Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale]) and emotion domains (Emotion Thermometers) within 2 weeks of Neuro-ICU admission. There were no differences between patients' and caregivers' levels of psychosocial resiliency, distress, or anxiety. Patients reported greater depression and anger relative to their caregivers. Overall, roughly half of patients (50.6%) and caregivers (42.4%) reported clinically significant emotional distress. Patients' and caregivers' own psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with their own, but not their partner's, emotion domains. Findings of high distress among both patients and caregivers at admission emphasize the importance of attending to the mental health of both patients and caregivers in the Neuro-ICU. As modifiable psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with emotion domains for both patients and caregivers, interventions to enhance these factors may ameliorate emotional distress among these vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Paediatric nurses' perception of the child-family dyad's autonomy in managing a chronic disease situation: the experience of an Italian paediatric department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, A; Petralia, P; Furnari, S; Ghio, S; Calza, S; Sasso, L

    2013-06-01

    Chronically ill patients have to take several medications and non-adherence to treatment can lead to severe and negative outcomes. Therefore, several interventions are suggested in literature to improve adherence rates in clinical practice. Adherence to treatment can be particularly troublesome in adolescents, who strive for autonomy and self-care independence. Literature suggests that improving adherence is useful to guarantee positive outcomes and reduce costs. To explore how nurses perceived autonomy in parents, adolescents, and children related to the management of chronic disease. A qualitative study including 1 focus group and 7 semi-structured interviews conducted between September 2011 and October 2011. The qualitative date were analysed with the thematic analysis method. The sample included 12 paediatric nurses working in a Children's Cystic Fibrosis Unit and Neuromuscular Disease Unit. The 5 main categories that emerged from this qualitative study after he process of categorization were: 'Changes in daily lifestyle', 'Nurses' attitude towards educating the dyad', 'Adolescence and transition', 'Parents' attitudes towards chronic disease', and 'Availability of information'. Correct information and education is crucial for families who have a chronically ill child. Internet can be a misleading source of information and provide wrong information also in relation to prevention.

  19. Prise en charge des dyades mère traumatisée-bébé: une contrainte à la pensée et à la pratique

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Marion; Mouchenik, Yoram; Moro, Marie Rose

    2015-01-01

    Dans le champ de la protection de l’enfance, la prise en charge de certaines dyades mère-bébé met en difficultés les professionnels et on constate une mise en échec des suivis. L’objectif est de montrer qu’il faut penser un soin plus adapté pour ces dyades. Au travers de la présentation d’une situation clinique et de son suivi, les auteurs montrent l’impact des traumas vécus par une mère dans son pays d’origine sur le développement de son bébé né en France, et de quelles façons ces traumas co...

  20. Combined two-photon excitation and d → f energy-transfer in Ir/lanthanide dyads with time-gated selection from a two-component emission spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edkins, Robert M; Sykes, Daniel; Beeby, Andrew; Ward, Michael D

    2012-10-14

    In a pair of Ir/Eu and Ir/Tb dyads, two-photon excitation of the Ir-phenylpyridine chromophore at 780 nm is followed by partial d → f energy-transfer to give a combination of short-lived Ir-based (blue) and long-lived lanthanide-based (red or green) emission; these components can be selected separately by time-gated detection.

  1. Characterization of tin selenides synthesized by high-energy milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Achimovičová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tin selenides SnSeX (x=1,2 were synthesized from tin and selenium powder precursors by high-energy milling in the planetary ballmill Pulverisette 6 (Fritsch, Germany. The orthorhombic tin selenide SnSe and the hexagonal tin diselenide SnSe2 phases were formed after4 min and 5 min of milling, respectively. Specific surface area of both selenides increased with increasing time of mechanochemicalsynthesis. The particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that the synthesized products contain agglomerated selenide particlesconsisting of numerous idiomorphic tin selenide crystals, measuring from 2 to more than 100 nm in diameter, which were also documentedby TEM. UV-Vis spectrophotometry confirmed that tin selenide particles do not behave as quantum dots.

  2. Method of synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jaswinder K.; Datskos, Panos G.

    2015-09-15

    A method for synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves is provided. The method includes providing a solution of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, adding sodium citrate and ammonium hydroxide to form a first mixture, adding a silica-based compound to the solution to form a second mixture, and sonicating the second mixture to synthesize a plurality of silica nanofibers having an average cross-sectional diameter of less than 70 nm and having a length on the order of at least several hundred microns. The method can be performed without heating or electrospinning, and instead includes less energy intensive strategies that can be scaled up to an industrial scale. The resulting nanofibers can achieve a decreased mean diameter over conventional fibers. The decreased diameter generally increases the tensile strength of the silica nanofibers, as defects and contaminations decrease with the decreasing diameter.

  3. Antifouling activity of green-synthesized 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Miriam; García, Mónica; Ruiz, Diego; Autino, Juan Carlos; Romanelli, Gustavo; Blustein, Guillermo

    2016-02-01

    In the search for new environmental-friendly antifoulants for replace metallic biocides, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin was synthesized according to green chemistry procedures. This compound was characterized by current organic analysis and its antifouling properties were firstly evaluated on the bivalve Mytilus edulis platensis in the laboratory. In the second stage, a soluble matrix antifouling coating formulated with this compound was assayed in marine environment. Laboratory experiments showed that 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin was effective in inhibiting both the settlement as well as the byssogenesis of mussels. In addition, after exposure time in the sea, painted panels containing this compound showed strong antifouling effect on conspicuous species of the fouling community of Mar el Plata harbor. In conclusion, green-synthesized coumarin could be a suitable antifoulant candidate for marine protective coatings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrothermally synthesized barium fluoride nanocubes for thermoluminescence dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhadane, Mahesh S.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune-411007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this work, we report a hydrothermally synthesized Dy doped BaF{sub 2} (BaF{sub 2}:Dy) nanocubes and its Thermoluminescence studies. The synthesized BaF{sub 2}:Dy samples was found to posses FCC structure and having average size ~ 60-70 nm, as revealed through X-Ray Diffraction. Cubical morphology having size ~90 nm was observed from TEM analysis. The {sup 60}Co γ- ray irradiated BaF{sub 2}:Dy TL dosimetric experiments shows a pre-dominant single glow peak at 153 °C, indicating a single level trap present as a metastable state. Furthermore, BaF{sub 2}:Dy nanophosphor shows a sharp linear response from 10 Gy to 3 kGy, thus it can be applicable as a gamma dosimeter.

  5. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; López Soto, Eduardo J; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perelló, Mario

    2017-03-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a), and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  6. Studies on the Alkaloids of the Calycanthaceae and Their Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Biao Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Calycanthaceae family, which possesses four genera and about 15 species, are mainly distributed in China, North America and Australia. Chemical studies on the Calycanthaceae have led to the discovery of about 14 alkaloids of different skeletons, including dimeric piperidinoquinoline, dimeric pyrrolidinoindoline and/or trimeric pyrrolidinoindolines, which exhibit significant anti-convulsant, anti-fungal, anti-viral analgesic, anti-tumor, and anti-melanogenesis activities. As some of complex tryptamine-derived alkaloids exhibit promising biological activities, the syntheses of these alkaloids have also been a topic of interest in synthetic chemistry during the last decades. This review will focus on the structures and total syntheses of these alkaloids.

  7. Interaction Studies between Newly Synthesized Photosensitive Polymer and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Tae Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this information age, different kinds of photosensitive materials have been used in the manufacture of information storage devices. But these photosensitive materials have the bane of low diffraction efficiency. In order to solve this problem, we have synthesized a novel photosensitive polymer from epoxy-based azopolymers (with three types of azochromophores. Furthermore, we have studied the interaction between this newly synthesized azopolymer and ionic liquids (ILs. For this purpose, we have used the ammonium and imidazolium families of ILs, such as diethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate (DEAP, tributylammonium methyl sulfate (TBMS, triethylammonium 4-aminotoluene-3-sulfonic acid (TASA, and 1-methylimidazolium chloride ([Mim]Cl. To investigate the molecular interaction between azopolymer and ILs, we have used the following spectroscopic methods of analysis: UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and confocal Raman spectroscopy. In this study, we have developed new photosensitive materials by combining polymer with ILs.

  8. The Mossbauer spectra of carbon nanotubes synthesize using ferrite catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haiyan; Lin Jiapeng; Peng Zuxiong; Zeng Guoxun; Pang Jinshan; Chen Yiming

    2009-01-01

    The ferrite powder with honeycombed structure obtained by chemical combustion was used as catalyst to synthesize multi-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition. The magnetic components and characters of the the carbon nanotubes synthesized were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mossbauer spectra and vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM). The ferric components of the carbon nanotubes samples can be identified by Mossbauer spectra. The Mossbauer spectra of carbon nanotubes sample after purification contains two ferromagnetic sextet components corresponding to α-Fe species and Fe 3 C (cementite) species. While the Mossbauer spectra of the carbon nanotubes sample before purification contains three ferromagnetic sextet components corresponding to α-Fe species, Fe 3 C species and γ-Fe 2 O 3 . The saturation magnetization intensity Ms of carbon nanotubes sample after purification is decreased from 46.61 to 2.94 emu/g, but the coercive force increasd and reached 328Oe.

  9. 4-GHz counters bring synthesizers up to speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F.; Miller, R.

    1984-06-01

    The availability of digital IC counters built on GaAs makes direct frequency division in microwave synthesizers possible. Four GHz is the highest clock rate achievable in production designs. These devices have the ability to drive TTL/CMOS logic, and the counter can be connected directly to single-chip frequency synthesizers controllers. A complete microwave sythesizer is formed by two chips and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). The advantages of GaAs are discussed along with flip-flop basics, aspects of device fabrication, and the characteristics of GaAs MESAFETs. Attention is given to a GaAs prescaler usable for direct conversion, four kinds of flip-flops in a divide-by-two mode, and seven-stage binary ripple counters.

  10. Applications of Magnetosomes Synthesized by Magnetotactic Bacteria in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphandéry, Edouard

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria belong to a group of bacteria that synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles covered by biological material that are called magnetosomes. These bacteria use the magnetosomes as a compass to navigate in the direction of the earth’s magnetic field. This compass helps the bacteria to find the optimum conditions for their growth and survival. Here, we review several medical applications of magnetosomes, such as those in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic hyperthermia, and drug delivery. Different methods that can be used to prepare the magnetosomes for these applications are described. The toxicity and biodistribution results that have been published are summarized. They show that the magnetosomes can safely be used provided that they are prepared in specific conditions. The advantageous properties of the magnetosomes compared with those of chemically synthesized nanoparticles of similar composition are also highlighted.

  11. Is Ghrelin Synthesized in the Central Nervous System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Cabral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide that acts via its specific receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR-1a, and regulates a vast variety of physiological functions. It is well established that ghrelin is predominantly synthesized by a distinct population of endocrine cells located within the gastric oxyntic mucosa. In addition, some studies have reported that ghrelin could also be synthesized in some brain regions, such as the hypothalamus. However, evidences of neuronal production of ghrelin have been inconsistent and, as a consequence, it is still as a matter of debate if ghrelin can be centrally produced. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and discussion of the data supporting, or not, the notion that the mammalian central nervous system can synthetize ghrelin. We conclude that no irrefutable and reproducible evidence exists supporting the notion that ghrelin is synthetized, at physiologically relevant levels, in the central nervous system of adult mammals.

  12. Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity over Electro-synthesized HKUST-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witri Wahyu Lestari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available HKUST-1 [Cu3(1,3,5-BTC2] (BTC = benzene-tri-carboxylate was synthesized using an electrochemical method and tested for hydrogen storage. The obtained material showed a remarkably higher hydrogen uptake over reported HKUST-1 and reached until 4.75 wt% at room temperature and low pressure up to 1.2 bar. This yield was compared to HKUST-1 obtained from the solvothermal method, which showed a hydrogen uptake of only 1.19 wt%. Enhancement of hydrogen sorption of the electro-synthesized product was due to the more appropriate surface area and pore size, effected by the preferable physical interaction between the hydrogen gasses and the copper ions as unsaturated metal centers in the frameworks of HKUST-1.

  13. Monodisperse Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by a Microwave-Assisted Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao-Peng, Zhu; Shao-Chun, Tang; Xiang-Kang, Meng

    2009-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles with an average size of about 20 nm are synthesized in a colloidal solution with the aid of microwave irradiation. Neither additional reductant nor stabilizer is required in this microwave-assisted method. The color of the colloidal solution is found to be dark green, different from the characteristic yellow of silver colloidal solutions. The silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution have a narrow size distribution and large yield quantity. UV-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis reveals that the as-synthesized monodisperse silver nanoparticles have exceptional optical properties. Raman spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that these silver nanoparticles exhibit a notable surface-enhanced Raman scattering ability. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  14. Morphology and topography study of graphene synthesized from plant oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaiah, M.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.; Khusaimi, Z.; Azhan, H.; Laila, M. O.; Salifairus, M. J.; Asli, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The graphene is material consists of bonded atom carbon atoms in sheet form one atom thick. The different types of carbon sources which are refined corn oil, palm oil and waste cooking palm oil were used as carbon feedstock to supply carbon atom for synthesizing graphene on the nickel substrate by thermal chemical vapour deposition. The substrate and carbon sources were placed in double zone furnaces. The carbon sources and the substrate were heated at 300 °C and 900 °C respectively. The both furnaces were switched off after synthesis time for cooling process finish. The formation of the graphene on the Ni surface appears due to segregation and precipitation of a high amount of carbon from the source material during the cooling process. FESEM, AFM, UV-VIS Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopy were used to characterize and synthesized graphene.

  15. Strong nonlinear photonic responses from microbiologically synthesized tellurium nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, K.-S.; Wang, Jingyuan; Dias, S.; Dewald, J.; Alley, N.J.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.; Blau, W.J.; Curran, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new class of nanomaterials, namely microbiologically-formed nanorods composed of elemental tellurium [Te(0)] that forms unusual nanocomposites when combined with poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctoxy-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV) is described. These bio-nanocomposites exhibit excellent broadband optical limiting at 532 and 1064 nm. Nonlinear scattering, originating from the laser induced solvent bubbles and microplasmas, is responsible for this nonlinear behavior. The use of bacterially-formed Te(0) when combined with an organic chemical host (e.g., PmPV) is a new green method of nanoparticle syntheses. This opens the possibilities of using unique, biologically synthesized materials to advance future nanoelectronic and nanophotonic applications. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Emergency department case management: the dyad team of nurse case manager and social worker improve discharge planning and patient and staff satisfaction while decreasing inappropriate admissions and costs: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Darlene P; Herrick, Charlotte A

    2002-01-01

    A model of emergency department (ED) case management consisting of a social worker and a nurse case manager can prevent inappropriate admissions, improve discharge planning, decrease cost, and enhance patient satisfaction. The individual and combined roles of the dyad team of social worker and nurse case manager are discussed. A literature review includes how a case management dyad team of social worker and nurse case manager in the ED can decrease utilization of the ED for nonemergent visits, promote the use of community resources, and improve discharge planning to avoid excessive costs. The importance of the dyad team working with the interdisciplinary team in the ED, the primary care physician (PCP), and other community health care providers in order to provide a holistic approach to care is addressed. A discussion about the improvement of both patient and staff satisfaction demonstrates the results of case management strategies that support and advocate for patients to receive quality, cost-effective care across the health care continuum, while decreasing the use of the ED for nonemergent care.

  17. Can microcarrier-expanded chondrocytes synthesize cartilaginous tissue in vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrao, Denver C; Khan, Aasma A; McGregor, Aaron J; Amsden, Brian G; Waldman, Stephen D

    2011-08-01

    Tissue engineering is a promising approach for articular cartilage repair; however, it is challenging to produce adequate amounts of tissue in vitro from the limited number of cells that can be extracted from an individual. Relatively few cell expansion methods exist without the problems of de-differentiation and/or loss of potency. Recently, however, several studies have noted the benefits of three-dimensional (3D) over monolayer expansion, but the ability of 3D expanded chondrocytes to synthesize cartilaginous tissue constructs has not been demonstrated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the properties of engineered cartilage constructs from expanded cells (monolayer and 3D microcarriers) to those developed from primary chondrocytes. Isolated bovine chondrocytes were grown for 3 weeks in either monolayer (T-Flasks) or 3D microcarrier (Cytodex 3) expansion culture. Expanded and isolated primary cells were then seeded in high density culture on Millicell™ filters for 4 weeks to evaluate the ability to synthesize cartilaginous tissue. While microcarrier expansion was twice as effective as monolayer expansion (microcarrier: 110-fold increase, monolayer: 52-fold increase), the expanded cells (monolayer and 3D microcarrier) were not effectively able to synthesize cartilaginous tissue in vitro. Tissues developed from primary cells were substantially thicker and accumulated significantly more extracellular matrix (proteoglycan content: 156%-292% increase; collagen content: 70%-191% increase). These results were attributed to phenotypic changes experienced during the expansion phase. Monolayer expanded chondrocytes lost their native morphology within 1 week, whereas microcarrier-expanded cells were spreading by 3 weeks of expansion. While the use of 3D microcarriers can lead to large cellular yields, preservation of chondrogenic phenotype during expansion is required in order to synthesize cartilaginous tissue.

  18. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1974

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1975-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1974 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses the chemistry of simple and complex metal hydrides of main groups I, II, and III, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens, and pseudohalogens. The text also describes the chemistry of scandium, yttrium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, ma

  19. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1973

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1974-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1973 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book covers the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of elements, including the main group hydrides, alkali and alkaline earth elements, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens and pseudohalogens, and noble gases. The text also discusses the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of

  20. Economical parallel oligonucleotide and peptide synthesizer - PET OLIGATOR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebl, M.; Pistek, Ch.; Hachmann, J.; Mudra, Petr; Pešek, Václav; Pokorný, Vít; Poncar, Pavel; Ženíšek, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, 1/2 (2007), s. 367-375 ISSN 1573-3149 Grant - others:NIH SBIR(US) R43 GM61511-01; NIH SBIR(US) R43 GM58981-01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : automated synthesizer * centrifugation * parallel synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.971, year: 2007

  1. Improved chemical syntheses of 5,6-dihydro-5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrate, Andrew L; Katzenellenbogen, John A

    2007-10-26

    5,6-dihydro-5-fluorouracil (5-DHFU) is a metabolite of the chemotherapy drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) of importance for biological studies. 5-DHFU has been prepared by enzymatic reduction of 5-FU and in very low yield by hydrogenation of 5-FU; however, a practical chemical synthesis is not available. Facile racemic syntheses of 5-DHFU from 5-FU or uracil, using p-methoxybenzyl protecting groups followed by L-Selectride reduction, are reported.

  2. Total syntheses of Prelactone V and Prelactone B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, S; Tadiparthi, Krishnaji; Yadav, J S

    2017-04-10

    The total syntheses of natural products Prelactone-V and Prelactone-B have been accomplished by a novel Chiron approach starting from d-glucose. The synthesis involves isopropylidene acetal formation of d-glucose using Poly(4-vinylpyridine) supported iodine as a catalyst, Tebbe olefination, Grignard reaction, Wittig olefination, selective mono deprotection of acetal using PMA/SiO 2 , hydrogenation and anti-1,3-diol formation are as key steps. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Syntheses and characterizations of LiFePO4 powders

    OpenAIRE

    Jugović, Dragana; Kuzmanović, Maja; Mitrić, Miodrag; Cvjetićanin, Nikola; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The olivine type compositions LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co) are among the most attractive materials for the positive electrode of lithium-ion battery. The benefits of using LiFePO4 are excellent cycle life, high structural stability, low cost and environmental friendliness. Here will be presented our efforts to obtain LiFePO4 powders through several synthesis methods. The differences in phase purity, microstructure, morphology, and electrochemical performances of synthesized powders were investigat...

  4. Syntheses and pyrolytic studies of salicylate derivatives of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New salicylate derivatives of heteronucleic-μ-oxoisopropoxide [SnO2AlB(OPri)4] have been synthesized by the thermal condensation of μ-oxoisopropoxide and methyl/ethyl/phenyl/phenyl ethyl salicylates in different molar ratios (1:1-1:2) yielding the compounds of the type [SnO2AlB(OPri)4-n(RSAL)n] (where n is 1-2 and ...

  5. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1972

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1973-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1972 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses alkali and alkaline earth elements, alloys, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, mercury, boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium, yttrium, scandium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, Group V and VI transition elements, manganese, technetium, rhenium, iron, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, and iridium. The text also describes the chemistry of palladium, platinum, silicon, germanium, tin,

  6. Analysis of Periodic Errors for Synthesized-Reference-Wave Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Schejbal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesized-reference-wave holographic techniques offer relatively simple and cost-effective measurement of antenna radiation characteristics and reconstruction of complex aperture fields using near-field intensity-pattern measurement. These methods allow utilization of advantages of methods for probe compensations for amplitude and phasing near-field measurements for the planar and cylindrical scanning including accuracy analyses. The paper analyzes periodic errors, which can be created during scanning, using both theoretical results and numerical simulations.

  7. Knowledge Syntheses in Medical Education: Demystifying Scoping Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Aliki; Lubarsky, Stuart; Durning, Steven J; Young, Meredith E

    2017-02-01

    An unprecedented rise in health professions education (HPE) research has led to increasing attention and interest in knowledge syntheses. There are many different types of knowledge syntheses in common use, including systematic reviews, meta-ethnography, rapid reviews, narrative reviews, and realist reviews. In this Perspective, the authors examine the nature, purpose, value, and appropriate use of one particular method: scoping reviews. Scoping reviews are iterative and flexible and can serve multiple main purposes: to examine the extent, range, and nature of research activity in a given field; to determine the value and appropriateness of undertaking a full systematic review; to summarize and disseminate research findings; and to identify research gaps in the existing literature. Despite the advantages of this methodology, there are concerns that it is a less rigorous and defensible means to synthesize HPE literature. Drawing from published research and from their collective experience with this methodology, the authors present a brief description of scoping reviews, explore the advantages and disadvantages of scoping reviews in the context of HPE, and offer lessons learned and suggestions for colleagues who are considering conducting scoping reviews. Examples of published scoping reviews are provided to illustrate the steps involved in the methodology.

  8. Development of an Intelligent System to Synthesize Petrophysical Well Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Nouri Taleghani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Porosity is one of the fundamental petrophysical properties that should be evaluated for hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs. It is a vital factor in precise understanding of reservoir quality in a hydrocarbon field. Log data are exceedingly crucial information in petroleum industries, for many of hydrocarbon parameters are obtained by virtue of petrophysical data. There are three main petrophysical logging tools for the determination of porosity, namely neutron, density, and sonic well logs. Porosity can be determined by the use of each of these tools; however, a precise analysis requires a complete set of these tools. Log sets are commonly either incomplete or unreliable for many reasons (i.e. incomplete logging, measurement errors, and loss of data owing to unsuitable data storage. To overcome this drawback, in this study several intelligent systems such as fuzzy logic (FL, neural network (NN, and support vector machine are used to predict synthesized petrophysical logs including neutron, density, and sonic. To accomplish this, the petrophysical well logs data were collected from a real reservoir in one of Iran southwest oil fields. The corresponding correlation was obtained through the comparison of synthesized log values with real log values. The results showed that all intelligent systems were capable of synthesizing petrophysical well logs, but SVM had better accuracy and could be used as the most reliable method compared to the other techniques.

  9. A new approach to synthesize supported ruthenium phosphides for hydrodesulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qingfang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Yin, Xiaoqian; Zhou, Linxi; Zhang, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We bring out a new method to synthesize noble metal phosphides at low temperature. • Both RuP and Ru_2P were synthesized using triphenylphosphine as phosphorus sources. • Ru_2P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. • RuP/SiO_2 prepared by new method had better HDS activity to that by TPR method. - Abstract: Supported noble metal ruthenium phosphides were synthesized by one-step H_2-thermal treatment method using triphenylphosphine (TPP) as phosphorus sources at low temperatures. Two phosphides RuP and Ru_2P can be prepared by this method via varying the molar ratio of metal salt and TPP. The as-prepared phosphides were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), low-temperature N_2 adsorption, CO chemisorption and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The supported ruthenium phosphides prepared by new method and conventional method together with contradistinctive metallic ruthenium were evaluated in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). The catalytic results showed that metal-rich Ru_2P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. Besides this, ruthenium phosphide catalyst prepared by new method exhibited superior HDS activity to that prepared by conventional method.

  10. A new approach to synthesize supported ruthenium phosphides for hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingfang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Water Environment and Resources, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Zhiqiang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Water Environment and Resources, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Yin, Xiaoqian; Zhou, Linxi [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhang, Minghui, E-mail: zhangmh@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Kashgar University, Kashgar 844006 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We bring out a new method to synthesize noble metal phosphides at low temperature. • Both RuP and Ru{sub 2}P were synthesized using triphenylphosphine as phosphorus sources. • Ru{sub 2}P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. • RuP/SiO{sub 2} prepared by new method had better HDS activity to that by TPR method. - Abstract: Supported noble metal ruthenium phosphides were synthesized by one-step H{sub 2}-thermal treatment method using triphenylphosphine (TPP) as phosphorus sources at low temperatures. Two phosphides RuP and Ru{sub 2}P can be prepared by this method via varying the molar ratio of metal salt and TPP. The as-prepared phosphides were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), low-temperature N{sub 2} adsorption, CO chemisorption and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The supported ruthenium phosphides prepared by new method and conventional method together with contradistinctive metallic ruthenium were evaluated in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT). The catalytic results showed that metal-rich Ru{sub 2}P was the better active phase for HDS than RuP and metal Ru. Besides this, ruthenium phosphide catalyst prepared by new method exhibited superior HDS activity to that prepared by conventional method.

  11. GHz band frequency hopping PLL-based frequency synthesizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yong; WANG Zhi-gong; GUAN Yu; XU Zhi-jun; QIAO Lu-feng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe a full-integrated circuit containing all building blocks of a completed PLL-based synthesizer except for low pass filter(LPF).The frequency synthesizer is designed for a frequency hopping (FH) transceiver operating up to 1.5 GHz as a local oscillator. The architecture of Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is optimized to get better performance, and a phase noise of -111.85-dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz and a tuning range of 250 MHz are gained at a centre frequency of 1.35 GHz.A novel Dual-Modulus Prescaler(DMP) is designed to achieve a very low jitter and a lower power.The settling time of PLL is 80 μs while the reference frequency is 400 KHz.This monolithic frequency synthesizer is to integrate all main building blocks of PLL except for the low pass filter,with a maximum VCO output frequency of 1.5 GHz,and is fabricated with a 0.18 μm mixed signal CMOS process. Low power dissipation, low phase noise, large tuning range and fast settling time are gained in this design.

  12. Radiolytic Syntheses of Nanoparticles and Inorganic-Polymer Hybrid Microgels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Shi, J.; Zhao, R.; Shen, X.

    2010-01-01

    In the second year of the project, we have gotten progress mainly in two directions. Firstly, for the first time, Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by the partly radiolytic reduction of Fe3+ and Fe(CN)63 in the presence of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidine) (PVP) under N2 atmospheres at room temperature. With the increase of the concentration of PVP, the size and the size distribution of the synthesized quasi-spherical PB NPs decreased obviously, leading to a hypsochromic shift on their peak position of the characteristic absorption. In the experiment, we further found that the smaller ones have a larger capacity to Cs+, suggesting that the application of PB NPs in curing thallotoxicosis may decrease the usage of PB for the patient to great extent. Secondly, through a series of preliminary experiments, we got a clear picture about the one-step radiolytic preparation of inorganic-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Besides, unpurified N-carbamothioylmethacrylamide was synthesized via the methacrylation of thiourea. These created favorable conditions for the one-step synthesis of metal sulfide-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by -irradiation and surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. (author)

  13. Performance of Phonatory Deviation Diagrams in Synthesized Voice Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; da Silva, Karoline Evangelista; da Silva Evangelista, Deyverson; Almeida, Anna Alice; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; Lucero, Jorge; Behlau, Mara

    2018-05-02

    To analyze the performance of a phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in discriminating the presence and severity of voice deviation and the predominant voice quality of synthesized voices. A speech-language pathologist performed the auditory-perceptual analysis of the synthesized voice (n = 871). The PDD distribution of voice signals was analyzed according to area, quadrant, shape, and density. Differences in signal distribution regarding the PDD area and quadrant were detected when differentiating the signals with and without voice deviation and with different predominant voice quality. Differences in signal distribution were found in all PDD parameters as a function of the severity of voice disorder. The PDD area and quadrant can differentiate normal voices from deviant synthesized voices. There are differences in signal distribution in PDD area and quadrant as a function of the severity of voice disorder and the predominant voice quality. However, the PDD area and quadrant do not differentiate the signals as a function of severity of voice disorder and differentiated only the breathy and rough voices from the normal and strained voices. PDD density is able to differentiate only signals with moderate and severe deviation. PDD shape shows differences between signals with different severities of voice deviation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The method of synthesizing of superhydrophobic surfaces by PECVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazbayev, Sagi; Gabdullin, Maratbek; Ramazanov, Tlekkabul; Dosbolayev, Merlan; Zhunisbekov, Askar; Omirbekov, Dulat; Otarbay, Zhuldyz

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain superhydrophobic surfaces in a plasma medium. The experiment was carried out using the PECVD method in two different modes: constant and pulsing. The surface roughness was obtained by applying nanoparticles synthesized in plasma in a mixture of argon and methane. The resulting particles were deposited on the surface of silicon and glass materials. The contact angle increased linearly depending on the number of cycles, until it reached 160° at 150-160th cycles, after that the increase in cycles does not affect the contact angle, since the saturation process is in progress. Also the effect of the working gas composition on the hydrophobicity of the surface was studied. At low concentrations of methane (1%) only particles are synthesized in the working gas, and hydrophobicity is unstable, with an increase in methane concentration (7%) nanofilms are synthesized from nanoclusters, and surface hydrophobicity is relatively stable. In addition, a pulsing plasma mode was used to obtain superhydrophobic surfaces. The hydrophobicity of the sample showed that the strength of the nanofilm was stable in comparison with the sample obtained in the first mode, but the contact angle was lower. The obtained samples were examined using SEM, SPM, optical analysis, and their contact angles were determined.

  15. Radiolytic Syntheses of Nanoparticles and Inorganic-Polymer Hybrid Microgels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Shi, J.; Zhao, R.; Shen, X., E-mail: qdchen@pku.edu.cn [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, No. 5, Yiheyuan Load, Haidian District Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-07-01

    In the second year of the project, we have gotten progress mainly in two directions. Firstly, for the first time, Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized by the partly radiolytic reduction of Fe3+ and Fe(CN)63 in the presence of poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidine) (PVP) under N2 atmospheres at room temperature. With the increase of the concentration of PVP, the size and the size distribution of the synthesized quasi-spherical PB NPs decreased obviously, leading to a hypsochromic shift on their peak position of the characteristic absorption. In the experiment, we further found that the smaller ones have a larger capacity to Cs+, suggesting that the application of PB NPs in curing thallotoxicosis may decrease the usage of PB for the patient to great extent. Secondly, through a series of preliminary experiments, we got a clear picture about the one-step radiolytic preparation of inorganic-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Besides, unpurified N-carbamothioylmethacrylamide was synthesized via the methacrylation of thiourea. These created favorable conditions for the one-step synthesis of metal sulfide-poly(methacrylic acid-co-methyl methacrylate) hybrid microgels by -irradiation and surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. (author)

  16. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized by marine Ochrobactrum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roshmi; Janardhanan, Anju; Varghese, Rintu T; Soniya, E V; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticle synthesis is an interesting area in nanotechnology due to their remarkable optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and biomedical properties, but there needs to develop clean, non-toxic and environmental friendly methods for the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles. Biological agents in the form of microbes have emerged up as efficient candidates for nanoparticle synthesis due to their extreme versatility to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with varying size and shape. In the present study, an eco favorable method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacterial isolate has been attempted. Very interestingly, molecular identification proved it as a strain of Ochrobactrum anhtropi. In addition, the isolate was found to have the potential to form silver nanoparticles intracellularly at room temperature within 24 h. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 38 nm - 85 nm. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the isolate were also used to explore its antibacterial potential against pathogens like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized by marine Ochrobactrum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshmi Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal nanoparticle synthesis is an interesting area in nanotechnology due to their remarkable optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and biomedical properties, but there needs to develop clean, non-toxic and environmental friendly methods for the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles. Biological agents in the form of microbes have emerged up as efficient candidates for nanoparticle synthesis due to their extreme versatility to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with varying size and shape. In the present study, an eco favorable method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacterial isolate has been attempted. Very interestingly, molecular identification proved it as a strain of Ochrobactrum anhtropi. In addition, the isolate was found to have the potential to form silver nanoparticles intracellularly at room temperature within 24 h. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 38 nm - 85 nm. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the isolate were also used to explore its antibacterial potential against pathogens like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus.

  18. Soft-Template-Synthesized Mesoporous Carbon for Oral Drug Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Dipendu [ORNL; Warren, Kaitlyn E [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Template-synthesized mesoporous carbons were successfully used in in vitro investigations of controlled delivery of three model drugs, captopril, furosemide, and ranitidine hydrochloride. Captopril and furosemide exhibited desorption kinetics over 30 40 h, and ranitidine HCl had a complete release time of 5 10 h. As evident from the slow release kinetics, we contend that our mesoporous carbon is an improved drug-delivery medium compared to state-of-the-art porous silica-based substrates. The mesoporous carbons, synthesized from phloroglucinol and lignin, a synthetic and a sustainable precursor, respectively, exhibit BET surface area of 200 400 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.2 0.6 cm3 g-1. The phloroglucinol-based carbon has narrower pore widths and higher pore volume than the lignin-derived counterpart and maintains a longer release time. Numerical modeling of the release kinetics data reveals that the diffusivities of all the drugs from lignin-based carbon media are of equivalent magnitude (10-22 to 10-24 m2 s-1). However, a tailored reduction of pore width in the sorbent reduces the diffusivity of smaller drug molecules (captopril) by an order of magnitude. Thus, engineered pore morphology in our synthesized carbon sorbent, along with its potential to tailor the chemistry of its interaction with sorbet, can be exploited for optimal delivery system of a preferred drug within its therapeutic level and below the level of toxicity.

  19. A novel nanostructure of cadmium oxide synthesized by mechanochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjarodi, A., E-mail: tajarodi@iust.ac.ir [Research Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, M. [Research Laboratory of Inorganic Materials Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846-13114 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} A novel nanostructure of CdO was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed by calcination. {yields} Mechanochemical method is a simple and low-cost to synthesize nanomaterials. {yields} The obtained precursor was characterized by FT-IR, NMR techniques and elemental analysis. {yields} SEM images showed cauliflower-like shape of sample with components average diameter of 68 nm. {yields} The rods and tubes bundles with single crystalline nature were revealed by ED pattern and TEM images. -- Abstract: Cauliflower-like cadmium oxide (CdO) nanostructure was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed calcination procedure. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and acetamide were used as reagents and the resulting precursor was calcinated at 450 {sup o}C for 2 h in air. The structures of the precursor and resultant product of the heating treatment were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). SEM and TEM images revealed the cauliflower-like morphology of the sample. This structure includes the bundles of rods and tubes in nanoscale, which combine with each other and form the resulting morphology with the average diameter, 68 nm of the components. ED pattern indicated the single crystal nature of the formed bundles.

  20. A novel nanostructure of cadmium oxide synthesized by mechanochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadjarodi, A.; Imani, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel nanostructure of CdO was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed by calcination. → Mechanochemical method is a simple and low-cost to synthesize nanomaterials. → The obtained precursor was characterized by FT-IR, NMR techniques and elemental analysis. → SEM images showed cauliflower-like shape of sample with components average diameter of 68 nm. → The rods and tubes bundles with single crystalline nature were revealed by ED pattern and TEM images. -- Abstract: Cauliflower-like cadmium oxide (CdO) nanostructure was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed calcination procedure. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and acetamide were used as reagents and the resulting precursor was calcinated at 450 o C for 2 h in air. The structures of the precursor and resultant product of the heating treatment were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). SEM and TEM images revealed the cauliflower-like morphology of the sample. This structure includes the bundles of rods and tubes in nanoscale, which combine with each other and form the resulting morphology with the average diameter, 68 nm of the components. ED pattern indicated the single crystal nature of the formed bundles.

  1. Maternal post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and alcohol dependence and child behaviour outcomes in mother-child dyads infected with HIV: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthling, Jani; Martin, Cherie L; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-10

    HIV and psychiatric disorders are prevalent and often concurrent. Childbearing women are at an increased risk for both HIV and psychiatric disorders, specifically depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Poor mental health in the peripartum period has adverse effects on infant development and behaviour. Few studies have investigated the relationship between maternal PTSD and child behaviour outcomes in an HIV vertically infected sample. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal postpartum trauma exposure and PTSD were risk factors for child behaviour problems. In addition, maternal depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability were explored as cofactors. The study was conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. 70 mother-child dyads infected with HIV were selected from a group of participants recruited from community health centres. The study followed a longitudinal design. Five measures were used to assess maternal trauma exposure, PTSD, depression, alcohol abuse and functional disability at 12 months postpartum: Life Events Checklist (LEC), Harvard Trauma Scale (HTS), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CESD) Scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Child behaviour was assessed at 42 months with the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). The rate of maternal disorder was high with 50% scoring above the cut-off for depression, 22.9% for PTSD and 7% for alcohol abuse. Half of the children scored within the clinical range for problematic behaviour. Children of mothers with depression were significantly more likely to display total behaviour problems than children of mothers without depression. Maternal PTSD had the greatest explanatory power for child behaviour problems, although it did not significantly predict child outcomes. This study highlights the importance of identifying and managing maternal PTSD and depression in mothers of children infected with HIV. The

  2. Brain-mind dyad, human experience, the consciousness tetrad and lattice of mental operations: and further, the need to integrate knowledge from diverse disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2011-01-01

    Brain, Mind and Consciousness are the research concerns of psychiatrists, psychologists, neurologists, cognitive neuroscientists and philosophers. All of them are working in different and important ways to understand the workings of the brain, the mysteries of the mind and to grasp that elusive concept called consciousness. Although they are all justified in forwarding their respective researches, it is also necessary to integrate these diverse appearing understandings and try and get a comprehensive perspective that is, hopefully, more than the sum of their parts. There is also the need to understand what each one is doing, and by the other, to understand each other's basic and fundamental ideological and foundational underpinnings. This must be followed by a comprehensive and critical dialogue between the respective disciplines. Moreover, the concept of mind and consciousness in Indian thought needs careful delineation and critical/evidential enquiry to make it internationally relevant. The brain-mind dyad must be understood, with brain as the structural correlate of the mind, and mind as the functional correlate of the brain. To understand human experience, we need a triad of external environment, internal environment and a consciousness that makes sense of both. We need to evolve a consensus on the definition of consciousness, for which a working definition in the form of a Consciousness Tetrad of Default, Aware, Operational and Evolved Consciousness is presented. It is equally necessary to understand the connection between physical changes in the brain and mental operations, and thereby untangle and comprehend the lattice of mental operations. Interdisciplinary work and knowledge sharing, in an atmosphere of healthy give and take of ideas, and with a view to understand the significance of each other's work, and also to critically evaluate the present corpus of knowledge from these diverse appearing fields, and then carry forward from there in a spirit of

  3. Intimate Partner Violence and Animal Abuse in an Immigrant-Rich Sample of Mother-Child Dyads Recruited From Domestic Violence Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christie A; Hageman, Tina; Williams, James Herbert; Ascione, Frank R

    2018-03-01

    We examined rates of animal abuse in pet-owning families experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). We also examined whether higher levels of IPV (as measured by subscales from the Conflict Tactics Scales) predicted increased risk for partner-perpetrated animal abuse. Our sample included 291 mother-child dyads, where the mothers sought services from domestic violence agencies. Nearly half the sample is comprised of Mexican immigrants. Mothers reported that 11.7% of partners threatened to harm a pet and 26.1% actually harmed a pet, the latter of which represents a lower rate than in similar studies. When examining animal abuse by "Hispanic status," follow-up analyses revealed significant omnibus differences between groups, in that non-Hispanic U.S.-born partners (mostly White) displayed higher rates of harming pets (41%) than either U.S.-born or Mexican-born Hispanic groups (27% and 12.5%, respectively). Differences in rates for only threatening (but not harming) pets were not significant, possibly due to a small number of partners ( n = 32) in this group. When examining whether partners' IPV predicted only threatening to harm pets, no IPV subscale variables (Physical Assault, Psychological Aggression, Injury, or Sexual Coercion) were significant after controlling for income, education, and Hispanic status. When examining actual harm to pets, more Psychological Aggression and less Physical Assault significantly predicted slightly higher risk of harm. However, Mexican-born partners had nearly 4 times lower risk of harming a pet. Overall, these results suggest that Hispanic men who are perpetrators of IPV are less likely to harm pets than non-Hispanic perpetrators of IPV, particularly if Mexican-born. Considering that the United States has a significant proportion of Mexican immigrants, it may be worthwhile to explore the topics of IPV and animal abuse within this group.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among family caregivers of cancer patients: a nationwide survey of patient-family caregiver dyads in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, So Young; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Sanson-Fisher, Robert W; Shin, Dong Wook; Cho, Juhee; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among family caregivers of patients with cancer in Korea. A national, multicenter, cross-sectional survey was conducted with 897 family caregivers. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression in patient-family caregiver dyads. The prevalence of anxiety in family caregivers was 38.1 %:20.3 % reported mild anxiety, 13.3 % reported moderate anxiety, and 4.6 % reported severe anxiety. The prevalence of depression was 82.2 %:40.4 % reported mild depression, 25.5 % reported moderate depression, and 16.3 % reported severe depression. Family caregivers who were younger, were caring for male patients, or had a low quality of life (QOL) in relation to three of the variables measured in the Korean Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC-K): burden, disturbance, and financial concerns reported increased anxiety. Becoming unemployed during caregiving, being the spouse of a patient and having low QOL in relation to three of the variables measured by the CQOLC-K: burden, disturbance, and positive adaptation were associated with depression among family caregivers. The predictive validity of the selected variables were 0.861 (95 % CI: 0.844-0.892) for anxiety and 0.794 (95 % CI: 0.751-0.828) for depression. Family caregivers of patients with cancer experienced high levels of anxiety and depression. Socio-demographic factors and QOL were predictors of anxiety and depression in family caregivers.

  5. Substitution of conventional high-temperature syntheses of inorganic compounds by near-room-temperature syntheses in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Groh, Matthias Friedrich; Mü llera, Ulrike; Ahmed, Ejaz; Rothenberger, Alexander; Ruck, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The high-temperature syntheses of the low-valent halogenides P2I4, Te2Br, α-Te4I4, Te4(Al2Cl7)2, Te4(Bi6Cl20), Te8(Bi4Cl14),Bi8(AlCl4)2, Bi6Cl7,and Bi6Br7, as well as of WSCl4 andWOCl4 have been replaced by resource-efficient low

  6. Substitution of conventional high-temperature syntheses of inorganic compounds by near-room-temperature syntheses in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Groh, Matthias Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    The high-temperature syntheses of the low-valent halogenides P2I4, Te2Br, α-Te4I4, Te4(Al2Cl7)2, Te4(Bi6Cl20), Te8(Bi4Cl14),Bi8(AlCl4)2, Bi6Cl7,and Bi6Br7, as well as of WSCl4 andWOCl4 have been replaced by resource-efficient low-temperature syntheses in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The simple one-pot syntheses generally do not require elaborate equipment such as twozone furnaces or evacuated silica ampoules. Compared to the published conventional approaches, reduction of reaction time (up to 80%) and temperature (up to 500 K) and, simultaneously, an increase in yield were achieved. In the majority of cases, the solid products were phase-pure. X-Ray diffraction on single crystals (redetermination of 11 crystal structures) has demonstrated that the quality of the crystals from RTILs is comparable to that of products obtained by chemical transport reactions. © 2013 Verlag der Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Tübingen.

  7. Analyzing and synthesizing phylogenies using tree alignment graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Smith

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic trees are used to analyze and visualize evolution. However, trees can be imperfect datatypes when summarizing multiple trees. This is especially problematic when accommodating for biological phenomena such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and hybridization, as well as topological conflict between datasets. Additionally, researchers may want to combine information from sets of trees that have partially overlapping taxon sets. To address the problem of analyzing sets of trees with conflicting relationships and partially overlapping taxon sets, we introduce methods for aligning, synthesizing and analyzing rooted phylogenetic trees within a graph, called a tree alignment graph (TAG. The TAG can be queried and analyzed to explore uncertainty and conflict. It can also be synthesized to construct trees, presenting an alternative to supertrees approaches. We demonstrate these methods with two empirical datasets. In order to explore uncertainty, we constructed a TAG of the bootstrap trees from the Angiosperm Tree of Life project. Analysis of the resulting graph demonstrates that areas of the dataset that are unresolved in majority-rule consensus tree analyses can be understood in more detail within the context of a graph structure, using measures incorporating node degree and adjacency support. As an exercise in synthesis (i.e., summarization of a TAG constructed from the alignment trees, we also construct a TAG consisting of the taxonomy and source trees from a recent comprehensive bird study. We synthesized this graph into a tree that can be reconstructed in a repeatable fashion and where the underlying source information can be updated. The methods presented here are tractable for large scale analyses and serve as a basis for an alternative to consensus tree and supertree methods. Furthermore, the exploration of these graphs can expose structures and patterns within the dataset that are otherwise difficult to

  8. Analyzing and synthesizing phylogenies using tree alignment graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen A; Brown, Joseph W; Hinchliff, Cody E

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are used to analyze and visualize evolution. However, trees can be imperfect datatypes when summarizing multiple trees. This is especially problematic when accommodating for biological phenomena such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and hybridization, as well as topological conflict between datasets. Additionally, researchers may want to combine information from sets of trees that have partially overlapping taxon sets. To address the problem of analyzing sets of trees with conflicting relationships and partially overlapping taxon sets, we introduce methods for aligning, synthesizing and analyzing rooted phylogenetic trees within a graph, called a tree alignment graph (TAG). The TAG can be queried and analyzed to explore uncertainty and conflict. It can also be synthesized to construct trees, presenting an alternative to supertrees approaches. We demonstrate these methods with two empirical datasets. In order to explore uncertainty, we constructed a TAG of the bootstrap trees from the Angiosperm Tree of Life project. Analysis of the resulting graph demonstrates that areas of the dataset that are unresolved in majority-rule consensus tree analyses can be understood in more detail within the context of a graph structure, using measures incorporating node degree and adjacency support. As an exercise in synthesis (i.e., summarization of a TAG constructed from the alignment trees), we also construct a TAG consisting of the taxonomy and source trees from a recent comprehensive bird study. We synthesized this graph into a tree that can be reconstructed in a repeatable fashion and where the underlying source information can be updated. The methods presented here are tractable for large scale analyses and serve as a basis for an alternative to consensus tree and supertree methods. Furthermore, the exploration of these graphs can expose structures and patterns within the dataset that are otherwise difficult to observe.

  9. Tribology of carbide derived carbon films synthesized on tungsten carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustochowicz, Marcin

    Tribologically advantageous films of carbide derived carbon (CDC) have been successfully synthesized on binderless tungsten carbide manufactured using the plasma pressure compaction (P2CRTM) technology. In order to produce the CDC films, tungsten carbide samples were reacted with chlorine containing gas mixtures at temperatures ranging from 800°C to 1000°C in a sealed tube furnace. Some of the treated samples were later dechlorinated by an 800°C hydrogenation treatment. Detailed mechanical and structural characterizations of the CDC films and sliding contact surfaces were done using a series of analytical techniques and their results were correlated with the friction and wear behavior of the CDC films in various tribosystems, including CDC-steel, CDC-WC, CDC-Si3N4 and CDC-CDC. Optimum synthesis and treatment conditions were determined for use in two specific environments: moderately humid air and dry nitrogen. It was found that CDC films first synthesized at 1000°C and then hydrogen post-treated at 800°C performed best in air with friction coefficient values as low as 0.11. However, for dry nitrogen applications, no dechlorination was necessary and both hydrogenated and as-synthesized CDC films exhibited friction coefficients of approximately 0.03. A model of tribological behavior of CDC has been proposed that takes into consideration the tribo-oxidation of counterface material, the capillary forces from adsorbed water vapor, the carbon-based tribofilm formation, and the lubrication effect of both chlorine and hydrogen.

  10. Fibronectin synthesized by a human hepatoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, J.E.; Colman, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Fibronectin is a family of immunologically similar glycoproteins which mediate a variety of cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions. It is a constituent of the extracellular matrix of connective tissue and circulates in plasma. When suspension and adherent cultures of a human hepatoma cell line (SK-HEP-1) were incubated in serum-free medium, the resulting conditioned medium contained material which was specifically immunoprecipitated by antisera to human plasma fibronectin. By double immunodiffusion, a component in the conditioned culture medium was shown to form a line of identity with fibronectin in human plasma and to migrate as an alpha 2- to beta-globulin during immunoelectrophoresis. Human fibronectin was quantified in conditioned medium by electroimmunodiffusion, and was found to increase for at least three days at about 0.1 micrograms/10(6) cells/day. Adherent cultures of SK-HEP-1 cells were incubated with L-[ 35 S]methionine to label newly synthesized proteins. Labeled fibronectin in conditioned medium or in cell extracts comigrated with fibronectin in human plasma as shown by autoradiography following crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Fibronectin was demonstrated in the extra-cellular matrix of adherent SK-HEP-1 cultures by immunofluorescence. It was shown previously that SK-HEP-1 cells synthesize alpha 1-protease inhibitor, one of the products of normal hepatocytes. The finding that these hepatoma cells also synthesize fibronectin supports the concept that the hepatocyte may be one source of circulating fibronectin, a possibility consistent with the established role of this cell type in blood plasma protein synthesis

  11. Miniaturized radiation detector with custom synthesized diamond crystal as sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobbelaar, J.H.; Burns, R.C.; Nam, T.L.; Keddy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A miniaturized detector consisting of three custom built hybrid circuits, a counter and a miniature high voltage power supply was designed to operate with custom synthesized Type Ib diamond crystals as sensors. Thick-film technology was incorporated in the circuit design. With a crystal having a volume of approximately 10 mm 3 and containing approximately 60 ppm paramagnetic nitrogen, the detector was capable of measuring γ-ray dose-rates as low as 7.5 μ Gy h -1 . The response characteristic was linear up to 1 cGy h -1 . (orig.)

  12. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1976

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1976 presents an annual review of synthetically useful information that would prove beneficial to nearly all organic chemists, both specialist and nonspecialist in synthesis. It should help relieve some of the information storage burden of the specialist and should aid the nonspecialist who is seeking help with a specific problem to become rapidly aware of recent synthetic advances.This is the fifth volume of ARIGS and is organized along the lines developed for the preceding volumes. The authors were encouraged to use synthetic aspects as their

  13. Comparative sinterability of combustion synthesized and commercial titanium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, B.W.

    1984-11-01

    The influence of various parameters on the sinterability of combustion synthesized titanium carbide was investigaged. Titanium carbide powders, prepared by the combustion synthesis process, were sintered in the temperature range 1150 to 1600 0 C. Incomplete combustion and high oxygen contents were found to be the cause of reduced shrinkage during sintering of the combustion syntheized powders when compared to the shrinkage of commercial TiC. Free carbon was shown to inhibit shrinkage. The activation energy for sintering was found to depend on stoichiometry (C/Ti). With decreasing C/Ti, the rate of sintering increased. 29 references, 16 figures, 13 tables

  14. Copper nanoparticles synthesized in polymers by ion implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir; Nuzhdin, Vladimir; Valeev, Valerij

    2015-01-01

    nanoparticles are observed to partly tower above the sample surface due to a side effect of high-fluence irradiation leading to considerable sputtering of polymers. Implantation and particle formation significantly change optical properties of both polymers reducing transmittance in the UV-visible range due...... as optical transmission spectroscopy. It is found that copper nanoparticles nucleation and growth are strongly fluence dependent as well as they are affected by the polymer properties, in particular, by radiation stability yielding different nanostructures for the implanted PI and PMMA. Shallow synthesized...

  15. Rotational spectrum of formaldehyde reinvestigated using a photomixing THz synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliet, Sophie; Cuisset, Arnaud; Guinet, Mickaël; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Bocquet, Robin; Demaison, Jean

    2012-09-01

    Approximately 60 pure rotational frequency transitions of formaldehyde in its ground state have been measured with sub-MHz uncertainty in the 0.7-1.8 THz frequency range using a photomixing THz synthesizer locked onto a frequency comb. The frequencies associated with previous submillimeter and infrared data have been included in a fit providing a new set of improved molecular parameters. The assignment of each line was checked using the usual statistical diagnostics. Finally, the ability of the continuous-wave spectrometer coupled to a multipass-cell to measure THz rotational transitions of H2CO in the 31, 41 and 61 vibrational states was demonstrated.

  16. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Wang, Joseph [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  17. Integrated digital superconducting logic circuits for the quantum synthesizer. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, F.I.; Kohlmann, J.; Khabipov, M.; Brandt, C.M.; Hagedorn, D.; Balashov, D.; Maibaum, F.; Tolkacheva, E.; Niemeyer, J.

    2006-11-01

    This report presents the results, which were reached in the framework of the BMBF cooperative plan ''Quantum Synthesizer'' in the partial plan ''Integrated Digital Superconducting Logic Circuits''. As essential goal of the plan a novel instrument on the base of quantum-coherent superconducting circuits should be developed. which allows to generate praxis-relevant wave forms with quantum accuracy, the quantum synthesizer. The main topics of development of the reported partial plan lied at the one hand in the development of integrated, digital, superconducting circuit in rapid-single-flux (RSFQ) quantum logics for the pattern generator of the quantum synthesizer, at the other hand in the further development of the fabrication technology for the aiming of high circuit complexity. In order to fulfil these requirements at the PTB a new design system was implemented, based on the software of Cadence. Together with the required RSFQ extensions for the design of digital superconducting circuits was a platform generated, on which the reachable circuit complexity is exclusively limited by the technology parameters of the available fabrication technology: Physical simulations are with PSCAN up to a complexity of more than 1000 circuit elements possible; furthermore VHDL allows the verification of arbitrarily large circuit architectures. In accordance for this the production line at the PTB was brought to a level, which allows in Nb/Al-Al x O y /Nb SIS technology implementation the fabrication of highly integrable RSFQ circuit architectures. The developed and fabricated basic circuits of the pattern generator have proved correct functionality and reliability in the measuring operation. Thereby for the circular RSFQ shift registers a key role as local memories in the construction of the pattern generator is devolved upon. The registers were realized with the aimed bit lengths up to 128 bit and with reachable signal-processing speeds of above 10 GHz. At the interface RSFQ

  18. Electrochemically synthesized nanocrystalline spinel thin film for high performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Vinay [Carbon Technology Unit, Engineering Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, New-Delhi, 110012 (India); Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan); Gupta, Shubhra; Miura, Norio [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka, 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    Spinels are not known for their supercapacitive nature. Here, we have explored electrochemically synthesized nanostructured NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel thin-film electrode for electrochemical supercapacitors. The nanostructured NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel thin film exhibited a high specific capacitance value of 580 F g{sup -1} and an energy density of 32 Wh kg{sup -1} at the power density of 4 kW kg{sup -1}, accompanying with good cyclic stability. (author)

  19. SEARCH AUTOMATION OF BINARIZATION OPTIMUM LEVEL FOR SYNTHESIZED HOLOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Nikanorov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the features of synthesized holograms suitable for practical use. It is established that binary holograms are the first of all suitable ones for successful application in practice. In order to select the most suitable (optimal level of hologram binarization, we propose a criterion for estimating the quality of an image reconstructed with a binary hologram. An algorithm is developed to find the optimal level. On the basis of the conducted experiments it is established that the introduction of the developed module gives the possibility to reduce the search time of the optimal binarization level of the hologram by eleven times in comparison with manual search.

  20. [Characteristics of proteins synthesized by hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volova, T G; Barashkov, V A

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the biological value of proteins synthesized by hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms--the hydrogen bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus Z1 and Ralstonia eutropha B5786 and the CO-resistant strain of carboxydobacterium Seliberia carboxydohydrogena Z1062. Based on a number of significant parameters characterizing the biological value of a product, the proteins of hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms have been found to occupy an intermediate position between traditional animal and plant proteins. The high total protein in biomass of these microorganisms, their complete amino acid content, and availability to proteolytic enzymes allow for us to consider these microorganisms as potential protein producers.

  1. Proposal of an Algorithm to Synthesize Music Suitable for Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Hirofumi; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper proposes an algorithm for synthesizing music suitable for emotions in moving pictures. Our goal is to support multi-media content creation; web page design, animation films and so on. Here we adopt a human dance as a moving picture to examine the availability of our method. Because we think the dance image has high affinity with music. This algorithm is composed of three modules. The first is the module for computing emotions from an input dance image, the second is for computing emotions from music in the database and the last is for selecting music suitable for input dance via an interface of emotion.

  2. Concrete Embedded Dye-Synthesized Photovoltaic Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, T.; Flores-Vivian, I.; Sobolev, K.; Kouklin, N.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the concept of a monolithic concrete-integrated dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell for optical-to-electrical energy conversion and on-site power generation. The transport measurements carried out in the dark revealed the presence of VOC of ~190?mV and ISC of ~9??A, induced by the electrochemical conversion of concrete-supplied ionic impurities at the electrodes. The current-voltage measurements performed under illumination at incident optical powers of ~46?mW confirmed...

  3. Moraxella catarrhalis Synthesizes an Autotransporter That Is an Acid Phosphatase▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hoopman, Todd C.; Wang, Wei; Brautigam, Chad A.; Sedillo, Jennifer L.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Hansen, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis O35E was shown to synthesize a 105-kDa protein that has similarity to both acid phosphatases and autotransporters. The N-terminal portion of the M. catarrhalis acid phosphatase A (MapA) was most similar (the BLAST probability score was 10−10) to bacterial class A nonspecific acid phosphatases. The central region of the MapA protein had similarity to passenger domains of other autotransporter proteins, whereas the C-terminal portion of MapA resembled the translocation dom...

  4. Enantioselctive Syntheses of Sulfur Analogues of Flavan-3-Ols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lombardy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first enantioselective syntheses of sulfur flavan-3-ol analogues 1–8 have been accomplished, whereby the oxygen atom of the pyran ring has been replaced by a sulfur atom. The key steps were: (a Pd(0 catalyzed introduction of –S t-butyl group, (b Sharpless enantioselective dihydroxylation of the alkene, (c acid catalyzed ring closure to produce the thiopyran ring, and (d removal of benzyl groups using N,N-dimethylaniline and AlCl3. The compounds were isolated in high chemical and optical purity.

  5. A facile route to synthesize nanogels doped with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll Ferrer, M. Carme; Ferrier, Robert C.; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we describe a simple method to prepare hybrid nanogels consisting of a biocompatible core-shell polymer host containing silver nanoparticles. First, the nanogels (NG, 160 nm) containing a lysozyme rich core and a dextran rich shell, are prepared via Maillard and heat-gelation reactions. Second, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 5 nm) are synthesized "in situ" in the NG solution without requiring additional reducing agents. This approach leads to stable Ag NPs located in the NG. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the amount of Ag NPs in the NG can be tuned by varying silver precursor concentration. Hybrid nanogels with silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial, optical, and therapeutic applications.

  6. Global Mental Health: sharing and synthesizing knowledge for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, K; O'Donnell, M Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Global mental health (GMH) is a growing domain with an increasing capacity to positively impact the world community's efforts for sustainable development and wellbeing. Sharing and synthesizing GMH and multi-sectoral knowledge, the focus of this paper, is an important way to support these global efforts. This paper consolidates some of the most recent and relevant 'context resources' [global multi-sector (GMS) materials, emphasizing world reports on major issues] and 'core resources' (GMH materials, including newsletters, texts, conferences, training, etc.). In addition to offering a guided index of materials, it presents an orientation framework (global integration) to help make important information as accessible and useful as possible. Mental health colleagues are encouraged to stay current in GMH and global issues, to engage in the emerging agendas for sustainable development and wellbeing, and to intentionally connect and contribute across sectors. Colleagues in all sectors are encouraged to do likewise, and to take advantage of the wealth of shared and synthesized knowledge in the GMH domain, such as the materials featured in this paper.

  7. Adsorptive removal of bisphenol A using synthesized magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimolade, B. O.; Adekola, F. A.; Adebayo, G. B.

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound which is often used as plasticizer and has been reported to be hazardous to man. In this research the efficiency of removal of BPA from water by magnetite through adsorption process was studied. The magnetite was synthesized using reverse co-precipitation method and fully characterized. Various physicochemical parameters affecting the adsorption of BPA using magnetite were studied as well. The optimum time for the adsorption process was found to be 60 min at pH of 6, adsorbent dose of 0.2 g and 50 ppm of BPA. The adsorption data were fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm best with a regression value of 0.957. The R L value was 0.179 which revealed that the process is favorable. The Freundlich constant n which was 1.901 also revealed that the adsorption is normal and favorable. The data were in agreement with the pseudo-second-order kinetics with regression value of 0.98. From the thermodynamic studies, the process was found to be exothermic and the Gibb's free energy value which was negative showed that the adsorption was spontaneous. The synthesized magnetite therefore offers great potential for the remediation of bisphenol A-contaminated media.

  8. Characterization of hematite nanoparticles synthesized via two different pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Soumya; Hendry, M. Jim

    2014-08-01

    Hematite is one of the most common and thermodynamically stable iron oxides found in both natural and anthropogenic systems. Owing to its ubiquity, stability, moderate specific surface area, and ability to sequester metals and metalloids from aquatic systems, it has been the subject of a large number of adsorption studies published during the past few decades. Although preparation techniques are known to affect the surface morphology of hematite nanoparticles, the effects of aging under environmentally relevant conditions have yet to be tested with respect to surface morphology, surface area, and adsorptive capacity. We prepared hematite via two different pathways and aged it under highly alkaline conditions encountered in many mill tailings settings. Crystal habits and morphologies of the hematite nanoparticles were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analyses were also conducted on the hematite nanoparticles before and after aging. The hematite synthesized via an Fe(III) salt solution (average particle size 37 nm) was morphologically and structurally different from the hematite synthesized via ferrihydrite aging (average particle size 144 nm). Overall, our data demonstrate that the crystallinity of hematite produced via ferrihydrite transformation is susceptible to morphological alterations/modifications. In contrast, the hematite formed via hydrolysis of an Fe(III) salt solution remains very stable in terms of structure, size, and morphology even under extreme experimental conditions.

  9. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-01-01

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: → Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. → The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. → Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  10. Synthesizing Iron Oxide Nanostructures: The Polyethylenenemine (PEI) Role

    KAUST Repository

    Mozo, Sergio Lentijo

    2017-01-12

    Controlled synthesis of anisotropic iron oxide nanoparticles is a challenge in the field of nanomaterial research that requires an extreme attention to detail. In particular, following up a previous work showcasing the synthesis of magnetite nanorods (NRs) using a two-step approach that made use of polyethylenenemine (PEI) as a capping ligand to synthesize intermediate β-FeOOH NRs, we studied the effect and influence of the capping ligand on the formation of β-FeOOH NRs. By comparing the results reported in the literature with those we obtained from syntheses performed (1) in the absence of PEI or (2) by using PEIs with different molecular weight, we showed how the choice of different PEIs determines the aspect ratio and the structural stability of the β-FeOOH NRs and how this affects the final products. For this purpose, a combination of XRD, HRTEM, and direct current superconducting quantum interference device (DC SQUID) magnetometry was used to identify the phases formed in the final products and study their morphostructural features and related magnetic behavior.

  11. Mechanochemically synthesized Al2O3-TiC nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Sharifi, E.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 -TiC nanocomposite was synthesized by ball milling of aluminum, titanium oxide and graphite powder mixtures. Effect of the milling time and heat treatment temperatures were investigated. The structural evolution of powder particles after different milling times was studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that after 40 h of ball milling the Al/TiO 2 /C reacted with a self-propagating combustion mode producing Al 2 O 3 -TiC nanocomposite. In final stage of milling, alumina and titanium carbide crystallite sizes were less than 10 nm. After annealing at 900 o C for 1 h, Al 2 O 3 and TiC crystallite sizes remained constant, however increasing annealing temperature to 1200 o C increased Al 2 O 3 and TiC crystallite size to 65 and 30 nm, respectively. No phase change was observed after annealing of the synthesized Al 2 O 3 -TiC powder.

  12. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolutionary selection of enzymatically synthesized semiconductors from biomimetic mineralization vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazer, Lukmaan A; Izumi, Michi; Kolodin, Dmitriy; Neilson, James R; Schwenzer, Birgit; Morse, Daniel E

    2012-06-26

    The way nature evolves and sculpts materials using proteins inspires new approaches to materials engineering but is still not completely understood. Here, we present a cell-free synthetic biological platform to advance studies of biologically synthesized solid-state materials. This platform is capable of simultaneously exerting many of the hierarchical levels of control found in natural biomineralization, including genetic, chemical, spatial, structural, and morphological control, while supporting the evolutionary selection of new mineralizing proteins and the corresponding genetically encoded materials that they produce. DNA-directed protein expression and enzymatic mineralization occur on polystyrene microbeads in water-in-oil emulsions, yielding synthetic surrogates of biomineralizing cells that are then screened by flow sorting, with light-scattering signals used to sort the resulting mineralized composites differentially. We demonstrate the utility of this platform by evolutionarily selecting newly identified silicateins, biomineralizing enzymes previously identified from the silica skeleton of a marine sponge, for enzyme variants capable of synthesizing silicon dioxide (silica) or titanium dioxide (titania) composites. Mineral composites of intermediate strength are preferentially selected to remain intact for identification during cell sorting, and then to collapse postsorting to expose the encoding genes for enzymatic DNA amplification. Some of the newly selected silicatein variants catalyze the formation of crystalline silicates, whereas the parent silicateins lack this ability. The demonstrated bioengineered route to previously undescribed materials introduces in vitro enzyme selection as a viable strategy for mimicking genetic evolution of materials as it occurs in nature.

  14. Alternative methods of synthesizing 99Tcm-labelled ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Choong, K.K.L.; Evans, S.; Olma, T.R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: 99 Tc m -labelled ciprofloxacin (Infecton) is a new class of radiopharmaceutical designed for imaging live bacterial infection. We synthesized Infecton by modifying the procedure described by Keith Britton's group (Lancet 1996; 347: 233-235) and reported our findings at the ANZSNM meeting last year. Since the methodology was cumbersome, we investigated simpler alternative ways of labelling ciprofloxacin with 99 Tc m -pertechnetate for routine imaging. There were several limitations in the previously described method: (1) Need to prepare pure ciprofloxacin which was unstable on storage. (2) Synthetic procedure using formimidine sulphinic acid (FSA) was complicated and required boiling step. (3) The radiochemical purity (RCP) of the product was low (45-50%) requiring purification. (4) Biodistribution studies showed a marked uptake by the liver which could interfere with scan interpretation in this region. The results of our present studies showed that Infecton could be prepared by a simple two-step method: (1) Reduce 99 Tc m -pertechnetate with stannous salt (SnCl 2 or Sn-tartrate). (2) Mix with Ciproxin IV-100. The RCP of the product was up to 98%, which obviates the need for further purification. Infecton synthesized by the above method showed avid localization in abscesses induced with Staphylococcus aureus in rats. The biodistribution studies showed that Infecton was renally excreted with minimal accumulation in the liver or other organs

  15. Dynamic balancing of mechanisms and synthesizing of parallel robots

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art technologies in dynamic balancing of mechanisms with minimum increase of mass and inertia. The synthesis of parallel robots based on the Decomposition and Integration concept is also covered in detail. The latest advances are described, including different balancing principles, design of reactionless mechanisms with minimum increase of mass and inertia, and synthesizing parallel robots. This is an ideal book for mechanical engineering students and researchers who are interested in the dynamic balancing of mechanisms and synthesizing of parallel robots. This book also: ·       Broadens reader understanding of the synthesis of parallel robots based on the Decomposition and Integration concept ·       Reinforces basic principles with detailed coverage of different balancing principles, including input torque balancing mechanisms ·       Reviews exhaustively the key recent research into the design of reactionless mechanisms with minimum increase of mass a...

  16. Two step continuous method to synthesize colloidal spheroid gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S; Doran, J; McCormack, S J

    2015-12-01

    This research investigated a two-step continuous process to synthesize colloidal suspension of spheroid gold nanorods. In the first step; gold precursor was reduced to seed-like particles in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone and ascorbic acid. In continuous second step; silver nitrate and alkaline sodium hydroxide produced various shape and size Au nanoparticles. The shape was manipulated through weight ratio of ascorbic acid to silver nitrate by varying silver nitrate concentration. The specific weight ratio of 1.35-1.75 grew spheroid gold nanorods of aspect ratio ∼1.85 to ∼2.2. Lower weight ratio of 0.5-1.1 formed spherical nanoparticle. The alkaline medium increased the yield of gold nanorods and reduced reaction time at room temperature. The synthesized gold nanorods retained their shape and size in ethanol. The surface plasmon resonance was red shifted by ∼5 nm due to higher refractive index of ethanol than water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Care of the mother-infant dyad: a novel approach to conducting and evaluating neonatal resuscitation simulation training in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Brennan; Spindler, Hilary; Morgan, Melissa C; Cohen, Susanna R; Christmas, Amelia; Sah, Pramod; Shah, Malay B; Das, Aritra; Walker, Dilys M

    2017-07-28

    demands for higher-level triage and management. Although further evaluation of the PRONTO methodology is necessary to understand the full scope of its impact, this analysis highlights the importance of conducting and evaluating simulation training in low-resource settings based on simultaneous care of the mother-infant dyad.

  18. Identifying elder abuse & neglect among family caregiving dyads: A cross sectional study of psychometric properties of the QualCare scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Ridenour, Kimberly; Salaysay, Zachary; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Pierce, Steven J

    2017-04-01

    Universal screening for elder abuse and neglect is a current controversy in geriatrics, fueled by the lack of evidence on valid and reliable instruments. Since each U.S. State and many other countries have their own legal definitions of what constitutes elder abuse and neglect, this further complicates instrument development and clinical assessment. The purpose of this paper is to present data on the sensitivity and specificity of the QualCare Scale, an instrument with utility in detecting clinically significant elder abuse and neglect among older adults receiving care at home. Data used in this analysis were collected during a training program in which trainees completed assessments (N=80) of standardized case scenarios of caregiving dyads. Trainees completed the QualCare Scale during each assessment. This training program, including the assessments of the standardized case scenarios, was completed using a custom designed virtual-reality platform. Trainees were able to interact with the environment, older adult and caregiver within the case scenario. Thirty-six nurses and social workers from two Michigan Medicaid Waiver Sites participated in the training program. Each participant assessed between one and five scenarios, yielding the sample of 80 assessments used in this analysis. The research team designed each standardized case scenario to reflect whether or not the QualCare Scale subscale score should indicate reportable elder abuse and neglect per the State statute. Accordingly, the research team's QualCare Scale scores for each scenario were used as the gold standard criterion of clinical significance for comparison against the participant's assessment scores. Sensitivity and specificity for each of the six QualCare subscales was determined. Overall, the subscales had high sensitivity (≥0.811) but a wide range for specificity (0.167-1.000). The QualCare Scale can be an effective tool in detecting clinically significant elder abuse and neglect among older

  19. Water linked 3D coordination polymers: Syntheses, structures and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suryabhan, E-mail: sbs.bhu@gmail.com; Bhim, Anupam

    2016-12-15

    Three new coordination polymers (CPs) based on Cd and Pb, [Cd(OBA)(μ-H{sub 2}O)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}1, [Pb(OBA)(μ-H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}2 [where OBA=4,4’-Oxybis(benzoate)] and [Pb(SDBA)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}.1/4DMF 3 (SDBA=4,4’-Sulfonyldibenzoate), have been synthesized and characterized. The single crystal structural studies reveal that CPs 1 and 2 have three dimensional structure. A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. Compound 3 has a supramolecular 3D structure involving water molecule and hydrogen bonds. A structural transformation is observed when 3 was heated at 100 °C or kept in methanol, forming [Pb(SDBA)]{sub n}4. Compound 4 is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. The PdNPs@4 exhibits good catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of NaBH{sub 4} at room temperature. Luminescence studies revealed that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives. - Graphical abstract: Three new CPs based on Cd and Pb, have been synthesized and characterized. A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. One of the CP is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. The PdNPs@4 exhibits good catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Luminescence studies shown that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives. - Highlights: • Three new CPs based on Cd and Pb, have been synthesized and characterized. • A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. • One of the CP is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. • Luminescence studies shown that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives.

  20. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp . We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp . mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  1. General Syntheses of Nanotubes Induced by Block Copolymer Self-Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jianming; Huang, Wei; Si, Pengchao

    2018-01-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymer templating strategies are extensively used for syntheses of mesoporous materials. However, monodisperse tubular nanostructures are limited. Here, a general method is developed to synthesize monodisperse nanotubes with narrow diameter distribution induced by self...

  2. Syntheses of crosslinked latex nanoparticles using differential microemulsion polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassmoro, N. F.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-06-01

    The differential microemulsion polymerization was used to synthesize latex nanoparticles. In this paper, 1, 3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate (1, 3-BGDMA) was used as a crosslinker respectively 1-5 weight% of monomer total. Butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as the monomer. The thin film of latex nanoparticles were prepared by using spin coating method and have been dried at 100°C for 5 minutes. The amount of the crosslinker added in the polymerization was optimized and we found that the particle sizes fall in the range of 30-60 nm. The structural morphology of the uncrosslinked latex represented the most homogeneous image compared to the crosslinked latex. The effect of the amount of crosslinker on the particle sizes investigated by the Zeta-sizer Nano series while Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the structural properties of latex nanoparticles.

  3. Syntheses of crosslinked latex nanoparticles using differential microemulsion polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmoro, N F; Abdullah, S; Rusop, M

    2013-01-01

    The differential microemulsion polymerization was used to synthesize latex nanoparticles. In this paper, 1, 3-butylene glycol dimethacrylate (1, 3-BGDMA) was used as a crosslinker respectively 1–5 weight% of monomer total. Butyl acrylate (BA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as the monomer. The thin film of latex nanoparticles were prepared by using spin coating method and have been dried at 100°C for 5 minutes. The amount of the crosslinker added in the polymerization was optimized and we found that the particle sizes fall in the range of 30–60 nm. The structural morphology of the uncrosslinked latex represented the most homogeneous image compared to the crosslinked latex. The effect of the amount of crosslinker on the particle sizes investigated by the Zeta-sizer Nano series while Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the structural properties of latex nanoparticles.

  4. Kinetic aspects of the syntheses using short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laangstroem, B.; Obenius, U.; Sjoeberg, S.; Bergson, G.

    1981-01-01

    In syntheses using short-lived radionuclides, such as 11 C, the reaction conditions are usually such that the concentrations of the reactants, except for the labelled reactant, can be considered constant during the reaction. Two kinetic models have been investigated - irreversible and reversible bimolecular elementary reactions. The influence of the rate constants, of the equilibrium constants, and of the ratio between the starting reactants on the yield of the labelled product has been studied. The results show that, even in cases with unfavourable equilibrium constants, high yields of the labelled products can be obtained if the rate constant for the forward reaction is large. In addition, the specific activity of the labelled product as a function of time has been studied for the irreversible bimolecular case. (author)

  5. Meta-analysis in plant pathology: synthesizing research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M S; Garrett, K A; Su, Z; Bowden, R L

    2004-09-01

    ABSTRACT Meta-analysis is a set of statistical procedures for synthesizing research results from a number of different studies. An estimate of a statistical effect, such as the difference in disease severity for plants with or without a management treatment, is collected from each study along with a measure of the variance of the estimate of the effect. Combining results from different studies will generally result in increased statistical power so that it is easier to detect small effects. Combining results from different studies may also make it possible to compare the size of the effect as a function of other predictor variables such as geographic region or pathogen species. We present a review of the basic methodology for meta-analysis. We also present an example of meta-analysis of the relationship between disease severity and yield loss for foliar wheat diseases, based on data collected from a decade of fungicide and nematicide test results.

  6. Planning chemical syntheses with deep neural networks and symbolic AI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segler, Marwin H. S.; Preuss, Mike; Waller, Mark P.

    2018-03-01

    To plan the syntheses of small organic molecules, chemists use retrosynthesis, a problem-solving technique in which target molecules are recursively transformed into increasingly simpler precursors. Computer-aided retrosynthesis would be a valuable tool but at present it is slow and provides results of unsatisfactory quality. Here we use Monte Carlo tree search and symbolic artificial intelligence (AI) to discover retrosynthetic routes. We combined Monte Carlo tree search with an expansion policy network that guides the search, and a filter network to pre-select the most promising retrosynthetic steps. These deep neural networks were trained on essentially all reactions ever published in organic chemistry. Our system solves for almost twice as many molecules, thirty times faster than the traditional computer-aided search method, which is based on extracted rules and hand-designed heuristics. In a double-blind AB test, chemists on average considered our computer-generated routes to be equivalent to reported literature routes.

  7. Syntheses and characterization of liposome-incorporated adamantyl aminoguanidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šekutor, Marina; Štimac, Adela; Mlinarić-Majerski, Kata; Frkanec, Ruža

    2014-08-21

    A series of mono and bis-aminoguanidinium adamantane derivatives has been synthesized and incorporated into liposomes. They combine two biomedically significant molecules, the adamantane moiety and the guanidinium group. The adamantane moiety possesses the membrane compatible features while the cationic guanidinium subunit was recognized as a favourable structural feature for binding to complementary molecules comprising phosphate groups. The liposome formulations of adamantyl aminoguanidines were characterized and it was shown that the entrapment efficiency of the examined compounds is significant. In addition, it was demonstrated that liposomes with incorporated adamantyl aminoguanidines effectively recognized the complementary liposomes via the phosphate group. These results indicate that adamantane derivatives bearing guanidinium groups might be versatile tools for biomedical application, from studies of molecular recognition processes to usage in drug formulation and cell targeting.

  8. Concrete embedded dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, T; Flores-Vivian, I; Sobolev, K; Kouklin, N

    2013-09-25

    This work presents the concept of a monolithic concrete-integrated dye-synthesized photovoltaic solar cell for optical-to-electrical energy conversion and on-site power generation. The transport measurements carried out in the dark revealed the presence of VOC of ~190 mV and ISC of ~9 μA, induced by the electrochemical conversion of concrete-supplied ionic impurities at the electrodes. The current-voltage measurements performed under illumination at incident optical powers of ~46 mW confirmed the generation of electrical power of ~0.64 μW with almost half generated via battery effect. This work presents a first step towards realizing the additional pathways to low-cost electrical power production in urban environments based on a combined use of organic dyes, nanotitania and concrete technology.

  9. Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokina, S; Stephen, A; Kaviyarasan, V; Arulvasu, C; Narayanan, V

    2014-04-09

    Bio-inspired silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Malus domestica (apple) extract. Polyphenols present in the apple extract act as a reducing and capping agent to produce the silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible analysis shows the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption at 420 nm. The FTIR analysis was used to identify the functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction of silver ion. The XRD and HRTEM images confirm the formation of silver nanoparticles. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of silver nanoparticles was recorded against most of the bacteria and fungus. Further, MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cell line was employed to observe the efficacy of cancer cell killing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Method for synthesizing metal bis(borano) hypophosphite complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Joseph G.

    2013-06-18

    The present invention describes the synthesis of a family of metal bis(borano) hypophosphite complexes. One procedure described in detail is the syntheses of complexes beginning from phosphorus trichloride and sodium borohydride. Temperature, solvent, concentration, and atmosphere are all critical to ensure product formation. In the case of sodium bis(borano) hypophosphite, hydrogen gas was evolved upon heating at temperatures above 150.degree. C. Included in this family of materials are the salts of the alkali metals Li, Na and K, and those of the alkaline earth metals Mg and Ca. Hydrogen storage materials are possible. In particular the lithium salt, Li[PH.sub.2(BH.sub.3).sub.2], theoretically would contain nearly 12 wt % hydrogen. Analytical data for product characterization and thermal properties are given.

  11. Electrochemically synthesized stretchable polypyrrole/fabric electrodes for supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Binbin; Wang, Caiyun; Ding, Xin; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. Being an indispensable part of these electronics, lightweight, stretchable and wearable power sources are strongly demanded. Here we describe a daily-used cotton fabric coated with polypyrrole as electrode for stretchable supercapacitors. Polypyrrole was synthesized on the Au coated fabric via an electrochemical polymerization process with p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TS) as dopant from acetonitrile solution. This material was characterized with FESEM, tensile stress, and studied as a supercapacitor electrode in 1.0 M NaCl. This conductive textile electrode can sustain up to 140% strain without electric failure. It delivers a high specific capacitance of 254.9 F g −1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s −1 , and keeps almost unchanged at an applied strain (i.e. 30% and 50%) but with an improved cycling stability

  12. Bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured osteoblasts contains tyrosine sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecarot-Charrier, B.; Bouchard, F.; Delloye, C.

    1989-01-01

    Isolated mouse osteoblasts that retain their osteogenic activity in culture were incubated with [35S] sulfate. Two radiolabeled proteins, in addition to proteoglycans, were extracted from the calcified matrix of osteoblast cultures. All the sulfate label in both proteins was in the form of tyrosine sulfate as assessed by amino acid analysis and thin layer chromatography following alkaline hydrolysis. The elution behavior on DEAE-Sephacel of the major sulfated protein and the apparent Mr on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were characteristic of bone sialoprotein II extracted from rat. This protein was shown to cross-react with an antiserum raised against bovine bone sialoprotein II, indicating that bone sialoprotein II synthesized by cultured mouse osteoblasts is a tyrosine-sulfated protein. The minor sulfated protein was tentatively identified as bone sialoprotein I or osteopontin based on its elution properties on DEAE-Sephacel and anomalous behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels similar to those reported for rat bone sialoprotein I

  13. Piezoelectric Materials Synthesized by the Hydrothermal Method and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Morita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis by the hydrothermal method has various advantages, including low reaction temperature, three-dimensional substrate availability, and automatic polarization alignment during the process. In this review, powder synthesis, the fabrication of piezoelectric thin films, and their applications are introduced. A polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate (PZT thin film was applied to a micro ultrasonic motor, and an epitaxial lead titanate (PbTiO3 thin film was estimated as a ferroelectric data storage medium. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were successfully obtained for epitaxial PbTiO3 films. As lead-free piezoelectric powders, KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders were synthesized by the hydrothermal method and sintered together to form (K,NaNbO3 ceramics, from which reasonable piezoelectric performance was achieved.

  14. A facile route to synthesize nanogels doped with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll Ferrer, M. Carme [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Materials Science (United States); Ferrier, Robert C. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (United States); Eckmann, David M. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care (United States); Composto, Russell J., E-mail: composto@seas.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Materials Science (United States)

    2013-01-15

    In this study, we describe a simple method to prepare hybrid nanogels consisting of a biocompatible core-shell polymer host containing silver nanoparticles. First, the nanogels (NG, {approx}160 nm) containing a lysozyme rich core and a dextran rich shell, are prepared via Maillard and heat-gelation reactions. Second, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, {approx}5 nm) are synthesized 'in situ' in the NG solution without requiring additional reducing agents. This approach leads to stable Ag NPs located in the NG. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the amount of Ag NPs in the NG can be tuned by varying silver precursor concentration. Hybrid nanogels with silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial, optical, and therapeutic applications.

  15. Using Qualitative Metasummary to Synthesize Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptive Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Barroso, Julie; Voils, Corrine I.

    2008-01-01

    The new imperative in the health disciplines to be more methodologically inclusive has generated a growing interest in mixed research synthesis, or the integration of qualitative and quantitative research findings. Qualitative metasummary is a quantitatively oriented aggregation of qualitative findings originally developed to accommodate the distinctive features of qualitative surveys. Yet these findings are similar in form and mode of production to the descriptive findings researchers often present in addition to the results of bivariate and multivariable analyses. Qualitative metasummary, which includes the extraction, grouping, and formatting of findings, and the calculation of frequency and intensity effect sizes, can be used to produce mixed research syntheses and to conduct a posteriori analyses of the relationship between reports and findings. PMID:17243111

  16. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.

    1999-01-01

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs

  17. Rapid decolorization of textile wastewater by green synthesized iron nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Z Y; Cakirgoz, M; Kaymak, E S; Erdim, E

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and pomegranate (Punica granatum) extracts for the production of iron nanoparticles and their application for color removal from a textile industry wastewater was investigated. Polyphenols in extracts act as reducing agents for iron ions in aqueous solutions, forming iron nanoparticles. Pomegranate extract was found to have almost a 10-fold higher polyphenolic content than the same amount of green tea extract on a mass basis. However, the size of the synthesized nanoparticles did not show a correlation with the polyphenolic content. 100 ppm and 300 ppm of iron nanoparticles were evaluated in terms of color removal efficiency from a real textile wastewater sample. 300 ppm of pomegranate nanoscale zero-valent iron particles showed more than 95% color removal and almost 80% dissolved organic carbon removal. The degradation mechanisms are is considered to be adsorption and precipitation to a major extent, and mineralization to a minor extent.

  18. A facile route to synthesize nanogels doped with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll Ferrer, M. Carme; Ferrier, Robert C.; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we describe a simple method to prepare hybrid nanogels consisting of a biocompatible core–shell polymer host containing silver nanoparticles. First, the nanogels (NG, ∼160 nm) containing a lysozyme rich core and a dextran rich shell, are prepared via Maillard and heat-gelation reactions. Second, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, ∼5 nm) are synthesized “in situ” in the NG solution without requiring additional reducing agents. This approach leads to stable Ag NPs located in the NG. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the amount of Ag NPs in the NG can be tuned by varying silver precursor concentration. Hybrid nanogels with silver nanoparticles have potential in antimicrobial, optical, and therapeutic applications.

  19. Synthesizing and salvaging NAD: lessons learned from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawen Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ plays important roles in metabolic reactions and cell regulation in all organisms. Bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals use different pathways to synthesize NAD+. Our molecular and genetic data demonstrate that in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas NAD+ is synthesized from aspartate (de novo synthesis, as in plants, or nicotinamide, as in mammals (salvage synthesis. The de novo pathway requires five different enzymes: L-aspartate oxidase (ASO, quinolinate synthetase (QS, quinolate phosphoribosyltransferase (QPT, nicotinate/nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT, and NAD+ synthetase (NS. Sequence similarity searches, gene isolation and sequencing of mutant loci indicate that mutations in each enzyme result in a nicotinamide-requiring mutant phenotype in the previously isolated nic mutants. We rescued the mutant phenotype by the introduction of BAC DNA (nic2-1 and nic13-1 or plasmids with cloned genes (nic1-1 and nic15-1 into the mutants. NMNAT, which is also in the de novo pathway, and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT constitute the nicotinamide-dependent salvage pathway. A mutation in NAMPT (npt1-1 has no obvious growth defect and is not nicotinamide-dependent. However, double mutant strains with the npt1-1 mutation and any of the nic mutations are inviable. When the de novo pathway is inactive, the salvage pathway is essential to Chlamydomonas for the synthesis of NAD+. A homolog of the human SIRT6-like gene, SRT2, is upregulated in the NS mutant, which shows a longer vegetative life span than wild-type cells. Our results suggest that Chlamydomonas is an excellent model system to study NAD+ metabolism and cell longevity.

  20. A synthesized biophysical and social vulnerability assessment for Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Jaan

    2017-11-01

    Taiwan, located in the Western Pacific, is a country that is one of the most vulnerable to disasters that are associated with the changing climate; it is located within the Ring of Fire, which is the most geologically active region in the world. The environmental and geological conditions in Taiwan are sensitive and vulnerable to such disasters. Owing to increasing urbanization in Taiwan, floods and climate-related disasters have taken an increasing toll on human lives. As global warming accelerates the rising of sea levels and increasing of the frequency of extreme weather events, disasters will continue to affect socioeconomic development and human conditions. Under such circumstances, researchers and policymakers alike must recognize the importance of providing useful knowledge concerning vulnerability, disaster recovery and resilience. Strategies for reducing vulnerability and climate-related disaster risks and for increasing resilience involve preparedness, mitigation and adaptation. In the last two decades, extreme climate events have caused severe flash floods, debris flows, landslides, and other disasters and have had negative effects of many sectors, including agriculture, infrastructure and health. Since climate change is expected to have a continued impact on socio-economic development, this work develops a vulnerability assessment framework that integrates both biophysical and social vulnerability and supports synthesized vulnerability analyses to identify vulnerable areas in Taiwan. Owing to its geographical, geological and climatic features, Taiwan is susceptible to earthquakes, typhoons, droughts and various induced disasters. Therefore, Taiwan has the urgent task of establishing a framework for assessing vulnerability as a planning and policy tool that can be used to identify not only the regions that require special attention but also hotspots in which efforts should be made to reduce vulnerability and the risk of climate-related disaster. To

  1. A cross-cultural comparison of tonal synchrony and pitch imitation in the vocal dialogs of Belgian Flemish-speaking and Mexican Spanish-speaking mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Puyvelde, Martine; Loots, Gerrit; Gillisjans, Lobcke; Pattyn, Nathalie; Quintana, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a cross-cultural comparison of the vocal pitch patterns of 15 Mexican Spanish-speaking and 15 Belgian Flemish-speaking dyads, recorded during 5min of free-play in a laboratory setting. Both cultures have a tradition of dyadic face-to-face interaction but differ in language origins (i.e., Romanic versus Germanic). In total, 374 Mexican and 558 Flemish vocal exchanges were identified, analyzed and compared for their incidence of tonal synchrony (harmonic/pentatonic series), non-tonal synchrony (with/without imitations) and pitch and/or interval imitations. The main findings revealed that dyads in both cultures rely on tonal synchrony using similar pitch ratios and timing patterns. However, there were significant differences in the infants' vocal pitch imitation behavior. Additional video-analyzes on the contingency patterns involved in pitch imitation showed a cross-cultural difference in the maternal selective reinforcement of pitch imitation. The results are interpreted with regard to linguistic, developmental and cultural aspects and the 'musilanguage' model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer Using Wilkinson Dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Fox, Anna E.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Benz, Samuel P.

    2016-01-01

    The root-mean-square (rms) output voltage of the NIST Josephson arbitrary waveform synthesizer (JAWS) has been doubled from 1 V to a record 2 V by combining two new 1 V chips on a cryocooler. This higher voltage will improve calibrations of ac thermal voltage converters and precision voltage measurements that require state-of-the-art quantum accuracy, stability, and signal-to-noise ratio. We achieved this increase in output voltage by using four on-chip Wilkinson dividers and eight inner-outer dc blocks, which enable biasing of eight Josephson junction (JJ) arrays with high-speed inputs from only four high-speed pulse generator channels. This approach halves the number of pulse generator channels required in future JAWS systems. We also implemented on-chip superconducting interconnects between JJ arrays, which reduces systematic errors and enables a new modular chip package. Finally, we demonstrate a new technique for measuring and visualizing the operating current range that reduces the measurement time by almost two orders of magnitude and reveals the relationship between distortion in the output spectrum and output pulse sequence errors. PMID:27453676

  3. Water linked 3D coordination polymers: Syntheses, structures and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suryabhan; Bhim, Anupam

    2016-12-01

    Three new coordination polymers (CPs) based on Cd and Pb, [Cd(OBA)(μ-H2O)(H2O)]n1, [Pb(OBA)(μ-H2O)]n2 [where OBA=4,4'-Oxybis(benzoate)] and [Pb(SDBA)(H2O)]n.1/4DMF 3 (SDBA=4,4'-Sulfonyldibenzoate), have been synthesized and characterized. The single crystal structural studies reveal that CPs 1 and 2 have three dimensional structure. A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. Compound 3 has a supramolecular 3D structure involving water molecule and hydrogen bonds. A structural transformation is observed when 3 was heated at 100 °C or kept in methanol, forming [Pb(SDBA)]n4. Compound 4 is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. The PdNPs@4 exhibits good catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of NaBH4 at room temperature. Luminescence studies revealed that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives.

  4. Oleamide synthesizing activity from rat kidney: identification as cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, William J; Chaturvedi, Shalini; Mueller, Gregory P

    2007-08-03

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is the prototype member of an emerging class of lipid signaling molecules collectively known as the primary fatty acid amides. Current evidence suggests that oleamide participates in the biochemical mechanisms underlying the drive to sleep, thermoregulation, and antinociception. Despite the potential importance of oleamide in these physiologic processes, the biochemical pathway for its synthesis in vivo has not been established. We report here the discovery of an oleamide synthetase found in rat tissues using [(14)C]oleoyl-CoA and ammonium ion. Hydrogen peroxide was subsequently found to be a required cofactor. The enzyme displayed temperature and pH optima in the physiologic range, a remarkable resistance to proteolysis, and specificity for long-chain acyl-CoA substrates. The reaction demonstrated Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a K(m) for oleoyl-CoA of 21 microm. Proteomic, biochemical, and immunologic analyses were used to identify the source of the oleamide synthesizing activity as cytochrome c. This identification was based upon peptide mass fingerprinting of isolated synthase protein, a tight correlation between enzymatic activity and immunoreactivity for cytochrome c, and identical functional properties shared by the tissue-derived synthetase and commercially obtained cytochrome c. The ability of cytochrome c to catalyze the formation of oleamide experimentally raises the possibility that cytochrome c may mediate oleamide biosynthesis in vivo.

  5. Microreactors—A Powerful Tool to Synthesize Peroxycarboxylic Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Illg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of peroxycarboxylic esters, as one subgroup of organic peroxides, is characterized by a high thermal hazard potential regarding process safety. In case of failure in the production process, e.g., if the heat of reaction cannot be removed sufficiently fast, decomposition reactions can be triggered, and as a result, remarkable amounts of heat and gas can be released and can cause a high extent of damage. Multifarious technical and organizational measures are necessary to ensure the safe industrial production of peroxides. With the introduction of microreaction technology plenty of possibilities have been opened to carry out highly exothermic reactions in smaller volumes and with more efficient heat removal. In this paper we report the application of three different microstructured reactors, representing different mixing strategies, to synthesize two peroxymonocarboxylic esters, namely tert-butyl peroxypivalate and tert-butyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate. The following reactor types were considered: an orifice microreactor, a split and recombine microreactor and a capillary tube reactor in combination with ultrasonication. The efficiency of the two phase liquid/liquid reaction is expressed in comparison of conversion and selectivity. With microreaction technology a remarkable increase in space-time-yield, ranging from 12,500 kg·m−3·h−1 to 414,000 kg·m−3·h−1, is achieved.

  6. Differential Transcriptome Analysis between Paulownia fortunei and Its Synthesized Autopolyploid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshen Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Paulownia fortunei is an ecologically and economically important tree species that is widely used as timber and chemical pulp. Its autotetraploid, which carries a number of valuable traits, was successfully induced with colchicine. To identify differences in gene expression between P. fortunei and its synthesized autotetraploid, we performed transcriptome sequencing using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx (GAIIx. About 94.8 million reads were generated and assembled into 383,056 transcripts, including 18,984 transcripts with a complete open reading frame. A conducted Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST search indicated that 16,004 complete transcripts had significant hits in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI non-redundant database. The complete transcripts were given functional assignments using three public protein databases. One thousand one hundred fifty eight differentially expressed complete transcripts were screened through a digital abundance analysis, including transcripts involved in energy metabolism and epigenetic regulation. Finally, the expression levels of several transcripts were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results suggested that polyploidization caused epigenetic-related changes, which subsequently resulted in gene expression variation between diploid and autotetraploid P. fortunei. This might be the main mechanism affected by the polyploidization. Our results represent an extensive survey of the P. fortunei transcriptome and will facilitate subsequent functional genomics research in P. fortunei. Moreover, the gene expression profiles of P. fortunei and its autopolyploid will provide a valuable resource for the study of polyploidization.

  7. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela; Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L.; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia; Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario; Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra; Berea, Edgardo; Rodil, Sandra E.

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area

  8. Synthesizing Econometric Evidence: The Case of Demand Elasticity Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Don

    2015-06-01

    Econometric estimates of the responsiveness of health-related consumer demand to higher prices are often key ingredients for risk policy analysis. We review the potential advantages and challenges of synthesizing econometric evidence on the price-responsiveness of consumer demand. We draw on examples of research on consumer demand for health-related goods, especially cigarettes. We argue that the overarching goal of research synthesis in this context is to provide policy-relevant evidence for broad-brush conclusions. We propose three main criteria to select among research synthesis methods. We discuss how in principle and in current practice synthesis of research on the price-elasticity of smoking meets our proposed criteria. Our analysis of current practice also contributes to academic research on the specific policy question of the effectiveness of higher cigarette prices to reduce smoking. Although we point out challenges and limitations, we believe more work on research synthesis in this area will be productive and important. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Kombucha-synthesized bacterial cellulose: preparation, characterization, and biocompatibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changlai; Li, Feng; Zhou, Xinyang; Lin, Lin; Zhang, Tianyi

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural biomaterial with unique properties suitable for tissue engineering applications, but it has not yet been used for preparing nerve conduits to repair peripheral nerve injuries. The objectives of this study were to prepare and characterize the Kampuchea-synthesized bacterial cellulose (KBC) and further evaluate the biocompatibility of KBC with peripheral nerve cells and tissues in vitro and in vivo. KBC membranes were composed of interwoven ribbons of about 20-100 nm in width, and had a high purity and the same crystallinity as that of cellulose Iα. The results from light and scanning electron microscopy, MTT assay, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR indicated that no significant differences in the morphology and cell function were observed between Schwann cells (SCs) cultured on KBC membranes and glass slips. We also fabricated a nerve conduit using KBC, which was implanted into the spatium intermusculare of rats. At 1, 3, and 6 weeks post-implantation, clinical chemistry and histochemistry showed that there were no significant differences in blood counts, serum biochemical parameters, and tissue reactions between implanted rats and sham-operated rats. Collectively, our data indicated that KBC possessed good biocompatibility with primary cultured SCs and KBC did not exert hematological and histological toxic effects on nerve tissues in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Understanding betrayals in marriage: a synthesized model of forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K C; Baucom, D H

    1998-01-01

    Forgiveness is an issue that is problematic for many couples, particularly those in marital therapy. However, little attention has been paid to this construct in the psychological literature. The purpose of this article is to describe a synthesized model of forgiveness using constructs from multiple theories, including forgiveness, trauma recovery, cognitive-behavioral, family systems, and insight-oriented theories. Forgiveness is conceptualized as a process consisting of three stages, each of which has cognitive, behavioral, and affective components. Furthermore, these stages seem to parallel a person's natural response to traumatic stress. First, there is a response to the initial impact; second, there is an attempt to give the event some kind of meaning, or put it into context; and finally, the person begins to move forward and readjust. Forgiveness is conceptualized as attaining: (a) a realistic, nondistorted, balanced view of the relationship; (b) a release from being controlled by negative affect toward the participating partner; and (c) a lessened desire to punish the participating partner. Implications for marital therapy also are discussed.

  11. Tools to synthesize the learning of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo; Sluesarenko, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    After a review of textbooks written for undergraduate courses in physics, we have found that discussions on thin films are mostly incomplete. They consider the reflected and not the transmitted light for two instead of the four types of thin films. In this work, we complement the discussion in elementary textbooks, by analysing the phase differences required to match the conditions for constructive and destructive interference, in the reflected and transmitted light in four types of thin films. We consider thin films with varied sequences in the refractive index, which we identify as barriers, wells and stairs (up and down). Also, we use the conservation of energy in order to understand the complementary colour fringes observed in the reflected and transmitted light through thin films. We analyse systematically the phase changes by introducing a phase table and we synthesize the results in a circular diagram matching 16 physical situations of interference and their corresponding conditions on the film thickness. The phase table and the circular diagram are a pair of tools easily assimilated by students, and useful to organize, analyse and activate the knowledge about thin films.

  12. Of Syntheses and Surprises: Toward a Critical Integral Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gustav Anderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The central concern of this article is how the search for formal structures with universal values functions ideologically, addressing Zizek’s claim that East-West syntheses may represent the dominant ideology par excellance of global capitalism. To this end, the article offers a Foucaultian genealogy of Integral theory, tracing its origins to the cultural and subjective contingencies of the British Empire, primarily in the work of Integral theory’s foundational thinker, Aurobindo Ghose. The article poses a primary critique of synthesis and evolution as mythological keys to Ultimate Reality which suggests that Zizek’s critique may have some validity, and offers the potential for a “critical integral theory” as an alternative. Situated in Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of becoming, and represented in the ideas and practices of a constellation of thinkers inclusive of Gurdjieff, Benjamin, and Trungpa, the article’s view of integration supports radical democracy as presented in the writings of Laclau and Mouffe as a model outcome for social and personal transformational practices.

  13. Of Syntheses and Surprises:Toward a Critical Integral Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gustav Anderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The central concern of this article is how the search for formal structures with universal values functions ideologically, addressing Zizek’s claim that East-West syntheses may represent the dominant ideology par excellance of global capitalism. To this end, the article offers a Foucaultian genealogy of Integral theory, tracing its origins to the cultural and subjective contingencies of the British Empire, primarily in the work of Integral theory’s foundational thinker, Aurobindo Ghose. The article poses a primary critique of synthesis and evolution as mythological keys to Ultimate Reality which suggests that Zizek’s critique may have some validity, and offers the potential for a “critical integral theory” as an alternative. Situated in Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of becoming, and represented in the ideas and practices of a constellation of thinkers inclusive of Gurdjieff, Benjamin, and Trungpa, the article’s view of integration supports radical democracy as presented in the writings of Laclau and Mouffe as a model outcome for social and personal transformational practices.

  14. Morphology and electrical properties of template-synthesized polypyrrole nanocylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mativetsky, J.M.; Datars, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    Polypyrrole nanocylinders were fabricated by chemically synthesizing polypyrrole within the pores of nanoporous polycarbonate particle track-etched membranes. The morphology of the nanostructures was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The nanocylinders were observed to be cigar-shaped, with the diameter at the center being up to 2.5 times the diameter at the ends. The electrical conductivity of the nanocylinders was measured by leaving the nanocylinders embedded in the insulating template membrane and measuring the trans-membrane resistance. The cigar-like shape of the nanocylinders was taken into account in calculating the conductivity. Contrary to previous reports, the smallest diameter nanocylinders exhibited a slightly lower conductivity relative to the larger diameter nanocylinders. The temperature dependence of the resistance and magnetoresistance was in accordance with Mott variable range hopping at temperatures above 5±1 K and Efros-Shklovskii variable range hopping at temperatures below 5±1 K. Based on the measurements in the Mott regime, the localization length, the density of states at the Fermi energy, and the temperature dependence of the average hopping distance were calculated

  15. Molecular Docking and Anticonvulsant Activity of Newly Synthesized Quinazoline Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A. Abuelizz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new series of quinazoline-4(3H-ones are evaluated for anticonvulsant activity. After intraperitoneal (ip injection to albino mice at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, synthesized quinazolin-4(3H-ones (1–24 were examined in the maximal electroshock (MES induced seizures and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ induced seizure models in mice. The Rotarod method was applied to determine the neurotoxicity. Most of the compounds displayed anticonvulsant activity in the scPTZ screen at a dose range of 0.204–0.376 mmol/mL. Out of twenty-four, compounds 8, 13 and 19 proved to be the most active with a remarkable protection (100% against PTZ induced convulsions and four times more potent activity than ethosuximide. The structure-activity relationship concluded valuable pharmacophoric information, which was confirmed by the molecular docking studies using the target enzyme human carbon anhydrase II (HCA II. The studied quinazoline analogues suggested that the butyl substitution at position 3 has a significant effect on preventing the spread of seizure discharge and on raising the seizure threshold. However, benzyl substitution at position 3 has shown a strong anticonvulsant activity but with less seizure prevention compared to the butyl substitution.

  16. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela; Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L.; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia; Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario; Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra; Berea, Edgardo; Rodil, Sandra E.

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area.

  17. Reduction reactions applied for synthesizing different nano-structured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque Brocchi, Eduardo de; Correia de Siqueira, Rogério Navarro [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Motta, Marcelo Senna [Basck Ltd. (United Kingdom); Moura, Francisco José, E-mail: moura@puc-rio.br [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Solórzano-Naranjo, Ivan Guillermo [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Different materials have been synthesized by alternative routes: nitrates thermal decomposition to prepare oxide or co-formed oxides and reduction by hydrogen or graphite to obtain mixed oxides, composites or alloys. These chemical-based synthesis routes are described and thermodynamics studies and kinetics data are presented to support its feasibility. In addition, selective reduction reactions have been applied to successfully produce metal/ceramic composites, and alloys. Structural characterization has been carried out by X-ray Diffraction and, more extensively, Transmission Electron Microscopy operating in conventional diffraction contrast (CTEM) and high-resolution mode (HRTEM), indicated the possibility of obtaining oxide and alloy crystals of sizes ranging between 20 and 40 nm. - Highlights: • The viability in obtaining Ni–Co, Cu–Al, Mn–Al co-formed nano oxides was evaluated. • Partial and complete H{sub 2} reduction were used to produce alloy, composite and Spinel. • XRD, TEM and HREM techniques were used to characterize the obtained nanostructures.

  18. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of polypyrrole nanoparticles synthesized by oxidative polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaitkuviene, Aida [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Kaseta, Vytautas [Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Voronovic, Jaroslav [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanauskaite, Giedre; Biziuleviciene, Gene [Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Center for Innovative Medicine, Zygimantu 9, LT-01102 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanaviciene, Almira [NanoTechnas–Center of Nanotechnology and Material Science at Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, 03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ramanavicius, Arunas, E-mail: Arunas.Ramanavicius@chf.vu.lt [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius (Lithuania); Laboratory of BioNanoTechnology, Department of Materials Science and Electronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, State Scientific Research Institute Centre for Physical Sciences and Technology, A. Gostauto 11, LT-01108 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles synthesized by environmentally friendly polymerization at high concentrations are cytotoxic. ► Primary mouse embryonic fibroblast, mouse hepatoma and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell lines were treated by Ppy nanoparticles. ► Polypyrrole nanoparticles at high concentrations inhibit cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Polypyrrole (Ppy) is known as biocompatible material, which is used in some diverse biomedical applications and seeming to be a very promising for advanced biotechnological applications. In order to increase our understanding about biocompatibility of Ppy, in this study pure Ppy nanoparticles (Ppy-NPs) of fixed size and morphology were prepared by one-step oxidative polymerization and their cyto-compatibility was evaluated. The impact of different concentration of Ppy nanoparticles on primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), mouse hepatoma cell line (MH-22A), and human T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line was investigated. Cell morphology, viability/proliferation after the treatment by Ppy nanoparticles was evaluated. Obtained results showed that Ppy nanoparticles at low concentrations are biocompatible, while at high concentrations they became cytotoxic for Jurkat, MEF and MH-22A cells, and it was found that cytotoxic effect is dose-dependent.

  19. Conducting polymer networks synthesized by photopolymerization-induced phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yuki; Komori, Kana; Murata, Tasuku; Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Norisuye, Tomohisa; Yamao, Takeshi; Tran-Cong-Miyata, Qui

    2018-03-01

    Polymer mixtures composed of double networks of a polystyrene derivative (PSAF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were alternatively synthesized by using ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) light. The PSAF networks were generated by UV irradiation to photodimerize the anthracene (A) moieties labeled on the PSAF chains, whereas PMMA networks were produced by photopolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer and the cross-link reaction using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) under Vis light irradiation. It was found that phase separation process of these networks can be independently induced and promptly controlled by using UV and Vis light. The characteristic length scale distribution of the resulting co-continuous morphology can be well regulated by the UV and Vis light intensity. In order to confirm and utilize the connectivity of the bicontinuous morphology observed by confocal microscopy, a very small amount, 0.1 wt%, of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was introduced into the mixture and the current-voltage (I-V) relationship was subsequently examined. Preliminary data show that MWCNTs are preferentially dispersed in the PSAF-rich continuous domains and the whole mixture became electrically conducting, confirming the connectivity of the observed bi-continuous morphology. The experimental data obtained in this study reveal a promising method to design various scaffolds for conducting soft matter taking advantages of photopolymerization-induced phase separation.

  20. Aortic wall damage in mice unable to synthesize ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, N; Hagihara, H; Nakata, Y; Hiller, S; Wilder, J; Reddick, R

    2000-01-18

    By inactivating the gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, a key enzyme in ascorbic acid synthesis, we have generated mice that, like humans, depend on dietary vitamin C. Regular chow, containing about 110 mg/kg of vitamin C, is unable to support the growth of the mutant mice, which require L-ascorbic acid supplemented in their drinking water (330 mg/liter). Upon withdrawal of supplementation, plasma and tissue ascorbic acid levels decreased to 10-15% of normal within 2 weeks, and after 5 weeks the mutants became anemic, began to lose weight, and die. Plasma total antioxidative capacities were approximately 37% normal in homozygotes after feeding the unsupplemented diet for 3-5 weeks. As plasma ascorbic acid decreased, small, but significant, increases in total cholesterol and decreases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. The most striking effects of the marginal dietary vitamin C were alterations in the wall of aorta, evidenced by the disruption of elastic laminae, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and focal endothelial desquamation of the luminal surface. Thus, marginal vitamin C deficiency affects the vascular integrity of mice unable to synthesize ascorbic acid, with potentially profound effects on the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Breeding the vitamin C-dependent mice with mice carrying defined genetic mutations will provide numerous opportunities for systematic studies of the role of antioxidants in health and disease.

  1. Properties of radiation-synthesized polyvinylpyrrolidone/chitosan hydrogel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmud, Maznah [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Daik, Rusli [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Adam, Zainah [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-crosslinked chitosan hydrogels were prepared by gamma radiation at various doses; 1, 3 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30kGy. Gamma radiation was used as a crosslinking tool which requires no chemical initiator, no heating process and need no purification step on the end products obtained. The hydrogel formulations were composed of 6% chitosan with average molecular weight (Mw) = 48 800 g/mol and 14% PVP with Mw = 10 000 g/mol in 2% lactic acid. Physical properties of hydrogels such as gel fraction and swelling property at pH 5.5 and pH 7.0 as well as syneresis activity were determined. It was found that different radiation dose induces different effect on hydrogels’ network formed. Morphological study of hydrogels has been carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM). From these preliminary evaluations, it can be concluded that gamma radiation is an effective tool for network development of hydrogels and it also induces enhancement on characteristics of hydrogels synthesized.

  2. Antibacterial effect of bismuth subsalicylate nanoparticles synthesized by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Castañeda, Mariela [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Vega-Jiménez, Alejandro L., E-mail: argelia.almaguer@mac.com; Almaguer-Flores, Argelia [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Odontología, DEPeI, I (Mexico); Camps, Enrique; Pérez, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra [Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación, Unidad de Ingeniería de Tejidos, Terapia Celular y Medicina Regenerativa (Mexico); Berea, Edgardo [FarmaQuimia SA de CV. (Mexico); Rodil, Sandra E. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    The antimicrobial properties of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) nanoparticles against four opportunistic pathogens; E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis were determined. BSS nanoparticles were synthesized by pulse laser ablation of a solid target in distilled water under different conditions. The nanoparticles were characterized using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectra and small angle X-ray scattering. The analysis shows that the colloids maintained the BSS structure and presented average particle size between 20 and 60 nm, while the concentration ranges from 95 to 195 mg/L. The antibacterial effect was reported as the inhibition ratio of the bacterial growth after 24 h and the cell viability was measured using the XTT assay. The results showed that the inhibition ratio of E. coli and S. epidermidis was dependant on the NPs size and/or concentration, meanwhile P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were more sensitive to the BSS nanoparticles independently of both the size and the concentration. In general, the BSS colloids with average particle size of 20 nm were the most effective, attaining inhibition ratios >80 %, similar or larger than those obtained with the antibiotic used as control. The results suggest that the BSS colloids could be used as effective antibacterial agents with potential applications in the medical area.

  3. Conceptualizing and measuring energy security: A synthesized approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Mukherjee, Ishani

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a synthesized, workable framework for analyzing national energy security policies and performance. Drawn from research interviews, survey results, a focused workshop, and an extensive literature review, this article proposes that energy security ought to be comprised of five dimensions related to availability, affordability, technology development, sustainability, and regulation. We then break these five dimensions down into 20 components related to security of supply and production, dependency, and diversification for availability; price stability, access and equity, decentralization, and low prices for affordability; innovation and research, safety and reliability, resilience, energy efficiency, and investment for technology development; land use, water, climate change, and air pollution for sustainability; and governance, trade, competition, and knowledge for sound regulation. Further still, our synthesis lists 320 simple indicators and 52 complex indicators that policymakers and scholars can use to analyze, measure, track, and compare national performance on energy security. The article concludes by offering implications for energy policy more broadly. -- Highlights: → Energy security should consist of five dimensions related to availability, affordability, technology development, sustainability, and regulation. → The dimensions of energy security can be broken down into 20 components. → These components can be distilled into 320 simple indicators and 52 complex indicators.

  4. New effective chemically synthesized anti-smallpox compound NIOCH-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkov, Oleg Yu; Kabanov, Alexey S; Shishkina, Larisa N; Sergeev, Alexander A; Skarnovich, Maksim O; Bormotov, Nikolay I; Skarnovich, Maria A; Ovchinnikova, Alena S; Titova, Ksenya A; Galahova, Darya O; Bulychev, Leonid E; Sergeev, Artemiy A; Taranov, Oleg S; Selivanov, Boris A; Tikhonov, Alexey Ya; Zavjalov, Evgenii L; Agafonov, Alexander P; Sergeev, Alexander N

    2016-05-01

    Antiviral activity of the new chemically synthesized compound NIOCH-14 (a derivative of tricyclodicarboxylic acid) in comparison with ST-246 (the condensed derivative of pyrroledione) was observed in experiments in vitro and in vivo using orthopoxviruses including highly pathogenic ones. After oral administration of NIOCH-14 to outbred ICR mice infected intranasally with 100 % lethal dose of ectromelia virus, it was shown that 50 % effective doses of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 did not significantly differ. The 'therapeutic window' varied from 1 day before infection to 6 days post-infection (p.i.) to achieve 100-60 % survival rate. The administration of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 to mice resulted in a significant reduction of ectromelia virus titres in organs examined as compared with the control and also reduced pathological changes in the lungs 6 days p.i. Oral administration of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 to ICR mice and marmots challenged with monkeypox virus as compared with the control resulted in a significant reduction of virus production in the lungs and the proportion of infected mice 7 days p.i. as well as the absence of disease in marmots. Significantly lower proportions of infected mice and virus production levels in the lungs as compared with the control were demonstrated in experiments after oral administration of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 to ICR mice and immunodeficient SCID mice challenged with variola virus 3 and 4 days p.i., respectively. The results obtained suggest good prospects for further study of the chemical compound NIOCH-14 to create a new smallpox drug on its basis.

  5. Amoxicillin Oxidative Degradation Synthesized by Nano Zero Valent Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Yazdanbakhsh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amoxicillin is one of the most important groups of pharmaceuticals that benefits humans and animals. However, antibiotics excertion in wastewaters and environment have emerged as a serious risk to the biotic environment, and their toxic effects can harm the organisms. Iron-based metallic nanoparticles have received special attention in regard with remediation of groundwater contaminants. In the typical nZVI-based bimetallic particle system, Fe acts as the reducing agent. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the synthesis and characteristics of nZVI in regard with degrading AMX. Methods: In this study, nZVI nanoparticles were synthesized using the liquid-phase reduction method by EDTA as a stabilizer material. Structure and properties of nanoparticles were characterized by BET, SEM, XRD and EDX analysis. A multi-variate analysis was applied using a response surface methodology (RSM in order to develop a quadratic model as a functional relationship between AMX removal efficiency and independent variables ( initial pH values, dosage of nZVI, contact time and amoxicillin concentration. The four independent variables of solution pH (2–10, AMX concentration (5-45mg/l, contact time (5-85 min and nanoparticles dose (0.25 – 1.25 g were transformed to the coded values. Results: The study results demonstrated that more than 69 % of AMX was removed by nZVI. The optimal AMX removal conditions using nZVI were found as 1.25 g of nZVI, pH 4, contact time of 80 min and concentration of 30 mg/l. Conclusions: The ability of nZVI in degradation of AMX revealed that these materials can serve as a potential nano material with respect to the environmental remediation.

  6. Adsorption of citrate ions on hydroxyapatite synthesized by various methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarek, E.; Janusz, W.; Sternik, D.

    2014-01-01

    The specific adsorption of citric acid ions at hydroxyapatite interface was investigated by the means of radioisotope method ( 14 C) as a function of citric acid ions concentration, NaCl concentration and pH. Application of the hydroxyapatite has become wide in the biomaterial field as the Ca 10 (OH) 2 (PO 4 ) 6 possess biocompatibility with human hard tissue. Hydroxyapatite was synthesized using three different methods. The physical properties of the resulting powder were characterized by DTA/TG, XRD, AFM and SEM microscopy. Physicochemical qualities characterizing the electrical double layer of the hydroxyapatite/NaCl solution interface were determined. The zeta potential and the adsorption of citric acid molecule were studied as a function of pH. The point of zero charge and the isoelectric point of samples were determined. Electrical double layer parameters of hydroxyapatite/NaCl interface are influenced by a synthesis method. The points pH pzc and pH IEP for sample 1 are pH pzc 7.5 and pH IEP 3; for sample 2 pH pzc 7.05 and pH IEP 3, for sample 3 pH pzc 6.7 and pH IEP 3. Temperature has weak influence both on pure substance and with citric acid adsorbed, as derivatographic analysis has shown, and characterization of hydroxyapatite structure may be carried out by this thermal analysis. Two phenomena are responsible for citric acid adsorption: phosphate group's replacement at hydroxyapatite surface by citric ions parallel to intraspherical complexes formation. (author)

  7. Poly aniline synthesized in pilot scale: structural and morphological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzeu, Maria Alice Carvalho; Goncalves, Emerson Sarmento, E-mail: aie.mzz@hotmail.com [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Gama, Adriana Medeiros [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Faria, Lohana Komorek [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Among various conducting polymers, poly aniline (PAni) has received wide-spread attention because of its outstanding properties including simple and reversible doping–dedoping chemistry, stable electrical conduction mechanisms, high environmental stability and ease of synthesis [1]. Increasing applications require PAni at industrial scale and optimization of manufacturing processes are essential for this purpose. Since pilot scale influences hydrodynamics of the polymerizations system [2], pilot scale is an important instrument for evaluating amendments in the process. In this work, polyaniline was synthesized on pilot scale, with variation of reaction time for every synthesis, keeping the other parameters unchanged. The PAni salt first obtained was dedoped and the PAni-B (PAni in a base form, nonconductive) obtained was redoped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA), when PAni-DBSA (PAni in a salt form, conductive) is obtained. The effects of synthesis conditions on the structural and morphological characteristics of PAni-B and PAni-DBSA are investigate by Raman Spectroscopy, XRD (X-ray diffractometer) and SEM (Scanning electron microscopy). Electrical conductivity was determined to redoped samples. Results were analyzed and we compare PAni forms to identifying the doping structure to PAni-DBSA by Raman spectroscopy. It was found too that reaction time can give some influence at conductivity. The XRD result showed differences in crystalline peaks of PAni-B and PAni-DBSA and this difference could be attributed mainly to the redoping process. Whereas the formation of crystals on a pilot scale may change because of effects caused by water flow, speed of polymerization could affect the formation of crystals too. The SEM pictures to PAni-B showed tiny coral reefs with globules structure and PAni-DBSA showed multilayer structure. References: 1 - Fratoddia I. et al. Sensors and Actuators B 220: 534–548 (2015); 2 - Roichman Y et al. Synthetic Metals 98

  8. Photoluminescence of Sequential Infiltration Synthesized ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocola, Leonidas; Gosztola, David; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Connolly, Aine

    We have investigated a variation of atomic layer deposition (ALD), called sequential infiltration synthesis (SiS), as an alternate method to incorporate ZnO and other oxides inside polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and other polymers. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results show that we synthesize ZnO up to 300 nm inside a PMMA film. Photoluminescence data on a PMMA film shows that we achieve a factor of 400X increase in photoluminescence (PL) intensity when comparing a blank Si sample and a 270 nm thick PMMA film, where both were treated with the same 12 alternating cycles of H2O and diethyl zinc (DEZ). PMMA is a well-known ebeam resist. We can expose and develop patterns useful for photonics or sensing applications first, and then convert them afterwards into a hybrid polymer-oxide material. We show that patterning does indeed affect the photoluminescence signature of native ZnO. We demonstrate we can track the growth of the ZnO inside the PMMA polymer using both photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy and determine the point in the process where ZnO is first photoluminescent and also at which point ZnO first exhibits long range order in the polymer. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia, E-mail: claudiamartinezalonso30@gmail.com [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico); Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, 83000 (Mexico); Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, MéxicoD.F., 04510 (Mexico); Mayén-Hernández, S.A. [Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Querétaro, Querétaro, 76010 (Mexico); Hu, Hailin, E-mail: hzh@ier.unam.mx [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos, 62580 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanorods.

  10. A new route of synthesizing perovskite nanotubes by templating approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habiballah, Anisah Shafiqah; Osman, Nafisah; Jani, Abdul Mutalib Md

    2017-09-01

    A perovskite oxide for example Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) has attracted growing attention due to its high catalytic activity and mixed ionic/electronic conductivity. Recent research of BSCF is more comprehensively based on a remarkable trajectory of innovation, in particular with regards to the synthesis of perovskite structures in one-dimensional (1-D) nanometric scales as they promote not only to increase an active electrode area for the oxygen reduction reaction, but also allow the tailoring of electrode's architecture. Nevertheless, achieving the desired 1-D structure by a conventional method such as hydrothermal, solvothermal, or sonochemical are far from satisfactory. Herein, the aim of this work is to synthesize the BSCF perovskite nanotubes via soft templating approach, particularly using anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) as a template, focusing on the morphology, composition and structural properties were demonstrated. After the AAO template was anodized at 80 V, the fabricated template was clamped between apair of spectroscopic cells containing BSCF sol and deionized water (with a hole of both sides) for 24 hours. After that, the sample was removed from the cells followed by heat treatment process. The FESEM images showed that BSCF nanotubes were successfully achieved, with the diameter of the nanotubes' approximately 80 nm. The EDX result also confirmed the nominal stoichiometry of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ. Meanwhile, the XRD pattern confirmed a single crystalline phase of BSCF nanotubes was successfully obtained and congruent to a cubic perovskite structure of BSCF. Possible formation mechanism,as well as the schematic illustration of BSCF nanotubes inside the template was also discussed in this paper.

  11. Syntheses, Crystal Structures and Bioactivities of Two Novel Isatin Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Jian-li; LI Hui-dong; SHANG Jun; SONG Hai-bin; LI Zheng-ming; WANG Jian-guo

    2011-01-01

    Two novel compoundsl-(4-fluorobenzyl)-4-chloro-(Z)-3-benzoylhydrazono-2-indolinone(1) and 1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-(Z)-3-benzoylhydrazono-2-indolinone(2) were synthesized and their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.Compound 1(C22H15ClFN3O2) crystallized in the triclinic system,space group P1- with a=0.94198(19) nm,b=1.4339(3) nm,c=1.5018(3) nm,a=101.58(3)°,β=102.96(3)°,γ=102.73°,V=1.8602(6) nm3,Mr=407.82,Dc=1.456 g/cm3,μ=0.240 mm-1,F(000)=840,Z=4,R1=0.0442 and wR2=0.1064.Compound 2(C23H19N3O3) crystallized in the triclinic system,space group P1- with a=1.0022(2) nm,b=1.0192(2) nm,c=1.0461(2) nm,a=99.86(3)°,β=117.30(3)°,γ=94.13(3)°,V=0.9215(3) nm3,Mr=385.41,Dc=1.389 g/cm3,μ=0.094mm-1,F(000)=404,Z=2,R1=0.0403 and wR2=0.1142.The preliminary herbicidal activities of the two compounds were also evaluated.

  12. Valorization of Bone Waste of Saudi Arabia by Synthesizing Hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amna, Touseef

    2018-05-09

    At present, hydroxyapatite is being frequently used for diverse biomedical applications as it possesses excellent biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and non-immunogenic characteristics. The aim of the present work was to recycle bone waste for synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to be used as bone extracellular matrix. For this reason, we for the first time utilized bio-waste of cow bones of Albaha city. The residual bones were utilized for the extraction of natural bone precursor hydroxyapatite. A facile scientific technique has been used to synthesize hydroxyapatite nanoparticles through calcinations of wasted cow bones without further supplementation of chemicals/compounds. The obtained hydroxyapatite powder was ascertained using physicochemical techniques such as XRD, SEM, FTIR, and EDX. These analyses clearly show that hydroxyapatite from native cow bone wastes is biologically and physicochemically comparable to standard hydroxyapatite, commonly used for biomedical functions. The cell viability and proliferation over the prepared hydroxyapatite was confirmed with CCk-8 colorimetric assay. The morphology of the cells growing over the nano-hydroxyapatite shows that natural hydroxyapatite promotes cellular attachment and proliferation. Hence, the as-prepared nano-hydroxyapatite can be considered as cost-effective source of bone precursor hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering. Taking into account the projected demand for reliable bone implants, the present research work suggested using environment friendly methods to convert waste of Albaha city into nano-hydroxyapatite scaffolds. Therefore, besides being an initial step towards accomplishment of projected demands of bone implants in Saudi Arabia, our study will also help in reducing the environmental burden by recycling of bone wastes of Albaha city.

  13. Data management in clinical research: Synthesizing stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B; Farach, Frank J; Pelphrey, Kevin; Rozenblit, Leon

    2016-04-01

    This study assesses data management needs in clinical research from the perspectives of researchers, software analysts and developers. This is a mixed-methods study that employs sublanguage analysis in an innovative manner to link the assessments. We performed content analysis using sublanguage theory on transcribed interviews conducted with researchers at four universities. A business analyst independently extracted potential software features from the transcriptions, which were translated into the sublanguage. This common sublanguage was then used to create survey questions for researchers, analysts and developers about the desirability and difficulty of features. Results were synthesized using the common sublanguage to compare stakeholder perceptions with the original content analysis. Individual researchers exhibited significant diversity of perspectives that did not correlate by role or site. Researchers had mixed feelings about their technologies, and sought improvements in integration, interoperability and interaction as well as engaging with study participants. Researchers and analysts agreed that data integration has higher desirability and mobile technology has lower desirability but disagreed on the desirability of data validation rules. Developers agreed that data integration and validation are the most difficult to implement. Researchers perceive tasks related to study execution, analysis and quality control as highly strategic, in contrast with tactical tasks related to data manipulation. Researchers have only partial technologic support for analysis and quality control, and poor support for study execution. Software for data integration and validation appears critical to support clinical research, but may be expensive to implement. Features to support study workflow, collaboration and engagement have been underappreciated, but may prove to be easy successes. Software developers should consider the strategic goals of researchers with regard to the

  14. Electrochemically synthesized Si nano wire arrays and thermoelectric nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuan, N.I.; Ying, K.K.; Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Foo, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Thermoelectric nano structures hold great promise for capturing and directly converting into electricity some vast amount of low-grade waste heats now being lost to the environment (for example from nuclear power plant, fossil fuel burning, automotive and household appliances). In this study, large-area vertically-aligned silicon nano wire (SiNW) arrays were synthesized in an aqueous solution containing AgNO 3 and HF on p-type Si (100) substrate by self-selective electroless etching process. The etching conditions were systematically varied in order to achieve different stages of nano wire formation. Diameters of the SiNWs obtained varied from approximately 50 to 200 nm and their lengths ranged from several to a few tens of μm. Te/ Bi 2 Te 3 -Si thermoelectric core-shell nano structures were subsequently obtained via galvanic displacement of SiNWs in acidic HF electrolytes containing HTeO 2 + and Bi 3+ / HTeO 2 + ions. The reactions were basically a nano-electrochemical process due to the difference in redox potentials between the materials. the surface-modified SiNWs of core-shell structures had roughened surface morphologies and therefore, higher surface-t-bulk ratios compared to unmodified SiNWs. They have potential applications in sensors, photovoltaic and thermoelectric nano devices. Growth study on the SiNWs and core-shell nano structures produced is presented using various microscopy, diffraction and probe-based techniques for microstructural, morphological and chemical characterizations. (Author)

  15. Purity and crystallinity of microwave synthesized antimony sulfide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alonso, Claudia; Olivos-Peralta, Eliot U.; Sotelo-Lerma, Mérida; Sato-Berrú, Roberto Y.; Mayén-Hernández, S.A.; Hu, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) is a promising semiconductor material for solar cell applications. In this work, microrods of Sb_2S_3 were synthesized by microwave heating with different sulfur sources, solvents, temperature, heating rate, power, and solution concentration. It was found that 90% of stoichiometric Sb_2S_3 can be obtained with thiourea (TU) or thioacetamide (TA) as sulfur sources and that their optical band gap values were within the range of 1.59–1.60 eV. The most crystalline Sb_2S_3 were obtained by using TU. The morphology of the Sb_2S_3 with TU the individual rods were exhibited, whereas rods bundles appeared in TA-based products. The solvents were ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylformamide (DMF). EG generates more heat than DMF during the microwave synthesis. As a result, the Sb_2S_3 obtained with EG contained a larger percentage of oxygen and smaller crystal sizes compared to those from DMF. On the other hand, the length and diameter of Sb_2S_3 microrods can be increased by applying higher heating power although the crystal size did not change at all. In summary, pure and highly crystalline Sb_2S_3 microrods of 6–10 μm long and 330–850 nm in diameter can be obtained by the microwave method with a careful selection of chemical and thermodynamic parameters of the synthesis. - Highlights: • Purity up to 90% of crystalline Sb_2S_3 nanorods can be obtained by microwave heating. • The combination of solvent and sulfide type affects crystallinity & purity of Sb2S3. • The high pressure generated in microwave heating helps to form Sb_2S_3 nanorods.

  16. The Semi-automatic Synthesis of 18F-fluoroethyl-choline by Domestic FDG Synthesizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Ming

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As an important complementary imaging agent for 18F-FDG, 18F-fluoroethyl-choline (18F-FECH has been demonstrated to be promising in brain and prostate cancer imaging. By using domestic PET-FDG-TI-I CPCU synthesizer, 18F-FECH was synthesized by different reagents and consumable supplies. The C18 column was added before the product collection bottle to remove K2.2.2. The 18F-FECH was synthesized by PET-FDG-IT-I synthesizer efficiently about 30 minutes by radiochemical yield of 42.0% (no decay corrected, n=5, and the radiochemical purity was still more than 99.0% after 6 hours. The results showed the domestic PET-FDG-IT-I synthesizer could semi-automatically synthesize injectable 18F-FECH in high efficiency and radiochemical purity

  17. Synthesis of Zeolite from Fly Ash and Removal of Heavy Metal Ions from Newly Synthesized Zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Parag; Gupta, Vikal; Kulshrestha, Ruchi

    2010-01-01

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. Characteristics of the various Fly ash samples were carried out. Coal proximate analysis was done. Batch experiment was carried out for the adsorption of some heavy metal ions on to synthesized Zeolite. The cost of synthesized zeolite was estimated to be almost one-fifth of that of commercial 13X zeolite available in the market.

  18. Comparison on Bactericidal and Cytotoxic Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by Different Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, R.; Celsia, A. S. Ruby; Malathi Devi, S.; Geerthika, S.

    2017-08-01

    Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticle are biocompatible for medical applications. The present work is aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticle using the fruit pulp of Tamarindusindica and to evaluate its antibacterial and anticancer activity against lung cancercell lines. Antibacterial activity was assessed by well diffusion method. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT assay. GC-MS of fruit pulp extract showed the presence of levoglucosenone, n-hexadecanoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid etc. Antioxidant activity of the fruit pulp was determined by DPPH assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay and lipid peroxidation. The size of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticle varied from 50 nm to 76 nm. It was 59 nm to 98 nm for chemically synthesized silver nanoparticle. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticle showed 26 mm inhibition zone against E. coli and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticle showed 20 mm. Antioxidant activity of fruit extract by DPPH showed 84 % reduction. The IC 50 of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticle against lung cancer cell lines was 48 µg/ml. It was 95 µg/ml for chemically synthesized silver nanoparticle. The increased activity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticle was due to its smaller size, stability and the bioactive compounds capping the silver nanoparticle extracted from the fruit extract.

  19. Synthesizing International Understanding of Changes in the Arctic Hydrological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundsack, J. W.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    There are several notable gaps in our current level of understanding of Arctic hydrological systems. At the same time, rapidly emerging data sets, technologies, and modeling resources provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to move substantially forward. The Arctic Community-Wide Hydrological Analysis and Monitoring Program (Arctic-CHAMP), funded by NSF/ARCSS, was established to initiate a major effort to improve our current monitoring of water cycle variables, and to foster collaboration with the many relevant U.S. and international arctic research initiatives. These projects, funded under ARCSS through the ‘Freshwater Integration (FWI) study’, links CHAMP, the Arctic/Subarctic Ocean Fluxes (ASOF) Programme, and SEARCH. As part of the overall synthesis and integration efforts of the NSF-ARCSS Freshwater Integration (FWI) study, the program carried-out a major International Synthesis Capstone Workshop in Fall 2009 as an International Polar Year (IPY) affiliated meeting. The workshop, "Synthesizing International Understanding of Changes in the Arctic Hydrological System,” was held 30 September to 4 October 2009 in Stockholm at the Beijer Auditorium of the Royal Swedish Academy. The workshop was sponsored by the NSF-ARCSS Arctic-CHAMP Science Management Office (City College of New York / Univ. of New Hampshire), the International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC), and the International Arctic Research Center (IARC; Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks). The overarching goals of the meeting were to stage a post-IPY lessons-learned workshop with co-equal numbers of FWI, IPY, and ICARP-II researchers, using insights from recent scientific findings, data, and strategies to afford synthesis. The workshop aimed to: (1) take stock of recent advances in our understanding of changes in the Arctic hydrological system; (2) identify key remaining research gaps / unanswered questions; and (3) gather insight on where to focus future research efforts/initiatives (nationally and

  20. Candidate gene analysis of spontaneous preterm delivery: New insights from re-analysis of a case-control study using case-parent triads and control-mother dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myking Solveig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD has a multifactorial etiology with evidence of a genetic contribution to its pathogenesis. A number of candidate gene case-control studies have been performed on spontaneous PTD, but the results have been inconsistent, and do not fully assess the role of how two genotypes can impact outcome. To elucidate this latter point we re-analyzed data from a previously published case-control candidate gene study, using a case-parent triad design and a hybrid design combining case-parent triads and control-mother dyads. These methods offer a robust approach to genetic association studies for PTD compared to traditional case-control designs. Methods The study participants were obtained from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A total of 196 case triads and 211 control dyads were selected for the analysis. A case-parent triad design as well as a hybrid design was used to analyze 1,326 SNPs from 159 candidate genes. We compared our results to those from a previous case-control study on the same samples. Haplotypes were analyzed using a sliding window of three SNPs and a pathway analysis was performed to gain biological insight into the pathophysiology of preterm delivery. Results The most consistent significant fetal gene across all analyses was COL5A2. The functionally similar COL5A1 was significant when combining fetal and maternal genotypes. PON1 was significant with analytical approaches for single locus association of fetal genes alone, but was possibly confounded by maternal effects. Focal adhesion (hsa04510, Cell Communication (hsa01430 and ECM receptor interaction (hsa04512 were the most constant significant pathways. Conclusion This study suggests a fetal association of COL5A2 and a combined fetal-maternal association of COL5A1 with spontaneous PTD. In addition, the pathway analysis implied interactions of genes affecting cell communication and extracellular matrix.