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Sample records for synthesis rna involvement

  1. Metabolic Circuit Involving Free Fatty Acids, microRNA 122, and Triglyceride Synthesis in Liver and Muscle Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chofit; Rivkin, Mila; Berkovits, Liav; Simerzin, Alina; Zorde-Khvalevsky, Elina; Rosenberg, Nofar; Klein, Shiri; Yaish, Dayana; Durst, Ronen; Shpitzen, Shoshana; Udi, Shiran; Tam, Joseph; Heeren, Joerg; Worthmann, Anna; Schramm, Christoph; Kluwe, Johannes; Ravid, Revital; Hornstein, Eran; Giladi, Hilla; Galun, Eithan

    2017-11-01

    Effective treatments are needed for hepatic steatosis characterized by accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes, which leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. MicroRNA 122 (MIR122) is expressed only in the liver, where it regulates lipid metabolism. We investigated the mechanism by which free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate MIR122 expression and the effect of MIR122 on triglyceride synthesis. We analyzed MIR122 promoter activity and validated its target mRNAs by transfection of Luciferase reporter plasmids into Huh7, BNL-1ME, and HEK293 cultured cell lines. We measured levels of microRNAs and mRNAs by quantitative real-time PCR analysis of RNA extracted from plasma, liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of C57BL/6 mice given the FFA-inducer CL316243. MIR122 was inhibited using an inhibitor of MIR122. Metabolic profiles of mice were determined using metabolic chambers and by histologic analyses of liver tissues. We performed RNA sequence analyses to identify metabolic pathways involving MIR122. We validated human Agpat1 and Dgat1 mRNAs, involved in triglyceride synthesis, as targets of MIR122. FFAs increased MIR122 expression in livers of mice by activating the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha, and induced secretion of MIR122 from liver to blood. Circulating MIR122 entered muscle and adipose tissues of mice, reducing mRNA levels of genes involved in triglyceride synthesis. Mice injected with an inhibitor of MIR122 and then given CL316243, accumulated triglycerides in liver and muscle tissues, and had reduced rates of β-oxidation. There was a positive correlation between level of FFAs and level of MIR122 in plasma samples from 6 healthy individuals, collected before and during fasting. In biochemical and histologic studies of plasma, liver, muscle, and adipose tissues from mice, we found that FFAs increase hepatic expression and secretion of MIR122, which regulates energy storage vs expenditure in liver and peripheral tissues. Strategies to reduce

  2. RNA structures regulating nidovirus RNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Born, Erwin van den

    2006-01-01

    Viruses depend on their host cell for the production of their progeny. The genetic information that is required to regulate this process is contained in the viral genome. In the case of plus-stranded RNA viruses, like nidoviruses, the RNA genome is directly involved in translation (resulting in the

  3. Catalysis and prebiotic RNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, James P.

    1993-01-01

    The essential role of catalysis for the origins of life is discussed. The status of the prebiotic synthesis of 2',5'- and 3'5'-linked oligomers of RNA is reviewed. Examples of the role of metal ion and mineral catalysis in RNA oligomer formation are discussed.

  4. Sequence requirements for RNA strand transfer during nidovirus discontinuous subgenomic RNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasternak, A. O.; van den Born, E.; Spaan, W. J.; Snijder, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    Nidovirus subgenomic mRNAs contain a leader sequence derived from the 5' end of the genome fused to different sequences ('bodies') derived from the 3' end. Their generation involves a unique mechanism of discontinuous subgenomic RNA synthesis that resembles copy-choice RNA recombination. During this

  5. Synthesis of 2′-Fluoro RNA by Syn5 RNA polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Hernandez, Alfredo; Tan, Min; Wollenhaupt, Jan; Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    The substitution of 2′-fluoro for 2′-hydroxyl moieties in RNA substantially improves the stability of RNA. RNA stability is a major issue in RNA research and applications involving RNA. We report that the RNA polymerase from the marine cyanophage Syn5 has an intrinsic low discrimination against the incorporation of 2′-fluoro dNMPs during transcription elongation. The presence of both magnesium and manganese ions at high concentrations further reduce this discrimination without decreasing the efficiency of incorporation. We have constructed a Syn5 RNA polymerase in which tyrosine 564 is replaced with phenylalanine (Y564F) that further decreases the discrimination against 2′-fluoro-dNTPs during RNA synthesis. Sequence elements in DNA templates that affect the yield of RNA and incorporation of 2′-fluoro-dNMPs by Syn5 RNA polymerase have been identified. PMID:25897116

  6. Comparative genomics of proteins involved in RNA nucleocytoplasmic export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpeloni, Mariana; Vidal, Newton M; Goldenberg, Samuel; Avila, Andréa R; Hoffmann, Federico G

    2011-01-11

    The establishment of the nuclear membrane resulted in the physical separation of transcription and translation, and presented early eukaryotes with a formidable challenge: how to shuttle RNA from the nucleus to the locus of protein synthesis. In prokaryotes, mRNA is translated as it is being synthesized, whereas in eukaryotes mRNA is synthesized and processed in the nucleus, and it is then exported to the cytoplasm. In metazoa and fungi, the different RNA species are exported from the nucleus by specialized pathways. For example, tRNA is exported by exportin-t in a RanGTP-dependent fashion. By contrast, mRNAs are associated to ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and exported by an essential shuttling complex (TAP-p15 in human, Mex67-mtr2 in yeast) that transports them through the nuclear pore. The different RNA export pathways appear to be well conserved among members of Opisthokonta, the eukaryotic supergroup that includes Fungi and Metazoa. However, it is not known whether RNA export in the other eukaryotic supergroups follows the same export routes as in opisthokonts. Our objective was to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the different RNA export pathways across eukaryotes. To do so, we screened an array of eukaryotic genomes for the presence of homologs of the proteins involved in RNA export in Metazoa and Fungi, using human and yeast proteins as queries. Our genomic comparisons indicate that the basic components of the RanGTP-dependent RNA pathways are conserved across eukaryotes, and thus we infer that these are traceable to the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). On the other hand, several of the proteins involved in RanGTP-independent mRNA export pathways are less conserved, which would suggest that they represent innovations that appeared later in the evolution of eukaryotes. Our analyses suggest that the LECA possessed the basic components of the different RNA export mechanisms found today in opisthokonts, and that these mechanisms became more specialized

  7. Primer-dependent and primer-independent initiation of double stranded RNA synthesis by purified arabidopsis RNA-dependent RNA polymerases RDR2 and RDR6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devert, Anthony; Fabre, Nicolas; Floris, Maina Huguette Joséphine

    2015-01-01

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) are fundamental components of RNA silencing in plants and many other eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana genetic studies have demonstrated that RDR2 and RDR6 are involved in the synthesis of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) from single stranded RNA (ssRNA)...

  8. The RNA synthesis machinery of negative-stranded RNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortín, Juan, E-mail: jortin@cnb.csic.es [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CSIC) and CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (ISCIII), Madrid (Spain); Martín-Benito, Jaime, E-mail: jmartinb@cnb.csic.es [Department of Macromolecular Structures, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    The group of Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses (NSVs) includes many human pathogens, like the influenza, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial or Ebola viruses, which produce frequent epidemics of disease and occasional, high mortality outbreaks by transmission from animal reservoirs. The genome of NSVs consists of one to several single-stranded, negative-polarity RNA molecules that are always assembled into mega Dalton-sized complexes by association to many nucleoprotein monomers. These RNA-protein complexes or ribonucleoproteins function as templates for transcription and replication by action of the viral RNA polymerase and accessory proteins. Here we review our knowledge on these large RNA-synthesis machines, including the structure of their components, the interactions among them and their enzymatic activities, and we discuss models showing how they perform the virus transcription and replication programmes. - Highlights: • Overall organisation of NSV RNA synthesis machines. • Structure and function of the ribonucleoprotein components: Atomic structure of the RNA polymerase complex. • Commonalities and differences between segmented- and non-segmented NSVs. • Transcription versus replication programmes.

  9. The RNA synthesis machinery of negative-stranded RNA viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortín, Juan; Martín-Benito, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The group of Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses (NSVs) includes many human pathogens, like the influenza, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial or Ebola viruses, which produce frequent epidemics of disease and occasional, high mortality outbreaks by transmission from animal reservoirs. The genome of NSVs consists of one to several single-stranded, negative-polarity RNA molecules that are always assembled into mega Dalton-sized complexes by association to many nucleoprotein monomers. These RNA-protein complexes or ribonucleoproteins function as templates for transcription and replication by action of the viral RNA polymerase and accessory proteins. Here we review our knowledge on these large RNA-synthesis machines, including the structure of their components, the interactions among them and their enzymatic activities, and we discuss models showing how they perform the virus transcription and replication programmes. - Highlights: • Overall organisation of NSV RNA synthesis machines. • Structure and function of the ribonucleoprotein components: Atomic structure of the RNA polymerase complex. • Commonalities and differences between segmented- and non-segmented NSVs. • Transcription versus replication programmes

  10. RNA synthesis during cleavage of the Lymnaea egg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    In eggs of Lymnaea RNA synthesis can be detected autoradiographically from the 8- to the 16-cell stage. From the 16- to the 24-cell stage distinct nucleoli reappear which are immediately engaged in RNA synthesis.

  11. Broad-spectrum inhibition of common respiratory RNA viruses by a pyrimidine synthesis inhibitor with involvement of the host antiviral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nam Nam; Lai, Kin Kui; Dai, Jun; Kok, Kin Hang; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Kao, Richard Yi Tsun

    2017-05-01

    Our previous screening of 50 240 structurally diverse compounds led to the identification of 39 influenza A virus infection inhibitors (Kao R.Y., Yang D., Lau L.S., Tsui W.H., Hu L. et al. Nat Biotechnol 2010;28:600-605). Further screening of these compounds against common respiratory viruses led to the discovery of compound FA-613. This inhibitor exhibited low micromolar antiviral activity against various influenza A and B virus strains, including the highly pathogenic influenza A strains H5N1 and H7N9, enterovirus A71, respiratory syncytial virus, human rhinovirus A, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus. No significant cellular toxicity was observed at the effective concentrations. Animal studies showed an improved survival rate in BALB/c mice that received intranasal FA-613 treatments against a lethal dose infection of A/HK/415742Md/2009 (H1N1). Further cell-based assays indicated that FA-613 interfer with the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway by targeting the dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Surprisingly, FA-613 lost its antiviral potency in the interferon-deficient Vero cell line, while maintaining its inhibitory activity in an interferon-competent cell line which showed elevated expression of host antiviral genes when infected in the presence of FA-613. Further investigation of the specific connection between pyrimidine synthesis inhibition and the induction of host innate immunity might aid clinical development of this type of drug in antiviral therapies. Therefore, in acute cases of respiratory tract infections, when rapid diagnostics of the causative agent are not readily available, an antiviral drug with properties like FA-613 could prove to be very valuable.

  12. Hydrocortisone Stimulation of RNA Synthesis in Induction of Hepatic Enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, Francis T.; Wicks, Wesley D.; Greenman, David L.

    1965-10-01

    Increased synthesis of hepatic enzymes due to hydrocortisone is preceded by an increase in the rate of synthesis of nuclear RNA. Pulse-labeled RNA from liver nuclei was fractionated by a differential thermal phenol procedures, and the labeled RNA of each fraction was characterized by sucrose gradient centrifugation and base composition analysis. Hormone treatment increases the rate of synthesis of three types of RNA: (1) the nuclear precursor to ribosomal RNA, (2) a rapid turnover component with base composition similar to the tissue DNA, and (3) transfer RNA. Much of the total isotope incorporation into transfer RNA can be traced to turnover of the terminal adenylate residue, but this type of labeling is insensitive to the hormone. The steroid also stimulates isotope incorporation into tissue precursor pools. The effect is abolished by actinomycin and thus is secondary to the hormonal stimulation of RNA synthesis. Growth hormone stimulates RNA synthesis in both intact and adrenalectomized rats, but induces the rapid turnover enzymes (tyrosine transaminase and tryptophan pyrrolase) only in the presence of functional adrenals. It therefore seems that glucocorticoids initiate both a generalized increase in synthesis of RNA and a selective induction of specific enzymes.

  13. Sequential analysis of RNA synthesis by microchip electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Yoshihiro; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Yatsushiro, Shouki; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kido, Jun-Ichi; Kakuhata, Rei; Yamamoto, Takenori; Shinohara, Yasuo; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2009-05-01

    We describe the potential of microchip electrophoresis with a Hitachi SV1100, which can be used to evaluate the integrity of total RNA, for the analysis of synthesized RNA. There was little interference by DNA and/or the components of the in vitro transcription system with the microchip electrophoresis. The fluorescence intensity corresponding to the synthesized RNA increased in a time-dependent manner as to the RNA synthesis reaction on sequential analysis. A result can be obtained in 160 s and only 1/10 aliquots of samples, compared with the conventional method, are required. These results indicate the potential of microchip electrophoresis for sequential analysis of RNA synthesis.

  14. Flow cytometric analysis of RNA synthesis by detection of bromouridine incorporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J K; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Larsen, J

    2001-01-01

    RNA synthesis has traditionally been investigated by a laborious and time-consuming radiographic method involving incorporation of tritiated uridine. Now a faster non-radioactive alternative has emerged, based on immunocytochemical detection. This method utilizes the brominated RNA precursor...... bromouridine, which is taken into a cell, phosphorylated, and incorporated into nascent RNA. The BrU-substituted RNA is detected by permeabilizing the cells and staining with certain anti-BrdU antibodies. This dynamic approach yields information complementing that provided by cellular RNA content analysis...

  15. Radiation-induced inhibition of RNA synthesis in Tetrahymena pyriformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, S.G.; Rustad, R.C.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation-induced disturbances in RNA synthesis were investigated in exponentially growing Tetrahymena. Sub-lethal doses of γ-radiation lead to a transient, dose-dependent decrease in the rate of total RNA synthesis measured by 3 H-uridine incorporation, without an alteration of 3 H-uridine uptake by the cells. The rate of 3 H-uridine incorporation decreased exponentially with dose. In contrast, the duration of inhibition of RNA synthesis was linearly dependent on dose. Target-theory calculations suggest that the sensitive molecule has a molecular weight of about 2x10 7 Daltons. (author)

  16. Paramyxovirus RNA synthesis, mRNA editing, and genome hexamer phase: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakofsky, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The recent flurry of high resolution structures of Negative Strand RNA Virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases has rekindled interest in the manner in which these polymerases, and in particular those of the nonsegmented viruses, recognize the RNA sequences that control mRNA synthesis and genome replication. In the light of these polymerase structures, we re-examine some unusual aspects of the Paramyxoviridae, namely bipartite replication promoters and mRNA editing, and the manner in which these properties are governed by genome hexamer phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. NOF1 encodes an Arabidopsis protein involved in the control of rRNA expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwana Harscoët

    Full Text Available The control of ribosomal RNA biogenesis is essential for the regulation of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the characterization of NOF1 that encodes a putative nucleolar protein involved in the control of rRNA expression in Arabidopsis. The gene has been isolated by T-DNA tagging and its function verified by the characterization of a second allele and genetic complementation of the mutants. The nof1 mutants are affected in female gametogenesis and embryo development. This result is consistent with the detection of NOF1 mRNA in all tissues throughout plant life's cycle, and preferentially in differentiating cells. Interestingly, the closely related proteins from zebra fish and yeast are also necessary for cell division and differentiation. We showed that the nof1-1 mutant displays higher rRNA expression and hypomethylation of rRNA promoter. Taken together, the results presented here demonstrated that NOF1 is an Arabidopsis gene involved in the control of rRNA expression, and suggested that it encodes a putative nucleolar protein, the function of which may be conserved in eukaryotes.

  18. The mechanism of montmorillonite catalysis in RNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash

    The formation of complex prebiotic molecules on the early Earth is likely to have involved a component of mineral catalysis. Amongst the variety of clay minerals that have been investigated by us for their ability to catalyze the formation of RNA oligomers is montmorillonite. These are 2:1 layer silicates that have a wide range of chemical compositions [(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Fe,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2.nH2O]. They are commonly produced by the weathering of silicic volcanic ashes to form Bentonite. Once formed, montmorillonites gradually transform to Illites at a modest pressure and temperature. Of the many samples of montmorillonite that we have experimentally examined, a selected subset has been observed to be catalytic for RNA synthesis (Joshi et. al., 2009; Aldersley et al., 2011). Those that have been observed to be excellent catalysts come from a restricted range of elemental compositions. The recent identification of phyllosilicates including montmorillonite on Mars (Bishop et al., 2008) raises the possibility that such processes may have taken place there too. The extent of catalysis depended not only upon the magnitude of the negative charge on the montmorillonite lattice and the number of cations associated with it, but also on the pH at which the reaction is promoted. The isotherm and catalysis studies were extended to provide binding information and catalytic outcomes over a wide pH range. When cations in raw montmorillonite are completely replaced by sodium ions, the resulting Na+-montmorillonite does not catalyze oligomer formation because the ions saturate the interlayer between the platelets of montmorillonite, which blocks the binding of the activated monomers. Acid washed montmorillonite titrated to pH 6-8 with alkali metal ions, serves as the model catalyst for this RNA synthesis (Aldersley et. al., 2011). The optimal binding occurred in the region of maximal oligomer formation. X-ray diffraction studies revealed changes in layer separations of

  19. DNA and RNA induced enantioselectivity in chemical synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfes, Gerard

    One of the hallmarks of DNA and RNA structures is their elegant chirality. Using these chiral structures to induce enantioselectivity in chemical synthesis is as enticing as it is challenging. In recent years, three general approaches have been developed to achieve this, including chirality transfer

  20. RNA synthesis in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fugassa, E.; Gallo, G.; Voci, A.; Cordone, A.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of hepatocyte monolayers to synthesize RNA was investigated by measuring [3H]orotic acid incorporation into RNA and the total nuclear RNA polymerase activity as a function of the time in culture. The results demonstrate that primary cultures of hepatocytes maintained in a chemically defined serum- and hormone-free medium are able to synthesize RNA actively. This ability increases within the first 2 d of culture, despite the concomitant decrease in [3H]orotic acid uptake, and decreases only after 3 d. Factors such as serum, insulin, and dexamethasone, known to improve maintenance of functional hepatocytes, markedly stimulate the uptake of labeled precursor without apparently affecting the rate of RNA synthesis by cultured cells. It is suggested that the culture of adult rat hepatocytes provides a useful experimental model for the studies of hormonal regulation of transcription in liver

  1. The Accuracy of Seryl-tRNA Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Gruic-Sovulj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The high level of translational fidelity is ensured by various types of quality control mechanisms, which are adapted to prevent or correct naturally occurring mistakes. Accurate aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis is mostly dependent on the specificity of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS, i.e. their ability to choose among competing structurally similar substrates. Our studies have revealed that accurate seryl-tRNA synthesis in yeast and plants is accomplished via tRNA-assisted optimization of amino acid binding to the active site of seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS. Based on our recent kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed by which transient protein : RNA complex activates the cognate amino acid more efficiently and more specifically than the apoenzyme alone. This may proceed via a tRNA induced conformational change in the enzyme’s active site. The influence of tRNASer, on the activation of serine by SerRS variants mutated in the active site, is much less pronounced. Although SerRS misactivates structurally similar threonine in vitro, the formation of such erroneous threonyl-adenylate is reduced in the presence of nonchargeable tRNASer analog. Thus, the sequence-specific tRNA : SerRS interactions enhance the accuracy of amino acid recognition. Another type of quality control mechanism in tRNA serylation is assumed to be based on the complex formation between SerRS and a nonsynthetase protein. Using in vivo interaction screen, yeast peroxin Pex21p was identified as SerRS interacting protein. This was confirmed by an in vitro binding assay. Kinetic experiments performed in the presence of Pex21p revealed that this peroxin acts as an activator of seryl-tRNA synthetase in the aminoacylation reaction.

  2. Involvement of proteasomal subunits zeta and iota in RNA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, F; Jarrousse, A S; Dahlmann, B; Sobek, A; Hendil, K B; Buri, J; Briand, Y; Schmid, H P

    1997-01-01

    We have identified two distinct subunits of 20 S proteasomes that are associated with RNase activity. Proteasome subunits zeta and iota, eluted from two-dimensional Western blots, hydrolysed tobacco mosaic virus RNA, whereas none of the other subunits degraded this substrate under the same conditions. Additionally, proteasomes were dissociated by 6 M urea, and subunit zeta, containing the highest RNase activity, was isolated by anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Purified subunit zeta migrated as a single spot on two-dimensional PAGE with a molecular mass of approx. 28 kDa. Addition of anti-(subunit zeta) antibodies led to the co-precipitation of this proteasome subunit and nuclease activity. This is the first evidence that proteasomal alpha-type subunits are associated with an enzymic activity, and our results provide further evidence that proteasomes may be involved in cellular RNA metabolism. PMID:9337855

  3. The Battle of RNA Synthesis: Virus versus Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landick, Robert; Berkhout, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Transcription control is the foundation of gene regulation. Whereas a cell is fully equipped for this task, viruses often depend on the host to supply tools for their transcription program. Over the course of evolution and adaptation, viruses have found diverse ways to optimally exploit cellular host processes such as transcription to their own benefit. Just as cells are increasingly understood to employ nascent RNAs in transcription regulation, recent discoveries are revealing how viruses use nascent RNAs to benefit their own gene expression. In this review, we first outline the two different transcription programs used by viruses, i.e., transcription (DNA-dependent) and RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. Subsequently, we use the distinct stages (initiation, elongation, termination) to describe the latest insights into nascent RNA-mediated regulation in the context of each relevant stage. PMID:29065472

  4. The integrated analysis of RNA-seq and microRNA-seq depicts miRNA-mRNA networks involved in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Wang, Ruoqing; Wang, Renkai; Tian, Yongsheng; Shao, Changwei; Jia, Xiaodong; Chen, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Albinism, a phenomenon characterized by pigmentation deficiency on the ocular side of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), has caused significant damage. Limited mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) information is available on fish pigmentation deficiency. In this study, a high-throughput sequencing strategy was employed to identify the mRNA and miRNAs involved in P. olivaceus albinism. Based on P. olivaceus genome, RNA-seq identified 21,787 know genes and 711 new genes by transcripts assembly. Of those, 235 genes exhibited significantly different expression pattern (fold change ≥2 or ≤0.5 and q-value≤0.05), including 194 down-regulated genes and 41 up-regulated genes in albino versus normally pigmented individuals. These genes were enriched to 81 GO terms and 9 KEGG pathways (p≤0.05). Among those, the pigmentation related pathways-Melanogenesis and tyrosine metabolism were contained. High-throughput miRNA sequencing identified a total of 475 miRNAs, including 64 novel miRNAs. Furthermore, 33 differentially expressed miRNAs containing 13 up-regulated and 20 down-regulated miRNAs were identified in albino versus normally pigmented individuals (fold change ≥1.5 or ≤0.67 and p≤0.05). The next target prediction discovered a variety of putative target genes, of which, 134 genes including Tyrosinase (TYR), Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were overlapped with differentially expressed genes derived from RNA-seq. These target genes were significantly enriched to 254 GO terms and 103 KEGG pathways (p<0.001). Of those, tyrosine metabolism, lysosomes, phototransduction pathways, etc., attracted considerable attention due to their involvement in regulating skin pigmentation. Expression patterns of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNAs were validated in 10 mRNA and 10 miRNAs by qRT-PCR. With high-throughput mRNA and miRNA sequencing and analysis, a series of interested mRNA and miRNAs involved in fish

  5. Enzymatic synthesis of tRNA-peptide conjugates and spectroscopic studies of fluorine-modified RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, D.

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis concerns the enzymatic synthesis of artificially modified tRNA, in particular the preparation of non-hydrolysable tRNA-peptide conjugates. Another focus is on NMR-spectroscopic investigations of fluorine-modified RNA. In both projects, chemical methods were developed to address specific RNA-biological research questions. In the first part of this thesis the preparation of tRNA-peptide conjugates with a non-hydrolysable 3'-amide linkage is presented. These molecules are of high relevance for the characterization of ribosomal processes that occur in the peptidyl transferase center (such as peptide bond formation, peptide release, or translocation) using X-ray crystallography and biochemical methods. First, a novel concept to prepare chemically modified ('labeled') tRNA was elaborated based on the combination of solid-phase synthesis and enzymatic ligation. Thereby, a variety of differently labeled tRNAs was achieved. Moreover, the most successful high-yield ligation sites were identified to be situated within the TΨ C-loop. Optimization of the synthesis and the corresponding HPLC-purification of the conjugates were initially conducted with puromycin derivatized tRNA. In the course of this project, also two tRNAs with a ribose 3'-amino group at the terminal adenosine A76 were synthesized. For that purpose a protection group pattern had to be developed to obtain a functionalized solid-support bound to 3'-amino-3'-deoxyadenosine which was appropriate for RNA solid-phase synthesis. The successful preparation of tRNA-peptide conjugates was accomplished in cooperation with Holger Moroder and Jessica Steger (Micura group) who contributed short synthetic RNA-peptide conjugates. These fragments represented the tRNA 3'-termini that were required for exploring the new ligation strategies for non-hydrolisable tRNA - a main aim of this thesis. If the 5'-fragments are synthesized by solid-phase synthesis or in vitro transcription they do not

  6. Effect of X-rays on protein synthesis and RNA synthesis in adenovirus-infected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorzkowski, B.; Majle, T.; Obrepalska, B.; Semkow, R.

    1977-01-01

    Ionizing radiation exerts a deteriorating effect on the rate of protein and RNA synthesis in HeLa cells. This effect is higher in cells infected with adenovirus, thus pointing to a higher radiosensitivity of viral syntheses compared with the cellular ones. (author)

  7. Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polatnick, J.; Wool, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated [ 3 H] uridine. Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2.5 hours postinfection, but membrane formation increased steadily to 4.5 hours while RNA synthesis peaked at 3.5 hours. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells. Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity. (Author)

  8. A Tomato Peroxidase Involved in the Synthesis of Lignin and Suberin1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Mónica; Guerrero, Consuelo; Botella, Miguel A.; Barceló, Araceli; Amaya, Iraida; Medina, María I.; Alonso, Francisco J.; de Forchetti, Silvia Milrad; Tigier, Horacio; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2000-01-01

    The last step in the synthesis of lignin and suberin has been proposed to be catalyzed by peroxidases, although other proteins may also be involved. To determine which peroxidases are involved in the synthesis of lignin and suberin, five peroxidases from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) roots, representing the majority of the peroxidase activity in this organ, have been partially purified and characterized kinetically. The purified peroxidases with isoelectric point (pI) values of 3.6 and 9.6 showed the highest catalytic efficiency when the substrate used was syringaldazine, an analog of lignin monomer. Using a combination of transgenic expression and antibody recognition, we now show that the peroxidase pI 9.6 is probably encoded by TPX1, a tomato peroxidase gene we have previously isolated. In situ RNA hybridization revealed that TPX1 expression is restricted to cells undergoing synthesis of lignin and suberin. Salt stress has been reported to induce the synthesis of lignin and/or suberin. This stress applied to tomato caused changes in the expression pattern of TPX1 and induced the TPX1 protein. We propose that the TPX1 product is involved in the synthesis of lignin and suberin. PMID:10759507

  9. Gemin5: A Multitasking RNA-Binding Protein Involved in Translation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Piñeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gemin5 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP that was first identified as a peripheral component of the survival of motor neurons (SMN complex. This predominantly cytoplasmic protein recognises the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs through its WD repeat domains, allowing assembly of the SMN complex into small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs. Additionally, the amino-terminal end of the protein has been reported to possess cap-binding capacity and to interact with the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E. Gemin5 was also shown to downregulate translation, to be a substrate of the picornavirus L protease and to interact with viral internal ribosome entry site (IRES elements via a bipartite non-canonical RNA-binding site located at its carboxy-terminal end. These features link Gemin5 with translation control events. Thus, beyond its role in snRNPs biogenesis, Gemin5 appears to be a multitasking protein cooperating in various RNA-guided processes. In this review, we will summarise current knowledge of Gemin5 functions. We will discuss the involvement of the protein on translation control and propose a model to explain how the proteolysis fragments of this RBP in picornavirus-infected cells could modulate protein synthesis.

  10. Non-Watson-Crick RNA synthesis suited to origin functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthenvedu, Deepa; Majerfeld, Irene; Yarus, Michael

    2018-01-01

    A templated RNA synthesis is characterized in which G 5' pp 5' G accelerates synthesis of A 5' pp 5' A from pA and chemically activated ImpA precursors. Similar acceleration is not observable in the presence of UppU, CppC, AppG, AppA, or pG alone. Thus, it seems likely that AppA is templated by GppG via a form or forms of G:A base-pairing. AppA also appears, more slowly, via a previously known untemplated second-order chemical route. Such AppA synthesis requires only ordinary near-neutral solutions containing monovalent and divalent salts, and rates are only slightly sensitive to variation in pH. Templated synthesis rates are first order in pA, ImpA, and template GppG; thus third order overall. Therefore, this reaction resembles cross-templating of AppA on poly(U), but is notably slower and less sensitive to temperature. Viewing AppA as a coenzyme analog, GppG templating provides a simpler molecular route, termed para-templating, to encoded chemical functions. Para-templating can also arise from a single, localized nucleobase geosynthetic event which yields purines. It requires only a single backbone-forming chemistry. Thus it may have appeared earlier and served as evolutionary precursor for more complex forms of encoded genetic expression. © 2018 Puthenvedu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. Melatonin synthesis in the human ciliary body triggered by TRPV4 activation: Involvement of AANAT phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozi, Hanan Awad; Perez de Lara, María J; Pintor, Jesús

    2017-09-01

    Melatonin is a substance synthesized in the pineal gland as well as in other organs. This substance is involved in many ocular functions, giving its synthesis in numerous eye structures. Melatonin is synthesized from serotonin through two enzymes, the first limiting step into the synthesis of melatonin being aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). In this current study, AANAT phosphorylation after the activation of TRPV4 was studied using human non-pigmented epithelial ciliary body cells. Firstly, it was necessary to determine the adequate time and dose of the TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A to reach the maximal phosphorylation of AANAT. An increase of 72% was observed after 5 min incubation with 10 nM GSK (**p melatonin synthesis. The involvement of a TRPV4 channel in melatonin synthesis was verified by antagonist and siRNA studies as a previous step to studying intracellular signalling. Studies performed on the second messengers involved in GSK induced AANAT phosphorylation were carried out by inhibiting several pathways. In conclusion, the activation of calmodulin and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II was confirmed, as shown by the cascade seen in AANAT phosphorylation (***p melatonin levels. In conclusion, the activation of a TRPV4 present in human ciliary body epithelial cells produced an increase in AANAT phosphorylation and a further melatonin increase by a mechanism in which Ca-calmodulin and the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II are involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Escherichia coli luxS mRNA; involvement of the sRNA MicA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas I Udekwu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The small RNA (sRNA MicA has been shown to post-transcriptionally regulate translation of the outer membrane protein A (OmpA in Escherichia coli. It uses an antisense mechanism to down-regulate OmpA protein synthesis and induce mRNA degradation. MicA is genomically localized between the coding regions of the gshA and luxS genes and is divergently transcribed from its neighbours. Transcription of the luxS gene which originates within or upstream of the MicA sequence would thus be complementary to the sRNA. LuxS regulation is as yet unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, I show that the luxS mRNA exists as three long (major transcripts of sizes that suggest just such interaction. The sRNA MicA's expression affects the abundance of each of these luxS transcripts. The involvement of the ribonuclease, RNase III in the accumulation of the shortest transcript is demonstrated. When MicA accumulates during growth, or is induced to be over-expressed, the cleaved mRNA species is observed to increase in intensity. Using primer extension and 5'-RACE experiments in combination with sRNA overexpression plasmids, I identify the exact origin of two of the three luxS transcripts, one of which is seen to result from a previously unidentified σ(S dependent promoter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presented data provides strong evidence that MicA functions in cis and in trans, targeting both luxS mRNA as well as the previously established ompA and phoP regulation. The proposed luxS regulation by MicA would be in tandem with another sRNA CyaR, shown recently to be involved in inhibiting translation of the luxS mRNA. Regulation of luxS expression is additionally shown to occur on a transcriptional level via σ(S with variable transcript levels in different growth phases unlike what was previously assumed. This is the first known case of an sRNA in E. coli which targets both in cis (luxS mRNA and in trans (ompA and phoP mRNAs.

  13. [Effect of metalaxyl on the synthesis of RNA, DNA and protein in Phytophthora nicotianae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollgiehn, R; Bräutigam, E; Schumann, B; Erge, D

    1984-01-01

    Metalaxyl is used to control diseases caused by fungi of the order of the Perenosporales. We investigated the action of this fungicid eon nucleic acid and protein synthesis in liquid cultures of Phytophthora nicotianae. The uptake of 32P, 3H-uridine, 3H-thymidine and 14C-leucine as precursors of nuclei acid and protein synthesis by the mycelium was not inhibited by metalaxyl. RNA synthesis as indicated by 3H-uridine incorporation was strongly inhibited (about 80%) by 0.5 micrograms/ml of metalaxyl. The inhibition was visible already few minutes after addition of the toxicant. Since the inhibition of incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA and of 14C-leucine into protein became significant 2-3 hours later, we conclude that metalaxyl primarily interfers with RNA synthesis. Synthesis of ribosomal RNA is more affected (more than 90%) than that of tRNA (about 55%) and poly(A)-containing RNA. Since in the presence of actinomycin, in contrast to metalaxyl, protein synthesis is inhibited immediately as a consequence of complete inhibition of RNA synthesis and of the short life-time of mRNA, it is also evident that mRNA synthesis is less strongly inhibited, at least during the early period of metalaxyl action. The molecular mechanism of metalaxyl inhibition of the transcription process remains open. The fungicide did not inhibit the activity of a partially purified RNA polymerase isolated from the fungus. On the other hand, the RNA synthesis (14C-UTP-incorporation) by a cell homogenate and by isolated nuclear fractions was inhibited significantly. Possibilities of the molecular action of metalaxyl are discussed. The RNA synthesis of some plant systems (cell cultures of Lycopersicon peruvianum, isolated nuclei from the same cell cultures, purified RNA polymerase from Spinacia oleracea chloroplasts) was not inhibited by metalaxyl, not even at high concentrations.

  14. Crystal structures of two eukaryotic nucleases involved in RNA metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonstrup, Anette Thyssen; Midtgaard, Søren Fuglsang; Van, Lan Bich

    specific transcripts. Here, we present the crystal structure of the S. pombe Pop2p protein to 1.4 Å resolution. The high resolution structure provides a clear picture of the active site architecture. Structural alignment of single nucleotides and poly(A)-oligonucleotides from earlier co-crystal structures...... form the 3'-end of mRNA, is normally the first and also rate-limiting step in cellular mRNA degradation and therefore a key process in the control of eukaryotic mRNA turnover. Since Ccr4p is believed to be the main deadenylase the precise role of Pop2p in the complex is less clear. Nevertheless, Pop2p...

  15. Involvement of the 5'-leader sequence in coupling the stability of a human H3 histone mRNA with DNA replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.; Marashi, F.; Weber, L.; Hickey, E.; Greenspan, D.; Bonner, J.; Stein, J.; Stein, G.

    1986-01-01

    Two lines of evidence derived from fusion gene constructs indicate that sequences residing in the 5'-nontranslated region of a cell cycle-dependent human H3 histone mRNA are involved in the selective destabilization that occurs when DNA synthesis is terminated. The experimental approach was to construct chimeric genes in which fragments of the mRNA coding regions of the H3 histone gene were fused with fragments of genes not expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner. After transfection in HeLa S3 cells with the recombinant plasmids, levels of fusion mRNAs were determined by S1 nuclease analysis prior to and following DNA synthesis inhibition. When the first 20 nucleotides of an H3 histone mRNA leader were replaced with 89 nucleotides of the leader from a Drosophila heat-shock (hsp70) mRNA, the fusion transcript remained stable during inhibition of DNA synthesis, in contrast to the rapid destabilization of the endogenous histone mRNA in these cells. In a reciprocal experiment, a histone-globin fusion gene was constructed that produced a transcript with the initial 20 nucleotides of the H3 histone mRNA substituted for the human β-globin mRNA leader. In HeLa cells treated with inhibitors of DNA synthesis and/or protein synthesis, cellular levels of this histone-globin fusion mRNA appeared to be regulated in a manner similar to endogenous histone mRNA levels. These results suggest that the first 20 nucleotides of the leader are sufficient to couple histone mRNA stability with DNA replication

  16. Enzymatic synthesis of RNAs capped with nucleotide analogues reveals the molecular basis for substrate selectivity of RNA capping enzyme: impacts on RNA metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moheshwarnath Issur

    Full Text Available RNA cap binding proteins have evolved to specifically bind to the N7-methyl guanosine cap structure found at the 5' ends of eukaryotic mRNAs. The specificity of RNA capping enzymes towards GTP for the synthesis of this structure is therefore crucial for mRNA metabolism. The fact that ribavirin triphosphate was described as a substrate of a viral RNA capping enzyme, raised the possibility that RNAs capped with nucleotide analogues could be generated in cellulo. Owing to the fact that this prospect potentially has wide pharmacological implications, we decided to investigate whether the active site of the model Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1 RNA capping enzyme was flexible enough to accommodate various purine analogues. Using this approach, we identified several key structural determinants at each step of the RNA capping reaction and generated RNAs harboring various different cap analogues. Moreover, we monitored the binding affinity of these novel capped RNAs to the eIF4E protein and evaluated their translational properties in cellulo. Overall, this study establishes a molecular rationale for the specific selection of GTP over other NTPs by RNA capping enzyme It also demonstrates that RNAs can be enzymatically capped with certain purine nucleotide analogs, and it also describes the impacts of modified RNA caps on specific steps involved in mRNA metabolism. For instance, our results indicate that the N7-methyl group of the classical N7-methyl guanosine cap is not always indispensable for binding to eIF4E and subsequently for translation when compensatory modifications are present on the capped residue. Overall, these findings have important implications for our understanding of the molecular determinants involved in both RNA capping and RNA metabolism.

  17. Rates of rRNA synthesis and degradation in senescing wheat leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamattina, L.; Pinedo, M.; Pont Lezica, R.; Conde, R.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in cytoplasmic and chloroplastic rRNA content and rates of rRNA synthesis and degradation of detached wheat leaves were determined. It was found that rRNA loss occurs mainly in chloroplast. Rates of synthesis were measured by incorporation of large amounts of ( 3 H)orotic acid into rRNA. This approach overcome size differences between pyrimidine pools of cells under different physiological status. Rate of degradation were estimated either as the difference between synthesis and net variation of rRNA or by disappearance of radioactivity from ( 32 P)-labeled rRNA. Results indicate a decrease in the net rRNA synthesis capacity of leaves after 48 h of detachment. However the fractional rates of rRNA synthesis were maintained in both cytoplasma and chloroplast. Ribosomal RNA degradation rates were 2.5-fold higher in chloroplast than in cytoplasm. It is concluded that the observed chloroplastic rRNA loss is due to an increased degradation rate which is 15-fold higher than synthesis rate at 48 h after detachment

  18. Estimation of rRNA synthesis and degradation rates in senescing wheat leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamattina, L.; Pinedo, M.; Yudi, V.P.; Pont Lezica, R.F.; Conde, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in cytoplasmic and chloroplast rRNA content and rates of rRNA synthesis and degradation of detached wheat leaves were determined. It was found that rRNA loss is proportionally higher in chloroplasts than in cytoplasm. Rates of synthesis were measured by incorporation of large amounts of [ 3 H]orotic acid into rRNA. This approach overcame size differences between pyrimidine pools of cells under different physiological status. Furthermore, these pools reached nearly the same specific radioactivity as that of the administered solution. Rates of degradation were estimated either as the difference between synthesis and net variation of rRNA or by disappearance of radioactivity from 32 P-labeled rRNA. Results indicated a decrease in the net rRNA synthesis capacity of leaves after 48 h of detachment. However, the fractional rates of rRNA synthesis were maintained in both cytoplasm and chloroplasts. Ribosomal RNA degradation rates were 2.5-fold higher in chloroplast than in cytoplasm. The observed chloroplast rRNA loss is due to an increased degradation rate which is 15-fold higher than the synthesis rate 48 h after detachment

  19. RNA Binding Proteins Posttranscriptionally Regulate Genes Involved In Oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    lysed in triple- detergent RIPA buffer with protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche, Pleasanton, CA). For nuclear and cytoplasmic fractionation, the NE-PER kit...Posttranscriptional regulation of IL-13 in T cells: role of the RNA-binding protein HuR. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 2008, 121(4):853-859...and western blot analysis. Western analysis was performed as described previously.12 For detection of VEGFα and TSP1 from tumors, triple- detergent

  20. Inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis in pollen tube development of Pinus bungeana by actinomycin D and cycloheximide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huaiqing; Li, Yiqin; Hu, Yuxi; Lin, Jinxing

    2005-03-01

    * The effects of actinomycin D and cycloheximide on RNA and protein synthesis were investigated during pollen tube development of Pinus bungeana. * RNA and protein contents, protein expression patterns, cell wall components and ultrastructural changes of pollen tubes were studied using spectrophotometry, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). * Pollen grains germinated in the presence of actinomycin D, but tube elongation and RNA synthesis were inhibited. By contrast, cycloheximide inhibited pollen germination and protein synthesis, induced abnormal tube morphology, and retarded the tube growth rate. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that protein expression patterns changed distinctly, with some proteins being specific for each phase. FTIR microspectroscopy established significant changes in the chemical composition of pollen tube walls. TEM analysis revealed the inhibitors caused disintegration of organelles involved in the secretory system. * These results suggested RNA necessary for pollen germination and early tube growth were present already in the pollen grains before germination, while the initiation of germination and the maintenance of pollen tube elongation depended on continuous protein synthesis.

  1. Synthesis and Purification of a Hammerhead Ribozyme and a Fluorescein-Labeled RNA Substrate. A Biochemistry Laboratory: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Christine S.; Somne, Smita

    1999-05-01

    The applications of in vitro transcription and chemical synthesis of RNA are discussed. This laboratory describes the in vitro synthesis of a 38-nucleotide hammerhead ribozyme and the synthesis of a 17-nucleotide fluorescein-labeled RNA substrate by using standard phosphoramidite methodologies, two widely used methods in modern RNA research. The synthesis and purification procedures outlined allow students to develop an understanding of RNA handling procedures, synthesis of modified nucleic acids, gel electrophoresis, visualization of RNA by nonradioactive techniques, and quantitation of nucleic acids. The RNAs that are synthesized have applications in biotechnology and medicine; thus the students gain access to current problems in chemical and clinical research.

  2. Involvement and Clinical Aspects of MicroRNA in Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Mohan Ram Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary bone cancer in children and adolescents, but its pathogenesis has been difficult to establish because of its well-known heterogeneous nature. OS has been associated with genetic and cytogenetic abnormalities, which include function-impairing mutations in tumor suppressors and the activation of oncogenes. OS tumorigenesis has been linked to alterations of several genes characterized by a high level of genetic instability and recurrent DNA amplifications and deletions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, 18–25-nucleotide noncoding RNAs, are critical for various biological processes like differentiation, cell growth and cell death. Dysregulation of miRNA expression leads to phenotypic and genotypic changes in cells, which leads to cancer. Studies on miRNAs have initiated a significant effect in both diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This review focuses on the current knowledge of clinical applications of miRNAs for the better diagnosis and management of OS.

  3. Directed evolution of promoters and tandem gene arrays for customizing RNA synthesis rates and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyo, Keith E J; Nevoigt, Elke; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Manipulating RNA synthesis rates is a primary method the cell uses to adjust its physiological state. Therefore to design synthetic genetic networks and circuits, precise control of RNA synthesis rates is of the utmost importance. Often, however, a native promoter does not exist that has the precise characteristics required for a given application. Here, we describe two methods to change the rates and regulation of RNA synthesis in cells to create RNA synthesis of a desired specification. First, error-prone PCR is discussed for diversifying the properties of native promoters, that is, changing the rate of synthesis in constitutive promoters and the induction properties for an inducible promoter. Specifically, we describe techniques for generating diversified promoter libraries of the constitutive promoters P(L)tetO-1 in Escherichia coli and TEF1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as the inducible, oxygen-repressed promoter DAN1 in S. cerevisiae. Beyond generating promoter libraries, we discuss techniques to quantify the parameters of each new promoter. Promoter characteristics for each promoter in hand, the designer can then pick and choose the promoters needed for the specific genetic circuit described in silico. Second, Chemically Induced Chromosomal Evolution (CIChE) is presented as an alternative method to finely adjust RNA synthesis rates in E. coli by variation of gene cassette copy numbers in tandem gene arrays. Both techniques result in precisely defined RNA synthesis and should be of great utility in synthetic biology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. DNA and RNA Synthesis in Animal Cells in Culture--Methods for Use in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsell, P. M.; Balls, M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the experimental procedures used for detecting DNA and RNA synthesis in xenopus cells by autoradiography. The method described is suitable for senior high school laboratory classes or biology projects, if supervised by a teacher qualified to handle radioisotopes. (JR)

  5. Evaluating the involvement and interaction of abscisic acid and miRNA156 in the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in drought-stressed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villagra, Jorge; Kurepin, Leonid V; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie M

    2017-08-01

    ABA is involved in anthocyanin synthesis through the regulation of microRNA156, augmenting the level of expression of anthocyanin synthesis-related genes and, therefore, increasing anthocyanin level. Drought stress is the main cause of agricultural crop loss in the world. However, plants have developed mechanisms that allow them to tolerate drought stress conditions. At cellular level, drought stress induces changes in metabolite accumulation, including increases in anthocyanin levels due to upregulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Recent studies suggest that the higher anthocyanin content observed under drought stress conditions could be a consequence of a rise in the abscisic acid (ABA) concentration. This plant hormone crosses the plasma membrane by specific transporters, and it is recognized at the cytosolic level by receptors known as pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/regulatory component of ABA receptors (PYR/RCARs) that regulate downstream components. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis regarding the involvement of ABA in the regulation of microRNA156 (miRNA156), which is upregulated as part of dehydration stress responsiveness in different species. The miRNA156 upregulation produces a greater level of anthocyanin gene expression, forming the multienzyme complex that will synthesize an increased level of anthocyanins at the cytosolic face of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). After synthesis, anthocyanins are transported from the RER to the vacuole by two possible models of transport: (1) membrane vesicle-mediated transport, or (2) membrane transporter-mediated transport. Thus, the aim was to analyze the recent findings on synthesis, transport and the possible mechanism by which ABA could increase anthocyanin synthesis under drought stress conditions potentially throughout microRNA156 (miRNA156).

  6. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Brain-Specific Anti-RNA Viral Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    TITLE (Include Securrty Clasification ) Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Brain Specific Anti-RNA Viral Agents 12. PERSONAL. AUTHOR(S) Marcus E...AD (FRONT COVER Contract No.: DAMD17-88-C-8011 Title: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Brain-Specific Anti-RNA Viral Agents Principal...matr s---. Further in vivo testing included tissue distribution studies and antiviral activity studies performed in a murine viral encephalitic model. 20

  7. Structures of two exonucleases involved in controlled RNA turnover in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonstrup, Anette Thyssen; Midtgaard, Søren Fuglsang; Van, Lan Bich

    The precise regulation of the cellular levels of different RNA species is important for cell function as well as securing the integrity of each individual RNA. Central to both these processes is the degradation of RNA, either as a means of decreasing the level of particular RNAs or as a way to get...... rid of aberrant RNAs. Here we describe the structures of two 3'-5' exonucleases involved in controlled RNA decay in yeast, Pop2p and Rrp6p. Rrp6p is associated with the nuclear exosome where it participates in the degradation of improperly processed precursor mRNAs and trimming of stable RNAs [1]. Pop...

  8. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sanchez, Brian C. [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Szabo, Nancy J.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sepulveda, Maria S., E-mail: mssepulv@purdue.edu [Department of Forestry and Natural Resources and School of Civil Engineering, 195 Marsteller St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2009-10-19

    Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens ({mu}g/g): atrazine (0.3 and 3.0), toxaphene (10 and 100), cadmium (CdCl{sub 2}) (0.000067 and 0.00067), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (0.25 and 2.5), and phenanthrene (5 and 50). Partial largemouth bass gene segments were cloned for enzymes involved in neurotransmitter (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, GAD65; tyrosine hydroxylase) and estrogen (brain aromatase; CYP19b) synthesis for real-time PCR assays. In addition, neuropeptides regulating feeding (neuropeptide Y) and reproduction (chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II; salmon GnRH, sGnRH) were also investigated. Of the chemicals tested, only cadmium, PCB 126, and phenanthrene showed any significant effects on the genes tested, while atrazine and toxaphene did not. Cadmium (0.000067 {mu}g/g) significantly increased cGnRH-II mRNA while PCB 126 (0.25 {mu}g/g) decreased GAD65 mRNA. Phenanthrene decreased GAD65 and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels at the highest dose (50 {mu}g/g) but increased cGnRH-II mRNA at the lowest dose (5 {mu}g/g). CYP19b, NPY, and sGnRH mRNA levels were unaffected by any of the treatments. A hierarchical clustering dendrogram grouped PCB 126 and phenanthrene more closely than other chemicals with respect to the genes tested. This study demonstrates that brain transcripts important for neurotransmitter synthesis neuroendocrine function are potential targets for emerging and prevalent aquatic contaminants.

  9. The first discovery of RNA interference by RNA restriction enzymes to inhibit protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Masayori

    2017-01-15

    In this article, I review how an RNA restriction enzyme, a highly sequence-specific endoribonuclease, was for the first time discovered in 2003 and how the concept of RNA interference using RNA restriction enzymes or mRNA interferases has been developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Site-Specific Cleavage of Ribosomal RNA in Escherichia coli-Based Cell-Free Protein Synthesis Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurek Failmezger

    Full Text Available Cell-free protein synthesis, which mimics the biological protein production system, allows rapid expression of proteins without the need to maintain a viable cell. Nevertheless, cell-free protein expression relies on active in vivo translation machinery including ribosomes and translation factors. Here, we examined the integrity of the protein synthesis machinery, namely the functionality of ribosomes, during (i the cell-free extract preparation and (ii the performance of in vitro protein synthesis by analyzing crucial components involved in translation. Monitoring the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, elongation factors and ribosomal protein S1, we show that processing of a cell-free extract results in no substantial alteration of the translation machinery. Moreover, we reveal that the 16S rRNA is specifically cleaved at helix 44 during in vitro translation reactions, resulting in the removal of the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence. These defective ribosomes accumulate in the cell-free system. We demonstrate that the specific cleavage of the 16S rRNA is triggered by the decreased concentrations of Mg2+. In addition, we provide evidence that helix 44 of the 30S ribosomal subunit serves as a point-of-entry for ribosome degradation in Escherichia coli. Our results suggest that Mg2+ homeostasis is fundamental to preserving functional ribosomes in cell-free protein synthesis systems, which is of major importance for cell-free protein synthesis at preparative scale, in order to create highly efficient technical in vitro systems.

  11. The 3'-terminal 55 nucleotides of bovine coronavirus defective interfering RNA harbor cis-acting elements required for both negative- and positive-strand RNA synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Yu Liao

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the negative-strand [(--strand] complement of the ∼30 kilobase, positive-strand [(+-strand] coronaviral genome is a necessary early step for genome replication. The identification of cis-acting elements required for (--strand RNA synthesis in coronaviruses, however, has been hampered due to insufficiencies in the techniques used to detect the (--strand RNA species. Here, we employed a method of head-to-tail ligation and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR to detect and quantitate the synthesis of bovine coronavirus (BCoV defective interfering (DI RNA (- strands. Furthermore, using the aforementioned techniques along with Northern blot assay, we specifically defined the cis-acting RNA elements within the 3'-terminal 55 nucleotides (nts which function in the synthesis of (-- or (+-strand BCoV DI RNA. The major findings are as follows: (i nts from -5 to -39 within the 3'-terminal 55 nts are the cis-acting elements responsible for (--strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis, (ii nts from -3 to -34 within the 3'-terminal 55 nts are cis-acting elements required for (+-strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis, and (iii the nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (-1 is important, but not critical, for both (-- and (+-strand BCoV DI RNA synthesis. These results demonstrate that the 3'-terminal 55 nts in BCoV DI RNA harbor cis-acting RNA elements required for both (-- and (+-strand DI RNA synthesis and extend our knowledge on the mechanisms of coronavirus replication. The method of head-to-tail ligation and qRT-PCR employed in the study may also be applied to identify other cis-acting elements required for (--strand RNA synthesis in coronaviruses.

  12. Automated Chemical Solid-Phase Synthesis and Deprotection of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine-Containing RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riml, Christian; Micura, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is an epigenetic base modification that is part of the demethylation pathway of 5-methylcytosine in DNA. 5-Methylcytosine is iteratively oxidized to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxycytosine by enzymes of the TET protein family. Since the discovery of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine also in RNA its role in regulatory processes and metabolism remains elusive. To gain more insight into the function of RNA containing 5-hydroxymethylcytidine, innovative and interdisciplinary approaches are required. In this context, synthetic oligoribonucleotides containing 5-hyroxymethylcytidine are an inevitable tool. Therefore, in this chapter, we present the efficient synthesis of RNA oligonucleotides containing 5-hydroxymethylcytosine by solid-phase synthesis. The incorporation of the modified cytosine derivative into RNA is compatible with standard phosphoramidite-based synthesis procedures of oligoribonucleotides.

  13. In vitro synthesis of a lipid-linked trisaccharide involved in synthesis of enterobacterial common antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, K.; Nunes-Edwards, P.; Rick, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    The heteropolysaccharide chains of enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) are made up of linear trisaccharide repeat units with the structure----3)-alpha-D-Fuc4NAc-(1----4)- beta-D-ManNAcA-(1----4)-alpha-D-GlcNAc-(1----, where Fuc4NAc is 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-D-galactose, ManNAcA is N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid, and GlcNAc is N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The assembly of these chains involves lipid-linked intermediates, and both GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol (lipid I) and ManNAcA-GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol (lipid II) are intermediates in ECA biosynthesis. In this study we demonstrated that lipid II serves as the acceptor of Fuc4NAc residues in the assembly of the trisaccharide repeat unit of ECA chains. Incubation of Escherichia coli membranes with UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-[14C]ManNAcA, and TDP-[3H]Fuc4NAc resulted in the synthesis of a radioactive glycolipid (lipid III) that contained both [14C]ManNAcA and [3H]Fuc4NAc. The oligosaccharide moiety of lipid III was identified as a trisaccharide by gel-permeation chromatography, and the in vitro synthesis of lipid III was dependent on prior synthesis of lipids I and II. Accordingly, the incorporation of [3H]Fuc4NAc into lipid III from the donor TDP-[3H]Fuc4NAc was dependent on the presence of both UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-ManNAcA in the reaction mixtures. In addition, the in vitro synthesis of lipid III was abolished by tunicamycin. Direct conversion of lipid II to lipid III was demonstrated in two-stage reactions in which membranes were initially incubated with UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-[14C]ManNAcA to allow the synthesis of radioactive lipid II

  14. Identification of key genes involved in polysaccharide bioflocculant synthesis in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Liu, Peize; Li, Zhipeng; Yu, Wencheng; Wang, Zhi; Yao, Haosheng; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Qingbiao; Deng, Xu; He, Ning

    2017-03-01

    The present study reports the sequenced genome of Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC 2876, which is composed of a 4,284,461 bp chromosome that contains 4,188 protein-coding genes, 72 tRNA genes, and 21 rRNA genes. Additional analysis revealed an eps gene cluster with 16 open reading frames. Conserved Domains Database analysis combined with qPCR experiments indicated that all genes in this cluster were involved in polysaccharide bioflocculant synthesis. Phosphoglucomutase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase were supposed to be key enzymes in polysaccharide secretion in B. licheniformis. A biosynthesis pathway for the production of polysaccharide bioflocculant involving the integration of individual genes was proposed based on functional analysis. Overexpression of epsDEF from the eps gene cluster in B. licheniformis CGMCC 2876 increased the flocculating activity of the recombinant strain by 90% compared to the original strain. Similarly, the crude yield of polysaccharide bioflocculant was enhanced by 27.8%. Overexpression of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene not only increased the flocculating activity by 71% but also increased bioflocculant yield by 13.3%. Independent of UDP-N-acetyl-D-mannosamine dehydrogenase gene, flocculating activity, and polysaccharide yield were negatively impacted by overexpression of the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase gene. Overall, epsDEF and gtaB2 were identified as key genes for polysaccharide bioflocculant synthesis in B. licheniformis. These results will be useful for further engineering of B. licheniformis for industrial bioflocculant production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 645-655. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Accuracy of TransferRNA Selection in Protein synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutia, Pema choden

    2011-01-01

    ACCURACY OF TRANSFER RNA SELECTION IN PROTEIN SY The ribosome is a rapid magnificent molecular machine that plays an important role in proteinsynthesis and it consists of RNA and protein. The 70S bacterial ribosome comprises twosubunits, 30S and 50S. The 30S small subunit of the bacterial ribosome contains a protein calledS12, encoded by the rpsL gene. The function of this S12 protein is to help arrange the mRNAcorrectly to the ribosome and to interact with transfer RNA (tRNA) to initiate tra...

  16. Enzymatic RNA synthesis and RNase P. Evolutionary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, G

    TransferRNA recognition was used as leit-motiv in the illustration of possible links between a hypothetical primordial RNA world and the contemporary DNA world. In an RNA world, 'proto-tRNA' could have functioned as replication origin and as primitive telomere. Possibly, this primitive structure is preserved in a 'universal substrate' for modern tRNA-specific enzymes. The combination of acceptor stem and T arm (plus a linker) was finally revealed as sufficient for the recognition by prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNase P, as well as other tRNA enzymes. In modern life forms, a tRNA-like element in viral RNAs still serves as replication origin, and furthermore, the recognition of similar structures as cryptic promoters is universally conserved for template-dependent RNA polymerases. Another common property of modern polymerases is their high, but clearly limited and condition-dependent substrate specificity. Very likely, also substrate recognition by primitive polymerases was not more stringent, and this lead to the occurrence of mixed nucleic acids as intermediates in the transition of genomic RNA to contemporary genomic DNA.

  17. Translational repression of theDrosophila nanosmRNA involves the RNA helicase Belle and RNA coating by Me31B and Trailer hitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Michael; Dufourt, Jérémy; Ihling, Christian; Rammelt, Christiane; Pierson, Stephanie; Sambrani, Nagraj; Temme, Claudia; Sinz, Andrea; Simonelig, Martine; Wahle, Elmar

    2017-10-01

    Translational repression of maternal mRNAs is an essential regulatory mechanism during early embryonic development. Repression of the Drosophila nanos mRNA, required for the formation of the anterior-posterior body axis, depends on the protein Smaug binding to two Smaug recognition elements (SREs) in the nanos 3' UTR. In a comprehensive mass spectrometric analysis of the SRE-dependent repressor complex, we identified Smaug, Cup, Me31B, Trailer hitch, eIF4E, and PABPC, in agreement with earlier data. As a novel component, the RNA-dependent ATPase Belle (DDX3) was found, and its involvement in deadenylation and repression of nanos was confirmed in vivo. Smaug, Cup, and Belle bound stoichiometrically to the SREs, independently of RNA length. Binding of Me31B and Tral was also SRE-dependent, but their amounts were proportional to the length of the RNA and equimolar to each other. We suggest that "coating" of the RNA by a Me31B•Tral complex may be at the core of repression. © 2017 Götze et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  18. RNA Primer Extension Hinders DNA Synthesis byEscherichia coliMutagenic DNA Polymerase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Tommy F; Lin, Ida; Belt, Verena; Cafarelli, Tiziana M; Godoy, Veronica G

    2017-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the highly conserved DNA damage regulated dinB gene encodes DNA Polymerase IV (DinB), an error prone specialized DNA polymerase with a central role in stress-induced mutagenesis. Since DinB is the DNA polymerase with the highest intracellular concentrations upon induction of the SOS response, further regulation must exist to maintain genomic stability. Remarkably, we find that DinB DNA synthesis is inherently poor when using an RNA primer compared to a DNA primer, while high fidelity DNA polymerases are known to have no primer preference. Moreover, we show that the poor DNA synthesis from an RNA primer is conserved in DNA polymerase Kappa, the human DinB homolog. The activity of DinB is modulated by interactions with several other proteins, one of which is the equally evolutionarily conserved recombinase RecA. This interaction is known to positively affect DinB's fidelity on damaged templates. We find that upon interaction with RecA, DinB shows a significant reduction in DNA synthesis when using an RNA primer. Furthermore, with DinB or DinB:RecA a robust pause, sequence and lesion independent, occurs only when RNA is used as a primer. The robust pause is likely to result in abortive DNA synthesis when RNA is the primer. These data suggest a novel mechanism to prevent DinB synthesis when it is not needed despite its high concentrations, thus protecting genome stability.

  19. RNA Primer Extension Hinders DNA Synthesis by Escherichia coli Mutagenic DNA Polymerase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Tommy F.; Lin, Ida; Belt, Verena; Cafarelli, Tiziana M.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2017-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the highly conserved DNA damage regulated dinB gene encodes DNA Polymerase IV (DinB), an error prone specialized DNA polymerase with a central role in stress-induced mutagenesis. Since DinB is the DNA polymerase with the highest intracellular concentrations upon induction of the SOS response, further regulation must exist to maintain genomic stability. Remarkably, we find that DinB DNA synthesis is inherently poor when using an RNA primer compared to a DNA primer, while high fidelity DNA polymerases are known to have no primer preference. Moreover, we show that the poor DNA synthesis from an RNA primer is conserved in DNA polymerase Kappa, the human DinB homolog. The activity of DinB is modulated by interactions with several other proteins, one of which is the equally evolutionarily conserved recombinase RecA. This interaction is known to positively affect DinB’s fidelity on damaged templates. We find that upon interaction with RecA, DinB shows a significant reduction in DNA synthesis when using an RNA primer. Furthermore, with DinB or DinB:RecA a robust pause, sequence and lesion independent, occurs only when RNA is used as a primer. The robust pause is likely to result in abortive DNA synthesis when RNA is the primer. These data suggest a novel mechanism to prevent DinB synthesis when it is not needed despite its high concentrations, thus protecting genome stability. PMID:28298904

  20. Identification of sugarcane genes involved in the purine synthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Jancso

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide synthesis is of central importance to all cells. In most organisms, the purine nucleotides are synthesized de novo from non-nucleotide precursors such as amino acids, ammonia and carbon dioxide. An understanding of the enzymes involved in sugarcane purine synthesis opens the possibility of using these enzymes as targets for chemicals which may be effective in combating phytopathogen. Such an approach has already been applied to several parasites and types of cancer. The strategy described in this paper was applied to identify sugarcane clusters for each step of the de novo purine synthesis pathway. Representative sequences of this pathway were chosen from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and used to search the translated sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database using the available basic local alignment search tool (BLAST facility. Retrieved clusters were further tested for the statistical significance of the alignment by an implementation (PRSS3 of the Monte Carlo shuffling algorithm calibrated using known protein sequences of divergent taxa along the phylogenetic tree. The sequences were compared to each other and to the sugarcane clusters selected using BLAST analysis, with the resulting table of p-values indicating the degree of divergence of each enzyme within different taxa and in relation to the sugarcane clusters. The results obtained by this strategy allowed us to identify the sugarcane proteins participating in the purine synthesis pathway.A via de síntese de purino nucleotídeos é considerada uma via de central importância para todas as células. Na maioria dos organismos, os purino nucleotídeos são sintetizados ''de novo'' a partir de precursores não-nucleotídicos como amino ácidos, amônia e dióxido de carbono. O conhecimento das enzimas envolvidas na via de síntese de purinas da cana-de-açúcar vai abrir a possibilidade do uso dessas enzimas como alvos no desenho

  1. Initiation of ribosomal RNA synthesis in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, Jantina

    1981-01-01

    Het E. coli chromosoom is éên lang circulair dubbelstrengs DNA molecuul en beslaat ongeveer 3000 genen. Het enzym RNA polymerase is verantwoordelijk voor de transcriptie in RNA van alle genetische informatie in de ce1. Er zijn 2 soorten transcripten: de ribosomale en transfer RNAs die deel uitmaken

  2. Micro-RNA signature of lymphovascular space involvement in type 1 endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canlorbe, Geoffroy; Castela, Mathieu; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Wang, Zhe; Lefevre, Marine; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Aractingi, Selim; DaraÏ, Emile; Méhats, Céline; Ballester, Marcos

    2017-09-01

    Lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI) is a major prognostic factor in type 1 endometrial cancer (EC). However, its use has been criticized because of poor subjectivity. MicroRNA signatures have recently been linked to EC pathologic characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether microRNA profiles of type 1 EC can be related to LVSI status and used as a tool to adapt therapy. MicroRNA expression was assessed by chip analysis and qRT-PCR in 12 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded grade 2 EC specimens with positive LVSI and in 12 specimens with negative LVSI. Various statistical analyses, including enrichment analysis and a minimum p-value approach, were performed. The expression levels of microRNAs 34c-5p, -23b-5p, and 23c were significantly lower in the EC with positive LVSI compared to those with negative LVSI. Women with a microRNA-34c-5p fold change 0.15 (0.0%), p0.51 (21.4%), p=0.003. This was the first study to investigate the relative expression of microRNA in type 1 EC according to LVSI status. This microRNA expression profile may provide a basis for further study of the microRNA function in EC, and be used as a diagnostic tool for LVSI status.

  3. Influenza virus RNA polymerase: insights into the mechanisms of viral RNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Velthuis, Aartjan J.W.; Fodor, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    The genome of influenza viruses consists of multiple segments of single stranded negative-sense RNA. Each of these segments is bound by the heterotrimeric viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and multiple copies of nucleoprotein, forming viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. It is in the context of these vRNPs that the viral RNA polymerase carries out transcription of viral genes and replication of the viral RNA genome. In this Review, we discuss our current knowledge of the structure of the influenza virus RNA polymerase, how it carries out transcription and replication, and how its activities are modulated by viral and host factors. Furthermore, we discuss how advances in our understanding of polymerase function could help identifying new antiviral targets. PMID:27396566

  4. Coordinated Regulations of mRNA Synthesis and Decay during Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis Cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Arae, Toshihiro

    2017-04-18

    Plants possess a cold acclimation system to acquire freezing tolerance through pre-exposure to non-freezing low temperatures. The transcriptional cascade of C-repeat binding factors (CBFs)/dehydration response element-binding factors (DREBs) is considered a major transcriptional regulatory pathway during cold acclimation. However, little is known regarding the functional significance of mRNA stability regulation in the response of gene expression to cold stress. The actual level of individual mRNAs is determined by a balance between mRNA synthesis and degradation. Therefore, it is important to assess the regulatory steps to increase our understanding of gene regulation. Here, we analyzed temporal changes in mRNA amounts and half-lives in response to cold stress in Arabidopsis cell cultures based on genome-wide analysis. In this mRNA decay array method, mRNA half-life measurements and microarray analyses were combined. In addition, temporal changes in the integrated value of transcription rates were estimated from the above two parameters using a mathematical approach. Our results showed that several cold-responsive genes, including Cold-regulated 15a, were relatively destabilized, whereas the mRNA amounts were increased during cold treatment by accelerating the transcription rate to overcome the destabilization. Considering the kinetics of mRNA synthesis and degradation, this apparently contradictory result supports that mRNA destabilization is advantageous for the swift increase in CBF-responsive genes in response to cold stress.

  5. Lipid-assisted Synthesis of RNA-like Polymers from Mononucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Sudha; Vlassov, Alexander; Benner, Seico; Coombs, Amy; Olasagasti, Felix; Deamer, David

    2008-02-01

    A fundamental problem in research on the origin of life is the process by which polymers capable of catalysis and replication were produced on the early Earth. Here we show that RNA-like polymers can be synthesized non-enzymatically from mononucleotides in lipid environments. The RNA-like polymers were initially identified by nanopore analysis, a technique with single molecule sensitivity. To our knowledge, this is the first such application of a nanopore instrument to detect RNA synthesis under simulated prebiotic conditions. The synthesis of the RNA-like polymers was confirmed by standard methods of enzymatic end labeling followed by gel electrophoresis. Chemical activation of the mononucleotides is not required. Instead, synthesis of phosphodiester bonds is driven by the chemical potential of fluctuating anhydrous and hydrated conditions, with heat providing activation energy during dehydration. In the final hydration step, the RNA-like polymer is encapsulated within lipid vesicles. This process provides a laboratory model of an early stage of evolution toward an RNA World.

  6. APC/C-mediated degradation of dsRNA-binding protein 4 (DRB4 involved in RNA silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Marrocco

    Full Text Available Selective protein degradation via the ubiquitin-26S proteasome is a major mechanism underlying DNA replication and cell division in all Eukaryotes. In particular, the APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome is a master ubiquitin protein ligase (E3 that targets regulatory proteins for degradation allowing sister chromatid separation and exit from mitosis. Interestingly, recent work also indicates that the APC/C remains active in differentiated animal and plant cells. However, its role in post-mitotic cells remains elusive and only a few substrates have been characterized.In order to identify novel APC/C substrates, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as the bait Arabidopsis APC10/DOC1, one core subunit of the APC/C, which is required for substrate recruitment. This screen identified DRB4, a double-stranded RNA binding protein involved in the biogenesis of different classes of small RNA (sRNA. This protein interaction was further confirmed in vitro and in plant cells. Moreover, APC10 interacts with DRB4 through the second dsRNA binding motif (dsRBD2 of DRB4, which is also required for its homodimerization and binding to its Dicer partner DCL4. We further showed that DRB4 protein accumulates when the proteasome is inactivated and, most importantly, we found that DRB4 stability depends on APC/C activity. Hence, depletion of Arabidopsis APC/C activity by RNAi leads to a strong accumulation of endogenous DRB4, far beyond its normal level of accumulation. However, we could not detect any defects in sRNA production in lines where DRB4 was overexpressed.Our work identified a first plant substrate of the APC/C, which is not a regulator of the cell cycle. Though we cannot exclude that APC/C-dependent degradation of DRB4 has some regulatory roles under specific growth conditions, our work rather points to a housekeeping function of APC/C in maintaining precise cellular-protein concentrations and homeostasis of DRB4.

  7. Nidovirus replication structures : hijacking membranes to support viral RNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, Kèvin

    2011-01-01

    Positive-stranded RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells and their replication complexes are associated with modified cell membranes. We investigated the structure of the nidovirus-induced membrane modifications and found that nidoviruses transform the endoplasmic reticulum into a

  8. Quality control in aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis its role in translational fidelity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadavalli, Srujana S; Ibba, Michael

    2012-01-01

    . AaRSs define the genetic code by catalyzing the formation of precise aminoacyl ester-linked tRNAs via a two-step reaction. AaRSs ensure faithful aa-tRNA synthesis via high substrate selectivity and/or by proofreading (editing) of noncognate products. About half of the aaRSs rely on proofreading...

  9. Mapping Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu residues involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Ove; Andersen, C; Knudsen, Charlotte Rohde

    1996-01-01

    Two residues of Escherichia coli elongation factor Tu involved in binding of aminoacyl-tRNA were identified and subjected to mutational analysis. Lys-89 and Asn-90 were each replaced by either Ala or Glu. The four single mutants were denoted K89A, K89E, N90A, and N90E, respectively. The mutants......-tRNA, which suggested an important role of Lys-89 and Asn-90 in tRNA binding. Furthermore, our results indicate helix B to be an important target site for nucleotide exchange factor EF-Ts. Also the mutants His-66 to Ala and His-118 to either Ala or Glu were characterized in an in vitro translation assay...

  10. Rubella virus capsid protein modulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2005-01-01

    The ratio of the subgenomic (SG) to genome RNA synthesized by rubella virus (RUB) replicons expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene (RUBrep/GFP) is substantially higher than the ratio of these species synthesized by RUB (4.3 for RUBrep/GFP vs. 1.3-1.4 for RUB). It was hypothesized that this modulation of the viral RNA synthesis was by one of the virus structural protein genes and it was found that introduction of the capsid (C) protein gene into the replicons as an in-frame fusion with GFP resulted in an increase of genomic RNA production (reducing the SG/genome RNA ratio), confirming the hypothesis and showing that the C gene was the moiety responsible for the modulation effect. The N-terminal one-third of the C gene was required for the effect of be exhibited. A similar phenomenon was not observed with the replicons of Sindbis virus, a related Alphavirus. Interestingly, modulation was not observed when RUBrep/GFP was co-transfected with either other RUBrep or plasmid constructs expressing the C gene, demonstrating that modulation could occur only when the C gene was provided in cis. Mutations that prevented translation of the C protein failed to modulate RNA synthesis, indicating that the C protein was the moiety responsible for modulation; consistent with this conclusion, modulation of RNA synthesis was maintained when synonymous codon mutations were introduced at the 5' end of the C gene that changed the C gene sequence without altering the amino acid sequence of the C protein. These results indicate that C protein translated in proximity of viral replication complexes, possibly from newly synthesized SG RNA, participate in regulating the replication of viral RNA

  11. Monitoring differential synthesis of RNA in individual cells by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Futian; Lillard, Sheri J

    2002-03-01

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based technique is reported here to monitor differential RNA synthesis in individual Chinese hamster ovary cells at distinct stages of the cell proliferation cycle. Cell synchronization was achieved by the shake-off method, in which mitotic (M) cells were dislodged, and cells at G(1), S, and G(2) phases were harvested 2.5, 10, and 13 h, respectively, after synchronizing the mitotic cells. Thirty-two cells (eight from each phase) were analyzed by injecting each cell into the capillary, lysing it with dilute surfactant, separating the RNA by capillary electrophoresis, and detecting the peaks with laser-induced fluorescence. The results from single cells show that the total amount of RNA increased at each successive stage (from G(1) to M), while the relative synthetic rates of different RNA fractions varied with progression through the cycle. There was a threefold increase in the synthetic rate of total RNA from S to G(2), compared with G(1) to S. In addition, differential accumulation of specific RNA fractions was observed, with the low-molecular-mass fraction exhibiting a much higher synthetic rate from G(2) to M, relative to the rates of the larger ribosomal RNA (rRNA) fractions. Comparison of the large rRNA fractions with one another reveals that at S phase more 28S rRNA was accumulated than 18S rRNA, and at G(1) and M phases, the synthetic rate of 28S rRNA was slowed compared with that of 18S. Minimal sample preparation, combined with the separation power of CE and single-cell detection sensitivity of laser-induced fluorescence, results in a simple method for assessing differential accumulation of RNA from distinct individual cells.

  12. An atlas of RNA base pairs involving modified nucleobases with optimal geometries and accurate energies

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2015-06-27

    Posttranscriptional modifications greatly enhance the chemical information of RNA molecules, contributing to explain the diversity of their structures and functions. A significant fraction of RNA experimental structures available to date present modified nucleobases, with half of them being involved in H-bonding interactions with other bases, i.e. ‘modified base pairs’. Herein we present a systematic investigation of modified base pairs, in the context of experimental RNA structures. To this end, we first compiled an atlas of experimentally observed modified base pairs, for which we recorded occurrences and structural context. Then, for each base pair, we selected a representative for subsequent quantum mechanics calculations, to find out its optimal geometry and interaction energy. Our structural analyses show that most of the modified base pairs are non Watson–Crick like and are involved in RNA tertiary structure motifs. In addition, quantum mechanics calculations quantify and provide a rationale for the impact of the different modifications on the geometry and stability of the base pairs they participate in.

  13. Why should cancer biologists care about tRNAs? tRNA synthesis, mRNA translation and the control of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Savraj S

    2015-07-01

    Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are essential for mRNA translation. They are transcribed in the nucleus by RNA polymerase III and undergo many modifications before contributing to cytoplasmic protein synthesis. In this review I highlight our understanding of how tRNA biology may be linked to the regulation of mRNA translation, growth and tumorigenesis. First, I review how oncogenes and tumour suppressor signalling pathways, such as the PI3 kinase/TORC1, Ras/ERK, Myc, p53 and Rb pathways, regulate Pol III and tRNA synthesis. In several cases, this regulation contributes to cell, tissue and body growth, and has implications for our understanding of tumorigenesis. Second, I highlight some recent work, particularly in model organisms such as yeast and Drosophila, that shows how alterations in tRNA synthesis may be not only necessary, but also sufficient to drive changes in mRNA translation and growth. These effects may arise due to both absolute increases in total tRNA levels, but also changes in the relative levels of tRNAs in the overall pool. Finally, I review some recent studies that have revealed how tRNA modifications (amino acid acylation, base modifications, subcellular shuttling, and cleavage) can be regulated by growth and stress cues to selectively influence mRNA translation. Together these studies emphasize the importance of the regulation of tRNA synthesis and modification as critical control points in protein synthesis and growth. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translation and Cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of sideroblastic anemias: from defective heme synthesis to abnormal RNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Mario; Malcovati, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The sideroblastic anemias are a heterogeneous group of inherited and acquired disorders characterized by the presence of ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow. X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) is caused by germline mutations in ALAS2. Hemizygous males have a hypochromic microcytic anemia, which is generally mild to moderate and is caused by defective heme synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis. XLSA is a typical iron-loading anemia; although most patients are responsive to pyridoxine, treatment of iron overload is also important in the management of these patients. Autosomal recessive sideroblastic anemia attributable to mutations in SLC25A38, a member of the mitochondrial carrier family, is a severe disease: patients present in infancy with microcytic anemia, which soon becomes transfusion dependent. Conservative therapy includes regular red cell transfusion and iron chelation, whereas allogenic stem cell transplantation represents the only curative treatment. Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) is a myelodysplastic syndrome characterized mainly by anemia attributable to ineffective erythropoiesis. The clinical course of RARS is generally indolent, but there is a tendency to worsening of anemia over time, so that most patients become transfusion dependent in the long run. More than 90% of these patients carry somatic mutations in SF3B1, a gene encoding a core component of the RNA splicing machinery. These mutations cause misrecognition of 3' splice sites in downstream genes, resulting in truncated gene products and/or decreased expression attributable to nonsense-mediated RNA decay; this explains the multifactorial pathogenesis of RARS. Variants of RARS include refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ring sideroblasts, and RARS associated with marked thrombocytosis; these variants involve additional genetic lesions. Inhibitors of molecules of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily have been shown recently to target ineffective

  15. Synthesis of double-stranded RNA in a virus-enriched fraction from Agaricus bisporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriskantha, A.; Wach, P.; Schlagnhaufer, B.; Romaine, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Partially purified virus preparations from sporophores of Agaricus bisporus affected with LaFrance disease had up to a 15-fold-higher RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity than did comparable preparations from health sporophores. Enzyme activity was dependent upon the presence of Mg 2+ and the four nucleoside triphosphates and was insensitive to actinomycin D, α-amanitin, and rifampin. The 3 H-labeled enzyme reaction products were double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as indicated by CF-11 cellulose column chromatography and by their ionic-strength-dependent sensitivity to hydrolysis by RNase A. The principal dsRNA products had estimated molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10 6 and 1.4 /times/ 10 6 . Cs 2 SO 4 equilibrium centrifugation of the virus preparation resolved a single peak of RNA polymerase activity that banded with a 35-nm spherical virus particle containing dsRNAs with molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10 6 and 1.4 /times/ 10 6 . The data suggest that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with the 35-nm spherical virus is a replicase which catalyzes the synthesis of the genomic dsRNAs

  16. Detection of HTLV-III RNA in lungs of patients with AIDS and pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chayt, K.J.; Harper, M.E.; Marselle, L.M.; Lewin, E.B.; Rose, R.M.; Oleske, J.M.; Epstein, L.G.; Wong-Staal, F.; Gallo, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    A majority of pediatric patients and rare adult patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) develop a chronic respiratory disorder referred to as lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP). Efforts to identify an infectious agent responsible for this process so far have failed. In this study, frozen sections of lungs from patients with AIDS and pulmonary disease were tested by in situ molecular hybridization for the presence of cells infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) and expressing viral RNA. In the case of an infant with LIP, a relatively high frequency (0.1%) of cells in the lung were found to be positive for HTLV-III RNA. This number is the lower limit of total cells infected since the in situ hybridization technique as applied in this study depends on expression of HTLV-III genes, and previous evidence indicates that a proportion of cells infected with HTLV-III may not express viral RNA. Moreover, this degree of infection of the lung is likely limited to LIP, since in ten patients with AIDS and pulmonary diseases other than LIP, only 0% to 0.002% of cells in lung were positive for viral RNA expression. Thus, HTLV-III may play a direct causal role in the development of LIP in infected patients, implicating its involvement in yet another of the diverse clinical diseases associated with this virus

  17. Upregulated mRNA expression of desaturase and elongase, two enzymes involved in highly unsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis pathways during follicle maturation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyu Yee-Ling

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although unsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3 and arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6, collectively known as the highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA, play pivotal roles in vertebrate reproduction, very little is known about their synthesis in the ovary. The zebrafish (Danio rerio display capability to synthesize all three HUFA via pathways involving desaturation and elongation of two precursors, the linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6 and linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3n-3. As a prerequisite to gain full understanding on the importance and regulation of ovarian HUFA synthesis, we described here the mRNA expression pattern of two enzymes; desaturase (fadsd6 and elongase (elovl5, involved in HUFA biosynthesis pathway, in different zebrafish ovarian follicle stages. Concurrently, the fatty acid profile of each follicle stage was also analyzed. Methods mRNA levels of fadsd6 and elovl5 in different ovarian follicle stages were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays. For analysis of the ovarian follicular fatty acid composition, gas chromatography was used. Results Our results have shown that desaturase displayed significant upregulation in expression during the oocyte maturation stage. Expression of elongase was significantly highest in pre-vitellogenic follicles, followed by maturation stage. Fatty acid composition analysis of different ovarian follicle stages also showed that ARA level was significantly highest in pre-vitellogenic and matured follicles. DHA level was highest in both late vitellogenic and maturation stage. Conclusion Collectively, our findings seem to suggest the existence of a HUFA synthesis system, which could be responsible for the synthesis of HUFA to promote oocyte maturation and possibly ovulation processes. The many advantages of zebrafish as model system to understand folliculogenesis will be

  18. Transcriptomic analysis illuminates genes involved in chlorophyll synthesis after nitrogen starvation in Acaryochloris sp. CCMEE 5410.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Aki; Wittmann, Bruce J; King, Jeremy D; Blankenship, Robert E; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-08-01

    Acaryochloris species are a genus of cyanobacteria that utilize chlorophyll (chl) d as their primary chlorophyll molecule during oxygenic photosynthesis. Chl d allows Acaryochloris to harvest red-shifted light, which gives them the ability to live in filtered light environments that are depleted in visible light. Although genomes of multiple Acaryochloris species have been sequenced, their analysis has not revealed how chl d is synthesized. Here, we demonstrate that Acaryochloris sp. CCMEE 5410 cells undergo chlorosis by nitrogen depletion and exhibit robust regeneration of chl d by nitrogen repletion. We performed a time course RNA-Seq experiment to quantify global transcriptomic changes during chlorophyll recovery. We observed upregulation of numerous known chl biosynthesis genes and also identified an oxygenase gene with a similar transcriptional profile as these chl biosynthesis genes, suggesting its possible involvement in chl d biosynthesis. Moreover, our data suggest that multiple prochlorophyte chlorophyll-binding homologs are important during chlorophyll recovery, and light-independent chl synthesis genes are more dominant than the light-dependent gene at the transcription level. Transcriptomic characterization of this organism provides crucial clues toward mechanistic elucidation of chl d biosynthesis.

  19. Karyopherin alpha2 is essential for rRNA transcription and protein synthesis in proliferative keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Umegaki-Arao

    Full Text Available Karyopherin proteins mediate nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and are critical for protein and RNA subcellular localization. Recent studies suggest KPNA2 expression is induced in tumor cells and is strongly associated with prognosis, although the precise roles and mechanisms of KPNA2 overexpression in proliferative disorders have not been defined. We found that KPNA2 expression is induced in various proliferative disorders of the skin such as psoriasis, Bowen's disease, actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma, Paget's disease, Merkel cell carcinoma, and mycosis fungoides. siRNA-mediated KPNA suppression revealed that KPNA2 is essential for significant suppression of HaCaT proliferation under starvation conditions. Ribosomal RNA transcription and protein synthesis were suppressed by starvation combined with knockdown of KPNA (including KPNA2 expression. KPNA2 localized to the nucleolus and interacted with proteins associated with mRNA processing, ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis, chromatin modification, and transcription, as demonstrated by tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry. KPNA2 may be an important promoter of ribosomal RNA and protein synthesis in tumor cells.

  20. Synthesis and methylation of ribosomal RNA in HeLa cells infected with the herpes virus pseudorabies virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, J.C.; Kyriakidis, S.; Stevely, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of infection with the herpes virus pseudorabies virus on the metabolism of HeLa cell ribosomal RNA were examined. There is a decline both in the synthesis of nucleolar 45S ribosomal precursor RNA and in its processing to mature cytoplasmic RNA. The methylated oligonucleotides in the ribosomal RNA species were studied. The methylation of cytoplasmic ribosomal RNA was essentially unchanged. However there was some undermethylation of the nucleolar precursor. If undermethylated RNA does not mature then this may partly explain the reduced processing in the infected cells. (Author)

  1. Flow cytometric measurement of RNA synthesis using bromouridine labelling and bromodeoxyuridine antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P O; Larsen, J; Christiansen, J

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear RNA synthesis can be analysed by flow cytometry of cells labelled with 5-bromouridine (BrUrd) and stained with anti-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) antibody and FITC-conjugated secondary antibody. A panel of 5 different commercially available anti-BrdUrd antibodies was tested on cells of a HL-60...... human leukemia cell line, stained as a methanol-fixed nuclear suspension. The BrUrd-induced fluorescence signals were highest with the antibody ABDM (Partec), moderate but reproducible with B-44 (Becton Dickinson), variable or low with BR-3 and IU-4 (Caltag), and not detectable with Bu20a (DAKO...... the variation of RNA synthesis during the cell cycle. The BrUrd incorporation was high in the S and G2 phase, variable in G1, and negligible in mitosis. Similar results were obtained using other cell types....

  2. DNA polymerase-α regulates type I interferon activation through cytosolic RNA:DNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starokadomskyy, Petro; Gemelli, Terry; Rios, Jonathan J.; Xing, Chao; Wang, Richard C.; Li, Haiying; Pokatayev, Vladislav; Dozmorov, Igor; Khan, Shaheen; Miyata, Naoteru; Fraile, Guadalupe; Raj, Prithvi; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Zigang; Ma, Lin; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Yong; Ben-Amitai, Dan; Orenstein, Naama; Mussaffi, Huda; Baselga, Eulalia; Tadini, Gianluca; Grunebaum, Eyal; Sarajlija, Adrijan; Krzewski, Konrad; Wakeland, Edward K.; Yan, Nan; de la Morena, Maria Teresa; Zinn, Andrew R.; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant nucleic acids generated during viral replication are the main trigger for antiviral immunity, and mutations disrupting nucleic acid metabolism can lead to autoinflammatory disorders. Here we investigated the etiology of X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR), a primary immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory features. We discovered that XLPDR is caused by an intronic mutation that disrupts expression of POLA1, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α. Unexpectedly, POLA1 deficiency results in increased type I interferon production. This enzyme is necessary for RNA:DNA primer synthesis during DNA replication and strikingly, POLA1 is also required for the synthesis of cytosolic RNA:DNA, which directly modulates interferon activation. Altogether, this work identified POLA1 as a critical regulator of the type I interferon response. PMID:27019227

  3. Predicted class-I aminoacyl tRNA synthetase-like proteins in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Lakshminarayan M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies point to a great diversity of non-ribosomal peptide synthesis systems with major roles in amino acid and co-factor biosynthesis, secondary metabolism, and post-translational modifications of proteins by peptide tags. The least studied of these systems are those utilizing tRNAs or aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AAtRS in non-ribosomal peptide ligation. Results Here we describe novel examples of AAtRS related proteins that are likely to be involved in the synthesis of widely distributed peptide-derived metabolites. Using sensitive sequence profile methods we show that the cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs are members of the HUP class of Rossmannoid domains and are likely to be highly derived versions of the class-I AAtRS catalytic domains. We also identify the first eukaryotic CDPSs in fungi and in animals; they might be involved in immune response in the latter organisms. We also identify a paralogous version of the methionyl-tRNA synthetase, which is widespread in bacteria, and present evidence using contextual information that it might function independently of protein synthesis as a peptide ligase in the formation of a peptide- derived secondary metabolite. This metabolite is likely to be heavily modified through multiple reactions catalyzed by a metal-binding cupin domain and a lysine N6 monooxygenase that are strictly associated with this paralogous methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MtRS. We further identify an analogous system wherein the MtRS has been replaced by more typical peptide ligases with the ATP-grasp or modular condensation-domains. Conclusions The prevalence of these predicted biosynthetic pathways in phylogenetically distant, pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria suggests that metabolites synthesized by them might participate in interactions with the host. More generally, these findings point to a complete spectrum of recruitment of AAtRS to various non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways, ranging from the

  4. Effects of electrons and neutrons on the synthesis of RNA in resistant and sensitive strains of the slime-mould Dictyostelium discoideum and the modifying effect of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    RNA synthesis was investigated after irradiation in resistant and sensitive lines of the slime-mould Dictyostelium discoideum. When 3 H adenine was used as a precursor to RNA, incorporation increased after irradiation in the resistant WT line but not in the sensitive line (gammas-13). The extent of RNA synthesis after irradiation was correlated with the shoulder width on the survival curve of the resistant line. When this was reduced by irradiating with neutrons, or treatment with caffeine RNA synthesis was also reduced. No preferential synthesis of one RNA species occurred; there was increased labelling in all RNA species after irradiation. Sucrose gradient analysis of ribosomal RNA extracted from irradiated cells and free of messenger RNA revealed no apparent difference in composition from that extracted from unirradiated cells. Increased RNA synthesis after irradiation may form part of the recovery process in the resistant cells. (author)

  5. Potential miRNA involvement in the anti-adipogenic effect of resveratrol and its metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Eseberri

    Full Text Available Scientific research is constantly striving to find molecules which are effective against excessive body fat and its associated complications. Taking into account the beneficial effects that resveratrol exerts on other pathologies through miRNA, the aim of the present work was to analyze the possible involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of adipogenic transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (pparγ, CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins α and β (cebpβ and cebpα induced by resveratrol and its metabolites.3T3-L1 maturing pre-adipocytes were treated during differentiation with 25 μM of trans-resveratrol (RSV, trans-resveratrol-3-O-sulfate (3S, trans-resveratrol-3'-O-glucuronide (3G and trans-resveratrol-4'-O-glucuronide (4G. After computational prediction and bibliographic search of miRNAs targeting pparγ, cebpβ and cebpα, the expression of microRNA-130b-3p (miR-130b-3p, microRNA-155-5p (miR-155-5p, microRNA-27b-3p (miR-27b-3p, microRNA-31-5p (miR-31-5p, microRNA-326-3p (miR-326-3p, microRNA-27a-3p (miR-27a-3p, microRNA-144-3p (miR-144-3p, microRNA-205-5p (miR-205-5p and microRNA-224-3p (miR-224-3p was analyzed. Moreover, other adipogenic mediators such as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (srebf1, krüppel-like factor 5 (klf5, liver x receptor α (lxrα and cAMP responding element binding protein 1 (creb1, were measured by Real Time RT-PCR. As a confirmatory assay, cells treated with RSV were transfected with anti-miR-155 in order to measure cebpβ gene and protein expressions.Of the miRNAs analyzed only miR-155 was modified after resveratrol and glucuronide metabolite treatment. In transfected cells with anti-miR-155, RSV did not reduce cebpβ gene and protein expression. 3S decreased gene expression of creb1, klf5, srebf1 and lxrα.While RSV and glucuronide metabolites exert their inhibitory effect on adipogenesis through miR-155 up-regulation, the anti-adipogenic effect of 3S is not mediated

  6. Impaired rRNA synthesis triggers homeostatic responses in hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKiryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Decreased rRNA synthesis and nucleolar disruption, known as nucleolar stress, are primary signs of cellular stress associated with aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Silencing of rDNA occurs during early stages of Alzheimer´s disease (AD and may play a role in dementia. Moreover aberrant regulation of the protein synthesis machinery is present in the brain of suicide victims and implicates the epigenetic modulation of rRNA. Recently, we developed unique mouse models characterized by nucleolar stress in neurons. We inhibited RNA polymerase I by genetic ablation of the basal transcription factor TIF-IA in adult hippocampal neurons. Nucleolar stress resulted in progressive neurodegeneration, although with a differential vulnerability within the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus. Here, we investigate the consequences of nucleolar stress on learning and memory. The mutant mice show normal performance in the Morris water maze and in other behavioral tests, suggesting the activation of adaptive mechanisms. In fact, we observe a significantly enhanced learning and re-learning corresponding to the initial inhibition of rRNA transcription. This phenomenon is accompanied by aberrant synaptic plasticity. By the analysis of nucleolar function and integrity, we find that the synthesis of rRNA is later restored. Gene expression profiling shows that thirty-six transcripts are differentially expressed in comparison to the control group in absence of neurodegeneration. Additionally, we observe a significant enrichment of the putative serum response factor (SRF binding sites in the promoters of the genes with changed expression, indicating potential adaptive mechanisms mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In the dentate gyrus a neurogenetic response might compensate the initial molecular deficits. These results underscore the role of nucleolar stress in neuronal homeostasis and open a new ground for therapeutic strategies aiming at preserving

  7. The Ebola Virus VP30-NP Interaction Is a Regulator of Viral RNA Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Moyer, Crystal L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann (Scripps)

    2016-10-18

    Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP), a phosphoprotein (VP35) and a polymerase (L). However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays. We have found that the VP30 C-terminal domain interacts with a short peptide in the C-terminal region of NP. Further, we have solved crystal structures of the VP30-NP complex for both Ebola and Marburg viruses. These structures reveal that a conserved, proline-rich NP peptide binds a shallow hydrophobic cleft on the VP30 C-terminal domain. Structure-guided Ebola virus VP30 mutants have altered affinities for the NP peptide. Correlation of these VP30-NP affinities with the activity for each of these mutants in a cell-based mini-replicon assay suggests that the VP30-NP interaction plays both essential and inhibitory roles in Ebola virus RNA synthesis.

  8. Gene activity during germination of spores of the fern, Onoclea sensibilis: RNA and protein synthesis and the role of stored mRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, V.

    1991-01-01

    Pattern of 3H-uridine incorporation into RNA of spores of Onoclea sensibilis imbibed in complete darkness (non-germinating conditions) and induced to germinate in red light was followed by oligo-dT cellulose chromatography, gel electrophoresis coupled with fluorography and autoradiography. In dark-imbibed spores, RNA synthesis was initiated about 24 h after sowing, with most of the label accumulating in the high mol. wt. poly(A) -RNA fraction. There was no incorporation of the label into poly(A) +RNA until 48 h after sowing. In contrast, photo-induced spores began to synthesize all fractions of RNA within 12 h after sowing and by 24 h, incorporation of 3H-uridine into RNA of irradiated spores was nearly 70-fold higher than that into dark-imbibed spores. Protein synthesis, as monitored by 3H-arginine incorporation into the acid-insoluble fraction and by autoradiography, was initiated in spores within 1-2 h after sowing under both conditions. Autoradiographic experiments also showed that onset of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm of the germinating spore is independent of the transport of newly synthesized nuclear RNA. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 35S-methionine-labelled proteins revealed a good correspondence between proteins synthesized in a cell-free translation system directed by poly(A) +RNA of dormant spores and those synthesized in vivo by dark-imbibed and photo-induced spores. These results indicate that stored mRNAs of O. sensibilis spores are functionally competent and provide templates for the synthesis of proteins during dark-imbibition and germination.

  9. Yeast mitochondrial Gln-tRNA(Gln) is generated by a GatFAB-mediated transamidation pathway involving Arc1p-controlled subcellular sorting of cytosolic GluRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechin, Mathieu; Senger, Bruno; Brayé, Mélanie; Kern, Daniel; Martin, Robert Pierre; Becker, Hubert Dominique

    2009-05-01

    It is impossible to predict which pathway, direct glutaminylation of tRNA(Gln) or tRNA-dependent transamidation of glutamyl-tRNA(Gln), generates mitochondrial glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) for protein synthesis in a given species. The report that yeast mitochondria import both cytosolic glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNA(Gln) has challenged the widespread use of the transamidation pathway in organelles. Here we demonstrate that yeast mitochondrial glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) is in fact generated by a transamidation pathway involving a novel type of trimeric tRNA-dependent amidotransferase (AdT). More surprising is the fact that cytosolic glutamyl-tRNA synthetase ((c)ERS) is imported into mitochondria, where it constitutes the mitochondrial nondiscriminating ERS that generates the mitochondrial mischarged glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) substrate for the AdT. We show that dual localization of (c)ERS is controlled by binding to Arc1p, a tRNA nuclear export cofactor that behaves as a cytosolic anchoring platform for (c)ERS. Expression of Arc1p is down-regulated when yeast cells are switched from fermentation to respiratory metabolism, thus allowing increased import of (c)ERS to satisfy a higher demand of mitochondrial glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) for mitochondrial protein synthesis. This novel strategy that enables a single protein to be localized in both the cytosol and mitochondria provides a new paradigm for regulation of the dynamic subcellular distribution of proteins between membrane-separated compartments.

  10. A Mutation in the Bacillus subtilis rsbU Gene That Limits RNA Synthesis during Sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, David M; Lazinski, David; Osburne, Marcia S; Sonenshein, Abraham L

    2017-07-15

    Mutants of Bacillis subtilis that are temperature sensitive for RNA synthesis during sporulation were isolated after selection with a 32 P suicide agent. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that two of the mutants carried an identical lesion in the rsbU gene, which encodes a phosphatase that indirectly activates SigB, the stress-responsive RNA polymerase sigma factor. The mutation appeared to cause RsbU to be hyperactive, because the mutants were more resistant than the parent strain to ethanol stress. In support of this hypothesis, pseudorevertants that regained wild-type levels of sporulation at high temperature had secondary mutations that prevented expression of the mutant rsbU gene. The properties of these RsbU mutants support the idea that activation of SigB diminishes the bacterium's ability to sporulate. IMPORTANCE Most bacterial species encode multiple RNA polymerase promoter recognition subunits (sigma factors). Each sigma factor directs RNA polymerase to different sets of genes; each gene set typically encodes proteins important for responses to specific environmental conditions, such as changes in temperature, salt concentration, and nutrient availability. A selection for mutants of Bacillus subtilis that are temperature sensitive for RNA synthesis during sporulation unexpectedly yielded strains with a point mutation in rsbU , a gene that encodes a protein that normally activates sigma factor B (SigB) under conditions of salt stress. The mutation appears to cause RsbU, and therefore SigB, to be active inappropriately, thereby inhibiting, directly or indirectly, the ability of the cells to transcribe sporulation genes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Initiation, extension, and termination of RNA synthesis by a paramyxovirus polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Paul C; Liu, Cheng; Raynaud, Pauline; Lo, Michael K; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Symons, Julian A; Beigelman, Leo; Deval, Jerome

    2018-02-01

    Paramyxoviruses represent a family of RNA viruses causing significant human diseases. These include measles virus, the most infectious virus ever reported, in addition to parainfluenza virus, and other emerging viruses. Paramyxoviruses likely share common replication machinery but their mechanisms of RNA biosynthesis activities and details of their complex polymerase structures are unknown. Mechanistic and functional details of a paramyxovirus polymerase would have sweeping implications for understanding RNA virus replication and for the development of new antiviral medicines. To study paramyxovirus polymerase structure and function, we expressed an active recombinant Nipah virus (NiV) polymerase complex assembled from the multifunctional NiV L protein bound to its phosphoprotein cofactor. NiV is an emerging highly pathogenic virus that causes severe encephalitis and has been declared a global public health concern due to its high mortality rate. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we demonstrated NiV polymerase forms ring-like particles resembling related RNA polymerases. We identified conserved sequence elements driving recognition of the 3'-terminal genomic promoter by NiV polymerase, and leading to initiation of RNA synthesis, primer extension, and transition to elongation mode. Polyadenylation resulting from NiV polymerase stuttering provides a mechanistic basis for transcription termination. It also suggests a divergent adaptation in promoter recognition between pneumo- and paramyxoviruses. The lack of available antiviral therapy for NiV prompted us to identify the triphosphate forms of R1479 and GS-5734, two clinically relevant nucleotide analogs, as substrates and inhibitors of NiV polymerase activity by delayed chain termination. Overall, these findings provide low-resolution structural details and the mechanism of an RNA polymerase from a previously uncharacterized virus family. This work illustrates important functional differences yet remarkable

  12. Initiation, extension, and termination of RNA synthesis by a paramyxovirus polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Raynaud, Pauline; Lo, Michael K.; Symons, Julian A.; Beigelman, Leo

    2018-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses represent a family of RNA viruses causing significant human diseases. These include measles virus, the most infectious virus ever reported, in addition to parainfluenza virus, and other emerging viruses. Paramyxoviruses likely share common replication machinery but their mechanisms of RNA biosynthesis activities and details of their complex polymerase structures are unknown. Mechanistic and functional details of a paramyxovirus polymerase would have sweeping implications for understanding RNA virus replication and for the development of new antiviral medicines. To study paramyxovirus polymerase structure and function, we expressed an active recombinant Nipah virus (NiV) polymerase complex assembled from the multifunctional NiV L protein bound to its phosphoprotein cofactor. NiV is an emerging highly pathogenic virus that causes severe encephalitis and has been declared a global public health concern due to its high mortality rate. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we demonstrated NiV polymerase forms ring-like particles resembling related RNA polymerases. We identified conserved sequence elements driving recognition of the 3′-terminal genomic promoter by NiV polymerase, and leading to initiation of RNA synthesis, primer extension, and transition to elongation mode. Polyadenylation resulting from NiV polymerase stuttering provides a mechanistic basis for transcription termination. It also suggests a divergent adaptation in promoter recognition between pneumo- and paramyxoviruses. The lack of available antiviral therapy for NiV prompted us to identify the triphosphate forms of R1479 and GS-5734, two clinically relevant nucleotide analogs, as substrates and inhibitors of NiV polymerase activity by delayed chain termination. Overall, these findings provide low-resolution structural details and the mechanism of an RNA polymerase from a previously uncharacterized virus family. This work illustrates important functional differences yet remarkable

  13. Characterization of the ptr5{sup +} gene involved in nuclear mRNA export in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Nobuyoshi; Ikeda, Terumasa; Mizuki, Fumitaka [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Tani, Tokio, E-mail: ttani@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We cloned the ptr5{sup +} gene involved in nuclear mRNA export in fission yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ptr5{sup +} gene was found to encode nucleoporin 85 (Nup85). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seh1p and Mlo3p are multi-copy suppressors for the ptr5 mutation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ptr5p/Nup85p functions in nuclear mRNA export through the mRNA export factor Rae1p. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ptr5p/Nup85p interacts genetically with pre-mRNA splicing factors. -- Abstract: To analyze the mechanisms of mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, we have isolated eleven mutants, ptr [poly(A){sup +} RNA transport] 1 to 11, which accumulate poly(A){sup +} RNA in the nucleus at a nonpermissive temperature in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Of those, the ptr5-1 mutant shows dots- or a ring-like accumulation of poly(A){sup +} RNA at the nuclear periphery after shifting to the nonpermissive temperature. We cloned the ptr5{sup +} gene and found that it encodes a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), nucleoporin 85 (Nup85). The ptr5-1 mutant shows no defects in protein transport, suggesting the specific involvement of Ptr5p/Nup85p in nuclear mRNA export in S. pombe. We identified Seh1p, a nucleoporin interacting with Nup85p, an mRNA-binding protein Mlo3p, and Sac3p, a component of the TREX-2 complex involved in coupling of nuclear mRNA export with transcription, as multi-copy suppressors for the ptr5-1 mutation. In addition, we found that the ptr5-1 mutation is synthetically lethal with a mutation of the mRNA export factor Rae1p, and that the double mutant exaggerates defective nuclear mRNA export, suggesting that Ptr5p/Nup85p is involved in nuclear mRNA export through Rae1p. Interestingly, the ptr5-1 mutation also showed synthetic effects with several prp pre-mRNA splicing mutations, suggesting a functional linkage between the NPCs and the splicing apparatus in the yeast nucleus.

  14. RNA Sequencing and Coexpression Analysis Reveal Key Genes Involved in α-Linolenic Acid Biosynthesis in Perilla frutescens Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyuan Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perilla frutescen is used as traditional food and medicine in East Asia. Its seeds contain high levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA, which is important for health, but is scarce in our daily meals. Previous reports on RNA-seq of perilla seed had identified fatty acid (FA and triacylglycerol (TAG synthesis genes, but the underlying mechanism of ALA biosynthesis and its regulation still need to be further explored. So we conducted Illumina RNA-sequencing in seven temporal developmental stages of perilla seeds. Sequencing generated a total of 127 million clean reads, containing 15.88 Gb of valid data. The de novo assembly of sequence reads yielded 64,156 unigenes with an average length of 777 bp. A total of 39,760 unigenes were annotated and 11,693 unigenes were found to be differentially expressed in all samples. According to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis, 486 unigenes were annotated in the “lipid metabolism” pathway. Of these, 150 unigenes were found to be involved in fatty acid (FA biosynthesis and triacylglycerol (TAG assembly in perilla seeds. A coexpression analysis showed that a total of 104 genes were highly coexpressed (r > 0.95. The coexpression network could be divided into two main subnetworks showing over expression in the medium or earlier and late phases, respectively. In order to identify the putative regulatory genes, a transcription factor (TF analysis was performed. This led to the identification of 45 gene families, mainly including the AP2-EREBP, bHLH, MYB, and NAC families, etc. After coexpression analysis of TFs with highly expression of FAD2 and FAD3 genes, 162 TFs were found to be significantly associated with two FAD genes (r > 0.95. Those TFs were predicted to be the key regulatory factors in ALA biosynthesis in perilla seed. The qRT-PCR analysis also verified the relevance of expression pattern between two FAD genes and partial candidate TFs. Although it has been reported that some TFs

  15. The RNA helicase DDX1 is involved in restricted HIV-1 Rev function in human astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jianhua; Acheampong, Edward; Dave, Rajnish; Wang Fengxiang; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Pomerantz, Roger J.

    2005-01-01

    Productive infection by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS) involves mainly macrophages and microglial cells. A frequency of less than 10% of human astrocytes is estimated to be infectable with HIV-1. Nonetheless, this relatively low percentage of infected astrocytes, but associated with a large total number of astrocytic cells in the CNS, makes human astrocytes a critical part in the analyses of potential HIV-1 reservoirs in vivo. Investigations in astrocytic cell lines and primary human fetal astrocytes revealed that limited HIV-1 replication in these cells resulted from low-level viral entry, transcription, viral protein processing, and virion maturation. Of note, a low ratio of unspliced versus spliced HIV-1-specific RNA was also investigated, as Rev appeared to act aberrantly in astrocytes, via loss of nuclear and/or nucleolar localization and diminished Rev-mediated function. Host cellular machinery enabling Rev function has become critical for elucidation of diminished Rev activity, especially for those factors leading to RNA metabolism. We have recently identified a DEAD-box protein, DDX1, as a Rev cellular co-factor and now have explored its potential importance in astrocytes. Cells were infected with HIV-1 pseudotyped with envelope glycoproteins of amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (MLV). Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) for unspliced, singly-spliced, and multiply-spliced RNA clearly showed a lower ratio of unspliced/singly-spliced over multiply-spliced HIV-1-specific RNA in human astrocytes as compared to Rev-permissive, non-glial control cells. As well, the cellular localization of Rev in astrocytes was cytoplasmically dominant as compared to that of Rev-permissive, non-glial controls. This endogenous level of DDX1 expression in astrocytes was demonstrated directly to lead to a shift of Rev sub-cellular distribution dominance from nuclear and/or nucleolar to

  16. Effects of near-ultraviolet and violet radiations (313-405 NM) on DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in E. coli B/r

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramabhadran, T.V.

    1975-01-01

    Fluences (21 to 32 kJ/m 2 ) of near-ultraviolet radiation that induced about a 1 hour growth delay in continuously growing cultures of E.coli B/r were found to produce complete cessation of net RNA synthesis, while the effects on protein and DNA synthesis were considerably milder. The near-UV action spectrum for this inhibition of RNA synthesis was similar to the action spectrum for growth decay in E.coli B and to the absorption spectrum of E.coli valyl transfer RNA. In addition, the fluences required for inhibition of RNA synthesis and growth delay were similar to those reported for formation of 4-thiouridine-cytidine adducts in transfer RNA. These findings suggest that the chromophore and target for near-UV-induced inhibition of both net RNA synthesis and growth in E.coli may be 4-thiouridine in transfer RNA. (author)

  17. Ebola Virus VP35 Interaction with Dynein LC8 Regulates Viral RNA Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthra, Priya; Jordan, David S.; Leung, Daisy W.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Basler, Christopher F.; Lyles, D. S.

    2015-03-04

    Ebola virus VP35 inhibits alpha/beta interferon production and functions as a viral polymerase cofactor. Previously, the 8-kDa cytoplasmic dynein light chain (LC8) was demonstrated to interact with VP35, but the functional consequences were unclear. Here we demonstrate that the interaction is direct and of high affinity and that binding stabilizes the VP35 N-terminal oligomerization domain and enhances viral RNA synthesis. Mutational analysis demonstrates that VP35 interaction is required for the functional effects of LC8.

  18. 8-Methoxypsoralen DNA interstrand cross-linking of the ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena thermophila. Distribution, repair and effect on rRNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fengquin, X; Nielsen, Henrik; Zhen, W

    1993-01-01

    The distribution and repair of 8-methoxypsoralen-DNA interstrand cross-links in the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in Tetrahymena thermophila have been studied in vivo by Southern blot analysis. It is found that the cross-links at a density of ... between three domains (terminal spacer, transcribed region and central spacer) as defined by restriction enzyme analysis (BamHI and ClaI). It is furthermore shown that a dosage resulting in approximately one cross-link per rDNA molecule (21 kbp, two genes) is sufficient to block RNA synthesis. Finally......, it is shown that the cross-links in the rDNA molecules are repaired at equal rate in all three domains within 24 h and that RNA synthesis is partly restored during this repair period. The majority of the cells also go through one to two cell divisions in this period but do not survive....

  19. Significance of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis catalyzed by montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash C; Aldersley, Michael F

    2013-06-01

    The montmorillonite-catalyzed reactions of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of adenosine used as a model generated RNA type oligomers. These reactions were found to be dependent on the presence of mineral salts. Whereas montmorillonite (pH 7) produced only dimers and traces of trimer in water, addition of sodium chloride (0.1-2.0 M) enhanced the chain length of oligomers to 10-mers as detected by HPLC. Maximum catalytic activity was observed with sodium chloride at a concentration between 0.8 and 1.2 M. This concentration of sodium chloride resembled its abundance in the ancient oceans (0.9-1.2 M). Magnesium chloride produced a similar effect but its joint action with sodium chloride did not produce any difference in the oligomer chain length. Therefore, Mg(2+) was not deemed necessary for generating longer oligomers. The effect of monovalent cations upon RNA chain length was: Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+). A similar effect was observed with the anions with enhanced oligomer length in the following order: Cl(-) > Br(-) > I(-). Thus, the smaller ions facilitated the formation of the longest oligomers. Inorganic salts that tend to salt out organic compounds from water and salts which show salt-in effects had no influence on the oligomerization process indicating that the montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis is not affected by either of these hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. A 2.3-fold decrease in the yield of cyclic dimer was observed upon increasing the sodium chloride concentration from 0.2 to 2.0 M. Inhibition of cyclic dimer formation is vital for increasing the yield of linear dimers and longer oligomers. In summary, sodium chloride is likely to have played an essential role in any clay mineral-catalyzed prebiotic RNA synthesis.

  20. Structural Studies of RNA Helicases Involved in Eukaryotic Pre-mRNA Splicing, Ribosome Biogenesis, and Translation Initiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yangzi

    and ligates the neighbouring exons to generate mature mRNAs. Prp43 is an RNA helicase of the DEAH/RHA family. In yeast, once mRNAs are released, Prp43 catalyzes the disassembly of spliceosomes. The 18S, 5.8S and 25S rRNAs are transcribed as a single polycistronic transcript—the 35S pre......-rRNA. It is nucleolytically cleaved and chemically modified to generate mature rRNAs, which assemble with ribosomal proteins to form the ribosome. Prp43 is required for the processing of the 18S rRNA. Using X-ray crystallography, I determined a high resolution structure of Prp43 bound to ADP, the first structure of a DEAH....../RHA helicase. It defined the conserved structural features of all DEAH/RHA helicases, and unveiled a novel nucleotide binding site. Additionally a preliminary low resolution structure of a ternary complex comprising Prp43, a non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue, and a single-stranded RNA, was obtained. The ribosome...

  1. The synthesis of N-Zn, N-Cu complexes involving 2-amino pyridine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 121; Issue 4. The synthesis of N-Zn, N-Cu complexes involving 2-amino pyridine and ethylenediamine ligands and application to the Henry reaction. Luo Mei Tang Hai Ming Li Qian Rong Sun Jie Yang Shan Zhong Li Xue Liang. Volume 121 Issue 4 July 2009 pp 435- ...

  2. Interactions between membrane-bound cellulose synthases involved in the synthesis of the secondary cell wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.F.P.; Vernhettes, S.; Desprez, T.; Vincken, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    It has not yet been reported how the secondary CESA (cellulose synthase) proteins are organized in the rosette structure. A membrane-based yeast two-hybrid (MbYTH) approach was used to analyze the interactions between the CESA proteins involved in secondary cell wall synthesis of Arabidopsis and the

  3. A small interfering RNA screen of genes involved in DNA repair identifies tumor-specific radiosensitization by POLQ knockdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higgins, Geoff S; Prevo, Remko; Lee, Yin-Fai

    2010-01-01

    ) and irradiated normal tissue cells (MRC5). Using gammaH2AX foci at 24 hours after IR, we identified several genes, such as BRCA2, Lig IV, and XRCC5, whose knockdown is known to cause increased cell radiosensitivity, thereby validating the primary screening end point. In addition, we identified POLQ (DNA...... radiosensitivity are largely unknown. We have conducted a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of 200 genes involved in DNA damage repair aimed at identifying genes whose knockdown increased tumor radiosensitivity. Parallel siRNA screens were conducted in irradiated and unirradiated tumor cells (SQ20B...

  4. miRNA-34b is directly involved in the aging of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Gao, Sheng; Liang, Liu; Huang, Xianing; Hu, Nan; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2017-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNA that play important regulatory roles in living organisms. These RNA molecules are implicated in the development and progression of malignant diseases such as cancer and are closely associated with cell aging. Findings demonstrating that microRNA is associated with aging in macrophages have nevertheless rarely been reported. This study's objective was to investigate if miRNA-34 is linked to aging process of macrophages. We built a cell aging model in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages using D-galactose and determined the expression levels of miRNA-34a, miRNA-34b, and miRNA-34c in aging and normal macrophages by fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). We predicted a target gene of miRNA-34 using biological information techniques and constructed the recombinant plasmid pGL3-E2f3 for the putative target gene E2f3. The expression level of miRNA-34b was 5.23 times higher in aging macrophages than in normal macrophages. The luciferase activity decreased by nearly 50 % in cells transfected with miRNA-34b mimics, while no significant decrease in luciferase activity was noted in cells transfected with the miRNA-34b inhibitor or unrelated sequences. Our findings provide the groundwork for further research into the molecular mechanisms whereby miRNA-34b regulates the aging of macrophages. miRNA-34b is associated with the aging of RAW264.7 macrophages, and E2f3 is a target gene of miRNA-34b.

  5. Identification of Cis-Acting Elements on Positive-Strand Subgenomic mRNA Required for the Synthesis of Negative-Strand Counterpart in Bovine Coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Yeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that, in addition to genomic RNA, sgmRNA is able to serve as a template for the synthesis of the negative-strand [(−-strand] complement. However, the cis-acting elements on the positive-strand [(+-strand] sgmRNA required for (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis have not yet been systematically identified. In this study, we employed real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to analyze the cis-acting elements on bovine coronavirus (BCoV sgmRNA 7 required for the synthesis of its (−-strand counterpart by deletion mutagenesis. The major findings are as follows. (1 Deletion of the 5'-terminal leader sequence on sgmRNA 7 decreased the synthesis of the (−-strand sgmRNA complement. (2 Deletions of the 3' untranslated region (UTR bulged stem-loop showed no effect on (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis; however, deletion of the 3' UTR pseudoknot decreased the yield of (−-strand sgmRNA. (3 Nucleotides positioned from −15 to −34 of the sgmRNA 7 3'-terminal region are required for efficient (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis. (4 Nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (−1 of sgmRNA 7 is correlated to the efficiency of (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis. These results together suggest, in principle, that the 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences on sgmRNA 7 harbor cis-acting elements are critical for efficient (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis in BCoV.

  6. Effects of glucose availability on expression of the key genes involved in synthesis of milk fat, lactose and glucose metabolism in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Liu

    Full Text Available As the main precursor for lactose synthesis, large amounts of glucose are required by lactating dairy cows. Milk yield greatly depends on mammary lactose synthesis due to its osmoregulatory property for mammary uptake of water. Thus, glucose availability to the mammary gland could be a potential regulator of milk production. In the present study, the effect of glucose availability on expression of the key genes involved in synthesis of milk fat, lactose and glucose metabolism in vitro was investigated. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC were treated for 12 h with various concentrations of glucose (2.5, 5, 10 or 20 mmol/L. The higher concentrations of glucose (10-20 mmol/L did not affect the mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, diacyl glycerol acyl transferase, glycerol-3 phosphate acyl transferase and α-lactalbumin, whereas fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and beta-1, 4-galactosyl transferase mRNA expression increased at 10 mmol/L and then decreased at 20 mmol/L. The content of lactose synthase increased with increasing concentration of glucose, with addition of highest value at 20 mmol/L of glucose. Moreover, the increased glucose concentration stimulated the activities of pyruvate kinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and elevated the energy status of the BMEC. Therefore, it was deduced that after increasing glucose availability, the extra absorbed glucose was partitioned to entering the synthesis of milk fat and lactose by the regulation of the mRNA expression of key genes, promoting glucose metabolism by glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway as well as energy status. These results indicated that the sufficient availability of glucose in BMEC may promote glucose metabolism, and affect the synthesis of milk composition.

  7. Elimination and Utilization of Oxidized Guanine Nucleotides in the Synthesis of RNA and Its Precursors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Ito, Riyoko; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Mutsuo

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced as side products of oxygen utilization and can lead to the oxidation of nucleic acids and their precursor nucleotides. Among the various oxidized bases, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine seems to be the most critical during the transfer of genetic information because it can pair with both cytosine and adenine. During the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, GMP is formed first, and it is converted to GDP by guanylate kinase. This enzyme hardly acts on an oxidized form of GMP (8-oxo-GMP) formed by the oxidation of GMP or by the cleavage of 8-oxo-GDP and 8-oxo-GTP by MutT protein. Although the formation of 8-oxo-GDP from 8-oxo-GMP is thus prevented, 8-oxo-GDP itself may be produced by the oxidation of GDP by reactive oxygen species. The 8-oxo-GDP thus formed can be converted to 8-oxo-GTP because nucleoside-diphosphate kinase and adenylate kinase, both of which catalyze the conversion of GDP to GTP, do not discriminate 8-oxo-GDP from normal GDP. The 8-oxo-GTP produced in this way and by the oxidation of GTP can be used for RNA synthesis. This misincorporation is prevented by MutT protein, which has the potential to cleave 8-oxo-GTP as well as 8-oxo-GDP to 8-oxo-GMP. When 14C-labeled 8-oxo-GTP was applied to CaCl2-permeabilized cells of a mutT− mutant strain, it could be incorporated into RNA at 4% of the rate for GTP. Escherichia coli cells appear to possess mechanisms to prevent misincorporation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine into RNA. PMID:23376345

  8. Rhizobium NodB protein involved in nodulation signal synthesis is a chitooligosaccharide deacetylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M; Röhrig, H; Schmidt, J; Wieneke, U; Schell, J

    1993-01-15

    The common nodulation genes nodABC are conserved in all rhizobia and are involved in synthesis of a lipooligosaccharide signal molecule. This bacterial signal consists of a chitooligosaccharide backbone, which carries at the nonreducing end a fatty acyl chain. The modified chitooligosaccharide molecule triggers development of nodules on the roots of the leguminous host plant. To elucidate the specific role of the NodB protein in nodulation factor synthesis, we have purified recombinant NodB and determined its biochemical role by direct assays. Our data show that the NodB protein of Rhizobium meliloti deacetylates the nonreducing N-acetylglucosamine residue of chitooligosaccharides. The monosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine is not deacetylated by NodB. In the pathway of Nod factor synthesis, deacetylation at the nonreducing end of the oligosaccharide backbone may be a necessary requirement for attachment of the fatty acyl chain.

  9. Expression of genes involved in hepatic carnitine synthesis and uptake in dairy cows in the transition period and at different stages of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Gloria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rodents and pigs, it has shown that carnitine synthesis and uptake of carnitine into cells are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARA, a transcription factor which is physiologically activated during fasting or energy deprivation. Dairy cows are typically in a negative energy balance during early lactation. We investigated the hypothesis that genes of carnitine synthesis and uptake in dairy cows are enhanced during early lactation. Results mRNA abundances of PPARA and some of its classical target genes and genes involved in carnitine biosynthesis [trimethyllysine dioxygenase (TMLHE, 4-N-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH9A1, γ-butyrobetaine dioxygenase (BBOX1] and uptake of carnitine [novel organic cation transporter 2 (SLC22A5] as well as carnitine concentrations in liver biopsy samples of 20 dairy cows in late pregnancy (3 wk prepartum and early lactation (1 wk, 5 wk, 14 wk postpartum were determined. From 3 wk prepartum to 1 wk postpartum, mRNA abundances of PPARΑ and several PPARΑ target genes involved in fatty acid uptake, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in the liver were strongly increased. Simultaneously, mRNA abundances of enzymes of carnitine synthesis (TMLHE: 10-fold; ALDH9A1: 6-fold; BBOX1: 1.8-fold and carnitine uptake (SLC22A5: 13-fold and the concentration of carnitine in the liver were increased from 3 wk prepartum to 1 wk postpartum (P P P Conclusions The results of this study show for the first time that the expression of hepatic genes of carnitine synthesis and cellular uptake of carnitine is enhanced in dairy cows during early lactation. These changes might provide an explanation for increased hepatic carnitine concentrations observed in 1 wk postpartum and might be regarded as a physiologic means to provide liver cells with sufficient carnitine required for transport of excessive amounts of NEFA during a negative energy balance.

  10. miRNA778 and SUVH6 are involved in phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; ZengJ, Hou Qing; Song, Jun; Feng, Sheng Jun; Yang, Zhi Min

    2015-09-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in plant adaptation to phosphate (Pi) starvation. Histone methylation can remodel chromatin structure and mediate gene expression. This study identified Arabidopsis miR778, a Pi-responsive miRNA, and its target gene Su(var) 3-9 homologs 6 (SUVH6) encoding a histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase. Overexpression of miR778 moderately enhanced primary and lateral root growth, free phosphate accumulation in shoots, and accumulation of anthocyanin under Pi deficient conditions. miR778 overexpression relieved the arrest of columella cell development under Pi starvation. Conversely, transgenic plants overexpressing a miR778-target mimic (35S::MIM778), that act as a sponge and sequesters miR778, showed opposite phenotypes of 35S::miR778 plants under Pi deficiency. Expression of several Pi deficiency-responsive genes such as miR399, Phosphate Transporter (PHT1;4), Low Phosphate-Resistant1 (LPR1) and Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (PAP1) were elevated in the miR778 overexpressing plants, suggesting that both miR778 and SUVH6 are involved in phosphate homeostasis in plants. This study has provided a basis for further investigation on how SUVH6 regulates its downstream genes through chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation in plants stressed by Pi deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Local synthesis of axonal and presynaptic RNA in squid model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyman, Maria; Cefaliello, Carolina; Ferrara, Eugenia; De Stefano, Rosanna; Lavina, Zeno Scotto; Crispino, Marianna; Squillace, Angela; van Minnen, Jan; Kaplan, Barry B; Giuditta, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The presence of active systems of protein synthesis in axons and nerve endings raises the question of the cellular origin of the corresponding RNAs. Our present experiments demonstrate that, besides a possible derivation from neuronal cell bodies, axoplasmic RNAs originate in periaxonal glial cells and presynaptic RNAs derive from nearby cells, presumably glial cells. Indeed, in perfused squid giant axons, delivery of newly synthesized RNA to the axon perfusate is strongly stimulated by axonal depolarization or agonists of glial glutamate and acetylcholine receptors. Likewise, incubation of squid optic lobe slices with [3H]uridine leads to a marked accumulation of [3H]RNA in the large synaptosomes derived from the nerve terminals of retinal photoreceptor neurons. As the cell bodies of these neurons lie outside the optic lobe, the data demonstrate that presynaptic RNA is locally synthesized, presumably by perisynaptic glial cells. Overall, our results support the view that axons and presynaptic regions are endowed with local systems of gene expression which may prove essential for the maintenance and plasticity of these extrasomatic neuronal domains.

  12. Specific genes involved in synthesis and editing of heparan sulfate proteoglycans show altered expression patterns in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Vega Iván

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of a specific set of genes controls the different structures of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs, which are involved in the growth, invasion and metastatic properties of cancerous cells. The purpose of this study is to increase knowledge of HSPG alterations in breast cancer. Methods Twenty-three infiltrating ductal adenocarcinomas (IDCs, both metastatic and non-metastatic were studied. A transcriptomic approach to the structure of heparan sulfate (HS chains was used, employing qPCR to analyze both the expression of the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and editing, as well as the proteoglycan core proteins. Since some of these proteoglycans can also carry chondroitin sulfate chains, we extended the study to include the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these glycosaminoglycans. Histochemical techniques were also used to analyze tissular expression of particular genes showing significant expression differences, of potential interest. Results No significant change in transcription was detected in approximately 70% of analyzed genes. However, 13 demonstrated changes in both tumor types (40% showing more intense deregulation in the metastatic, while 5 genes showed changes only in non-metastatic tumors. Changes were related to 3 core proteins: overexpression of syndecan-1 and underexpression of glypican-3 and perlecan. HS synthesis was affected by lower levels of some 3-O-sulfotransferase transcripts, the expression of NDST4 and, only in non metastatic tumors, higher levels of extracellular sulfatases. Furthermore, the expression of chondroitin sulfate also was considerably affected, involving both the synthesis of the saccharidic chains and sulfations at all locations. However, the pro-metastatic enzyme heparanase did not exhibit significant changes in mRNA expression, although in metastatic tumors it appeared related to increased levels of the most stable form of mRNA. Finally, the expression of

  13. The Treacher Collins syndrome (TCOF1) gene product is involved in pre-rRNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Bianca; Henning, Dale; So, Rolando B; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J; Valdez, Benigno C

    2005-07-15

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is characterized by defects in craniofacial development, which results from mutations in the TCOF1 gene. TCOF1 encodes the nucleolar phosphoprotein treacle, which interacts with upstream binding factor (UBF) and affects transcription of the ribosomal DNA gene. The present study shows participation of treacle in the 2'-O-methylation of pre-rRNA. Antisense-mediated down-regulation of treacle expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes reduced 2'-O-methylation of pre-rRNA. Analysis of RNA isolated from wild-type and Tcof1+/- heterozygous mice embryos from strains that exhibit a lethal phenotype showed significant reduction in 2'-O-methylation at nucleotide C463 of 18S rRNA. The level of pseudouridylation of U1642 of 18S rRNA from the same RNA samples was not affected suggesting specificity. There is no significant difference in rRNA methylation between wild-type and heterozygous embryos of DBA x BALB/c mice, which have no obvious craniofacial phenotype. The function of treacle in pre-rRNA methylation is most likely mediated by its direct physical interaction with NOP56, a component of the ribonucleoprotein methylation complex. Although treacle co-localizes with UBF throughout mitosis, it co-localizes with NOP56 and fibrillarin, a putative methyl transferase, only during telophase when rDNA gene transcription and pre-rRNA methylation are known to commence. These observations suggest that treacle might link RNA polymerase I-catalyzed transcription and post-transcriptional modification of pre-rRNA. We hypothesize that haploinsufficiency of treacle in TCS patients results in inhibition of production of properly modified mature rRNA in addition to inhibition of rDNA gene transcription, which consequently affects proliferation and proper differentiation of specific embryonic cells during development.

  14. Research paper effects of 13-HPODE on expression of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis, iodide uptake and formation of hydrogen peroxide in porcine thyrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luci, Sebastian; Bettzieche, Anja; Brandsch, Corinna; Eder, Klaus

    2006-11-01

    It has been shown that dietary oxidized fats influence thyroid function in rats and pigs. Mechanism underlying this phenomenon are unknown. This study was performed to investigate whether 13-hydroperoxy-9,11 -octadecadienic acid (13-HPODE), a primary oxidation product of linoleic acid, affects expression of gene involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and formation of hydrogen peroxide in primary porcine thyrocytes. Thyrocytes were treated with 13-HPODE in concentrations between 20 and 100 microM. Cells treated with vehicle alone ("control cells") or with equivalent concentrations of linoleic acid were considered as controls. Treatment of cells with 13-HPODE did not affect cell viability but increased the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.05) compared to control cells or cells treated with linoleic acid. Relative mRNA concentrations of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis like sodium iodide symporter, thyrotropin receptor, and thyroid peroxidase, as well as iodide uptake, did not differ between cells treated with 13-HPODE and control cells or cells treated with linoleic acid. Treatment of cells with 13-HPODE, however, reduced the relative mRNA concentrations of dual oxidase-2 and the formation of hydrogen peroxide compared to control cells or cells treated with linoleic acid (p < 0.05). Because the production of hydrogen peroxide is rate-limiting for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, it is suggested that 13-HPODE could have an impact on the formation of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland.

  15. 8-Methoxypsoralen DNA interstrand cross-linking of the ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena thermophila. Distribution, repair and effect on rRNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fengquin, X; Nielsen, Henrik; Zhen, W

    1993-01-01

    The distribution and repair of 8-methoxypsoralen-DNA interstrand cross-links in the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in Tetrahymena thermophila have been studied in vivo by Southern blot analysis. It is found that the cross-links at a density of ... between three domains (terminal spacer, transcribed region and central spacer) as defined by restriction enzyme analysis (BamHI and ClaI). It is furthermore shown that a dosage resulting in approximately one cross-link per rDNA molecule (21 kbp, two genes) is sufficient to block RNA synthesis. Finally...

  16. Rapid RNase L-driven arrest of protein synthesis in the dsRNA response without degradation of translation machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jesse; Rath, Sneha; Kolet-Mandrikov, David; Korennykh, Alexei

    2017-11-01

    Mammalian cells respond to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by activating a translation-inhibiting endoribonuclease, RNase L. Consensus in the field indicates that RNase L arrests protein synthesis by degrading ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs). However, here we provide evidence for a different and far more efficient mechanism. By sequencing abundant RNA fragments generated by RNase L in human cells, we identify site-specific cleavage of two groups of noncoding RNAs: Y-RNAs, whose function is poorly understood, and cytosolic tRNAs, which are essential for translation. Quantitative analysis of human RNA cleavage versus nascent protein synthesis in lung carcinoma cells shows that RNase L stops global translation when tRNAs, as well as rRNAs and mRNAs, are still intact. Therefore, RNase L does not have to degrade the translation machinery to stop protein synthesis. Our data point to a rapid mechanism that transforms a subtle RNA cleavage into a cell-wide translation arrest. © 2017 Donovan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. Combining RNA interference and kinase inhibitors against cell signalling components involved in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Grady, Michael; Raha, Debasish; Hanson, Bonnie J; Bunting, Michaeline; Hanson, George T

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) has been implicated in a large variety of biological processes including oncogenic transformation. The tyrosine kinases of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) constitute the beginning of one signal transduction cascade leading to AP-1 activation and are known to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Drug discovery efforts targeting this receptor and other pathway components have centred on monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. Resistance to such inhibitors has already been observed, guiding the prediction of their use in combination therapies with other targeted agents such as RNA interference (RNAi). This study examines the use of RNAi and kinase inhibitors for qualification of components involved in the EGFR/AP-1 pathway of ME180 cells, and their inhibitory effects when evaluated individually or in tandem against multiple components of this important disease-related pathway. AP-1 activation was assessed using an ME180 cell line stably transfected with a beta-lactamase reporter gene under the control of AP-1 response element following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Immunocytochemistry allowed for further quantification of small molecule inhibition on a cellular protein level. RNAi and RT-qPCR experiments were performed to assess the amount of knockdown on an mRNA level, and immunocytochemistry was used to reveal cellular protein levels for the targeted pathway components. Increased potency of kinase inhibitors was shown by combining RNAi directed towards EGFR and small molecule inhibitors acting at proximal or distal points in the pathway. After cellular stimulation with EGF and analysis at the level of AP-1 activation using a β-lactamase reporter gene, a 10–12 fold shift or 2.5–3 fold shift toward greater potency in the IC 50 was observed for EGFR and MEK-1 inhibitors, respectively, in the presence of RNAi targeting EGFR. EGFR pathway components were qualified as

  18. Heat shock response in yeast involves changes in both transcription rates and mRNA stabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Castells-Roca

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the heat stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by determining mRNA levels and transcription rates for the whole transcriptome after a shift from 25 °C to 37 °C. Using an established mathematical algorithm, theoretical mRNA decay rates have also been calculated from the experimental data. We have verified the mathematical predictions for selected genes by determining their mRNA decay rates at different times during heat stress response using the regulatable tetO promoter. This study indicates that the yeast response to heat shock is not only due to changes in transcription rates, but also to changes in the mRNA stabilities. mRNA stability is affected in 62% of the yeast genes and it is particularly important in shaping the mRNA profile of the genes belonging to the environmental stress response. In most cases, changes in transcription rates and mRNA stabilities are homodirectional for both parameters, although some interesting cases of antagonist behavior are found. The statistical analysis of gene targets and sequence motifs within the clusters of genes with similar behaviors shows that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulons apparently contribute to the general heat stress response by means of transcriptional factors and RNA binding proteins.

  19. Identification of Splicing Factors Involved in DMD Exon Skipping Events Using an In Vitro RNA Binding Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Julie; Bourgeois, Cyril F; Claustres, Mireille; Koenig, Michel; Tuffery-Giraud, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Mutation-induced exon skipping in the DMD gene can modulate the severity of the phenotype in patients with Duchenne or Becker Muscular Dystrophy. These alternative splicing events are most likely the result of changes in recruitment of splicing factors at cis-acting elements in the mutated DMD pre-mRNA. The identification of proteins involved can be achieved by an affinity purification procedure. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the in vitro RNA binding assay that we routinely apply to explore molecular mechanisms underlying splicing defects in the DMD gene. In vitro transcribed RNA probes containing either the wild type or mutated sequence are oxidized and bound to adipic acid dihydrazide-agarose beads. Incubation with a nuclear extract allows the binding of nuclear proteins to the RNA probes. The unbound proteins are washed off and then the specifically RNA-bound proteins are released from the beads by an RNase treatment. After separation by SDS-PAGE, proteins that display differential binding affinities for the wild type and mutant RNA probes are identified by mass spectrometry.

  20. Primary and secondary siRNA synthesis triggered by RNAs from food bacteria in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradec, Quentin; Götz, Ulrike; Arnaiz, Olivier; Pouch, Juliette; Simon, Martin; Meyer, Eric; Marker, Simone

    2015-01-01

    In various organisms, an efficient RNAi response can be triggered by feeding cells with bacteria producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against an endogenous gene. However, the detailed mechanisms and natural functions of this pathway are not well understood in most cases. Here, we studied siRNA biogenesis from exogenous RNA and its genetic overlap with endogenous RNAi in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia by high-throughput sequencing. Using wild-type and mutant strains deficient for dsRNA feeding we found that high levels of primary siRNAs of both strands are processed from the ingested dsRNA trigger by the Dicer Dcr1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases Rdr1 and Rdr2 and other factors. We further show that this induces the synthesis of secondary siRNAs spreading along the entire endogenous mRNA, demonstrating the occurrence of both 3′-to-5′ and 5′-to-3′ transitivity for the first time in the SAR clade of eukaryotes (Stramenopiles, Alveolates, Rhizaria). Secondary siRNAs depend on Rdr2 and show a strong antisense bias; they are produced at much lower levels than primary siRNAs and hardly contribute to RNAi efficiency. We further provide evidence that the Paramecium RNAi machinery also processes single-stranded RNAs from its bacterial food, broadening the possible natural functions of exogenously induced RNAi in this organism. PMID:25593325

  1. Clay catalyzed RNA synthesis under Martian conditions: Application for Mars return samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash C; Dubey, Krishna; Aldersley, Michael F; Sausville, Meaghen

    2015-06-26

    Catalysis by montmorillonites clay minerals is regarded as a feasible mechanism for the abiotic production and polymerization of key biomolecules on early Earth. We have investigated a montmorillonite-catalyzed reaction of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of nucleosides as a model to probe prebiotic synthesis of RNA-type oligomers. Here we show that this model is specific for the generation of RNA oligomers despite deoxy-mononucleotides adsorbing equally well onto the montmorillonite catalytic surfaces. Optimum catalytic activity was observed over a range of pH (6-9) and salinity (1 ± 0.2 M NaCl). When the weathering steps of early Earth that generated catalytic montmorillonite were modified to meet Martian soil conditions, the catalytic activity remained intact without altering the surface layer charge. Additionally, the formation of oligomers up to tetramer was detected using as little as 0.1 mg of Na⁺-montmorillonite, suggesting that the catalytic activity of a Martian clay return sample can be investigated with sub-milligram scale samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative bases in the RNA world: the prebiotic synthesis of urazole and its ribosides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, V. M.; Dworkin, J. P.; Miller, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Urazole is a five-membered heterocyclic compound which is isosteric with uracil's hydrogen-bonding segment. Urazole reacts spontaneoulsy with ribose (and other aldoses) to give a mixture of four ribosides: alpha and beta pyranosides and furanosides. This reaction occurs in aqueous solution at mild temperatures. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for the reaction of urazole with ribose were determined. In contrast, uracil is completely unreactive with ribose under these conditions. Urazole's unusual reactivity is ascribed to the hydrazine portion of the molecule. Urazole can be synthesized from biuret and hydrazine under prebiotic conditions. The prebiotic synthesis of guanazole, which is isosteric in part to diaminopyrimidine and cytosine, is accomplished from dicyandiamide and hydrazine. Kinetic parameters for both prebiotic reactions were measured. Urazole and guanazole are transparent in the UV, which would be a favorable property in the absence of an ozone layer on the early Earth. Urazole makes hydrogen bonds with adenine in DMSO similar to those of uracil, as established by H NMR. All of these properties make urazole an attractive potential precursor to uracil and guanazole a potential precursor to cytosine in the RNA or pre-RNA world.

  3. Stimulation of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in vitro RNA Synthesis by Microtubule-Associated Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Virginia M.; Harmon, Shirley A.; Summers, Donald F.

    1986-08-01

    Microtubule-associated proteins purified from bovine brains stimulated the in vitro transcription and replication reactions of vesicular stomatitis virus. The products of these reactions were intact messenger or genome-sized RNA species. A preparation from HeLa cells containing tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins also stimulated vesicular stomatitis virus transcription in vitro. This observation is in accord with previous studies, which suggested that a host cell factor was involved with the function of the vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymerase, and others that indicated that several animal viruses displayed an association with host cell cytoskeletal elements during their replication cycles. We show evidence in this report of a host cell protein that seems to have a functional role in interacting with the virion polymerase.

  4. Clinical research data sharing: what an open science world means for researchers involved in evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S

    2016-09-20

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recently announced a bold step forward to require data generated by interventional clinical trials that are published in its member journals to be responsibly shared with external investigators. The movement toward a clinical research culture that supports data sharing has important implications for the design, conduct, and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. While data sharing is likely to enhance the science of evidence synthesis, facilitating the identification and inclusion of all relevant research, it will also pose key challenges, such as requiring broader search strategies and more thorough scrutiny of identified research. Furthermore, the adoption of data sharing initiatives by the clinical research community should challenge the community of researchers involved in evidence synthesis to follow suit, including the widespread adoption of systematic review registration, results reporting, and data sharing, to promote transparency and enhance the integrity of the research process.

  5. Preparation of molybdenum borides by combustion synthesis involving solid-phase displacement reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.L.; Hsu, W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Preparation of molybdenum borides of five different phases in the Mo-B binary system (including Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 , Mo 2 B 5 , and MoB 4 ) was performed by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) with two kinds of the reactant samples. When elemental powder compacts with an exact stoichiometry corresponding to the boride phase were employed, self-sustaining reaction was only achieved in the sample with Mo:B = 1:1 and nearly single-phase MoB was yielded. Therefore, the other four boride compounds were prepared from the reactant compacts composed of MoO 3 , Mo, and B powders, within which the displacement reaction of MoO 3 with boron was involved in combustion synthesis. Experimental evidence shows that the extent of displacement reaction in the overall reaction has a significant impact on sustainability of the synthesis reaction, combustion temperature, reaction front velocity, and composition of the end product. An increase in the solid-phase displacement reaction taking place during the SHS process contributes more heat flux to the synthesis reaction, thus resulting in the increase of combustion temperature and enhancement of the reaction front velocity. Based upon the XRD analysis, formation of Mo 2 B, MoB 2 , and Mo 2 B 5 as the dominant boride phase in the end product was successful through the SHS reaction with powder compacts under appropriate stoichiometries between MoO 3 , Mo, and B. However, a poor conversion was observed in the synthesis of MoB 4 . The powder compact prepared for the production of MoB 4 yielded mostly Mo 2 B 5

  6. CRNDE: a long non-coding RNA involved in CanceR, Neurobiology and DEvelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake C. Ellis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available CRNDE is the gene symbol for Colorectal Neoplasia Differentially Expressed (non protein-coding, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA gene that expresses multiple splice variants and displays a very tissue-specific pattern of expression. CRNDE was initially identified as a lncRNA whose expression is highly elevated in colorectal cancer, but it is also upregulated in many other solid tumors and in leukemias. Indeed, CRNDE is the most upregulated lncRNA in gliomas and here, as in other cancers, it is associated with a stemness signature. CRNDE is expressed in specific regions within the human and mouse brain; the mouse ortholog is high in induced pluripotent stem cells and increases further during neuronal differentiation. We suggest that CRNDE is a multifunctional lncRNA whose different splice forms provide specific functional scaffolds for regulatory complexes, such as the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2 and CoREST chromatin-modifying complexes, which CRNDE helps pilot to target genes.

  7. The actin binding cytoskeletal protein Moesin is involved in nuclear mRNA export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristó, Ildikó; Bajusz, Csaba; Borsos, Barbara N; Pankotai, Tibor; Dopie, Joseph; Jankovics, Ferenc; Vartiainen, Maria K; Erdélyi, Miklós; Vilmos, Péter

    2017-10-01

    Current models imply that the evolutionarily conserved, actin-binding Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) proteins perform their activities at the plasma membrane by anchoring membrane proteins to the cortical actin network. Here we show that beside its cytoplasmic functions, the single ERM protein of Drosophila, Moesin, has a novel role in the nucleus. The activation of transcription by heat shock or hormonal treatment increases the amount of nuclear Moesin, indicating biological function for the protein in the nucleus. The distribution of Moesin in the nucleus suggests a function in transcription and the depletion of mRNA export factors Nup98 or its interacting partner, Rae1, leads to the nuclear accumulation of Moesin, suggesting that the nuclear function of the protein is linked to mRNA export. Moesin localizes to mRNP particles through the interaction with the mRNA export factor PCID2 and knock down of Moesin leads to the accumulation of mRNA in the nucleus. Based on our results we propose that, beyond its well-known, manifold functions in the cytoplasm, the ERM protein of Drosophila is a new, functional component of the nucleus where it participates in mRNA export. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Involvement of the p53 and HPV-16 early 3'UTRs in mRNA regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald

    Genregulering forekommer på mange niveauer og elementer både i og udenfor genets læseramme er vigtige. I denne afhandling analyseres elementer i den tidlige 3' ikke-translaterede region (3'UTR) af Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genomet og også af p53 3'UTR. Elementer er blevet fundet i både...... HPV-16 og p53 3'UTR der eventuelt kan være involveret i post-transkriptionel regulering af messenger RNA (mRNA) kodet af disse gener. Elementerne med konsensus sekvensen UUUUUAU har tidligere været vist at påvirke reguleringen af maternelle mRNA i oogenese og tidlig udvikling. Elementerne kaldes...... men ikke mRNA stabiliteten som følge af tilstedeværelsen af et CPE bindende protein (hCPEB1). En cytoplasmatisk poly(A) polymerase kan delvis fjerne repressionen og polyadenylere mRNA med den tidlige HPV-16 3'UTR. CPE elementer i p53 3'UTR har også en hæmmende effekt på translationen når hCPEB1 er...

  9. [Involvement of microRNA in the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Ryota; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takemi

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs of about 20 nucleotides in length and participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNA binds to 3'-UTR of its target mRNAs and thereby destabilizes the transcripts or suppresses the translation. It is expected that miRNAs could have diverse functions and therefore play a role in the gene expression caused by the drug treatment, which have yet to be determined. Demonstration of the participation of specific miRNA in the drug-mediated gene expression would make it a biomarker for the toxicological assessment and help an understanding of molecular machinery of the drug-drug interaction. Under these backgrounds, we investigated the change of miRNAs in the liver of mice treated with phenobarbital, a typical inducer for drug-metabolizing enzymes, and demonstrate the participation of miRNAs in the phenobarbital-regulated gene expression. We investigated the relationship between phenobarbital-mediated changes in miRNA and mRNA by using Agilent miRNA microarray and DNA microarray, followed by real time RT-PCR. From these experiments, it was suggested that the phenobarbital-induced changes in cyp2c29 and mrp3 are regulated by miR-30a and miR-29b, respectively. In addition, we obtained evidence that indicates a phenobarbital-mediated decrease in miR-122, a highly abundant liver-specific miRNA, leads to the activation of the transcription factor CAR and thereby induces drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  10. Structure, Mechanism, and Specificity of a Eukaryal tRNA Restriction Enzyme Involved in Self-Nonself Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam K. Chakravarty

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available tRNA restriction by anticodon nucleases underlies cellular stress responses and self-nonself discrimination in a wide range of taxa. Anticodon breakage inhibits protein synthesis, which, in turn, results in growth arrest or cell death. The eukaryal ribotoxin PaT secreted by Pichia acaciae inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae via cleavage of tRNAGln(UUG. We find that recombinant PaT incises a synthetic tRNAGln(UUG stem-loop RNA by transesterification at a single site 3′ of the wobble uridine, yielding 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate and 5′-OH ends. Incision is suppressed by replacement of the wobble nucleobase with adenine or guanine. The crystal structure of PaT reveals a distinctive fold and active site, essential components of which are demonstrated by mutagenesis. Pichia acaciae evades self-toxicity via a distinctive intracellular immunity protein, ImmPaT, which binds PaT and blocks nuclease activity. Our results highlight the evolutionary diversity of tRNA restriction and immunity systems.

  11. Small RNA-seq during acute maximal exercise reveal RNAs involved in vascular inflammation and cardiometabolic health: brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ravi; Yeri, Ashish; Das, Avash; Courtright-Lim, Amanda; Ziegler, Olivia; Gervino, Ernest; Ocel, Jeffrey; Quintero-Pinzon, Pablo; Wooster, Luke; Bailey, Cole Shields; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Beaulieu, Lea M; Freedman, Jane E; Ghiran, Ionita; Lewis, Gregory D; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall; Das, Saumya

    2017-12-01

    Exercise improves cardiometabolic and vascular function, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Our objective was to demonstrate the diversity of circulating extracellular RNA (ex-RNA) release during acute exercise in humans and its relevance to exercise-mediated benefits on vascular inflammation. We performed plasma small RNA sequencing in 26 individuals undergoing symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise, with replication of our top candidate miRNA in a separate cohort of 59 individuals undergoing bicycle ergometry. We found changes in miRNAs and other ex-RNAs with exercise (e.g., Y RNAs and tRNAs) implicated in cardiovascular disease. In two independent cohorts of acute maximal exercise, we identified miR-181b-5p as a key ex-RNA increased in plasma after exercise, with validation in a separate cohort. In a mouse model of acute exercise, we found significant increases in miR-181b-5p expression in skeletal muscle after acute exercise in young (but not older) mice. Previous work revealed a strong role for miR-181b-5p in vascular inflammation in obesity, insulin resistance, sepsis, and cardiovascular disease. We conclude that circulating ex-RNAs were altered in plasma after acute exercise target pathways involved in inflammation, including miR-181b-5p. Further investigation into the role of known (e.g., miRNA) and novel (e.g., Y RNAs) RNAs is warranted to uncover new mechanisms of vascular inflammation on exercise-mediated benefits on health. NEW & NOTEWORTHY How exercise provides benefits to cardiometabolic health remains unclear. We performed RNA sequencing in plasma during exercise to identify the landscape of small noncoding circulating transcriptional changes. Our results suggest a link between inflammation and exercise, providing rich data on circulating noncoding RNAs for future studies by the scientific community. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Species specificity of human RPA in simian virus 40 DNA replication lies in T-antigen-dependent RNA primer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Park, J S; Ishiai, M; Hurwitz, J; Lee, S H

    2000-12-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a three-subunit protein complex with multiple functions in DNA replication. Previous study indicated that human RPA (h-RPA) could not be replaced by Schizosaccharomyces pombe RPA (sp-RPA) in simian virus 40 (SV40) replication, suggesting that h-RPA may have a specific function in SV40 DNA replication. To understand the specificity of h-RPA in replication, we prepared heterologous RPAs containing the mixture of human and S.pombe subunits and compared these preparations for various enzymatic activities. Heterologous RPAs containing two human subunits supported SV40 DNA replication, whereas those containing only one human subunit poorly supported DNA replication, suggesting that RPA complex requires at least two human subunits to support its function in SV40 DNA replication. All heterologous RPAs effectively supported single-stranded (ss)DNA binding activity and an elongation of a primed DNA template catalyzed by DNA polymerase (pol) alpha and delta. A strong correlation between SV40 DNA replication activity and large tumor antigen (T-ag)-dependent RNA primer synthesis by pol alpha-primase complex was observed among the heterologous RPAs. Furthermore, T-ag showed a strong interaction with 70- and 34-kDa subunits from human, but poorly interacted with their S.pombe counterparts, indicating that the specificity of h-RPA is due to its role in RNA primer synthesis. In the SV40 replication reaction, the addition of increasing amounts of sp-RPA in the presence of fixed amount of h-RPA significantly reduced overall DNA synthesis, but increased the size of lagging strand, supporting a specific role for h-RPA in RNA primer synthesis. Together, these results suggest that the specificity of h-RPA in SV40 replication lies in T-ag-dependent RNA primer synthesis.

  13. Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression Induced by Butyrate in Colorectal Cancer: Involvement of MicroRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S Bishop

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer mortality globally. Development of CRC is closely associated with lifestyle, and diet may modulate risk. A Western-style diet is characterised by a high intake of red meat but low consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole cereals. Such a diet is associated with CRC risks. It has been demonstrated that butyrate, produced by the fermentation of dietary plant fibre, can alter both genetic and epigenetic expressions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are commonly present in both normal and tumour cells. Aberrant miRNA expression is associated with CRC initiation, progression, and metastasis. In addition, butyrate can modulate cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and miRNA expression in CRC. In this review, the effects of butyrate on modulating miRNA expression in CRC will be discussed. Furthermore, evidence on the effect of butyrate on CRC risk through reducing oncogenic miRNA expression will be presented.

  14. Cap- and initiator tRNA-dependent initiation of TYMV polyprotein synthesis by ribosomes: evaluation of the Trojan horse model for TYMV RNA translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Daiki; Dreher, Theo W

    2007-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RNA directs the translation of two overlapping open reading frames. Competing models have been previously published to explain ribosome access to the downstream polyprotein cistron. The Trojan horse model, based on cell-free experiments, proposes noncanonical cap-independent initiation in which the 3'-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) functionally replaces initiator tRNA, and the valine bound to the TLS becomes cis-incorporated into viral protein. The initiation coupling model, based on in vivo expression and ribosome toe-printing studies, proposes a variation of canonical leaky scanning. Here, we have re-examined the wheat germ extract experiments that led to the Trojan horse model, incorporating a variety of controls. We report that (1) translation in vitro from the polyprotein AUG of TYMV RNA is unchanged after removal of the 3' TLS but is stimulated by the presence of a 5'-cap; (2) the presence of free cap analog or edeine (which interferes with initiation at the ribosomal P site and its tRNA(i) (Met) involvement) inhibits translation from the polyprotein AUG; (3) the toe-prints of immediately post-initiation ribosomes on TYMV RNA are similar with and without an intact TLS; and (4) significant deacylation of valyl-TYMV RNA in wheat germ extract can complicate the detection of cis-incorporation. These results favor the initiation coupling model.

  15. RNA-Seq analysis and annotation of a draft blueberry genome assembly identifies candidate genes involved in fruit ripening, biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and stage-specific alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas; Estrada, April D; Blakley, Ivory; Reid, Rob; Patel, Ketan; Meyer, Mason D; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Brown, Allan F; Lila, Mary Ann; Loraine, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    Blueberries are a rich source of antioxidants and other beneficial compounds that can protect against disease. Identifying genes involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds could enable the breeding of berry varieties with enhanced health benefits. Toward this end, we annotated a previously sequenced draft blueberry genome assembly using RNA-Seq data from five stages of berry fruit development and ripening. Genome-guided assembly of RNA-Seq read alignments combined with output from ab initio gene finders produced around 60,000 gene models, of which more than half were similar to proteins from other species, typically the grape Vitis vinifera. Comparison of gene models to the PlantCyc database of metabolic pathway enzymes identified candidate genes involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, including bixin, an apocarotenoid with potential disease-fighting properties, and defense-related cyanogenic glycosides, which are toxic. Cyanogenic glycoside (CG) biosynthetic enzymes were highly expressed in green fruit, and a candidate CG detoxification enzyme was up-regulated during fruit ripening. Candidate genes for ethylene, anthocyanin, and 400 other biosynthetic pathways were also identified. Homology-based annotation using Blast2GO and InterPro assigned Gene Ontology terms to around 15,000 genes. RNA-Seq expression profiling showed that blueberry growth, maturation, and ripening involve dynamic gene expression changes, including coordinated up- and down-regulation of metabolic pathway enzymes and transcriptional regulators. Analysis of RNA-seq alignments identified developmentally regulated alternative splicing, promoter use, and 3' end formation. We report genome sequence, gene models, functional annotations, and RNA-Seq expression data that provide an important new resource enabling high throughput studies in blueberry.

  16. Circular RNA alterations are involved in resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup-J-induced tumor formation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinheng; Yan, Yiming; Lei, Xiaoya; Li, Aijun; Zhang, Huanmin; Dai, Zhenkai; Li, Xinjian; Chen, Weiguo; Lin, Wencheng; Chen, Feng; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei

    2017-05-23

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup (ALV-J) is an oncogenic neoplasm-inducing retrovirus that causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent studies have demonstrated circular RNAs (circRNAs) are implicated in pathogenic processes; however, no research has indicated circRNAs are involved in resistance to disease. In this study, over 1800 circRNAs were detected by circRNA sequencing of liver tissues from ALV-J-resistant (n = 3) and ALV-J-susceptible chickens (n = 3). 32 differentially expressed circRNAs were selected for analyzing including 12 upregulated in ALV-J-resistant chickens and 20 upregulated in ALV-J-susceptible chickens, besides, the top five microRNAs (miRNAs) for 12 upregulated circRNAs in ALV-J-resistant chickens were analyzed. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses were performed for miRNA target genes, the predicted genes were mainly involved in immune pathways. This study provides the first evidence that circRNA alterations are involved in resistance to ALV-J-induced tumor formation. We propose circRNAs may help to mediate tumor induction and development in chickens.

  17. Involvement of the transcriptional factor E2F1 in the regulation of the rRNA promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayrault, Olivier; Andrique, Laetitia; Seite, Paule

    2006-01-01

    p16 INK4a -pRB-E2F and ARF-MDM2-p53 are two major tumor suppressor networks involved in cell proliferation control. The nucleolar ARF protein binds to MDM2 to activate the growth suppressive functions of p53, but can also exert its tumor suppressor activity independently of p53, through mechanisms involving other regulators: in that manner, p14 ARF has been shown to inhibit the transcriptional activity of E2F1 in vitro, suggesting that the two pathways intersect with one another. More recently, ARF has been shown to inhibit ribosomal RNA processing, and to specifically interact with the rRNA promoter, suggesting a role in the regulation of both maturation and transcription processes. We show here that E2F1 can bind the rRNA promoter and modulate its activity through the interaction with two E2F1-binding sequences we have identified. The regulation of ribosome biogenesis appears as a major p53-independent process, which involves both ARF and E2F1 to control cell proliferation

  18. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of bioactive molecules; Quantification of tricyclic pyrones from pharmacokinetic studies; Nanodelivery of siRNA; and Synthesis of viral protease inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasekara, Sahani Manjitha

    Four research projects were carried out and they are described in this dissertation. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3?) plays a pivotal and central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and protein kinase C (PKC) controls the function of other proteins via phosphorylation and involves in tumor promotion. In pursuit of identifying novel GSK3beta and/or PKC inhibitors, substituted quinoline molecules were designed and synthesized based on the structure-activity-relationship studies. Synthesized molecules were evaluated for their neural protective activities and selected molecules were further tested for inhibitory activities on GSK3beta and PKC enzymes. Among these compounds, compound 2 was found to have better GSK3beta enzyme inhibitory and MC65 cell protection activities at low nanomolar concentrations and poor PKC inhibitory activity whereas compound 3 shows better PKC inhibitory activity. This demonstrates the potential for uses of quinoline scaffold in designing novel compounds for AD and cancer. Pharmacokinetics and distribution profiles of two anti-Alzheimer molecules, CP2 and TP70, discovered in our laboratory were assessed using HPLC/MS. Plasma samples of mice and rats fed with TP70 via different routes over various times were analyzed to quantify the amounts of TP70 in plasma of both species. Distribution profiles of TP70 in various tissues of mice were studied and results show that TP70 penetrated the blood brain barrier and accumulated in the brain tissue in significant amounts. Similarly, the amount of CP2 in plasma of mice was analyzed. The HPLC analysis revealed that both compounds have good PK profiles and bioavailability, which would make them suitable candidates for further in vivo efficacy studies. Nanodelivery of specific dsRNA for suppressing the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) genes was studied using modified chitosan or modified polyvinylpyrrolidinone (PVP) as nanocarriers. Computational

  19. UGGT1 enhances enterovirus 71 pathogenicity by promoting viral RNA synthesis and viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Nien Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive-strand RNA virus infections can induce the stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR in host cells. This study found that enterovirus A71 (EVA71 utilizes host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1, a key endoplasmic reticulum protein (ER involved in UPR, to enhance viral replication and virulence. EVA71 forms replication complexes (RCs on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication, but the components and processes involved in the assembly and function of RCs are not fully understood. Using EVA71 as a model, this study found that host UGGT1 and viral 3D polymerase co-precipitate along with other factors on membranous replication complexes to enhance viral replication. Increased UGGT1 levels elevated viral growth rates, while viral pathogenicity was observed to be lower in heterozygous knockout mice (Uggt1 +/- mice. These findings provide important insight on the role of UPR and host UGGT1 in regulating RNA virus replication and pathogenicity.

  20. RNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2013 ... RÉSUMÉ. Objectif : La présente étude est conduite dans les régions de Maradi et Zinder situées dans le Centre-Sud du. Niger où la pratique de la régénération naturelle assistée des ligneux dans les champs (RNA) a permis de reverdir plus de 5 millions d'hectares. Le but de ce travail est d'évaluer ...

  1. Nonenzymatic synthesis of RNA and DNA oligomers on hexitol nucleic acid templates: the importance of the A structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, I. A.; Politis, P. K.; Van Aerschot, A.; Busson, R.; Herdewijn, P.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Dolan, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Hexitol nucleic acid (HNA) is an analogue of DNA containing the standard nucleoside bases, but with a phosphorylated 1,5-anhydrohexitol backbone. HNA oligomers form duplexes having the nucleic acid A structure with complementary DNA or RNA oligomers. The HNA decacytidylate oligomer is an efficient template for the oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoroimidazolides of guanosine or deoxyguanosine. Comparison of the oligomerization efficiencies on HNA, RNA, and DNA decacytidylate templates under various conditions suggests strongly that only nucleic acid double helices with the A structure support efficient template-directed synthesis when 5'-phosphoroimidazolides of nucleosides are used as substrates.

  2. Synthesis of [18F]-5-fluorouridine (F-18-5-FUR) as a probe for measuring RNA synthesis and tumor growth rates in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiue, C.Y.; Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the rapid synthesis of high specific activity of [ 18 F]-5-fluorouridine is described. The 20 Ne(d,α) 18 F nuclear reaction is used to produce high specific activity, anhydrous [ 18 F]-F 2 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory 60'' cyclotron. Fluorination of 2',3',5'-tri-0-acetyluridine with [ 18 F]-F 2 in glacial acetic acid at room temperature followed by hydrolysis with sodium methoxide in methanol gives [ 18 F]-5-fluorouridine with a radiochemical yield of 5 to 7% in a synthesis time of 90 minutes from EOB. The compound is required for the study of RNA synthesis and tumor growth rates in vivo

  3. Structural studies of RNA-protein complexes: A hybrid approach involving hydrodynamics, scattering, and computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Trushar R; Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Astha; Koul, Amit; McKenna, Sean A; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2017-04-15

    The diverse functional cellular roles played by ribonucleic acids (RNA) have emphasized the need to develop rapid and accurate methodologies to elucidate the relationship between the structure and function of RNA. Structural biology tools such as X-ray crystallography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance are highly useful methods to obtain atomic-level resolution models of macromolecules. However, both methods have sample, time, and technical limitations that prevent their application to a number of macromolecules of interest. An emerging alternative to high-resolution structural techniques is to employ a hybrid approach that combines low-resolution shape information about macromolecules and their complexes from experimental hydrodynamic (e.g. analytical ultracentrifugation) and solution scattering measurements (e.g., solution X-ray or neutron scattering), with computational modeling to obtain atomic-level models. While promising, scattering methods rely on aggregation-free, monodispersed preparations and therefore the careful development of a quality control pipeline is fundamental to an unbiased and reliable structural determination. This review article describes hydrodynamic techniques that are highly valuable for homogeneity studies, scattering techniques useful to study the low-resolution shape, and strategies for computational modeling to obtain high-resolution 3D structural models of RNAs, proteins, and RNA-protein complexes. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. First Experimental Assessment of Protein Intrinsic Disorder Involvement in an RNA Virus Natural Adaptive Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon, Justine; Barra, Amandine; Walter, Jocelyne; Millot, Pauline; Hébrard, Eugénie; Moury, Benoît; Michon, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) in proteins is defined as a lack of stable structure in physiological conditions. Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are highly abundant in some RNA virus proteomes. Low topological constraints exerted on IDRs are expected to buffer the effect of numerous deleterious mutations and could be related to the remarkable adaptive potential of RNA viruses to overcome resistance of their host. To experimentally test this hypothesis in a natural pathosystem, a set of four variants of Potato virus Y (PVY; Potyvirus genus) containing various ID degrees in the Viral genome-linked (VPg) protein, a key determinant of potyvirus adaptation, was designed. To estimate the ID contribution to the VPg-based PVY adaptation, the adaptive ability of the four PVY variants was monitored in the pepper host (Capsicum annuum) carrying a recessive resistance gene. Intriguingly, the two mutants with the highest ID content displayed a significantly higher ability to restore infection in the resistant host, whereas the less intrinsically disordered mutant was unable to restore infection. The role of ID on virus adaptation may be due either to a larger exploration of evolutionary pathways or the minimization of fitness penalty caused by resistance-breaking mutations. This pioneering study strongly suggests the positive impact of ID in an RNA virus adaptive capacity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. Involvement of hGLD-2 in cytoplasmic polyadenylation of human p53 mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Norrild, Bodil

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation is a post-transcriptional mechanism regulating mRNA stability and translation. The human p53 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) contains two regions similar to cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) just upstream of the poly(A) hexanucleotide. Evaluation of the p53 CPE......-like elements was performed by luciferase reporter assays, qPCR, and poly(A) assays. Herein, we report the down regulation of a luciferase reporter fused to the p53 3'-UTR, when human CPE-binding protein 1 (hCPEB1) is overexpressed. This inhibition is partially rescued when hCPEB1fused to hGLD-2 [a human...... cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase] is overexpressed instead. The stability of a luciferase mRNA containing the p53 3'-UTR downstream, is decreased when hCPEB1 is overexpressed as seen by qPCR. Expression of hGLD-2 restores the mRNA stability. This is due to elongation of the poly(A) tail as seen by a PCR...

  6. Small RNA profiling for identification of miRNAs involved in regulation of saponins biosynthesis in Chlorophytum borivilianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajal, Monika; Singh, Kashmir

    2017-12-28

    MicroRNAs act as molecular regulator of cell signaling, plant growth and development, and regulate various primary and secondary plant metabolic processes. In the present study, deep sequencing of small RNAs was carried out to identify known and novel miRNAs from pharmaceutically important plant, Chlorophytum borivilianum. Total 442 known miRNAs and 5 novel miRNAs were identified from young leaf small RNA library. Experimental validation with stem loop RT-PCR confirmed the in silico identification. Based on transcriptome data of root and leaf of C. borivilianum, Oryza sativa, and Arabidopsis thaliana target gene prediction was done using psRNAtarget and mirRanda. BLAST2GO helped in localization of predicted targets and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia for Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis concluded that miR9662, miR894, miR172, and miR166 might be involved in regulating saponin biosynthetic pathway. The correlation between miRNA and its target gene was further validated by RT-qPCR analysis. This study provides first elaborated glimpse of miRNA pool of C. borivilianum, which can help to understand the miRNA dependent regulation of saponin biosynthesis and to design further metabolic engineering experiment to enhance their contents in the plant.

  7. Short ROSE-like RNA thermometers control IbpA synthesis in Pseudomonas species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie S Krajewski

    Full Text Available The bacterial small heat shock protein IbpA protects client proteins from aggregation. Due to redundancy in the cellular chaperone network, deletion of the ibpA gene often leads to only a mild or no phenotypic defect. In this study, we show that a Pseudomonas putida ibpA deletion mutant has a severe growth defect under heat stress conditions and reduced survival during recovery revealing a critical role of IbpA in heat tolerance. Transcription of the ibpA gene depends on the alternative heat shock sigma factor σ(32. Production of IbpA protein only at heat shock temperatures suggested additional translational control. We conducted a comprehensive structural and functional analysis of the 5' untranslated regions of the ibpA genes from P. putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both contain a ROSE-type RNA thermometer that is substantially shorter and simpler than previously reported ROSE elements. Comprised of two hairpin structures only, they inhibit translation at low temperature and permit translation initiation after a temperature upshift. Both elements regulate reporter gene expression in Escherichia coli and ribosome binding in vitro in a temperature-dependent manner. Structure probing revealed local melting of the second hairpin whereas the first hairpin remained unaffected. High sequence and structure conservation of pseudomonal ibpA untranslated regions and their ability to confer thermoregulation in vivo suggest that short ROSE-like thermometers are commonly used to control IbpA synthesis in Pseudomonas species.

  8. Short ROSE-Like RNA Thermometers Control IbpA Synthesis in Pseudomonas Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Stefanie S.; Nagel, Miriam; Narberhaus, Franz

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial small heat shock protein IbpA protects client proteins from aggregation. Due to redundancy in the cellular chaperone network, deletion of the ibpA gene often leads to only a mild or no phenotypic defect. In this study, we show that a Pseudomonas putida ibpA deletion mutant has a severe growth defect under heat stress conditions and reduced survival during recovery revealing a critical role of IbpA in heat tolerance. Transcription of the ibpA gene depends on the alternative heat shock sigma factor σ32. Production of IbpA protein only at heat shock temperatures suggested additional translational control. We conducted a comprehensive structural and functional analysis of the 5′ untranslated regions of the ibpA genes from P. putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both contain a ROSE-type RNA thermometer that is substantially shorter and simpler than previously reported ROSE elements. Comprised of two hairpin structures only, they inhibit translation at low temperature and permit translation initiation after a temperature upshift. Both elements regulate reporter gene expression in Escherichia coli and ribosome binding in vitro in a temperature-dependent manner. Structure probing revealed local melting of the second hairpin whereas the first hairpin remained unaffected. High sequence and structure conservation of pseudomonal ibpA untranslated regions and their ability to confer thermoregulation in vivo suggest that short ROSE-like thermometers are commonly used to control IbpA synthesis in Pseudomonas species. PMID:23741480

  9. Involvement of DNA polymerase δ in DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts at late times after ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresler, S.L.; Gowans, B.J.; Robinson-Hill, R.M.; Hunting, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    DNA repair synthesis following UV irradiation of confluent human fibroblasts has a biphasic time course with an early phase of rapid nucleotide incorporation and a late phase of much slower nucleotide incorporation. The biphasic nature of this curve suggests that two distinct DNA repair systems may be operative. Previous studies have specifically implicated DNA polymerase δ as the enzyme involved in DNA repair synthesis occurring immediately after UV damage. In this paper, the authors describe studies of DNA polymerase involvement in DNA repair synthesis in confluent human fibroblasts at late times after UV irradiation. Late UV-induced DNA repair synthesis in both intact and permeable cells was found to be inhibited by aphidicolin, indicating the involvement of one of the aphidicolin-sensitive DNA polymerases, α or δ. In permeable cells, the process was further analyzed by using the nucleotide analogue (butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate, which inhibits DNA polymerase α several hundred times more strongly than it inhibits DNA polymerase δ. The (butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate inhibition curve for late UV-induced repair synthesis was very similar to that for polymerase δ. It appears that repair synthesis at late time after UV irradiation, like repair synthesis at early times, is mediated by DNA polymerase δ

  10. RNA-Seq analysis of rice roots reveals the involvement of post-transcriptional regulation in response to cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqing eZheng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Widely-spread cadmium (Cd pollution in the soil threatens both crop production and human health. How plants deal with the excess Cd are largely unknown. To evaluate the molecular mechanism by which plants respond to Cd stress, rice seedlings were treated with two concentrations of Cd and subjected to deep RNA sequencing. Comprehensive RNA-Seq analysis of rice roots under two gradients of Cd treatment revealed 1,169 Cd toxicity-responsive genes. These genes were involved in the reactive oxygen species scavenging system, stress response, cell wall formation, ion transport, and signal transduction. Nine out of 93 predicted long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs were detected as Cd-responsive lncRNAs due to their high correlation with the Cd stress response. In addition, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS events under different Cd concentrations. 476 differential alternatively spliced genes with 542 aberrant splicing events were identified. GO analysis indicated that these genes were highly enriched in oxidation reduction and cellular response to chemical stimulus. Real-time qRT-PCR validation analysis strengthened the reliability of our RNA-Seq results. The results suggest that post-transcriptional AS regulation may also be involved in plant responses to high Cd stress.

  11. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  12. Secondary siRNAs result from unprimed RNA synthesis and form a distinct class.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijen, L.M.T.; Steiner, F.A.; Thijssen, K.L.; Plasterk, R.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, an effective RNA interference (RNAi) response requires the production of secondary short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by RNA-directed RNA polymerases (RdRPs). We cloned secondary siRNAs from transgenic C. elegans lines expressing a single 22-nucleotide primary siRNA. Several

  13. Proteomic analysis of ACTN4-interacting proteins reveals it's a putative involvement in mRNA metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khotin, Mikhail; Turoverova, Lidia; Aksenova, Vasilisa; Barlev, Nikolai; Borutinskaite, Veronika Viktorija; Vener, Alexander; Bajenova, Olga; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Pinaev, George P.; Tentler, Dmitri

    2010-01-01

    Alpha-actinin 4 (ACTN4) is an actin-binding protein. In the cytoplasm, ACTN4 participates in structural organisation of the cytoskeleton via cross-linking of actin filaments. Nuclear localisation of ACTN4 has also been reported, but no clear role in the nucleus has been established. In this report, we describe the identification of proteins associated with ACTN4 in the nucleus. A combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) and MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry revealed a large number of ACTN4-bound proteins that are involved in various aspects of mRNA processing and transport. The association of ACTN4 with different ribonucleoproteins suggests that a major function of nuclear ACTN4 may be regulation of mRNA metabolism and signaling.

  14. Long noncoding RNA-MEG3 is involved in diabetes mellitus-related microvascular dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Gui-Zhen [Department of Health, Linyi People' s Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong (China); Tian, Wei [Department of Nursing, Linyi Oncosurgical Hospital, Shandong (China); Fu, Hai-Tao [Department of Ophthalmology, Linyi People' s Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong (China); Li, Chao-Peng, E-mail: lcpcn@163.com [Eye Institute of Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Ban, E-mail: liuban@126.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-26

    Microvascular dysfunction is an important characteristic of diabetic retinopathy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in diverse biological processes. In this study, we investigated the role of lncRNA-MEG3 in diabetes-related microvascular dysfunction. We show that MEG3 expression level is significantly down-regulated in the retinas of STZ-induced diabetic mice, and endothelial cells upon high glucose and oxidative stress. MEG3 knockdown aggravates retinal vessel dysfunction in vivo, as shown by serious capillary degeneration, and increased microvascular leakage and inflammation. MEG3 knockdown also regulates retinal endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro. The role of MEG3 in endothelial cell function is mainly mediated by the activation of PI3k/Akt signaling. MEG3 up-regulation may serve as a therapeutic strategy for treating diabetes-related microvascular complications. - Highlights: • LncRNA-MEG3 level is down-regulated upon diabetic stress. • MEG3 knockdown aggravates retinal vascular dysfunction in vivo. • MEG3 regulates retinal endothelial cell function in vitro. • MEG3 regulates endothelial cell function through PI3k/Akt signaling.

  15. Mitochondrial 12S rRNA A827G mutation is involved in the genetic susceptibility to aminoglycoside ototoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Guangqian; Chen Zhibin; Wei Qinjun; Tian Huiqin; Li Xiaolu; Zhou Aidong; Bu Xingkuan; Cao Xin

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed the clinical and molecular characterization of a Chinese family with aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing impairment. Clinical evaluations revealed that only those family members who had a history of exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics subsequently developed hearing loss, suggesting mitochondrial genome involvement. Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and tRNA Ser(UCN) genes led to the identification of a homoplasmic A827G mutation in all maternal relatives, a mutation that was identified previously in a few sporadic patients and in another Chinese family with non-syndromic deafness. The pathogenicity of the A827G mutation is strongly supported by the occurrence of the same mutation in two independent families and several genetically unrelated subjects. The A827G mutation is located at the A-site of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene which is highly conserved in mammals. It is possible that the alteration of the tertiary or quaternary structure of this rRNA by the A827G mutation may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, thereby playing a role in the pathogenesis of hearing loss and aminoglycoside hypersensitivity. However, incomplete penetrance of hearing impairment indicates that the A827G mutation itself is not sufficient to produce clinical phenotype but requires the involvement of modifier factors for the phenotypic expression. Indeed, aminoglycosides may contribute to the phenotypic manifestation of the A827G mutation in this family. In contrast with the congenital or early-onset hearing impairment in another Chinese family carrying the A827G mutation, three patients in this pedigree developed hearing loss only after use of aminoglycosides. This discrepancy likely reflects the difference of genetic backgrounds, either mitochondrial haplotypes or nuclear modifier genes, between two families

  16. Ribosomal synthesis of polylysine from individual lysyl-tRNA/sup Lys/ in the absence of a template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusupova, G.Z.; Remme, Y.L.; Belitsina, N.B.; Spirin, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Earlier studies showed that ribosomes of Escherichia coli, in the absence of a template, can synthesize oligolysine, using lysyl-tRNA as a substrate. The authors present results on the use of preparations of individual lysyl-tRNA/sup Lys/ and phenylalanyl-tRNA/sup Phe/ in a system of templateless peptide synthesis. For these studies, the authors used ribosomes of E. coli MRE 600, washed four times with 1 M NH 4 Cl with 10 MM MgCl 2 . The purified ribosomes were stored at -70 0 C in standard buffer, containing 20 mM Tris-HCl, 100 mM NH 4 Cl, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 0.1 mM ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), and 10% glycerin, pH/sub 37 0 C/7.6. A preparation of [ 14 C]lysyl-tRNA/sup Lys/ was produced by affinity chromatography on immobilized factor EF-T/sub u/ from Thermus thermophilus HB8. The elongation factor EF-T/sub u/ from T. thermophilus and immobilized on BrCN-activated Sepharose 4B. The initial preparation of total tRNA of E. coli, enzymatically acylated by [ 14 C]lysine (348 Ci/mole, Amersham), was produced as described earlier. The degree of aminoacylation was 52-59 pmoles [ 14 C]lysine per unit of A 260 of tRNA

  17. PCA3 noncoding RNA is involved in the control of prostate-cancer cell survival and modulates androgen receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Luciana Bueno; Gimba, Etel Rodrigues Pereira; Palumbo, Antonio; Mello, Kivvi Duarte de; Sternberg, Cinthya; Caetano, Mauricio S; Oliveira, Felipe Leite de; Neves, Adriana Freitas; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    PCA3 is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that is highly expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, but its functional role is unknown. To investigate its putative function in PCa biology, we used gene expression knockdown by small interference RNA, and also analyzed its involvement in androgen receptor (AR) signaling. LNCaP and PC3 cells were used as in vitro models for these functional assays, and three different siRNA sequences were specifically designed to target PCA3 exon 4. Transfected cells were analyzed by real-time qRT-PCR and cell growth, viability, and apoptosis assays. Associations between PCA3 and the androgen-receptor (AR) signaling pathway were investigated by treating LNCaP cells with 100 nM dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and with its antagonist (flutamide), and analyzing the expression of some AR-modulated genes (TMPRSS2, NDRG1, GREB1, PSA, AR, FGF8, CdK1, CdK2 and PMEPA1). PCA3 expression levels were investigated in different cell compartments by using differential centrifugation and qRT-PCR. LNCaP siPCA3-transfected cells significantly inhibited cell growth and viability, and increased the proportion of cells in the sub G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and the percentage of pyknotic nuclei, compared to those transfected with scramble siRNA (siSCr)-transfected cells. DHT-treated LNCaP cells induced a significant upregulation of PCA3 expression, which was reversed by flutamide. In siPCA3/LNCaP-transfected cells, the expression of AR target genes was downregulated compared to siSCr-transfected cells. The siPCA3 transfection also counteracted DHT stimulatory effects on the AR signaling cascade, significantly downregulating expression of the AR target gene. Analysis of PCA3 expression in different cell compartments provided evidence that the main functional roles of PCA3 occur in the nuclei and microsomal cell fractions. Our findings suggest that the ncRNA PCA3 is involved in the control of PCa cell survival, in part through modulating AR signaling, which may raise new

  18. Monitor RNA synthesis in live cell nuclei by using two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao; Lin, Danying; Wang, Yan; Qi, Jing; Yan, Wei; Qu, Junle

    2015-03-01

    Probing of local molecular environment in cells is of significant value in creating a fundamental understanding of cellular processes and molecular profiles of diseases, as well as studying drug cell interactions. In order to investigate the dynamically changing in subcellular environment during RNA synthesis, we applied two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) method to monitor the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused nuclear protein ASF/SF2. The fluorescence lifetime of fluorophore is known to be in inverse correlation with a local refractive index, and thus fluorescence lifetimes of GFP fusions provide real-time information of the molecular environment of ASF/SF2- GFP. The FLIM results showed continuous and significant fluctuations of fluorescence lifetimes of the fluorescent protein fusions in live HeLa cells under physiological conditions. The fluctuations of fluorescence lifetime values indicated the variations of activities of RNA polymerases. Moreover, treatment with pharmacological drugs inhibiting RNA polymerase activities led to irreversible decreases of fluorescence lifetime values. In summary, our study of FLIM imaging of GFP fusion proteins has provided a sensitive and real-time method to investigate RNA synthesis in live cell nuclei.

  19. RNA Sequencing Analysis of Intracranial Aneurysm Walls Reveals Involvement of Lysosomes and Immunoglobulins in Rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinloog, Rachel; Verweij, Bon H.; van der Vlies, Pieter; Deelen, Patrick; Swertz, Morris A.; de Muynck, Louis; Van Damme, Philip; Giuliani, Fabrizio; Regli, Luca; van der Zwan, Albert; van der Sprenkel, Jan W. Berkelbach; Han, K. Sen; Gosselaar, Peter; van Rijen, Peter C.; Korkmaz, Emine; Post, Jan A.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Veldink, Jan H.; Ruigrok, Ynte M.

    Background and Purpose-Analyzing genes involved in development and rupture of intracranial aneurysms can enhance knowledge about the pathogenesis of aneurysms, and identify new treatment strategies. We compared gene expression between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms and control intracranial

  20. Peptide Bond Synthesis by a Mechanism Involving an Enzymatic Reaction and a Subsequent Chemical Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Zhuang, Ye; Ge, Yin; Kumano, Takuto; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2016-01-22

    We recently reported that an amide bond is unexpectedly formed by an acyl-CoA synthetase (which catalyzes the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond) when a suitable acid and l-cysteine are used as substrates. DltA, which is homologous to the adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase, belongs to the same superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes, which includes many kinds of enzymes, including the acyl-CoA synthetases. Here, we demonstrate that DltA synthesizes not only N-(d-alanyl)-l-cysteine (a dipeptide) but also various oligopeptides. We propose that this enzyme catalyzes peptide synthesis by the following unprecedented mechanism: (i) the formation of S-acyl-l-cysteine as an intermediate via its "enzymatic activity" and (ii) subsequent "chemical" S → N acyl transfer in the intermediate, resulting in peptide formation. Step ii is identical to the corresponding reaction in native chemical ligation, a method of chemical peptide synthesis, whereas step i is not. To the best of our knowledge, our discovery of this peptide synthesis mechanism involving an enzymatic reaction and a subsequent chemical reaction is the first such one to be reported. This new process yields peptides without the use of a thioesterified fragment, which is required in native chemical ligation. Together with these findings, the same mechanism-dependent formation of N-acyl compounds by other members of the above-mentioned superfamily demonstrated that all members most likely form peptide/amide compounds by using this novel mechanism. Each member enzyme acts on a specific substrate; thus, not only the corresponding peptides but also new types of amide compounds can be formed. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Nucleolar sub-compartments in motion during rRNA synthesis inhibition: Contraction of nucleolar condensed chromatin and gathering of fibrillar centers are concomitant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchelidze, Pavel; Benassarou, Aassif; Kaplan, Hervé; O'Donohue, Marie-Françoise; Lucas, Laurent; Terryn, Christine; Rusishvili, Levan; Mosidze, Giorgi; Lalun, Nathalie; Ploton, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The nucleolus produces the large polycistronic transcript (47S precursor) containing the 18S, 5.8S and 28S rRNA sequences and hosts most of the nuclear steps of pre-rRNA processing. Among numerous components it contains condensed chromatin and active rRNA genes which adopt a more accessible conformation. For this reason, it is a paradigm of chromosome territory organization. Active rRNA genes are clustered within several fibrillar centers (FCs), in which they are maintained in an open configuration by Upstream Binding Factor (UBF) molecules. Here, we used the reproducible reorganization of nucleolar components induced by the inhibition of rRNA synthesis by Actinomycin D (AMD) to address the steps of the spatiotemporal reorganization of FCs and nucleolar condensed chromatin. To reach that goal, we used two complementary approaches: i) time-lapse confocal imaging of cells expressing one or several GFP-tagged proteins (fibrillarin, UBF, histone H2B) and ii) ultrastructural identification of nucleolar components involved in the reorganization. Data obtained by time lapse confocal microscopy were analyzed through detailed 3D imaging. This allowed us to demonstrate that AMD treatment induces no fusion and no change in the relative position of the different nucleoli contained in one nucleus. In contrast, for each nucleolus, we observed step by step gathering and fusion of both FCs and nucleolar condensed chromatin. To analyze the reorganization of FCs and condensed chromatin at a higher resolution, we performed correlative light and electron microscopy electron microscopy (CLEM) imaging of the same cells. We demonstrated that threads of intranucleolar condensed chromatin are localized in a complex 3D network of vacuoles. Upon AMD treatment, these structures coalesce before migrating toward the perinucleolar condensed chromatin, to which they finally fuse. During their migration, FCs, which are all linked to ICC, are pulled by the latter to gather as caps disposed at the

  2. In Vitro Optimization of Enzymes Involved in Precorrin-2 Synthesis Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Huan; Dong, Huina; Cai, Tao; Zheng, Ping; Li, Haixing; Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Jibin

    2016-01-01

    In order to maximize the production of biologically-derived chemicals, kinetic analyses are first necessary for predicting the role of enzyme components and coordinating enzymes in the same reaction system. Precorrin-2 is a key precursor of cobalamin and siroheme synthesis. In this study, we sought to optimize the concentrations of several molecules involved in precorrin-2 synthesis in vitro: porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS), and S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent urogen III methyltransferase (SUMT). Response surface methodology was applied to develop a kinetic model designed to maximize precorrin-2 productivity. The optimal molar ratios of PBGS, PBGD, UROS, and SUMT were found to be approximately 1:7:7:34, respectively. Maximum precorrin-2 production was achieved at 0.1966 ± 0.0028 μM/min, agreeing with the kinetic model's predicted value of 0.1950 μM/min. The optimal concentrations of the cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) and substrate 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were also determined to be 200 μM and 5 mM, respectively, in a tandem-enzyme assay. By optimizing the relative concentrations of these enzymes, we were able to minimize the effects of substrate inhibition and feedback inhibition by S-adenosylhomocysteine on SUMT and thereby increase the production of precorrin-2 by approximately five-fold. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of kinetic modeling via response surface methodology for maximizing the production of biologically-derived chemicals.

  3. Brain RNA synthesis, long-term potentiation and depression at the perforant path-granule cell synapse in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadile, A G; Neugebauer, A; Gessi, T; Marchionni, S; Giuditta, A

    1995-01-01

    The effects of long-term changes in synaptic efficacy at the perforant path-granule cell synapse on the de-novo synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) were investigated in hippocampal and cortical areas in anaesthetized Guinea pig preparations. Two experiments were run with stimulating and recording microelectrodes aimed at the perforant bundle and dentate gyrus hilus on both sides. In Experiment 1, a low-frequency (LFS; 0.02 Hz, 3 h) or high-frequency stimulation (HFS; 400 Hz, 250 ms) was delivered to the left perforant bundle with the contralateral side as control. In Experiment 2, animals received LFS or HFS trains with implanted nonstimulated animals used as controls. The latency and amplitude of the field postsynaptic potentials (FPSP) and population spike (POPS) were monitored under baseline conditions and following stimulation over a 3 h period. In addition, two HFS groups were tested with few (HFS-F: every 15 min) or several test stimuli (HFS-S: every 3 min). In both experiments RNA synthesis was determined by measuring the amount of 3H-5,6-uridine incorporated into the RNA 3 h after bilateral intraventricular injection. In Exp. 1 the LFS group showed a higher synthesis of RNA than both HFS groups. The rate of RNA synthesis did not differ between the stimulated and nonstimulated side. In Exp. 2 the HFS groups showed a decreased RNA synthesis. In the HFS-F group, it pertained to the dorsal dentate area, CA1, subiculum, cingulate and dorsal cortices bilaterally, and to the ventral dentate area and CA3 on the nonstimulated side. In contrast, the HFS-S group showed decreased RNA synthesis at the dorsal dentate area and dorsal cortex on the stimulated side, and at CA1, subiculum, and cingulate cortex bilaterally. The decrease was stronger in the HFS-F than in the HFS-S group. Moreover, the subgroup with a low (0-60%) and that with a high (61-240%) level of long-term potentiation of FPSP revealed lower and higher RNA synthesis, respectively, both in homosynaptic

  4. A member of the Tlr family is involved in dsRNA innate immune response in Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Roberta; Chiaramonte, Marco; Matranga, Valeria; Arizza, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    The innate immune response involves proteins such as the membrane receptors of the Toll-like family (TLRs), which trigger different intracellular signalling pathways that are dependent on specific stimulating molecules. In sea urchins, TLR proteins are encoded by members of a large multigenic family composed of 60-250 genes in different species. Here, we report a newly identified mRNA sequence encoding a TLR protein (referred to as Pl-Tlr) isolated from Paracentrotus lividus immune cells. The partial protein sequence contained the conserved Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain, the transmembrane domain and part of the leucine repeats. Phylogenetic analysis of the Pl-Tlr protein was accomplished by comparing its sequence with those of TLRs from different classes of vertebrates and invertebrates. This analysis was suggestive of an evolutionary path that most likely represented the course of millions of years, starting from simple organisms and extending to humans. Challenge of the sea urchin immune system with poly-I:C, a chemical compound that mimics dsRNA, caused time-dependent Pl-Tlr mRNA up-regulation that was detected by QPCR. In contrast, bacterial LPS injury did not affect Pl-Tlr transcription. The study of the Tlr genes in the sea urchin model system may provide new perspectives on the role of Tlrs in the invertebrate immune response and clues concerning their evolution in a changing world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of four genes involved in suppression of the pre-mRNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Switching gene swi6, involved in repression of silent mating type loci in fission yeast, encodes a homology of chromatin associated proteins from Drosophila and mammals. Gene. 143, 139–143. Moreno S., Klar A. and Nurse P. 1991 Molecular genetic analysis of fission yeast: guide to yeast genetics and molecu- lar biology.

  6. MicroRNA-122 down-regulation is involved in phenobarbital-mediated activation of the constitutive androstane receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Shizu

    Full Text Available Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR is a nuclear receptor that regulates the transcription of target genes, including CYP2B and 3A. Phenobarbital activates CAR, at least in part, in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK-dependent manner. However, the precise mechanisms underlying phenobarbital activation of AMPK are still unclear. In the present study, it was demonstrated that phenobarbital administration to mice decreases hepatic miR-122, a liver-enriched microRNA involved in both hepatic differentiation and function. The time-course change in the phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 was inversely correlated with AMPK activation. Phenobarbital decreased primary miR-122 to approximately 25% of the basal level as early as 1 h and suppressed transactivity of mir-122 promoter in HuH-7 cells, suggesting that the down-regulation occurred at the transcriptional level. AMPK activation by metformin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribonucleoside had no evident effect on miR-122 levels. An inhibitory RNA specific for miR-122 increased activated AMPK and CAR-mediated trancactivation of the phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module in HepG2 cells. Conversely, the reporter activity induced by the ectopic CAR was almost completely suppressed by co-transfection with the miR-122 mimic RNA. GFP-tagged CAR was expressed in the cytoplasm in addition to the nucleus in the majority of HuH-7 cells in which miR-122 was highly expressed. Co-transfection of the mimic or the inhibitor RNA for miR-122 further increased or decreased, respectively, the number of cells that expressed GFP-CAR in the cytoplasm. Taken together, these results suggest that phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 is an early and important event in the AMPK-dependent CAR activation and transactivation of its target genes.

  7. MicroRNA-122 down-regulation is involved in phenobarbital-mediated activation of the constitutive androstane receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Ryota; Shindo, Sawako; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the transcription of target genes, including CYP2B and 3A. Phenobarbital activates CAR, at least in part, in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. However, the precise mechanisms underlying phenobarbital activation of AMPK are still unclear. In the present study, it was demonstrated that phenobarbital administration to mice decreases hepatic miR-122, a liver-enriched microRNA involved in both hepatic differentiation and function. The time-course change in the phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 was inversely correlated with AMPK activation. Phenobarbital decreased primary miR-122 to approximately 25% of the basal level as early as 1 h and suppressed transactivity of mir-122 promoter in HuH-7 cells, suggesting that the down-regulation occurred at the transcriptional level. AMPK activation by metformin or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribonucleoside had no evident effect on miR-122 levels. An inhibitory RNA specific for miR-122 increased activated AMPK and CAR-mediated trancactivation of the phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module in HepG2 cells. Conversely, the reporter activity induced by the ectopic CAR was almost completely suppressed by co-transfection with the miR-122 mimic RNA. GFP-tagged CAR was expressed in the cytoplasm in addition to the nucleus in the majority of HuH-7 cells in which miR-122 was highly expressed. Co-transfection of the mimic or the inhibitor RNA for miR-122 further increased or decreased, respectively, the number of cells that expressed GFP-CAR in the cytoplasm. Taken together, these results suggest that phenobarbital-mediated down-regulation of miR-122 is an early and important event in the AMPK-dependent CAR activation and transactivation of its target genes.

  8. RNA synthesis by cells or protoplasts isolated from broadbean leaves infected with broadbean mottle virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, J.

    1973-01-01

    Cells or protoplasts isolated from leaves of Vicia faba infected with broadbean mottle virus incorporated specifically uridine- 14 C into genomic viral RNA, and into an RNA which corresponds to the rapidly-labelled unencapsulated RNA synthesized by leaf tissue of infected broadbean [fr

  9. Failure of RNA synthesis to recover after UV irradiation: an early defect in cells from individuals with Cockayne's syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayne, L.V.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    Previous work has shown that in cells from the ultraviolet-sensitive genetic disorder, Cockayne's syndrome, DNA synthesis fails to recover after ultraviolet irradiation, despite the fact that these cells have no detectable defect in either excision or daughter-strand repair pathways. We now show that Cockayne cells, as well as cells from a number of patients with xeroderma pigmentosum, are sensitive to the lethal effects of UV irradiation in stationary phase under conditions in which no DNA is synthesized after irradiation. Furthermore, in normal and defective human fibroblasts, RNA synthesis is depressed after UV irradiation. In normal (dividing) cells, RNA synthesis recovers very rapidly, but this recovery does not occur in Cockayne cells, and it is reduced or absent in xeroderma pigmentosum cells from different complementation groups. Qualitatively, similar results are obtained with cells in stationary phase. The recovery of RNA synthesis in the various defective cell strains is not correlated with the overall extent of excision repair, but there is some correlation between recovery of RNA synthesis and cell survival after ultraviolet irradiation. These results implicate recovery of RNA synthesis as an important early response to ultraviolet irradiation

  10. [Identifying transcription factors involved in Arabidopsis adventious shoot regeneration by RNA-Seq technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchun; Chen, Zhao; Fan, Juan; He, Miaomiao; Han, Yuanhuai; Yang, Zhirong

    2015-04-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the major regulations in plant adventious shoot regeneration, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. In our study, the RNA-seq technology based on the IlluminaHiSeq 2000 sequencing platform was used to identify differentially expressed transcription factor (TF) encoding genes during callus formation stage and adventious shoot regeneration stage between wild type and adventious shoot formation defective mutant be1-3 and during the transition from dedifferentiation to redifferentiation stage in wildtype WS. Results show that 155 TFs were differentially expressed between be1-3 mutant and wild type during callus formation, of which 97 genes were up-regulated, and 58 genes were down-regulated; and that 68 genes were differentially expressed during redifferentiation stage, with 40 genes up-regulated and 28 genes down-regulated; whereas at the transition stage from dedifferentiation to redifferention in WS wild type explants, a total of 231 differentially expressed TF genes were identified, including 160 up-regualted genes and 71 down-regulated genes. Among these TF genes, the adventious shoot related transcription factor 1 (ART1) gene encoding a MYB-related (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog) TF, was up-regulated 3 217 folds, and was the highest up-regulated gene during be1-3 callus formation. Over expression of the ART1 gene caused defects in callus formation and shoot regeneration and inhibited seedling growth, indicating that the ART1 gene is a negative regulator of callus formation and shoot regeneration. This work not only enriches our knowledge about the transcriptional regulation mechanism of adventious shoot regeneration, but also provides valuable information on candidate TF genes associated with adventious shoot regeneration for future research.

  11. tmRNA decreases the bactericidal activity of aminoglycosides and the susceptibility to inhibitors of cell wall synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luidalepp, Hannes; Hallier, Marc; Felden, Brice; Tenson, Tanel

    2005-04-01

    Trans-translation is a process that recycles ribosomes stalled on problematic mRNAs. tmRNA, coded by the DeltassrA gene, is a major component of trans-translation. Bacteria lacking tmRNA are more sensitive to several inhibitors of protein synthesis when compared to a wild type strain. We measured bacterial growth of the DeltassrA and wild type strains in Escherichia coli in the presence of 14 antibiotics including some that do not target protein synthesis. Both the optical density of the bacterial cultures and the number of viable cells were monitored. For the ribosome-targeted antibiotics, sensitization was observed on erythromycin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, puromycin and streptomycin. Minor or no effects were observed with clindamycin, tetracycline and spectinomycin. Surprisingly, the DeltassrA strain is more sensitive than wild type to inhibitors of cell wall synthesis: fosfomycin and ampicillin. No growth difference was observed on drugs with other target sites: ofloxacin, norfloxacin, rifampicin and trimethoprim. Sensitization to antibiotics having target sites other than the ribosome suggests that trans-translation could influence antibiotic-induced stress responses. In trans-translation-deficient bacteria, cell death is significantly enhanced by the two aminoglycosides that induce translational misreading, streptomycin and kanamycin.

  12. Photolithographic Synthesis of High-Density DNA and RNA Arrays on Flexible, Transparent, and Easily Subdivided Plastic Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Matthew T; Carter, Matthew C D; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Wolfer, Jamison; Codner, Eric; Sussman, Michael R; Lynn, David M; Smith, Lloyd M

    2015-11-17

    The photolithographic fabrication of high-density DNA and RNA arrays on flexible and transparent plastic substrates is reported. The substrates are thin sheets of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) coated with cross-linked polymer multilayers that present hydroxyl groups suitable for conventional phosphoramidite-based nucleic acid synthesis. We demonstrate that by modifying array synthesis procedures to accommodate the physical and chemical properties of these materials, it is possible to synthesize plastic-backed oligonucleotide arrays with feature sizes as small as 14 μm × 14 μm and feature densities in excess of 125 000/cm(2), similar to specifications attainable using rigid substrates such as glass or glassy carbon. These plastic-backed arrays are tolerant to a wide range of hybridization temperatures, and improved synthetic procedures are described that enable the fabrication of arrays with sequences up to 50 nucleotides in length. These arrays hybridize with S/N ratios comparable to those fabricated on otherwise identical arrays prepared on glass or glassy carbon. This platform supports the enzymatic synthesis of RNA arrays and proof-of-concept experiments are presented showing that the arrays can be readily subdivided into smaller arrays (or "millichips") using common laboratory-scale laser cutting tools. These results expand the utility of oligonucleotide arrays fabricated on plastic substrates and open the door to new applications for these important bioanalytical tools.

  13. RNA Localization in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) localization is a mechanism by which polarized cells can regulate protein synthesis to specific subcellular compartments in a spatial and temporal manner, and plays a pivotal role in multiple physiological processes from embryonic development to cell differentiation......, regulation of the blood brain barrier and glial scar tissue formation. Despite the involvement in various CNS functions only a limited number of studies have addressed mRNA localization in astrocytes. This PhD project was initially focused on developing and implementing methods that could be used to asses mRNA...... localization in astrocyte protrusions, and following look into the subcellular localization pattern of specific mRNA species of both primary astrocytes isolated from cortical hemispheres of newborn mice, and the mouse astrocyte cell line, C8S. The Boyden chamber cell fractionation assay was optimized, in a way...

  14. Involvement of Arabidopsis thaliana ribosomal protein S27 in mRNA degradation triggered by genotoxic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revenkova, E.; Masson, J.; Koncz, C.; Afsar, K.; Jakovleva, L.; Paszkowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    A recessive Arabidopsis mutant with elevated sensitivity to DNA damaging treatments was identified in one out of 800 families generated by T-DNA insertion mutagenesis. The T-DNA generated a chromosomal deletion of 1287 bp in the promoter of one of three S27 ribosomal protein genes (ARS27A) preventing its expression. Seedlings of ars27A developed normally under standard growth conditions, suggesting wildtype proficiency of translation. However, growth was strongly inhibited in media supplemented with methyl methane sulfate (MMS) at a concentration not affecting the wild type. This inhibition was accompanied by the formation of tumor–like structures instead of auxiliary roots. Wild-type seedlings treated with increasing concentrations of MMS up to a lethal dose never displayed such a trait, neither was this phenotype observed in ars27A plants in the absence of MMS or under other stress conditions. Thus, the hypersensitivity and tumorous growth are mutant-specific responses to the genotoxic MMS treatment. Another important feature of the mutant is its inability to perform rapid degradation of transcripts after UV treatment, as seen in wild-type plants. Therefore, we propose that the ARS27A protein is dispensable for protein synthesis under standard conditions but is required for the elimination of possibly damaged mRNA after UV irradiation. (author)

  15. Mechanism of plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles - A review on biomolecules involved, characterisation and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshkumar, S; Bharath, L V

    2017-08-01

    Engineering a reliable and eco-accommodating methodology for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is a crucial step in the field of nanotechnology. Plant-mediated synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been developed as a substitute to defeat the limitations of conventional synthesis approaches such as physical and chemical methods. Biomolecules, such as proteins, amino acids, enzymes, flavonoids, and terpenoids from several plant extracts have been used as a stabilising and reducing agents for the synthesis of AgNPs. Regardless of an extensive range of biomolecules assistance in the synthesis procedure, researchers are facing a significant challenge to synthesise stable and geometrically controlled AgNPs. In the past decade, several efforts were made to develop Plant-mediated synthesis methods to produce stable, cost effective and eco-friendly AgNPs. More than hundred different plants extract sources for synthesising AgNPs were described in the last decade by several researchers. Most of the reviews were focused on various plant sources for synthesis, various characterization techniques for characteristic analysis, and antibacterial activity against bacterial. There are many reviews are available for the plant-mediated synthesis of AgNPs as well as antibacterial activity of AgNPs but this is the first review article mainly focused on biomolecules of plants and its various parts and operating conditions involved in the synthesis. Apart from, this review includes the characterisation of AgNPs and antibacterial activity of such nanoparticles with size, shape and method used for this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. LncRNA-Six1 Encodes a Micropeptide to Activate Six1 in Cis and Is Involved in Cell Proliferation and Muscle Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Nie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs play important roles in epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle development. In our previous RNA-seq study (accession number GSE58755, we found that lncRNA-Six1 is an lncRNA that is differentially expressed between White Recessive Rock (WRR and Xinghua (XH chicken. In this study, we have further demonstrated that lncRNA-Six1 is located 432 bp upstream of the gene encoding the protein Six homeobox 1 (Six1. A dual-luciferase reporter assay identified that lncRNA-Six1 overlaps the Six1 proximal promoter. In lncRNA-Six1, a micropeptide of about 7.26 kDa was found to play an important role in the lncRNA-Six1 in cis activity. Overexpression of lncRNA-Six1 promoted the mRNA and protein expression level of the Six1 gene, while knockdown of lncRNA-Six1 inhibited Six1 expression. Moreover, tissue expression profiles showed that both the lncRNA-Six1 and the Six1 mRNA were highly expressed in chicken breast tissue. LncRNA-Six1 overexpression promoted cell proliferation and induced cell division. Conversely, its loss of function inhibited cell proliferation and reduced cell viability. Similar effects were observed after overexpression or knockdown of the Six1 gene. In addition, overexpression or knockdown of Six1 promoted or inhibited, respectively, the expression levels of muscle-growth-related genes, such as MYOG, MYHC, MYOD, IGF1R, and INSR. Taken together, these data demonstrate that lncRNA-Six1 carries out cis-acting regulation of the protein-encoding Six1 gene, and encodes a micropeptide to activate Six1 gene, thus promoting cell proliferation and being involved in muscle growth.

  17. Transforming growth factor β1 enhances heme oxygenase 1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts by inhibiting microRNA 519b synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jui Kuo

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is manifested by synovial inflammation and cartilage destruction that is directly linked to synovitis, joint swelling and pain. In the light of the role of synovium in the pathogenesis and the symptoms of OA, synovium-targeted therapy is a promising strategy to mitigate the symptoms and progression of OA. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, a secreted homodimeric protein, possesses unique and potent anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory properties in many cell types. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 is an inducible anti-inflammatory and stress responsive enzyme that has been proven to prevent injuries caused by many diseases. Despite the similar anti-inflammatory profile and their involvement in the pathogenesis of arthritic diseases, no studies have as yet explored the possibility of any association between the expression of TGF-β1 and HO-1.TGF-β1-induced HO-1 expression was examined by HO-1 promoter assay, qPCR, and Western blotting. The siRNAs and enzyme inhibitors were utilized to determine the intermediate involved in the signal transduction pathway. We showed that TGF-β1 stimulated the synthesis of HO-1 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which can be mitigated by blockade of the phospholipase (PLCγ/protein kinase C alpha (PKCα pathway. We also showed that the expression of miRNA-519b, which blocks HO-1 transcription, is inhibited by TGF-β1, and the suppression of miRNA 519b could be reversed via blockade of the PLCγ/PKCα pathway.TGF-β1 stimulated the expression of HO-1 via activating the PLCγ/PKCα pathway and suppressing the downstream expression of miRNA-519b. These results may shed light on the pathogenesis and treatment of OA.

  18. Brassica RNA binding protein ERD4 is involved in conferring salt, drought tolerance and enhancing plant growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Archana N; Tamirisa, Srinath; Rao, K V; Kumar, Vinay; Suprasanna, P

    2016-03-01

    'Early responsive to dehydration' (ERD) genes are a group of plant genes having functional roles in plant stress tolerance and development. In this study, we have isolated and characterized a Brassica juncea 'ERD' gene (BjERD4) which encodes a novel RNA binding protein. The expression pattern of ERD4 analyzed under different stress conditions showed that transcript levels were increased with dehydration, sodium chloride, low temperature, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The BjERD4 was found to be localized in the chloroplasts as revealed by Confocal microscopy studies. To study the function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated and analyzed for various morphological and physiological parameters. The overexpressing transgenic lines showed significant increase in number of leaves with more leaf area and larger siliques as compared to wild type plants, whereas RNAi:ERD4 transgenic lines showed reduced leaf number, leaf area, dwarf phenotype and delayed seed germination. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BjERD4 gene also exhibited enhanced tolerance to dehydration and salt stresses, while the knockdown lines were susceptible as compared to wild type plants under similar stress conditions. It was observed that BjERD4 protein could bind RNA as evidenced by the gel-shift assay. The overall results of transcript analysis, RNA gel-shift assay, and transgenic expression, for the first time, show that the BjERD4 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance besides offering new clues about the possible roles of BjERD4 in plant growth and development.

  19. Template role of double-stranded RNA in tombusvirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Nikolay; Pogany, Judit; Nagy, Peter D

    2014-05-01

    Replication of plus-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses of plants is a relatively simple process that involves complementary minus-strand RNA [(-)RNA] synthesis and subsequent (+)RNA synthesis. However, the actual replicative form of the (-)RNA template in the case of plant (+)RNA viruses is not yet established unambiguously. In this paper, using a cell-free replication assay supporting a full cycle of viral replication, we show that replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) leads to the formation of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Using RNase digestion, DNAzyme, and RNA mobility shift assays, we demonstrate the absence of naked (-)RNA templates during replication. Time course experiments showed the rapid appearance of dsRNA earlier than the bulk production of new (+)RNAs, suggesting an active role for dsRNA in replication. Radioactive nucleotide chase experiments showed that the mechanism of TBSV replication involves the use of dsRNA templates in strand displacement reactions, where the newly synthesized plus strand replaces the original (+)RNA in the dsRNA. We propose that the use of dsRNA as a template for (+)RNA synthesis by the viral replicase is facilitated by recruited host DEAD box helicases and the viral p33 RNA chaperone protein. Altogether, this replication strategy allows TBSV to separate minus- and plus-strand syntheses in time and regulate asymmetrical RNA replication that leads to abundant (+)RNA progeny. Positive-stranded RNA viruses of plants use their RNAs as the templates for replication. First, the minus strand is synthesized by the viral replicase complex (VRC), which then serves as a template for new plus-strand synthesis. To characterize the nature of the (-)RNA in the membrane-bound viral replicase, we performed complete RNA replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in yeast cell-free extracts and in plant extracts. The experiments demonstrated that the TBSV (-)RNA is present as a double-stranded RNA that serves as the template for TBSV

  20. Solid-Phase Synthesis and Hybrization Behavior of Partially 2′/3′-O-Acetylated RNA Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of partially 2′/3′-O-acetylated oligoribonucleotides has been accomplished by using a 2′/3′-O-acetyl orthogonal protecting group strategy in which non-nucleophilic strong-base (DBU) labile nucleobase protecting groups and a UV-light cleavable linker were used. Strong-base stability of the photolabile linker allowed on-column nucleobase and phosphate deprotection, followed by a mild cleavage of the acetylated oligonucleotides from the solid support with UV light. Two 17nt oligonucleotides, which were synthesized possessing one specific internal 2′- or 3′-acetyl group, were used as synthetic standards in a recent report from this laboratory detailing the prebiotically plausible ligation of RNA oligonucleotides. In order to further investigate the effect of 2′/3′-O-acetyl groups on the stability of RNA duplex structure, two complementary bis-acetylated RNA oligonucleotides were also expediently obtained with the newly developed protocols. UV melting curves of 2′-O-acetylated RNA duplexes showed a consistent ∼3.1 °C decrease in Tm per 2′-O-acetyl group. PMID:24666354

  1. Solid-phase synthesis and hybrization behavior of partially 2'/3'-O-acetylated RNA oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Duffy, Colm D; Chan, Christopher K W; Sutherland, John D

    2014-04-18

    Synthesis of partially 2'/3'-O-acetylated oligoribonucleotides has been accomplished by using a 2'/3'-O-acetyl orthogonal protecting group strategy in which non-nucleophilic strong-base (DBU) labile nucleobase protecting groups and a UV-light cleavable linker were used. Strong-base stability of the photolabile linker allowed on-column nucleobase and phosphate deprotection, followed by a mild cleavage of the acetylated oligonucleotides from the solid support with UV light. Two 17nt oligonucleotides, which were synthesized possessing one specific internal 2'- or 3'-acetyl group, were used as synthetic standards in a recent report from this laboratory detailing the prebiotically plausible ligation of RNA oligonucleotides. In order to further investigate the effect of 2'/3'-O-acetyl groups on the stability of RNA duplex structure, two complementary bis-acetylated RNA oligonucleotides were also expediently obtained with the newly developed protocols. UV melting curves of 2'-O-acetylated RNA duplexes showed a consistent ~3.1 °C decrease in Tm per 2'-O-acetyl group.

  2. Hamowanie syntezy chlorofilu i RNA w izolowanych liścieniach ogórka przez N-hydroksymocznik [Inhibition of chlorophyll and RNA synthesis by N-hydroxyurea in detached cucumber cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rennert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available N-hydroxyurea (HU at the concentration of 5 x 10-4 M decreased the content of chlorophyll in detached cucumber cotyledons; at this concentration it has no inhibitory effect on growth. Benzylaminopurine, gibberelic acid and KCl partially reversed the inhibitory effect of HU on chlorophyll synthesis. HU stimulated yellowing of barley first leaf sections. The compound had little effect on leucine-14C incorporation to protein, and markedly inhibited uracil-14C incorporation in to RNA of the greening cucumber cotyledons. It is suggested that the inhibition of RNA and chlorophyll synthesis in HU-treated cucumber cotyledons follows the HU-dependent inhibition of DNA replication.

  3. Candida albicans Hom6 is a homoserine dehydrogenase involved in protein synthesis and cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Wen Tsai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Candida albicans is a common fungal pathogen in humans. In healthy individuals, C. albicans represents a harmless commensal organism, but infections can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients. The complete genome sequence of C. albicans is extremely useful for identifying genes that may be potential drug targets and important for pathogenic virulence. However, there are still many uncharacterized genes in the Candida genome database. In this study, we investigated C. albicans Hom6, the functions of which remain undetermined experimentally. Methods: HOM6-deleted and HOM6-reintegrated mutant strains were constructed. The mutant strains were compared with wild-type in their growth in various media and enzyme activity. Effects of HOM6 deletion on translation were further investigated by cell susceptibility to hygromycin B or cycloheximide, as well as by polysome profiling, and cell adhesion to polystyrene was also determined. Results: C. albicans Hom6 exhibits homoserine dehydrogenase activity and is involved in the biosynthesis of methionine and threonine. HOM6 deletion caused translational arrest in cells grown under amino acid starvation conditions. Additionally, Hom6 protein was found in both cytosolic and cell-wall fractions of cultured cells. Furthermore, HOM6 deletion reduced C. albicans cell adhesion to polystyrene, which is a common plastic used in many medical devices. Conclusion: Given that there is no Hom6 homologue in mammalian cells, our results provided an important foundation for future development of new antifungal drugs. Keywords: Candida albicans, cell adhesion, Hom6, homoserine dehydrogenase, protein synthesis

  4. Involvement of type I and type II mechanisms on the photoinactivation of non-enveloped DNA and RNA bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Liliana; Faustino, Maria A F; Tomé, João P C; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide

    2013-03-05

    Microbial photodynamic inactivation (PDI), involving the use of a photosensitizer (PS), light and molecular oxygen, with the subsequent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), has been considered a promising and effective technology for viral inactivation. Although singlet oxygen is generally accepted as the main damaging species in PDI, ROS like free radicals may also be involved in the process, inducing damages to proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and other molecular structures. In this study, the relative importance of each mechanism (type I and type II) on the photoinactivation of non-enveloped DNA (T4-like phage) and RNA (Qβ phage) viruses was evaluated. For this purpose, two cationic porphyrins (Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF and Tetra-Py(+)-Me) and four different ROS scavengers were used. The scavenging effect of sodium azide and L-histidine (singlet oxygen quenchers) and of D-mannitol and L-cysteine (free radical scavengers) was assessed by exposure of both phages (T4-like and Qβ) to each cationic porphyrin (5.0μM for T4-like phage and 0.5μM for Qβ phage) and white light (40Wm(-2)) in the presence of different concentrations of the scavengers (5, 10, 50 and 100mM). Sodium azide and L-histidine gave the best protection, reducing the phototoxic effect of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF on T4-like phage respectively by 80% and 72% and in the presence of Tetra-Py(+)-Me by 90% and 78%. Free radical scavengers D-mannitol and L-cysteine did not significantly reduce the rate of T4-like phage photoinactivation (around 20% protection, for both PS). The sodium azide protection on Qβ phage photoinactivation, in the presence of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF, was lower (39%) when compared with T4-like phage. D-mannitol did not exert on Qβ phage any protective effect after 90min of irradiation. The effect of the simultaneous presence of singlet oxygen and free radicals scavengers at 100mM confirmed that singlet oxygen (type II mechanism) is clearly the main ROS involved in T4-like and Qβ phages

  5. A structured RNA motif is involved in correct placement of the tRNA(3)(Lys) primer onto the human immunodeficiency virus genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, N.; Klaver, B.; Berkhout, B.

    2000-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription is primed by the cellular tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule that binds with its 3'-terminal 18 nucleotides to the fully complementary primer-binding site (PBS) on the viral RNA genome. Besides this complementarity, annealing of the primer may be

  6. Autoradiographic studies of the synthesis of RNA and protein as a function of cell volume in streptococcus faecium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, M.L.; Koch, A.L.; Dicker, D.T.; Daneo-Moore, L.

    1986-09-01

    Mid-exponential-phase cultures were either labeled continuously with tritiated leucine and uracil or pulse-labeled with tritiated leucine. The amount of leucine and uracil incorporated into protein or RNA per cell was determined by grain counts of autoradiographs of cells seen in electron micrographs; the volume of each cell was determined by three-dimensional reconstruction. The average number of autoradiographic grains around cells continuously labeled with uracil and leucine increased linearly with cell volume. In contrast, while the average grain count around cells pulse-labeled with leucine increased in a near-linear fashion over most of the volume classes, less than the expected number of grains were seen around cells in large- and small-size classes. The distribution of grains around cells from both the continuously and pulsed-labeled populations could be fit at the 5% confidence level with a Poisson distribution modified to take into consideration the volume distribution of each population of cells analyzed. These findings suggested that large changes in the density of RNA and protein do not occur in most cells as they increase in size; however, there may be decreases in the rate of protein synthesis in some large and small cells. The decrease in the rate of protein synthesis appears consistent with the hypothesis that new sites of envelope growth must be introduced into cells that are close to the division event to restore rapid growth.

  7. Contrasting Storage Protein Synthesis and Messenger RNA Accumulation during Development of Zygotic and Somatic Embryos of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko, J E; Pramanik, S K; Bewley, J D

    1992-05-01

    During development on hormone-free media, somatic embryos pass through distinct morphological stages that superficially resemble those of zygotic embryo development (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledonary stages). Despite these similarities, they differ from zygotic embryos in the extent of cotyledonary development and the patterns of synthesis and quantitative expression of seed-specific storage proteins (7S, 11S, and 2S proteins). Alfin (7S) is the first storage protein synthesized in developing zygotic embryos (stage IV). The 11S (medicagin) and 2S (Low Molecular Weight, LMW) storage proteins are not detectable until the following stage of development (stage V), although all three are present before the completion of embryo enlargement. Likewise, the 7S storage protein is the first to be synthesized in developing somatic embryos (day 5). Medicagin is evident by day 7 and the LMW protein by day 10. In contrast to zygotic embryos, alfin remains the predominant storage protein in somatic embryos throughout development. Not only are the relative amounts of medicagin and the LMW protein reduced in somatic embryos but the LMW protein is accumulated much later than the other proteins. Quantification of the storage protein mRNAs (7S, 11S, and 2S) by northern blot analysis confirms that there are substantial differences in the patterns of message accumulation in zygotic and somatic embryos of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In zygotic embryos, the 7S, 11S, and 2S storage protein mRNAs are abundant during maturation and, in particular, during the stages of maximum protein synthesis (alfin, stages VI and VII; medicagin, stage VII; LMW, stage VII). In somatic embryos, the predominance of the 7S storage protein is correlated with increased accumulation of its mRNA, whereas the limited synthesis of the 11S storage protein is associated with much lower steady-state levels of its message. The mRNA for the LMW protein is present already by 3 days after transfer to hormone-free media

  8. miR2Pathway: A Novel Analytical Method to Discover MicroRNA-mediated Dysregulated Pathways Involved in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoxing; Dinu, Valentin

    2018-03-22

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs involved in the regulation of gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have shown miRNAs as key regulators of a variety of biological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metabolism, etc. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs influence individual gene expression level, but rewired miRNA-mRNA connections can influence the activity of biological pathways. Here, we define rewired miRNA-mRNA connections as the differential (rewiring) effects on the activity of biological pathways between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and normal phenotypes. Our work presented here uses a PageRank-based approach to measure the degree of miRNA-mediated dysregulation of biological pathways between HCC and normal samples based on rewired miRNA-mRNA connections. In our study, we regard the degree of miRNA-mediated dysregulation of biological pathways as disease risk of biological pathways. Therefore, we propose a new method, miR2Pathway, to measure and rank the degree of miRNA-mediated dysregulation of biological pathways by measuring the total differential influence of miRNAs on the activity of pathways between HCC and normal states. miR2Pathway proposed here systematically shows the first evidence for a mechanism of biological pathways being dysregulated by rewired miRNA-mRNA connections, and provides new insight into exploring mechanisms behind HCC. Thus, miR2Pathway is a novel method to identify and rank miRNA-dysregulated pathways in HCC. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Involvement of SPI-2-encoded SpiC in flagellum synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Asami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SpiC encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome is required for survival within macrophages and systemic infection in mice. Additionally, SpiC contributes to Salmonella-induced activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages by affecting the expression of FliC, a component of flagella filaments. Here, we show the contribution of SpiC in flagellum synthesis. Results Quantitative RT-PCR shows that the expression levels of the class 3 fliD and motA genes that encode for the flagella cap and motor torque proteins, respectively, were lower for a spiC mutant strain than for the wild-type Salmonella. Further, this mutant had lower expression levels of the class 2 genes including the fliA gene encoding the flagellar-specific alternative sigma factor. We also found differences in flagella assembly between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Many flagella filaments were observed on the bacterial surface of the wild-type strain, whereas the spiC mutant had only few flagella. The absence of spiC led to reduced expression of the FlhD protein, which functions as the master regulator in flagella gene expression, although no significant difference at the transcription level of the flhDC operon was observed between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Conclusion The data show that SpiC is involved in flagella assembly by affecting the post-transcription expression of flhDC.

  10. Effects of ACTH on RNA synthesis and migration in the adrenal cortex cells of the young rat, as shown by radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, M.C.; Vitor, A.B.; Magalhaes, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of ACTH on the RNA synthesis in adrenal zona fasciculata cells of the young rat were studied by light and electron microscope radioautography. Two units of ACTH were administered sc to animals and immediately followed by an iv injection of [ 3 ]uridine. ACTH-injected and control rats, which received the isotope alone, were sacrificed at various time intervals. Labelling over extranucleolar areas was higher in the ACTH-treated animals at 20 min, then becoming lower than in the controls at 60 min and 24 h. Nucleolar radioactivity, however, was consistently decreased by ACTH at all experimental times. Apart from these changes in the rate of synthesis, the over-all curves of labelling were similar to those in the control animals with a striking peak at 1 h. The short-term increase in extranucleolar RNA synthesis observed after ACTH injection was considered to be consistent with the hypothesis that an enhanced extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA takes place early in stimulated animals and is associated with the synthesis of steroidogenic proteins. On the other hand, the relatively decreased uridine uptake of the label by the nucleolus in ACTH-treated animals, suggests an inhibition of nucleolar transcription with diminished pre-rRNA formation in treated animals. (author)

  11. Effects of ACTH on RNA synthesis and migration in the adrenal cortex cells of the young rat, as shown by radioautography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, M.C.; Vitor, A.B.; Magalhaes, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of ACTH on the RNA synthesis in adrenal zona fasciculata cells of the young rat were studied by light and electron microscope radioautography. Two units of ACTH were administered sc to animals and immediately followed by an iv injection of (/sup 3/)uridine. ACTH-injected and control rats, which received the isotope alone, were sacrificed at various time intervals. Labelling over extranucleolar areas was higher in the ACTH-treated animals at 20 min, then becoming lower than in the controls at 60 min and 24 h. Nucleolar radioactivity, however, was consistently decreased by ACTH at all experimental times. Apart from these changes in the rate of synthesis, the over-all curves of labelling were similar to those in the control animals with a striking peak at 1 h. The short-term increase in extranucleolar RNA synthesis observed after ACTH injection was considered to be consistent with the hypothesis that an enhanced extranucleolar synthesis of mRNA takes place early in stimulated animals and is associated with the synthesis of steroidogenic proteins. On the other hand, the relatively decreased uridine uptake of the label by the nucleolus in ACTH-treated animals, suggests an inhibition of nucleolar transcription with diminished pre-rRNA formation in treated animals.

  12. Small RNA Profiles of the Rice PTGMS Line Wuxiang S Reveal miRNAs Involved in Fertility Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyuan; Hu, Jihong; Qian, Qian; Chen, Hao; Jin, Jing; Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in the regulation of plant growth and developmental processes. In this study, RNA-seq was used to examine the expression profiles of miRNAs in a novel, photo-thermosensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) rice line, Wuxiang S (WXS), during fertility transition. A total of 497 known miRNAs and 273 novel miRNAs were identified. In a differential expression analysis, 26 miRNAs exhibited significant differential expression between WXS (Sterile, S) and WXS (Fertile, F). Some of these miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Among these miRNAs, 11 showed decreased expression levels, and 15 showed increased expression levels in WXS (S) compared to WXS (F). Some of these miRNAs, such as osa-miR156a-j, osa-miR164d, and osa-miR528, were shown to be negatively correlated with their targets. These targets have previously been reported to be related to pollen development and male sterility, suggesting that these miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of pollen development in the rice PTGMS line WXS. Furthermore, miRNA-mediated editing events were also observed. In this study, a possible model for the control of signaling pathways during the process of fertility transition in the rice PTGMS line WXS by miRNAs was developed. These findings contribute to our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during anther development in PTGMS lines in rice.

  13. Increased mRNA expression of genes involved in pronociceptive inflammatory reactions in bladder tissue of interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yukio; Nomiya, Akira; Tagaya, Mitsuhiro; Oyama, Tatsuya; Takagaki, Kazuchika; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Igawa, Yasuhiko

    2013-11-01

    We assayed mRNA expression of the TRP family of channels and ASIC1 in bladder tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis. Bladder biopsies of 1) nonclassic interstitial cystitis, 2) nonulcerative portions of classic interstitial cystitis, 3) ulcerative portions of classic interstitial cystitis and 4) noncancerous portions of bladder cancer as the control were placed immediately in ice-cold RNAlater® and subjected to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We compared the mRNA expression of TRP channels, ASIC1, NGF, CXCL9 and UPK3A with that of controls, and correlated expression with symptom severity. We analyzed specimens from 17 patients with nonclassic interstitial cystitis, 22 with classic interstitial cystitis and 11 controls. In nonclassic interstitial cystitis samples TRPV2 and NGF showed significantly increased expression. In classic interstitial cystitis samples nonulcerative portions demonstrated a significant increase in the expression of TRPA1, TRPM2 and 8, TRPV1 and 2, ASIC1, NGF and CXCL9, and a significant decrease in UPK3A and TRPV4. Ulcerative portions showed similar changes for TRPM2, TRPV1, 2 and 4, CXCL9 and UPK3A. Increased expression of TRPM2, first noted in interstitial cystitis tissue, was the most pronounced one of the TRP family. All symptom measures correlated with TRPM2 and TRPV2 expression, and partially with that of the other genes. This study showed increased expression of the genes involved in pronociceptive inflammatory reactions in interstitial cystitis, including TRPV1, 2 and 4, ASIC1, NGF and CXCL9, and to our knowledge TRPM2 for the first time. The different expression patterns suggest distinct pathophysiologies for classic and nonclassic interstitial cystitis. The genes and their products are potential candidates for use as biomarkers or novel therapy targets. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical reporters for monitoring RNA synthesis and poly(A) tail dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Markus; Hang, Howard; Conrad, Nicholas K

    2012-05-29

    A versatile "clickable" nucleoside: Metabolic labeling of cells is useful in studying the dynamics of biological molecules. N(6) pA can be utilized by all three mammalian RNA polymerases, as well as poly(A) polymerase. Because of its alkyne modification, RNA labeled with N(6) pA can be visualized and purified by using click chemistry. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of 2'-Fluoro-α-L-RNA-Modified Oligonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard Jensen, Troels; Pasternak, Anna; Stahl Madsen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -α-L-RNA monomer was designed as a monocyclic mimic of the bicyclic α-L-LNA, and molecular modeling showed that this indeed is the case as the 2'-fluoro monomer adopts a C3'-endo/C2'-exo sugar pucker. Molecular modeling of modified duplexes show that the 2'-fluoro-α-L-RNA nucleotides partake in Watson-Crick base...

  16. A Molecular Titration System Coordinates Ribosomal Protein Gene Transcription with Ribosomal RNA Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Benjamin; Knight, Britta; Merwin, Jason; Martin, Victoria; Ottoz, Diana; Gloor, Yvonne; Bruzzone, Maria Jessica; Rudner, Adam; Shore, David

    2016-11-17

    Cell growth potential is determined by the rate of ribosome biogenesis, a complex process that requires massive and coordinated transcriptional output. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ribosome biogenesis is highly regulated at the transcriptional level. Although evidence for a system that coordinates ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and ribosomal protein gene (RPG) transcription has been described, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that an interaction between the RPG transcriptional activator Ifh1 and the rRNA processing factor Utp22 serves to coordinate RPG transcription with that of rRNA. We demonstrate that Ifh1 is rapidly released from RPG promoters by a Utp22-independent mechanism following growth inhibition, but that its long-term dissociation requires Utp22. We present evidence that RNA polymerase I activity inhibits the ability of Utp22 to titrate Ifh1 from RPG promoters and propose that a dynamic Ifh1-Utp22 interaction fine-tunes RPG expression to coordinate RPG and rRNA transcription. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate synthesis and involvement in sulphotransferase reactions in the insect, Spodoptera littoralis.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac, R E; Phua, K K; Rees, H H

    1982-01-01

    1. Synthesis of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate from ATP and 35SO4(-2) was demonstrated by homogenates of gut. Malpighian tubules and fat body of Spodoptera littoralis. 2. The enzyme system was most active in the gut tissue, and was primarily located in the cytosol fraction of the cell. Gut cytosol preparations were used as a source of the 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate generating system for more detailed studies. 3. Maximum synthesis required an incubation mixture containing T...

  18. Effects of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, polyamines, amino acids, and weak bases (amines and ammonia) on development and ribosomal RNA synthesis in Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Koichiro; Aso, Mai; Kondo, Takeshi; Takai, Jun-Ichi; Yoshida, Junki; Mishina, Takamichi; Fuchimukai, Kota; Ogasawara, Tsukasa; Kariya, Taro; Tashiro, Kosuke; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2010-02-01

    We have been studying control mechanisms of gene expression in early embryogenesis in a South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis, especially during the period of midblastula transition (MBT), or the transition from the phase of active cell division (cleavage stage) to the phase of extensive morphogenesis (post-blastular stages). We first found that ribosomal RNA synthesis is initiated shortly after MBT in Xenopus embryos and those weak bases, such as amines and ammonium ion, selectively inhibit the initiation and subsequent activation of rRNA synthesis. We then found that rapidly labeled heterogeneous mRNA-like RNA is synthesized in embryos at pre-MBT stage. We then performed cloning and expression studies of several genes, such as those for activin receptors, follistatin and aldolases, and then reached the studies of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), a key enzyme in polyamine metabolism. Here, we cloned a Xenopus SAMDC cDNA and performed experiments to overexpress the in vitro-synthesized SAMDC mRNA in Xenopus early embryos, and found that the maternally preset program of apoptosis occurs in cleavage stage embryos, which is executed when embryos reach the stage of MBT. In the present article, we first summarize results on SAMDC and the maternal program of apoptosis, and then describe our studies on small-molecular-weight substances like polyamines, amino acids, and amines in Xenopus embryos. Finally, we summarize our studies on weak bases, especially on ammonium ion, as the specific inhibitor of ribosomal RNA synthesis in Xenopus embryonic cells.

  19. Enzymatic synthesis and RNA interference of nucleosides incorporating stable isotopes into a base moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Akihiko; Shiraishi, Mitsuya; Terado, Nanae; Tanabe, Atsuhiro; Fukuda, Kenji

    2015-10-15

    Thymidine phosphorylase was used to catalyze the conversion of thymidine (or methyluridine) and uracil incorporating stable isotopes to deoxyuridine (or uridine) with the uracil base incorporating the stable isotope. These base-exchange reactions proceeded with high conversion rates (75-96%), and the isolated yields were also good (64-87%). The masses of all synthetic compounds incorporating stable isotopes were identical to the theoretical molecular weights via EIMS. (13)C NMR spectra showed spin-spin coupling between (13)C and (15)N in the synthetic compounds, and the signals were split, further proving incorporation of the isotopes into the compounds. The RNA interference effects of this siRNA with uridine incorporating stable isotopes were also investigated. A 25mer siRNA had a strong knockdown effect on the MARCKS protein. The insertion position and number of uridine moieties incorporating stable isotopes introduced into the siRNA had no influence on the silencing of the target protein. This incorporation of stable isotopes into RNA and DNA has the potential to function as a chemically benign tracer in cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. IGS Minisatellites Useful for Race Differentiation in Colletotrichum lentis and a Likely Site of Small RNA Synthesis Affecting Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Durkin

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum lentis is a fungal pathogen of lentil in Canada but rarely reported elsewhere. Two races, Ct0 and Ct1, have been identified using differential lines. Our objective was to develop a PCR-probe differentiating these races. Sequences of the translation elongation factor 1α (tef1α, RNA polymerase II subunit B2 (rpb2, ATP citrate lyase subunit A (acla, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions were monomorphic, while the intergenic spacer (IGS region showed length polymorphisms at two minisatellites of 23 and 39 nucleotides (nt. A PCR-probe (39F/R amplifying the 39 nt minisatellite was developed which subsequently revealed 1-5 minisatellites with 1-12 repeats in C. lentis. The probe differentiated race Ct1 isolates having 7, 9 or 7+9 repeats from race Ct0 having primarily 2 or 4 repeats, occasionally 5, 6, or 8, but never 7 or 9 repeats. These isolates were collected between 1991 and 1999. In a 2012 survey isolates with 2 and 4 repeats increased from 34% to 67%, while isolated with 7 or 9 repeats decreased from 40 to 4%, likely because Ct1 resistant lentil varieties had been grown. The 39 nt repeat was identified in C. gloeosporioides, C. trifolii, Ascochyta lentis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Thus, the 39F/R PCR probe is not species specific, but can differentiate isolates based on repeat number. The 23 nt minisatellite in C. lentis exists as three length variants with ten sequence variations differentiating race Ct0 having 14 or 19 repeats from race Ct1 having 17 repeats, except for one isolate. RNA-translation of 23 nt repeats forms hairpins and has the appropriate length to suggest that IGS could be a site of small RNA synthesis, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. Small RNA from fungal plant pathogens able to silence genes either in the host or pathogen thereby aiding infection have been reported.

  1. From "Cellular" RNA to "Smart" RNA: Multiple Roles of RNA in Genome Stability and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Flavia; Jalihal, Ameya P; Francia, Sofia; Meers, Chance; Neeb, Zachary T; Rossiello, Francesca; Gioia, Ubaldo; Aguado, Julio; Jones-Weinert, Corey; Luke, Brian; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Nowacki, Mariusz; Storici, Francesca; Carninci, Piero; Walter, Nils G; Fagagna, Fabrizio d'Adda di

    2018-03-30

    Coding for proteins has been considered the main function of RNA since the "central dogma" of biology was proposed. The discovery of noncoding transcripts shed light on additional roles of RNA, ranging from the support of polypeptide synthesis, to the assembly of subnuclear structures, to gene expression modulation. Cellular RNA has therefore been recognized as a central player in often unanticipated biological processes, including genomic stability. This ever-expanding list of functions inspired us to think of RNA as a "smart" phone, which has replaced the older obsolete "cellular" phone. In this review, we summarize the last two decades of advances in research on the interface between RNA biology and genome stability. We start with an account of the emergence of noncoding RNA, and then we discuss the involvement of RNA in DNA damage signaling and repair, telomere maintenance, and genomic rearrangements. We continue with the depiction of single-molecule RNA detection techniques, and we conclude by illustrating the possibilities of RNA modulation in hopes of creating or improving new therapies. The widespread biological functions of RNA have made this molecule a reoccurring theme in basic and translational research, warranting it the transcendence from classically studied "cellular" RNA to "smart" RNA.

  2. Involvement of an RNA binding protein containing Alba domain in the stage-specific regulation of beta-amastin expression in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Leticia; Silva, Tais Caroline; Teixeira, Santuza M R

    2017-01-01

    Amastins are surface glycoproteins, first identified in amastigotes of T. cruzi but later found to be expressed in several Leishmania species, as well as in T. cruzi epimastigotes. Amastins are encoded by a diverse gene family that can be grouped into four subfamilies named α, β, γ, and δ amastins. Differential expression of amastin genes results from regulatory mechanisms involving changes in mRNA stability and/or translational control. Although distinct regulatory elements were identified in the 3' UTR of T. cruzi and Leishmania amastin mRNAs, RNA binding proteins involved with amastin gene regulation have only being characterized in L. infantum where an Alba-domain protein (LiAlba20) able to bind to the 3' UTR of a δ-amastin mRNA was identified. Here we investigated the role of TcAlba30, the LiAlba20 homologue in T. cruzi, in the post transcriptional regulation of amastin genes. TcAlba30 transcripts are present in all stages of the T. cruzi life cycle. RNA immunoprecipitation assays using a transfected cell line expressing a cMyc tagged TcAlba30 revealed that TcAlba30 can interact with β-amastin mRNA. In addition, over-expression of TcAlba30 in epimastigotes resulted in 50% decreased levels of β-amastin mRNAs compared to wild type parasites. Since luciferase assays indicated the presence of regulatory elements in the 3' UTR of β-amastin mRNA and reduced levels of luciferase mRNA were found in parasites over expressing TcAlba30, we conclude that TcAlba30 acts as a T. cruzi RNA binding protein involved in the negative control of β-amastin expression through interactions with its 3'UTR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The chemical synthesis of DNA/RNA: our gift to science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruthers, Marvin H

    2013-01-11

    It is a great privilege to contribute to the Reflections essays. In my particular case, this essay has allowed me to weave some of my major scientific contributions into a tapestry held together by what I have learned from three colleagues (Robert Letsinger, Gobind Khorana, and George Rathmann) who molded my career at every important junction. To these individuals, I remain eternally grateful, as they always led by example and showed many of us how to break new ground in both science and biotechnology. Relative to my scientific career, I have focused primarily on two related areas. The first is methodologies we developed for chemically synthesizing DNA and RNA. Synthetic DNA and RNA continue to be an essential research tool for biologists, biochemists, and molecular biologists. The second is developing new approaches for solving important biological problems using synthetic DNA, RNA, and their analogs.

  4. In vitro transcription activities of Pol IV, Pol V and RDR2 reveal coupling of Pol IV and RDR2 for dsRNA synthesis in plant RNA silencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Ream, Thomas S.; Marasco, Michelle; Nicora, Carrie D.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2012-12-14

    In Arabidopsis, RNA-dependent DNA methylation and transcriptional silencing involves three nuclear RNA polymerases that are biochemically undefined: the presumptive DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, Pol IV and Pol V and the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RDR2. Here, we demonstrate their RNA polymerase activities in vitro. Unlike Pol II, Pols IV and V require an RNA primer, are insensitive to alpha-amanitin and differ in their ability to displace non-template DNA during transcription. Biogenesis of 24 nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) requires both Pol IV and RDR2, which physically associate in vivo. Pol IV does not require RDR2 for activity, but RDR2 is nonfunctional in the absence of associated Pol IV, suggesting that their coupling explains the channeling of Pol IV transcripts into double-stranded RNAs that are then diced into 24 nt siRNAs.

  5. Involvement of microRNA-181a and Bim in a rat model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Liu, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Jun-Jun; Fan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the changes in the expression of microRNA-181a (miR-181a) and Bim in a rat model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR), to explore their target relationship in RIR and their involvement in regulating apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Target gene prediction for miR-181a was performed with the aid of bioinformatics and Bim was identified as a potential target gene of miR-181a. A rat model of RIR was created by increasing the intraocular pressure. RGCs in the flatmounted retinas were labeled with Brn3, a marker for alive RGCs, by immunofluorescent staining. The changes in the number of RGCs after RIR were recorded. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the expression level of miR-181a in the retina. Bim/Brn3 double immunofluorescence was used to detect the localization of Bim. The expression of Bim in the retina was determined with the aids of Western blot and qRT-PCR. Compared with the negative control group, the density of RGCs was significantly lower in the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-24h and I/R-72h groups (PBim was significantly upregulated at 12h after RIR (PBim was negatively correlated with the expression level of miR-181a and the density of RGCs. Bim may be a potential target gene of miR-181a. Both miR-181a and Bim are involved in RGCs death in RIR. RIR may promote RGCs apoptosis in the retina via downregulation of miR-181a and its inhibition on Bim expression.

  6. RNA-Sequencing Analyses Demonstrate the Involvement of Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels in Rat Tooth Germ Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tooth development depends on multiple molecular interactions between the dental epithelium and mesenchyme, which are derived from ectodermal and ectomesenchymal cells, respectively. We report on a systematic RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptional expression levels from the bud to hard tissue formation stages of rat tooth germ development. We found that GNAO1, ENO1, EFNB1, CALM1, SIAH2, ATP6V0A1, KDELR2, GTPBP1, POLR2C, SORT1, and members of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channel family are involved in tooth germ development. Furthermore, Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK8 and Transwell migration assays were performed to explore the effects of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs on the proliferation and migration of dental pulp stem cells. Immunostaining revealed that TRPC channels are expressed at varying levels during odontogenesis. The identified genes represent novel candidates that are likely to be vital for rat tooth germ development. Together, the results provide a valuable resource to elucidate the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying mammalian tooth germ development.

  7. Identification of cis-acting elements and splicing factors involved in the regulation of BIM Pre-mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Wen Chun; Roca, Xavier; Ong, S Tiong

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant changes in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BCL-2-like 11 (BIM), can result in either impaired or excessive apoptosis, which can contribute to tumorigenesis and degenerative disorders, respectively. Altering BIM pre-mRNA splicing is an attractive approach to modulate apoptosis because BIM activity is partly determined by the alternative splicing of exons 3 or 4, whereby exon 3-containing transcripts are not apoptotic. Here we identified several cis-acting elements and splicing factors involved in BIM alternative splicing, as a step to better understand the regulation of BIM expression. We analyzed a recently discovered 2,903-bp deletion polymorphism within BIM intron 2 that biased splicing towards exon 3, and which also impaired BIM-dependent apoptosis. We found that this region harbors multiple redundant cis-acting elements that repress exon 3 inclusion. Furthermore, we have isolated a 23-nt intronic splicing silencer at the 3' end of the deletion that is important for excluding exon 3. We also show that PTBP1 and hnRNP C repress exon 3 inclusion, and that downregulation of PTBP1 inhibited BIM-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, these findings start building our understanding of the cis-acting elements and splicing factors that regulate BIM alternative splicing, and also suggest potential approaches to alter BIM splicing for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Involvement of the ribose operon repressor RbsR in regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Kori, Ayako; Ishihama, Akira

    2013-07-01

    Escherichia coli is able to utilize d-ribose as its sole carbon source. The genes for the transport and initial-step metabolism of d-ribose form a single rbsDACBK operon. RbsABC forms the ABC-type high-affinity d-ribose transporter, while RbsD and RbsK are involved in the conversion of d-ribose into d-ribose 5-phosphate. In the absence of inducer d-ribose, the ribose operon is repressed by a LacI-type transcription factor RbsR, which is encoded by a gene located downstream of this ribose operon. At present, the rbs operon is believed to be the only target of regulation by RbsR. After Genomic SELEX screening, however, we have identified that RbsR binds not only to the rbs promoter but also to the promoters of a set of genes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism. Northern blotting analysis indicated that RbsR represses the purHD operon for de novo synthesis of purine nucleotide but activates the add and udk genes involved in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide synthesis. Taken together, we propose that RbsR is a global regulator for switch control between the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides and its salvage pathway. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Local synthesis of axonal and presynaptic RNA in squid model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyman, M.; Cefaliello, C.; Ferrara, E.; De Stefano, R.; Lavina, Z.S.; Crispino, M.; Squillace, A.; van Minnen, J.; Kaplan, B.B.; Giuditta, A.

    2007-01-01

    The presence of active systems of protein synthesis in axons and nerve endings raises the question of the cellular origin of the corresponding RNAs. Our present experiments demonstrate that, besides a possible derivation from neuronal cell bodies, axoplasmic RNAs originate in periaxonal glial cells

  10. Problem-Solving Test: RNA and Protein Synthesis in Bacteriophage-Infected "E. coli" Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2008-01-01

    The classic experiment presented in this problem-solving test was designed to identify the template molecules of translation by analyzing the synthesis of phage proteins in "Escherichia coli" cells infected with bacteriophage T4. The work described in this test led to one of the most seminal discoveries of early molecular biology: it dealt a…

  11. [Inhibition of aggregation of dissociated embryonic Amphibian cells by inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz, Horst

    1969-06-01

    1. Aggregation of embryonic Amphibian cells dissociated by Trypsin or EDTA is supressed reversibly by actidion (cycloheximid 0.5-2 Μg/ml), an inhibitor of protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is inhibited more than 90% at these concentrations. The inhibition by actidion was still reversible after 48 hours, when the cells were transferred to normal medium. Actidion added to cells, cultured in Flickinger solution for 3 h, was no longer able to stop further aggregation. 2. Puromycin reversibly suppresses aggregation at a concentration of 20 (Μg/ml, when protein synthesis is inhibited to 66 %. 3. After EDTA-dissociation the formation of initial small clusters of 5-10 cells (primary aggregation) occurred even in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis. The primary aggregation is however suppressed if actidion or puromycin are already added during the dissociation procedure. 4. In the presence of actinomycin-D (1-2 Μg/ml) the cells continue to aggregate like the controls. After 30 h further aggregation is stopped and the aggregates loose single cells. 5. Differences in the aggregation of cells after EDTA and Trypsin treatment are discussed.

  12. A non-catalytic role for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Maria A; Wundenberg, Torsten; Williams, Jason; Mayr, Georg W; Shears, Stephen B

    2013-01-15

    Fundamental to the life and destiny of every cell is the regulation of protein synthesis through ribosome biogenesis, which begins in the nucleolus with the production of ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Nucleolar organization is a highly dynamic and tightly regulated process; the structural factors that direct nucleolar assembly and disassembly are just as important in controlling rRNA synthesis as are the catalytic activities that synthesize rRNA. Here, we report that a signaling enzyme, inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5K) is also a structural component in the nucleolus. We demonstrate that IP5K has functionally significant interactions with three proteins that regulate rRNA synthesis: protein kinase CK2, TCOF1 and upstream-binding-factor (UBF). Through molecular modeling and mutagenic studies, we identified an Arg-Lys-Lys tripeptide located on the surface of IP5K that mediates its association with UBF. Nucleolar IP5K spatial dynamics were sensitive to experimental procedures (serum starvation or addition of actinomycin D) that inhibited rRNA production. We show that IP5K makes stoichiometrically sensitive contributions to the architecture of the nucleoli in intact cells, thereby influencing the degree of rRNA synthesis. Our study adds significantly to the biological significance of IP5K; previously, it was the kinase activity of this protein that had attracted attention. Our demonstration that IP5K 'moonlights' as a molecular scaffold offers an unexpected new example of how the biological sophistication of higher organisms can arise from gene products acquiring multiple functions, rather than by an increase in gene number.

  13. MicroRNA-122 is involved in oxidative stress in isoniazid-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L; Zhang, Z R; Zhang, J L; Zhu, X B; He, L; Shi, Z; Gao, L; Li, Y; Hu, B; Feng, F M

    2015-10-27

    Many studies have shown that the pathogenesis of liver injury includes oxidative stress. MicroRNA-122 may be a marker for the early diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury. However, the relationship between microRNA-122 and oxidative stress in anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury remains unknown. We measured changes in tissue microRNA-122 levels and indices of oxidative stress during liver injury in mice after administration of isoniazid, a first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. We quantified microRNA-122 expression and indices of oxidative stress at 7 time points, including 1, 3, and 5 days and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The tissue microRNA-122 levels and oxidative stress significantly changed at 3 and 5 days, suggesting that isoniazid-induced liver injury reduces oxidative stress and microRNA-122 expression compared to in the control group (P microRNA-122, began to change at 5 days (P microRNA-122 profile may affect oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial ribosome protein S11 gene during isoniazid-induced liver injury, which may contribute to the response mechanisms of microRNA-122 and oxidative stress.

  14. Changes of splenocyte IFN-γ mRNA synthesis in rats infected with Paragonimus westermani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun Kyong; Kwon, Hye Soo; Joo, Kyoung Hwan; Lee, Joon Sang

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the expression level of splenocyte IFN-γ mRNA of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats infected with Paragonimus westermani were analyzed by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by southern blot. The template RNA was extracted from the splenocytes of rats infected with 20 metacercariae of P. westermani. The products of competitive RT-PCR were subjected to southern blot and enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL), and analyzed with a densitometer. In comparison with that of uninfected control rat splenocytes (value of 1), the levels of mRNA expression of IFN-γ had changed to 0.747 at 1 week post infection (PI), 0.00175 at 2 week PI, 0.0217 at 3 week PI, 0.194 at 4 week PI and then to 0.537 at 5 week PI. The level at 7 week PI had returned to 1.25, comparable with that of uninfected rats. These results show that, when infected with P. westermani, the levels of IFN-γ mRNA of SD rat splenocytes were remarkably reduced by more than 500 times at 2 week PI and restored to normal level at 7 week PI. PMID:10634046

  15. Do You Believe in ReincaRNAtion? Herpesviruses Reveal Connection between RNA Decay and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Wilusz, Jeffrey

    2015-08-12

    Many viruses degrade host mRNAs to reduce competition for proteins/ribosomes and promote viral gene expression. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Abernathy et al. (2015) demonstrate that a herpesviral RNA endonuclease induces host transcriptional repression that is mediated through the decay factor Xrn1 and evaded by viral genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase is involved in osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramachi, Junpei [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Baba, Ryoko; Doi, Yoshiaki [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Yahatanishi, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Hirashima, Kanji [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Haneji, Tatsuji, E-mail: tat-hane@dent.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Kuramoto, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) plays a critical role in antiviral defence of the host cells. PKR is also involved in cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. We previously reported that PKR is required for differentiation and calcification of osteoblasts. However, it is unknown about the role of PKR in osteoclast differentiation. A dominant-negative PKR mutant cDNA, in which the amino acid lysine at 296 was replaced with arginine, was transfected into RAW264.7 cells. We have established the cell line that stably expresses the PKR mutant gene (PKR-K/R). Phosphorylation of PKR and {alpha}-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 was not stimulated by polyinosic-polycytidylic acid in the PKR-K/R cells. RANKL stimulated the formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in RAW264.7 cells. However, TRAP-positive multinuclear cells were not formed in the PKR-K/R cells even when the cells were stimulated with higher doses of RANKL. A specific inhibitor of PKR, 2-aminopurine, also suppressed the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells. The expression of macrophage fusion receptor and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein significantly decreased in the PKR-K/R cells by real time PCR analysis. The results of RT-PCR revealed that the mRNA expression of osteoclast markers (cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor) was suppressed in the PKR-K/R cells and RAW264.7 cells treated with 2-aminopurine. Expression of NF-{kappa}B protein was suppressed in the PKR-K/R cells and 2-aminopurine-treated RAW264.7 cells. The level of STAT1 protein expression was elevated in the PKR-K/R cells compared with that of the wild-type cells. Immunohistochemical study showed that PKR was localized in osteoclasts of metatarsal bone of newborn mouse. The finding that the PKR-positive multinuclear cells should be osteoclasts was confirmed by TRAP-staining. Our present study indicates that PKR plays important

  17. Perfluorooctanoic acid affects endocytosis involving clathrin light chain A and microRNA-133b-3p in mouse testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yin; Wang, Jianshe; Guo, Xuejiang; Yan, Shengmin; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an abundant perfluoroalkyl substance widely applied in industrial and consumer products. Among its potential health hazards, testicular toxicity is of major concern. To explore the potential effect of miRNA on post-translational regulation after PFOA exposure, changes in miRNAs were detected via miRNA array. Seventeen miRNAs were differentially expressed (eight upregulated, nine downregulated) in male mouse testes after exposure to 5 mg/kg/d of PFOA for 28 d (> 1.5-fold and P < 0.05 compared with the control). Eight of these miRNAs were further selected for TaqMan qPCR analysis. Proteomic profile analysis indicated that many changed proteins after PFOA treatment, including intersectin 1 (ITSN1), serine protease inhibitor A3K (Serpina3k), and apolipoprotein a1 (APOA1), were involved in endocytosis and blood-testis barrier (BTB) processes. These changes were further verified by immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Endocytosis-related genes were selected for qPCR analysis, with many found to be significantly changed after PFOA treatment, including epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), Eps15, cortactin, cofilin, espin, vinculin, and zyxin. We further predicted the potential interaction between changed miRNAs and proteins, which indicated that miRNAs might play a role in the post-translational regulation of gene expression after PFOA treatment in mouse testes. Among them, miR-133b-3p/clathrin light chain A (CLTA) was selected and verified in vitro by transfection and luciferase activity assay. Results showed that PFOA exposure affects endocytosis in mouse testes and that CLTA is a potential target of miR-133b-3p. - Highlights: • Endocytosis and blood-testis barrier proteins were changed after PFOA exposure. • Seventeen miRNAs were differentially expressed in testes after PFOA exposure. • MiRNAs might play a role in gene regulation in testes after PFOA exposure.CLTA is a potential target of miR-133b

  18. Analysis of mRNA expression of genes related to fatty acids synthesis in goose fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Xiang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of overfeeding on mRNA expression levels of genes involved in lipogenesis, in order to understand the mechanism of hepatic stea - tosis in the goose. Using Landes geese (Anser anser and Sichuan White geese (Anser cygnoides as experimental animals, we quantified the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase-α (ACCα and fatty acid synthase (FAS, and of two transcription factors, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins- 1 (SREBP-1 and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR, and measured the lipid and triglyceride (TG content in the liver and the plasma level of glucose, insulin and TG. Our results indicated that compared to the control group, the overfeeding induced an increase of the lipid and TG content in the liver and also of the plasma insulin and TG concentration in both breeds. However, the plasma glucose level decreased after overfeeding in the Sichuan White goose, and there was no evident change in the Landes goose. Lastly, the mRNA expression of ACCα, FAS, SREBP-1 and ChREBP in the overfed group was lower than in the control group in both breeds. We concluded that the lipogenesis pathway plays a role in overfeeding- induced hepatic steatosis and that the decreased mRNA level of related genes may be the indicator of hepatic steatosis.

  19. Transcriptome landscape of Lactococcus lactis reveals many novel RNAs including a small regulatory RNA involved in carbon uptake and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Sjoerd B; de Jong, Anne; Kok, Jan

    2016-01-01

    RNA sequencing has revolutionized genome-wide transcriptome analyses, and the identification of non-coding regulatory RNAs in bacteria has thus increased concurrently. Here we reveal the transcriptome map of the lactic acid bacterial paradigm Lactococcus lactis MG1363 by employing differential RNA

  20. Deletion analysis of cis- and trans-acting elements involved in replication of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 3 in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; Neeleman, L.; Bol, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    DNA copies of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) RNA 3 were transcribed in vitro into RNA molecules with deletions in coding and noncoding sequences. The replication of these transcripts was studied in protoplasts from transgenic tobacco plants expressing DNA copies of AIMV RNAs 1 and 2. Deletions in the

  1. Formylation of initiator tRNA methionine in procaryotic protein synthesis: in vivo polarity in lactose operon expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, H U; Joseph, E; Ullmann, A; Danchin, A

    1978-01-01

    Eucaryotic and procaryotic organisms differ in two aspects of their translation machinery: polycistronic messengers are expressed as a sequence of individual proteins only in procaryotes, and the initiation of protein synthesis proceeds with an initiator tRNA which is found to be modified (formylated) in procaryotes and not in eucaryotes. In the present study, we show that formylation is required in vivo for the coordinate expression of the Escherichia coli lactose operon. Our experiments are consistent with a translation mechanism using dissociated ribosomes at the 5' end of the mRNA in a reaction that is only weakly dependent on formylation at this initiation step; the ribosomes then travel along the messenger and can reinitiate after the intracistronic barrier without dissociation. This latter initiation step is strongly dependent on the level of formylation: a low level of the formyl group, obtained by the antifolic agent trimethoprim, induces a strong polarity in the expression of the lactose operon. There exist mutant strains in which this polarity is much less apparent than in the wild type. We show here that such is the case of rpsL mutants. Ribosomes mutated in the S12 protein (rpsL) are found to be much more easily dissociated than the wild type. This might explain why the expression of the lactose operon on rpsL strains remains coordinated when the intracellular level of formylation is decreased. PMID:98518

  2. New gene in Escherichia coli K-12 (drpA): does its product play a role in RNA synthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, K F; Lee, C H; Isberg, R R; Syvanen, M

    1985-01-01

    The mutation drpA1 defines a new gene in Escherichia coli K-12 that maps at about 5.2 min. This mutation was obtained after enriching a population of cells for temperature sensitive dna mutations with the [3H]thymidine "suicide" technique followed by screening for mutants defective in transposon Tn5 precise excision. When growing cells carrying the drpA1 allele were shifted to the nonpermissive temperature, we showed that DNA, RNA, and protein syntheses shut off quickly, with the cessation of RNA synthesis occurring first. A recombinant plasmid between pBR322 and an HindIII fragment from wild-type E. coli restores the growth defect in drpA1 mutants. Using transposon Tn5 mutagenesis of this plasmid, we have been able to correlate the presence of a 68-kilodalton protein, as observed with the maxicell technique, with the ability of this plasmid to restore growth to drpA1 mutants. Images PMID:2579939

  3. Inhibition of protein synthesis and malaria parasite development by drug targeting of methionyl-tRNA synthetases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tahir; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

    2015-04-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are housekeeping enzymes that couple cognate tRNAs with amino acids to transmit genomic information for protein translation. The Plasmodium falciparum nuclear genome encodes two P. falciparum methionyl-tRNA synthetases (PfMRS), termed PfMRS(cyt) and PfMRS(api). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the two proteins are of primitive origin and are related to heterokonts (PfMRS(cyt)) or proteobacteria/primitive bacteria (PfMRS(api)). We show that PfMRS(cyt) localizes in parasite cytoplasm, while PfMRS(api) localizes to apicoplasts in asexual stages of malaria parasites. Two known bacterial MRS inhibitors, REP3123 and REP8839, hampered Plasmodium growth very effectively in the early and late stages of parasite development. Small-molecule drug-like libraries were screened against modeled PfMRS structures, and several "hit" compounds showed significant effects on parasite growth. We then tested the effects of the hit compounds on protein translation by labeling nascent proteins with (35)S-labeled cysteine and methionine. Three of the tested compounds reduced protein synthesis and also blocked parasite growth progression from the ring stage to the trophozoite stage. Drug docking studies suggested distinct modes of binding for the three compounds, compared with the enzyme product methionyl adenylate. Therefore, this study provides new targets (PfMRSs) and hit compounds that can be explored for development as antimalarial drugs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Solid-phase synthesis and high-resolution NMR studies of two synthetic double-helical RNA dodecamers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, S.H.; Flynn, P.; Reid, B.

    1989-01-01

    Ten-micromole solid-phase RNA synthesis has been successfully performed on an automated nucleic acid synthesizer with coupling efficiencies up to 99%, using the tert-butyldimethylsilyl group to protect the 2'-hydroxyl. The tert-butyldimethylsilyl group was easily removed by tetrabutylammonium fluoride under conditions in which virtually no 2'- to 3'-isomerization was found to occur. By use of this approach, the self-complementary RNA dodecamers r(CGCGAAUUCGCG) and r(CGCGUAUACGCG) were synthesized on an automated nucleic acid synthesizer, purified by TLC, and studied by high-resolution NMR. Imino protons were assigned from one-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effects. The nonexchangeable base, H1', and H2' protons were assigned by the sequential NOESY connectivity method. The NOE data from these two oligomers were analyzed qualitatively and compared to the ideal A- and B-type helix models of Arnott et al. (1972a,b). The internucleotide H6/H8 NOEs to the preceding H1' in r(CGCGUAUACGCG) were found to be sequence-dependent and probably reflect the roll angles between adjacent bases. The internucleotide H6/H8 to H2' NOEs of these oligomers correspond very well to an A-type conformation, but the interstrand adenine H2 NOEs to the following H1' were much stronger than those predicted from the fiber model. These strong interstrand NOEs can be rationalized by base pair slide to favor more interstrand base overlap

  5. A Best-Evidence Synthesis of Research on Orientation and Mobility Involving Tactile Maps and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tessa; Harris, Beth; Sticken, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A review of the literature from 1965 to 2008 on tactile maps and models in orientation and mobility yielded four pre-experimental and three experimental articles. The articles were analyzed via best-evidence synthesis--a combined narrative and statistical approach--allowing for recommendations for the most effective use of tactile maps and models.…

  6. Issues involved in a knowledge-based approach to procedure synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Khartabil, L.F.; Miller, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    Many knowledge-based systems (KBSs) have been built to assist human operators in managing nuclear power plant operating functions, such as monitoring, fault diagnosis, alarm filtering, and procedure management. For procedure management, KBSs have been built to display and track existing written procedures or to dynamically follow procedure execution by monitoring plant data and action execution and suggesting recovery steps. More recent works build KBSs able to synthesize procedures. This paper addresses and examines the main issues related to the implementation of on-line procedure synthesis using KBSs. A KBS for procedure synthesis can provide a more robust and effective procedural plan during accidents. Currently existing procedures for abnormal plant conditions, written as precompiled step sets based on the event and symptom approaches, are inherently not robust because anticipation of all potential plant states and associated plant responses is not possible. Thus, their failure recovery capability is limited to the precompiled set. Procedure synthesis has the potential to overcome these two problems because it does not require such precompilation of large sets of plant states and associated recovery procedures. Other benefits obtained from a complete procedure synthesis system are providing (a) a methodology for off-line procedure verification and (b) a methodology for the eventual automation of plant operations

  7. In vitro synthesis of intermediates involved in the assembly of enterobacterial common antigen (ECA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, K.; Wolski, S.; Kroto, J.; Rick, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    ECA is a cell surface antigen found in all bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The serological specificity of ECA is determined by a linear heteropolysaccharide comprised of trisaccharide repeat units; the component sugars are N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), N-acetyl-D-mannosaminuronic acid (ManNAcUA), and 4-acetamido-D-fucose (Fuc4NAc). In vivo studies have suggested that GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol (GlcNAc-PP-lipid) is an intermediate in ECA synthesis. More recently, they have demonstrated UDP-GlcNAc:undecaprenylphosphate GlcNAc-1-phosphate transferase activity in cell envelope preparations of E. coli. Radioactivity from UDP-[ 3 H]Glc-NAc was incorporated into endogenous lipid acceptor, and the labeled product was characterized as GlcNAc-PP-lipid (lipid I). Transferase activity was inhibited by tunicamycin and UMP, but it was unaffected by UDP. The reaction was reversible, and the synthesis of UDP-[ 3 H]GlcNAc from UMP and [ 3 H]GlcNAc-PP-lipid was also sensitive to tunicamycin. The simultaneous addition of UDP-[ 14 C]ManNAcUA and UDP-[ 3 H]GlcNAc to cell envelope preparations resulted in the synthesis of a more polar lipid (lipid II) that contained both labeled sugars in equimolar amounts. Synthesis of lipid II was dependent on prior synthesis of lipid I. Accordingly, [ 3 H]GlcNAc-PP-lipid that had been synthesized in vivo served as an acceptor in vitro of ManNAcUA residues from UDP-ManNAcUA. Lipid II has been tentatively identified as ManNAcUA-GlcNAc-pyrophosphorylundecaprenol

  8. Involvement of protein kinase C in prostaglandin D(2) synthesis by cultured astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebicke-Haerter, P J; Seregi, A; Schobert, A; Hertting, G

    1988-01-01

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium in the stimulation of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) synthesis was investigated in primary rat astroglial cultures using the phorbol esters phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) and the calcium ionophore A(23187). Both phorbol esters and the ionophore were able to stimulate PGD(2) synthesis in a concentration dependent manner. The inactive stereoisomers of PMA and PDB had no significant effect. Combinations of subthreshold concentrations of phorbol esters (10 nM PMA or 10 nM PBD) potentiated PG formation induced by 100 nM A(23187). An even more pronounced effect was observed when phorbol ester concentrations were increased to 100nM. The contribution of extra- and intracellular calcium in phorbol ester or A(23187) stimulated PGD(2) synthesis was evaluated by carrying out experiments with calcium-free media plus EGTA or with the intracellular calcium-chelating agent TMB-8. Ionophore stimulated PGD(2) release was shut down to basal values upon removal of extracellular calcium, whereas phorbol ester stimulated PGD(2) formation persisted at a reduced level. It was unabated also upon further addition of EGTA. In the presence of TMB-8, however, phorbol ester stimulated PGD(2) synthesis was completely suppressed. These data strongly suggest that PKC has an additional effect on the activation of phospholipase A(2) and subsequent prostanoid synthesis, which is independent from extracellular calcium and, thus, support the concept of more than one metabolic pathway in astrocytes that synergistically regulate phospholipase A(2) activity.

  9. Small RNA profiles of the rice PTGMS line Wuxiang S reveal miRNAs involved in the fertility transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eDing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play key roles in the regulation of plant growth and developmental processes. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was employed to examine the expression profiles of miRNAs in a novel rice photo-thermo sensitive generic male sterile (PTGMS line Wuxiang S (WXS during the fertility transition. A total of 497 known miRNAs and 273 novel miRNAs were identified. By means of the differentially expression analysis, a total of 26 miRNAs were discovered to be significant difference expression between WXS (Sterility, S and WXS (Fertility, F. And some of these miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Among these miRNAs, eleven of which were decreased, and fifteen of which were increased in the expression levels of genes when WXS (S compared with WXS (F, respectively. Some of these miRNAs such as osa-miR156a-j, osa-miR164d and osa-miR528, were showed to be negatively correlated with their targets. These targets have previously been reported to be related with pollen development and male sterility, suggesting that these miRNAs might be involved in the regulation of pollen development in the rice PTGMS line WXS. Furthermore, the miRNAs editing events were also observed. A possible control model of miRNAs and signaling pathway was proposed in the process of fertility transition of rice PTGMS line WXS in this study. These findings contribute to our understanding of the roles of miRNAs during anther development of PTGMS occurrence in rice.

  10. Primary Angle Closure and Sequence Variants within MicroRNA Binding Sites of Genes Involved in Eye Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Shi

    Full Text Available The formation of primary angle closure (PAC and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG is regulated by a tissue remodeling pathway that plays a critical role in eye development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are powerful gene expression regulators and may exert their effects on tissue remodeling genes. This study investigated the associations between gene variants (single-nucleotide polymorphism, SNP in miRNA binding sites in the 3'-UTR region of genes involved in eye development and PAC.The sample consisted of 232 PAC subjects and 306 controls obtained from a population-based cohort in the Funing District of Jiangsu, China. The markers include 9 SNPs in the COL11A1, PCMTD1, ZNRF3, MTHFR, and ALPPL2 genes respectively. SNP genotyping was performed with a TaqMan-MGB probe using an RT-PCR system.Of the 9 SNPs studied, the frequency of the minor A allele of COL11A1 rs1031820 was higher in the PAC group than in the control group in allele analysis (p = 0.047. The genotype analysis indicated that MTHFR rs1537514 is marginally associated with PAC (p = 0.014. The CC genotype of rs1537514 was present solely in the PAC group. However, the differences lost significance after Bonferroni correction.Our study reveals a possible association of COL11A1 and MTHFR with PAC in the Han Chinese population. These results will contribute to an improved understanding of the genetic basis of PACG.

  11. Screening of genes involved in isooctane tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using mRNA differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, S; Zou, W; Ueda, M; Tanaka, A

    2000-11-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, KK-211, isolated by the long-term bioprocess of stereoselective reduction in isooctane, showed extremely high tolerance to the solvent, which is toxic to yeast cells, but, in comparison with its wild-type parent, DY-1, showed low tolerance to hydrophilic organic solvents, such as dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol. In order to detect the isooctane tolerance-associated genes, mRNA differential display (DD) was employed using mRNAs isolated from strains DY-1 and KK-211 cultivated without isooctane, and from strain KK-211 cultivated with isooctane. Thirty genes were identified as being differentially expressed in these three types of cells and were classified into three groups according to their expression patterns. These patterns were further confirmed and quantified by Northern blot analysis. On the DD fingerprints, the expression of 14 genes, including MUQ1, PRY2, HAC1, AGT1, GAC1, and ICT1 (YLR099c) was induced, while the expression of the remaining 16 genes, including JEN1, PRY1, PRY3, and KRE1, was decreased, in strain KK-211 cultivated with isooctane. The genes represented by HAC1, PRY1, and ICT1 have been reported to be associated with cell stress, and AGT1 and GAC1 have been reported to be involved in the uptake of trehalose and the production of glycogen, respectively. MUQ1 and KRE1, encoding proteins associated with cell surface maintenance, were also detected. Based on these results, we concluded that alteration of expression levels of multiple genes, not of a single gene, might be the critical determinant for isooctane tolerance in strain KK-211.

  12. NVL2, a nucleolar AAA-ATPase, is associated with the nuclear exosome and is involved in pre-rRNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikatsu, Yuki; Ishida, Yo-ichi; Sudo, Haruka; Yuasa, Keizo; Tsuji, Akihiko; Nagahama, Masami

    2015-08-28

    Nuclear VCP-like 2 (NVL2) is a member of the chaperone-like AAA-ATPase family and is involved in the biosynthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in mammalian cells. We previously showed the interaction of NVL2 with a DExD/H-box RNA helicase MTR4/DOB1, which is a known cofactor for an exoribonuclease complex, the exosome. This finding implicated NVL2 in RNA metabolic processes during ribosome biogenesis. In the present study, we found that a series of mutations within the ATPase domain of NVL2 causes a defect in pre-rRNA processing into mature 28S and 5.8S rRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NVL2 was associated with the nuclear exosome complex, which includes RRP6 as a nucleus-specific catalytic subunit. This interaction was prevented by depleting either MTR4 or RRP6, indicating their essential role in mediating this interaction with NVL2. Additionally, knockdown of MPP6, another cofactor for the nuclear exosome, also prevented the interaction by causing MTR4 to dissociate from the nuclear exosome. These results suggest that NVL2 is involved in pre-rRNA processing by associating with the nuclear exosome complex and that MPP6 is required for maintaining the integrity of this rRNA processing complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cumulus expansion, nuclear maturation and connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 and FSH receptor mRNA expression in equine cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured in vitro in the presence of FSH and precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiudi Giulio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate cumulus expansion, nuclear maturation and expression of connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 and FSH receptor transcripts in equine cumuli oophori during in vivo and in vitro maturation in the presence of equine FSH (eFSH and precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis. Equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC were cultured in a control defined medium supplemented with eFSH (0 to 5 micrograms/ml, Fetal Calf Serum (FCS, precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis or glutamine according to the experiments. After in vitro maturation, the cumulus expansion rate was increased with 1 microgram/ml eFSH, and was the highest with 20% FCS. It was not influenced by precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis or glutamine. The expression of transcripts related to cumulus expansion was analyzed in equine cumulus cells before maturation, and after in vivo and in vitro maturation, by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR with specific primers. Connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and FSH receptor (FSHr mRNA were detected in equine cumulus cells before and after maturation. Their level did not vary during in vivo or in vitro maturation and was influenced neither by FSH nor by precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis. Results indicate that previously reported regulation of connexin 43 and COX-2 proteins during equine COC maturation may involve post-transcriptional mechanisms.

  14. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells, mediated by a long non-coding RNA, HOTAIR, are involved in cell malignant transformation induced by cigarette smoke extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Bairu; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Shi, Le; Lu, Xiaolin; Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of lung diseases, including cancer, caused by cigarette smoke is increasing, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. This report describes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and experiments utilizing lncRNAs to integrate inflammation with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The present study shows that, induced by CSE, IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3, a transcription activator. A ChIP assay determined that the interaction of STAT3 with the promoter regions of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) increased levels of HOTAIR. Blocking of IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody, decreasing STAT3, and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced HOTAIR expression. Moreover, for HBE cells cultured in the presence of HOTAIR siRNA for 24 h, the CSE-induced EMT, formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates HOTAIR in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT and to CSCs induced by CSE. These data define a link between inflammation and EMT, processes involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE. This link, mediated through lncRNAs, establishes a mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • STAT3 directly regulates the levels of LncRNA HOTAIR. • LncRNA HOTAIR mediates the link between inflammation and EMT. • LncRNA HOTAIR is involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE.

  15. L-lysine epsilon-aminotransferase involved in cephamycin C synthesis in Streptomyces lactamdurans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, B A; Hendlin, D; Inamine, E

    1980-01-01

    In Streptomyces lactamdurans, the precursor of the alpha-aminoadipoyl side-chain of cephamycin C is L-lysine. In this regard, streptomycetes differ strikingly from the fungi, which produce alpha-aminoadipic acid during the synthesis, rather than the breakdown, of L-lysine. Studies using a cell-free system showed that an aminoadipic acid. The product of this reaction was trapped and subsequently purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Thin-layer chromatography, spectrophotometry, and amino ac...

  16. Action of some drugs on enzymes involved in DNA-repair and semiconservative DNA-synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawra, E.; Klein, W.; Kocsis, F.; Weniger, P.

    1975-07-01

    Different antirheumatic and cytostatic drugs had been tested by measurement of the thymidine incorporation into DNA of spleen cells under conditions, under which either DNA-synthesis or repair after gamma- or UV-irradiation takes place. There are substances, which inhibit either only the semiconservative DNA-synthesis (vinblastine, isonicotinic acid hydracide) or only DNA-repair after gamma-irradiation (mixture of penicillin-G and procaine-penicillin-G) or both (cyclophosphamide, phenylbutazone, procarbazine, nalidixic acid). Vincristine shows no effect on the thymidine incorporation in DNA, but by density gradient centrifugation it has been found that it influences the ligase reaction. Two DNA polymerases had been isolated from spleen cells, one of the low molecular and one of the high molecular weight type. The influences of the described drugs on these enzymes and on a deoxyribonuclease I from beef pancreas have been tested in ''in vitro'' systems. In all cases, it has been found that there is no effect or only a very small one, compared with the action of well known inhibitors as e.g. ethidium bromide and p-chloromercuribenzoate, and this cannot be responsible for the suppressions found in DNA-repair and semiconservative DNA-synthesis. (author)

  17. Genetic effect of CysLTR2 polymorphisms on its mRNA synthesis and stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Il

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and haplotypes were associated with aspirin hypersensitivity in asthmatics. We investigated the genetic effects of the SNPs and haplotypes on the expression of the CysLTR2 gene. Methods We measured CysLTR2 protein and mRNA expression in EB virus-infected B cell lines from asthmatics having ht1+/+ and ht2+/+. A gel retardation assay was used to identify nuclear protein binding to the c.-819 promoter site. The function of promoter and 3'-UTR were assessed using pGL3 luciferase and pEGFP reporter system, respectively. Results We found that the expression of CysLTR2 protein was higher in B cell lines of asthmatics having ht2+/+ than in those having ht1+/+. PMA/ionomycin induced higher mRNA expression of CysLTR2 in B cell lines from ht2+/+ asthmatics than those from ht1+/+ asthmatics. A nuclear protein from the B cell lines showed stronger DNA binding affinity with a probe containing c.-819T than one containing c.-819G. The luciferase activity of the c.-819T type of CysLTR2 promoter was higher than that of the c.-819G type. EGFP expression was higher in the EGFP-c.2078T 3'-UTR fusion construct than in the c.2078C construct. Conclusion The sequence variants of CysLTR2 may affect its transcription and the stability of its mRNA, resulting in altered expression of CysLTR2 protein, which in turn causes some asthmatics to be susceptible to aspirin hypersensitivity.

  18. Role of RNase MRP in viral RNA degradation and RNA recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaag, Hannah M; Lu, Qiasheng; Schmitt, Mark E; Nagy, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    RNA degradation, together with RNA synthesis, controls the steady-state level of viral RNAs in infected cells. The endoribonucleolytic cleavage of viral RNA is important not only for viral RNA degradation but for RNA recombination as well, due to the participation of some RNA degradation products in the RNA recombination process. To identify host endoribonucleases involved in degradation of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model host, we tested eight known endoribonucleases. Here we report that downregulation of SNM1, encoding a component of the RNase MRP, and a temperature-sensitive mutation in the NME1 gene, coding for the RNA component of RNase MRP, lead to reduced production of the endoribonucleolytically cleaved TBSV RNA in yeast. We also show that the highly purified yeast RNase MRP cleaves the TBSV RNA in vitro, resulting in TBSV RNA degradation products similar in size to those observed in yeast cells. Knocking down the NME1 homolog in Nicotiana benthamiana also led to decreased production of the cleaved TBSV RNA, suggesting that in plants, RNase MRP is involved in TBSV RNA degradation. Altogether, this work suggests a role for the host endoribonuclease RNase MRP in viral RNA degradation and recombination.

  19. Species specificity of human RPA in simian virus 40 DNA replication lies in T-antigen-dependent RNA primer synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mu; Park, Jang-Su; Ishiai, Masamichi; Hurwitz, Jerard; Lee, Suk-Hee

    2000-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a three-subunit protein complex with multiple functions in DNA replication. Previous study indicated that human RPA (h-RPA) could not be replaced by Schizosaccharomyces pombe RPA (sp-RPA) in simian virus 40 (SV40) replication, suggesting that h-RPA may have a specific function in SV40 DNA replication. To understand the specificity of h-RPA in replication, we prepared heterologous RPAs containing the mixture of human and S.pombe subunits and compared these preparations for various enzymatic activities. Heterologous RPAs containing two human subunits supported SV40 DNA replication, whereas those containing only one human subunit poorly supported DNA replication, suggesting that RPA complex requires at least two human subunits to support its function in SV40 DNA replication. All heterologous RPAs effectively supported single-stranded (ss)DNA binding activity and an elongation of a primed DNA template catalyzed by DNA polymerase (pol) α and δ. A strong correlation between SV40 DNA replication activity and large tumor antigen (T-ag)-dependent RNA primer synthesis by pol α–primase complex was observed among the heterologous RPAs. Furthermore, T-ag showed a strong interaction with 70- and 34-kDa subunits from human, but poorly interacted with their S.pombe counterparts, indicating that the specificity of h-RPA is due to its role in RNA primer synthesis. In the SV40 replication reaction, the addition of increasing amounts of sp-RPA in the presence of fixed amount of h-RPA significantly reduced overall DNA synthesis, but increased the size of lagging strand, supporting a specific role for h-RPA in RNA primer synthesis. Together, these results suggest that the specificity of h-RPA in SV40 replication lies in T-ag-dependent RNA primer synthesis. PMID:11095685

  20. Synthesis of a new reagent, ethyl 4-azidobenzoylaminoacetimidate, and its use for RNA-protein cross-linking within Escherichia coli ribosomal 30-S subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, R; Olomucki, M; Le Gall, J Y; Golinska, B; Ebel, J P; Ehresmann, B

    1980-09-01

    A new reagent, ethyl 4-azidobenzoylaminoacetimidate, was prepared in a four-step synthesis starting from 4-aminobenzoic acid. This compound was used to cross-link RNA with proteins within the Escherichia coli 30-S ribosomal subunits. Following the reaction of the imidoester function with protein NH2 groups, photoactivation of the azide binds the other end of the reagent to RNA. The cross-linked proteins were labelled with 125I and identified by bidimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins S3, S4, S5, S7, S9, S17, S18, and in a lower and more variable yield, S12, S13, S14 and S16 were bound to 16-S RNA. These results were confirmed by isolating cross-linked protein-oligonucleotide complexes from 30-S subunits containing 32P-labelled RNA.

  1. Molecular phylogenetics and comparative modeling of HEN1, a methyltransferase involved in plant microRNA biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obarska Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, HEN1 protein from Arabidopsis thaliana was discovered as an essential enzyme in plant microRNA (miRNA biogenesis. HEN1 transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 2'-OH or 3'-OH group of the last nucleotide of miRNA/miRNA* duplexes produced by the nuclease Dicer. Previously it was found that HEN1 possesses a Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM domain and a long N-terminal extension including a putative double-stranded RNA-binding motif (DSRM. However, little is known about the details of the structure and the mechanism of action of this enzyme, and about its phylogenetic origin. Results Extensive database searches were carried out to identify orthologs and close paralogs of HEN1. Based on the multiple sequence alignment a phylogenetic tree of the HEN1 family was constructed. The fold-recognition approach was used to identify related methyltransferases with experimentally solved structures and to guide the homology modeling of the HEN1 catalytic domain. Additionally, we identified a La-like predicted RNA binding domain located C-terminally to the DSRM domain and a domain with a peptide prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase fold, but without the conserved PPIase active site, located N-terminally to the catalytic domain. Conclusion The bioinformatics analysis revealed that the catalytic domain of HEN1 is not closely related to any known RNA:2'-OH methyltransferases (e.g. to the RrmJ/fibrillarin superfamily, but rather to small-molecule methyltransferases. The structural model was used as a platform to identify the putative active site and substrate-binding residues of HEN and to propose its mechanism of action.

  2. MiRNA-133a is involved in the regulation of postmenopausal osteoporosis through promoting osteoclast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongqi; Zhang, Wenzhi; Huang, Yan

    2018-02-07

    The important role of miR-133a in the progress and development of postmenopausal osteoporosis has been reported, however, the underlying mechanism is not clear yet. In this study, qRT-PCR analysis was performed to assess miR-133 expression in serum isolated from postmenopausal osteoporosis patients (PMOP) and healthy controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The results showed that miR-133a was significantly upregulated and negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in serum of postmenopausal osteoporotic women. The miR-133a mimic, miR-133a inhibitor, and the corresponding controls were transfected into RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells, respectively. TRAP-positive cells were counted and the protein expression of NFATc1, c-Fos and TRAP were detected by western blot analysis. We found that MiR-133a was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis, and overexpression of miR-133a promoted RANKL-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells into osteoclasts, whereas miR-133a knockdown showed the reversed results. In in vivo experiment, rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and injected with antagomiR-133a or antagoNC, and were sacrificed for collecting serum and lumbar spine for ELISA, micro-computed Tomography (CT) and bone histomorphology analysis, respectively. It was found that, in OVX rats, miR-133a knockdown altered the levels of osteoclastogenesis-related factors in serum and increased lumbar spine BMD and changed bone histomorphology. Collectively, miRNA-133a is involved in the regulation of postmenopausal osteoporosis through promoting osteoclast differentiation. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Synthesis and structural characterization of piperazino-modified DNA that favours hybridization towards DNA over RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Joan; Bryld, Torsten; Lindegaard, Dorthe

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis of two C4'-modified DNA analogues and characterize their structural impact on dsDNA duplexes. The 4'-C-piperazinomethyl modification stabilizes dsDNA by up to 5°C per incorporation. Extension of the modification with a butanoyl-linked pyrene increases the dsDNA stabilization...... to a maximum of 9°C per incorporation. Using fluorescence, ultraviolet and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we show that the stabilization is achieved by pyrene intercalation in the dsDNA duplex. The pyrene moiety is not restricted to one intercalation site but rather switches between multiple...... sites in intermediate exchange on the NMR timescale, resulting in broad lines in NMR spectra. We identified two intercalation sites with NOE data showing that the pyrene prefers to intercalate one base pair away from the modified nucleotide with its linker curled up in the minor groove. Both...

  4. Trans-acting small interfering RNA4: key to nutraceutical synthesis in 1 grape development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    The facility and versatility of microRNAs (miRNAs) to evolve and change likely underlies how they have become dominant constituents of eukaryotic genomes. In this opinion article I propose that trans-acting small interfering RNA gene 4 (TAS4) evolution may be important for biosynthesis of polyphenolics, arbuscular symbiosis, and bacterial pathogen etiologies. Expression-based and phylogenetic evidence shows that TAS4 targets two novel grape (Vitis vinifera L.) MYB transcription factors (VvMYBA6, VvMYBA7) that spawn phased siRNAs and likely function in nutraceutical bioflavonoid biosynthesis and fruit development. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms of TAS4 control of plant development and integration into biotic and abiotic stress- and nutrient signaling regulatory networks has applicability to molecular breeding and development of strategies for engineering healthier foods. PMID:23993483

  5. NVL2, a nucleolar AAA-ATPase, is associated with the nuclear exosome and is involved in pre-rRNA processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikatsu, Yuki [Department of Life Systems, Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Ishida, Yo-ichi; Sudo, Haruka [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Yuasa, Keizo; Tsuji, Akihiko [Department of Life Systems, Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Nagahama, Masami, E-mail: nagahama@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan)

    2015-08-28

    Nuclear VCP-like 2 (NVL2) is a member of the chaperone-like AAA-ATPase family and is involved in the biosynthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits in mammalian cells. We previously showed the interaction of NVL2 with a DExD/H-box RNA helicase MTR4/DOB1, which is a known cofactor for an exoribonuclease complex, the exosome. This finding implicated NVL2 in RNA metabolic processes during ribosome biogenesis. In the present study, we found that a series of mutations within the ATPase domain of NVL2 causes a defect in pre-rRNA processing into mature 28S and 5.8S rRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that NVL2 was associated with the nuclear exosome complex, which includes RRP6 as a nucleus-specific catalytic subunit. This interaction was prevented by depleting either MTR4 or RRP6, indicating their essential role in mediating this interaction with NVL2. Additionally, knockdown of MPP6, another cofactor for the nuclear exosome, also prevented the interaction by causing MTR4 to dissociate from the nuclear exosome. These results suggest that NVL2 is involved in pre-rRNA processing by associating with the nuclear exosome complex and that MPP6 is required for maintaining the integrity of this rRNA processing complex. - Highlights: • ATPase-deficient mutants of NVL2 have decreased pre-rRNA processing. • NVL2 associates with the nuclear exosome through interactions with MTR4 and RRP6. • MPP6 stabilizes MTR4-RRP6 interaction and allows NVL2 to interact with the complex.

  6. The N-terminus of FILIA forms an atypical KH domain with a unique extension involved in interaction with RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juke Wang

    Full Text Available FILIA is a member of the recently identified oocyte/embryo expressed gene family in eutherian mammals, which is characterized by containing an N-terminal atypical KH domain. Here we report the structure of the N-terminal fragment of FILIA (FILIA-N, which represents the first reported three-dimensional structure of a KH domain in the oocyte/embryo expressed gene family of proteins. The structure of FILIA-N revealed a unique N-terminal extension beyond the canonical KH region, which plays important roles in interaction with RNA. By co-incubation with the lysates of mice ovaries, FILIA and FILIA-N could sequester specific RNA components, supporting the critical roles of FILIA in regulation of RNA transcripts during mouse oogenesis and early embryogenesis.

  7. Simple synthesis of carbon-11 labeled styryl dyes as new potential PET RNA-specific, living cell imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Gao, Mingzhang; Miller, Kathy D; Sledge, George W; Hutchins, Gary D; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2009-05-01

    A new type of styryl dyes have been developed as RNA-specific, live cell imaging probes for fluorescent microscopy technology to study nuclear structure and function. This study was designed to develop carbon-11 labeled styryl dyes as new probes for biomedical imaging technique positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of RNA in living cells. Precursors (E)-2-(2-(1-(triisopropylsilyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)vinyl)quinoline (2), (E)-2-(2,4,6-trimethoxystyryl)quinoline (3) and (E)-4-(2-(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)vinyl)-N,N-diemthylaniline (4), and standards styryl dyes E36 (6), E144 (7) and F22 (9) were synthesized in multiple steps with moderate to high chemical yields. Precursor 2 was labeled by [(11)C]CH(3)OTf, trapped on a cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge following a quick deprotecting reaction by addition of (n-Bu)(4)NF in THF, and isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification to provide target tracer [(11)C]E36 ([(11)C]6) in 40-50% radiochemical yields, decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB), based on [(11)C]CO(2). The target tracers [(11)C]E144 ([(11)C]7) and [(11)C]F22 ([(11)C]9) were prepared by N-[(11)C]methylation of the precursors 3 and 4, respectively, using [(11)C]CH(3)OTf and isolated by SPE method in 50-70% radiochemical yields at EOB. The specific activity of the target tracers [(11)C]6, [(11)C]7 and [(11)C]9 was in a range of 74-111GBq/mumol at the end of synthesis (EOS).

  8. A novel long noncoding RNA AK001796 acts as an oncogene and is involved in cell growth inhibition by resveratrol in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiaoyuan [Institute for Chemical Carcinogenesis, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Xu, Enwu [Department of Thoracic Surgery, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Dai, Jiabin; Liu, Binbin; Han, Zhiyuan; Wu, Jianjun; Zhang, Shaozhu; Peng, Baoying [Institute for Chemical Carcinogenesis, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Zhang, Yajie [Department of Pathology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China); Jiang, Yiguo, E-mail: jiangyiguo@vip.163.com [Institute for Chemical Carcinogenesis, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510182 (China)

    2015-06-01

    Lung cancer is the most common form of cancer throughout the world. The specific targeting of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) by resveratrol opened a new avenue for cancer chemoprevention. In this study, we found that 21 lncRNAs were upregulated and 19 lncRNAs were downregulated in lung cancer A549 cells with 25 μmol/L resveratrol treatment determined by microarray analysis. AK001796, the lncRNA with the most clearly altered expression, was overexpressed in lung cancer tissues and cell lines, but its expression was downregulated in resveratrol-treated lung cancer cells. By monitoring cell proliferation and growth in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, we observed a significant reduction in cell viability in lung cancer cells and a slow growth in the tumorigenesis following AK001796 knockdown. We also found that AK001796 knockdown caused a cell-cycle arrest, with significant increases in the percentage of cells in G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} in lung cancer cells. By using cell cycle pathway-specific PCR arrays, we detected changes in a number of cell cycle-related genes related to lncRNA AK001796 knockdown. We further investigated whether AK001796 participated in the anticancer effect of resveratrol and the results showed that reduced lncRNA AK001796 level potentially impaired the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on cell proliferation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the changes in an lncRNA expression profile induced by resveratrol in lung cancer. - Highlights: • LncRNA AK001796 played an oncogenic role in lung carcinogenesis. • LncRNA AK001796 was downregulated in resveratrol-treated lung cancer cells. • LncRNA AK001796 was involved in the inhibition of cell growth by resveratrol.

  9. Both endo-siRNAs and tRNA-derived small RNAs are involved in the differentiation of primitive eukaryote Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jian-You; Guo, Yan-Hua; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Li, Yan; Xu, Wen-Li; Zhang, Yu-Chan; Zhou, Hui; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Ayala, Francisco J; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2014-09-30

    Small RNAs (sRNAs), including microRNAs and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), regulate most important biologic processes in eukaryotes, such as cell division and differentiation. Although sRNAs have been extensively studied in various eukaryotes, the role of sRNAs in the early emergence of eukaryotes is unclear. To address these questions, we deep sequenced the sRNA transcriptome of four different stages in the differentiation of Giardia lamblia, one of the most primitive eukaryotes. We identified a large number of endo-siRNAs in this fascinating parasitic protozoan and found that they were produced from live telomeric retrotransposons and three genomic regions (i.e., endo-siRNA generating regions [eSGRs]). eSGR-derived endo-siRNAs were proven to target mRNAs in trans. Gradual up-regulation of endo-siRNAs in the differentiation of Giardia suggested that they might be involved in the regulation of this process. This hypothesis was supported by the impairment of the differentiation ability of Giardia when GLDICER, essential for the biogenesis of endo-siRNAs, was knocked down. Endo-siRNAs are not the only sRNA regulators in Giardia differentiation, because a great number of tRNAs-derived sRNAs showed more dramatic expression changes than endo-siRNAs in this process. We totally identified five novel kinds of tRNAs-derived sRNAs and found that the biogenesis in four of them might be correlated with that of stress-induced tRNA-derived RNA (sitRNA), which was discovered in our previous studies. Our studies reveal an unexpected complex panorama of sRNA in G. lamblia and shed light on the origin and functional evolution of eukaryotic sRNAs.

  10. EsrE-A yigP Locus-Encoded Transcript-Is a 3′ UTR sRNA Involved in the Respiratory Chain of E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The yigP locus is widely conserved among γ-proteobacteria. Mutation of the yigP locus impacts aerobic growth of Gram-negative bacteria. However, the underlying mechanism of how the yigP locus influences aerobic growth remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that the yigP locus in Escherichia coli encodes two transcripts; the mRNA of ubiquinone biosynthesis protein, UbiJ, and the 3′ untranslated region small regulatory RNA (sRNA, EsrE. EsrE is an independent transcript that is transcribed using an internal promoter of the yigP locus. Surprisingly, we found that both the EsrE sRNA and UbiJ protein were required for Q8 biosynthesis, and were sufficient to rescue the growth defect ascribed to deletion of the yigP locus. Moreover, our data showed that EsrE targeted multiple mRNAs involved in several cellular processes including murein biosynthesis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Among these targets, sdhD mRNA that encodes one subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, was significantly activated. Our findings provided an insight into the important function of EsrE in bacterial adaptation to various environments, as well as coordinating different aspects of bacterial physiology.

  11. Regional differences in glutathione accumulation pathways in the rat cornea: Mapping of amino acid transporters involved in glutathione synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandarajah, Vithushiya; Li, Bo; Umapathy, Ankita; Donaldson, Paul J; Lim, Julie C

    2017-08-01

    In this study we have sought to complete the identification and localisation of uptake pathways involved in accumulating precursor amino acids involved in GSH synthesis in the rat cornea. To do this, we performed reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to identify the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters (EAAT 1-5) responsible for glutamate uptake, and glycine transporters (GLYT 1-2) at the transcript level. Western blotting was used to verify protein expression, while immunolabelling of sagittal sections was used to localise transporters to the different layers of the cornea. Immunolabelling of en face sections was used to examine the subcellular distribution of proteins in the corneal endothelium. Our findings revealed EAAT 1-5 and GLYT 1-2 to be expressed at the transcript and protein level in the rat cornea. Immunohistochemistry revealed all amino acid transporters to be localised to the epithelium. In the majority of cases, labelling was restricted to the epithelium, and labelling absent from the stroma or endothelium. However, EAAT 4 and GLYT 2 labelling was detected in the stroma with EAAT 4 labelling also present in the endothelium. Overall, the identification of amino acid transporters strongly supports the existence of an intracellular GSH synthesis pathway in the rat corneal epithelium. This suggests that regional differences in GSH accumulation pathways exist, with direct uptake of GSH and intracellular synthesis of GSH restricted to the endothelial and epithelial cell layers, respectively. This information is important in the design of targeted strategies to enhance GSH levels in specific layers of the cornea to prevent against oxidative damage, corneal swelling and loss of corneal transparency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cap- and initiator tRNA-dependent initiation of TYMV polyprotein synthesis by ribosomes: Evaluation of the Trojan horse model for TYMV RNA translation

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Daiki; Dreher, Theo W.

    2007-01-01

    Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) RNA directs the translation of two overlapping open reading frames. Competing models have been previously published to explain ribosome access to the downstream polyprotein cistron. The Trojan horse model, based on cell-free experiments, proposes noncanonical cap-independent initiation in which the 3′-terminal tRNA-like structure (TLS) functionally replaces initiator tRNA, and the valine bound to the TLS becomes cis-incorporated into viral protein. The initia...

  13. Interplacental uterine expression of genes involved in prostaglandin synthesis during canine pregnancy and at induced prepartum luteolysis/abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In the non-pregnant dog, ovarian cyclicity is independent of a uterine luteolysin. This is in contrast to pregnant animals where a prepartum increase of luteolytic PGF2α occurs, apparently originating in the pregnant uterus. Recently, the placenta as a source of prepartum prostaglandins (PGs) was investigated, indicating fetal trophoblast cells as the likely main source. However, the possible contribution of uterine interplacental tissues to the production of these hormones has not yet been thoroughly examined in the dog. Methods Several key factors involved in the production and/or actions of PGs were studied: cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2, PTGS2), PGF2α-synthase (PGFS/AKR1C3), PGE2-synthase (PGES), and the respective receptors FP (PTGFR), EP2 (PTGER2) and EP4 (PGTER4), 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD), PG-transporter (PGT, SLCO2A1) and progesterone receptor. Their expression and localization patterns were assessed by Real Time PCR and immunohistology in the interplacental uterine sites from pregnant dogs during the pre-implantation period (days 8–12), post-implantation (days 18–25), mid-gestation (days 35–40) and during antigestagen-induced luteolysis/abortion. Results Whereas only low COX2 expression was observed in uterine samples at all the selected time points, expression of PGFS/AKR1C3 strongly increased post-implantation. A gradual increase in PGES-mRNA expression was noted towards mid-gestation. FP-mRNA expression decreased significantly with the progression of pregnancy until mid-gestation. This was associated with clearly detectable expression of HPGD, which did not change significantly over time. The expression of FP and EP2-mRNA decreased significantly over time while EP4-mRNA expression remained unaffected. The antigestagen-treatment led to a significant increase in expression of COX2, PGES, EP2 and PGT (SLCO2A1) mRNA. COX2 was localized predominantly in the myometrium. The expression of PGFS/AKR1C3, which was unchanged, was

  14. Comparative microRNA-seq Analysis Depicts Candidate miRNAs Involved in Skin Color Differentiation in Red Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanmei Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation and variation in body color has been a growing limitation to the commercial value of red tilapia. Limited microRNA (miRNA information is available on skin color differentiation and variation in fish so far. In this study, a high-throughput Illumina sequencing of sRNAs was conducted on three color varieties of red tilapia and 81,394,491 raw reads were generated. A total of 158 differentially expressed miRNAs (|log2(fold change| ≥ 1 and q-value ≤ 0.001 were identified. Target prediction and functional analysis of color-related miRNAs showed that a variety of putative target genes—including slc7a11, mc1r and asip—played potential roles in pigmentation. Moreover; the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was illustrated to elucidate the pigmentation differentiation, in which miR-138-5p and miR-722 were predicted to play important roles in regulating the pigmentation process. These results advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of skin pigmentation differentiation in red tilapia.

  15. Comparative microRNA-seq Analysis Depicts Candidate miRNAs Involved in Skin Color Differentiation in Red Tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanmei; Zhu, Wenbin; Dong, Zaijie; Song, Feibiao; Dong, Juanjuan; Fu, Jianjun

    2018-04-16

    Differentiation and variation in body color has been a growing limitation to the commercial value of red tilapia. Limited microRNA (miRNA) information is available on skin color differentiation and variation in fish so far. In this study, a high-throughput Illumina sequencing of sRNAs was conducted on three color varieties of red tilapia and 81,394,491 raw reads were generated. A total of 158 differentially expressed miRNAs (|log₂(fold change)| ≥ 1 and q -value ≤ 0.001) were identified. Target prediction and functional analysis of color-related miRNAs showed that a variety of putative target genes—including slc7a11 , mc1r and asip —played potential roles in pigmentation. Moreover; the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was illustrated to elucidate the pigmentation differentiation, in which miR-138-5p and miR-722 were predicted to play important roles in regulating the pigmentation process. These results advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of skin pigmentation differentiation in red tilapia.

  16. Down-regulation of microRNA-196a in the sera and involved skin of localized scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takamitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Etoh, Mitsuhiko; Yamane, Keitaro; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Katsunari; Ichihara, Asako; Igata, Toshikatsu; Sakai, Keisuke; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (LSc) exhibits fibrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. LSc shows an excessive deposition of type 1 collagen. To elucidate the mechanism of type 1 collagen overexpression in LSc, we investigated the epigenetics, focusing on microRNA (miRNA). miRNA expression profile was determined by PCR array analysis. The expression of microRNA-196a (miR-196a) in the skin tissue was examined by in situ hybridization or real-time PCR. The serum levels of miR-196a were measured by real-time PCR. PCR array analysis demonstrated that the miR-196a level was markedly decreased in LSc skin tissue in vivo. The transfection of specific inhibitor for miR-196a into normal cultured human dermal fibroblasts led to the up-regulation of type 1 collagen protein in vitro. Furthermore, the serum levels of miR-196a were significantly decreased in LSc patients. Down-regulation of miR-196a and subsequent overexpression of type 1 collagen in dermal fibroblasts may play a key role in the pathogenesis of LSc. The serum levels of miR-196a may be useful as a diagnostic marker of LSc.

  17. Dimeric ligands for GPCRs involved in human reproduction : synthesis and biological evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonger, Kimberly Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Dimeric ligands for G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in human reproduction, namely the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor, the luteinizing hormone receptor and the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, were synthesized and biologically evaluated.

  18. The trypanocidal activity of the alkaloid oliverine involves inhibition of DNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro, H A; Juri Ayub, M; Nieto, M; Lucero Estrada, C; Pungitore, C R; Tonn, C E

    2010-06-15

    The Trypanosoma cruzi parasite is an etiologic agent of the American trypanosomiasis called Chagas disease. This pathology affects more than 24 million persons and represents one of the most important public health problems in Latin America. Taking into account this, it is necessary the search of new antitrypanosomal agents that show a major level of efficacy and minor indexes of toxicity in affected patients. Vast source of them are the natural products from plants with enormous structural diversity. A particular type of these compounds is represented by aporphinoid alkaloids. In our experiments, anonaine (2), oliverine (3) and guatterine (5) displayed antitrypanosomal activity. The compound 3 showed the most important activity with an IC50 = 12.00 ± 0.36 μM. Its mechanism of action may include inhibition of DNA synthesis.

  19. Synthesis and antiviral activity of PB1 component of the influenza A RNA polymerase peptide fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusevich, O V; Egorov, V V; Gluzdikov, I A; Titov, M I; Zarubaev, V V; Shtro, A A; Slita, A V; Dukov, M I; Shurygina, A-P S; Smirnova, T D; Kudryavtsev, I V; Vasin, A V; Kiselev, O I

    2015-01-01

    This study is devoted to the antiviral activity of peptide fragments from the PB1 protein - a component of the influenza A RNA polymerase. The antiviral activity of the peptides synthesized was studied in MDCK cell cultures against the pandemic influenza strain A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) pdm09. We found that peptide fragments 6-13, 6-14, 26-30, 395-400, and 531-540 of the PB1 protein were capable of suppressing viral replication in cell culture. Terminal modifications i.e. N-acetylation and C-amidation increased the antiviral properties of the peptides significantly. Peptide PB1 (6-14) with both termini modified showed maximum antiviral activity, its inhibitory activity manifesting itself during the early stages of viral replication. It was also shown that the fluorescent-labeled analog of this peptide was able to penetrate into the cell. The broad range of virus-inhibiting activity of PB1 (6-14) peptide was confirmed using a panel of influenza A viruses of H1, H3 and H5 subtypes including those resistant to oseltamivir, the leading drug in anti-influenza therapy. Thus, short peptide fragments of the PB1 protein could serve as leads for future development of influenza prevention and/or treatment agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. B. abortus RNA is the component involved in the down-modulation of MHC-I expression on human monocytes via TLR8 and the EGFR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, M Ayelén; Velásquez, Lis N; Trotta, Aldana; Delpino, M Victoria; Marinho, Fábio V; Balboa, Luciana; Vermeulen, Mónica; Espindola, Sonia L; Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Fernández, Gabriela C; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Barrionuevo, Paula

    2017-08-01

    Despite eliciting a potent CD8+ T cell response, Brucella abortus is able to persist and establish a chronic infection inside its host. We have previously reported that the infection of human monocytes/macrophages with B. abortus inhibits the IFN-γ-induced MHC-I cell surface expression down-modulating cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. MHC-I down-modulation depends on bacterial viability and results from the capacity of B. abortus to retain the MHC-I molecules within the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, we recently demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is involved in this phenomenon and that this is an early event during infection. However, the components and mechanisms whereby B. abortus is able to down-modulate MHC-I remained to be elucidated. In this study we demonstrated that the down-modulation of MHC-I expression is not mediated by well-known Brucella virulence factors but instead by B. abortus RNA, a PAMP associated to viability (vita-PAMP). Surprisingly, completely degraded RNA was also able to inhibit MHC-I expression to the same extent as intact RNA. Accordingly, B. abortus RNA and its degradation products were able to mimic the MHC-I intracellular retention within the Golgi apparatus observed upon infection. We further demonstrated that TLR8, a single-stranded RNA and RNA degradation products sensor, was involved in MHC-I inhibition. On the other hand, neutralization of the EGFR reversed the MHC-I inhibition, suggesting a connection between the TLR8 and EGFR pathways. Finally, B. abortus RNA-treated macrophages display diminished capacity of antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells. Overall, our results indicate that the vita-PAMP RNA as well as its degradation products constitute novel virulence factors whereby B. abortus, by a TLR8-dependent mechanism and through the EGFR pathway, inhibits the IFN-γ-induced MHC-I surface expression on human monocytes/macrophages. Thus, bacteria can hide within infected cells and avoid the

  1. B. abortus RNA is the component involved in the down-modulation of MHC-I expression on human monocytes via TLR8 and the EGFR pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, M. Ayelén; Velásquez, Lis N.; Trotta, Aldana; Delpino, M. Victoria; Balboa, Luciana; Vermeulen, Mónica; Espindola, Sonia L.; Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Fernández, Gabriela C.; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2017-01-01

    Despite eliciting a potent CD8+ T cell response, Brucella abortus is able to persist and establish a chronic infection inside its host. We have previously reported that the infection of human monocytes/macrophages with B. abortus inhibits the IFN-γ-induced MHC-I cell surface expression down-modulating cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses. MHC-I down-modulation depends on bacterial viability and results from the capacity of B. abortus to retain the MHC-I molecules within the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, we recently demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is involved in this phenomenon and that this is an early event during infection. However, the components and mechanisms whereby B. abortus is able to down-modulate MHC-I remained to be elucidated. In this study we demonstrated that the down-modulation of MHC-I expression is not mediated by well-known Brucella virulence factors but instead by B. abortus RNA, a PAMP associated to viability (vita-PAMP). Surprisingly, completely degraded RNA was also able to inhibit MHC-I expression to the same extent as intact RNA. Accordingly, B. abortus RNA and its degradation products were able to mimic the MHC-I intracellular retention within the Golgi apparatus observed upon infection. We further demonstrated that TLR8, a single-stranded RNA and RNA degradation products sensor, was involved in MHC-I inhibition. On the other hand, neutralization of the EGFR reversed the MHC-I inhibition, suggesting a connection between the TLR8 and EGFR pathways. Finally, B. abortus RNA-treated macrophages display diminished capacity of antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells. Overall, our results indicate that the vita-PAMP RNA as well as its degradation products constitute novel virulence factors whereby B. abortus, by a TLR8-dependent mechanism and through the EGFR pathway, inhibits the IFN-γ-induced MHC-I surface expression on human monocytes/macrophages. Thus, bacteria can hide within infected cells and avoid the

  2. Structural rearrangements of the RNA polymerase III machinery during tRNA transcription initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Ewan Phillip; Vannini, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    RNA polymerase III catalyses the synthesis of tRNAs in eukaryotic organisms. Through combined biochemical and structural characterisation, multiple auxiliary factors have been identified alongside RNA Polymerase III as critical in both facilitating and regulating transcription. Together, this machinery forms dynamic multi-protein complexes at tRNA genes which are required for polymerase recruitment, DNA opening and initiation and elongation of the tRNA transcripts. Central to the function of these complexes is their ability to undergo multiple conformational changes and rearrangements that regulate each step. Here, we discuss the available biochemical and structural data on the structural plasticity of multi-protein complexes involved in RNA Polymerase III transcriptional initiation and facilitated re-initiation during tRNA synthesis. Increasingly, structural information is becoming available for RNA polymerase III and its functional complexes, allowing for a deeper understanding of tRNA transcriptional initiation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SI: Regulation of tRNA synthesis and modification in physiological conditions and disease edited by Dr. Boguta Magdalena. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanism and stoichiometry of interaction of DnaG primase with DnaB helicase of Escherichia coli in RNA primer synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkova, Atanaska V; Khopde, Sujata M; Biswas, Subhasis B

    2003-12-26

    Initiation and synthesis of RNA primers in the lagging strand of the replication fork in Escherichia coli requires the replicative DnaB helicase and the DNA primase, the DnaG gene product. In addition, the physical interaction between these two replication enzymes appears to play a role in the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication. In vitro, DnaB helicase stimulates primase to synthesize primers on single-stranded (ss) oligonucleotide templates. Earlier studies hypothesized that multiple primase molecules interact with each DnaB hexamer and single-stranded DNA. We have examined this hypothesis and determined the exact stoichiometry of primase to DnaB hexamer. We have also demonstrated that ssDNA binding activity of the DnaB helicase is necessary for directing the primase to the initiator trinucleotide and synthesis of 11-20-nucleotide long primers. Although, association of these two enzymes determines the extent and rate of synthesis of the RNA primers in vitro, direct evidence of the formation of primase-DnaB complex has remained elusive in E. coli due to the transient nature of their interaction. Therefore, we stabilized this complex using a chemical cross-linker and carried out a stoichiometric analysis of this complex by gel filtration. This allowed us to demonstrate that the primase-helicase complex of E. coli is comprised of three molecules of primase bound to one DnaB hexamer. Fluorescence anisotropy studies of the interaction of DnaB with primase, labeled with the fluorescent probe Ru(bipy)3, and Scatchard analysis further supported this conclusion. The addition of DnaC protein, leading to the formation of the DnaB-DnaC complex, to the simple priming system resulted in the synthesis of shorter primers. Therefore, interactions of the DnaB-primase complex with other replication factors might be critical for determining the physiological length of the RNA primers in vivo and the overall kinetics of primer synthesis.

  4. Epigenetic mechanisms involved in differential MDR1 mRNA expression between gastric and colon cancer cell lines and rationales for clinical chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyung-Jong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The membrane transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp, the MDR1 gene product, are one of causes of treatment failure in cancer patients. In this study, the epigenetic mechanisms involved in differential MDR1 mRNA expression were compared between 10 gastric and 9 colon cancer cell lines. Methods The MDR1 mRNA levels were determined using PCR and real-time PCR assays after reverse transcription. Cytotoxicity was performed using the MTT assay. Methylation status was explored by quantification PCR-based methylation and bisulfite DNA sequencing analyses. Results The MDR1 mRNA levels obtained by 35 cycles of RT-PCR in gastric cancer cells were just comparable to those obtained by 22 cycles of RT-PCR in colon cancer cells. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that MDR1 mRNA was not detected in the 10 gastric cancer cell lines but variable MDR1 mRNA levels in 7 of 9 colon cancer cell lines except the SNU-C5 and HT-29 cells. MTT assay showed that Pgp inhibitors such as cyclosporine A, verapamil and PSC833 sensitized Colo320HSR (colon, highest MDR1 expression but not SNU-668 (gastric, highest and SNU-C5 (gastric, no expression to paclitaxel. Quantification PCR-based methylation analysis revealed that 90% of gastric cancer cells, and 33% of colon cancer cells were methylated, which were completely matched with the results obtained by bisulfite DNA sequencing analysis. 5-aza-2'-deoxcytidine (5AC, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor increased the MDR1 mRNA levels in 60% of gastric cells, and in 11% of colon cancer cells. Trichostatin A (TSA, histone deacetylase inhibitor increased the MDR1 mRNA levels in 70% of gastric cancer cells and 55% of colon cancer cells. The combined treatment of 5AC with TSA increased the MDR1 mRNA levels additively in 20% of gastric cancer cells, but synergistically in 40% of gastric and 11% of colon cancer cells. Conclusion These results indicate that the MDR1 mRNA levels in gastric cancer cells are significantly

  5. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of pro-RNA 2'-O-masked with biolabile pivaloyloxymethyl groups in an RNA interference assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Thomas; Baraguey, Carine; Dupouy, Christelle; Parey, Nora; Wuensche, Winfried; Sczakiel, Georg; Vasseur, Jean-Jacques; Debart, Françoise

    2011-07-15

    The cellular delivery of bioactive nucleic acid-based drugs such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) represents a major technical hurdle for their pharmaceutical application. Prodrug-like approaches provide an attractive concept to address the delivery problem. With the aim to prepare RNA-based prodrugs bearing biolabile protections which facilitate cellular uptake and are prone to be removed enzymatically inside cells in order to release functional RNA, we synthesized pro-RNA totally or partially masked in 2'-OH position with pivaloyloxymethyl (PivOM) groups. A suitable strategy has been developed to synthesize and to purify base-sensitive mixed 2'-OH/2'-O-PivOM oligoribonucleotides, and to include them in siRNA. In this strategy, the fluoride labile [(triisopropylsilyl)oxy]-benzyloxycarbonyl group (tboc) as nucleobase protection (for A and C), the TBS group as 2'-OH protection and the Q-linker to solid-support were compatible with the PivOM groups masking some 2'-OH. We have taken advantage of the specific stability of the PivOM group to apply selected acidic, basic, and fluoride ions treatment for the deprotection and release of pro-RNA. This kind of pro-siRNA was studied in a human cell culture-based RNAi assay and preliminary promising data are discussed.

  6. Small RNA and PARE sequencing in flower bud reveal the involvement of sRNAs in endodormancy release of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia 'Kosui').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Songling; Saito, Takanori; Ito, Akiko; Tuan, Pham Anh; Xu, Ying; Teng, Yuanwen; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2016-03-15

    In woody perennial plants, including deciduous fruit trees, such as pear, endodormancy is a strategy for surviving the cold winter. A better understanding of the mechanism underlying the endodormancy phase transition is necessary for developing countermeasures against the effects of global warming. In this study, we analyzed the sRNAome of Japanese pear flower buds in endodormant and ecodormant stages over two seasons by implementing of RNA-seq and degradome-sequencing. We identified 137 conserved or less conserved miRNAs and 50 pear-specific miRNAs. However, none of the conserved microRNAs or pear-specific miRNAs was differentially expressed between endodormancy and ecodormancy stages. On the contrast, 1540 of 218,050 loci that produced sRNAs were differentially expressed between endodormancy and ecodormancy, suggesting their potential roles on the phase transition from endodormancy to ecodomancy. We also characterized a multifunctional miRNA precursor MIR168, which produces two functional miR168 transcripts, namely miR168.1 and miR168.2; cleavage events were predominantly mediated by the non-conserved variant miR168.2 rather than the conserved variant miR168.1. Finally, we showed that a TAS3 trans-acting siRNA triggered phased siRNA within the ORF of one of its target genes, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 4, via the analysis of phased siRNA loci, indicating that siRNAs are able to trigger phased siRNAs in pear. We analyzed the sRNAome of pear flower bud during dormant phase transition. Our work described the sRNA profiles of pear winter buds during dormant phase transition, showing that dormancy release is a highly coordinated physiological process involving the regulation of sRNAs.

  7. Thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptase fusion proteins and their use in cDNA synthesis and next-generation RNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Sabine; Ghanem, Eman; Smith, Whitney; Sheeter, Dennis; Qin, Yidan; King, Olga; Polioudakis, Damon; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Hunicke-Smith, Scott; Swamy, Sajani; Kuersten, Scott; Lambowitz, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile group II introns encode reverse transcriptases (RTs) that function in intron mobility (“retrohoming”) by a process that requires reverse transcription of a highly structured, 2–2.5-kb intron RNA with high processivity and fidelity. Although the latter properties are potentially useful for applications in cDNA synthesis and next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), group II intron RTs have been difficult to purify free of the intron RNA, and their utility as research tools has not been investigated systematically. Here, we developed general methods for the high-level expression and purification of group II intron-encoded RTs as fusion proteins with a rigidly linked, noncleavable solubility tag, and we applied them to group II intron RTs from bacterial thermophiles. We thus obtained thermostable group II intron RT fusion proteins that have higher processivity, fidelity, and thermostability than retroviral RTs, synthesize cDNAs at temperatures up to 81°C, and have significant advantages for qRT-PCR, capillary electrophoresis for RNA-structure mapping, and next-generation RNA sequencing. Further, we find that group II intron RTs differ from the retroviral enzymes in template switching with minimal base-pairing to the 3′ ends of new RNA templates, making it possible to efficiently and seamlessly link adaptors containing PCR-primer binding sites to cDNA ends without an RNA ligase step. This novel template-switching activity enables facile and less biased cloning of nonpolyadenylated RNAs, such as miRNAs or protein-bound RNA fragments. Our findings demonstrate novel biochemical activities and inherent advantages of group II intron RTs for research, biotechnological, and diagnostic methods, with potentially wide applications. PMID:23697550

  8. Cellular RNA Helicase DDX1 Is Involved in Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus nsp14-Induced Interferon-Beta Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanrong; Wu, Wei; Xie, Lilan; Wang, Dang; Ke, Qiyun; Hou, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaoli; Fang, Ying; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo; Fang, Liurong

    2017-01-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus (CoV) of porcine, causes lethal watery diarrhea and severe dehydration in piglets and leads to severe economic losses in the swine industry. Unlike most CoVs that antagonize type I interferon (IFN) production, previous studies showed that TGEV infection induces IFN-I production both in vivo and in vitro . However, the underlying mechanism(s) remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that TGEV infection significantly facilitated IFN-β production as well as activation of the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) in porcine kidney (PK-15) cells. Screening of TGEV-encoded proteins demonstrated that non-structural protein 14 (nsp14) was the most potent IFN-β inducer and induced IFN-β production mainly by activating NF-κB but not IRF3. Further analysis showed that nsp14 interacted with DDX1, a member of the DExD/H helicase family. Knockdown of DDX1 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreased nsp14-induced IFN-β production and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TGEV-induced IFN-β production and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression were decreased in cells transfected with DDX1-specific siRNA, indicating the vital role of DDX1 to TGEV-induced IFN-β responses. In summary, our data revealed a potential coactivator role of host RNA helicase DDX1 to the induction of IFN-β response initiated by TGEV and demonstrated that nsp14 is an important IFN inducer among the TGEV-encoded proteins.

  9. Cellular RNA Helicase DDX1 Is Involved in Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus nsp14-Induced Interferon-Beta Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, an enteropathogenic coronavirus (CoV of porcine, causes lethal watery diarrhea and severe dehydration in piglets and leads to severe economic losses in the swine industry. Unlike most CoVs that antagonize type I interferon (IFN production, previous studies showed that TGEV infection induces IFN-I production both in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism(s remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that TGEV infection significantly facilitated IFN-β production as well as activation of the transcription factors IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB in porcine kidney (PK-15 cells. Screening of TGEV-encoded proteins demonstrated that non-structural protein 14 (nsp14 was the most potent IFN-β inducer and induced IFN-β production mainly by activating NF-κB but not IRF3. Further analysis showed that nsp14 interacted with DDX1, a member of the DExD/H helicase family. Knockdown of DDX1 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA significantly decreased nsp14-induced IFN-β production and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TGEV-induced IFN-β production and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG expression were decreased in cells transfected with DDX1-specific siRNA, indicating the vital role of DDX1 to TGEV-induced IFN-β responses. In summary, our data revealed a potential coactivator role of host RNA helicase DDX1 to the induction of IFN-β response initiated by TGEV and demonstrated that nsp14 is an important IFN inducer among the TGEV-encoded proteins.

  10. The involvement of mRNA processing factors TIA-1, TIAR, and PABP-1 during mammalian hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Shannon N; Audas, Timothy E; Wu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Stephen; Storey, Kenneth B

    2014-11-01

    Mammalian hibernators survive low body temperatures, ischemia-reperfusion, and restricted nutritional resources via global reductions in energy-expensive cellular processes and selective increases in stress pathways. Consequently, studies that analyze hibernation uncover mechanisms which balance metabolism and support survival by enhancing stress tolerance. We hypothesized processing factors that influence messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) maturation and translation may play significant roles in hibernation. We characterized the amino acid sequences of three RNA processing proteins (T cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1), TIA1-related (TIAR), and poly(A)-binding proteins (PABP-1)) from thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), which all displayed a high degree of sequence identity with other mammals. Alternate Tia-1 and TiaR gene variants were found in the liver with higher expression of isoform b versus a in both cases. The localization of RNA-binding proteins to subnuclear structures was assessed by immunohistochemistry and confirmed by subcellular fractionation; TIA-1 was identified as a major component of subnuclear structures with up to a sevenfold increase in relative protein levels in the nucleus during hibernation. By contrast, there was no significant difference in the relative protein levels of TIARa/TIARb in the nucleus, and a decrease was observed for TIAR isoforms in cytoplasmic fractions of torpid animals. Finally, we used solubility tests to analyze the formation of reversible aggregates that are associated with TIA-1/R function during stress; a shift towards the soluble fraction (TIA-1a, TIA-1b) was observed during hibernation suggesting enhanced protein aggregation was not present during torpor. The present study identifies novel posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms that may play a role in reducing translational rates and/or mRNA processing under unfavorable environmental conditions.

  11. Involvement of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol in DNA synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Motohide

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG is present in the membranes of cyanobacteria and their postulated progeny, plastids, in plants. A cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, requires SQDG for growth: its mutant (SD1 with the sqdB gene for SQDG synthesis disrupted can grow with external supplementation of SQDG. However, upon removal of SQDG from the medium, its growth is retarded, with a decrease in the cellular content of SQDG throughout cell division, and finally ceases. Concomitantly with the decrease in SQDG, the maximal activity of photosynthesis at high-light intensity is repressed by 40%. Findings We investigated effects of SQDG-defect on physiological aspects in Synechocystis with the use of SD1. SD1 cells defective in SQDG exhibited normal photosynthesis at low-light intensity as on culturing. Meanwhile, SD1 cells defective in SQDG were impaired in light-activated heterotrophic growth as well as in photoautotrophic growth. Flow cytometric analysis of the photoautotrophically growing cells gave similar cell size histograms for the wild type and SD1 supplemented with SQDG. However, the profile of SD1 defective in SQDG changed such that large part of the cell population was increased in size. Of particular interest was the microscopic observation that the mitotic index, i.e., population of dumbbell-like cells with a septum, increased from 14 to 29% in the SD1 culture without SQDG. Flow cytometric analysis also showed that the enlarged cells of SD1 defective in SQDG contained high levels of Chl, however, the DNA content was low. Conclusions Our experiments strongly support the idea that photosynthesis is not the limiting factor for the growth of SD1 defective in SQDG, and that SQDG is responsible for some physiologically fundamental process common to both photoautotrophic and light-activated heterotrophic growth. Our findings suggest that the SQDG-defect allows construction of the photosynthetic machinery at an

  12. Toward a more efficient isolation of total RNA from loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Fuentes, Amparo; Mesejo Conejos, Carlos; Agustí Fonfría, Manuel; Reig Valor, Carmina

    2015-01-01

    [EN] Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) tissues contain considerable amounts of polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides which can copurify with RNA. This can render the RNA unsuitable for DNA synthesis and makes the isolation of high quality RNA from loquat tissues particularly difficult. Materials and methods. Total RNA was extracted from leaves, buds and fruit of loquat by adapting the method described by Song et al. in 2011. This involved improvements both to the extraction protocol an...

  13. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins Involved in a Posttranscriptional Iron Regulatory Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E.; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S.; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis. PMID:26703754

  14. Genes involved in meso-diaminopimelate synthesis in Bacillus subtilis: identification of the gene encoding aspartokinase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roten, C A; Brandt, C; Karamata, D

    1991-04-01

    Thermosensitive mutants of Bacillus subtilis deficient in peptidoglycan synthesis were screened for mutations in the meso-diaminopimelate (LD-A2pm) metabolic pathway. Mutations in two out of five relevant linkage groups, lssB and lssD, were shown to induce, at the restrictive temperature, a deficiency in LD-A2pm synthesis and accumulation of UDP-MurNAc-dipeptide. Group lssB is heterogeneous; it encompasses mutations that confer deficiency in the deacylation of N-acetyl-LL-A2pm and accumulation of this precursor. Accordingly, these mutations are assigned to the previously identified locus dapE. Mutations in linkage group lssD entail a thermosensitive aspartokinase 1. Therefore, they are most likely to affect the structural gene of this enzyme, which we propose to designate dapG. Mutation pyc-1476, previously reported to affect the pyruvate carboxylase, was shown to confer a deficiency in aspartokinase 1, not in the carboxylase, and to belong to the dapG locus, dapG is closely linked to spoVF, the putative gene of dipicolinate synthase. In conclusion, mutations affecting only two out of eight steps known to be involved in LD-A2pm synthesis were uncovered in a large collection of thermosensitive mutants obtained by indirect selection. We propose that this surprisingly restricted distribution of the thermosensitive dap mutations isolated so far is due to the existence, in each step of the pathway, of isoenzymes encoded by separate genes. The biological role of different aspartokinases was investigated with mutants deficient in dapE and dapG genes. Growth characteristics of these mutants in the presence of various combinations of aspartate family amino acids allow a reassessment of a metabolic channel hypothesis, i.e. the proposed existence of multienzyme complexes, each specific for a given end product.

  15. L-lysine epsilon-aminotransferase involved in cephamycin C synthesis in Streptomyces lactamdurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, B A; Hendlin, D; Inamine, E

    1980-01-01

    In Streptomyces lactamdurans, the precursor of the alpha-aminoadipoyl side-chain of cephamycin C is L-lysine. In this regard, streptomycetes differ strikingly from the fungi, which produce alpha-aminoadipic acid during the synthesis, rather than the breakdown, of L-lysine. Studies using a cell-free system showed that an aminoadipic acid. The product of this reaction was trapped and subsequently purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Thin-layer chromatography, spectrophotometry, and amino acid oxidase digestion studies identified the reaction product as L-1-piperideine-6-carboxylate, implying enzymatic removal of the epsilon amino group of L-lysine. This enzymatic activity (E.C. 2.6.1.36; L-lysine: 2-oxoglutarate 6-aminotransferase) is highly unusual and was previously conclusively demonstrated only in the genus Flavobacterium. In S. lactamdurans, the specific activity of this enzyme reaches a peak early in the fermentation (approximately 20 h) and decreases as the antibiotic begins to appear. PMID:6772093

  16. De novo ceramide synthesis is involved in acute inflammation during labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Paola; Avagliano, Laura; Reforgiato, Marta R; Toppi, Nadia; Casas, Josefina; Fabriàs, Gemma; Marconi, Anna Maria; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Caretti, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Gestation is regulated by an inflammatory process that allows implantation and parturition. The comprehension of such inflammatory switches is important for the identification of therapeutic targets in pregnancy defects. Sphingolipids are a class of structural membrane components with important signaling functions. Among sphingolipids, ceramide is a well-known mediator of stress signals and pro-inflammatory responses. In this paper, we evaluated the association between ceramide increase and the inflammatory process of labor, comparing placentas from vaginal deliveries, including both spontaneous and induced labor, versus elective cesarean. We demonstrated that: (i) the inflammatory marker IL-6 is upregulated in labored placentas; (ii) IL-6 content inversely correlates with labor duration; (iii) ceramide content and expression of serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT, rate limiting enzyme for de novo ceramide synthesis) are increased in labored placentas; (iv) the expression of SPT directly correlates with inflammation and inversely with labor duration. These observations suggest that ceramide metabolism and signaling may be implicated in controlling important inflammatory mechanisms driving gestation: we hypothesize that ceramide can be a therapeutic target in inflammatory complications of parturition.

  17. Expression of nerve growth factor and its receptors in the uterus of rabbits: functional involvement in prostaglandin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranesi, M; Parillo, F; Leonardi, L; Rebollar, P G; Alonso, B; Petrucci, L; Gobbetti, A; Boiti, C; Arruda-Alencar, J; Moura, A; Zerani, M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate: (1) the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor 1 (NTRK1), and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) in the rabbit uterus; and (2) the in vitro effects of NGF on PGF2α and PGE2 synthesis and on the PGE2-9-ketoreductase (PGE2-9-K) activity by the rabbit uterus. Nerve growth factor, NTRK1, and NGFR were immunolocalized in the luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma cells of the endometrium. reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction indicated the presence of messenger RNA for NGF, NTRK1, and NGFR in the uterus. Nerve growth factor increased (P uterus. NGF/NTRK1 increases PGF2α and PGE2 productions by upregulating NOS and PGE2-9-K activities, whereas NGF/NGFR augments only PGF2α secretion, through an intracellular mechanism that is still unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Two-component systems are involved in the regulation of botulinum neurotoxin synthesis in Clostridium botulinum type A strain Hall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Connan

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum synthesizes a potent neurotoxin (BoNT which associates with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs to form complexes of various sizes. The bont and antp genes are clustered in two operons. In C. botulinum type A, bont/A and antp genes are expressed during the end of the exponential growth phase and the beginning of the stationary phase under the control of an alternative sigma factor encoded by botR/A, which is located between the two operons. In the genome of C. botulinum type A strain Hall, 30 gene pairs predicted to encode two-component systems (TCSs and 9 orphan regulatory genes have been identified. Therefore, 34 Hall isogenic antisense strains on predicted regulatory genes (29 TCSs and 5 orphan regulatory genes have been obtained by a mRNA antisense procedure. Two TCS isogenic antisense strains showed more rapid growth kinetics and reduced BoNT/A production than the control strain, as well as increased bacterial lysis and impairment of the bacterial cell wall structure. Three other TCS isogenic antisense strains induced a low level of BoNT/A and ANTP production. Interestingly, reduced expression of bont/A and antp genes was shown to be independent of botR/A. These results indicate that BoNT/A synthesis is under the control of a complex network of regulation including directly at least three TCSs.

  19. Entangled zinc-ditetrazolate frameworks involving in situ ligand synthesis and topological modulation by various secondary N-donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunwu; Chen Weilin; Wang Yonghui; Li Yangguang; Wang Enbo

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of various secondary N-donor ligands into an in situ ditetrazolate-ligand synthesis system of terephthalonitrile, NaN 3 and ZnCl 2 led to the formation of three new entangled frameworks Zn(pdtz)(4,4'-bipy).3H 2 O (1), [Zn(pdtz)(bpp)] 2 .3H 2 O (2) and Zn(pdtz) 0.5 (N 3 )(2,2'-bipy) (3) (4,4'-bipy=4,4'-bipyridine; bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane; 2,2'-bipy=2,2'-bipyridine; H 2 pdtz=5,5'-1,4-phenylene-ditetrazole). The formation of pdtz 2- ligand involves the Sharpless [2+3] cycloaddition reaction between terephthalonitrile and NaN 3 in the presence of Zn 2+ ion as a Lewis-acid catalyst under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 exhibits a fivefold interpenetrating 3D framework based on the diamondoid topology. Compound 2 displays a twofold parallel interpenetrating framework based on the wavelike individual network. Compound 3 possesses a 2D puckered network. These new Zn-ditetrazolate frameworks are highly dependent on the modulation of different secondary N-donor ligands. Their luminescent properties were investigated. - Graphical abstract: Three new entangled frameworks were prepared by an in situ ditetrazolate-ligand synthesis system assisted with various auxiliary N-donor ligands. The entangled structures can be modulated by different secondary ligands.

  20. Synthesis of a gene for the HIV transactivator protein TAT by a novel single stranded approach involving in vivo gap repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, S E; Johnson, I D; Braddock, M; Kingsman, A J; Kingsman, S M; Edwards, R M

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of a gene for the HIV TAT protein is described using a novel approach that capitalises on the ability to synthesise oligonucleotides of greater than 100 bp in length. It involves the synthesis of large oligomers covering one strand of the desired gene in its entirety and the use of small complementary bridging and adapter oligonucleotides to direct the assembly and cloning of the large oligomers. After ligation to the cloning vector the partially single stranded intermediate is ...

  1. Next-generation sequencing-based mRNA and microRNA expression profiling analysis revealed pathways involved in the rapid growth of developing culms in Moso bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background As one of the fastest-growing lignocellulose-abundant plants on Earth, bamboos can reach their final height quickly due to the expansion of individual internodes already present in the buds; however, the molecular processes underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. Pubescens) internodes from four different developmental stages and three different internodes within the same stage were used in our study to investigate the molecular processes at the transcriptome and post-transcriptome level. Results Our anatomical observations indicated the development of culms was dominated by cell division in the initial stages and by cell elongation in the middle and late stages. The four major endogenous hormones appeared to actively promote culm development. Using next-generation sequencing-based RNA-Seq, mRNA and microRNA expression profiling technology, we produced a transcriptome and post-transcriptome in possession of a large fraction of annotated Moso bamboo genes, and provided a molecular basis underlying the phenomenon of sequentially elongated internodes from the base to the top. Several key pathways such as environmental adaptation, signal transduction, translation, transport and many metabolisms were identified as involved in the rapid elongation of bamboo culms. Conclusions This is the first report on the temporal and spatial transcriptome and gene expression and microRNA profiling in a developing bamboo culms. In addition to gaining more insight into the unique growth characteristics of bamboo, we provide a good case study to analyze gene, microRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using high-throughput short-read sequencing. Also, we demonstrate that the integrated analysis of our multi-omics data, including transcriptome, post-transcriptome, proteome, yield more complete representations and additional biological insights, especially the complex dynamic processes occurring in Moso bamboo culms

  2. Synthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition involving cyclic nitrones and unsaturated lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecko, Sebastian; Jurczak, Margarita; Urbańczyk-Lipkowska, Zofia; Solecka, Jolanta; Chmielewski, Marek

    2008-09-08

    The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of cyclic nitrone derived from tartaric acid and (S)-5-hydroxymethyl-2(5H)-furanone leads to a single adduct which was transformed into 2,6-dihydroxyhastanecine via reaction sequence involving reduction of the lactone moiety, glycolic cleavage of the terminal diol, and the N-O hydrogenolysis followed by the intramolecular alkylation of the nitrogen atom.

  3. Quinoline derivatives: Synthesis, leishmanicidal activity and involvement of mitochondrial oxidative stress as mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, Elaine S; Antinarelli, Luciana M R; Silva, Natália P; Souza, Isabela O; Meinel, Raissa S; Rocha, Marcele N; Soares, Rodrigo P P; da Silva, Adilson D

    2016-12-25

    Leishmaniasis comprise a spectrum of diseases caused by protozoa parasites from the genus Leishmania, affecting millions of people worldwide, mainly in subtropical countries. Most antileishmanial drugs are highly toxic, present resistance issues or require long-term treatment. Consequently, new drugs are urgently needed. Quinoline-containing compounds have displayed an impressive array of biological properties over the years, including antileishmanial activity. In the present study, we report the synthesis and evaluation of novel quinoline derivatives (QuinDer) against Leishmania species and cytotoxic effect on mammalian cells. The ROS production and mitochondrial membrane potential analyses were also studied. The compound QuinDer1 showed activity on L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis promastigotes and this compound exhibited a strong inhibition of the proliferation of L. amazonensis amastigotes at nM concentration (IC 50 of 0.0911 μM), being 139 times more active than miltefosine (IC 50 of 12.7 μM), used as reference drug. This compound presents low cytotoxicity toward murine macrophages and human erythrocytes. In addition, promastigotes of L. amazonensis treated with the compound QuinDer1 present high generation of ROS levels with low alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential and maintenance of parasite membrane integrity. No substantial NO production in infected-macrophages treated with this compound was detected. These results suggest that the compound QuinDer 1 is a potent and selective antileishmanial agent by mitochondrial oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Hydrogen Gas Is Involved in Auxin-Induced Lateral Root Formation by Modulating Nitric Oxide Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism of molecular hydrogen (H2 in bacteria and algae has been widely studied, and it has attracted increasing attention in the context of animals and plants. However, the role of endogenous H2 in lateral root (LR formation is still unclear. Here, our results showed that H2-induced lateral root formation is a universal event. Naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA; the auxin analog was able to trigger endogenous H2 production in tomato seedlings, and a contrasting response was observed in the presence of N-1-naphthyphthalamic acid (NPA, an auxin transport inhibitor. NPA-triggered the inhibition of H2 production and thereafter lateral root development was rescued by exogenously applied H2. Detection of endogenous nitric oxide (NO by the specific probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2′,7′-difluorofluorescein diacetate (DAF-FM DA and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR analyses revealed that the NO level was increased in both NAA- and H2-treated tomato seedlings. Furthermore, NO production and thereafter LR formation induced by auxin and H2 were prevented by 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO; a specific scavenger of NO and the inhibitor of nitrate reductase (NR; an important NO synthetic enzyme. Molecular evidence confirmed that some representative NO-targeted cell cycle regulatory genes were also induced by H2, but was impaired by the removal of endogenous NO. Genetic evidence suggested that in the presence of H2, Arabidopsis mutants nia2 (in particular and nia1 (two nitrate reductases (NR-defective mutants exhibited defects in lateral root length. Together, these results demonstrated that auxin-induced H2 production was associated with lateral root formation, at least partially via a NR-dependent NO synthesis.

  5. The Effect of Lysophosphatidic Acid during In Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes: Embryonic Development and mRNA Abundances of Genes Involved in Apoptosis and Oocyte Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Boruszewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined whether LPA can be synthesized and act during in vitro maturation of bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs. We found transcription of genes coding for enzymes of LPA synthesis pathway (ATX and PLA2 and of LPA receptors (LPAR 1–4 in bovine oocytes and cumulus cells, following in vitro maturation. COCs were matured in vitro in presence or absence of LPA (10−5 M for 24 h. Supplementation of maturation medium with LPA increased mRNA abundance of FST and GDF9 in oocytes and decreased mRNA abundance of CTSs in cumulus cells. Additionally, oocytes stimulated with LPA had higher transcription levels of BCL2 and lower transcription levels of BAX resulting in the significantly lower BAX/BCL2 ratio. Blastocyst rates on day 7 were similar in the control and the LPA-stimulated COCs. Our study demonstrates for the first time that bovine COCs are a potential source and target of LPA action. We postulate that LPA exerts an autocrine and/or paracrine signaling, through several LPARs, between the oocyte and cumulus cells. LPA supplementation of maturation medium improves COC quality, and although this was not translated into an enhanced in vitro development until the blastocyst stage, improved oocyte competence may be relevant for subsequent in vivo survival.

  6. Screening of Genes Involved in Isooctane Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Using mRNA Differential Display

    OpenAIRE

    Miura, Shigenori; Zou, Wen; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Tanaka, Atsuo

    2000-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, KK-211, isolated by the long-term bioprocess of stereoselective reduction in isooctane, showed extremely high tolerance to the solvent, which is toxic to yeast cells, but, in comparison with its wild-type parent, DY-1, showed low tolerance to hydrophilic organic solvents, such as dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol. In order to detect the isooctane tolerance-associated genes, mRNA differential display (DD) was employed using mRNAs isolated from strains DY-1 and K...

  7. Differential Involvement of the Five RNA Helicases in Adaptation of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 to Low Growth Temperatures ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pandiani, Franck; Brillard, Julien; Bornard, Isabelle; Michaud, Caroline; Chamot, Stéphanie; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Broussolle, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 possesses five RNA helicase-encoding genes overexpressed under cold growth conditions. Out of the five corresponding mutants, only the {Delta}cshA, {Delta}cshB, and {Delta}cshC strains were cold sensitive. Growth of the {Delta}cshA strain was also reduced at 30°C but not at 37°C. The cold phenotype was restored with the cshA gene for the {Delta}cshA strain and partially for the {Delta}cshB strain but not for the {Delta}cshC strain, suggesting different functions at ...

  8. Evidence of Multiple Treponema Phylotypes Involved in Bovine Digital Dermatitis as Shown by 16S rRNA Gene Analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Kirstine; Boye, Mette; Capion, Nynne

    2008-01-01

    of the bacteria involved in DD lesions of cattle by using culture-independent molecular methods. Ten different phylotypes of Treponema were identified either by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria from DD lesions or by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using phylotype-specific 16S r......RNA-directed oligonucleotide probes. Two phylotypes, phylotype 1 (PT1) and PT2, were not closely related to any characterized treponemal species. PT7 was 99.3% identical to Treponema denticola, while PT9 resembled T. vincentii by 96%. The remaining phylotypes, PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT8, and Treponema brennaborense had...... previously been isolated from DD lesions. Forty DD biopsy specimens were examined for Treponema by FISH. With one exception, all of the biopsy specimens revealed epidermotropic, intermingled infection with three or more different phylotypes (mean, 4.7). The most prevalent species were PT1 (95%), PT6 (93...

  9. The 3' untranslated region of the cyclin B mRNA is not sufficient to enhance the synthesis of cyclin B during a mitotic block in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Schnerch

    Full Text Available Antimitotic agents are frequently used to treat solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. However, one major limitation of antimitotic approaches is mitotic slippage, which is driven by slow degradation of cyclin B during a mitotic block. The extent to which cyclin B levels decline is proposed to be governed by an equilibrium between cyclin B synthesis and degradation. It was recently shown that the 3' untranslated region (UTR of the murine cyclin B mRNA contributes to the synthesis of cyclin B during mitosis in murine cells. Using a novel live-cell imaging-based technique allowing us to study synthesis and degradation of cyclin B simultaneously at the single cell level, we tested here the role of the human cyclin B 3'UTR in regulating cyclin B synthesis during mitosis in human cells. We observed that the cyclin B 3'UTR was not sufficient to enhance cyclin B synthesis in human U2Os, HeLa or hTERT RPE-1 cells. A better understanding of how the equilibrium of cyclin B is regulated in mitosis may contribute to the development of improved therapeutic approaches to prevent mitotic slippage in cancer cells treated with antimitotic agents.

  10. Study of miRNA Based Gene Regulation, Involved in Solid Cancer, by the Assistance of Argonaute Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Narayan Rath

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumor is generally observed in tissues of epithelial or endothelial cells of lung, breast, prostate, pancreases, colorectal, stomach, and bladder, where several genes transcription is regulated by the microRNAs (miRNAs. Argonaute (AGO protein is a family of protein which assists in miRNAs to bind with mRNAs of the target genes. Hence, study of the binding mechanism between AGO protein and miRNAs, and also with miRNAs-mRNAs duplex is crucial for understanding the RNA silencing mechanism. In the current work, 64 genes and 23 miRNAs have been selected from literatures, whose deregulation is well established in seven types of solid cancer like lung, breast, prostate, pancreases, colorectal, stomach, and bladder cancer. In silico study reveals, miRNAs namely, miR-106a, miR-21, and miR-29b-2 have a strong binding affinity towards PTEN, TGFBR2, and VEGFA genes, respectively, suggested as important factors in RNA silencing mechanism. Furthermore, interaction between AGO protein (PDB ID-3F73, chain A with selected miRNAs and with miRNAs-mRNAs duplex were studied computationally to understand their binding at molecular level. The residual interaction and hydrogen bonding are inspected in Discovery Studio 3.5 suites. The current investigation throws light on understanding miRNAs based gene silencing mechanism in solid cancer.

  11. Identification of Secreted Proteins Involved in Nonspecific dsRNA-Mediated Lutzomyia longipalpis LL5 Cell Antiviral Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Martins-da-Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous insects transmit infectious diseases. Sand flies are vectors of leishmaniasis, but can also transmit viruses. We have been studying immune responses of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. We identified a non-specific antiviral response in L. longipalpis LL5 embryonic cells when treated with non-specific double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs. This response is reminiscent of interferon response in mammals. We are investigating putative effectors for this antiviral response. Secreted molecules have been implicated in immune responses, including interferon-related responses. We conducted a mass spectrometry analysis of conditioned medium from LL5 cells 24 and 48 h after dsRNA or mock treatment. We identified 304 proteins. At 24 h, 19 proteins had an abundance equal or greater than 2-fold change, while the levels of 17 proteins were reduced when compared to control cells. At the 48 h time point, these numbers were 33 and 71, respectively. The two most abundant secreted peptides at 24 h in the dsRNA-transfected group were phospholipid scramblase, an interferon-inducible protein that mediates antiviral activity, and forskolin-binding protein (FKBP, a member of the immunophilin family, which mediates the effect of immunosuppressive drugs. The transcription profile of most candidates did not follow the pattern of secreted protein abundance.

  12. Long non-coding RNA TUG1 is involved in cell growth and chemoresistance of small cell lung cancer by regulating LIMK2b via EZH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuchun; Ma, Feng; Huang, Weimei; Fang, Shun; Li, Man; Wei, Ting; Guo, Linlang

    2017-01-09

    Taurine upregulated gene1 (TUG1) as a 7.1-kb lncRNA, has been shown to play an oncogenic role in various cancers. However, the biological functions of lncRNA TUG1 in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remain unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of TUG1 in cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC and its possible molecular mechanism. The expression of TUG1 in thirty-three cases of SCLC tissues and SCLC cell line were examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The functional roles of TUG1 in SCLC were demonstrated by CCK8 assay, colony formation assay, wound healing assay and transwell assay, flow cytometry analysis and in vivo study through siRNA or shRNA mediated knockdown. Western blot assays were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in cell lines. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) were performed to confirm the molecular mechanism of TUG1 involved in cell growth and chemoresistance of small cell lung cancer. We found that TUG1 was overexpressed in SCLC tissues, and its expression was correlated with the clinical stage and the shorter survival time of SCLC patients. Moreover, downregulation of TUG1 expression could impair cell proliferation and increased cell sensitivity to anticancer drugs both in vitro and in vivo. We also discovered that TUG1 knockdown significantly promoted cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro . We further demonstrated that TUG1 can regulate the expression of LIMK2b (a splice variant of LIM-kinase 2) via binding with enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), and then promoted cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC. Together, these results suggested that TUG1 mediates cell growth and chemoresistance of SCLC by regulating LIMK2b via EZH2.

  13. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Long Li

    Full Text Available Ran (RanGTPase in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1 and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1 Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2 The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control.

  14. Glutathione S-transferase PI (GST-PI) mRNA expression and DNA methylation is involved in the pathogenesis and prognosis of NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimminger, Peter P; Maus, Martin K H; Schneider, Paul M; Metzger, Ralf; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Sugita, Hirofumi; Danenberg, Peter V; Alakus, Hakan; Brabender, Jan

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relevance of mRNA expression and DNA methylation of GST-PI in tumor and non-tumor lung tissue from NSCLC patients in terms of prognostic and pathogenetic value of this biomarker. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression and DNA methylation of GST-PI in paired tumor (T) and non-tumor (N) lung tissue of 91 NSCLC patients. Of all 91 patients 49% were stage I, 21% stage II and 30% stage IIIA. Forty-seven percent of the patients had squamous cell carcinoma, 36% adenocarcinoma and 17% large cell carcinoma. All patients were R0 resected. GST-PI mRNA expression could be measured in 100% in both (T and N) tissues; GST-PI DNA methylation was detected in 14% (N) and 14% (T). The median GST-PI mRNA expression in N was 7.83 (range: 0.01-19.43) and in T 13.15 (range: 0.01-116.8; p≤0.001). The median GST-PI methylation was not significantly different between T and N. No associations were seen between the mRNA expression or DNA methylation levels and clinical or histopathologic parameters such as gender, age, TNM stage, tumor histology and grading. The median survival of the investigated patients was 59.7 years (the median follow-up was 85.9 months). High GST-PI DNA methylation was significantly associated with a worse prognosis (p=0.041, log rank test). No correlation was found between the GST-PI DNA methylation levels and the correlating mRNA expression levels. GST-PI mRNA expression seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of NSCLC. High levels of GST-PI DNA methylation in tumor tissue of NSCLC patients have a potential as a biomarker identifying subpopulations with a more aggressive tumor biology. Quantitation of GST-PI DNA methylation may be a useful method to identify patients with a poor prognosis after curative resection and who will benefit from intensive adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A high-fat diet reduces ceramide synthesis by decreasing adiponectin levels and decreases lipid content by modulating HMG-CoA reductase and CPT-1 mRNA expression in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Takumi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Oishi, Yuichi

    2011-09-01

    Molecules involved in skin function are greatly affected by nutritional conditions. However, the mechanism linking high-fat (HF) diets with these alterations is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the molecular changes in skin function that result from HF diets. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HF diets for 28 days. The skin levels of ceramide, lipids and mRNAs involved in lipid metabolism were evaluated using TLC, oil red O staining and quantitative PCR, respectively. The serum adiponectin concentration was determined by ELISA. HF diets led to reduced ceramide levels and lowered skin lipid content. They also decreased mRNA levels of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in the skin and those of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α -PPAR-α), which upregulates SPT and HMG-CoA reductase expression. The HF diets reduced the serum concentration of adiponectin, which acts upstream of PPAR-α. Finally, these diets led to increased mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, the rate-limiting enzyme that acts in β-oxidation. Our study suggests that HF diets reduce ceramide and lipid synthesis in the skin by reducing levels of SPT and HMG-CoA reductase through lowered adiponectin and PPAR-α activity. Additionally, they decrease lipid content by enhancing β-oxidation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Mutational analysis of the hypervariable region of hepatitis e virus reveals its involvement in the efficiency of viral RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudupakam, R S; Kenney, Scott P; Córdoba, Laura; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A; Leroith, Tanya; Pierson, F William; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-10-01

    The RNA genome of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1 that tolerates small deletions with respect to infectivity. To further investigate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we constructed a panel of mutants with overlapping deletions in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the HVR by using a genotype 1 human HEV luciferase replicon and analyzed the effects of deletions on viral RNA replication in Huh7 cells. We found that the replication levels of the HVR deletion mutants were markedly reduced in Huh7 cells, suggesting a role of the HVR in viral replication efficiency. To further verify the results, we constructed HVR deletion mutants by using a genetically divergent, nonmammalian avian HEV, and similar effects on viral replication efficiency were observed when the avian HEV mutants were tested in LMH cells. Furthermore, the impact of complete HVR deletion on virus infectivity was tested in chickens, using an avian HEV mutant with a complete HVR deletion. Although the deletion mutant was still replication competent in LMH cells, the complete HVR deletion resulted in a loss of avian HEV infectivity in chickens. Since the HVR exhibits extensive variations in sequence and length among different HEV genotypes, we further examined the interchangeability of HVRs and demonstrated that HVR sequences are functionally exchangeable between HEV genotypes with regard to viral replication and infectivity in vitro, although genotype-specific HVR differences in replication efficiency were observed. The results showed that although the HVR tolerates small deletions with regard to infectivity, it may interact with viral and host factors to modulate the efficiency of HEV replication.

  17. Involvement of microRNA-718, a new regulator of EGR3, in regulation of malignant phenotype of HCC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Dong; Qu, Fan-Yong; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Ran, Zhang-Shen; Liu, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Hai-Dong

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still one of the most common death-related malignancies worldwide. Because the way onset and progression are hidden most, HCC diagnoses are made at an advanced stage, when they are unsuitable for surgical resection. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, participating in many aspects of cancers. In this study, we tried to establish the role of microRNA-718 (miR-718) in the malignant phenotype of HCC cells and its possible role in HCC diagnosis. Here we first used a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Transwell migration and invasion assays, and colony formation assay to evaluate the impact of miR-718 on the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells. Then, we used bioinformatic methods to predict the target gene of miR-718 and used green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter assay, Western blot, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to validate the regulation relationship. Finally, we determined the role of the target gene in the HCC phenotype. We found that the expression of miR-718 was significantly reduced in various HCC cell lines and HCC tissues. Re-expression of miR-718 significantly reduced the cellular viability and colony formation ability as well as inhibited the migration and invasion abilities of HCC cell lines. Early growth response protein 3 (EGR3) is a direct target of miR-718 and is negatively regulated by miR-718. EGR3 could increase the viability and proliferation of HCC cells, and promot the migration and invasion of HCC cells. miR-718 acts as a tumor suppressive microRNA in HCC via regulating the expression of EGR3, which may provide a new diagnostic marker and treatment target for HCC.

  18. Genetic polymorphisms of the enzymes involved in DNA methylation and synthesis in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terruzzi, Ileana; Senesi, Pamela; Montesano, Anna; La Torre, Antonio; Alberti, Giampietro; Benedini, Stefano; Caumo, Andrea; Fermo, Isabella; Luzi, Livio

    2011-08-24

    Physical exercise induces adaptive changes leading to a muscle phenotype with enhanced performance. We first investigated whether genetic polymorphisms altering enzymes involved in DNA methylation, probably responsible of DNA methylation deficiency, are present in athletes' DNA. We determined the polymorphic variants C667T/A1298C of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), A2756G of methionine synthase (MTR), A66G of methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), G742A of betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), and 68-bp ins of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) genes in 77 athletes and 54 control subjects. The frequency of MTHFR (AC), MTR (AG), and MTRR (AG) heterozygous genotypes was found statistically different in the athletes compared with the control group (P=0.0001, P=0.018, and P=0.0001), suggesting a reduced DNA methylating capacity. We therefore assessed whether DNA hypomethylation might increase the expression of myogenic proteins expressed during early (Myf-5 and MyoD), intermediate (Myf-6), and late-phase (MHC) of myogenesis in a cellular model of hypomethylated or unhypomethylated C2C12 myoblasts. Myogenic proteins are largely induced in hypomethylated cells [fold change (FC)=Myf-5: 1.21, 1.35; MyoD: 0.9, 1.47; Myf-6: 1.39, 1.66; MHC: 1.35, 3.10 in GMA, DMA, respectively] compared with the control groups (FC=Myf-5: 1.0, 1.38; MyoD: 1.0, 1.14; Myf-6: 1.0, 1.44; MHC: 1.0, 2.20 in GM, DM, respectively). Diameters and length of hypomethylated myotubes were greater then their respective controls. Our findings suggest that DNA hypomethylation due to lesser efficiency of polymorphic MTHFR, MS, and MSR enzymes induces the activation of factors determining proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts promoting muscle growth and increase of muscle mass.

  19. Who Regulates Whom? An Overview of RNA Granules and Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Poblete-Durán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available After viral infection, host cells respond by mounting an anti-viral stress response in order to create a hostile atmosphere for viral replication, leading to the shut-off of mRNA translation (protein synthesis and the assembly of RNA granules. Two of these RNA granules have been well characterized in yeast and mammalian cells, stress granules (SGs, which are translationally silent sites of RNA triage and processing bodies (PBs, which are involved in mRNA degradation. This review discusses the role of these RNA granules in the evasion of anti-viral stress responses through virus-induced remodeling of cellular ribonucleoproteins (RNPs.

  20. Involvement of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A and of HA95 in pre-mRNA splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvissel, Anne-Katrine; Orstavik, Sigurd; Eikvar, Sissel; Brede, Gaute; Jahnsen, Tore; Collas, Philippe; Akusjaervi, Goeran; Skalhegg, Bjorn Steen

    2007-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is a holoenzyme consisting of two catalytic (C) subunits bound to a regulatory (R) subunit dimer. Stimulation by cAMP dissociates the holoenzyme and causes translocation to the nucleus of a fraction of the C subunit. Apart from transcription regulation, little is known about the function of the C subunit in the nucleus. In the present report, we show that both Cα and Cβ are localized to spots in the mammalian nucleus. Double immunofluorescence analysis of splicing factor SC35 with the C subunit indicated that these spots are splicing factor compartments (SFCs). Using the E1A in vivo splicing assay, we found that catalytically active C subunits regulate alternative splicing and phosphorylate several members of the SR-protein family of splicing factors in vitro. Furthermore, nuclear C subunits co-localize with the C subunit-binding protein homologous to AKAP95, HA95. HA95 also regulates E1A alternative splicing in vivo, apparently through its N-terminal domain. Localization of the C subunit to SFCs and the E1A splicing pattern were unaffected by cAMP stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that the nuclear PKA C subunit co-locates with HA95 in SFCs and regulates pre-mRNA splicing, possibly through a cAMP-independent mechanism

  1. 8-Methoxypsoralen DNA interstrand cross-linking of the ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena thermophila. Distribution, repair and effect on rRNA synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fengquin, X; Nielsen, Henrik; Zhen, W

    1993-01-01

    The distribution and repair of 8-methoxypsoralen-DNA interstrand cross-links in the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in Tetrahymena thermophila have been studied in vivo by Southern blot analysis. It is found that the cross-links at a density of

  2. Microfluidic Synthesis of Highly Potent Limit-size Lipid Nanoparticles for In Vivo Delivery of siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M Belliveau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid nanoparticles (LNP are the leading systems for in vivo delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA for therapeutic applications. Formulation of LNP siRNA systems requires rapid mixing of solutions containing cationic lipid with solutions containing siRNA. Current formulation procedures employ macroscopic mixing processes to produce systems 70-nm diameter or larger that have variable siRNA encapsulation efficiency, homogeneity, and reproducibility. Here, we show that microfluidic mixing techniques, which permit millisecond mixing at the nanoliter scale, can reproducibly generate limit size LNP siRNA systems 20 nm and larger with essentially complete encapsulation of siRNA over a wide range of conditions with polydispersity indexes as low as 0.02. Optimized LNP siRNA systems produced by microfluidic mixing achieved 50% target gene silencing in hepatocytes at a dose level of 10 µg/kg siRNA in mice. We anticipate that microfluidic mixing, a precisely controlled and readily scalable technique, will become the preferred method for formulation of LNP siRNA delivery systems.

  3. The NBS1-Treacle complex controls ribosomal RNA transcription in response to DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorthe H; Hari, Flurina; Clapperton, Julie A

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome breakage elicits transient silencing of ribosomal RNA synthesis, but the mechanisms involved remained elusive. Here we discover an in trans signalling mechanism that triggers pan-nuclear silencing of rRNA transcription in response to DNA damage. This is associated with transient recrui...

  4. Involvement of histone acetylation of Sox17 and Foxa2 promoters during mouse definitive endoderm differentiation revealed by microRNA profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Fu

    Full Text Available Generation of hepatocyte from embryonic stem cells (ESCs holds great promise for hepatocyte replacement therapy to treat liver diseases. Achieving high efficiency of directed differentiation of ESCs to hepatocyte is of critical importance. Previously, Wnt3a has been reported to promote Activin A-induced human definitive endoderm (DE differentiation, the early stage of hepatocyte differentiation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear. Growing evidence demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs are key regulators involved in various important biological processes including the regulation of stem cell differentiation. In the present study, we profiled genome wide miRNA expression during Wnt3a and Activin A induced mouse DE differentiation. We uncovered distinct miRNA expression patterns during DE differentiation with the identification of a subset of miRNAs whose expression is synergistically regulated by Wnt3a/Activin A treatment at different stages of DE differentiation. Forced expression of a pool of such synergistically regulated miRNAs alone could partially promote DE differentiation, indicating a regulatory role of them. Using TargetScan and GeneGO pathway analyses, the synergistically regulated miRNAs are predicted to regulate key pathways involved in DE differentiation; among them includes the regulation of histone acetylation. Consistently, Wnt3a and Activin A treatment increased global histone acetylation which can be partially mimicked by over expression of the pooled miRNAs. Chromatin IP (ChIP experiments demonstrated that the promoter regions of Sox17 and Foxa2 are subjected to histone acetylation regulation. Administration of Hdac inhibitors greatly augmented DE differentiation. Our data uncovered a novel epigenetic mechanism of Wnt3a and Activin A induced DE differentiation, whereby the treatment of growth factors induced histone acetylation at least in part by the regulation of miRNA expression.

  5. Involvement of microRNA-135a-5p in the Protective Effects of Hydrogen Sulfide Against Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Development of effective therapeutic drugs for Parkinson's disease is in great need. During the progression of Parkinson's disease, Rho-associated protein kinase 2 (ROCK2 is activated to promote neurodegeneration. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has a neuroprotective effect during the neural injury of Parkinson's disease. However, the mechanisms that underlie the effects of ROCK2 and H2S remain ill-defined. In the current study, we addressed these questions. Methods: We used a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-induced mouse subacute model of Parkinson's disease to study the effects of H2S on astrocytic activation in the mouse striatum, on the levels of tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH-positive neuron loss, on the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior of the mice, and on the changes in ROCK2 and miR-135a-5p expression. Plasmid transfection was applied to modify miR-135a-5p levels in a neuronal cell line HCN-1A. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the relationship between ROCK2 and miR-135a-5p in neuronal cells, and then was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Results: H2S alleviated MPTP-induced astrocytic activation in the mouse striatum, alleviated the increases in TH-positive neuron loss, and improved the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior of the mice. H2S significantly attenuated the increases in ROCK2 and the decreases in miR-135a-5p by MPTP. MiR-135a-5p targeted the 3'-UTR of ROCK2 mRNA to inhibit its translation in neuronal cells. Conclusion: MiR-135a-5p-regulated ROCK2 may play a role in the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide against Parkinson's disease.

  6. Integration Host Factor (IHF binds to the promoter region of the phtD operon involved in phaseolotoxin synthesis in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Morales Ariel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, the causal agent of halo blight disease in beans, produces a toxin known as phaseolotoxin, in whose synthesis participate a group of genes organized within the genome in a region known as the "Pht cluster". This region, which is thought to have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer, includes 5 transcriptional units, two monocistronic (argK, phtL and three polycistronic (phtA, phtD, phtM, whose expression is temperature dependent. So far, the regulatory mechanisms involved in phaseolotoxin synthesis have not been elucidated and the only well-established fact is the requirement of low temperatures for its synthesis. In this work, we searched for regulatory proteins that could be involved in phaseolotoxin synthesis, focusing on the regulation of the phtD operon. Results In this study we identified the global regulator IHF (Integration Host Factor, which binds to the promoter region of the phtD operon, exerting a negative effect on the expression of this operon. This is the first regulatory protein identified as part of the phaseolotoxin synthesis system. Our findings suggest that the Pht cluster was similarly regulated in the ancestral cluster by IHF or similar protein, and integrated into the global regulatory mechanism of P. syringae pv. phaseolicola, after the horizontal gene transfer event by using the host IHF protein. Conclusion This study identifies the IHF protein as one element involved in the regulation of phaseolotoxin synthesis in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola NPS3121 and provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in phaseolotoxin production.

  7. MYC translocation-negative classical Burkitt lymphoma cases: an alternative pathogenetic mechanism involving miRNA deregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucci, E; Cocco, M; Onnis, A

    2008-01-01

    at the standardization of FISH procedures in lymphoma diagnosis, we found that five cases out of 35 classic endemic BLs were negative for MYC translocations by using a split-signal as well as a dual-fusion probe. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs predicted to target c-Myc, in BL cases, to clarify...... whether alternative pathogenetic mechanisms may be responsible for lymphomagenesis in cases lacking the MYC translocation. miRNAs are a class of small RNAs that are able to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Several studies have reported their involvement in cancer...

  8. Cofactors in the RNA World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzler, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    RNA world theories figure prominently in many scenarios for the origin and early evolution of life. These theories posit that RNA molecules played a much larger role in ancient biology than they do now, acting both as the dominant biocatalysts and as the repository of genetic information. Many features of modern RNA biology are potential examples of molecular fossils from an RNA world, such as the pervasive involvement of nucleotides in coenzymes, the existence of natural aptamers that bind these coenzymes, the existence of natural ribozymes, a biosynthetic pathway in which deoxynucleotides are produced from ribonucleotides, and the central role of ribosomal RNA in protein synthesis in the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. Here, we uses both a top-down approach that evaluates RNA function in modern biology and a bottom-up approach that examines the capacities of RNA independent of modern biology. These complementary approaches exploit multiple in vitro evolution techniques coupled with high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Together these complementary approaches advance our understanding of the most primitive organisms, their early evolution, and their eventual transition to modern biochemistry.

  9. A focus on polarity: Investigating the role of orientation cues in mediating student performance on mRNA synthesis tasks in an introductory cell and molecular biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olimpo, Jeffrey T; Quijas, Daniel A; Quintana, Anita M

    2017-11-01

    The central dogma has served as a foundational model for information flow, exchange, and storage in the biological sciences for several decades. Despite its continued importance, however, recent research suggests that novices in the domain possess several misconceptions regarding the aforementioned processes, including those pertaining specifically to the formation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) transcripts. In the present study, we sought to expand upon these observations through exploration of the influence of orientation cues on students' aptitude at synthesizing mRNAs from provided deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template strands. Data indicated that participants (n = 45) were proficient at solving tasks of this nature when the DNA template strand and the mRNA molecule were represented in an antiparallel orientation. In contrast, participants' performance decreased significantly on items in which the mRNA was depicted in a parallel orientation relative to the DNA template strand. Furthermore, participants' Grade Point Average, self-reported confidence in understanding the transcriptional process, and spatial ability were found to mediate their performance on the mRNA synthesis tasks. Collectively, these data reaffirm the need for future research and pedagogical interventions designed to enhance students' comprehension of the central dogma in a manner that makes transparent its relevance to real-world scientific phenomena. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(6):501-508, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Rapid important paper Messenger RNA in squid axoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuditta, A; Hunt, T; Santella, L

    1986-01-01

    Using a translation assay we have shown that the axoplasm of the squid giant axon contains significant amounts of mRNA coding for a heterogeneous group of prot sets of proteins specified by glial and neuronal perikaryal mRNA. Messenger RNA is associated with the "microsomal" fraction of the axoplasm. The possible involvement of axoplasmic mRNA in protein synthesis remains to be ascertained. It is known that axoplasmic proteins are synthesized by the isolated giant axon, presumably by the surrounding glia cells.

  11. mRNA translation and protein synthesis: an analysis of different modelling methodologies and a new PBN based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Bo; Krishnan, J

    2014-02-27

    mRNA translation involves simultaneous movement of multiple ribosomes on the mRNA and is also subject to regulatory mechanisms at different stages. Translation can be described by various codon-based models, including ODE, TASEP, and Petri net models. Although such models have been extensively used, the overlap and differences between these models and the implications of the assumptions of each model has not been systematically elucidated. The selection of the most appropriate modelling framework, and the most appropriate way to develop coarse-grained/fine-grained models in different contexts is not clear. We systematically analyze and compare how different modelling methodologies can be used to describe translation. We define various statistically equivalent codon-based simulation algorithms and analyze the importance of the update rule in determining the steady state, an aspect often neglected. Then a novel probabilistic Boolean network (PBN) model is proposed for modelling translation, which enjoys an exact numerical solution. This solution matches those of numerical simulation from other methods and acts as a complementary tool to analytical approximations and simulations. The advantages and limitations of various codon-based models are compared, and illustrated by examples with real biological complexities such as slow codons, premature termination and feedback regulation. Our studies reveal that while different models gives broadly similiar trends in many cases, important differences also arise and can be clearly seen, in the dependence of the translation rate on different parameters. Furthermore, the update rule affects the steady state solution. The codon-based models are based on different levels of abstraction. Our analysis suggests that a multiple model approach to understanding translation allows one to ascertain which aspects of the conclusions are robust with respect to the choice of modelling methodology, and when (and why) important differences may

  12. Design, synthesis and evaluation of VEGF-siRNA/CRS as a novel vector for gene delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao W

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wen Zhao, Yifan Zhang, Xueyun Jiang, Chunying Cui School of Chemical Biology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Abstract: Small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery is a prospective method in gene therapy, but it has application limitations such as negative charge, water solubility and high molecular weight. In this study, a safe and efficient nano-vector, CRS, was designed and synthesized to facilitate siRNA delivery. Physical and chemical properties of VEGF-siRNA/CRS were characterized by methods including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential (ζ measurement, drug-releasing rate measurement, gel electrophoresis and confocal microscopy. The biological activities were evaluated using cell viability assay, gene-silencing efficacy assay in vitro, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and antitumor tests in vivo. The mean nanoparticle size of VEGF-siRNA/CRS was 121.4±0.3 nm with positive ζ potential of 7.69±4.47 mV. The release rate of VEGF-siRNA from VEGF-siRNA/CRS was 82.50% sustained for 48 h in Tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer (pH 8.0. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the efficiency of the transfection, and the result showed that VEGF mRNA expression had been knocked down by 82.36%. The expression of VEGF protein was also recorded to be downregulated to 14.83% using ELISA. The results of cytotoxicity measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that VEGF-siRNA/CRS had significant inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. The results of antitumor assays indicated that VEGF-siRNA/CRS exhibited tumor cell growth inhibition in vivo. The results demonstrated that VEGF-siRNA could be delivered and transported by the designed carrier, while siRNA could be released constantly and led to an increasing gene-silencing effect against VEGF gene. In conclusion, VEGF-siRNA/CRS is a promising carrier for siRNA

  13. microRNA involvement in developmental and functional aspects of the nervous system and in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Schratt, Gerhard M

    2009-01-01

    microRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, are emerging as important regulatory molecules involved in the fine-tuning of gene expression during neuronal development and function. microRNAs have roles during neuronal stem cell commitment...... and early differentiation as well as in later stages of neuronal development, such as dendritogenesis and synaptic plasticity. A link between microRNAs and neurological diseases, such as neurodegeneration or synaptic dysfunction, is becoming increasingly clear. This review summarizes the current knowledge...... of the function of microRNAs in the developing and adult nervous system and their potential contribution to the etiology of neurological diseases....

  14. ESTRADIOL-INDUCED SYNTHESIS OF VITELLOGENIN .3. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VITELLOGENIN MESSENGER-RNA FROM AVIAN LIVER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AB, G.; Roskam, W. G.; Dijkstra, J.; Mulder, J.; Willems, M.; van der Ende, A.; Gruber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The messenger RNA of the hormone-induced protein vitellogenin was isolated from the liver of estrogen-treated roosters. Starting from total polysomal RNA, the vitellogenin messenger was purified 67-fold by oligo (dT)-cellulose chromatography and sizing on a sucrose gradient. The messenger was

  15. Integrative Analyses of miRNA-mRNA Interactions Reveal let-7b, miR-128 and MAPK Pathway Involvement in Muscle Mass Loss in Sex-Linked Dwarf Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Lin, Shumao; Li, Guihuan; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    The sex-linked dwarf (SLD) chicken is an ideal model system for understanding growth hormone (GH)-action and growth hormone receptor (GHR) function because of its recessive mutation in the GHR gene. Skeletal muscle mass is reduced in the SLD chicken with a smaller muscle fiber diameter. Our previous study has presented the mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of the SLD chicken and normal chicken between embryo day 14 and seven weeks of age. However, the molecular mechanism of GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss is still unclear, and the key molecules and pathways underlying the GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss also remain to be illustrated. Here, by functional network analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs between the SLD and normal chickens, we revealed that let-7b, miR-128 and the MAPK pathway might play key roles in the GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss, and that the reduced cell division and growth are potential cellular processes during the SLD chicken skeletal muscle development. Additionally, we also found some genes and miRNAs involved in chicken skeletal muscle development, through the MAPK, PI3K-Akt, Wnt and Insulin signaling pathways. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying muscle mass loss in the SLD chickens, and some regulatory networks that are crucial for chicken skeletal muscle development. PMID:26927061

  16. The Inhibition of microRNA-128 on IGF-1-Activating mTOR Signaling Involves in Temozolomide-Induced Glioma Cell Apoptotic Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Hsu Chen

    Full Text Available Temozolomide (TMZ, an alkylating agent of the imidazotetrazine series, is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug used in the clinical therapy of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and high-grade primary glioma in adults. Micro (miRNAs, which are small noncoding RNAs, post-transcriptionally regulate gene expressions and are involved in gliomagenesis. However, no studies have reported relationships between TMZ and miRNA gene regulation. We investigated TMZ-mediated miRNA profiles and its molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of glioma cell death. By performing miRNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses, we observed that expression of 248 miRNAs was altered, including five significantly upregulated and 17 significantly downregulated miRNAs, in TMZ-treated U87MG cells. miR-128 expression levels were lower in different glioma cells and strongly associated with poor survival. TMZ treatment significantly upregulated miR-128 expression. TMZ significantly enhanced miR-128-1 promoter activity and transcriptionally regulated miR-128 levels through c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2/c-Jun pathways. The overexpression and knockdown of miR-128 expression significantly affected TMZ-mediated cell viability and apoptosis-related protein expression. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-128 alone enhanced apoptotic death of glioma cells through caspase-3/9 activation, poly(ADP ribose polymerase degradation, reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, and non-protective autophagy formation. Finally, we identified that key members in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling including mTOR, rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR, insulin-like growth factor 1, and PIK3R1, but not PDK1, were direct target genes of miR-128. TMZ inhibited mTOR signaling through miR-128 regulation. These results indicate that miR-128-inhibited mTOR signaling is involved in TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity. Our findings may provide a better understanding

  17. RNA-Seq mediated root transcriptome analysis of Chlorophytum borivilianum for identification of genes involved in saponin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kalra, Shikha; Singh, Baljinder; Kumar, Avneesh; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophytum borivilianum is an important species of liliaceae family, owing to its vital medicinal properties. Plant roots are used for aphrodisiac, adaptogen, anti-aging, health-restorative and health-promoting purposes. Saponins, are considered to be the principal bioactive components responsible for the wide variety of pharmacological properties of this plant. In the present study, we have performed de novo root transcriptome sequencing of C. borivilianum using Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform, to gain molecular insight into saponins biosynthesis. A total of 33,963,356 high-quality reads were obtained after quality filtration. Sequences were assembled using various programs which generated 97,344 transcripts with a size range of 100-5,216 bp and N50 value of 342. Data was analyzed against non-redundant proteins, gene ontology (GO), and enzyme commission (EC) databases. All the genes involved in saponins biosynthesis along with five full-length genes namely farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, cycloartenol synthase, β-amyrin synthase, cytochrome p450, and sterol-3-glucosyltransferase were identified. Read per exon kilobase per million (RPKM)-based comparative expression profiling was done to study the differential regulation of the genes. In silico expression analysis of seven selected genes of saponin biosynthetic pathway was validated by qRT-PCR.

  18. High-Throughput Sequencing of Small RNA Transcriptomes in Maize Kernel Identifies miRNAs Involved in Embryo and Endosperm Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Xing

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize kernel development is a complex biological process that involves the temporal and spatial expression of many genes and fine gene regulation at a transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, and microRNAs (miRNAs play vital roles during this process. To gain insight into miRNA-mediated regulation of maize kernel development, a deep-sequencing technique was used to investigate the dynamic expression of miRNAs in the embryo and endosperm at three developmental stages in B73. By miRNA transcriptomic analysis, we characterized 132 known miRNAs and six novel miRNAs in developing maize kernel, among which, 15 and 14 miRNAs were commonly differentially expressed between the embryo and endosperm at 9 days after pollination (DAP, 15 DAP and 20 DAP respectively. Conserved miRNA families such as miR159, miR160, miR166, miR390, miR319, miR528 and miR529 were highly expressed in developing embryos; miR164, miR171, miR393 and miR2118 were highly expressed in developing endosperm. Genes targeted by those highly expressed miRNAs were found to be largely related to a regulation category, including the transcription, macromolecule biosynthetic and metabolic process in the embryo as well as the vitamin biosynthetic and metabolic process in the endosperm. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis showed that these miRNAs displayed a negative correlation with the levels of their corresponding target genes. Importantly, our findings revealed that members of the miR169 family were highly and dynamically expressed in the developing kernel, which will help to exploit new players functioning in maize kernel development.

  19. Transcriptome survey of the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Farlora, Rodolfo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to identify and analyze the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the ectoparasite copepod Caligus rogercresseyi. Massive transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed during the infectious copepodid larval stage, during the attached chalimus larval stage, and also in female and male adults. Thirty genes were selected for describing the pathways, and these were annotated for proteins or enzymes involved in lipid digestion, absorption, and transport; fatty acid degradation; the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies; and steroid and ecdysteroid syntheses. Differential expression of these genes was analyzed by ontogenic stage and discussed considering each stage's feeding habits and energetic needs. Copepodids showed a low expression of fatty acid digestion genes, reflected by a non-feeding behavior, and the upregulation of genes involved in steroid biosynthesis, which was consistent with a pathway for cholesterol synthesis during ecdysis. The chalimus stage showed an upregulation of genes related to fatty acid digestion, absorption, and transport, as well as to fatty acid degradation and the synthesis of ketone bodies, therefore suggesting that lipids ingested from the mucus and skin of the host fish are metabolized as important sources of energy. Adult females also showed a pattern of high lipid metabolism for energy supply and mobilization in relation to reproduction and vitellogenesis. Adult females and males revealed different lipid metabolism patterns that reflected different energetic needs. This study reports for the first time the probable lipid metabolic pathways involved in the energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis of C. rogercresseyi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bixin regulates mRNA expression involved in adipogenesis and enhances insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through PPARgamma activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Taimatsu, Aki; Egawa, Kahori; Katoh, Sota; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Ohyane, Chie; Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Young-Il; Uemura, Taku; Hirai, Shizuka; Kawada, Teruo

    2009-12-25

    Insulin resistance is partly due to suppression of insulin-induced glucose uptake into adipocytes. The uptake is dependent on adipocyte differentiation, which is controlled at mRNA transcription level. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, is involved in the differentiation. Many food-derived compounds serve as ligands to activate or inactivate PPAR. In this study, we demonstrated that bixin and norbixin (annatto extracts) activate PPARgamma by luciferase reporter assay using GAL4-PPAR chimera proteins. To examine the effects of bixin on adipocytes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with bixin or norbixin. The treatment induced mRNA expression of PPARgamma target genes such as adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adiponectin in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and enhanced insulin-dependent glucose uptake. The observations indicate that bixin acts as an agonist of PPARgamma and enhances insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that bixin is a valuable food-derived compound as a PPAR ligand to regulate lipid metabolism and to ameliorate metabolic syndrome.

  1. Bixin regulates mRNA expression involved in adipogenesis and enhances insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through PPAR{gamma} activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Taimatsu, Aki; Egawa, Kahori; Katoh, Sota; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Ohyane, Chie; Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Young-il; Uemura, Taku; Hirai, Shizuka [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan)

    2009-12-25

    Insulin resistance is partly due to suppression of insulin-induced glucose uptake into adipocytes. The uptake is dependent on adipocyte differentiation, which is controlled at mRNA transcription level. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a ligand-regulated nuclear receptor, is involved in the differentiation. Many food-derived compounds serve as ligands to activate or inactivate PPAR. In this study, we demonstrated that bixin and norbixin (annatto extracts) activate PPAR{gamma} by luciferase reporter assay using GAL4-PPAR chimera proteins. To examine the effects of bixin on adipocytes, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with bixin or norbixin. The treatment induced mRNA expression of PPAR{gamma} target genes such as adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adiponectin in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and enhanced insulin-dependent glucose uptake. The observations indicate that bixin acts as an agonist of PPAR{gamma} and enhances insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that bixin is a valuable food-derived compound as a PPAR ligand to regulate lipid metabolism and to ameliorate metabolic syndrome.

  2. Contrasting Storage Protein Synthesis and Messenger RNA Accumulation during Development of Zygotic and Somatic Embryos of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krochko, Joan E.; Pramanik, Saroj K.; Bewley, J. Derek

    1992-01-01

    During development on hormone-free media, somatic embryos pass through distinct morphological stages that superficially resemble those of zygotic embryo development (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledonary stages). Despite these similarities, they differ from zygotic embryos in the extent of cotyledonary development and the patterns of synthesis and quantitative expression of seed-specific storage proteins (7S, 11S, and 2S proteins). Alfin (7S) is the first storage protein synthesized in developing zygotic embryos (stage IV). The 11S (medicagin) and 2S (Low Molecular Weight, LMW) storage proteins are not detectable until the following stage of development (stage V), although all three are present before the completion of embryo enlargement. Likewise, the 7S storage protein is the first to be synthesized in developing somatic embryos (day 5). Medicagin is evident by day 7 and the LMW protein by day 10. In contrast to zygotic embryos, alfin remains the predominant storage protein in somatic embryos throughout development. Not only are the relative amounts of medicagin and the LMW protein reduced in somatic embryos but the LMW protein is accumulated much later than the other proteins. Quantification of the storage protein mRNAs (7S, 11S, and 2S) by northern blot analysis confirms that there are substantial differences in the patterns of message accumulation in zygotic and somatic embryos of alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In zygotic embryos, the 7S, 11S, and 2S storage protein mRNAs are abundant during maturation and, in particular, during the stages of maximum protein synthesis (alfin, stages VI and VII; medicagin, stage VII; LMW, stage VII). In somatic embryos, the predominance of the 7S storage protein is correlated with increased accumulation of its mRNA, whereas the limited synthesis of the 11S storage protein is associated with much lower steady-state levels of its message. The mRNA for the LMW protein is present already by 3 days after transfer to hormone-free media

  3. Sub-nuclear distribution and mobility of nuclear proteins involved in histone acetylation and pre-mRNA splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruhlak, Michael John

    2001-01-01

    The mitotic relationship between levels of highly acetylated chromatin, chromatin condensation, and HAT/HDAC organization was examined. HATs and HDACs were found to dissociate from chromosomes along with a loss of highly acetylated histones in condensed chromatin in mitosis. We demonstrate that, rather than being enzymatically inactivated, HAT and HDAC activities are decreased in mitosis because the enzymes are sequestered to a non-chromatin domain. Highly acetylated histone species reappear coincident with the reassociation of HATs and HDACs in late telophase/early interphase and before reinitiation of transcription. We propose that HATs and HDACs are spatially regulated through the cell cycle and that this regulation influences which chromatin domains are available for acetylation and deacetylation. We examined the movement of a splicing factor, ASF, green fluorescent fusion protein (ASF:GFP) using timelapse microscopy and the technique fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). We found that ASF:GFP moves significantly slower than free diffusion when it is associated with speckles and, surprisingly, also when it is dispersed in the nucleoplasm. The mobility of ASF is consistent with frequent but transient interactions with relatively immobile nuclear binding sites. This mobility is slightly increased in the presence of transcription inhibitors and the ASF molecules further enrich in speckles. We propose that the nonrandom organization of splicing factors reflects spatial differences in the concentration of relatively immobile binding sites. Through a careful analysis of HDAC4 expression we found that HDAC4-containing MAD bodies are not a consistent component of the interphase nucleus. By comparing MAD bodies to PML bodies we found that the assembly, maintenance and distribution of PML bodies is regulated. We investigated the involvement of chromatin condensation in establishing mitotic transcription repression, by analyzing transcriptional activity in

  4. Oxygen regulation of uricase and sucrose synthase synthesis in soybean callus tissue is exerted at the mRNA level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Z T; Larsen, K; Jochimsen, B U

    1991-01-01

    The effect of lowering oxygen concentration on the expression of nodulin genes in soybean callus tissue devoid of the microsymbiont has been examined. Poly(A)+ RNA was isolated from tissue cultivated in 4% oxygen and in normal atmosphere. Quantitative mRNA hybridization experiments using nodule...... the callus tissue was incubated at reduced oxygen concentration. Concomitant with the increase in mRNA level a 6-fold increase in specific activity of sucrose synthase was observed. Two messengers representing poly-ubiquitin precursors also responded to lowering the oxygen concentration. The increase...

  5. Evidence of multiple Treponema phylotypes involved in bovine digital dermatitis as shown by 16S rRNA gene analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitgaard, Kirstine; Boye, Mette; Capion, Nynne; Jensen, Tim K

    2008-09-01

    The etiopathogenesis of the skin disease digital dermatitis (DD), an important cause of lameness in cattle, remains uncertain. Microscopically, the disease appears to be polymicrobial, with spirochetes as the predominant bacteria. The objective of this study was to identify the main part of the bacteria involved in DD lesions of cattle by using culture-independent molecular methods. Ten different phylotypes of Treponema were identified either by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria from DD lesions or by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis using phylotype-specific 16S rRNA-directed oligonucleotide probes. Two phylotypes, phylotype 1 (PT1) and PT2, were not closely related to any characterized treponemal species. PT7 was 99.3% identical to Treponema denticola, while PT9 resembled T. vincentii by 96%. The remaining phylotypes, PT3, PT4, PT5, PT6, and PT8, and Treponema brennaborense had previously been isolated from DD lesions. Forty DD biopsy specimens were examined for Treponema by FISH. With one exception, all of the biopsy specimens revealed epidermotropic, intermingled infection with three or more different phylotypes (mean, 4.7). The most prevalent species were PT1 (95%), PT6 (93%), and PT3 (85%). While colonization by PT3 was confined to the surface of the epidermis, both PT1 and PT6 invaded deep into the stratum spinosum and were seen in ulcerated dermal papillae. In two cases, all 10 phylotypes were demonstrated. Furthermore, FISH with a Treponema group-specific probe showed that Treponema accounted for more than 90% of the total bacterial population in the biopsy specimens. These data strongly suggest that a group of apparently symbiotic Treponema species are involved as primary bacterial pathogens in DD.

  6. In silico cloning and annotation of genes involved in the digestion, detoxification and RNA interference mechanism in the midgut of Bactrocera dorsalis [Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G-M; Dou, W; Huang, Y; Jiang, X-Z; Smagghe, G; Wang, J-J

    2013-08-01

    As the second largest organ in insects, the insect midgut is the major tissue involved in the digestion of food and detoxification of xenobiotics, such as insecticides, and the first barrier and target for oral RNA interference (RNAi). In this study, we performed a midgut-specific transcriptome analysis in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, an economically important worldwide pest, with many populations showing high levels of insecticide resistance. Using high-throughput sequencing, 52 838 060 short reads were generated and assembled to 25 236 unigenes with a mean length of 758 bp. Interestingly, 34 unique sequences encoding digestion enzymes were newly described and these included aminopeptidase and trypsin, genes associated with Bacillus thuringiensis resistance and fitness cost. Second, 41 transcripts were annotated to particular detoxification genes such as glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s, and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis indicated homology with tissue-specific and insecticide resistance-related genes of Drosophila melanogaster. Third, we identified the genes involved in the mechanism of RNAi and the uptake of double-stranded RNA. The sequences encoding Dicer-2, R2D2, AGO2, and Eater were confirmed, but SID and SR-CI were absent in the midgut transcriptome. In conclusion, the results provide basic molecular information to better understand the mechanisms of food digestion, insecticide resistance and oral RNAi in this important pest insect in agriculture. Specific genes in these systems can be used in the future as potential targets for pest control, for instance, with RNAi technology. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  7. A Novel Antiviral Target Structure Involved in the RNA Binding, Dimerization, and Nuclear Export Functions of the Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michinori Kakisaka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing antiviral therapies for influenza A virus (IAV infection is an ongoing process because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. The ideal strategy is to develop drugs that target well-conserved, functionally restricted, and unique surface structures without affecting host cell function. We recently identified the antiviral compound, RK424, by screening a library of 50,000 compounds using cell-based infection assays. RK424 showed potent antiviral activity against many different subtypes of IAV in vitro and partially protected mice from a lethal dose of A/WSN/1933 (H1N1 virus in vivo. Here, we show that RK424 inhibits viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP activity, causing the viral nucleoprotein (NP to accumulate in the cell nucleus. In silico docking analysis revealed that RK424 bound to a small pocket in the viral NP. This pocket was surrounded by three functionally important domains: the RNA binding groove, the NP dimer interface, and nuclear export signal (NES 3, indicating that it may be involved in the RNA binding, oligomerization, and nuclear export functions of NP. The accuracy of this binding model was confirmed in a NP-RK424 binding assay incorporating photo-cross-linked RK424 affinity beads and in a plaque assay evaluating the structure-activity relationship of RK424. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR and pull-down assays showed that RK424 inhibited both the NP-RNA and NP-NP interactions, whereas size exclusion chromatography showed that RK424 disrupted viral RNA-induced NP oligomerization. In addition, in vitro nuclear export assays confirmed that RK424 inhibited nuclear export of NP. The amino acid residues comprising the NP pocket play a crucial role in viral replication and are highly conserved in more than 7,000 NP sequences from avian, human, and swine influenza viruses. Furthermore, we found that the NP pocket has a surface structure different from that of the pocket in host

  8. Deuterated nucleotides as chemical probes of RNA structure: a detailed protocol for the enzymatic synthesis of a complete set of nucleotides specifically deuterated at ribose carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N. Azad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a detailed protocol for the synthesis of ribonucleotides specifically deuterated at each ribose carbon atom. We synthesized 20 specifically deuterated ribonucleotides: ATP, CTP, GTP, and UTP, each of which contained one of five deuterated riboses (either 1′-D, 2″-D, 3′-D, 4′-D, or 5′,5″-D2. Our synthetic approach is inspired by the pioneering work of Tolbert and Williamson, who developed a method for the convenient one-pot enzymatic synthesis of nucleotides (Tolbert, T. J. and Williamson, J. R. (1996 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 7929–7940. Our protocol consists of a comprehensive list of required chemical and enzymatic reagents and equipment, detailed procedures for enzymatic assays and nucleotide synthesis, and chromatographic procedures for purification of deuterated nucleotides. As an example of the utility of specifically deuterated nucleotides, we used them to synthesize specifically deuterated sarcin/ricin loop (SRL RNA and measured the deuterium kinetic isotope effect on hydroxyl radical cleavage of the SRL.

  9. Downregulation of Smurf2, a tumor-suppressive ubiquitin ligase, in triple-negative breast cancers: Involvement of the RB-microRNA axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xianpeng; Gu, Xin; Sun, Limin; Flowers, Ashley B; Rademaker, Alfred W; Zhou, Yiran; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The HECT family ubiquitin ligase Smurf2 regulates cell polarity, migration, division, differentiation and death, by targeting diverse substrates that are critical for receptor signaling, cytoskeleton, chromatin remodeling and transcription. Recent studies suggest that Smurf2 functions as a tumor suppressor in mice. However, no inactivating mutation of SMURF2 has been reported in human, and information about Smurf2 expression in human cancer remains limited or complicated. Here we demonstrate that Smurf2 expression is downregulated in human breast cancer tissues, especially of the triple-negative subtype, and address the mechanism of Smurf2 downregulation in triple-negative breast cancer cells. Human breast cancer tissues (47 samples expressing estrogen receptor (ER) and 43 samples with triple-negative status) were examined by immunohistochemistry for the expression of Smurf2. Ten widely-studied human breast cancer cell lines were examined for the expression of Smurf2. Furthermore, microRNA-mediated regulation of Smurf2 was investigated in triple-negative cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that benign mammary epithelial cells expressed high levels of Smurf2, so did cells in ductal carcinomas in situ. In contrast, invasive ductal carcinomas showed focal or diffuse decrease in Smurf2 expression, which was observed more frequently in triple-negative tumors than in ER-positive tumors. Consistently, human triple-negative breast cancer cell lines such as BT549, MDA-MB-436, DU-4475 and MDA-MB-468 cells showed significantly lower expression of Smurf2 protein, compared to ER + or HER2+ cell lines. Studies using quantitative PCR and specific microRNA inhibitors indicated that increased expression of miR-15a, miR-15b, miR-16 and miR-128 was involved in Smurf2 downregulation in those triple-negative cancer cell lines, which have mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB) gene. Forced expression of RB increased levels of Smurf2 protein with concomitant decreases in

  10. The C-Terminal Tail of TRIM56 Dictates Antiviral Restriction of Influenza A and B Viruses by Impeding Viral RNA Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoming; Li, Nan L; Shen, Yang; Bao, Xiaoyong; Fabrizio, Thomas; Elbahesh, Husni; Webby, Richard J; Li, Kui

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating data suggest that tripartite-motif-containing (TRIM) proteins participate in host responses to viral infections, either by acting as direct antiviral restriction factors or through regulating innate immune signaling of the host. Of >70 TRIMs, TRIM56 is a restriction factor of several positive-strand RNA viruses, including three members of the family Flaviviridae(yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus) and a human coronavirus (OC43), and this ability invariably depends upon the E3 ligase activity of TRIM56. However, the impact of TRIM56 on negative-strand RNA viruses remains unclear. Here, we show that TRIM56 puts a check on replication of influenza A and B viruses in cell culture but does not inhibit Sendai virus or human metapneumovirus, two paramyxoviruses. Interestingly, the anti-influenza virus activity was independent of the E3 ligase activity, B-box, or coiled-coil domain. Rather, deletion of a 63-residue-long C-terminal-tail portion of TRIM56 abrogated the antiviral function. Moreover, expression of this short C-terminal segment curtailed the replication of influenza viruses as effectively as that of full-length TRIM56. Mechanistically, TRIM56 was found to specifically impede intracellular influenza virus RNA synthesis. Together, these data reveal a novel antiviral activity of TRIM56 against influenza A and B viruses and provide insights into the mechanism by which TRIM56 restricts these medically important orthomyxoviruses. Options to treat influenza are limited, and drug-resistant influenza virus strains can emerge through minor genetic changes. Understanding novel virus-host interactions that alter influenza virus fitness may reveal new targets/approaches for therapeutic interventions. We show here that TRIM56, a tripartite-motif protein, is an intrinsic host restriction factor of influenza A and B viruses. Unlike its antiviral actions against positive-strand RNA viruses, the anti-influenza virus activity of TRIM56

  11. High-Throughput MicroRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals That MicroRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus lanatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Dong, Yuchuan; Chang, Jingjing; He, Jie; Chen, Hejie; Liu, Qiyan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB) and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR) under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs. PMID:27574526

  12. High-Throughput microRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals that microRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus Lanatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs. We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs.

  13. LncRNA pathway involved in premature preterm rupture of membrane (PPROM): an epigenomic approach to study the pathogenesis of reproductive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiucui; Shi, Qingxi; Gu, Yang; Pan, Jing; Hua, Maofang; Liu, Meilin; Dong, Ziqing; Zhang, Meijiao; Wang, Leilei; Gu, Ying; Zhong, Julia; Zhao, Xinliang; Jenkins, Edmund C; Brown, W Ted; Zhong, Nanbert

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a live birth delivered before 37 weeks of gestation (GW). About one-third of PTBs result from the preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Up to the present, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying PPROM are not clearly understood. Here, we investigated the differential expression of long chain non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in placentas of PTBs with PPROM, and their possible involvement in the pathogenic pathways leading to PPROM. A total number of 1954, 776, and 1050 lncRNAs were identified with a microarray from placentas of PPROM (group A), which were compared to full-term birth (FTB) (group B), PTB (group C), and premature rupture of membrane (PROM) (group D) at full-term, respectively. Instead of investigating the individual pathogenic role of each lncRNA involved in the molecular mechanism underlying PPROM, we have focused on investigating the metabolic pathways and their functions to explore what is the likely association and how they are possibly involved in the development of PPROM. Six groups, including up-regulation and down-regulation in the comparisons of A vs. B, A vs. C, and A vs. D, of pathways were analyzed. Our results showed that 22 pathways were characterized as up-regulated 7 down-regulated in A vs. C, 18 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated in A vs. D, and 33 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated in A vs. B. Functional analysis showed pathways of infection and inflammatory response, ECM-receptor interactions, apoptosis, actin cytoskeleton, and smooth muscle contraction are the major pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of PPROM. Characterization of these pathways through identification of lncRNAs opened new avenues for further investigating the epigenomic mechanisms of lncRNAs in PPROM as well as PTB.

  14. LncRNA pathway involved in premature preterm rupture of membrane (PPROM: an epigenomic approach to study the pathogenesis of reproductive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiucui Luo

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB is a live birth delivered before 37 weeks of gestation (GW. About one-third of PTBs result from the preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM. Up to the present, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying PPROM are not clearly understood. Here, we investigated the differential expression of long chain non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs in placentas of PTBs with PPROM, and their possible involvement in the pathogenic pathways leading to PPROM. A total number of 1954, 776, and 1050 lncRNAs were identified with a microarray from placentas of PPROM (group A, which were compared to full-term birth (FTB (group B, PTB (group C, and premature rupture of membrane (PROM (group D at full-term, respectively. Instead of investigating the individual pathogenic role of each lncRNA involved in the molecular mechanism underlying PPROM, we have focused on investigating the metabolic pathways and their functions to explore what is the likely association and how they are possibly involved in the development of PPROM. Six groups, including up-regulation and down-regulation in the comparisons of A vs. B, A vs. C, and A vs. D, of pathways were analyzed. Our results showed that 22 pathways were characterized as up-regulated 7 down-regulated in A vs. C, 18 up-regulated and 15 down-regulated in A vs. D, and 33 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated in A vs. B. Functional analysis showed pathways of infection and inflammatory response, ECM-receptor interactions, apoptosis, actin cytoskeleton, and smooth muscle contraction are the major pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of PPROM. Characterization of these pathways through identification of lncRNAs opened new avenues for further investigating the epigenomic mechanisms of lncRNAs in PPROM as well as PTB.

  15. Involvement of protein synthesis in recovery from refractory period of electrical depolarization induced by osmotic stimulation in Chara corallina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmen, Teruo

    2011-09-01

    Upon addition of sorbitol to the external medium of an internodal cell of Chara corallina, a transient depolarization is induced at its nodal end (Shimmen in Plant Cell Physiol 44:1215-1224, 2003). In the present study, refractory period was found to be very long, 2-4 h. Recovery from refractoriness was completely inhibited by inhibitors of eukaryote-type protein synthesis, cycloheximide or anisomysin, but not by inhibitors of prokaryote-type protein synthesis. This suggested that proteinous factor(s) responsible for generation of the depolarization is lost or inactivated upon depolarization and synthesized during the resting state. Low temperature, which is supposed to inhibit protein synthesis, also inhibited recovery from refractoriness. When unstimulated internodal cells were incubated in the medium containing an inhibitor of eukaryote-type protein synthesis, generation of the depolarization was almost completely inhibited. This result suggested that the factor is slowly turning over even in the absence of osmotic stimulation.

  16. Forced selection of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant that uses a non-self tRNA primer for reverse transcription: Involvement of viral RNA sequences and the reverse transcriptase enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, Truus E. M.; Beerens, Nancy; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 uses the tRNA(3)(Lys) molecule as a selective primer for reverse transcription. This primer specificity is imposed by sequence complementarity between the tRNA primer and two motifs in the viral RNA genome: the primer-binding site (PBS) and the primer activation

  17. Post-transcriptional gene silencing triggered by sense transgenes involves uncapped antisense RNA and differs from silencing intentionally triggered by antisense transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Jean-Sébastien; Jauvion, Vincent; Bouché, Nicolas; Béclin, Christophe; Hachet, Mélanie; Zytnicki, Matthias; Vaucheret, Hervé

    2015-09-30

    Although post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has been studied for more than a decade, there is still a gap in our understanding of how de novo silencing is initiated against genetic elements that are not supposed to produce double-stranded (ds)RNA. Given the pervasive transcription occurring throughout eukaryote genomes, we tested the hypothesis that unintended transcription could produce antisense (as)RNA molecules that participate to the initiation of PTGS triggered by sense transgenes (S-PTGS). Our results reveal a higher level of asRNA in Arabidopsis thaliana lines that spontaneously trigger S-PTGS than in lines that do not. However, PTGS triggered by antisense transgenes (AS-PTGS) differs from S-PTGS. In particular, a hypomorphic ago1 mutation that suppresses S-PTGS prevents the degradation of asRNA but not sense RNA during AS-PTGS, suggesting a different treatment of coding and non-coding RNA by AGO1, likely because of AGO1 association to polysomes. Moreover, the intended asRNA produced during AS-PTGS is capped whereas the asRNA produced during S-PTGS derives from 3' maturation of a read-through transcript and is uncapped. Thus, we propose that uncapped asRNA corresponds to the aberrant RNA molecule that is converted to dsRNA by RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 in siRNA-bodies to initiate S-PTGS, whereas capped asRNA must anneal with sense RNA to produce dsRNA that initiate AS-PTGS. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Biallelic variants in WARS2 encoding mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthase in six individuals with mitochondrial encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, Saskia B.; Timal, Sharita; Venselaar, Hanka; Wintjes, Liesbeth T.; Kopajtich, Robert; Feichtinger, Rene G.; Onnekink, Carla; Muhlmeister, Mareike; Brandt, Ulrich; Smeitink, Jan A.; Veltman, Joris A.; Sperl, Wolfgang; Lefeber, Dirk; Pruijn, Ger; Stojanovic, Vesna; Freisinger, Peter; von Spronsen, Francjan; Derks, Terry G. J.; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E.; Mayr, Johannes A.; Rotig, Agnes; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Prokisch, Holger; Rodenburg, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein synthesis involves an intricate interplay between mitochondrial DNA encoded RNAs and nuclear DNA encoded proteins, such as ribosomal proteins and aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. Eukaryotic cells contain 17 mitochondria-specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. WARS2 encodes mitochondrial

  19. Conserved CPEs in the p53 3' untranslated region influence mRNA stability and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstierne, Maiken W; Vinther, Jeppe; Mittler, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    CaT skin and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were established. Quantitative PCR and an enzymatic assay were used to quantify the reporter mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Proteins binding to the CPEs were identified by RNA-immunoprecipitation (IP) and quantitative mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: The wild......-type p53 3'UTR reduced mRNA steady state levels of the reporter gene and point mutations in the CPEs rescued the mRNA steady state levels in the MCF-7 cells, but not in the HaCaT cells. In both cell lines, the CPEs had a significant effect on translation of the reporter and influenced the effect of UV...... irradiation. Several proteins (including GAPDH, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) D and A/B) were identified from the MCF-7 cytoplasmic extracts that bound specifically to the CPEs. CONCLUSION: Two conserved CPEs in the p53 3'UTR regulate stability and translation of a reporter mRNA in non...

  20. RNA interference by feeding in vitro synthesized double-stranded RNA to planarians: methodology and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhana, Labib; Weiss, Jennifer A.; Forsthoefel, David J.; Lee, Hayoung; King, Ryan S.; Inoue, Takeshi; Shibata, Norito; Agata, Kiyokazu; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to assess gene function is essential for understanding biological processes. Currently, RNA interference (RNAi) is the only technique available to assess gene function in planarians, in which it has been induced via injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), soaking, or ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA. Results We describe a simple and robust RNAi protocol, involving in vitro synthesis of dsRNA that is fed to the planarians. Advantages of this protocol include the ability to produce dsRNA from any vector without subcloning, resolution of ambiguities in quantity and quality of input dsRNA, as well as time, and ease of application. We have evaluated the logistics of inducing RNAi in planarians using this methodology in careful detail, from the ingestion and processing of dsRNA in the intestine, to timing and efficacy of knockdown in neoblasts, germline, and soma. We also present systematic comparisons of effects of amount, frequency, and mode of dsRNA delivery. Conclusions This method gives robust and reproducible results and is amenable to high-throughput studies. Overall, this RNAi methodology provides a significant advance by combining the strengths of current protocols available for dsRNA delivery in planarians and has the potential to benefit RNAi methods in other systems. PMID:23441014

  1. Analysis of intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination by rubella virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Sandra D.; Tzeng, W.-P.; Chen, M.-H.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate whether rubella virus (RUB) undergoes intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination, cells were cotransfected with pairs of in vitro transcripts from genomic cDNA plasmid vectors engineered to contain nonoverlapping deletions: the replicative transcript maintained the 5'-proximal nonstructural (NS) ORF (which contained the replicase, making it RNA replication competent), had a deletion in the 3'-proximal structural protein (SP) ORF, and maintained the 3' end of the genome, including the putative 3' cis-acting elements (CSE), while the nonreplicative transcript consisted of the 3' half of the genome including the SP-ORF and 3' CSE. Cotransfection yielded plaque-forming virus that synthesized the standard genomic and subgenomic RNAs and thus was generated by RNA-RNA recombination. Using transcripts tagged with a 3'-terminal deletion, it was found that recombinants contained the 3' end derived from the replicative strand, indicating a cis-preference for initiation of negative-strand synthesis. In cotransfections in which the replicative transcript lacked the 3' CSE, recombination occurred, albeit at lower efficiency, indicating that initiation in trans from the NS-ORF can occur. The 3' CSE was sufficient as a nonreplicative transcript, showing that it can serve as a promoter for negative-strand RNA synthesis. While deletion mutagenesis showed that the presence of the junction untranslated region (J-UTR) between the ORFs appeared to be necessary on both transcripts for recombination in this region of the genome, analysis with transcripts tagged with restriction sites showed that the J-UTR was not a hot spot for recombination compared to neighboring regions in both ORFs. Sequence analysis of recombinants revealed that both precise (homologous) and imprecise recombination (aberrant, homologous resulting in duplications) occurred; however, imprecise recombination only involved the J-UTR or the 3' end of the NS-ORF and the J-UTR (maintaining the NS-ORF), indicating

  2. The response of mRNA expression upon secondary challenge with Vibrio anguillarum suggests the involvement of C-lectins in the immune priming of scallop Chlamys farreri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Chuanyan; Jiang, Qiufen; Zhang, Huan; Yue, Feng; Huang, Mengmeng; Sun, Zhibin; Song, Linsheng

    2013-06-01

    The enhanced immunity against a second encounter with the particular pathogen has suggested the presence of "immune priming" in scallop. In the present study, the survival rate and expression patterns of five C-lectin isoforms from scallop Chlamys farreri were explored after "vaccination" of heat-killed Vibrio anguillarum or successively challenge with V. anguillarum and Micrococcus luteus. When scallops were challenged with live bacteria, the survival rate increased significantly only in the group firstly "vaccinated" with inactivated V. anguillarum and then challenged with live V. anguillarum compared with naive scallops (from 41% to 63.6%, Pimmuned previously with heat-killed V. anguillarum peaked significantly higher (26.7-, 121.7-, 60.1-, 27.4-, 16.3-fold to 0h, respectively, Pimmuned scallops (7.6-fold, P0.05; 5.7-fold, P0.05; 8.3-fold, P0.05; 14.5-fold, P0.05, to 0h, respectively). The response of mRNA expression to the secondary encounter with the same bacteria was stronger than that of successively encounter with the different class of bacteria. It was obvious that the mRNA expression of C-lectins in scallops was significantly enhanced by the successive challenge of same species of bacteria with a certain degree of specificity. All the results suggested that C-lectins might be involved in some form of immune priming, and it might provide new insights into mechanism of invertebrate immune priming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ACC oxidase and miRNA 159a, and their involvement in fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB) via sex ratio determination in oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somyong, Suthasinee; Poopear, Supannee; Sunner, Supreet Kaur; Wanlayaporn, Kitti; Jomchai, Nukoon; Yoocha, Thippawan; Ukoskit, Kittipat; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tragoonrung, Somvong

    2016-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineesis Jacq.) is the most productive oil-bearing crop, yielding more oil per area than any other oil-bearing crops. However, there are still efforts to improve oil palm yield, in order to serve consumer and manufacturer demand. Oil palm produces female and male inflorescences in an alternating cycle. So, high sex ratio (SR), the ratio of female inflorescences to the total inflorescences, is a favorable trait in term of increasing yields in oil palm. This study aims to understand the genetic control for SR related traits, such as fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB), by characterizing genes at FFB quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage 10 (chromosome 6) and linkage 15 (chromosome 10). Published oil palm sequences at the FFB QTLs were used to develop gene-based and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We used the multiple QTL analysis model (MQM) to characterize the relationship of new markers with the SR traits in the oil palm population. The RNA expression of the most linked QTL genes was also evaluated in various tissues of oil palm. We identified EgACCO1 (encoding aminocyclopropane carboxylate (ACC) oxidase) at chromosome 10 and EgmiR159a (microRNA 159a) at chromosome 6 to be the most linked QTL genes or determinants for FFB yield and/or female inflorescence number with a phenotype variance explained (PVE) from 10.4 to 15 % and suggest that these play the important roles in sex determination and differentiation in oil palm. The strongest expression of EgACCO1 and the predicted precursor of EgmiR159a was found in ovaries and, to a lesser extent, fruit development. In addition, highly normalized expression of EgmiR159a was found in female flowers. In summary, the QTL analysis and the RNA expression reveal that EgACCO1 and EgmiR159a are the potential genetic factors involved in female flower determination and hence would affect yield in oil palm. However, to clarify how these genetic factors regulate female flower determination, more investigation

  4. Involvement of H- and N-Ras isoforms in transforming growth factor-β1-induced proliferation and in collagen and fibronectin synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Salgado, Carlos; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Garcia-Cenador, Begona; Santos, Eugenio; Lopez-Novoa, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) has a relevant role in the origin and maintenance of glomerulosclerosis and tubule-interstitial fibrosis. TGF-β and Ras signaling pathways are closely related: TGF-β1 overcomes Ras mitogenic effects and Ras counteracts TGF-β signaling. Tubule-interstitial fibrosis is associated to increases in Ras, Erk, and Akt activation in a renal fibrosis model. We study the role of N- and H-Ras isoforms, and the involvement of the Ras effectors Erk and Akt, in TGF-β1-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and proliferation, using embrionary fibroblasts from double knockout (KO) mice for H- and N-Ras (H-ras -/- /N-ras -/- ) isoforms and from heterozygote mice (H-ras +/- /N-ras +/- ). ECM synthesis is increased in basal conditions in H-ras -/- /N-ras -/- fibroblasts, this increase being higher after stimulation with TGF-β1. TGF-β1-induced fibroblast proliferation is smaller in H-ras -/- /N-ras -/- than in H-ras +/- /N-ras +/- fibroblasts. Erk activation is decreased in H-ras -/- /N-ras -/- fibroblasts; inhibition of Erk activation reduces fibroblast proliferation. Akt activation is higher in double KO fibroblasts than in heterozygotes; inhibition of Akt activation also inhibits ECM synthesis. We suggest that H- and N-Ras isoforms downregulate ECM synthesis, and mediate proliferation, in part through MEK/Erk activation. PI3K-Akt pathway activation may be involved in the increase in ECM synthesis observed in the absence of H- and N-Ras

  5. Synthesis of conformation switchable cationic polypeptides based on poly(S-propargyl-cysteine) for use as siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ling; Wang, Yisi; Lin, Guanliang; Lin, Danling; Chen, Wenliang; Huang, Yugang; Ye, Guodong

    2017-08-01

    Ring-opening polymerization of S-propargyl-cysteine-N-carboxyanhydride has been used to synthesize conformation switchable poly(S-propargyl-cysteine) starting with l-cysteine, dl- and d-cysteine. Then cationic polypeptides with different backbone chirality are obtained by nearly 100% side-chain grafting of cysteamine via thiol-yne click chemistry. The cationic polypeptides containing mixed conformations of β-sheets, β-turns and random coils are stable against pH, salt and temperature variations. The cationic polypeptides can condense siRNA at a low polypeptide/siRNA weight ratio to form nanoparticles with size depending on the backbone chirality. The cationic polypeptides derived from poly(S-propargyl-l or d-cysteine) are non-cytotoxic to HeLa and HepG2 cells, but interrupting the backbone chirality enhances the cytotoxicity sharply. The cationic polypeptides used for siRNA delivery show good transfection efficiency, but cell internalization process depends on the backbone chirality. The cationic polypeptide derived from the poly(S-propargyl-l-cysteine) is an appropriate siRNA vector with advantages of non-cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in regulation of the balance between viral plus and minus strand RNA synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; Neeleman, L.; Bol, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    Replication of wild type RNA 3 of alfalfa mosaic virus (AIMV) and mutants with frameshifts in the P3 or coat protein (CP) genes was studied in protoplasts from tobacco plants transformed with DNA copies of AIMV RNAs 1 and 2. Accumulation of viral plus and minus strand RNAs was monitored with

  7. Conserved CPEs in the p53 3' untranslated region influence mRNA stability and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstierne, Maiken W; Vinther, Jeppe; Mittler, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of p53 mRNA contains two conserved U-rich sequences resembling cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPE). It is not known if these sequences regulate p53 expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stable p53 3'UTR reporter Ha......-type p53 3'UTR reduced mRNA steady state levels of the reporter gene and point mutations in the CPEs rescued the mRNA steady state levels in the MCF-7 cells, but not in the HaCaT cells. In both cell lines, the CPEs had a significant effect on translation of the reporter and influenced the effect of UV...... irradiation. Several proteins (including GAPDH, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) D and A/B) were identified from the MCF-7 cytoplasmic extracts that bound specifically to the CPEs. CONCLUSION: Two conserved CPEs in the p53 3'UTR regulate stability and translation of a reporter mRNA in non...

  8. Involvement of Autophagy in Coronavirus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Britton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses are single stranded, positive sense RNA viruses, which induce the rearrangement of cellular membranes upon infection of a host cell. This provides the virus with a platform for the assembly of viral replication complexes, improving efficiency of RNA synthesis. The membranes observed in coronavirus infected cells include double membrane vesicles. By nature of their double membrane, these vesicles resemble cellular autophagosomes, generated during the cellular autophagy pathway. In addition, coronavirus infection has been demonstrated to induce autophagy. Here we review current knowledge of coronavirus induced membrane rearrangements and the involvement of autophagy or autophagy protein microtubule associated protein 1B light chain 3 (LC3 in coronavirus replication.

  9. Involvement of carotenoids in the synthesis and assembly of protein subunits of photosynthetic reaction centers of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sozer, O.; Komenda, Josef; Ughy, B.; Domonkos, I.; Laczkó-Dobos, H.; Malec, P.; Gombos, Z.; Kis, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2010), s. 823-835 ISSN 0032-0781 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400200801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Carotenoidless mutant * crtB * Membrane protein synthesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.257, year: 2010

  10. De Novo RNA Sequencing and Expression Analysis of Aconitum carmichaelii to Analyze Key Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Diterpene Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Rai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum carmichaelii is an important medicinal herb used widely in China, Japan, India, Korea, and other Asian countries. While extensive research on the characterization of metabolic extracts of A. carmichaelii has shown accumulation of numerous bioactive metabolites including aconitine and aconitine-type diterpene alkaloids, its biosynthetic pathway remains largely unknown. Biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites is tightly controlled and mostly occurs in a tissue-specific manner; therefore, transcriptome analysis across multiple tissues is an attractive method to identify the molecular components involved for further functional characterization. In order to understand the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, Illumina-based deep transcriptome profiling and analysis was performed for four tissues (flower, bud, leaf, and root of A. carmichaelii, resulting in 5.5 Gbps clean RNA-seq reads assembled into 128,183 unigenes. Unigenes annotated as possible rate-determining steps of an aconitine-type biosynthetic pathway were highly expressed in the root, in accordance with previous reports describing the root as the accumulation site for these metabolites. We also identified 21 unigenes annotated as cytochrome P450s and highly expressed in roots, which represent candidate unigenes involved in the diversification of secondary metabolites. Comparative transcriptome analysis of A. carmichaelii with A. heterophyllum identified 20,232 orthogroups, representing 30,633 unigenes of A. carmichaelii, gene ontology enrichment analysis of which revealed essential biological process together with a secondary metabolic process to be highly enriched. Unigenes identified in this study are strong candidates for aconitine-type diterpene alkaloid biosynthesis, and will serve as useful resources for further validation studies.

  11. Differential mRNA expression of seven genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and transport in the liver of atherosclerosis-susceptible and -resistant Japanese quail strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinrui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two atherosclerosis-susceptible and -resistant Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica strains obtained by divergent selection are commonly used as models to study atherosclerosis, but no genetic characterization of their phenotypic differences has been reported so far. Our objective was to examine possible differences in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and transport in the liver between these two strains and to evaluate the value of this model to analyze the gene system affecting cholesterol metabolism and transport. Methods A factorial study with both strains (atherosclerosis-susceptible versus atherosclerosis-resistant and two diets (control versus cholesterol was carried out. The mRNA concentrations of four genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis (HMGCR, FDFT1, SQLE and DHCR7 and three genes in cholesterol transport (ABCG5, ABCG8 and APOA1 were assayed using real-time quantitative PCR. Plasma lipids were also assayed. Results Expression of ABCG5 (control diet and ABCG8 (regardless of dietary treatment and expression of HMGCR, FDFT1 and SQLE (regardless of dietary treatment were significantly higher in the atherosclerosis-resistant than in the atherosclerosis-susceptible strain. Plasma triglyceride and LDL levels, and LDL/HDL ratio were significantly higher in the atherosclerosis-susceptible than in the atherosclerosis-resistant strain fed the cholesterol diet. In the atherosclerosis-susceptible strain, ABCG5 expression regressed significantly and positively on plasma LDL level, whereas DHCR7 and SQLE expression regressed significantly and negatively on plasma triglyceride level. Conclusions Our results provide support for the hypothesis that the atherosclerosis-resistant strain metabolizes and excretes cholesterol faster than the atherosclerosis-susceptible strain. We have also demonstrated that these quail strains are a useful model to study cholesterol metabolism and transport in relation with

  12. Biochanin A Promotes Proliferation that Involves a Feedback Loop of MicroRNA-375 and Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biochanin A and formononetin are O-methylated isoflavones that are isolated from the root of Astragalus membranaceus, and have antitumorigenic effects. Our previous studies found that formononetin triggered growth-inhibitory and apoptotic activities in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We performed in vivo and in vitro studies to further investigate the potential effect of biochanin A in promoting cell proliferation in estrogen receptor (ER-positive cells, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Methods: ERα-positive breast cancer cells (T47D, MCF-7 were treated with biochanin A. The MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to assess cell proliferation and apoptosis. mRNA levels of ERα, Bcl-2, and miR-375 were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the control, low biochanin A concentrations (2-6 μM stimulated ERα-positive cell proliferation (T47D, MCF-7. The more sensitive T47D cells were used to study the relevant signaling pathway. Results: After treatment with biochanin A, ERα, miR-375, and Bcl-2 expression was significantly upregulated. Additionally, in the in vivo studies, uterine weight in ovariectomized mice treated with biochanin A increased significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that biochanin A promoted ERα-positive cell proliferation through miR-375 activation and this mechanism is possibly involving in a miR-375 and ERα feedback loop.

  13. Low-level laser irradiation alters mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajano, L. A. S. N.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Silva, C. L.; Carvalho, L.; Mencalha, A. L.; Stumbo, A. C.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Low-level lasers are used for the treatment of diseases in soft and bone tissues, but few data are available regarding their effects on genomic stability. In this study, we investigated mRNA expression from genes involved in DNA repair and genomic stabilization in myoblasts exposed to low-level infrared laser. C2C12 myoblast cultures in different fetal bovine serum concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (10, 35 and 70 J cm-2), and collected for the evaluation of DNA repair gene expression. Laser exposure increased gene expression related to base excision repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1), nucleotide excision repair (excision repair cross-complementation group 1 and xeroderma pigmentosum C protein) and genomic stabilization (ATM serine/threonine kinase and tumor protein p53) in normal and low fetal bovine serum concentrations. Results suggest that genomic stability could be part of a biostimulation effect of low-level laser therapy in injured muscles.

  14. Paramecium tetraurelia chromatin assembly factor-1-like protein PtCAF-1 is involved in RNA-mediated control of DNA elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignarski, Michael; Singh, Aditi; Swart, Estienne C; Arambasic, Miroslav; Sandoval, Pamela Y; Nowacki, Mariusz

    2014-10-29

    Genome-wide DNA remodelling in the ciliate Paramecium is ensured by RNA-mediated trans-nuclear crosstalk between the germline and the somatic genomes during sexual development. The rearrangements include elimination of transposable elements, minisatellites and tens of thousands non-coding elements called internally eliminated sequences (IESs). The trans-nuclear genome comparison process employs a distinct class of germline small RNAs (scnRNAs) that are compared against the parental somatic genome to select the germline-specific subset of scnRNAs that subsequently target DNA elimination in the progeny genome. Only a handful of proteins involved in this process have been identified so far and the mechanism of DNA targeting is unknown. Here we describe chromatin assembly factor-1-like protein (PtCAF-1), which we show is required for the survival of sexual progeny and localizes first in the parental and later in the newly developing macronucleus. Gene silencing shows that PtCAF-1 is required for the elimination of transposable elements and a subset of IESs. PTCAF-1 depletion also impairs the selection of germline-specific scnRNAs during development. We identify specific histone modifications appearing during Paramecium development which are strongly reduced in PTCAF-1 depleted cells. Our results demonstrate the importance of PtCAF-1 for the epigenetic trans-nuclear cross-talk mechanism. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Two Sets of Piwi Proteins Are Involved in Distinct sRNA Pathways Leading to Elimination of Germline-Specific DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique I. Furrer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Piwi proteins and piRNAs protect eukaryotic germlines against the spread of transposons. During development in the ciliate Paramecium, two Piwi-dependent sRNA classes are involved in the elimination of transposons and transposon-derived DNA: scan RNAs (scnRNAs, associated with Ptiwi01 and Ptiwi09, and iesRNAs, whose binding partners we now identify as Ptiwi10 and Ptiwi11. scnRNAs derive from the maternal genome and initiate DNA elimination during development, whereas iesRNAs continue DNA targeting until the removal process is complete. Here, we show that scnRNAs and iesRNAs are processed by distinct Dicer-like proteins and bind Piwi proteins in a mutually exclusive manner, suggesting separate biogenesis pathways. We also demonstrate that the PTIWI10 gene is transcribed from the developing nucleus and that its transcription depends on prior DNA excision, suggesting a mechanism of gene expression control triggered by the removal of short DNA segments interrupting the gene.

  16. Short-hairpin RNA-mediated stable silencing of Grb2 impairs cell growth and DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Henkels, Karen M.; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2007-01-01

    Grb2 is an SH2-SH3 protein adaptor responsible for linking growth factor receptors with intracellular signaling cascades. To study the role of Grb2 in cell growth, we have generated a new COS7 cell line (COS7 shGrb2 ), based on RNAi technology, as null mutations in mammalian Grb2 genes are lethal in early development. This novel cell line continuously expresses a short hairpin RNA that targets endogenous Grb2. Stable COS7 shGrb2 cells had the shGrb2 integrated into the genomic DNA and carried on SiL construct (made refractory to the shRNA-mediated interference), but not with an SH2-deficient mutant (R86K). Thus, a viable knock-down and rescue protocol has demonstrated that Grb2 is crucial for cell proliferation

  17. The Warsaw breakage syndrome-related protein DDX11 is required for ribosomal RNA synthesis and embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinliang; Chen, Hongbo; Deng, Zaian; Hu, Bo; Luo, Hui; Zeng, Xiaobin; Han, Liqiao; Cai, Guoping; Ma, Lan

    2015-09-01

    DDX11 was recently identified as a cause of Warsaw breakage syndrome (WABS). However, the functional mechanism of DDX11 and the contribution of clinically described mutations to the pathogenesis of WABS are elusive. Here, we show that DDX11 is a novel nucleolar protein that preferentially binds to hypomethylated active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene loci, where it interacts with upstream binding factor (UBF) and the RNA polymerase I (Pol I). DDX11 knockdown changed the epigenetic state of rDNA loci from euchromatic structures to more heterochromatic structures, reduced the activity of UBF, decreased the recruitment of UBF and RPA194 (a subunit of Pol I) to rDNA promoter, suppressed rRNA transcription and thereby inhibited growth and proliferation of HeLa cells. Importantly, two indentified WABS-derived mutants, R263Q and K897del, and a Fe-S deletion construct demonstrated significantly reduced binding abilities to rDNA promoters and lowered DNA-dependent ATPase activities compared with wild-type DDX11. Knockdown of the zebrafish ortholog of human DDX11 by morpholinos resulted in growth retardation and vertebral and craniofacial malformations in zebrafish, concomitant with the changes in histone epigenetic modifications at rDNA loci, the reduction of Pol I recruitment to the rDNA promoter and a significant decrease in nascent pre-RNA levels. These growth disruptions in zebrafish in response to DDX11 reduction showed similarities to the clinically described developmental abnormalities found in WABS patients for the first time in any vertebrate. Thus, our results indicate that DDX11 functions as a positive regulator of rRNA transcription and provides a novel insight into the pathogenesis of WABS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A ribosome without RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold S Bernhardt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It was Francis Crick who first asked why the ribosome contains so much RNA, and discussed the implications of this for the direct flow of genetic information from DNA to protein. Remarkable advances in our understanding of the ribosome and protein synthesis, including the recent publication of two mammalian mitochondrial ribosome structures, have shed new light on this intriguing aspect of evolution in molecular biology. We examine here whether RNA is indispensable for coded protein synthesis, or whether an all-protein ‘ribosome’ (or ‘synthosome’ might be possible, with a protein enzyme catalyzing peptide synthesis, and release factor-like protein adaptors able to read a message composed of deoxyribonucleotides. We also compare the RNA world hypothesis with the alternative ‘proteins first’ hypothesis in terms of their different understandings of the evolution of the ribosome, and whether this might have been preceded by an ancestral form of nonribosomal peptide synthesis catalyzed by protein enzymes.

  19. Solid-Phase Synthesis and Hybrization Behavior of Partially 2?/3?-O-Acetylated RNA Oligonucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jianfeng; Duffy, Colm D.; Chan, Christopher K. W.; Sutherland, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of partially 2?/3?-O-acetylated oligoribonucleotides has been accomplished by using a 2?/3?-O-acetyl orthogonal protecting group strategy in which non-nucleophilic strong-base (DBU) labile nucleobase protecting groups and a UV-light cleavable linker were used. Strong-base stability of the photolabile linker allowed on-column nucleobase and phosphate deprotection, followed by a mild cleavage of the acetylated oligonucleotides from the solid support with UV light. Two 17nt oligonucleo...

  20. Generating Two-Dimensional Repertoire of siRNA Linc-ROR and siRNA mRNA ARF6 from the lincRNA-RoR/miR-145/ARF6 expression Pathway that involved in the progression of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Nurdiansyah, Rizki

    2018-01-01

    The research for finding the cure for breast cancer is currently entering the interesting phase of the transcriptomics based method. With the application of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), molecular information on breast cancer could be gathered. Thus, both in silico and wet lab research has determined that the role of lincRNA-RoR/miR-145/ARF6 expression Pathway could not be ignored as one of the cardinal starting points for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). As the most hazardous type of breast cancer, TNBC should be treated with the most advanced approach that available in the scientific community. Bioinformatics approach has found the possible siRNA-based drug candidates for TNBC. It was found that siRNA that interfere with lincRNA-ROR and mRNA ARF6 could be a feasible opportunity as the drug candidate for TNBC. However, this claim should be validated with more thorough thermodynamics and kinetics computational approach as the comprehensive way to comprehend their molecular repertoire. In this respect, the claim was validated using various tools such as the RNAfold server to determine the 2D structure, Barriers server to comprehend the RNA folding kinetics, RNAeval server to validate the siRNA-target interaction. It was found that the thermodynamics and kinetics repertoire of the siRNA are indeed rational and feasible. In this end, our computation approach has proven that our designed siRNA could interact with lincRNA-RoR/miR-145/ARF6 expression Pathway.

  1. A conformational switch in the DiGIR1 ribozyme involved in release and folding of the downstream I-DirI mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Einvik, Christer; Lentz, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    DiGIR1 is a group I-like cleavage ribozyme found as a structural domain within a nuclear twin-ribozyme group I intron. DiGIR1 catalyzes cleavage by branching at an Internal Processing Site (IPS) leading to formation of a lariat cap at the 5'-end of the 3'-cleavage product. The 3'-cleavage product....... The role of HEG P1 in GIR1 branching is reminiscent of that of hairpin P-1 in splicing of the Tetrahymena rRNA group I intron and illustrates a general principle in RNA-directed RNA processing....... is subsequently processed into an mRNA encoding a homing endonuclease. By analysis of combinations of 5'- and 3'-deletions, we identify a hairpin in the 5'-UTR of the mRNA (HEG P1) that is formed by conformational switching following cleavage. The formation of HEG P1 inhibits the reversal of the branching...

  2. The Comparison of Hydrochloric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Treatments in the Preparation of Montmorillonite Catalysts for RNA Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldersley, Michael Frank; Joshi, Prakash C.; Huang, Yixing

    2017-09-01

    The treatment of clay minerals with a preliminary acid wash and titration to pH 7 has proven to generate catalysts for the most interesting of oligomerization reactions in which activated RNA-nucleotides generate oligomers up to 40-mers. Significantly, not all clay minerals become catalytic following this treatment and none are catalytic in the absence of such treatment. The washing procedure has been modified and explored further using phosphoric acid and the outcomes are compared to those obtained when clay samples are prepared following a hydrochloric acid wash.

  3. The Comparison of Hydrochloric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Treatments in the Preparation of Montmorillonite Catalysts for RNA Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldersley, Michael Frank; Joshi, Prakash C; Huang, Yixing

    2017-09-01

    The treatment of clay minerals with a preliminary acid wash and titration to pH 7 has proven to generate catalysts for the most interesting of oligomerization reactions in which activated RNA-nucleotides generate oligomers up to 40-mers. Significantly, not all clay minerals become catalytic following this treatment and none are catalytic in the absence of such treatment. The washing procedure has been modified and explored further using phosphoric acid and the outcomes are compared to those obtained when clay samples are prepared following a hydrochloric acid wash.

  4. Influence of exogeneous histone on DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in cells inoculated with Herpes simplex virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praskov, D.; Kavaklova, L.; Todorov, S.; Tsilka, S.; Petrova, S.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of exogeneous total histone from nucleated red cells on the incorporation of basal DNA and RNA precursors and proteins in FL cells inoculated with serotype I herpes simplex virus was followed up during the infectious process. In comparison with the purely viral infection, in the presence of exogeneous histone, there was repression in the incorporation of all three labelled precursors: 3 H-thymidine, 3 H-uridine and 14 C-leucine. This repression correlates with as high as 90% decrease in infectious virus yield. (author)

  5. Chimeric snRNA molecules carrying antisense sequences against the splice junctions of exon 51 of the dystrophin pre-mRNA induce exon skipping and restoration of a dystrophin synthesis in Δ48-50 DMD cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Fernanda Gabriella; Sthandier, Olga; Berarducci, Barbara; Toso, Silvia; Galluzzi, Giuliana; Ricci, Enzo; Cossu, Giulio; Bozzoni, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Deletions and point mutations in the dystrophin gene cause either the severe progressive myopathy Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or the milder Becker muscular dystrophy, depending on whether the translational reading frame is lost or maintained. Because internal in-frame deletions in the protein produce only mild myopathic symptoms, it should be possible, by preventing the inclusion of specific mutated exon(s) in the mature dystrophin mRNA, to restore a partially corrected phenotype. Such control has been previously accomplished by the use of synthetic oligonucleotides; nevertheless, a significant drawback to this approach is caused by the fact that oligonucleotides would require periodic administrations. To circumvent this problem, we have produced several constructs able to express in vivo, in a stable fashion, large amounts of chimeric RNAs containing antisense sequences. In this paper we show that antisense molecules against exon 51 splice junctions are able to direct skipping of this exon in the human DMD deletion 48–50 and to rescue dystrophin synthesis. We also show that the highest skipping activity was found when antisense constructs against the 5′ and 3′ splice sites are coexpressed in the same cell. PMID:12077324

  6. PKCδ Knockout Mice Are Protected from Dextromethorphan-Induced Serotonergic Behaviors in Mice: Involvements of Downregulation of 5-HT1AReceptor and Upregulation of Nrf2-Dependent GSH Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai-Quyen; Lee, Youngho; Shin, Eun-Joo; Jang, Choon-Gon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Mouri, Akihiro; Saito, Kuniaki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2018-02-22

    We investigated whether a specific serotonin (5-HT) receptor-mediated mechanism was involved in dextromethorphan (DM)-induced serotonergic behaviors. We firstly observed that the activation of 5-HT 1A receptor, but not 5-HT 2A receptor, contributed to DM-induced serotonergic behaviors in mice. We aimed to determine whether the upregulation of 5-HT 1A receptor induced by DM facilitates the specific induction of certain PKC isoform, because previous reports suggested that 5-HT 1A receptor activates protein kinase C (PKC). A high dose of DM (80 mg/kg, i.p.) induced a selective induction of PKCδ out of PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, PKCξ, and PKCδ in the hypothalamus of wild-type (WT) mice. More importantly, 5-HT 1A receptor co-immunoprecipitated PKCδ in the presence of DM. Consistently, rottlerin, a pharmacological inhibitor of PKCδ, or PKCδ knockout significantly protected against increases in 5-HT 1A receptor gene expression, 5-HT turnover rate, and serotonergic behaviors induced by DM. Treatment with DM resulted in an initial increase in nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity, γ-glutamylcysteine (GCL) mRNA expression, and glutathione (GSH) level. This compensative induction was further potentiated by rottlerin or PKCδ knockout. However, GCL mRNA and GSH/GSSG levels were decreased 6 and 12 h post-DM. These decreases were attenuated by PKCδ inhibition. Our results suggest that interaction between 5-HT 1A receptor and PKCδ is critical for inducing DM-induced serotonergic behaviors and that inhibition of PKCδ attenuates the serotonergic behaviors via downregulation of 5-HT 1A receptor and upregulation of Nrf2-dependent GSH synthesis.

  7. QTL Analysis of High Thermotolerance with Superior and Downgraded Parental Yeast Strains Reveals New Minor QTLs and Converges on Novel Causative Alleles Involved in RNA Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yudi; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R.; Clement, Lieven; Erdei, Éva; Tanghe, An; Schaerlaekens, Kristien; Dumortier, Françoise; Thevelein, Johan M.

    2013-01-01

    Revealing QTLs with a minor effect in complex traits remains difficult. Initial strategies had limited success because of interference by major QTLs and epistasis. New strategies focused on eliminating major QTLs in subsequent mapping experiments. Since genetic analysis of superior segregants from natural diploid strains usually also reveals QTLs linked to the inferior parent, we have extended this strategy for minor QTL identification by eliminating QTLs in both parent strains and repeating the QTL mapping with pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis. We first mapped multiple QTLs responsible for high thermotolerance in a natural yeast strain, MUCL28177, compared to the laboratory strain, BY4742. Using single and bulk reciprocal hemizygosity analysis we identified MKT1 and PRP42 as causative genes in QTLs linked to the superior and inferior parent, respectively. We subsequently downgraded both parents by replacing their superior allele with the inferior allele of the other parent. QTL mapping using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis with the segregants from the cross of the downgraded parents, revealed several new QTLs. We validated the two most-strongly linked new QTLs by identifying NCS2 and SMD2 as causative genes linked to the superior downgraded parent and we found an allele-specific epistatic interaction between PRP42 and SMD2. Interestingly, the related function of PRP42 and SMD2 suggests an important role for RNA processing in high thermotolerance and underscores the relevance of analyzing minor QTLs. Our results show that identification of minor QTLs involved in complex traits can be successfully accomplished by crossing parent strains that have both been downgraded for a single QTL. This novel approach has the advantage of maintaining all relevant genetic diversity as well as enough phenotypic difference between the parent strains for the trait-of-interest and thus maximizes the chances of successfully identifying additional minor

  8. QTL analysis of high thermotolerance with superior and downgraded parental yeast strains reveals new minor QTLs and converges on novel causative alleles involved in RNA processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Yang

    Full Text Available Revealing QTLs with a minor effect in complex traits remains difficult. Initial strategies had limited success because of interference by major QTLs and epistasis. New strategies focused on eliminating major QTLs in subsequent mapping experiments. Since genetic analysis of superior segregants from natural diploid strains usually also reveals QTLs linked to the inferior parent, we have extended this strategy for minor QTL identification by eliminating QTLs in both parent strains and repeating the QTL mapping with pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis. We first mapped multiple QTLs responsible for high thermotolerance in a natural yeast strain, MUCL28177, compared to the laboratory strain, BY4742. Using single and bulk reciprocal hemizygosity analysis we identified MKT1 and PRP42 as causative genes in QTLs linked to the superior and inferior parent, respectively. We subsequently downgraded both parents by replacing their superior allele with the inferior allele of the other parent. QTL mapping using pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis with the segregants from the cross of the downgraded parents, revealed several new QTLs. We validated the two most-strongly linked new QTLs by identifying NCS2 and SMD2 as causative genes linked to the superior downgraded parent and we found an allele-specific epistatic interaction between PRP42 and SMD2. Interestingly, the related function of PRP42 and SMD2 suggests an important role for RNA processing in high thermotolerance and underscores the relevance of analyzing minor QTLs. Our results show that identification of minor QTLs involved in complex traits can be successfully accomplished by crossing parent strains that have both been downgraded for a single QTL. This novel approach has the advantage of maintaining all relevant genetic diversity as well as enough phenotypic difference between the parent strains for the trait-of-interest and thus maximizes the chances of successfully identifying

  9. Muscle contractures in patients with cerebral palsy and acquired brain injury are associated with extracellular matrix expansion, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and reduced rRNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Walden, Ferdinand; Gantelius, Stefan; Liu, Chang; Borgström, Hanna; Björk, Lars; Gremark, Ola; Stål, Per; Nader, Gustavo A; Pontén, Eva

    2018-03-23

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and acquired brain injury (ABI) commonly develop muscle contractures with advancing age. An underlying growth defect contributing to skeletal muscle contracture formation in CP/ABI has been suggested. The biceps muscles of children and adolescents with CP/ABI (n=20) and typically developing controls (n=10) were investigated. We used immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and western blotting to assess gene expression relevant to growth and size homeostasis. Classical pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes involved in extracellular matrix production were elevated in skeletal muscle of children with CP/ABI. Intramuscular collagen content was increased and satellite cell number decreased and this was associated with reduced levels of RNA polymerase (POL) I transcription factors, 45s pre-rRNA and 28S rRNA. The present study provides novel data suggesting a role for pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced ribosomal production in the development/maintenance of muscle contractures; possibly underlying stunted growth and perimysial extracellular matrix expansion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Two non-consensus Clp binding sites are involved in upregulation of the gum operon involved in xanthan polysaccharide synthesis in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hua; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Hsiao, Yi-Min; Yang, Chiou-Ying; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung

    2010-09-01

    Biosynthesis of xanthan polysaccharide, a virulence factor of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), involves the gum operon and the cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) homologue Clp. Clp was shown to have the same DNA binding specificity as the CRP at positions 5, 6, and 7 (GTG motif) of the left arm. Therefore, Clp binding sites (CBSs) have typically been identified by pattern searching of the Xcc genome using the consensus CRP binding sequence. Here, results of a reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay suggest that Clp upregulates the gum operon by binding to two non-consensus sites, in which a more conserved right arm may compensate for the lack of conservation in the left arm, a high GC content in the central region (6 bp) may be important for binding, and binding may be enhanced if the GC-rich central region is palindromic. These suggest that atypical CBSs exist in Xcc promoters and that Clp, while retaining the capacity to bind typical CBSs, has evolved to bind atypical CBS because: 1) Clp shares only moderate homology with the CRP and is modulated by cyclic di-GMP; and 2) Xcc has a higher GC content (65%) than Escherichia coli (50%). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Integration of lncRNA and mRNA Transcriptome Analyses Reveals Genes and Pathways Potentially Involved in Calf Intestinal Growth and Development during the Early Weeks of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline M. Ibeagha-Awemu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the factors that regulate growth and immune response of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of calves will promote informed management practices in calf rearing. This study aimed to explore genomics (messenger RNA (mRNA and epigenomics (long non-coding RNA (lncRNA mechanisms regulating the development of the rumen and ileum in calves. Thirty-two calves (≈5-days-old were reared for 96 days following standard procedures. Sixteen calves were humanely euthanized on experiment day 33 (D33 (pre-weaning and another 16 on D96 (post-weaning for collection of ileum and rumen tissues. RNA from tissues was subjected to next generation sequencing and 3310 and 4217 mRNAs were differentially expressed (DE between D33 and D96 in ileum and rumen tissues, respectively. Gene ontology and pathways enrichment of DE genes confirmed their roles in developmental processes, immunity and lipid metabolism. A total of 1568 (63 known and 1505 novel and 4243 (88 known and 4155 novel lncRNAs were detected in ileum and rumen tissues, respectively. Cis target gene analysis identified BMPR1A, an important gene for a GIT disease (juvenile polyposis syndrome in humans, as a candidate cis target gene for lncRNAs in both tissues. LncRNA cis target gene enrichment suggested that lncRNAs might regulate growth and development in both tissues as well as posttranscriptional gene silencing by RNA or microRNA processing in rumen, or disease resistance mechanisms in ileum. This study provides a catalog of bovine lncRNAs and set a baseline for exploring their functions in calf GIT development.

  12. Integration of lncRNA and mRNA Transcriptome Analyses Reveals Genes and Pathways Potentially Involved in Calf Intestinal Growth and Development during the Early Weeks of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M; Do, Duy N; Dudemaine, Pier-Luc; Fomenky, Bridget E; Bissonnette, Nathalie

    2018-03-05

    A better understanding of the factors that regulate growth and immune response of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of calves will promote informed management practices in calf rearing. This study aimed to explore genomics (messenger RNA (mRNA)) and epigenomics (long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)) mechanisms regulating the development of the rumen and ileum in calves. Thirty-two calves (≈5-days-old) were reared for 96 days following standard procedures. Sixteen calves were humanely euthanized on experiment day 33 (D33) (pre-weaning) and another 16 on D96 (post-weaning) for collection of ileum and rumen tissues. RNA from tissues was subjected to next generation sequencing and 3310 and 4217 mRNAs were differentially expressed (DE) between D33 and D96 in ileum and rumen tissues, respectively. Gene ontology and pathways enrichment of DE genes confirmed their roles in developmental processes, immunity and lipid metabolism. A total of 1568 (63 known and 1505 novel) and 4243 (88 known and 4155 novel) lncRNAs were detected in ileum and rumen tissues, respectively. Cis target gene analysis identified BMPR1A , an important gene for a GIT disease (juvenile polyposis syndrome) in humans, as a candidate cis target gene for lncRNAs in both tissues. LncRNA cis target gene enrichment suggested that lncRNAs might regulate growth and development in both tissues as well as posttranscriptional gene silencing by RNA or microRNA processing in rumen, or disease resistance mechanisms in ileum. This study provides a catalog of bovine lncRNAs and set a baseline for exploring their functions in calf GIT development.

  13. A new mechanism of communication between stem cells involving vertical transfer of mRNA by its intacellular delivery within membrane-derived microvesicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajczak, J.; Miekus, K.; Kucia, M.; Dvořák, Petr; Ratajczak, M. Z.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 11 (2004), s. 1 ISSN 1528-0020. [2004 Annual meeting of American Society of Hematology . 04.12.2004-07.12.2004, San Diego] Keywords : mRNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. Effect of insulin on human skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP production, protein synthesis, and mRNA transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stump, Craig S.; Short, Kevin R.; Bigelow, Maureen L.; Schimke, Jill M.; Sreekumaran Nair, K.

    2003-06-01

    Mitochondria are the primary site of skeletal muscle fuel metabolism and ATP production. Although insulin is a major regulator of fuel metabolism, its effect on mitochondrial ATP production is not known. Here we report increases in vastus lateralis muscle mitochondrial ATP production capacity (32-42%) in healthy humans (P amino acids, glucagon, and growth hormone. Increased ATP production occurred in association with increased mRNA levels from both mitochondrial (NADH dehydrogenase subunit IV) and nuclear [cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit IV] genes (164-180%) encoding mitochondrial proteins (P diabetes mellitus, whereas matched nondiabetic controls increased 16-26% (P diabetic patients has a reduced capacity to increase ATP production with high insulin levels. cytochrome c oxidase | NADH dehydrogenase subunit IV | amino acids | citrate synthase

  15. Regulation of toxin and bacteriocin synthesis in Clostridium species by a new subgroup of RNA polymerase sigma-factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Bruno; Matamouros, Susana

    2006-04-01

    Many Clostridium species are pathogenic for humans and animals, and most of the resulting diseases, such as tetanus, botulism, gas gangrene and pseudomembranous colitis, are due to the production of potent extracellular toxins. The biochemical mechanisms of action of Clostridium toxins have been extensively studied in the past ten years. However, detailed information about the regulation of toxin gene expression has only recently emerged. TcdR, BotR, TetR and UviA are now known to be related alternative RNA polymerase sigma factors that drive transcription of toxin A and toxin B genes in C. difficile, the neurotoxin genes in C. botulinum and C. tetani, and a bacteriocin gene in C. perfringens. Although the Clostridium sigma factors have some similarity to members of the ECF sigma factor group, they differ sufficiently in structure and function so that they have been assigned to a new group within the sigma(70)-family.

  16. Synthesis, Improved Antisense Activity and Structural Rationale for the Divergent RNA Affinities of 3;#8242;-Fluoro Hexitol Nucleic Acid (FHNA and Ara-FHNA) Modified Oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egli, Martin; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Allerson, Charles R.; Prakash, Thazha P.; Berdeja, Andres; Yu, Jinghua; Lee, Sam; Watt, Andrew; Gaus, Hans; Bhat, Balkrishen; Swayze, Eric E.; Seth, Punit P. (Isis Pharm.); (Vanderbilt)

    2012-03-16

    The synthesis, biophysical, structural, and biological properties of both isomers of 3'-fluoro hexitol nucleic acid (FHNA and Ara-FHNA) modified oligonucleotides are reported. Synthesis of the FHNA and Ara-FHNA thymine phosphoramidites was efficiently accomplished starting from known sugar precursors. Optimal RNA affinities were observed with a 3'-fluorine atom and nucleobase in a trans-diaxial orientation. The Ara-FHNA analog with an equatorial fluorine was found to be destabilizing. However, the magnitude of destabilization was sequence-dependent. Thus, the loss of stability is sharply reduced when Ara-FHNA residues were inserted at pyrimidine-purine (Py-Pu) steps compared to placement within a stretch of pyrimidines (Py-Py). Crystal structures of A-type DNA duplexes modified with either monomer provide a rationalization for the opposing stability effects and point to a steric origin of the destabilization caused by the Ara-FHNA analog. The sequence dependent effect can be explained by the formation of an internucleotide C-F {hor_ellipsis} H-C pseudo hydrogen bond between F3' of Ara-FHNA and C8-H of the nucleobase from the 3'-adjacent adenosine that is absent at Py-Py steps. In animal experiments, FHNA-modified antisense oligonucleotides formulated in saline showed a potent downregulation of gene expression in liver tissue without producing hepatotoxicity. Our data establish FHNA as a useful modification for antisense therapeutics and also confirm the stabilizing influence of F(Py) {hor_ellipsis} H-C(Pu) pseudo hydrogen bonds in nucleic acid structures.

  17. Significance of Ubiad1 for Epidermal Keratinocytes Involves More Than CoQ10 Synthesis: Implications for Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Labarrade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 as an anti-oxidant barrier of the skin, as well as a key component in anti-aging strategies for skin care products, has been firmly established. Biosynthesis of CoQ10 in the mitochondria is well known, but there is only limited information on the non-mitochondrial synthesis of CoQ10 in the skin. Recent findings in zebrafish identified that a tumor suppressor, Ubiad1, is also a key enzyme in the non-mitochondrial synthesis of CoQ10. The purpose of this study was to investigate expression of Ubiad1 in human skin, and its implication in the skin’s cutaneous response to oxidative stress. We observed Ubiad1 localization in the epidermis, particularly a subcellular localization in the Golgi apparatus. Ubiad1 modulation by a pentapeptide was associated with an observed reduction in ROS/RNS stresses (−44%/−19% respectively, lipid peroxidation (−25% and preservation of membrane fluidity under stress conditions. Electron microscopy of keratinocytes revealed a significant degree of stimulation of the Golgi complex, as well as significantly improved mitochondrial morphology. Given the importance of CoQ10 in mitigating the visible signs of skin aging, our findings identify Ubiad1 as an essential component of the defensive barriers of the epidermis.

  18. Possible involvement of distinct phylogenetic clusters of HIV-1 variants in the discrepancies between coreceptor tropism predictions based on viral RNA and proviral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Hiroshi; Sudo, Koji; Hasegawa, Naoki; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Tomohisa; Iketani, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Mochizuki, Mayumi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kato, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The coreceptor tropism testing should be conducted prior to commencing a regimen containing a CCR5 antagonist for treatment of HIV-1 infection. For aviremic patients on long antiretroviral therapy, proviral DNA is often used instead of viral RNA in genotypic tropism testing. However, the tropism predictions from RNA and DNA are sometimes different. We examined the cause of the discrepancies between HIV-1 tropism predictions based on viral RNA and proviral DNA. The nucleotide sequence of the env C2V3C3 region was determined using pair samples of plasma RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA from 50 HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals using population-based sequencing. The samples with discrepant tropism assessments between RNA and DNA were further analyzed using deep sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analysis. The tropism was assessed using the algorithm geno2pheno with a false-positive rate cutoff of 10 %. In population-based sequencing, five of 50 subjects showed discrepant tropism predictions between their RNA and DNA samples: four exhibited R5 tropism in RNA and X4 tropism in DNA, while one exhibited the opposite pattern. In the deep sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, three subjects had single clusters comprising of RNA- and DNA-derived sequences that were a mixture of R5 and X4 sequences. The other two subjects had two and three distinct phylogenetic clusters of sequences, respectively, each of which was dominated by R5 or X4 sequences; sequences of the R5-dominated cluster were mostly found in RNA, while sequences of the X4-dominated cluster were mostly in DNA. Some of HIV-1 tropism discrepancies between viral RNA and proviral DNA seem to be caused by phylogenetically distinct clusters which resides in plasma and cells in different frequencies. Our findings suggest that the tropism testing using PBMC DNA or deep sequencing may be required when the viral load is not suppressed or rebounds in the course of a CCR5 antagonist-containing regimen.

  19. Selection of random RNA fragments as method for searching for a site of regulation of translation of E. coli streptomycin mRNA by ribosomal protein S7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdina, A V; Rassokhin, T I; Golovin, A V; Spiridonova, V A; Kraal, B; Kopylov, A M

    2008-06-01

    In E. coli cells ribosomal small subunit biogenesis is regulated by RNA-protein interactions involving protein S7. S7 initiates the subunit assembly interacting with 16S rRNA. During shift-down of rRNA synthesis level, free S7 inhibits self-translation by interacting with 96 nucleotides long specific region of streptomycin (str) mRNA between cistrons S12 and S7 (intercistron). Many bacteria do not have the extended intercistron challenging development of specific approaches for searching putative mRNA regulatory regions, which are able to interact with proteins. The paper describes application of SERF approach (Selection of Random RNA Fragments) to reveal regulatory regions of str mRNA. Set of random DNA fragments has been generated from str operon by random hydrolysis and then transcribed into RNA; the fragments being able to bind protein S7 (serfamers) have been selected by iterative rounds. S7 binds to single serfamer, 109 nucleotide long (RNA109), derived from the intercistron. After multiple copying and selection, the intercistronic mutant (RNA109) has been isolated; it has enhanced affinity to S7. RNA109 binds to the protein better than authentic intercistronic str mRNA; apparent dissociation constants are 26 +/- 5 and 60 +/- 8 nM, respectively. Location of S7 binding site on the mRNA, as well as putative mode of regulation of coupled translation of S12 and S7 cistrons have been hypothesized.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Salicylic Acid Treatment in Rehmannia glutinosa Hairy Roots Using RNA-seq Technique for Identification of Genes Involved in Acteoside Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqing Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rehmannia glutinosa is a common bulk medicinal material that has been widely used in China due to its active ingredients. Acteoside, one of the ingredients, has antioxidant, antinephritic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective effects, is usually selected as a quality-control component for R. glutinosa herb in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The acteoside biosynthesis pathway in R. glutinosa has not yet been clearly established. Herein, we describe the establishment of a genetic transformation system for R. glutinosa mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. We screened the optimal elicitors that markedly increased acteoside accumulation in R. glutinosa hairy roots. We found that acteoside accumulation dramatically increased with the addition of salicylic acid (SA; the optimal SA dose was 25 μmol/L for hairy roots. RNA-seq was applied to analyze the transcriptomic changes in hairy roots treated with SA for 24 h in comparison with an untreated control. A total of 3,716, 4,018, and 2,715 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were identified in 0 h-vs.-12 h, 0 h-vs.-24 h, and 12 h-vs.-24 h libraries, respectively. KEGG pathway-based analysis revealed that 127 DETs were enriched in “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.” Of 219 putative unigenes involved in acteoside biosynthesis, 54 were found to be up-regulated at at least one of the time points after SA treatment. Selected candidate genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR in hairy roots with SA, methyl jasmonate (MeJA, AgNO3 (Ag+, and putrescine (Put treatment. All genes investigated were up-regulated by SA treatment, and most candidate genes were weakly increased by MeJA to some degree. Furthermore, transcription abundance of eight candidate genes in tuberous roots of the high-acteoside-content (HA cultivar QH were higher than those of the low-acteoside-content (LA cultivar Wen 85-5. These results will pave the way for understanding the molecular

  1. Phage phi 29 regulatory protein p4 stabilizes the binding of the RNA polymerase to the late promoter in a process involving direct protein-protein contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuez, B; Rojo, F; Salas, M

    1992-12-01

    Transcription from the late promoter, PA3, of Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 is activated by the viral regulatory protein p4. A kinetic analysis of the activation process has revealed that the role of protein p4 is to stabilize the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter as a closed complex without significantly affecting further steps of the initiation process. Electrophoretic band-shift assays performed with a DNA fragment spanning only the protein p4 binding site showed that RNA polymerase could efficiently retard the complex formed by protein p4 bound to the DNA. Similarly, when a DNA fragment containing only the RNA polymerase-binding region of PA3 was used, p4 greatly stimulated the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA. These results strongly suggest that p4 and RNA polymerase contact each other at the PA3 promoter. In the light of current knowledge of the p4 activation mechanism, we propose that direct contacts between the two proteins participate in the activation process.

  2. RNA interference by feeding in vitro-synthesized double-stranded RNA to planarians: methodology and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhana, Labib; Weiss, Jennifer A; Forsthoefel, David J; Lee, Hayoung; King, Ryan S; Inoue, Takeshi; Shibata, Norito; Agata, Kiyokazu; Newmark, Phillip A

    2013-06-01

    The ability to assess gene function is essential for understanding biological processes. Currently, RNA interference (RNAi) is the only technique available to assess gene function in planarians, in which it has been induced by means of injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), soaking, or ingestion of bacteria expressing dsRNA. We describe a simple and robust RNAi protocol, involving in vitro synthesis of dsRNA that is fed to the planarians. Advantages of this protocol include the ability to produce dsRNA from any vector without subcloning, resolution of ambiguities in quantity and quality of input dsRNA, as well as time and ease of application. We have evaluated the logistics of inducing RNAi in planarians using this methodology in careful detail, from the ingestion and processing of dsRNA in the intestine, to timing and efficacy of knockdown in neoblasts, germline, and soma. We also present systematic comparisons of effects of amount, frequency, and mode of dsRNA delivery. This method gives robust and reproducible results and is amenable to high-throughput studies. Overall, this RNAi methodology provides a significant advance by combining the strengths of current protocols available for dsRNA delivery in planarians and has the potential to benefit RNAi methods in other systems. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mutational Analysis of the Hypervariable Region of Hepatitis E Virus Reveals Its Involvement in the Efficiency of Viral RNA Replication ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pudupakam, R. S.; Kenney, Scott P.; Córdoba, Laura; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A.; LeRoith, Tanya; Pierson, F. William; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    The RNA genome of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1 that tolerates small deletions with respect to infectivity. To further investigate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we constructed a panel of mutants with overlapping deletions in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the HVR by using a genotype 1 human HEV luciferase replicon and analyzed the effects of deletions on viral RNA replication in Huh7 cells. We found that the replication...

  4. Single base mutation in the pro. alpha. 2(I) collagen gene that causes efficient splicing of RNA from exon 27 to exon 29 and synthesis of a shortened but in-frame pro. alpha. 2(I) chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromp, G.; Prockop, D.J. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Previous observations demonstrated that a lethal variant of osteogenesis imperfecta had two altered alleles for pro{alpha}2(I) chains of type I procollagen. One mutation produced a nonfunctioning allele in that there was synthesis of mRNA but no detectable synthesis of pro{alpha}2(I) chains from the allele. The mutation in the other allele caused synthesis of shortened pro{alpha}2(I) chains that lacked most or all of the 18 amino acids encoded by exon 28. Subclones of the pro{alpha}2(I) gene were prepared from the proband's DNA and the DNA sequence was determined for a 582-base-pair (bp) region that extended from the last 30 bp of intervening sequence 26 to the first 26 bp of intervening sequence 29. Data from six independent subclones demonstrated that all had the same sequence as a previously isolated normal clone for the pro{alpha}2(I) gene except that four subclones had a single base mutation at the 3{prime} end of intervening sequence 27. The mutation was a substitution of guanine for adenine that changed the universal consensus sequence for the 3{prime} splicing site of RNA from -AG- to -GG-. S1 nuclease experiments demonstrated that about half the pro{alpha}2(I) mRNA in the proband's fibroblasts was abnormally spliced and that the major species of abnormal pro{alpha}2(I) mRNA was completely spliced from the last codon of exon 27 to the first codon of exon 29. The mutation is apparently unique among RNA splicing mutations of mammalian systems in producing a shortened polypeptide chain that is in-frame in terms of coding sequences, that is used in the subunit assembly of a protein, and that contributes to a lethal phenotype.

  5. Influence of fermentation conditions on polysaccharide production and the activities of enzymes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis of Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Dong, Feng-Ying; Guo, Ming-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-05-01

    The influence of different fermentation conditions on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) production and activities of the phosphoglucomutase (PGM), UDPG-pyrophosphorylase (UGP), phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), UDPG-dehydrogenase (UGD), and glucokinase (GK) implicated in metabolite synthesis in Cordyceps militaris was evaluated. The highest IPS production (327.57 ± 6.27 mg/100 mL) was obtained when the strain was grown in the optimal medium containing glucose (40 g · L(-1)), beef extract (10 g · L(-1)), and CaCO3 (0.5 g · L(-1)), and the initial pH and temperature were 7 and 25 °C, respectively. The activities of PGM, UGP, and PGI were proved to be influenced by the fermentation conditions. A strong correlation between the activities of these enzymes and the production of IPS was found. The transcription level of the pgm gene (encoding PGM) was 1.049 times and 1.467 times compared to the ugp gene and pgi gene (encoding UGP and PGI), respectively, in the optimal culture medium. This result indicated that PGM might be the highly key enzyme to regulate the biosynthesis of IPS of C. militaris in a liquid-submerged culture. Our study might be helpful for further research on the pathway of polysaccharide biosynthesis aimed to improve the IPS production of C. militaris.

  6. Multi-tissue RNA-seq and transcriptome characterisation of the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) provides a molecular tool for biological research and reveals new genes involved in osmoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chana Munoz, Andres; Jendroszek, Agnieszka; Sønnichsen, Malene

    2017-01-01

    dogfish by utilizing the novel gene and protein annotations to investigate a set of genes involved in urea synthesis and urea, ammonia and water transport, all of them crucial in osmoregulation. We describe the presence of different gene copies and isoforms of key enzymes involved in this process......, including arginases and transporters of urea and ammonia, for which sequence information is currently absent in the databases for this model species. The transcriptome assemblies and the derived annotations generated in this study will support the ongoing research for this particular animal model...

  7. Homeologous genes involved in mannitol synthesis reveal unequal contributions in response to abiotic stress in Coffea arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Kenia; Petkowicz, Carmen L O; Nagashima, Getulio T; Bespalhok Filho, João C; Vieira, Luiz G E; Pereira, Luiz F P; Domingues, Douglas S

    2014-10-01

    Polyploid plants can exhibit transcriptional modulation in homeologous genes in response to abiotic stresses. Coffea arabica, an allotetraploid, accounts for 75% of the world's coffee production. Extreme temperatures, salinity and drought limit crop productivity, which includes coffee plants. Mannitol is known to be involved in abiotic stress tolerance in higher plants. This study aimed to investigate the transcriptional responses of genes involved in mannitol biosynthesis and catabolism in C. arabica leaves under water deficit, salt stress and high temperature. Mannitol concentration was significantly increased in leaves of plants under drought and salinity, but reduced by heat stress. Fructose content followed the level of mannitol only in heat-stressed plants, suggesting the partitioning of the former into other metabolites during drought and salt stress conditions. Transcripts of the key enzymes involved in mannitol biosynthesis, CaM6PR, CaPMI and CaMTD, were modulated in distinct ways depending on the abiotic stress. Our data suggest that changes in mannitol accumulation during drought and salt stress in leaves of C. arabica are due, at least in part, to the increased expression of the key genes involved in mannitol biosynthesis. In addition, the homeologs of the Coffea canephora subgenome did not present the same pattern of overall transcriptional response, indicating differential regulation of these genes by the same stimulus. In this way, this study adds new information on the differential expression of C. arabica homeologous genes under adverse environmental conditions showing that abiotic stresses can influence the homeologous gene regulation pattern, in this case, mainly on those involved in mannitol pathway.

  8. The cytochrome P450 genes of channel catfish: their involvement in disease defense responses as revealed by meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) encode one of the most diverse enzyme superfamily in nature. They catalyze oxidative reactions of endogenous molecules and exogenous chemicals. Methods: We identifiedCYPs genes through in silico analysis using EST, RNA-Seq and genome databases of channel catfish.Phylogenetic ...

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Sequence Assembly from Coconut Leaves and Seeds with a Focus on Factors Involved in RNA-Directed DNA Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Lee, Chueh-Pai; Fu, Jason L.; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Matzke, Antonius J. M.; Matzke, Marjori

    2014-01-01

    Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a symbol of the tropics and a source of numerous edible and nonedible products of economic value. Despite its nutritional and industrial significance, coconut remains under-represented in public repositories for genomic and transcriptomic data. We report de novo transcript assembly from RNA-seq data and analysis of gene expression in seed tissues (embryo and endosperm) and leaves of a dwarf coconut variety. Assembly of 10 GB sequencing data for each tissue resulted in 58,211 total unigenes in embryo, 61,152 in endosperm, and 33,446 in leaf. Within each unigene pool, 24,857 could be annotated in embryo, 29,731 could be annotated in endosperm, and 26,064 could be annotated in leaf. A KEGG analysis identified 138, 138, and 139 pathways, respectively, in transcriptomes of embryo, endosperm, and leaf tissues. Given the extraordinarily large size of coconut seeds and the importance of small RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation during seed development in model plants, we used homology searches to identify putative homologs of factors required for RNA-directed DNA methylation in coconut. The findings suggest that RNA-directed DNA methylation is important during coconut seed development, particularly in maturing endosperm. This dataset will expand the genomics resources available for coconut and provide a foundation for more detailed analyses that may assist molecular breeding strategies aimed at improving this major tropical crop. PMID:25193496

  10. De novo transcriptome sequence assembly from coconut leaves and seeds with a focus on factors involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Yi; Lee, Chueh-Pai; Fu, Jason L; Chang, Bill Chia-Han; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2014-09-04

    Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) is a symbol of the tropics and a source of numerous edible and nonedible products of economic value. Despite its nutritional and industrial significance, coconut remains under-represented in public repositories for genomic and transcriptomic data. We report de novo transcript assembly from RNA-seq data and analysis of gene expression in seed tissues (embryo and endosperm) and leaves of a dwarf coconut variety. Assembly of 10 GB sequencing data for each tissue resulted in 58,211 total unigenes in embryo, 61,152 in endosperm, and 33,446 in leaf. Within each unigene pool, 24,857 could be annotated in embryo, 29,731 could be annotated in endosperm, and 26,064 could be annotated in leaf. A KEGG analysis identified 138, 138, and 139 pathways, respectively, in transcriptomes of embryo, endosperm, and leaf tissues. Given the extraordinarily large size of coconut seeds and the importance of small RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation during seed development in model plants, we used homology searches to identify putative homologs of factors required for RNA-directed DNA methylation in coconut. The findings suggest that RNA-directed DNA methylation is important during coconut seed development, particularly in maturing endosperm. This dataset will expand the genomics resources available for coconut and provide a foundation for more detailed analyses that may assist molecular breeding strategies aimed at improving this major tropical crop. Copyright © 2014 Huang et al.

  11. The yeast RNA polymerase II-associated factor Iwr1p is involved in the basal and regulated transcription of specific genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró-Chova, Lorena; Estruch, Francisco

    2009-10-16

    RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) is a multisubunit enzyme that requires many auxiliary factors for its activity. Over the years, these factors have been identified using both biochemical and genetic approaches. Recently, the systematic characterization of protein complexes by tandem affinity purification and mass spectroscopy has allowed the identification of new components of well established complexes, including the RNA pol II holoenzyme. Using this approach, a novel and highly conserved factor, Iwr1p, that physically interacts with most of the RNA pol II subunits has been described in yeast. Here we show that Iwr1p genetically interacts with components of the basal transcription machinery and plays a role in both basal and regulated transcription. We report that mutation of the IWR1 gene is able to bypass the otherwise essential requirement for the transcriptional regulator negative cofactor 2, which occurs with different components of the basal transcription machinery, including TFIIA and subunits of the mediator complex. Deletion of the IWR1 gene leads to an altered expression of specific genes, including phosphate-responsive genes and SUC2. Our results show that Iwr1p is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein and suggest that Iwr1p acts early in the formation of the pre-initiation complex by mediating the interaction of certain activators with the basal transcription apparatus.

  12. The Yeast RNA Polymerase II-associated Factor Iwr1p Is Involved in the Basal and Regulated Transcription of Specific Genes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró-Chova, Lorena; Estruch, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) is a multisubunit enzyme that requires many auxiliary factors for its activity. Over the years, these factors have been identified using both biochemical and genetic approaches. Recently, the systematic characterization of protein complexes by tandem affinity purification and mass spectroscopy has allowed the identification of new components of well established complexes, including the RNA pol II holoenzyme. Using this approach, a novel and highly conserved factor, Iwr1p, that physically interacts with most of the RNA pol II subunits has been described in yeast. Here we show that Iwr1p genetically interacts with components of the basal transcription machinery and plays a role in both basal and regulated transcription. We report that mutation of the IWR1 gene is able to bypass the otherwise essential requirement for the transcriptional regulator negative cofactor 2, which occurs with different components of the basal transcription machinery, including TFIIA and subunits of the mediator complex. Deletion of the IWR1 gene leads to an altered expression of specific genes, including phosphate-responsive genes and SUC2. Our results show that Iwr1p is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein and suggest that Iwr1p acts early in the formation of the pre-initiation complex by mediating the interaction of certain activators with the basal transcription apparatus. PMID:19679657

  13. True microbiota involved in chronic lung infection of cystic fibrosis patients found by culturing and 16S rRNA gene analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudkjøbing, Vibeke Børsholt; Thomsen, Trine R; Alhede, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) develop chronic lung infection. In this study, we investigated the microorganisms present in transplanted CF lungs (n = 5) by standard culturing and 16S rRNA gene analysis. A correspondence between culturing and the molecular methods was observed. In c...

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure and characterization of novel open framework CHA-type aluminophosphate involving a chiral diamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Kenichi; Horibe, Yukiko; Yajima, Hiroaki; Hiyoshi, Norihito; Ikeda, Takuji

    2016-09-27

    A highly crystalline new precursor of CHA-type zeolite AlPO 4 -34 was obtained by using an aluminophosphate gel with a chiral diamine [(S)-(+)-1-(2-pyrrolidinylmethyl)pyrrolidine; C 9 H 18 N 2 ] as an organic structure directing agent under hydrothermal synthesis conditions. This precursor (called GAM-1) was changed into the zeolite AlPO 4 -34 which had a high porosity (the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area is approximately 700 m 3 g -1 ) using calcination. The GAM-1 obtained was characterized by various measurements, e.g., powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and so on. Structure determination from powder diffraction data revealed that the new precursor GAM-1 has triclinic symmetry [space group P1[combining macron], a = 9.16535(11) Å, b = 9.23042(11) Å, c = 9.29228(11) Å, α = 79.8243(7)°, β = 87.4593(7)°, γ = 86.5365(7)°] and the chemical formula was estimated to be: |Al 6 P 6 O 24 H 2 F 2 |(C 9 H 18 N 2 )·2.5(H 2 O). It also revealed that a two edge sharing AlO 4 F 2 octahedron with an [triple bond, length as m-dash]Al-F-Al[triple bond, length as m-dash] bridge was included in the framework. GAM-1 was transformed into AlPO 4 -34 with rhombohedral symmetry (R3[combining macron]) by elevating temperature to over 400 °C. At high temperatures, AlO 4 F 2 octahedron connectivity was changed into an AlO 4 tetrahedron. The crystal structure of the dehydrated AlPO 4 -34 changed back to a triclinic symmetry (P1) model again after rehydration in the atmosphere.

  15. Aldoxime dehydratase: probing the heme environment involved in the synthesis of the carbon-nitrogen triple bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinakoulaki, Eftychia; Koutsoupakis, Constantinos; Sawai, Hitomi; Pavlou, Andrea; Kato, Yasuo; Asano, Yasuhisa; Aono, Shigetoshi

    2011-11-10

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, "light" minus "dark" difference FTIR spectra, and time-resolved step-scan (TRS(2)) FTIR spectra are reported for carbonmonoxy aldoxime dehydratase. Two C-O modes of heme at 1945 and 1964 cm(-1) have been identified and remained unchanged in H(2)O/D(2)O exchange and in the pH 5.6-8.5 range, suggesting the presence of two conformations at the active site. The observed C-O frequencies are 5 and 16 cm(-1) lower and higher, respectively, than that obtained previously (Oinuma, K.-I.; et al. FEBS Lett.2004, 568, 44-48). We suggest that the strength of the Fe-His bond and the neutralization of the negatively charged propionate groups modulate the ν(Fe-CO)/ν(CO) back-bonding correlation. The "light" minus "dark" difference FTIR spectra indicate that the heme propionates are in both the protonated and deprotonated forms, and the photolyzed CO becomes trapped within a ligand docking site (ν(CO) = 2138 cm(-1)). The TRS(2)-FTIR spectra show that the rate of recombination of CO to the heme is k(1945 cm(-1)) = 126 ± 20 s(-1) and k(1964 cm(-1)) = 122 ± 20 s(-1) at pH 5.6, and k(1945 cm(-1)) = 148 ± 30 s(-1) and k(1964 cm(-1)) = 158 ± 32 s(-1) at pH 8.5. The rate of decay of the heme propionate vibrations is on a time scale coincident with the rate of rebinding, suggesting that there is a coupling between ligation dynamics in the distal heme environment and the environment sensed by the heme propionates. The implications of these results with respect to the proximal His-Fe heme environment including the propionates and the positively charged or proton-donating residues in the distal pocket which are crucial for the synthesis of nitriles are discussed.

  16. Chum-RNA allows preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from a single-cell quantity of mRNA without PCR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougan, Takahiro; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    Linear RNA amplification using T7 RNA polymerase is useful in genome-wide analysis of gene expression using DNA microarrays, but exponential amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is still required for cDNA library preparation from single-cell quantities of RNA. We have designed a small RNA molecule called chum-RNA that has enabled us to prepare a single-cell cDNA library after four rounds of T7-based linear amplification, without using PCR amplification. Chum-RNA drove cDNA synthesis from only 0.49 femtograms of mRNA (730 mRNA molecules) as a substrate, a quantity that corresponds to a minor population of mRNA molecules in a single mammalian cell. Analysis of the independent cDNA clone of this library (6.6 x 10(5) cfu) suggests that 30-fold RNA amplification occurred in each round of the amplification process. The size distribution and representation of mRNAs in the resulting one-cell cDNA library retained its similarity to that of the million-cell cDNA library. The use of chum-RNA might also facilitate reactions involving other DNA/RNA modifying enzymes whose Michaelis constant (K(m)) values are around 1 mM, allowing them to be activated in the presence of only small quantities of substrate.

  17. Involvement of a Polyketide Synthetase ClPKS18 in the Regulation of Vegetative Growth, Melanin and Toxin Synthesis, and Virulence inCurvularia lunata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jin-Xin; Chen, Jie

    2017-12-01

    The clpks18 gene was first cloned and identified in Curvularia lunata. It contains 6571 base pairs (bp) and an 6276 bp open reading frame encoding 2091 amino acids. The ClPKS18 deletion mutant displayed an albino phenotype, and almost lost the ability to product 5-(hydroxymethyl) furan-2-carboxylate (M5HF2C) toxin, implying that clpks18 gene in C. lunata is not only involved in 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin synthesis, but also relatively associated with M5HF2C toxin biosynthesis of the pathogen. The pathogenicity assays revealed that ΔClPKS18 was impaired in colonizing the maize leaves, which corresponds to the finding that ClPKS18 controls the production of melanin and M5HF2C in C. lunata . Results indicate that ClPKS18 plays a vital role in regulating pathogenicity of in C. lunata .

  18. Involving parents in managing their child's long-term condition-a concept synthesis of family-centered care and partnership-in-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joanna; Swallow, Veronica; Coyne, Imelda

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUNG: Fostering effective engagement, collaboration and empowerment are central to supporting parents caring for children with long-term conditions. A concept synthesis was undertaken to identify the shared antecedents and attributes underpinning models of family-centered care and partnership-in-care. Thirty studies were reviewed; antecedents of models related to unclear roles, entrenched professional practices, and lack of guidelines supporting their implementation; with central attributes being building trust, listening to parent concerns and valuing parents' knowledge of their child. The key attributes are outlined in a practical framework of involvement which may promote parent-professional collaboration for families of children with long-term conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  20. Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1, a gene involved in X-linked intellectual disability, undergoes RNA editing and alternative splicing during human brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Barresi

    Full Text Available Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1 encodes for a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, important for dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic function. Mutations in this gene have been identified in patients with X-linked intellectual disability associated with cerebellar hypoplasia. ADAR enzymes are responsible for A-to-I RNA editing, an essential post-transcriptional RNA modification contributing to transcriptome and proteome diversification. Specifically, ADAR2 activity is essential for brain development and function. Herein, we show that the OPHN1 transcript undergoes post-transcriptional modifications such as A-to-I RNA editing and alternative splicing in human brain and other tissues. We found that OPHN1 editing is detectable already at the 18th week of gestation in human brain with a boost of editing at weeks 20 to 33, concomitantly with OPHN1 expression increase and the appearance of a novel OPHN1 splicing isoform. Our results demonstrate that multiple post-transcriptional events occur on OPHN1, a gene playing an important role in brain function and development.

  1. Involvement of renal corpuscle microRNA expression on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in maternal low protein diet in adult programmed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia de Barros Sene

    Full Text Available Prior study shows that maternal protein-restricted (LP 16-wk-old offspring have pronounced reduction of nephron number and arterial hypertension associated with unchanged glomerular filtration rate, besides enhanced glomerular area, which may be related to glomerular hyperfiltration/overflow and which accounts for the glomerular filtration barrier breakdown and early glomerulosclerosis. In the current study, LP rats showed heavy proteinuria associated with podocyte simplification and foot process effacement. TGF-β1 glomerular expression was significantly enhanced in LP. Isolated LP glomeruli show a reduced level of miR-200a, miR-141, miR-429 and ZEB2 mRNA and upregulated collagen 1α1/2 mRNA expression. By western blot analyzes of whole kidney tissue, we found significant reduction of both podocin and nephrin and enhanced expression of mesenchymal protein markers such as desmin, collagen type I and fibronectin. From our present knowledge, these are the first data showing renal miRNA modulation in the protein restriction model of fetal programming. The fetal-programmed adult offspring showed pronounced structural glomerular disorders with an accentuated and advanced stage of fibrosis, which led us to state that the glomerular miR-200 family would be downregulated by TGF-β1 action inducing ZEB 2 expression that may subsequently cause glomeruli epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  2. Model of OSBP-Mediated Cholesterol Supply to Aichi Virus RNA Replication Sites Involving Protein-Protein Interactions among Viral Proteins, ACBD3, OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa-Sasaki, Kumiko; Nagashima, Shigeo; Taniguchi, Koki; Sasaki, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Positive-strand RNA viruses, including picornaviruses, utilize cellular machinery for genome replication. Previously, we reported that each of the 2B, 2BC, 2C, 3A, and 3AB proteins of Aichi virus (AiV), a picornavirus, forms a complex with the Golgi apparatus protein ACBD3 and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) at viral RNA replication sites (replication organelles [ROs]), enhancing PI4KB-dependent phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) production. Here, we demonstrate AiV hijacking of the cellular cholesterol transport system involving oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP), a PI4P-binding cholesterol transfer protein. AiV RNA replication was inhibited by silencing cellular proteins known to be components of this pathway, OSBP, the ER membrane proteins VAPA and VAPB (VAP-A/B), the PI4P-phosphatase SAC1, and PI-transfer protein β. OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1 were present at RNA replication sites. We also found various previously unknown interactions among the AiV proteins (2B, 2BC, 2C, 3A, and 3AB), ACBD3, OSBP, VAP-A/B, and SAC1, and the interactions were suggested to be involved in recruiting the component proteins to AiV ROs. Importantly, the OSBP-2B interaction enabled PI4P-independent recruitment of OSBP to AiV ROs, indicating preferential recruitment of OSBP among PI4P-binding proteins. Protein-protein interaction-based OSBP recruitment has not been reported for other picornaviruses. Cholesterol was accumulated at AiV ROs, and inhibition of OSBP-mediated cholesterol transfer impaired cholesterol accumulation and AiV RNA replication. Electron microscopy showed that AiV-induced vesicle-like structures were close to ER membranes. Altogether, we conclude that AiV directly recruits the cholesterol transport machinery through protein-protein interactions, resulting in formation of membrane contact sites between the ER and AiV ROs and cholesterol supply to the ROs. IMPORTANCE Positive-strand RNA viruses utilize host pathways to modulate the lipid composition of

  3. RNA topology

    OpenAIRE

    Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim D.

    2013-01-01

    A new variety on non-coding RNA has been discovered by several groups: circular RNA (circRNA). This discovery raises intriguing questions about the possibility of the existence of knotted RNA molecules and the existence of a new class of enzymes changing RNA topology, RNA topoisomerases.

  4. Early steps in protein synthesis and their regulation: a background study related to the biological effects of radiation. Progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, P.C.

    1976-03-01

    This is a continuing study of protein synthesis, involving a search for the role of Ap/sub 4/A and other unusual nucleotides in growth regulation; studies of the mechanism of action of aminoacyl-tRNA ligases and the effect thereof on protein synthesis; a search for new regulators of the translation step, in cell-free systems; and an effort to improve the sensitivity and quantitation of chemical sequencing at the 3'-end of messenger RNA.

  5. Salivary miRNA profiles identify children with autism spectrum disorder, correlate with adaptive behavior, and implicate ASD candidate genes involved in neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Steven D; Ignacio, Cherry; Gentile, Karen; Middleton, Frank A

    2016-04-22

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that lacks adequate screening tools, often delaying diagnosis and therapeutic interventions. Despite a substantial genetic component, no single gene variant accounts for >1 % of ASD incidence. Epigenetic mechanisms that include microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to the ASD phenotype by altering networks of neurodevelopmental genes. The extracellular availability of miRNAs allows for painless, noninvasive collection from biofluids. In this study, we investigated the potential for saliva-based miRNAs to serve as diagnostic screening tools and evaluated their potential functional importance. Salivary miRNA was purified from 24 ASD subjects and 21 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The ASD group included individuals with mild ASD (DSM-5 criteria and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) and no history of neurologic disorder, pre-term birth, or known chromosomal abnormality. All subjects completed a thorough neurodevelopmental assessment with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales at the time of saliva collection. A total of 246 miRNAs were detected and quantified in at least half the samples by RNA-Seq and used to perform between-group comparisons with non-parametric testing, multivariate logistic regression and classification analyses, as well as Monte-Carlo Cross-Validation (MCCV). The top miRNAs were examined for correlations with measures of adaptive behavior. Functional enrichment analysis of the highest confidence mRNA targets of the top differentially expressed miRNAs was performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), as well as the Simons Foundation Autism Database (AutDB) of ASD candidate genes. Fourteen miRNAs were differentially expressed in ASD subjects compared to controls (p adaptive behavior. These miRNAs have high specificity and cross-validated utility as a potential screening tool for ASD.

  6. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: Zuliang.chen@newcastle.edu.au; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. - Graphical abstract: TEM image for the Fe/Pd NPs synthesized by grape leaf aqueous extract. - Highlights: • The one-step green synthesis of Fe/Pd nanoparticles has been systematically characterized. • TEM showed that the Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. • Active biomolecules in the grape extract were identified.

  7. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. - Graphical abstract: TEM image for the Fe/Pd NPs synthesized by grape leaf aqueous extract. - Highlights: • The one-step green synthesis of Fe/Pd nanoparticles has been systematically characterized. • TEM showed that the Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. • Active biomolecules in the grape extract were identified.

  8. Key steps from the “RNA World” to the “DNA World”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard B.-L.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the « RNA World » hypothesis of the origin of life, RNAs are assumed to be the central macromolecules able to self-replicate, conserve information and catalyze the reactions necessary for a primitive metabolism and many enzymatic cofactors may be regarded as molecular fossils of the “RNA World”. In the key steps involved in the transition from the RNA World to the DNA World, two main steps can be distinguished: (i the synthesis of 2’-deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides catalyzed nowadays by the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase and (ii the synthesis of thymine, a base specific for DNA, from uracil which is a base specific for RNA, catalyzed today by the enzyme thymidylate synthase. In regard to the chemistry of sulfur used by both enzymes for achieving their respective catalysis, we were interested in the search for simple sulfur reactions able to catalyze such transformations and report here on first results in an approach from thionucleosides to the catalysis involved in the conversion of uracil to thymine. In the RNA World, the recruitment of cofactors was crucial to expand the catalytic repertoire of RNA and we also describe interesting preliminary results obtained in the prebiotic synthesis of pyridoxal (vitamin B6 that is the precursor of the key coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate (PLP able to catalyze nowadays seven different enzymatic reactions.

  9. Control of DNA synthesis in inhibited and activated Agrostemma githago seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, M.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between DNA synthesis and germination capacity of Agrostemma seeds had been studied. Protein synthesis and RNA synthesis were activated at the very beginning of imbibition, whereas DNA synthesis started in the second part of the imbibition phase. Agrostemma seeds inhibited by higher temperature (30 degC), or aged seeds with a low germination capacity were characterized by a significantly reduced protein synthesis. DNA synthesis was also reduced. The inhibition of the protein synthesis of Agrostemma embryos fed with cycloheximide or actinomycin D caused a depression of DNA synthesis. The results indicated that the initiation of DNA synthesis of imbibing Agrostemma seeds depended on the synthesis of special proteins. Abscisic acid inhibited the growth as well as DNA synthesis of isolated Agrostemma embryos. Nitomycin inhibited germination and DNA synthesis to the same extent. Dormant seeds with an undiminished intensity of protein synthesis also showed a reduced incorporation of 3 H-thymidine by DNA. It is suggested that DNA synthesis of imbibed seeds, which is a necessary prerequisite for the radicle protrusion, was involved in the mechanism of ripening of the Agrostemma seeds. (author)

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the regulation of liver diseases: Involvement of Regulated IRE1α and β-dependent decay and miRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Harun-Or; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Junjappa, Raghupatil; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2017-05-01

    Compromised protein folding capacity in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to a protein traffic jam that produces a toxic environment called ER stress. However, the ER smartly handles such a critical situation by activating a cascade of proteins responsible for sensing and responding to the noxious stimuli of accumulated proteins. The ER protein load is higher in secretory cells, such as liver hepatocytes, which are thus prone to stress-mediated toxicity and various diseases, including alcohol-induced liver injury, fatty liver disease, and viral hepatitis. Therefore, we discuss the molecular cues that connect ER stress to hepatic diseases. Moreover, we review the literature on ER stress-regulated miRNA in the pathogenesis of liver diseases to give a comprehensive overview of mechanistic insights connecting ER stress and miRNA in the context of liver diseases. We also discuss currently discovered regulated IRE1 dependent decay in regulation of hepatic diseases. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Cooperativity effect involving drug-DNA/RNA intermolecular interaction: A B3LYP-D3 and MP2 theoretical investigation on ketoprofen⋯cytosine⋯H2O system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Jun-Ping; Wei, Xiao-Chun; Shi, Wen-Jing; Huang, Zhu-Yuan; Jin, Bo; Zhou, Yu-Kun

    2017-11-14

    In order to examine the origin of the drug action and design new DNA/RNA-targeted drugs, the cooperativity effect involving drug-DNA/RNA intermolecular interaction in ketoprofen⋯cytosine⋯H 2 O ternary system were investigated by the B3LYP, B3LYP-D3, and MP2 methods with the 6-311++G(2d,p) basis set. The thermodynamic cooperativity was also evaluated at 310.15 K. The N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, O-H⋯N, C-H⋯N, and C-H⋯O H bonds coexist in ternary complexes. The intermolecular interactions obtained by B3LYP-D3 are close to those calculated by MP2. The steric effects and van der Waals interactions have little influence on the cooperativity effects. The anti-cooperativity effect in ket⋯cyt⋯H 2 O is far more notable than the cooperativity effect, and the stability of the cyclic structure with anti-cooperativity effect is higher than that of the linear structure with cooperativity effect, as is confirmed by the AIM (atoms in molecules) and RDG (reduced density gradient) analysis. Thus, it can be inferred that, in the presence of H 2 O, the anti-cooperativity effect plays a dominant role in the drug-DNA/RNA interaction, and the nature of the hydration in the binding of drugs to DNA/RNA bases is the H-bonding anti-cooperativity effect. Furthermore, the drug always links simultaneously with DNA/RNA base and H 2 O, and only in this way can the biological activity of drugs play a role. In most cases, the enthalpy change is the major factor driving the cooperativity, as is different from most of biomacromolecule complexes.

  12. Yeast mitochondrial RNase P, RNase Z and the RNA degradosome are part of a stable supercomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Rachid; Forget, Lise; Lang, B Franz

    2012-02-01

    Initial steps in the synthesis of functional tRNAs require 5'- and 3'-processing of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs), which in yeast mitochondria are achieved by two endonucleases, RNase P and RNase Z. In this study, using a combination of detergent-free Blue Native Gel Electrophoresis, proteomics and in vitro testing of pre-tRNA maturation, we reveal the physical association of these plus other mitochondrial activities in a large, stable complex of 136 proteins. It contains a total of seven proteins involved in RNA processing including RNase P and RNase Z, five out of six subunits of the mitochondrial RNA degradosome, components of the fatty acid synthesis pathway, translation, metabolism and protein folding. At the RNA level, there are the small and large rRNA subunits and RNase P RNA. Surprisingly, this complex is absent in an oar1Δ deletion mutant of the type II fatty acid synthesis pathway, supporting a recently published functional link between pre-tRNA processing and the FAS II pathway--apparently by integration into a large complex as we demonstrate here. Finally, the question of mt-RNase P localization within mitochondria was investigated, by GFP-tracing of a known protein subunit (Rpm2p). We find that about equal fractions of RNase P are soluble versus membrane-attached.

  13. Leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation is associated with cell-type-dependent splicing of mtAspRS mRNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berge, Laura; Dooves, Stephanie; van Berkel, Carola G. M.; Polder, Emiel; van der Knaap, Marjo S.; Scheper, Gert C.

    2012-01-01

    LBSL (leukoencephalopathy with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation) is an autosomal recessive white matter disorder with slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, spasticity and dorsal column dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging shows characteristic abnormalities in the

  14. Individual effects of the copia and gypsy enhancer and insulator on chromatin marks, eRNA synthesis, and binding of insulator proteins in transfected genetic constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseeva, Daria M; Kretova, Olga V; Gorbacheva, Maria A; Tchurikov, Nickolai A

    2018-01-30

    Enhancers and insulators are involved in the regulation of gene expression, but the basic underlying mechanisms of action of these elements are unknown. We analyzed the individual effects of the enhancer and the insulator from Drosophila mobile elements copia [enh(copia)] and gypsy using transfected genetic constructs in S2 cells. This system excludes the influence of genomic cis regulatory elements. The enhancer-induced synthesis of 350-1050-nt-long enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) and H3K4me3 and H3K18ac marks, mainly in the region located about 300bp downstream of the enhancer. Insertion of the insulator between the enhancer and the promoter reduced these effects. We also observed the binding of dCTCF to the enhancer and to gypsy insulator. Our data indicate that a single gypsy insulator interacts with both the enhancer and the promoter, while two copies of the gypsy insulator preferentially interact with each other. Our results suggest the formation of chromatin loops that are shaped by the enhancer and the insulator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of combined exposure to thaliblastine and gamma rays on DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in leukocytes from rat peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadzhidekova, V.; Marinova, Ts.

    1987-01-01

    The action of the alkaloid thaliblastine (a Bulgarian potential antitumor drug) upon macromolecule synthesis has been studied in vitro by treating rat peripheral leukocytes with the agent solely or combined with irradiation. The concentration tested were 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/ml blood, which are sublethal to the cells. A 137 Cs gamma source was used to deliver a single dose of 1, 2, 3, or 4 Gy. For combined exposures, the blood was exposed to a 2 Gy dose and simultaneously treated with thaliblastine. The changes in macromolecule synthesis were judged by recording incorporation of labelled precursors relative to that in non-treated controls taken as 100%. With sole thaliblastine treatments, most markedly suppressed was protein synthesis. Radiation alone inhibited to the largest extent the synthesis of DNA. With combined treatments, DNA synthesis was again the most markedly affected of the three synthesis types; the inhibitory effect proved additive, with a tendency to potentiation in the case of higher thaliblastine concentrations. Suppression of protein synthesis was less pronounced that expected on a hypothetic additivity basis. The changes observed in macromolecule synthesis under sole or combined action of thaliblastine and gamma rays indicated the two types of cytostatics to differ in mechanisms of action. For radiation, the target was DNA, whereas for thaliblastine the cell division spindle appeared to be the most likely target. The evidence obtained with combined exposure pointed to the determining role of radiation as a factor interfering with macromolecule synthesis. (author)

  16. An archaeal tRNA-synthetase complex that enhances aminoacylation under extreme conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Jaric, Jelena; Hausmann, Corinne D

    2011-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) play an integral role in protein synthesis, functioning to attach the correct amino acid with its cognate tRNA molecule. AaRSs are known to associate into higher-order multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes (MSC) involved in archaeal and eukaryotic translatio...... of a complex between MtSerRS and MtArgRS provides a means by which methanogenic archaea can optimize an early step in translation under a wide range of extreme environmental conditions....

  17. Lack of evidence for a liver or intestinal miRNA regulation involved in the hypertriglyceridemic effect of APOC3 3'UTR variant SstI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, Marine; Caussy, Cyrielle; Di Filippo, Mathilde; Moulin, Philippe; Marçais, Christophe; Charrière, Sybil

    2016-12-01

    APOC3 is a major regulator of triglycerides metabolism. Several APOC3 variants are associated with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Our aim was to establish the potential regulation of APOC3 3'UTR variants associated with HTG by liver or intestinal miRNAs. We sequenced APOC3 3'UTR in 100 type 2 diabetic (TD2) patients with severe HTG (TG > 15 mmol/L) (HTG group) compared to 100 normotriglyceridemic patients (NTG group). We performed in silico studies to identify potential loss of miRNA binding induced by APOC3 3'UTR variants. We also performed in vitro studies to test the functionality of miRNA/APOC3 variants interactions: APOC3 3'UTR plasmids coupled with a firefly luciferase reporter were transfected in HepG2, HuH-7 and Caco-2 cells. We identified only two variants: SstI (rs5128) and BbvI (rs5225) in APOC3 3'UTR in the 2 groups of patients. Only the SstI-S2 rare allele was significantly associated with HTG (allele frequency 19,5% in HTG group vs. 9,5% in NTG group, p = 0.0045). In silico studies predicted a potential loss in the binding of 5 miRNAs induced by the S2 variant. These 5 miRNAs are all endogenously expressed in human liver and intestine, as well as in the cell models studied. However, in vitro, the S2 variant did not modulate APOC3 3'UTR reporter gene expression in HepG2, HuH-7 and Caco-2 cells. Our results do not confirm the hypothesis of a direct regulation of the APOC3 SstI variant by hepatic or intestinal miRNAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutational Analysis of the Hypervariable Region of Hepatitis E Virus Reveals Its Involvement in the Efficiency of Viral RNA Replication ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudupakam, R. S.; Kenney, Scott P.; Córdoba, Laura; Huang, Yao-Wei; Dryman, Barbara A.; LeRoith, Tanya; Pierson, F. William; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    The RNA genome of the hepatitis E virus (HEV) contains a hypervariable region (HVR) in ORF1 that tolerates small deletions with respect to infectivity. To further investigate the role of the HVR in HEV replication, we constructed a panel of mutants with overlapping deletions in the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of the HVR by using a genotype 1 human HEV luciferase replicon and analyzed the effects of deletions on viral RNA replication in Huh7 cells. We found that the replication levels of the HVR deletion mutants were markedly reduced in Huh7 cells, suggesting a role of the HVR in viral replication efficiency. To further verify the results, we constructed HVR deletion mutants by using a genetically divergent, nonmammalian avian HEV, and similar effects on viral replication efficiency were observed when the avian HEV mutants were tested in LMH cells. Furthermore, the impact of complete HVR deletion on virus infectivity was tested in chickens, using an avian HEV mutant with a complete HVR deletion. Although the deletion mutant was still replication competent in LMH cells, the complete HVR deletion resulted in a loss of avian HEV infectivity in chickens. Since the HVR exhibits extensive variations in sequence and length among different HEV genotypes, we further examined the interchangeability of HVRs and demonstrated that HVR sequences are functionally exchangeable between HEV genotypes with regard to viral replication and infectivity in vitro, although genotype-specific HVR differences in replication efficiency were observed. The results showed that although the HVR tolerates small deletions with regard to infectivity, it may interact with viral and host factors to modulate the efficiency of HEV replication. PMID:21775444

  19. Emergence of a replicating species from an in vitro RNA evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaker, R. R.; Joyce, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    The technique of self-sustained sequence replication allows isothermal amplification of DNA and RNA molecules in vitro. This method relies on the activities of a reverse transcriptase and a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase to amplify specific nucleic acid sequences. We have modified this protocol to allow selective amplification of RNAs that catalyze a particular chemical reaction. During an in vitro RNA evolution experiment employing this modified system, a unique class of "selfish" RNAs emerged and replicated to the exclusion of the intended RNAs. Members of this class of selfish molecules, termed RNA Z, amplify efficiently despite their inability to catalyze the target chemical reaction. Their amplification requires the action of both reverse transcriptase and RNA polymerase and involves the synthesis of both DNA and RNA replication intermediates. The proposed amplification mechanism for RNA Z involves the formation of a DNA hairpin that functions as a template for transcription by RNA polymerase. This arrangement links the two strands of the DNA, resulting in the production of RNA transcripts that contain an embedded RNA polymerase promoter sequence.

  20. Single valproic acid treatment inhibits glycogen and RNA ribose turnover while disrupting glucose-derived cholesterol synthesis in liver as revealed by the [U-C(6)]-d-glucose tracer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Richard D; Hansen, Deborah K; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Cross, Brandie M; Fatollahi, Javad J; Lagunero, F Tracy; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Boros, Laszlo G

    2009-09-01

    Previous genetic and proteomic studies identified altered activity of various enzymes such as those of fatty acid metabolism and glycogen synthesis after a single toxic dose of valproic acid (VPA) in rats. In this study, we demonstrate the effect of VPA on metabolite synthesis flux rates and the possible use of abnormal (13)C labeled glucose-derived metabolites in plasma or urine as early markers of toxicity. Female CD-1 mice were injected subcutaneously with saline or 600 mg/kg) VPA. Twelve hours later, the mice were injected with an intraperitoneal load of 1 g/kg [U-(13)C]-d-glucose. (13)C isotopomers of glycogen glucose and RNA ribose in liver, kidney and brain tissue, as well as glucose disposal via cholesterol and glucose in the plasma and urine were determined. The levels of all of the positional (13)C isotopomers of glucose were similar in plasma, suggesting that a single VPA dose does not disturb glucose absorption, uptake or hepatic glucose metabolism. Three-hour urine samples showed an increase in the injected tracer indicating a decreased glucose re-absorption via kidney tubules. (13)C labeled glucose deposited as liver glycogen or as ribose of RNA were decreased by VPA treatment; incorporation of (13)C via acetyl-CoA into plasma cholesterol was significantly lower at 60 min. The severe decreases in glucose-derived carbon flux into plasma and kidney-bound cholesterol, liver glycogen and RNA ribose synthesis, as well as decreased glucose re-absorption and an increased disposal via urine all serve as early flux markers of VPA-induced adverse metabolic effects in the host.

  1. Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in the Thyroid Gland of Two Phenotypically Extreme Pig Breeds Using Ribo-Zero RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yifei; Mao, Haiguang; Huang, Minjie; Chen, Lixing; Chen, Jiucheng; Cai, Zhaowei; Wang, Ying; Xu, Ningying

    2016-07-09

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ modulating development, growth, and metabolism, mainly by controlling the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (THs). However, little is known about the pig thyroid transcriptome. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression and play critical roles in many cellular processes. Yorkshire pigs have a higher growth rate but lower fat deposition than that of Jinhua pigs, and thus, these species are ideal models for studying growth and lipid metabolism. This study revealed higher levels of THs in the serum of Yorkshire pigs than in the serum of Jinhua pigs. By using Ribo-zero RNA sequencing-which can capture both polyA and non-polyA transcripts-the thyroid transcriptome of both breeds were analyzed and 22,435 known mRNAs were found to be expressed in the pig thyroid. In addition, 1189 novel mRNAs and 1018 candidate lncRNA transcripts were detected. Multiple TH-synthesis-related genes were identified among the 455 differentially-expressed known mRNAs, 37 novel mRNAs, and 52 lncRNA transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that differentially-expressed genes were enriched in the microtubule-based process, which contributes to THs secretion. Moreover, integrating analysis predicted 13 potential lncRNA-mRNA gene pairs. These data expanded the repertoire of porcine lncRNAs and mRNAs and contribute to understanding the possible molecular mechanisms involved in animal growth and lipid metabolism.

  2. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding glutamate 1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase, which is involved in delta-aminolevulinic acid synthesis in Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K; Hashimoto, Y; Murooka, Y

    1993-01-01

    The gene from Propionibacterium freudenreichii that encodes glutamate 1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase (EC 5.4.3.8), which is involved in the C5 pathway for synthesis of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor in heme and cobalamin biosynthesis, was cloned onto a multicopy plasmid, pUC18, via complementation of an ALA-deficient mutant (hemL) of Escherichia coli. Subcloning of fragments from the initial 3.3-kb chromosomal fragment allowed the isolation of a 1.9-kb fragment which could complement the hemL mutation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 1.9-kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame (ORF) that was located downstream from a potential ribosome-binding site. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 441 amino acid residues, and the deduced molecular mass of this polypeptide is 45,932 Da. A high G+C content (70 mol%) of the codons of the ORF was found and was consistent with the taxonomic features of Propionibacterium species. The amino acid sequence showed a high degree of homology with those of the HemL proteins from other organisms, and a putative binding site for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was conserved, with the exception of a single substitution of phenylalanine for leucine. These results suggest that ALA is synthesized via the C5 pathway in a producer of vitamin B12, P. freudenreichii.

  3. A functional screen implicates microRNA-138-dependent regulation of the depalmitoylation enzyme APT1 in dendritic spine morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, Gabriele; Obernosterer, Gregor; Fiore, Roberto; Oehmen, Martin; Bicker, Silvia; Christensen, Mette; Khudayberdiev, Sharof; Leuschner, Philipp F; Busch, Clara J L; Kane, Christina; Hübel, Katja; Dekker, Frank; Hedberg, Christian; Rengarajan, Balamurugan; Drepper, Carsten; Waldmann, Herbert; Kauppinen, Sakari; Greenberg, Michael E; Draguhn, Andreas; Rehmsmeier, Marc; Martinez, Javier; Schratt, Gerhard M; Dekker, Frank

    The microRNA pathway has been implicated in the regulation of synaptic protein synthesis and ultimately in dendritic spine morphogenesis, a phenomenon associated with long-lasting forms of memory. However, the particular microRNAs (miRNAs) involved are largely unknown. Here we identify specific

  4. Regeneration of Drosophila sensory neuron axons and dendrites is regulated by the Akt pathway involving Pten and microRNA bantam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuanquan; Ori-McKenney, Kassandra M.; Zheng, Yi; Han, Chun; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2012-01-01

    Both cell-intrinsic and extrinsic pathways govern axon regeneration, but only a limited number of factors have been identified and it is not clear to what extent axon regeneration is evolutionarily conserved. Whether dendrites also regenerate is unknown. Here we report that, like the axons of mammalian sensory neurons, the axons of certain Drosophila dendritic arborization (da) neurons are capable of substantial regeneration in the periphery but not in the CNS, and activating the Akt pathway enhances axon regeneration in the CNS. Moreover, those da neurons capable of axon regeneration also display dendrite regeneration, which is cell type-specific, developmentally regulated, and associated with microtubule polarity reversal. Dendrite regeneration is restrained via inhibition of the Akt pathway in da neurons by the epithelial cell-derived microRNA bantam but is facilitated by cell-autonomous activation of the Akt pathway. Our study begins to reveal mechanisms for dendrite regeneration, which depends on both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, including the PTEN–Akt pathway that is also important for axon regeneration. We thus established an important new model system—the fly da neuron regeneration model that resembles the mammalian injury model—with which to study and gain novel insights into the regeneration machinery. PMID:22759636

  5. Genome-Wide siRNA Screen Identifies Complementary Signaling Pathways Involved in Listeria Infection and Reveals Different Actin Nucleation Mechanisms during Listeria Cell Invasion and Actin Comet Tail Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühbacher, Andreas; Emmenlauer, Mario; Rämo, Pauli; Kafai, Natasha; Dehio, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Listeria monocytogenes enters nonphagocytic cells by a receptor-mediated mechanism that is dependent on a clathrin-based molecular machinery and actin rearrangements. Bacterial intra- and intercellular movements are also actin dependent and rely on the actin nucleating Arp2/3 complex, which is activated by host-derived nucleation-promoting factors downstream of the cell receptor Met during entry and by the bacterial nucleation-promoting factor ActA during comet tail formation. By genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening for host factors involved in bacterial infection, we identified diverse cellular signaling networks and protein complexes that support or limit these processes. In addition, we could precise previously described molecular pathways involved in Listeria invasion. In particular our results show that the requirements for actin nucleators during Listeria entry and actin comet tail formation are different. Knockdown of several actin nucleators, including SPIRE2, reduced bacterial invasion while not affecting the generation of comet tails. Most interestingly, we observed that in contrast to our expectations, not all of the seven subunits of the Arp2/3 complex are required for Listeria entry into cells or actin tail formation and that the subunit requirements for each of these processes differ, highlighting a previously unsuspected versatility in Arp2/3 complex composition and function. PMID:25991686

  6. rRNA-based monitoring of the microbiota involved in Fontina PDO cheese production in relation to different stages of cow lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Paola; De Filippis, Francesca; La Storia, Antonietta; Ercolini, Danilo; Cocolin, Luca

    2014-08-18

    Fontina Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) cheese is a full-fat semi-cooked cheese traditionally made in Northwest Italy (Aosta Valley) and manufactured from raw cow's milk. The management of cattle farms in Aosta Valley calls for seasonal migration to high pastures during the summer and the concentration of calving during the autumn and the beginning of the winter. Based on cattle physiology and given to calving seasonality, three cow lactation phases i.e. post-partum, oestrus and early gestation, can be identified and an effect could be hypothesized on average milk composition and on cheese quality. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the bacterial dynamics during Fontina PDO cheese manufacturing and ripening, in relation to the different lactation stages, in order to evaluate a possible correlation between microbiota and phase of lactation. For this purpose, microbial RNA analysis was carried out by RT-PCR coupled with DGGE and high-throughput sequencing. A good performance of the starter cultures was highlighted throughout Fontina PDO manufacturing and ripening; in fact, the starter prevailed against the autochthonous microbiota. Thus, the microbial activity, which was supposed to affect the final quality of Fontina PDO cheese, appeared to be strictly associated to the presence of the starter, which did not show any difference in its performance according to the different stages of cow lactation. Therefore, the results of this research highlighted a negligible correlation between the microbiota of raw milk and the organoleptic quality and typicity of Fontina cheese in relation to lactation seasonality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The mitochondrial LSU rRNA group II intron of Ustilago maydis encodes an active homing endonuclease likely involved in intron mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Pfeifer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The a2 mating type locus gene lga2 is critical for uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance during sexual development of Ustilago maydis. Specifically, the absence of lga2 results in biparental inheritance, along with efficient transfer of intronic regions in the large subunit rRNA gene between parental molecules. However, the underlying role of the predicted LAGLIDADG homing endonuclease gene I-UmaI located within the group II intron LRII1 has remained unresolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the enzymatic activity of I-UmaI in vitro based on expression of a tagged full-length and a naturally occurring mutant derivative, which harbors only the N-terminal LAGLIDADG domain. This confirmed Mg²⁺-dependent endonuclease activity and cleavage at the LRII1 insertion site to generate four base pair extensions with 3' overhangs. Specifically, I-UmaI recognizes an asymmetric DNA sequence with a minimum length of 14 base pairs (5'-GACGGGAAGACCCT-3' and tolerates subtle base pair substitutions within the homing site. Enzymatic analysis of the mutant variant indicated a correlation between the activity in vitro and intron homing. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that putatively functional or former functional I-UmaI homologs are confined to a few members within the Ustilaginales and Agaricales, including the phylogenetically distant species Lentinula edodes, and are linked to group II introns inserted into homologous positions in the LSU rDNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present data provide strong evidence that intron homing efficiently operates under conditions of biparental inheritance in U. maydis. Conversely, uniparental inheritance may be critical to restrict the transmission of mobile introns. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that I-UmaI-associated introns have been acquired independently in distant taxa and are more widespread than anticipated from available genomic data.

  8. mRNA localization mechanisms in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysangela R Alves

    Full Text Available Asymmetric mRNA localization is a sophisticated tool for regulating and optimizing protein synthesis and maintaining cell polarity. Molecular mechanisms involved in the regulated localization of transcripts are widespread in higher eukaryotes and fungi, but not in protozoa. Trypanosomes are ancient eukaryotes that branched off early in eukaryote evolution. We hypothesized that these organisms would have basic mechanisms of mRNA localization. FISH assays with probes against transcripts coding for proteins with restricted distributions showed a discrete localization of the mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Moreover, cruzipain mRNA was found inside reservosomes suggesting new unexpected functions for this vacuolar organelle. Individual mRNAs were also mobilized to RNA granules in response to nutritional stress. The cytoplasmic distribution of these transcripts changed with cell differentiation, suggesting that localization mechanisms might be involved in the regulation of stage-specific protein expression. Transfection assays with reporter genes showed that, as in higher eukaryotes, 3'UTRs were responsible for guiding mRNAs to their final location. Our results strongly suggest that Trypanosoma cruzi have a core, basic mechanism of mRNA localization. This kind of controlled mRNA transport is ancient, dating back to early eukaryote evolution.

  9. Analysis of RNA-Seq data reveals involvement of JAK/STAT signalling during leg regeneration in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Tetsuya; Ishimaru, Yoshiyasu; Kida, Takuro; Hamada, Yoshimasa; Matsuoka, Yuji; Nakamura, Taro; Ohuchi, Hideyo; Noji, Sumihare; Mito, Taro

    2013-03-01

    In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, missing distal parts of the amputated leg are regenerated from the blastema, a population of dedifferentiated proliferating cells that forms at the distal tip of the leg stump. To identify molecules involved in blastema formation, comparative transcriptome analysis was performed between regenerating and normal unamputated legs. Components of JAK/STAT signalling were upregulated more than twofold in regenerating legs. To verify their involvement, Gryllus homologues of the interleukin receptor Domeless (Gb'dome), the Janus kinase Hopscotch (Gb'hop) and the transcription factor STAT (Gb'Stat) were cloned, and RNAi was performed against these genes. Gb'dome(RNAi), Gb'hop(RNAi) and Gb'Stat(RNAi) crickets showed defects in leg regeneration. Blastema expression of Gb'cyclinE was decreased in the Gb'Stat(RNAi) cricket compared with that in the control. Hyperproliferation of blastema cells caused by Gb'fat(RNAi) or Gb'warts(RNAi) was suppressed by RNAi against Gb'Stat. The results suggest that JAK/STAT signalling regulates blastema cell proliferation during leg regeneration.

  10. “Positive Regulation of RNA Metabolic Process” Ontology Group Highly Regulated in Porcine Oocytes Matured In Vitro: A Microarray Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Celichowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs growth and development during folliculogenesis and oogenesis are accompanied by changes involving synthesis and accumulation of large amount of RNA and proteins. In this study, the transcriptomic profile of genes involved in “oocytes RNA synthesis” in relation to in vitro maturation in pigs was investigated for the first time. The RNA was isolated from oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM. Interactions between differentially expressed genes/proteins belonging to “positive regulation of RNA metabolic process” ontology group were investigated by STRING10 software. Using microarray assays, we found expression of 12258 porcine transcripts. Genes with fold change higher than 2 and with corrected p value lower than 0.05 were considered as differentially expressed. The ontology group “positive regulation of RNA metabolic process” involved differential expression of AR, INHBA, WWTR1, FOS, MEF2C, VEGFA, IKZF2, IHH, RORA, MAP3K1, NFAT5, SMARCA1, EGR1, EGR2, MITF, SMAD4, APP, and NR5A1 transcripts. Since all of the presented genes were downregulated after IVM, we suggested that they might be significantly involved in regulation of RNA synthesis before reaching oocyte MII stage. Higher expression of “RNA metabolic process” related genes before IVM indicated that they might be recognized as important markers and specific “transcriptomic fingerprint” of RNA template accumulation and storage for further porcine embryos growth and development.

  11. Translation initiation factor AteIF(iso4E is involved in selective mRNA translation in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valeria Martínez-Silva

    Full Text Available One of the most regulated steps of translation initiation is the recruitment of mRNA by the translation machinery. In eukaryotes, this step is mediated by the 5'end cap-binding factor eIF4E bound to the bridge protein eIF4G and forming the eIF4F complex. In plants, different isoforms of eIF4E and eIF4G form the antigenically distinct eIF4F and eIF(iso4F complexes proposed to mediate selective translation. Using a microarray analysis of polyribosome- and non-polyribosome-purified mRNAs from 15 day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type [WT] and eIF(iso4E knockout mutant [(iso4E-1] seedlings we found 79 transcripts shifted from polyribosomes toward non-polyribosomes, and 47 mRNAs with the opposite behavior in the knockout mutant. The translationally decreased mRNAs were overrepresented in root-preferentially expressed genes and proteins from the endomembrane system, including several transporters such as the phosphate transporter PHOSPHATE1 (PHO1, Sucrose transporter 3 (SUC3, ABC transporter-like with ATPase activity (MRP11 and five electron transporters, as well as signal transduction-, protein modification- and transcription-related proteins. Under normal growth conditions, eIF(iso4E expression under the constitutive promoter 35 S enhanced the polyribosomal recruitment of PHO1 supporting its translational preference for eIF(iso4E. Furthermore, under phosphate deficiency, the PHO1 protein increased in the eIF(iso4E overexpressing plants and decreased in the knockout mutant as compared to wild type. In addition, the knockout mutant had larger root, whereas the 35 S directed expression of eIF(iso4E caused shorter root under normal growth conditions, but not under phosphate deficiency. These results indicate that selective translation mediated by eIF(iso4E is relevant for Arabidopsis root development under normal growth conditions.

  12. Gene Synthesis with HG Khorana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 12. Gene Synthesis with H G Khorana. Marvin H Caruthers. General Article Volume 17 Issue 12 December 2012 pp ... Keywords. Chemical synthesis of genes for yeast alanine tRNA and E. coli supressor tRNA; Khorana's philosophy on science.

  13. A signaling pathway involving the diguanylate cyclase CelR and the response regulator DivK controls cellulose synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, D Michael; Su, Shengchang; Farrand, Stephen K

    2014-03-01

    The production of cellulose fibrils is involved in the attachment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to its plant host. Consistent with previous studies, we reported recently that a putative diguanylate cyclase, celR, is required for synthesis of this polymer in A. tumefaciens. In this study, the effects of celR and other components of the regulatory pathway of cellulose production were explored. Mutational analysis of celR demonstrated that the cyclase requires the catalytic GGEEF motif, as well as the conserved aspartate residue of a CheY-like receiver domain, for stimulating cellulose production. Moreover, a site-directed mutation within the PilZ domain of CelA, the catalytic subunit of the cellulose synthase complex, greatly reduced cellulose production. In addition, deletion of divK, the first gene of the divK-celR operon, also reduced cellulose production. This requirement for divK was alleviated by expression of a constitutively active form of CelR, suggesting that DivK acts upstream of CelR activation. Based on bacterial two-hybrid assays, CelR homodimerizes but does not interact with DivK. The mutation in divK additionally affected cell morphology, and this effect was complementable by a wild-type copy of the gene, but not by the constitutively active allele of celR. These results support the hypothesis that CelR is a bona fide c-di-GMP synthase and that the nucleotide signal produced by this enzyme activates CelA via the PilZ domain. Our studies also suggest that the DivK/CelR signaling pathway in Agrobacterium regulates cellulose production independent of cell cycle checkpoint systems that are controlled by divK.

  14. A beta-lysine adenylating enzyme and a beta-lysine binding protein involved in poly beta-lysine chain assembly in nourseothricin synthesis in Streptomyces noursei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Nicolas; Pankevych, Kvitka; Demydchuk, Julia; Lambrecht, Klaus; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Krügel, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Nourseothricins (syn. Streptothricins), a group of nucleoside peptides produced by several streptomycete strains, contain a poly beta-lysine chain of variable length attached in amide linkage to the amino sugar moiety gulosamine of the nucleoside portion. We show that the nourseothricin-producing Streptomyces noursei contains an enzyme (NpsA) of an apparent M(r) 56,000 that specifically activates beta-lysine by adenylation but does not bind to it as a thioester. Cloning and sequencing of npsA from S. noursei including its flanking DNA regions revealed that it is closely linked to the nourseothricin resistance gene nat1 and some other genes on the chromosome possibly involved in nourseothricin biosynthesis. The deduced amino-acid sequence revealed that NpsA is a stand-alone adenylation domain with similarity to the adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Further analysis revealed that S. noursei contains a beta-lysine binding enzyme (NpsB) of about M(r) 64,100 which can be loaded by NpsA with beta-lysine as a thioester. Analysis of the deduced amino-acid sequence from the gene (npsB) of NpsB showed that it consists of two domains. The N-terminal domain of approximately 100 amino-acid residues has high similarity to PCP domains of NRPSs whereas the 450-amino-acid C-terminal domain has a high similarity to epimerization (E)-domains of NRPSs. Remarkably, in this E-domain the conserved H-H-motif is changed to H-Q, which suggests that either the domain is nonfunctional or has a specialized function. The presence of one single adenylating beta-lysine activating enzyme in nourseothricin-producing streptomycete and a separate binding protein suggests an iteratively operating NRPS-module catalyses synthesis of the poly beta-lysine chain.

  15. Insights into substrate promiscuity of human seryl-tRNA synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Kaitlyn M; Puppala, Anupama K; Lee, Jonathan W; Lee, Hyun; Simonović, Miljan

    2017-11-01

    Seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) attaches L-serine to the cognate serine tRNA (tRNA Ser ) and the noncognate selenocysteine tRNA (tRNA Sec ). The latter activity initiates the anabolic cycle of selenocysteine (Sec), proper decoding of an in-frame Sec UGA codon, and synthesis of selenoproteins across all domains of life. While the accuracy of SerRS is important for overall proteome integrity, it is its substrate promiscuity that is vital for the integrity of the selenoproteome. This raises a question as to what elements in the two tRNA species, harboring different anticodon sequences and adopting distinct folds, facilitate aminoacylation by a common aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. We sought to answer this question by analyzing the ability of human cytosolic SerRS to bind and act on tRNA Ser , tRNA Sec , and 10 mutant and chimeric constructs in which elements of tRNA Ser were transposed onto tRNA Sec We show that human SerRS only subtly prefers tRNA Ser to tRNA Sec , and that discrimination occurs at the level of the serylation reaction. Surprisingly, the tRNA mutants predicted to adopt either the 7/5 or 8/5 fold are poor SerRS substrates. In contrast, shortening of the acceptor arm of tRNA Sec by a single base pair yields an improved SerRS substrate that adopts an 8/4 fold. We suggest that an optimal tertiary arrangement of structural elements within tRNA Sec and tRNA Ser dictate their utility for serylation. We also speculate that the extended acceptor-TΨC arm of tRNA Sec evolved as a compromise for productive binding to SerRS while remaining the major recognition element for other enzymes involved in Sec and selenoprotein synthesis. © 2017 Holman et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  16. Effect of DNA polymerase inhibitors on DNA repair in intact and permeable human fibroblasts: Evidence that DNA polymerases δ and β are involved in DNA repair synthesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, R.A.; Miller, M.R.; McClung, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    The involvement of DNA polymerases α, β, and δ in DNA repair synthesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was investigated in human fibroblasts (HF). The effects of anti-(DNA polymerase α) monoclonal antibody, (p-n-butylphenyl)deoxyguanosine triphosphate (BuPdGTP), dideoxythymidine triphosphate (ddTTP), and aphidicolin on MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis were investigated to dissect the roles of the different DNA polymerases. A subcellular system (permeable cells), in which DNA repair synthesis and DNA replication were differentiated by CsCl gradient centrifugation of BrdUMP density-labeled DNA, was used to examine the effects of the polymerase inhibitors. Another approach investigated the effects of several of these inhibitors of MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis in intact cells by measuring the amount of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporated into repair DNA as determined by autoradiography and quantitation with an automated video image analysis system. In permeable cells, MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis was inhibited 56% by 50 μg of aphidicolin/mL, 6% by 10 μM BuPdGTP, 13% by anti-(DNA polymerse α) monoclonal antibodies, and 29% by ddTTP. In intact cells, MNNG-induced DNA repair synthesis was inhibited 57% by 50 μg of aphidicolin/mL and was not significantly inhibited by microinjecting anti-(DNA polymerase α) antibodies into HF nuclei. These results indicate that both DNA polymerase δ and β are involved in repairing DNA damage caused by MNNG

  17. Polysome profiling of mAb producing CHO cell lines links translational control of cell proliferation and recombinant mRNA loading onto ribosomes with global and recombinant protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Charlotte L; Mead, Emma J; Daramola, Olalekan; Dunn, Sarah; Hatton, Diane; Field, Ray; Pettman, Gary; Smales, C Mark

    2017-08-01

    mRNA translation is a key process determining growth, proliferation and duration of a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture and influences recombinant protein synthesis rate. During bioprocessing, CHO cells can experience stresses leading to reprogramming of translation and decreased global protein synthesis. Here we apply polysome profiling to determine reprogramming and translational capabilities in host and recombinant monoclonal antibody-producing (mAb) CHO cell lines during batch culture. Recombinant cell lines with the fastest cell specific growth rates were those with the highest global translational efficiency. However, total ribosomal capacity, determined from polysome profiles, did not relate to the fastest growing or highest producing mAb cell line, suggesting it is the ability to utilise available machinery that determines protein synthetic capacity. Cell lines with higher cell specific productivities tended to have elevated recombinant heavy chain transcript copy numbers, localised to the translationally active heavy polysomes. The highest titre cell line was that which sustained recombinant protein synthesis and maintained high recombinant transcript copy numbers in polysomes. Investigation of specific endogenous transcripts revealed a number that maintained or reprogrammed into heavy polysomes, identifying targets for potential cell engineering or those with 5' untranslated regions that might be utilised to enhance recombinant transcript translation. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Takada

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon, within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons

  19. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Hiraku; Shimada, Tomohiro; Dey, Debashish; Quyyum, M. Zuhaib; Nakano, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Akira; Yoshida, Hideji; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Sen, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order) and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3’ proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon), within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons are expressed

  20. Differential Regulation of rRNA and tRNA Transcription from the rRNA-tRNA Composite Operon in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Hiraku; Shimada, Tomohiro; Dey, Debashish; Quyyum, M Zuhaib; Nakano, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Akira; Yoshida, Hideji; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Sen, Ranjan; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli contains seven rRNA operons, each consisting of the genes for three rRNAs (16S, 23S and 5S rRNA in this order) and one or two tRNA genes in the spacer between 16S and 23S rRNA genes and one or two tRNA genes in the 3' proximal region. All of these rRNA and tRNA genes are transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, into single large precursors that are afterward processed to individual rRNAs and tRNAs by a set of RNases. In the course of Genomic SELEX screening of promoters recognized by RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme containing RpoD sigma, a strong binding site was identified within 16S rRNA gene in each of all seven rRNA operons. The binding in vitro of RNAP RpoD holoenzyme to an internal promoter, referred to the promoter of riRNA (an internal RNA of the rRNA operon), within each 16S rRNA gene was confirmed by gel shift assay and AFM observation. Using this riRNA promoter within the rrnD operon as a representative, transcription in vitro was detected with use of the purified RpoD holoenzyme, confirming the presence of a constitutive promoter in this region. LacZ reporter assay indicated that this riRNA promoter is functional in vivo. The location of riRNA promoter in vivo as identified using a set of reporter plasmids agrees well with that identified in vitro. Based on transcription profile in vitro and Northern blot analysis in vivo, the majority of transcript initiated from this riRNA promoter was estimated to terminate near the beginning of 23S rRNA gene, indicating that riRNA leads to produce the spacer-coded tRNA. Under starved conditions, transcription of the rRNA operon is markedly repressed to reduce the intracellular level of ribosomes, but the levels of both riRNA and its processed tRNAGlu stayed unaffected, implying that riRNA plays a role in the continued steady-state synthesis of tRNAs from the spacers of rRNA operons. We then propose that the tRNA genes organized within the spacers of rRNA-tRNA composite operons are expressed

  1. Effects of aging on insulin synthesis and secretion. Differential effects on preproinsulin messenger RNA levels, proinsulin biosynthesis, and secretion of newly made and preformed insulin in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, S Y; Halban, P A; Rowe, J W

    1988-01-01

    Aging in men and rodents is associated with a marked decline in glucose stimulated insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells (B cells). Secreted insulin is the end result of a series of steps along the biosynthetic protein-secretion pathway, including insulin gene transcription, processing of transcripts to preproinsulin mRNA, translation of mRNA, segregation and processing of newly made proinsulin in secretory vesicles, proinsulin to insulin conversion, transport of vesicles to the plasma m...

  2. Synthesis of oligonucleotides containing novel G-clamp analogue with C8-tethered group in phenoxazine ring: Implication to qPCR detection of the low-copy Kemerovo virus dsRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varizhuk, Anna M; Zatsepin, Timofei S; Golovin, Andrey V; Belyaev, Evgeny S; Kostyukevich, Yury I; Dedkov, Vladimir G; Shipulin, German A; Shpakovski, George V; Aralov, Andrey V

    2017-07-15

    Nowadays modified oligonucleotides are widely used in diagnostics and as novel therapeutics. Introduction of modified or unnatural residues into oligonucleotides allows fine tuning of their binding properties to complementary nucleic acids and leads to improved stability both in vitro and in vivo. Previously it was demonstrated that insertion of phenoxazine nucleotides with various groups in C9-position into oligonucleotides leads to a significant increase of duplex stability with complementary DNA and RNA. Here the synthesis of a novel G-clamp nucleoside analogue (G 8AE -clamp) bearing 2-aminoethyl tether at C8-atom is presented. Introduction of such modified residues into oligonucleotides lead to enhanced specificity of duplex formation towards complementary DNA and RNA targets with increased thermal and 3'-exonuclease stability. According to CD-spectroscopy studies G 8AE -clamp does not substantially disrupt helix geometry. Primers containing G 8AE -clamp demonstrated superior sensitivity in qPCR detection of dsRNA of Kemerovo virus in comparison to native oligonucleotides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism: molecular characterization and hypothalamic mRNA response to energy status and neuropeptide Y treatment in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhiguo; Sun, Caiyun; Yan, Aifen; Wu, Shuge; Qin, Chaobin; Zhang, Yanhong; Li, Wensheng

    2013-08-25

    As in mammals, fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays diverse and vital roles in regulating food intake in fish. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the effect of FA metabolism on food intake is linked to changes in the level of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus of the rainbow trout. In mammals, the evidence suggests that FA metabolism regulates feeding via hypothalamic NPY. NPY is therefore considered an important factor that mediates the modulation of food intake by FA metabolism in vertebrates. The stimulatory effect of NPY on food intake is well known. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of NPY on FA metabolism in the hypothalamus has not been examined. In this study, we cloned the cDNA of four key enzymes involved in FA metabolism and assessed the effect of energy status and NPY on their mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of grouper. The full-length cDNAs of UCP2 and CPT1a and the partial coding sequence (CDS) of ACC1 and FAS were isolated from the grouper hypothalamus. These genes are expressed in the hypothalamus and during the organogenetic stage of embryogenesis. A feeding rhythm study showed that the hypothalamic expression level of NPY and CPT1a was highly correlated with feeding rhythm. Long-term fasting was found to significantly induce the hypothalamic mRNA expression of NPY, CPT1a and UCP2. An in vitro study demonstrated that NPY strongly stimulated CPT1a and UCP2 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest that these four genes related to FA metabolism may play a role in regulating food intake in grouper and, that NPY modulates FA metabolism in the grouper hypothalamus. This study showed, for the first time in vertebrates, the effect of NPY on the gene expression of FA metabolism-related enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. RNA Origami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparvath, Steffen Lynge

    introducerede vores gruppe den enkeltstrengede RNA-origami metode, der giver mulighed for cotranscriptional foldning af veldefinerede nanostrukturer, og er en central del af arbejdet præsenteret heri. Denne ph.d.-afhandling udforsker potentielle anvendelser af RNA-origami nanostrukturer, som nanomedicin eller...... biosensorer. Afhandlingen består af en introduktion til RNA-nanoteknologi feltet, en introduktion af enkeltstrenget RNA-origami design, og fire studier, der beskriver design, produktion og karakterisering af både strukturelle og funktionelle RNA-origamier. Flere RNA-origami designs er blevet undersøgt, og...... projekterne, der indgår i denne afhandling, inkluderer de nyeste fremskridt indenfor strukturel RNA-nanoteknologi og udvikling af funktionelle RNA-baserede enheder. Det første studie beskriver konstruktion og karakterisering af en enkeltstrenget 6-helix RNA-origami stuktur, som er den første demonstration af...

  5. MicroRNA-Mediated Positive Feedback Loop and Optimized Bistable Switch in a Cancer Network Involving miR-17-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yichen; Li, Yumin; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Yong

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that play an important role in many key biological processes, including development, cell differentiation, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as central post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs can act as oncogenes and tumor suppressors depending on the context. The present work focuses on the physiological significance of miRNAs and their role in regulating the switching behavior. We illustrate an abstract model of the Myc/E2F/miR-17-92 network presented by Aguda et al. (2008), which is composed of coupling between the E2F/Myc positive feedback loops and the E2F/Myc/miR-17-92 negative feedback loop. By systematically analyzing the network in close association with plausible experimental parameters, we show that, in the presence of miRNAs, the system bistability emerges from the system, with a bistable switch and a one-way switch presented by Aguda et al. instead of a single one-way switch. Moreover, the miRNAs can optimize the switching process. The model produces a diverse array of response-signal behaviors in response to various potential regulating scenarios. The model predicts that this transition exists, one from cell death or the cancerous phenotype directly to cell quiescence, due to the existence of miRNAs. It was also found that the network involving miR-17-92 exhibits high noise sensitivity due to a positive feedback loop and also maintains resistance to noise from a negative feedback loop. PMID:22022595

  6. mRNA Processing Factor CstF-50 and Ubiquitin Escort Factor p97 Are BRCA1/BARD1 Cofactors Involved in Chromatin Remodeling during the DNA Damage Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Danae; Baquero, Jorge; Murphy, Michael R; Aruggoda, Gamage; Varriano, Sophia; Sapienza, Carmen; Mashadova, Oksana; Rahman, Shadaqur; Kleiman, Frida E

    2018-02-15

    The cellular response to DNA damage is an intricate mechanism that involves the interplay among several pathways. In this study, we provide evidence of the roles of the polyadenylation factor cleavage stimulation factor 50 (CstF-50) and the ubiquitin (Ub) escort factor p97 as cofactors of BRCA1/BARD1 E3 Ub ligase, facilitating chromatin remodeling during the DNA damage response (DDR). CstF-50 and p97 formed complexes with BRCA1/BARD1, Ub, and some BRCA1/BARD1 substrates, such as RNA polymerase (RNAP) II and histones. Furthermore, CstF-50 and p97 had an additive effect on the activation of the ubiquitination of these BRCA1/BARD1 substrates during DDR. Importantly, as a result of these functional interactions, BRCA1/BARD1/CstF-50/p97 had a specific effect on the chromatin structure of genes that were differentially expressed. This study provides new insights into the roles of RNA processing, BRCA1/BARD1, the Ub pathway, and chromatin structure during DDR. Copyright © 2018 Fonseca et al.

  7. RNA self-assembly and RNA nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Wade W; Jaeger, Luc

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Nanotechnology's central goal involves the direct control of matter at the molecular nanometer scale to build nanofactories, nanomachines, and other devices for potential applications including electronics, alternative fuels, and medicine. In this regard, the nascent use of nucleic acids as a material to coordinate the precise arrangements of specific molecules marked an important milestone in the relatively recent history of nanotechnology. While DNA served as the pioneer building material in nucleic acid nanotechnology, RNA continues to emerge as viable alternative material with its own distinct advantages for nanoconstruction. Several complementary assembly strategies have been used to build a diverse set of RNA nanostructures having unique structural attributes and the ability to self-assemble in a highly programmable and controlled manner. Of the different strategies, the architectonics approach uniquely endeavors to understand integrated structural RNA architectures through the arrangement of their characteristic structural building blocks. Viewed through this lens, it becomes apparent that nature routinely uses thermodynamically stable, recurrent modular motifs from natural RNA molecules to generate unique and more complex programmable structures. With the design principles found in natural structures, a number of synthetic RNAs have been constructed. The synthetic nanostructures constructed to date have provided, in addition to affording essential insights into RNA design, important platforms to characterize and validate the structural self-folding and assembly properties of RNA modules or building blocks. Furthermore, RNA nanoparticles have shown great promise for applications in nanomedicine and RNA-based therapeutics. Nevertheless, the synthetic RNA architectures achieved thus far consist largely of static, rigid particles that are still far from matching the structural and functional complexity of natural responsive structural elements such

  8. Extensive alterations of the whole-blood transcriptome are associated with body mass index: results of an mRNA profiling study involving two large population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homuth, Georg; Wahl, Simone; Müller, Christian; Schurmann, Claudia; Mäder, Ulrike; Blankenberg, Stefan; Carstensen, Maren; Dörr, Marcus; Endlich, Karlhans; Englbrecht, Christian; Felix, Stephan B; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Herder, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Kruppa, Jochen; Marzi, Carola S; Mayerle, Julia; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Nauck, Matthias; Peters, Annette; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Reinmaa, Eva; Rettig, Rainer; Roden, Michael; Schillert, Arne; Schramm, Katharina; Steil, Leif; Strauch, Konstantin; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Philipp S; Ziegler, Andreas; Völker, Uwe; Prokisch, Holger; Zeller, Tanja

    2015-10-15

    Obesity, defined as pathologically increased body mass index (BMI), is strongly related to an increased risk for numerous common cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. It is particularly associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and systemic oxidative stress and represents the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these associations are still not completely understood. Therefore, in order to identify potentially disease-relevant BMI-associated gene expression signatures, a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) on BMI was performed. Whole-blood mRNA levels determined by array-based transcriptional profiling were correlated with BMI in two large independent population-based cohort studies (KORA F4 and SHIP-TREND) comprising a total of 1977 individuals. Extensive alterations of the whole-blood transcriptome were associated with BMI: More than 3500 transcripts exhibited significant positive or negative BMI-correlation. Three major whole-blood gene expression signatures associated with increased BMI were identified. The three signatures suggested: i) a ratio shift from mature erythrocytes towards reticulocytes, ii) decreased expression of several genes essentially involved in the transmission and amplification of the insulin signal, and iii) reduced expression of several key genes involved in the defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whereas the first signature confirms published results, the other two provide possible mechanistic explanations for well-known epidemiological findings under conditions of increased BMI, namely attenuated insulin signaling and increased oxidative stress. The putatively causative BMI-dependent down-regulation of the expression of numerous genes on the mRNA level represents a novel finding. BMI-associated negative transcriptional regulation of insulin signaling and oxidative stress management provide new insights into the pathogenesis of metabolic

  9. Organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallemand, J.Y.; Fetizon, M.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new reactions, useful in the organic synthesis. The research works involve the following domains: the natural products chemistry which are applied in pharmacology, the plants and insects chemistry, the organic synthesis, the radical chemistry new reactions and the bio-organic physicochemistry. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr

  10. A Generalized Michaelis-Menten Equation in Protein Synthesis: Effects of Mis-Charged Cognate tRNA and Mis-Reading of Codon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Annwesha; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2017-05-01

    The sequence of amino acid monomers in the primary structure of a protein is decided by the corresponding sequence of codons (triplets of nucleic acid monomers) on the template messenger RNA (mRNA). The polymerization of a protein, by incorporation of the successive amino acid monomers, is carried out by a molecular machine called ribosome. We develop a stochastic kinetic model that captures the possibilities of mis-reading of mRNA codon and prior mis-charging of a tRNA. By a combination of analytical and numerical methods, we obtain the distribution of the times taken for incorporation of the successive amino acids in the growing protein in this mathematical model. The corresponding exact analytical expression for the average rate of elongation of a nascent protein is a 'biologically motivated' generalization of the Michaelis-Menten formula for the average rate of enzymatic reactions. This generalized Michaelis-Menten-like formula (and the exact analytical expressions for a few other quantities) that we report here display the interplay of four different branched pathways corresponding to selection of four different types of tRNA.

  11. Dependence of protein synthesis on transcription in pea cotyledons in early stages of germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumilevskaya, N.A.; Skazhennik, M.A.; Akhmatova, A.T.; Kuvaeva, E.B.; Chumikina, L.V.; Kretovich, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    It was established that transcription inhibitors added to the incubation medium at the very beginning of swelling of pea embryos readily penetrate into cells of the cotyledons and have essentially no effect on the uptake of labeled uridine and amino acids by the tissues, but inhibit RNA synthesis almost completely. Actinomycin D (30 μg/ml) and cordycepin (200 μg/ml) inhibit rRNA and mRNA synthesis equally successfully and inhibit the incorporation of uridine by 88-97% in the first hours of swelling. α-Amanitin (5 μg/ml) inhibits the incorporation of uridine in the first 5 h of swelling by 75-80% and completely inhibits the appearance of newly synthesized mRNAs in the ribosomal fraction. More prolonged swelling in the presence of α-amanitin has a negative effect on the synthesis of rRNA and its appearance in the ribosomes. When RNA synthesis is inhibited by actinomycin D, α-amanitin, or cordycepin, initial protein synthesis decreases by 50-55%. Hence, both newly synthesized and preformed mRNAs are involved in translation in the first 4-6 h of swelling

  12. Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis Associated with a Developmental Change in the Gametophyte of Pteridium aquilinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, A E

    1972-06-01

    When bacteria are subjected to step-down conditions, there is an enhanced production of a messenger-type of RNA for a short time after the shift. A cultural shift, which appears to be similar to step-down, is described for gametophytes of Pteridium aquilinum. When the cultures are grown in white light, a population of rapidly dividing cells is produced, whereas in red light cell elongation predominates. If the cultures growing in white light are shifted to red light, a transition occurs which involves a rapid decrease in growth and nucleic acid synthesis. In particular, there is a marked decline in RNA synthesis for a short time following the shift and prior to the initiation of the new mode of growth. It appears that this observed change in RNA synthesis is related to the initiation of the new mode of growth.

  13. Regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma on milk fat synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Lin, Ye; Liu, Lixin; Wang, Lina; Bian, Yanjie; Gao, Xuejun; Li, Qingzhang

    2016-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) participates in lipogenesis in rats, goats, and humans. However, the exact mechanism of PPARγ regulation on milk fat synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) remains largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PPARγ regarding milk fat synthesis in DCMECs and to ascertain whether milk fat precursor acetic acid and palmitic acid could interact with PPARγ signaling to regulate milk fat synthesis. For this study, we examined the effects of PPARγ overexpression and gene silencing on cell growth, triacylglycerol synthesis, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of genes involved in milk fat synthesis in DCMECs. In addition, we investigated the influences of acetic acid and palmitic acid on the mRNA and protein levels of milk lipogenic genes and triacylglycerol synthesis in DCMECs transfected with PPARγ small interfering RNA (siRNA) and PPARγ expression vector. The results showed that when PPARγ was silenced, cell viability, proliferation, and triacylglycerol secretion were obviously reduced. Gene silencing of PPARγ significantly downregulated the expression levels of milk fat synthesis-related genes in DCMECs. PPARγ overexpression improved cell viability, proliferation, and triacylglycerol secretion. The expression levels of milk lipogenic genes were significantly increased when PPARγ was overexpressed. Acetic acid and palmitic acid could markedly improve triacylglycerol synthesis and upregulate the expression levels of PPARγ and other lipogenic genes in DCMECs. These results suggest that PPARγ is a positive regulator of milk fat synthesis in DCMECs and that acetic acid and palmitic acid could partly regulate milk fat synthesis in DCMECs via PPARγ signaling.

  14. Regulation of tRNA biogenesis in plants and its link to plant growth and response to pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soprano, Adriana Santos; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo

    2017-12-06

    The field of tRNA biology, encompassing the functional and structural complexity of tRNAs, has fascinated scientists over the years and is continuously growing. Besides their fundamental role in protein translation, new evidence indicates that tRNA-derived molecules also regulate gene expression and protein synthesis in all domains of life. This review highlights some of the recent findings linking tRNA transcription and modification with plant cell growth and response to pathogens. In fact, mutations in proteins directly involved in tRNA synthesis and modification most often lead to pleiotropic effects on plant growth and immunity. As plants need to optimize and balance their energy and nutrient resources towards growth and defense, regulatory pathways that play a central role in integrating tRNA transcription and protein translation with cell growth control and organ development, such as the auxin-TOR signaling pathway, also influence the plant immune response against pathogens. As a consequence, distinct pathogens employ an array of effector molecules including tRNA fragments to target such regulatory pathways to exploit the plant's translational capacity, gain access to nutrients and evade defenses. An example includes the RNA polymerase III repressor MAF1, a conserved component of the TOR signaling pathway that controls ribosome biogenesis and tRNA synthesis required for plant growth and which is targeted by a pathogen effector molecule to promote disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: SI: Regulation of tRNA synthesis and modification in physiological conditions and disease edited by Dr. Boguta Magdalena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. How amino acids and peptides shaped the RNA world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gulik, Peter T. S.; Speijer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The "RNA world" hypothesis is seen as one of the main contenders for a viable theory on the origin of life. Relatively small RNAs have catalytic power, RNA is everywhere in present-day life, the ribosome is seen as a ribozyme, and rRNA and tRNA are crucial for modern protein synthesis. However, this

  16. A new route for the prebiotic synthesis of nucleobases and hydantoins in water/ice solutions involving the photochemistry of acetylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menor-Salván, César; Marín-Yaseli, Margarita R

    2013-05-10

    The origin of nucleobases and other heterocycles is a classic question in the chemistry of the origins of life. The construction of laboratory models for the abiotic synthesis of nitrogen heterocycles in plausible natural conditions also aids the understanding and prediction of chemical species in the Solar System. Here, we report a new explanation for the origin of hydantoins, purines, and pyrimidines in eutectic water/ice/urea solutions driven by ultraviolet irradiation (in the 185-254 nm range, UVC) of acetylene under anoxic conditions. An analysis of the products indicates the synthesis of hydantoin and 5-hydroxyhydantoin, the purines uric acid, xanthine, and guanine, and the pyrimidines uracil and cytosine. The synthesis occurred together with the photo-oxidation of bases in a complex process for which possible pathways are proposed. In conclusion, an acetylene-containing atmosphere could contribute to the origin of nucleobases in the presence of a urea/water system by an HCN-independent mechanism. The presence of ice has a dual role as a favorable medium for the synthesis of nucleobases and protection against degradation and as a source of free radicals for the synthesis of highly oxidized heterocycles. A mechanism for the origin of hydantoins and uracil from urea in plausible conditions for prebiotic chemistry is also proposed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The expanding functions of cellular helicases: the tombusvirus RNA replication enhancer co-opts the plant eIF4AIII-like AtRH2 and the DDX5-like AtRH5 DEAD-box RNA helicases to promote viral asymmetric RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kovalev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on recruited host factors that aid several critical steps during replication. Several of the co-opted host factors bind to the viral RNA, which plays multiple roles, including mRNA function, as an assembly platform for the viral replicase (VRC, template for RNA synthesis, and encapsidation during infection. It is likely that remodeling of the viral RNAs and RNA-protein complexes during the switch from one step to another requires RNA helicases. In this paper, we have discovered a second group of cellular RNA helicases, including the eIF4AIII-like yeast Fal1p and the DDX5-like Dbp3p and the orthologous plant AtRH2 and AtRH5 DEAD box helicases, which are co-opted by tombusviruses. Unlike the previously characterized DDX3-like AtRH20/Ded1p helicases that bind to the 3' terminal promoter region in the viral minus-strand (-RNA, the other class of eIF4AIII-like RNA helicases bind to a different cis-acting element, namely the 5' proximal RIII(- replication enhancer (REN element in the TBSV (-RNA. We show that the binding of AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases to the TBSV (-RNA could unwind the dsRNA structure within the RIII(- REN. This unique characteristic allows the eIF4AIII-like helicases to perform novel pro-viral functions involving the RIII(- REN in stimulation of plus-strand (+RNA synthesis. We also show that AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases are components of the tombusvirus VRCs based on co-purification experiments. We propose that eIF4AIII-like helicases destabilize dsRNA replication intermediate within the RIII(- REN that promotes bringing the 5' and 3' terminal (-RNA sequences in close vicinity via long-range RNA-RNA base pairing. This newly formed RNA structure promoted by eIF4AIII helicase together with AtRH20 helicase might facilitate the recycling of the viral replicases for multiple rounds of (+-strand synthesis, thus resulting in asymmetrical viral replication.

  18. The expanding functions of cellular helicases: the tombusvirus RNA replication enhancer co-opts the plant eIF4AIII-like AtRH2 and the DDX5-like AtRH5 DEAD-box RNA helicases to promote viral asymmetric RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Nikolay; Nagy, Peter D

    2014-04-01

    Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on recruited host factors that aid several critical steps during replication. Several of the co-opted host factors bind to the viral RNA, which plays multiple roles, including mRNA function, as an assembly platform for the viral replicase (VRC), template for RNA synthesis, and encapsidation during infection. It is likely that remodeling of the viral RNAs and RNA-protein complexes during the switch from one step to another requires RNA helicases. In this paper, we have discovered a second group of cellular RNA helicases, including the eIF4AIII-like yeast Fal1p and the DDX5-like Dbp3p and the orthologous plant AtRH2 and AtRH5 DEAD box helicases, which are co-opted by tombusviruses. Unlike the previously characterized DDX3-like AtRH20/Ded1p helicases that bind to the 3' terminal promoter region in the viral minus-strand (-)RNA, the other class of eIF4AIII-like RNA helicases bind to a different cis-acting element, namely the 5' proximal RIII(-) replication enhancer (REN) element in the TBSV (-)RNA. We show that the binding of AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases to the TBSV (-)RNA could unwind the dsRNA structure within the RIII(-) REN. This unique characteristic allows the eIF4AIII-like helicases to perform novel pro-viral functions involving the RIII(-) REN in stimulation of plus-strand (+)RNA synthesis. We also show that AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases are components of the tombusvirus VRCs based on co-purification experiments. We propose that eIF4AIII-like helicases destabilize dsRNA replication intermediate within the RIII(-) REN that promotes bringing the 5' and 3' terminal (-)RNA sequences in close vicinity via long-range RNA-RNA base pairing. This newly formed RNA structure promoted by eIF4AIII helicase together with AtRH20 helicase might facilitate the recycling of the viral replicases for multiple rounds of (+)-strand synthesis, thus resulting in asymmetrical viral replication.

  19. Asymmetric synthesis of trans-4,5-disubstituted γ-butyrolactones involving a key allylboration step. First access to (-)-nicotlactone B and (-)-galbacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, S; Macé, A; Vallejos, M M; Roisnel, T; Carboni, B; Villalgordo, J M; Carreaux, F

    2018-03-07

    An efficient asymmetric synthesis of trans-4,5-disubstituted γ-butyrolactones from aldehydes and enantioenriched γ-carbamate alkenylboronates is reported. The cornerstone of this strategy is the implementation of sequential [3,3]-allyl cyanate rearrangement/allylboration/nucleophilic addition/cyclisation reactions. Diverse γ-butyrolactones such as the flavouring compounds, (+)-trans-whiskey lactone and (+)-trans-cognac lactone, as well as an advanced intermediate towards the first synthesis of natural products, (-)-nicotlactone B and (-)-galbacin, have thus been obtained.

  20. Application of Live-Cell RNA Imaging Techniques to the Study of Retroviral RNA Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrin V. Bann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses produce full-length RNA that serves both as a genomic RNA (gRNA, which is encapsidated into virus particles, and as an mRNA, which directs the synthesis of viral structural proteins. However, we are only beginning to understand the cellular and viral factors that influence trafficking of retroviral RNA and the selection of the RNA for encapsidation or translation. Live cell imaging studies of retroviral RNA trafficking have provided important insight into many aspects of the retrovirus life cycle including transcription dynamics, nuclear export of viral RNA, translational regulation, membrane targeting, and condensation of the gRNA during virion assembly. Here, we review cutting-edge techniques to visualize single RNA molecules in live cells and discuss the application of these systems to studying retroviral RNA trafficking.