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Sample records for synthesis repression protein

  1. NATURAL MUTATION IN THE GENE OF RESPONSE REGULATOR BgrR RESULTING IN REPRESSION OF Bac PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, A PATHOGENICITY FACTOR OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE

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    A. S. Rozhdestvenskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause variety of diseases of newborns and adults. For successful colonization of different human tissues and organs as well as for suppression of the host immune system S. agalactiae expresses numerous virulence factors. For coordinated expression of the virulence genes S. agalactiae employs regulatory molecules including regulatory proteins of two-component systems. Results of the present study demonstrated that in S. agalactiae strain A49V the natural mutation in the brgR gene encoding for BgrR regulatory protein, which is component of regulatory system BgrRS, resulted in the repression of Bac protein synthesis, a virulence factor of S. agalactiae. A single nucleotide deletion in the bgrR gene has caused a shift of the reading frame and the changes in the primary, secondary and tertiary structures of the BgrR protein. The loss of functional activity of BgrR protein in A49V strain and repression of Bac protein synthesis have increased virulence of the strain in experimental animal streptococcal infection.

  2. Catabolite repression of enzyme synthesis does not prevent sporulation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, J M; Uratani-Wong, B; Freese, E

    1980-01-01

    In the presence of excess glucose, a decrease of guanine nucleotides in Bacillus subtilis initiated sporulation but did not prevent catabolite repression of three enzymes. Therefore, the ultimate mechanism(s) repressing enzyme synthesis differs from that suppressing sporulation.

  3. Differential repression of arylsulphatase synthesis in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G R; Wynn, C H

    1977-09-15

    1. The activities of the three arylsulphatases (arylsulphate sulphohydrolase, EC 3.1.6.1) of Aspergillus oryzae produced under a variety of repressing and non-repressing conditions were determined. 2. These enzymes exhibit different sensitivities to repression by inorganic sulphate. 3. Arylsulphatase I, but not arylsulphatases II and III, exhibits a transient de-repression in the early growth phase in sulphate media. 4. When the fungus is cultured in repressing media and subsequently transferred to non-repressing media, the synthesis of the three enzymes is non-co-ordinate. 5. Growth of the fungus in media containing choline O-sulphate or tyrosine O-sulphate as the sole source of sulphur results in complete de-repression of arylsulphatase I, But the synthesis of arylsulphatases II and III is essentially fully repressed. 6. The marked similarities between the repression characteristics of arylsulphatases II and III, contrasted with those of arylsulphatase I, indicate that the genetic locus of arylsulphatase I is distinct from that of arylsulphatases II and III, suggesting that there are distinct physiological roles for the enzyme.

  4. Polycomb group protein-mediated repression of transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morey, Lluís; Helin, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. They form multi-protein complexes that work as transcriptional repressors of several thousand genes controlling differentiation pathways during development. How the PcG proteins work as transcri......The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are essential for the normal development of multicellular organisms. They form multi-protein complexes that work as transcriptional repressors of several thousand genes controlling differentiation pathways during development. How the PcG proteins work...... as transcriptional repressors is incompletely understood, but involves post-translational modifications of histones by two major PcG protein complexes: polycomb repressive complex 1 and polycomb repressive complex 2....

  5. Drosophila DNA-Binding Proteins in Polycomb Repression

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    Maksim Erokhin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of individual gene expression patterns in different cell types is required during differentiation and development of multicellular organisms. Polycomb group (PcG proteins are key epigenetic regulators responsible for gene repression, and dysregulation of their activities leads to developmental abnormalities and diseases. PcG proteins were first identified in Drosophila, which still remains the most convenient system for studying PcG-dependent repression. In the Drosophila genome, these proteins bind to DNA regions called Polycomb response elements (PREs. A major role in the recruitment of PcG proteins to PREs is played by DNA-binding factors, several of which have been characterized in detail. However, current knowledge is insufficient for comprehensively describing the mechanism of this process. In this review, we summarize and discuss the available data on the role of DNA-binding proteins in PcG recruitment to chromatin.

  6. Pluripotency factors and Polycomb Group proteins repress aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in murine embryonic stem cells

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    Chia-I Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR is a transcription factor and environmental sensor that regulates expression of genes involved in drug-metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, Ahr ablation in mice and studies with orthologous genes in invertebrates suggest that AHR may also play a significant role in embryonic development. To address this hypothesis, we studied the regulation of Ahr expression in mouse embryonic stem cells and their differentiated progeny. In ES cells, interactions between OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 and Polycomb Group proteins at the Ahr promoter repress AHR expression, which can also be repressed by ectopic expression of reprogramming factors in hepatoma cells. In ES cells, unproductive RNA polymerase II binds at the Ahr transcription start site and drives the synthesis of short abortive transcripts. Activation of Ahr expression during differentiation follows from reversal of repressive marks in Ahr promoter chromatin, release of pluripotency factors and PcG proteins, binding of Sp factors, establishment of histone marks of open chromatin, and engagement of active RNAPII to drive full-length RNA transcript elongation. Our results suggest that reversible Ahr repression in ES cells holds the gene poised for expression and allows for a quick switch to activation during embryonic development.

  7. Insulin accelerates global and mitochondrial protein synthesis rates in neonatal muscle during sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In neonatal pigs, sepsis decreases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle by decreasing translation initiation. However, insulin stimulates muscle protein synthesis despite persistent repression of translation initiation signaling. To determine whether the insulin-induced increase in global rates of m...

  8. Induction and catabolite repression of α-glucosidase synthesis in protoplasts of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R. van; Ouwehand, J.; Bos, T. van den; Koningsberger, V.V.

    1969-01-01

    1. 1. Kinetic data on the repression, the derepression and the induction of α-glucosidase synthesis in protoplasts of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis suggested that some site other than the stereospecific site for the induction by maltose was involved in the repression by glucose. 2. 2. A study of the

  9. Repression of protein translation and mTOR signaling by proteasome inhibitor in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Volta, Viviana; Cho, Chi Hin; Wu, Ya Chun; Li, Hai Tao; Yu, Le; Li, Zhi Jie; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu

    2009-01-01

    Protein homeostasis relies on a balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a major catabolic pathway for protein degradation. In this respect, proteasome inhibition has been used therapeutically for the treatment of cancer. Whether inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor can repress protein translation via a negative feedback mechanism, however, is unknown. In this study, proteasome inhibitor MG-132 lowered the proliferation of colon cancer cells HT-29 and SW1116. In this connection, MG-132 reduced the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) at Ser2448 and Ser2481 and the phosphorylation of its downstream targets 4E-BP1 and p70/p85 S6 kinases. Further analysis revealed that MG-132 inhibited protein translation as evidenced by the reductions of 35 S-methionine incorporation and polysomes/80S ratio. Knockdown of raptor, a structural component of mTOR complex 1, mimicked the anti-proliferative effect of MG-132. To conclude, we demonstrate that the inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor represses mTOR signaling and protein translation in colon cancer cells.

  10. Repression of class I transcription by cadmium is mediated by the protein phosphatase 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Le Roux, Gwenaëlle; Ducrot, Cécile; Chédin, Stéphane; Labarre, Jean; Riva, Michel; Carles, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Toxic metals are part of our environment, and undue exposure to them leads to a variety of pathologies. In response, most organisms adapt their metabolism and have evolved systems to limit this toxicity and to acquire tolerance. Ribosome biosynthesis being central for protein synthesis, we analyzed in yeast the effects of a moderate concentration of cadmium (Cd2+) on Pol I transcription that represents >60% of the transcriptional activity of the cells. We show that Cd2+ rapidly and drastically shuts down the expression of the 35S rRNA. Repression does not result from a poisoning of any of the components of the class I transcriptional machinery by Cd2+, but rather involves a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent cellular signaling pathway that targets the formation/dissociation of the Pol I–Rrn3 complex. We also show that Pol I transcription is repressed by other toxic metals, such as Ag+ and Hg2+, which likewise perturb the Pol I–Rrn3 complex, but through PP2A-independent mechanisms. Taken together, our results point to a central role for the Pol I–Rrn3 complex as molecular switch for regulating Pol I transcription in response to toxic metals. PMID:23640330

  11. Members of the LBD family of transcription factors repress anthocyanin synthesis and affect additional nitrogen responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Grit; Tohge, Takayuki; Matsuda, Fumio; Saito, Kazuki; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger

    2009-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) per se regulate many aspects of plant metabolism, growth, and development. N/NO(3)(-) also suppresses parts of secondary metabolism, including anthocyanin synthesis. Molecular components for this repression are unknown. We report that three N/NO(3)(-)-induced members of the LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY DOMAIN (LBD) gene family of transcription factors (LBD37, LBD38, and LBD39) act as negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of each of the three genes in the absence of N/NO(3)(-) strongly suppresses the key regulators of anthocyanin synthesis PAP1 and PAP2, genes in the anthocyanin-specific part of flavonoid synthesis, as well as cyanidin- but not quercetin- or kaempferol-glycoside production. Conversely, lbd37, lbd38, or lbd39 mutants accumulate anthocyanins when grown in N/NO(3)(-)-sufficient conditions and show constitutive expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes. The LBD genes also repress many other known N-responsive genes, including key genes required for NO(3)(-) uptake and assimilation, resulting in altered NO(3)(-) content, nitrate reductase activity/activation, protein, amino acid, and starch levels, and N-related growth phenotypes. The results identify LBD37 and its two close homologs as novel repressors of anthocyanin biosynthesis and N availability signals in general. They also show that, besides being developmental regulators, LBD genes fulfill roles in metabolic regulation.

  12. Genetic interactions of MAF1 identify a role for Med20 in transcriptional repression of ribosomal protein genes.

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    Ian M Willis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional repression of ribosomal components and tRNAs is coordinately regulated in response to a wide variety of environmental stresses. Part of this response involves the convergence of different nutritional and stress signaling pathways on Maf1, a protein that is essential for repressing transcription by RNA polymerase (pol III in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we identify the functions buffering yeast cells that are unable to down-regulate transcription by RNA pol III. MAF1 genetic interactions identified in screens of non-essential gene-deletions and conditionally expressed essential genes reveal a highly interconnected network of 64 genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, RNA pol II transcription, tRNA modification, ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis and other processes. A survey of non-essential MAF1 synthetic sick/lethal (SSL genes identified six gene-deletions that are defective in transcriptional repression of ribosomal protein (RP genes following rapamycin treatment. This subset of MAF1 SSL genes included MED20 which encodes a head module subunit of the RNA pol II Mediator complex. Genetic interactions between MAF1 and subunits in each structural module of Mediator were investigated to examine the functional relationship between these transcriptional regulators. Gene expression profiling identified a prominent and highly selective role for Med20 in the repression of RP gene transcription under multiple conditions. In addition, attenuated repression of RP genes by rapamycin was observed in a strain deleted for the Mediator tail module subunit Med16. The data suggest that Mediator and Maf1 function in parallel pathways to negatively regulate RP mRNA and tRNA synthesis.

  13. Noncovalent synthesis of protein dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempens, E.H.M.; Baal, van I.; Dongen, van J.L.J.; Hackeng, T.M.; Merkx, M.; Meijer, E.W.

    2009-01-01

    The covalent synthesis of complex biomolecular systems such as multivalent protein dendrimers often proceeds with low efficiency, thereby making alternative strategies based on noncovalent chemistry of high interest. Here, the synthesis of protein dendrimers using a strong but noncovalent

  14. Synthesis of Lipidated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejuch, Tom; Waldmann, Herbert

    2016-08-17

    Protein lipidation is one of the major post-translational modifications (PTM) of proteins. The attachment of the lipid moiety frequently determines the localization and the function of the lipoproteins. Lipidated proteins participate in many essential biological processes in eukaryotic cells, including vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the immune response. Malfunction of these cellular processes usually leads to various diseases such as cancer. Understanding the mechanism of cellular signaling and identifying the protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in which the lipoproteins are involved is a crucial task. To achieve these goals, fully functional lipidated proteins are required. However, access to lipoproteins by means of standard expression is often rather limited. Therefore, semisynthetic methods, involving the synthesis of lipidated peptides and their subsequent chemoselective ligation to yield full-length lipoproteins, were developed. In this Review we summarize the commonly used methods for lipoprotein synthesis and the development of the corresponding chemoselective ligation techniques. Several key studies involving full-length semisynthetic lipidated Ras, Rheb, and LC3 proteins are presented.

  15. I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax and repress its transactivating functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Shuichi, E-mail: skusano@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Division of Persistent and Oncogenic Viruses, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Hachiman, Miho [Division of Hematology and Immunology, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ikeda, Masanori [Division of Persistent and Oncogenic Viruses, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The I-mfa domain proteins HIC (also known as MDFIC) and I-mfa (also known as MDFI) are candidate tumor suppressor genes that are involved in cellular and viral transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that HIC and I-mfa directly interact with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein in vitro. In addition, HIC and I-mfa repress Tax-dependent transactivation of an HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) reporter construct in COS-1, Jurkat and high-Tax-producing HTLV-1-infected T cells. HIC also interacts with Tax through its I-mfa domain in vivo and represses Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR and NF-κB reporter constructs in an interaction-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that HIC decreases the nuclear distribution and stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax. These data reveal that HIC specifically interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and negatively regulates Tax transactivational activity by altering its subcellular distribution and stability. - Highlights: • I-mfa domain proteins, HIC and I-mfa, specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax. • HIC and I-mfa repress the Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR. • HIC represses the Tax-dependent transactivation of NF-κΒ. • HIC decreases the nuclear distribution of Tax. • HIC stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax.

  16. I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax and repress its transactivating functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shuichi; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Hachiman, Miho; Ikeda, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    The I-mfa domain proteins HIC (also known as MDFIC) and I-mfa (also known as MDFI) are candidate tumor suppressor genes that are involved in cellular and viral transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that HIC and I-mfa directly interact with human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein in vitro. In addition, HIC and I-mfa repress Tax-dependent transactivation of an HTLV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) reporter construct in COS-1, Jurkat and high-Tax-producing HTLV-1-infected T cells. HIC also interacts with Tax through its I-mfa domain in vivo and represses Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR and NF-κB reporter constructs in an interaction-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that HIC decreases the nuclear distribution and stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax. These data reveal that HIC specifically interacts with HTLV-1 Tax and negatively regulates Tax transactivational activity by altering its subcellular distribution and stability. - Highlights: • I-mfa domain proteins, HIC and I-mfa, specifically interact with HTLV-1 Tax. • HIC and I-mfa repress the Tax-dependent transactivation of HTLV-1 LTR. • HIC represses the Tax-dependent transactivation of NF-κΒ. • HIC decreases the nuclear distribution of Tax. • HIC stimulates the proteasomal degradation of Tax.

  17. Ethylene and protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, D J

    1973-01-01

    Ethylene reduces the rate of expansion growth of cells and it is suggestive that the rate of expansion is controlled at least in part by the synthesis of hydroxyproline rich glycopeptides that are secreted with other polysaccharide material through the plasmalemma into the cell wall, thereby enhancing the thickness of the cell wall and also rendering it poorly extensible. In combination, auxin would appear to counteract the effect of ethylene in this respect, for although auxin enhances the synthesis of protein and the content in the cell walls, as well as causing some increase in wall thickness, it reduces the amount of hydroxyproline reaching the wall. Such effects may be instrumental in enhancing wall plasticity, the rate of expansion and the final cell size. These results indicate that ethylene and auxin together afford a dual regulatory system exerted through a control of a specific part of the protein synthetic pathway, the products of which regulate the rate of expansion, and the potential for expansion, of the plant cell wall. 38 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

  18. Determinants of RNA binding and translational repression by the Bicaudal-C regulatory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Park, Sookhee; Blaser, Susanne; Sheets, Michael D

    2014-03-14

    Bicaudal-C (Bic-C) RNA binding proteins function as important translational repressors in multiple biological contexts within metazoans. However, their RNA binding sites are unknown. We recently demonstrated that Bic-C functions in spatially regulated translational repression of the xCR1 mRNA during Xenopus development. This repression contributes to normal development by confining the xCR1 protein, a regulator of key signaling pathways, to specific cells of the embryo. In this report, we combined biochemical approaches with in vivo mRNA reporter assays to define the minimal Bic-C target site within the xCR1 mRNA. This 32-nucleotide Bic-C target site is predicted to fold into a stem-loop secondary structure. Mutational analyses provided evidence that this stem-loop structure is important for Bic-C binding. The Bic-C target site was sufficient for Bic-C mediated repression in vivo. Thus, we describe the first RNA binding site for a Bic-C protein. This identification provides an important step toward understanding the mechanisms by which evolutionarily conserved Bic-C proteins control cellular function in metazoans.

  19. Targeted transcriptional repression using a chimeric TALE-SRDX repressor protein

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2011-12-14

    Transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) are proteins secreted by Xanthomonas bacteria when they infect plants. TALEs contain a modular DNA binding domain that can be easily engineered to bind any sequence of interest, and have been used to provide user-selected DNA-binding modules to generate chimeric nucleases and transcriptional activators in mammalian cells and plants. Here we report the use of TALEs to generate chimeric sequence-specific transcriptional repressors. The dHax3 TALE was used as a scaffold to provide a DNA-binding module fused to the EAR-repression domain (SRDX) to generate a chimeric repressor that targets the RD29A promoter. The dHax3. SRDX protein efficiently repressed the transcription of the RD29A

  20. Targeted transcriptional repression using a chimeric TALE-SRDX repressor protein

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Magdy M.; Li, Lixin; Piatek, Marek J.; Fang, Xiaoyun; Mansour, Hicham; Bangarusamy, Dhinoth K.; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) are proteins secreted by Xanthomonas bacteria when they infect plants. TALEs contain a modular DNA binding domain that can be easily engineered to bind any sequence of interest, and have been used to provide user-selected DNA-binding modules to generate chimeric nucleases and transcriptional activators in mammalian cells and plants. Here we report the use of TALEs to generate chimeric sequence-specific transcriptional repressors. The dHax3 TALE was used as a scaffold to provide a DNA-binding module fused to the EAR-repression domain (SRDX) to generate a chimeric repressor that targets the RD29A promoter. The dHax3. SRDX protein efficiently repressed the transcription of the RD29A

  1. Effect of amino acids on the repression of alkaline protease synthesis in haloalkaliphilic Nocardiopsis dassonvillei

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    Amit K. Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly isolated salt-tolerant alkaliphilic actinomycete, Nocardiopsis dassonvillei strain OK-18 grows on mineral salts medium with glucose as carbon source. It also grows and produces protease with amino acids as sole carbon source. The synthesis of extracellular alkaline protease parallel to growth was repressible by substrate concentrations. The absolute production of the protease was delinked with growth under nutritional stress, as protease production was high, despite poor growth. When amino acids served as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, the enzyme production was significantly controlled by the number of amino acids. Maximal protease production was achieved with proline, asparagine, tyrosine, alanine, methionine and valine as sole source of carbon and nitrogen in minimal medium. With the increasing number of different amino acids in the presence and absence of glucose, the protease production was synergistically lower as compared to complex medium.

  2. Drosophila Pumilio protein contains multiple autonomous repression domains that regulate mRNAs independently of Nanos and brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Chase A; Goldstrohm, Aaron C

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Pumilio is an RNA-binding protein that potently represses specific mRNAs. In developing embryos, Pumilio regulates a key morphogen, Hunchback, in collaboration with the cofactor Nanos. To investigate repression by Pumilio and Nanos, we created cell-based assays and found that Pumilio inhibits translation and enhances mRNA decay independent of Nanos. Nanos robustly stimulates repression through interactions with the Pumilio RNA-binding domain. We programmed Pumilio to recognize a new binding site, which garners repression of new target mRNAs. We show that cofactors Brain Tumor and eIF4E Homologous Protein are not obligatory for Pumilio and Nanos activity. The conserved RNA-binding domain of Pumilio was thought to be sufficient for its function. Instead, we demonstrate that three unique domains in the N terminus of Pumilio possess the major repressive activity and can function autonomously. The N termini of insect and vertebrate Pumilio and Fem-3 binding factors (PUFs) are related, and we show that corresponding regions of human PUM1 and PUM2 have repressive activity. Other PUF proteins lack these repression domains. Our findings suggest that PUF proteins have evolved new regulatory functions through protein sequences appended to their conserved PUF repeat RNA-binding domains.

  3. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa catabolite repression control protein Crc is devoid of RNA binding activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevic, Tetyana; Grishkovskaya, Irina; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The Crc protein has been shown to mediate catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas, leading to a preferential assimilation of carbon sources. It has been suggested that Crc acts as a translational repressor of mRNAs, encoding functions involved in uptake and breakdown of different carbon sources. Moreover, the regulatory RNA CrcZ, the level of which is increased in the presence of less preferred carbon sources, was suggested to bind to and sequester Crc, resulting in a relief of catabolite repression. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Crc, a member of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease family, at 1.8 Å. Although Crc displays high sequence similarity with its orthologs, there are amino acid alterations in the area corresponding to the active site in AP proteins. Unlike typical AP endonuclease family proteins, Crc has a reduced overall positive charge and the conserved positively charged amino-acid residues of the DNA-binding surface of AP proteins are partially substituted by negatively charged, polar and hydrophobic residues. Crc protein purified to homogeneity from P. aeruginosa did neither display DNase activity, nor did it bind to previously identified RNA substrates. Rather, the RNA chaperone Hfq was identified as a contaminant in His-tagged Crc preparations purified by one step Ni-affinity chromatography from Escherichia coli, and was shown to account for the RNA binding activity observed with the His-Crc preparations. Taken together, these data challenge a role of Crc as a direct translational repressor in carbon catabolite repression in P. aeruginosa.

  4. The Transcriptional Repressive Activity of KRAB Zinc Finger Proteins Does Not Correlate with Their Ability to Recruit TRIM28.

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    Kristin E Murphy

    Full Text Available KRAB domain Zinc finger proteins are one of the most abundant families of transcriptional regulators in higher vertebrates. The prevailing view is that KRAB domain proteins function as potent transcriptional repressors by recruiting TRIM28 and promoting heterochromatin spreading. However, the extent to which all KRAB domain proteins are TRIM28-dependent transcriptional repressors is currently unclear. Our studies on mouse ZFP568 revealed that TRIM28 recruitment by KRAB domain proteins is not sufficient to warrant transcriptional repressive activity. By using luciferase reporter assays and yeast two-hybrid experiments, we tested the ability of ZFP568 and other mouse KRAB domain proteins to repress transcription and bind TRIM28. We found that some mouse KRAB domain proteins are poor transcriptional repressors despite their ability to recruit TRIM28, while others showed strong KRAB-dependent transcriptional repression, but no TRIM28 binding. Together, our results show that the transcriptional repressive activity of KRAB-ZNF proteins does not correlate with their ability to recruit TRIM28, and provide evidence that KRAB domains can regulate transcription in a TRIM28-independent fashion. Our findings challenge the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by KRAB domain proteins to control gene expression and highlight that a high percentage of KRAB domain proteins in the mouse genome differ from the consensus KRAB sequence at amino acid residues that are critical for TRIM28 binding and/or repressive activity.

  5. Induction and catabolite repression of cellulase and xylanase synthesis in the selected white-rot basidiomycetes

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    Aza Kobakhidze

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports regulation of endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4 and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8 production in submerged cultivation of four white-rot basidiomycetes. Among carbon sources tested, the Avicel-based medium provided the highest levels of both hydrolases activities in all fungal cultures. However, the maximum endoglucanase and xylanase activities of the tested basidiomycetes varied from 3.9 U/ml and 7.4 U/ml in Fomes fomentarius to 34.2 U/ml and 29.5 U/ml in Pseudotrametes gibbosa, respectively (P. gibbosa specific cellulase and xylanase activities achieved 8.55 and 7.38 U/mg, respectively. Replacement of Avicel in the medium with carboxymethyl cellulose or xylan significantly lowered the enzyme yield of the tested fungi. Moreover, xylan did not ensure high xylanase activity of these fungi. Lignocellulosic substrates used as a carbon source provided poorer productivity (the specific CMCase activity was 1.12–3.62 U/mg and the specific xylanase activity was 1.95–3.32 U/mg. Expression of endoglucanase and xylanase synthesis in Panus lecometei and P. gibbosa was inducible; supplementation of the glycerol-containing medium with Avicel accompanied with a sharp increase of the fungal specific CMCase and xylanase activities from 0.02–0.04 U/mg to 1.30–8.55 U/mg. Supplementation of the Avicel-induced cultures with glucose or glycerol caused a catabolite repression of the cellulase and xylanase formation by P. gibbosa and P. lecometei. The enzyme synthesis resumed only after depletion of easily metabolizable carbon source, glucose or glycerol, from the medium. The data received suggest that in the tested fungi endoglucanase and xylanase synthesis is under control by a common regulatory mechanism.

  6. Members of the LBD Family of Transcription Factors Repress Anthocyanin Synthesis and Affect Additional Nitrogen Responses in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, G.; Tohge, T.; Matsuda, F.; Saito, K.; Scheible, W.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and nitrate (NO3-) per se regulate many aspects of plant metabolism, growth, and development. N/NO3- also suppresses parts of secondary metabolism, including anthocyanin synthesis. Molecular components for this repression are unknown. We report that three N/NO3--induced members of the LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY DOMAIN (LBD) gene family of transcription factors (LBD37, LBD38, and LBD39) act as negative regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of e...

  7. Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1 enhances p53 function and represses tumorigenesis

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    Jeyran eShahbazi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1 is a stress-induced p53 target gene whose expression is modulated by transcription factors such as p53, p73 and E2F1. TP53INP1 gene encodes two isoforms of TP53INP1 proteins, TP53INP1α and TP53INP1β, both of which appear to be key elements in p53 function. When associated with homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2, TP53INP1 phosphorylates p53 protein at Serine 46, enhances p53 protein stability and its transcriptional activity, leading to transcriptional activation of p53 target genes such as p21, PIG-3 and MDM2, cell growth arrest and apoptosis upon DNA damage stress. The anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of TP53INP1 indicate that TP53INP1 has an important role in cellular homeostasis and DNA damage response. Deficiency in TP53INP1 expression results in increased tumorigenesis; while TP53INP1 expression is repressed during early stages of cancer by factors such as miR-155. This review aims to summarize the roles of TP53INP1 in blocking tumor progression through p53-dependant and p53-independent pathways, as well as the elements which repress TP53INP1 expression, hence highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target in cancer treatment.

  8. Selective translational repression of truncated proteins from frameshift mutation-derived mRNAs in tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Tae You

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Frameshift and nonsense mutations are common in tumors with microsatellite instability, and mRNAs from these mutated genes have premature termination codons (PTCs. Abnormal mRNAs containing PTCs are normally degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD system. However, PTCs located within 50-55 nucleotides of the last exon-exon junction are not recognized by NMD (NMD-irrelevant, and some PTC-containing mRNAs can escape from the NMD system (NMD-escape. We investigated protein expression from NMD-irrelevant and NMD-escape PTC-containing mRNAs by Western blotting and transfection assays. We demonstrated that transfection of NMD-irrelevant PTC-containing genomic DNA of MARCKS generates truncated protein. In contrast, NMD-escape PTC-containing versions of hMSH3 and TGFBR2 generate normal levels of mRNA, but do not generate detectable levels of protein. Transfection of NMD-escape mutant TGFBR2 genomic DNA failed to generate expression of truncated proteins, whereas transfection of wild-type TGFBR2 genomic DNA or mutant PTC-containing TGFBR2 cDNA generated expression of wild-type protein and truncated protein, respectively. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of gene expression regulation for PTC-containing mRNAs in which the deleterious transcripts are regulated either by NMD or translational repression.

  9. Repression of branched-chain amino acid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by isoleucine via CodY, and by a leucine-rich attenuator peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Julienne C; King, Alyssa N; Grigg, Jason C; Sheldon, Jessica R; Edgell, David R; Murphy, Michael E P; Brinsmade, Shaun R; Heinrichs, David E

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine) for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acid synthesis, and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via the global transcriptional regulator CodY. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Indeed S. aureus uses specialized transporters to scavenge BCAAs, however, its ability to synthesize them has remained conflicted by reports that it is auxotrophic for leucine and valine despite carrying an intact BCAA biosynthetic operon. In revisiting these findings, we have observed that S. aureus can engage in leucine and valine synthesis, but the level of BCAA synthesis is dependent on the BCAA it is deprived of, leading us to hypothesize that each BCAA differentially regulates the biosynthetic operon. Here we show that two mechanisms of transcriptional repression regulate the level of endogenous BCAA biosynthesis in response to specific BCAA availability. We identify a trans-acting mechanism involving isoleucine-dependent repression by the global transcriptional regulator CodY and a cis-acting leucine-responsive attenuator, uncovering how S. aureus regulates endogenous biosynthesis in response to exogenous BCAA availability. Moreover, given that isoleucine can dominate CodY-dependent regulation of BCAA biosynthesis, and that CodY is a global regulator of metabolism and virulence in S. aureus, we extend the importance of isoleucine availability for CodY-dependent regulation of other metabolic and virulence genes. These data resolve the previous conflicting observations regarding BCAA biosynthesis, and reveal the environmental signals that not only induce BCAA biosynthesis, but that could also have broader consequences on S. aureus environmental adaptation and virulence via CodY.

  10. Repression of branched-chain amino acid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by isoleucine via CodY, and by a leucine-rich attenuator peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne C Kaiser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acid synthesis, and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via the global transcriptional regulator CodY. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Indeed S. aureus uses specialized transporters to scavenge BCAAs, however, its ability to synthesize them has remained conflicted by reports that it is auxotrophic for leucine and valine despite carrying an intact BCAA biosynthetic operon. In revisiting these findings, we have observed that S. aureus can engage in leucine and valine synthesis, but the level of BCAA synthesis is dependent on the BCAA it is deprived of, leading us to hypothesize that each BCAA differentially regulates the biosynthetic operon. Here we show that two mechanisms of transcriptional repression regulate the level of endogenous BCAA biosynthesis in response to specific BCAA availability. We identify a trans-acting mechanism involving isoleucine-dependent repression by the global transcriptional regulator CodY and a cis-acting leucine-responsive attenuator, uncovering how S. aureus regulates endogenous biosynthesis in response to exogenous BCAA availability. Moreover, given that isoleucine can dominate CodY-dependent regulation of BCAA biosynthesis, and that CodY is a global regulator of metabolism and virulence in S. aureus, we extend the importance of isoleucine availability for CodY-dependent regulation of other metabolic and virulence genes. These data resolve the previous conflicting observations regarding BCAA biosynthesis, and reveal the environmental signals that not only induce BCAA biosynthesis, but that could also have broader consequences on S. aureus environmental adaptation and virulence via CodY.

  11. Host and bacterial proteins that repress recruitment of LC3 to Shigella early during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A Baxt

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are intracytosolic gram-negative pathogens that cause disease by invasion and spread through the colonic mucosa, utilizing host cytoskeletal components to form propulsive actin tails. We have previously identified the host factor Toca-1 as being recruited to intracellular S. flexneri and being required for efficient bacterial actin tail formation. We show that at early times during infection (40 min., the type three-secreted effector protein IcsB recruits Toca-1 to intracellular bacteria and that recruitment of Toca-1 is associated with repression of recruitment of LC3, as well as with repression of recruitment of the autophagy marker NDP52, around these intracellular bacteria. LC3 is best characterized as a marker of autophagosomes, but also marks phagosomal membranes in the process LC3-associated phagocytosis. IcsB has previously been demonstrated to be required for S. flexneri evasion of autophagy at late times during infection (4-6 hr by inhibiting binding of the autophagy protein Atg5 to the Shigella surface protein IcsA (VirG. Our results suggest that IcsB and Toca-1 modulation of LC3 recruitment restricts LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants. Together with published results, our findings suggest that IcsB inhibits innate immune responses in two distinct ways, first, by inhibiting LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants early during infection, and second, by inhibiting autophagy late during infection.

  12. Protein synthesis controls phosphate homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element assimilated largely as orthophosphate (Pi). Cells respond to Pi starvation by importing Pi from their surroundings. We now report that impaired protein synthesis alone triggers a Pi starvation response even when Pi is plentiful in the extracellular milieu. In the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium , this response entails phosphorylation of the regulatory protein PhoB and transcription of PhoB-dependent Pi transporter genes and is eliminated upon stimulation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. When protein synthesis is impaired due to low cytoplasmic magnesium (Mg 2+ ), Salmonella triggers the Pi starvation response because ribosomes are destabilized, which reduces ATP consumption and thus free cytoplasmic Pi. This response is transient because low cytoplasmic Mg 2+ promotes an uptake in Mg 2+ and a decrease in ATP levels, which stabilizes ribosomes, resulting in ATP consumption and Pi increase, thus ending the response. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of protein synthesis also elicited a Pi starvation response in the bacterium Escherichia coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Our findings identify a regulatory connection between protein synthesis and Pi homeostasis that is widespread in nature. © 2018 Pontes and Groisman; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. The Gcn4 transcription factor reduces protein synthesis capacity and extends yeast lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Nitish; Guimaraes, Joao C; Gross, Thomas; Schmidt, Alexander; Vina-Vilaseca, Arnau; Nedialkova, Danny D; Aeschimann, Florian; Leidel, Sebastian A; Spang, Anne; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2017-09-06

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, deletion of large ribosomal subunit protein-encoding genes increases the replicative lifespan in a Gcn4-dependent manner. However, how Gcn4, a key transcriptional activator of amino acid biosynthesis genes, increases lifespan, is unknown. Here we show that Gcn4 acts as a repressor of protein synthesis. By analyzing the messenger RNA and protein abundance, ribosome occupancy and protein synthesis rate in various yeast strains, we demonstrate that Gcn4 is sufficient to reduce protein synthesis and increase yeast lifespan. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals Gcn4 binding not only at genes that are activated, but also at genes, some encoding ribosomal proteins, that are repressed upon Gcn4 overexpression. The promoters of repressed genes contain Rap1 binding motifs. Our data suggest that Gcn4 is a central regulator of protein synthesis under multiple perturbations, including ribosomal protein gene deletions, calorie restriction, and rapamycin treatment, and provide an explanation for its role in longevity and stress response.The transcription factor Gcn4 is known to regulate yeast amino acid synthesis. Here, the authors show that Gcn4 also acts as a repressor of protein biosynthesis in a range of conditions that enhance yeast lifespan, such as ribosomal protein knockout, calorie restriction or mTOR inhibition.

  14. Discrimination of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer cultivar Chunpoong and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius using the auxin repressed protein gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hak Kim

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that great impact to prevent authentication of precise Chunpoong and other cultivars using the auxin repressed protein gene. We therefore present an effective method for the authentication of the Chunpoong cultivar of P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius.

  15. Sizzled controls dorso-ventral polarity by repressing cleavage of the Chordin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Osamu; Shimizu, Takashi; Yabe, Taijiro; Nojima, Hideaki; Bae, Young-Ki; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Hibi, Masahiko

    2006-04-01

    The Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signalling gradient has a major function in the formation of the dorso-ventral axis. The zebrafish ventralized mutant, ogon, encodes Secreted Frizzled (Sizzled). sizzled is ventrally expressed in a Bmp-dependent manner and is required for the suppression of Bmp signalling on the ventral side of zebrafish embryos. However, it remains unclear how Sizzled inhibits Bmp signalling and controls ventro-lateral cell fate. We found that Sizzled stabilizes Chordin, a Bmp antagonist, by binding and inhibiting the Tolloid-family metalloproteinase, Bmp1a, which cleaves and inactivates Chordin. The cysteine-rich domain of Sizzled is required for inhibition of Bmp1a activity. Loss of both Bmp1a and Tolloid-like1 (Tll1; another Tolloid-family metalloproteinase) function leads to a complete suppression and reversal of the ogon mutant phenotype. These results indicate that Sizzled represses the activities of Tolloid-family proteins, thereby creating the Chordin-Bmp activity gradient along the dorso-ventral axis. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized role for a secreted Frizzled-related protein.

  16. Interplay between the catabolite repression control protein Crc, Hfq and RNA in Hfq-dependent translational regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Wulf, Alexander; Campagne, Sébastien; Pei, Xue-Yuan; Wolfinger, Michael T; Forlani, Giada; Prindl, Konstantin; Abdou, Laetitia; Resch, Armin; Allain, Frederic H-T; Luisi, Ben F; Urlaub, Henning; Bläsi, Udo

    2018-02-16

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa the RNA chaperone Hfq and the catabolite repression control protein (Crc) act as post-transcriptional regulators during carbon catabolite repression (CCR). In this regard Crc is required for full-fledged Hfq-mediated translational repression of catabolic genes. RNAseq based transcriptome analyses revealed a significant overlap between the Crc and Hfq regulons, which in conjunction with genetic data supported a concerted action of both proteins. Biochemical and biophysical approaches further suggest that Crc and Hfq form an assembly in the presence of RNAs containing A-rich motifs, and that Crc interacts with both, Hfq and RNA. Through these interactions, Crc enhances the stability of Hfq/Crc/RNA complexes, which can explain its facilitating role in Hfq-mediated translational repression. Hence, these studies revealed for the first time insights into how an interacting protein can modulate Hfq function. Moreover, Crc is shown to interfere with binding of a regulatory RNA to Hfq, which bears implications for riboregulation. These results are discussed in terms of a working model, wherein Crc prioritizes the function of Hfq toward utilization of favored carbon sources.

  17. SRSF3 represses the expression of PDCD4 protein by coordinated regulation of alternative splicing, export and translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kuk; Jeong, Sunjoo, E-mail: sjsj@dankook.ac.kr

    2016-02-05

    Gene expression is regulated at multiple steps, such as transcription, splicing, export, degradation and translation. Considering diverse roles of SR proteins, we determined whether the tumor-related splicing factor SRSF3 regulates the expression of the tumor-suppressor protein, PDCD4, at multiple steps. As we have reported previously, knockdown of SRSF3 increased the PDCD4 protein level in SW480 colon cancer cells. More interestingly, here we showed that the alternative splicing and the nuclear export of minor isoforms of pdcd4 mRNA were repressed by SRSF3, but the translation step was unaffected. In contrast, only the translation step of the major isoform of pdcd4 mRNA was repressed by SRSF3. Therefore, overexpression of SRSF3 might be relevant to the repression of all isoforms of PDCD4 protein levels in most types of cancer cell. We propose that SRSF3 could act as a coordinator of the expression of PDCD4 protein via two mechanisms on two alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms.

  18. Scaffold protein enigma homolog 1 overcomes the repression of myogenesis activation by inhibitor of DNA binding 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatani, Miyuki [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Ito, Jumpei [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 102-0083 (Japan); Koyama, Riko [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Niimi, Tomoaki [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); Kuroda, Shun' ichi [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan); The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Maturana, Andrés D., E-mail: maturana@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8106 (Japan)

    2016-05-27

    Enigma Homolog 1 (ENH1) is a scaffold protein for signaling proteins and transcription factors. Previously, we reported that ENH1 overexpression promotes the differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the role of ENH1 in the C2C12 cells differentiation remains elusive. ENH1 was shown to inhibit the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells by sequestering Inhibitor of DNA binding protein 2 (Id2) in the cytosol. Id2 is a repressor of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors activity and prevents myogenesis. Here, we found that ENH1 overcome the Id2 repression of C2C12 cells myogenic differentiation and that ENH1 overexpression promotes mice satellite cells activation, the first step toward myogenic differentiation. In addition, we show that ENH1 interacted with Id2 in C2C12 cells and mice satellite cells. Collectively, our results suggest that ENH1 plays an important role in the activation of myogenesis through the repression of Id2 activity. -- Highlights: •Enigma Homolog 1 (ENH1) is a scaffold protein. •ENH1 binds to inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) in myoblasts. •ENH1 overexpression overcomes the Id2's repression of myogenesis. •The Id2-ENH1 complex play an important role in the activation of myogenesis.

  19. Accurate microRNA target prediction correlates with protein repression levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simossis Victor A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs are small endogenously expressed non-coding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression through translation repression or messenger RNA degradation. MicroRNA regulation is performed through pairing of the microRNA to sites in the messenger RNA of protein coding genes. Since experimental identification of miRNA target genes poses difficulties, computational microRNA target prediction is one of the key means in deciphering the role of microRNAs in development and disease. Results DIANA-microT 3.0 is an algorithm for microRNA target prediction which is based on several parameters calculated individually for each microRNA and combines conserved and non-conserved microRNA recognition elements into a final prediction score, which correlates with protein production fold change. Specifically, for each predicted interaction the program reports a signal to noise ratio and a precision score which can be used as an indication of the false positive rate of the prediction. Conclusion Recently, several computational target prediction programs were benchmarked based on a set of microRNA target genes identified by the pSILAC method. In this assessment DIANA-microT 3.0 was found to achieve the highest precision among the most widely used microRNA target prediction programs reaching approximately 66%. The DIANA-microT 3.0 prediction results are available online in a user friendly web server at http://www.microrna.gr/microT

  20. The Reg1-interacting proteins, Bmh1, Bmh2, Ssb1, and Ssb2, have roles in maintaining glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombek, Kenneth M; Kacherovsky, Nataly; Young, Elton T

    2004-09-10

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a type 1 protein phosphatase complex composed of the Glc7 catalytic subunit and the Reg1 regulatory subunit represses expression of many glucose-regulated genes. Here we show that the Reg1-interacting proteins Bmh1, Bmh2, Ssb1, and Ssb2 have roles in glucose repression. Deleting both BMH genes causes partially constitutive ADH2 expression without significantly increasing the level of Adr1 protein, the major activator of ADH2 expression. Adr1 and Bcy1, the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, are both required for this effect indicating that constitutive expression in Deltabmh1Deltabmh2 cells uses the same activation pathway that operates in Deltareg1 cells. Deletion of both BMH genes and REG1 causes a synergistic relief from repression, suggesting that Bmh proteins also act independently of Reg1 during glucose repression. A two-hybrid interaction with the Bmh proteins was mapped to amino acids 187-232, a region of Reg1 that is conserved in different classes of fungi. Deleting this region partially releases SUC2 from glucose repression. This indicates a role for the Reg1-Bmh interaction in glucose repression and also suggests a broad role for Bmh proteins in this process. An in vivo Reg1-Bmh interaction was confirmed by copurification of Bmh proteins with HA(3)-TAP-tagged Reg1. The nonconventional heat shock proteins Ssb1 and Ssb2 are also copurified with HA(3)-TAP-tagged Reg1. Deletion of both SSB genes modestly decreases repression of ADH2 expression in the presence of glucose, suggesting that Ssb proteins, perhaps through their interaction with Reg1, play a minor role in glucose repression.

  1. Chronological protein synthesis in regenerating rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinjun; Hao, Shuai; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Fuzheng; Huang, Lingyun; Xiao, Xueyuan; He, Dacheng

    2015-07-01

    Liver regeneration has been studied for decades; however, its regulation remains unclear. In this study, we report a dynamic tracing of protein synthesis in rat regenerating liver with a new proteomic technique, (35) S in vivo labeling analysis for dynamic proteomics (SiLAD). Conventional proteomic techniques typically measure protein alteration in accumulated amounts. The SiLAD technique specifically detects protein synthesis velocity instead of accumulated amounts of protein through (35) S pulse labeling of newly synthesized proteins, providing a direct way for analyzing protein synthesis variations. Consequently, protein synthesis within short as 30 min was visualized and protein regulations in the first 8 h of regenerating liver were dynamically traced. Further, the 3.5-5 h post partial hepatectomy (PHx) was shown to be an important regulatory turning point by acute regulation of many proteins in the initiation of liver regeneration. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Increased heme synthesis in yeast induces a metabolic switch from fermentation to respiration even under conditions of glucose repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Bu, Pengli; Zeng, Joey; Vancura, Ales

    2017-10-13

    Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration is a complex process that involves several signaling pathways and transcription factors as well as communication between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Under aerobic conditions, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolizes glucose predominantly by glycolysis and fermentation. We have recently shown that altered chromatin structure in yeast induces respiration by a mechanism that requires transport and metabolism of pyruvate in mitochondria. However, how pyruvate controls the transcriptional responses underlying the metabolic switch from fermentation to respiration is unknown. Here, we report that this pyruvate effect involves heme. We found that heme induces transcription of HAP4 , the transcriptional activation subunit of the Hap2/3/4/5p complex, required for growth on nonfermentable carbon sources, in a Hap1p- and Hap2/3/4/5p-dependent manner. Increasing cellular heme levels by inactivating ROX1 , which encodes a repressor of many hypoxic genes, or by overexpressing HEM3 or HEM12 induced respiration and elevated ATP levels. Increased heme synthesis, even under conditions of glucose repression, activated Hap1p and the Hap2/3/4/5p complex and induced transcription of HAP4 and genes required for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation, leading to a switch from fermentation to respiration. Conversely, inhibiting metabolic flux into the TCA cycle reduced cellular heme levels and HAP4 transcription. Together, our results indicate that the glucose-mediated repression of respiration in budding yeast is at least partly due to the low cellular heme level. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Leucine stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, D.K.; Grogan, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated a stimulatory effect of leucine on skeletal muscle protein synthesis measured in vitro during catabolic conditions. Studies in other laboratories have consistently found this effect in diaphragm muscle, however, studies examining effects on nitrogen balance or with in vivo protein synthesis in skeletal muscle are equivocal. This experiment was designed to determine the potential of leucine to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were fasted for 12 hrs, anesthetized, a jugular cannula inserted, and protein synthesis measured using a primed continuous infusion of 14 C-tyrosine. A plateau in specific activity was reached after 30 to 60 min and maintained for 3 hrs. The leucine dose consisted of a 240 umole priming dose followed by a continuous infusion of 160 umoles/hr. Leucine infusion stimulated protein synthesis in the soleus muscle (28%) and in the red (28%) and white portions (12%) of the gastrocnemius muscle compared with controls infused with only tyrosine. The increased rates of protein synthesis were due to increased incorporation of tyrosine into protein and to decreased specific activity of the free tyrosine pool. These data indicate that infusion of leucine has the potential to stimulate in vivo protein synthesis in skeletal muscles

  4. Modulation of protein synthesis by polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2015-03-01

    Polyamines are ubiquitous small basic molecules that play important roles in cell growth and viability. Since polyamines mainly exist as a polyamine-RNA complex, we looked for proteins whose synthesis is preferentially stimulated by polyamines at the level of translation, and thus far identified 17 proteins in Escherichia coli and 6 proteins in eukaryotes. The mechanisms of polyamine stimulation of synthesis of these proteins were investigated. In addition, the role of eIF5A, containing hypusine formed from spermidine, on protein synthesis is described. These results clearly indicate that polyamines and eIF5A contribute to cell growth and viability through modulation of protein synthesis. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  5. Repression of mitochondrial translation, respiration and a metabolic cycle-regulated gene, SLF1, by the yeast Pumilio-family protein Puf3p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Chatenay-Lapointe

    Full Text Available Synthesis and assembly of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS system requires genes located both in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, but how gene expression is coordinated between these two compartments is not fully understood. One level of control is through regulated expression mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and other factors required for mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS assembly, which are all products of nuclear genes that are subsequently imported into mitochondria. Interestingly, this cadre of genes in budding yeast has in common a 3'-UTR element that is bound by the Pumilio family protein, Puf3p, and is coordinately regulated under many conditions, including during the yeast metabolic cycle. Multiple functions have been assigned to Puf3p, including promoting mRNA degradation, localizing nucleus-encoded mitochondrial transcripts to the outer mitochondrial membrane, and facilitating mitochondria-cytoskeletal interactions and motility. Here we show that Puf3p has a general repressive effect on mitochondrial OXPHOS abundance, translation, and respiration that does not involve changes in overall mitochondrial biogenesis and largely independent of TORC1-mitochondrial signaling. We also identified the cytoplasmic translation factor Slf1p as yeast metabolic cycle-regulated gene that is repressed by Puf3p at the post-transcriptional level and promotes respiration and extension of yeast chronological life span when over-expressed. Altogether, these results should facilitate future studies on which of the many functions of Puf3p is most relevant for regulating mitochondrial gene expression and the role of nuclear-mitochondrial communication in aging and longevity.

  6. Chemical Synthesis of Circular Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, James P.; Wong, Clarence T. T.

    2012-01-01

    Circular proteins, once thought to be rare, are now commonly found in plants. Their chemical synthesis, once thought to be difficult, is now readily achievable. The enabling methodology is largely due to the advances in entropic chemical ligation to overcome the entropy barrier in coupling the N- and C-terminal ends of large peptide segments for either intermolecular ligation or intramolecular ligation in end-to-end cyclization. Key elements of an entropic chemical ligation consist of a chemoselective capture step merging the N and C termini as a covalently linked O/S-ester intermediate to permit the subsequent step of an intramolecular O/S-N acyl shift to form an amide. Many ligation methods exploit the supernucleophilicity of a thiol side chain at the N terminus for the capture reaction, which makes cysteine-rich peptides ideal candidates for the entropy-driven macrocyclization. Advances in desulfurization and modification of the thiol-containing amino acids at the ligation sites to other amino acids add extra dimensions to the entropy-driven ligation methods. This minireview describes recent advances of entropy-driven ligation to prepare circular proteins with or without a cysteinyl side chain. PMID:22700959

  7. Arraying proteins by cell-free synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2007-10-01

    Recent advances in life science have led to great motivation for the development of protein arrays to study functions of genome-encoded proteins. While traditional cell-based methods have been commonly used for generating protein arrays, they are usually a time-consuming process with a number of technical challenges. Cell-free protein synthesis offers an attractive system for making protein arrays, not only does it rapidly converts the genetic information into functional proteins without the need for DNA cloning, but also presents a flexible environment amenable to production of folded proteins or proteins with defined modifications. Recent advancements have made it possible to rapidly generate protein arrays from PCR DNA templates through parallel on-chip protein synthesis. This article reviews current cell-free protein array technologies and their proteomic applications.

  8. Protein synthesis in the growing rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.; Chrin, L.

    1986-01-01

    Developmental control of protein synthesis in the postnatal growth of the lung has not been systematically studied. In male Fischer 344 rats, lung growth continues linearly as a function of body weight (from 75 to 450 g body weight). To study total protein synthesis in lungs of growing rats, we used the technique of constant intravenous infusion of tritiated leucine, an essential amino acid. Lungs of sacrificed animals were used to determine the leucine incorporation rate into newly synthesized protein. The specific radioactivity of the leucine associated with tRNA extracted from the same lungs served as an absolute index of the precursor leucine pool used for lung protein synthesis. On the basis of these measurements, we were able to calculate the fractional synthesis rate (the proportion of total protein destroyed and replaced each day) of pulmonary proteins for each rat. Under the conditions of isotope infusion, leucyl-tRNA very rapidly equilibrates with free leucine of the plasma and of the extracellular space of the lung. Infusions lasting 30 minutes or less yielded linear rates of protein synthesis without evidence of contamination of lung proteins by newly labeled intravascular albumin. The fractional synthesis rate is considerably higher in juvenile animals (55% per day) than in adult rats (20% per day). After approximately 12 weeks of age, the fractional synthesis rate remains extremely constant in spite of continued slow growth of the lung. It is apparent from these data that in both young and adult rats the bulk of total protein synthesis is devoted to rapidly turning over proteins and that less than 4 percent of newly made protein is committed to tissue growth

  9. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-12-16

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty.

  10. A family of insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding proteins represses translation in late development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Christiansen, J; Lykke-Andersen, J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a major fetal growth factor. The IGF-II gene generates multiple mRNAs with different 5' untranslated regions (5' UTRs) that are translated in a differential manner during development. We have identified a human family of three IGF-II mRNA-binding proteins.......5 followed by a decline towards birth, and, similar to IGF-II, IMPs are especially expressed in developing epithelia, muscle, and placenta in both mouse and human embryos. The results imply that cytoplasmic 5' UTR-binding proteins control IGF-II biosynthesis during late mammalian development....... and are homologous to the Xenopus Vera and chicken zipcode-binding proteins. IMP localizes to subcytoplasmic domains in a growth-dependent and cell-specific manner and causes a dose-dependent translational repression of IGF-II leader 3 -luciferase mRNA. Mouse IMPs are produced in a burst at embryonic day 12...

  11. The X protein of hepatitis B virus activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing melanoma inhibitory activity 2 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yilin; Yang, Yang; Cai, Yanyan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yingle; Zhu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese-French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wu, Jianguo, E-mail: jwu@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese-French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that HBV represses MIA2 gene expression both invitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The X protein of HBV plays a major role in such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activates cell growth and proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates cell proliferation, over-expression of MIA2 impaired such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing MIA2 expression. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths globally. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for over 75% of all HCC cases; however, the molecular pathogenesis of HCC is not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of the newly identified gene melanoma inhibitory activity 2 (MIA2) was reduced by HBV infection invitro and invivo, and that HBV X protein (HBx) plays a major role in this regulation. Recent studies have revealed that MIA2 is a potential tumor suppressor, and that, in most HCCs, MIA2 expression is down-regulated or lost. We found that the knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activated cell growth and proliferation, suggesting that MIA2 inhibits HCC cell growth and proliferation. In addition, the over-expression of HBx alone induced cell proliferation, whereas MIA2 over-expression impaired the HBx-mediated induction of proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that HBx activates hepatoma cell growth and proliferation through repression of the potential tumor suppressor MIA2.

  12. Repression of the DCL2 and DCL4 genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants for the transient expression of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kouki; Matsumura, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    The production of recombinant proteins in plants has many advantages, including safety and reduced costs. However, this technology still faces several issues, including low levels of production. The repression of RNA silencing seems to be particularly important for improving recombinant protein production because RNA silencing effectively degrades transgene-derived mRNAs in plant cells. Therefore, to overcome this, we used RNA interference technology to develop DCL2- and DCL4-repressed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants (ΔD2, ΔD4, and ΔD2ΔD4 plants), which had much lower levels of NbDCL2 and/or NbDCL4 mRNAs than wild-type plants. A transient gene expression assay showed that the ΔD2ΔD4 plants accumulated larger amounts of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and human acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) than ΔD2, ΔD4, and wild-type plants. Furthermore, the levels of GFP and aFGF mRNAs were also higher in ΔD2ΔD4 plants than in ΔD2, ΔD4, and wild-type plants. These findings demonstrate that ΔD2ΔD4 plants express larger amounts of recombinant proteins than wild-type plants, and so would be useful for recombinant protein production. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. L1 retrotransposition is activated by Ten-eleven-translocation protein 1 and repressed by methyl-CpG binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Ludwig, Anne K; Hastert, Florian D; Rausch, Cathia; Lehmkuhl, Anne; Hellmann, Ines; Smets, Martha; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2017-09-03

    One of the major functions of DNA methylation is the repression of transposable elements, such as the long-interspersed nuclear element 1 (L1). The underlying mechanism(s), however, are unclear. Here, we addressed how retrotransposon activation and mobilization are regulated by methyl-cytosine modifying ten-eleven-translocation (Tet) proteins and how this is modulated by methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. We show that Tet1 activates both, endogenous and engineered L1 retrotransposons. Furthermore, we found that Mecp2 and Mbd2 repress Tet1-mediated activation of L1 by preventing 5hmC formation at the L1 promoter. Finally, we demonstrate that the methyl-CpG binding domain, as well as the adjacent non-sequence specific DNA binding domain of Mecp2 are each sufficient to mediate repression of Tet1-induced L1 mobilization. Our study reveals a mechanism how L1 elements get activated in the absence of Mecp2 and suggests that Tet1 may contribute to Mecp2/Mbd2-deficiency phenotypes, such as the Rett syndrome. We propose that the balance between methylation "reader" and "eraser/writer" controls L1 retrotransposition.

  14. Defect in the GTPase activating protein (GAP) function of eIF5 causes repression of GCN4 translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony A, Charles; Alone, Pankaj V

    2017-05-13

    In eukaryotes, the eIF5 protein plays an important role in translation start site selection by providing the GAP (GTPase activating protein) function. However, in yeast translation initiation fidelity defective eIF5 G31R mutant causes preferential utilization of UUG as initiation codon and is termed as Suppressor of initiation codon (Sui - ) phenotype due to its hyper GTPase activity. The eIF5 G31R mutant dominantly represses GCN4 expression and confers sensitivity to 3-Amino-1,2,4-Trizole (3AT) induced starvation. The down-regulation of the GCN4 expression (Gcn - phenotype) in the eIF5 G31R mutant was not because of leaky scanning defects; rather was due to the utilization of upUUG initiation codons at the 5' regulatory region present between uORF1 and the main GCN4 ORF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, C.; Hardy, S.; Kleinman, R.E.; Lembcke, J.; Young, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    The dietary treatment of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has been designed on an empirical basis, with outcomes for successful management including body weight gain and resolution of apathy. We propose using the measurements of protein synthesis as a more objective measure of renourishment. We will therefore randomize a group of malnourished children (weigh-for-height Z score 13 C-leucine and serial measurements of 13 C-enrichment of albumin. Isotope infusions will be performed on days one and three, following a standard three hour fast. Since albumin synthesis is reduced under the influence of cytokines which mediate the inflammatory response, results will be stratified according to the presence or absence of clinically apparent infections. We hypothesize that the provision of added dietary protein will optimize albumin synthesis rates in PEM as well as attenuate the reduction in albumin synthesis seen in the presence of infections. (author). 20 refs

  16. Transgenic Expression of a Functional Fragment of Harpin Protein Hpa1 in Wheat Represses English Grain Aphid Infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Man-yu; ZHOU Ting; ZHAO Yan-ying; LI Jia-bao; XU Heng; DONG Han-song; ZHANG Chun-ling

    2014-01-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the rice bacterial blight pathogen promotes plant growth and induces plant resistance to pathogens and insect pests. The region of 10-42 residues (Hpa110-42) in the Hpa1 sequence is critical as the isolated Hpa110-42 fragment is 1.3-7.5-fold more effective than the full length in inducing plant growth and resistance. Here we report that transgenic expression of Hpa110-42 in wheat induces resistance to English grain aphid, a dominant species of wheat aphids. Hpa110-42-induced resistance is effective to inhibit the aphid behavior in plant preference at the initial colonization stage and repress aphid performances in the reproduction, nymph growth, and instar development on transgenic plants. The resistance characters are correlated with enhanced expression of defense-regulatory genes (EIN2, PP2-A, and GSL10) and consistent with induced expression of defense response genes (Hel, PDF1.2, PR-1b, and PR-2b). As a result, aphid infestations are alleviated in transgenic plants. The level of Hpa110-42-induced resistance in regard to repression of aphid infestations is equivalent to the effect of chemical control provided by an insecticide. These results suggested that the defensive role of Hpa110-42 can be integrated into breeding germplasm of the agriculturally signiifcant crop with a great potential of the agricultural application.

  17. A novel mTOR activating protein protects dopamine neurons against oxidative stress by repressing autophagy related cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyou-Chan; Kim, Shin-Hee; Ha, Ji-Young; Kim, Sang-Tae; Son, Jin H

    2010-01-01

    Our previous microarray analysis identified a neuroprotective protein Oxi-alpha, that was down-regulated during oxidative stress (OS)-induced cell death in dopamine neurons [Neurochem. Res. (2004) vol. 29, pp. 1223]. Here we find that the phylogenetically conserved Oxi-alpha protects against OS by a novel mechanism: activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase and subsequent repression of autophagic vacuole accumulation and cell death. To the best of our knowledge, Oxi-alpha is the first molecule discovered in dopamine neurons, which activates mTOR kinase. Indeed, the down-regulation of Oxi-alpha by OS suppresses the activation of mTOR kinase. The pathogenic effect of down-regulated Oxi-alpha was confirmed by gene-specific knockdown experiment, which resulted in not only the repression of mTOR kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase and 4E-BP1, but also enhanced susceptibility to OS. In accordance with these observations, treatment with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor and autophagy inducer, potentiated OS-induced cell death, while similar treatment with an autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine protected the dopamine cells. Our findings present evidence for the presence of a novel class of molecule involved in autophagic cell death triggered by OS in dopamine neurons.

  18. Hypothesis: A Role for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Mediating and Relieving MicroRNA-Guided Translational Repression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Plante

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA (miRNA-guided messenger RNA (mRNA translational repression is believed to be mediated by effector miRNA-containing ribonucleoprotein (miRNP complexes harboring fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. Recent studies documented the nucleic acid chaperone properties of FMRP and characterized its role and importance in RNA silencing in mammalian cells. We propose a model in which FMRP could facilitate miRNA assembly on target mRNAs in a process involving recognition of G quartet structures. Functioning within a duplex miRNP, FMRP may also mediate mRNA targeting through a strand exchange mechanism, in which the miRNA* of the duplex is swapped for the mRNA. Furthermore, FMRP may contribute to the relief of miRNA-guided mRNA repression through a reverse strand exchange reaction, possibly initiated by a specific cellular signal, that would liberate the mRNA for translation. Suboptimal utilization of miRNAs may thus account for some of themolecular defects in patients with the fragile X syndrome.

  19. The ribosomal protein Rpl22 controls ribosome composition by directly repressing expression of its own paralog, Rpl22l1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique N O'Leary

    Full Text Available Most yeast ribosomal protein genes are duplicated and their characterization has led to hypotheses regarding the existence of specialized ribosomes with different subunit composition or specifically-tailored functions. In yeast, ribosomal protein genes are generally duplicated and evidence has emerged that paralogs might have specific roles. Unlike yeast, most mammalian ribosomal proteins are thought to be encoded by a single gene copy, raising the possibility that heterogenous populations of ribosomes are unique to yeast. Here, we examine the roles of the mammalian Rpl22, finding that Rpl22(-/- mice have only subtle phenotypes with no significant translation defects. We find that in the Rpl22(-/- mouse there is a compensatory increase in Rpl22-like1 (Rpl22l1 expression and incorporation into ribosomes. Consistent with the hypothesis that either ribosomal protein can support translation, knockdown of Rpl22l1 impairs growth of cells lacking Rpl22. Mechanistically, Rpl22 regulates Rpl22l1 directly by binding to an internal hairpin structure and repressing its expression. We propose that ribosome specificity may exist in mammals, providing evidence that one ribosomal protein can influence composition of the ribosome by regulating its own paralog.

  20. MicroProtein-mediated recruitment of CONSTANS into a TOPLESS trimeric complex represses flowering in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeff, Moritz; Straub, Daniel; Eguen, Tenai E.

    2016-01-01

    MicroProteins are short, single domain proteins that act by sequestering larger, multi-domain proteins into non-functional complexes. MicroProteins have been identified in plants and animals, where they are mostly involved in the regulation of developmental processes. Here we show that two...

  1. Protein synthesis in geostimulated root caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    A study is presented of the processes occurring in the root cap of corn which are requisite for the formation of root cap inhibitor and which can be triggered or modulated by both light and gravity. The results of this study indicate the importance of protein synthesis for light-induced gravitropic bending in roots. Root caps in which protein synthesis is prevented are unable to induce downward bending. This suggests that light acts by stimulating proteins which are necessary for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response (downward bending). The turnover of protein with time was also examined in order to determine whether light acts by stimulating the synthesis of unique proteins required for downward growth. It is found that auxin in combination with light allows for the translation of the gravitropic stimulus into a growth response at least in part through the modification of protein synthesis. It is concluded that unique proteins are stimulated by light and are involved in promoting the downward growth in roots which are responding to gravity.

  2. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, C; Hardy, S; Kleinman, R E [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Lembcke, J [Instituto de Investigacion Nutricional, La Molina, Lima (Peru); Young, V E [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. of Human Nutrition

    1994-12-31

    The dietary treatment of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has been designed on an empirical basis, with outcomes for successful management including body weight gain and resolution of apathy. We propose using the measurements of protein synthesis as a more objective measure of renourishment. We will therefore randomize a group of malnourished children (weigh-for-height Z score <-2.0) to receive either a standard (10% of calories as protein) or increased (15%) amount of dietary protein early in their recovery phase. We will calculate albumin synthesis rates via the flooding dose technique, using {sup 13}C-leucine and serial measurements of {sup 13}C-enrichment of albumin. Isotope infusions will be performed on days one and three, following a standard three hour fast. Since albumin synthesis is reduced under the influence of cytokines which mediate the inflammatory response, results will be stratified according to the presence or absence of clinically apparent infections. We hypothesize that the provision of added dietary protein will optimize albumin synthesis rates in PEM as well as attenuate the reduction in albumin synthesis seen in the presence of infections. (author). 20 refs.

  3. Modifications to the translational apparatus which affect the regulation of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Protein synthesis can be regulated at a number of cellular levels. I have examined how modifications to specific components of the protein synthetic machinery are involved in regulating the efficiency of initiation of translation during early sea urchin embryogenesis. It is demonstrated that Ca 2+ concentrations exceeding 500 uM cause the inhibition of protein synthesis in cell-free translation lysates prepared from sea urchin embryos. Specific changes in the state of phosphorylation of at least 8 proteins occur during this Ca 2+ -mediated repression of translation. Analysis of these proteins has indicated that, unlike mammalian systems, there is no detectable level of Ca 2+ -dependent phosphorylation of the αsubunit eIF-2. Two of the proteins which do become phosphorylated in response to Ca 2+ are calmodulin and an isoelectric form of sea urchin eIF-4D. In addition, 2 proteins which share similarities with kinases involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in mammalian cells, also become phosphorylated. I have investigated the consequences of changes in eIF-4D during sea urchin embryogenesis because it has been proposed that a polyamine-mediated conversion of lysine to hypusine in this factor may enhance translational activity. It is demonstrated that [ 3 H] spermidine-derived radioactivity is incorporated into a number of proteins when sea urchin embryos are labeled in vivo, and that the pattern of individual proteins that become labeled changes over the course of the first 30 hr of development

  4. Mitochondrial nucleoid interacting proteins support mitochondrial protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Cooper, H M; Reyes, A; Di Re, M; Sembongi, H; Litwin, T R; Gao, J; Neuman, K C; Fearnley, I M; Spinazzola, A; Walker, J E; Holt, I J

    2012-07-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomes and translation factors co-purify with mitochondrial nucleoids of human cells, based on affinity protein purification of tagged mitochondrial DNA binding proteins. Among the most frequently identified proteins were ATAD3 and prohibitin, which have been identified previously as nucleoid components, using a variety of methods. Both proteins are demonstrated to be required for mitochondrial protein synthesis in human cultured cells, and the major binding partner of ATAD3 is the mitochondrial ribosome. Altered ATAD3 expression also perturbs mtDNA maintenance and replication. These findings suggest an intimate association between nucleoids and the machinery of protein synthesis in mitochondria. ATAD3 and prohibitin are tightly associated with the mitochondrial membranes and so we propose that they support nucleic acid complexes at the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

  5. Transcriptional switching by the MerR protein: Activation and repression mutants implicate distinct DNA and mercury(II) binding domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewchuk, L.M.; Helmann, J.D.; Ross, W.; Park, S.J.; Summers, A.O.; Walsh, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to mercuric compounds is controlled by the MerR metalloregulatory protein. The MerR protein functions as both a transcriptional repressor and a mercuric ion dependent transcriptional activator. Chemical mutagenesis of the cloned merR structural gene has led to the identification of mutant proteins that are specifically deficient in transcriptional repression, activation, or both. Five mutant proteins have been overproduced, purified to homogeneity, and assayed for ability to dimerize, bind mer operator DNA, and bind mercuric ion. A mutation in the recognition helix of a proposed helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif (E22K) yields protein deficient in both activation and repression in vivo (a - r - ) and deficient in operator binding in vitro. In contrast, mutations in three of the four MerR cysteine residues are repression competent but activation deficient (a - r + ) in vivo. In vitro, the purified cysteine mutant proteins bind to the mer operator site with near wild-type affinity but are variable deficient in binding the in vivo inducer mercury(II) ion. A subset of the isolated proteins also appears compromised in their ability to form dimers at low protein concentrations. These data support a model in which DNA-bound MerR dimer binds one mercuric ion and transmits this occupancy information to a protein region involved in transcriptional activation

  6. Epigenetic repression of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 promotes androgen-independent prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Dennis W; Xie, Yan; Deng, Caishu; Gatalica, Zoran; Yang, Mingjie; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jincheng; Lin, Ming-Fong; Abel, Peter W; Tu, Yaping

    2012-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-stimulated androgen-independent activation of androgen receptor (AR) contributes to acquisition of a hormone-refractory phenotype by prostate cancer. We previously reported that regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) 2, an inhibitor of GPCRs, inhibits androgen-independent AR activation (Cao et al., Oncogene 2006;25:3719-34). Here, we show reduced RGS2 protein expression in human prostate cancer specimens compared to adjacent normal or hyperplastic tissue. Methylation-specific PCR analysis and bisulfite sequencing indicated that methylation of the CpG island in the RGS2 gene promoter correlated with RGS2 downregulation in prostate cancer. In vitro methylation of this promoter suppressed reporter gene expression in transient transfection studies, whereas reversal of this promoter methylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) induced RGS2 reexpression in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells and inhibited their growth under androgen-deficient conditions. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of 5-Aza-dC was significantly reduced by an RGS2-targeted short hairpin RNA, indicating that reexpressed RGS2 contributed to this growth inhibition. Restoration of RGS2 levels by ectopic expression in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells suppressed growth of xenografts in castrated mice. Thus, RGS2 promoter hypermethylation represses its expression and unmasks a latent pathway for AR transactivation in prostate cancer cells. Targeting this reversible process may provide a new strategy for suppressing prostate cancer progression by reestablishing its androgen sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  7. Origins of the protein synthesis cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    Largely derived from experiments in molecular evolution, a theory of protein synthesis cycles has been constructed. The sequence begins with ordered thermal proteins resulting from the self-sequencing of mixed amino acids. Ordered thermal proteins then aggregate to cell-like structures. When they contained proteinoids sufficiently rich in lysine, the structures were able to synthesize offspring peptides. Since lysine-rich proteinoid (LRP) also catalyzes the polymerization of nucleoside triphosphate to polynucleotides, the same microspheres containing LRP could have synthesized both original cellular proteins and cellular nucleic acids. The LRP within protocells would have provided proximity advantageous for the origin and evolution of the genetic code.

  8. Virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Is Influenced by the Catabolite Repression Control Protein Crc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Suma; Butcher, Bronwyn G; Liu, Yingyu; D'Amico, Katherine; Coster, Matthew; Filiatrault, Melanie J

    2017-04-01

    Pseudomonas syringae infects diverse plant species and is widely used as a model system in the study of effector function and the molecular basis of plant diseases. Although the relationship between bacterial metabolism, nutrient acquisition, and virulence has attracted increasing attention in bacterial pathology, it is largely unexplored in P. syringae. The Crc (catabolite repression control) protein is a putative RNA-binding protein that regulates carbon metabolism as well as a number of other factors in the pseudomonads. Here, we show that deletion of crc increased bacterial swarming motility and biofilm formation. The crc mutant showed reduced growth and symptoms in Arabidopsis and tomato when compared with the wild-type strain. We have evidence that the crc mutant shows delayed hypersensitive response (HR) when infiltrated into Nicotiana benthamiana and tobacco. Interestingly, the crc mutant was more susceptible to hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that, in planta, the mutant may be sensitive to reactive oxygen species generated during pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Indeed, HR was further delayed when PTI-induced tissues were challenged with the crc mutant. The crc mutant did not elicit an altered PTI response in plants compared with the wild-type strain. We conclude that Crc plays an important role in growth and survival during infection.

  9. A Disulfide Bond in the Membrane Protein IgaA Is Essential for Repression of the RcsCDB System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Graciela Pucciarelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IgaA is an integral inner membrane protein that was discovered as repressor of the RcsCDB phosphorelay system in the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The RcsCDB system, conserved in many members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, regulates expression of varied processes including motility, biofilm formation, virulence and response to envelope stress. IgaA is an essential protein to which, in response to envelope perturbation, the outer membrane lipoprotein RcsF has been proposed to bind in order to activate the RcsCDB phosphorelay. Envelope stress has also been reported to be sensed by a surface exposed domain of RcsF. These observations support a tight control of the RcsCDB system by RcsF and IgaA via mechanisms that, however, remain unknown. Interestingly, RcsF and IgaA have four conserved cysteine residues in loops exposed to the periplasmic space. Two non-consecutive disulfide bonds were shown to be required for RcsF function. Here, we report mutagenesis studies supporting the presence of one disulfide bond (C404-C425 in the major periplasmic loop of IgaA that is essential for repression of the RcsCDB phosphorelay. Our data therefore suggest that the redox state of the periplasm may be critical for the control of the RcsCDB system by its two upstream regulators, RcsF and IgaA.

  10. The UNC-4 homeobox protein represses mab-9 expression in DA motor neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jafari, Gholamali; Appleford, Peter J; Seago, Julian

    2011-01-01

    , an RNAi screen designed to identify upstream transcriptional regulators of mab-9 showed that silencing of unc-4 (encoding a paired-class homeodomain protein) increases mab-9::gfp expression in the nervous system, specifically in posterior DA motor neurons. Over-expression of unc-4 from a heat...

  11. A novel zinc finger protein Zfp277 mediates transcriptional repression of the Ink4a/arf locus through polycomb repressive complex 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negishi, Masamitsu; Saraya, Atsunori; Mochizuki, Shinobu

    2010-01-01

    . METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the function of Zinc finger domain-containing protein 277 (Zfp277), a novel zinc finger protein that interacts with the PcG protein Bmi1. Zfp277 binds to the Ink4a/Arf locus in a Bmi1-independent manner and interacts with polycomb repressor complex (PRC) 1 through...... is essential for the recruitment of PRC1 to the Ink4a/Arf locus. Our findings also highlight dynamic regulation of both Zfp277 and PcG proteins by the oxidative stress pathways....

  12. The Crc and Hfq proteins of Pseudomonas putida cooperate in catabolite repression and formation of ribonucleic acid complexes with specific target motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Renata; Hernández-Arranz, Sofía; La Rosa, Ruggero; Yuste, Luis; Madhushani, Anjana; Shingler, Victoria; Rojo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Crc protein is a global regulator that has a key role in catabolite repression and optimization of metabolism in Pseudomonads. Crc inhibits gene expression post-transcriptionally, preventing translation of mRNAs bearing an AAnAAnAA motif [the catabolite activity (CA) motif] close to the translation start site. Although Crc was initially believed to bind RNA by itself, this idea was recently challenged by results suggesting that a protein co-purifying with Crc, presumably the Hfq protein, could account for the detected RNA-binding activity. Hfq is an abundant protein that has a central role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Herein, we show that the Pseudomonas putida Hfq protein can recognize the CA motifs of RNAs through its distal face and that Crc facilitates formation of a more stable complex at these targets. Crc was unable to bind RNA in the absence of Hfq. However, pull-down assays showed that Crc and Hfq can form a co-complex with RNA containing a CA motif in vitro. Inactivation of the hfq or the crc gene impaired catabolite repression to a similar extent. We propose that Crc and Hfq cooperate in catabolite repression, probably through forming a stable co-complex with RNAs containing CA motifs to result in inhibition of translation initiation. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. c-Myc Represses Transcription of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 1 Early after Primary B Cell Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alexander M; Messinger, Joshua E; Luftig, Micah A

    2018-01-15

    Recent evidence has shown that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oncogene LMP1 is not expressed at high levels early after EBV infection of primary B cells, despite its being essential for the long-term outgrowth of immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). In this study, we found that expression of LMP1 increased 50-fold between 7 days postinfection and the LCL state. Metabolic labeling of nascent transcribed mRNA indicated that this was primarily a transcription-mediated event. EBNA2, the key viral transcription factor regulating LMP1, and CTCF, an important chromatin insulator, were recruited to the LMP1 locus similarly early and late after infection. However, the activating histone H3K9Ac mark was enriched at the LMP1 promoter in LCLs relative to that in infected B cells early after infection. We found that high c-Myc activity in EBV-infected lymphoma cells as well as overexpression of c-Myc in an LCL model system repressed LMP1 transcription. Finally, we found that chemical inhibition of c-Myc both in LCLs and early after primary B cell infection increased LMP1 expression. These data support a model in which high levels of endogenous c-Myc activity induced early after primary B cell infection directly repress LMP1 transcription. IMPORTANCE EBV is a highly successful pathogen that latently infects more than 90% of adults worldwide and is also causally associated with a number of B cell malignancies. During the latent life cycle, EBV expresses a set of viral oncoproteins and noncoding RNAs with the potential to promote cancer. Critical among these is the viral latent membrane protein LMP1. Prior work suggests that LMP1 is essential for EBV to immortalize B cells, but our recent work indicates that LMP1 is not produced at high levels during the first few weeks after infection. Here we show that transcription of the LMP1 gene can be negatively regulated by a host transcription factor, c-Myc. Ultimately, understanding the regulation of EBV oncogenes will allow us

  14. The microtubule associated protein END BINDING 1 represses root responses to mechanical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Laura; Squires, Shannon; Bisgrove, Sherryl R

    2012-05-01

    The ability of roots to navigate around rocks and other debris as they grow through the soil requires a mechanism for detecting and responding to input from both touch and gravity sensing systems. The microtubule associated protein END BINDING 1b (EB1b) is involved in this process as mutants have defects responding to combinations of touch and gravity cues. This study investigates the role of EB1b in root responses to mechanical cues. We find that eb1b-1 mutant roots exhibit an increase over wild type in their response to touch and that the expression of EB1b genes in transgenic mutants restores the response to wild type levels, indicating that EB1b is an inhibitor of the response. Mutant roots are also hypersensitive to increased levels of mechanical stimulation, revealing the presence of another process that activates the response. These findings are supported by analyses of double mutants between eb1b-1 and seedlings carrying mutations in PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE (PGM), ALTERED RESPONSE TO GRAVITY1 (ARG1), or TOUCH3 (TCH3), genes that encode proteins involved in gravity sensing, signaling, or touch responses, respectively. A model is proposed in which root responses to mechanical cues are modulated by at least two competing regulatory processes, one that promotes touch-mediated growth and another, regulated by EB1b, which dampens root responses to touch and enhances gravitropism. © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic "petite" mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells. II. Mitochondrial protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heude, M; Chanet, R

    1975-04-01

    The contribution of mitochondrial proteins in the repair of UV-induced lethal and cytoplasmic genetic damages was studied in dark liquid held exponential and stationary phase yeast cells. This was performed by using the specific inhibitors, erythromycin (ER) anc chloramphenicol (CAP). It was shown that mitochondrial proteins are involved in the recovery of stationary phase cells. Mitochondrial proteins are partly implicated in the mechanisms leading to the restoration of the (see article) genotype in UV-irradiated dark liquid held exponential phase cells. Here again, in stationary phase cells, mitochondrial enzymes do not seem to participate in the negative liquid holding (NLH) process for the (see article) induction, as shown by inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis or both mitochondrial and nuclear protein synthesis. When cells are grown in glycerol, the response after dark liquid holding of UV-treated cells in the different growth stages are similar to that found for glucose-grown cells. In other words, the fate of cytoplasmic genetic damage, in particular, is not correlated with the repressed or derepressed state of the mitochondria.

  16. Deciphering of the Human Interferon-Regulated Proteome by Mass Spectrometry-Based Quantitative Analysis Reveals Extent and Dynamics of Protein Induction and Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megger, Dominik A; Philipp, Jos; Le-Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh; Sitek, Barbara; Trilling, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are pleotropic cytokines secreted upon encounter of pathogens and tumors. Applying their antipathogenic, antiproliferative, and immune stimulatory capacities, recombinant IFNs are frequently prescribed as drugs to treat different diseases. IFNs act by changing the gene expression profile of cells. Due to characteristics such as rapid gene induction and signaling, IFNs also represent prototypical model systems for various aspects of biomedical research (e.g., signal transduction). In regard to the signaling and activated promoters, IFNs can be subdivided into two groups. Here, alterations of the cellular proteome of human cells treated with IFNα and IFNγ were elucidated in a time-resolved manner by quantitative proteome analysis. The majority of protein regulations were strongly IFN type and time dependent. In addition to the expected upregulation of IFN-responsive proteins, an astonishing number of proteins became profoundly repressed especially by IFNγ. Thus, our comprehensive analysis revealed important insights into the human IFN-regulated proteome and its dynamics of protein induction and repression. Interestingly, the new class of IFN-repressed genes comprises known host factors for highly relevant pathogens such as HIV, dengue virus, and hepatitis C virus.

  17. Deciphering of the Human Interferon-Regulated Proteome by Mass Spectrometry-Based Quantitative Analysis Reveals Extent and Dynamics of Protein Induction and Repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik A. Megger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are pleotropic cytokines secreted upon encounter of pathogens and tumors. Applying their antipathogenic, antiproliferative, and immune stimulatory capacities, recombinant IFNs are frequently prescribed as drugs to treat different diseases. IFNs act by changing the gene expression profile of cells. Due to characteristics such as rapid gene induction and signaling, IFNs also represent prototypical model systems for various aspects of biomedical research (e.g., signal transduction. In regard to the signaling and activated promoters, IFNs can be subdivided into two groups. Here, alterations of the cellular proteome of human cells treated with IFNα and IFNγ were elucidated in a time-resolved manner by quantitative proteome analysis. The majority of protein regulations were strongly IFN type and time dependent. In addition to the expected upregulation of IFN-responsive proteins, an astonishing number of proteins became profoundly repressed especially by IFNγ. Thus, our comprehensive analysis revealed important insights into the human IFN-regulated proteome and its dynamics of protein induction and repression. Interestingly, the new class of IFN-repressed genes comprises known host factors for highly relevant pathogens such as HIV, dengue virus, and hepatitis C virus.

  18. The Phosphotransfer Protein CD1492 Represses Sporulation Initiation in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Kevin O; Edwards, Adrianne N; Nawrocki, Kathryn L; Anderson, Sarah E; Woods, Emily C; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-12-01

    The formation of spores is critical for the survival of Clostridium difficile outside the host gastrointestinal tract. Persistence of C. difficile spores greatly contributes to the spread of C. difficile infection (CDI), and the resistance of spores to antimicrobials facilitates the relapse of infection. Despite the importance of sporulation to C. difficile pathogenesis, the molecular mechanisms controlling spore formation are not well understood. The initiation of sporulation is known to be regulated through activation of the conserved transcription factor Spo0A. Multiple regulators influence Spo0A activation in other species; however, many of these factors are not conserved in C. difficile and few novel factors have been identified. Here, we investigated the function of a protein, CD1492, that is annotated as a kinase and was originally proposed to promote sporulation by directly phosphorylating Spo0A. We found that deletion of CD1492 resulted in increased sporulation, indicating that CD1492 is a negative regulator of sporulation. Accordingly, we observed increased transcription of Spo0A-dependent genes in the CD1492 mutant. Deletion of CD1492 also resulted in decreased toxin production in vitro and in decreased virulence in the hamster model of CDI. Further, the CD1492 mutant demonstrated effects on gene expression that are not associated with Spo0A activation, including lower sigD and rstA transcription, suggesting that this protein interacts with factors other than Spo0A. Altogether, the data indicate that CD1492 negatively affects sporulation and positively influences motility and virulence. These results provide further evidence that C. difficile sporulation is regulated differently from that of other endospore-forming species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Spot 42 Small RNA Regulates Arabinose-Inducible araBAD Promoter Activity by Repressing Synthesis of the High-Affinity Low-Capacity Arabinose Transporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The l-arabinose-inducible araBAD promoter (PBAD) enables tightly controlled and tunable expression of genes of interest in a broad range of bacterial species. It has been used successfully to study bacterial sRNA regulation, where PBAD drives expression of target mRNA translational fusions. Here we report that in Escherichia coli, Spot 42 sRNA regulates PBAD promoter activity by affecting arabinose uptake. We demonstrate that Spot 42 sRNA represses araF, a gene encoding the AraF subunit of the high-affinity low-capacity arabinose transporter AraFGH, through direct base-pairing interactions. We further show that endogenous Spot 42 sRNA is sufficient to repress araF expression under various growth conditions. Finally, we demonstrate this posttranscriptional repression has a biological consequence, decreasing the induction of PBAD at low levels of arabinose. This problem can be circumvented using strategies reported previously for avoiding all-or-none induction behavior, such as through constitutive expression of the low-affinity high-capacity arabinose transporter AraE or induction with a higher concentration of inducers. This work adds araF to the set of Spot 42-regulated genes, in agreement with previous studies suggesting that Spot 42, itself negatively regulated by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complex, reinforces the catabolite repression network. IMPORTANCE The bacterial arabinose-inducible system is widely used for titratable control of gene expression. We demonstrate here that a posttranscriptional mechanism mediated by Spot 42 sRNA contributes to the functionality of the PBAD system at subsaturating inducer concentrations by affecting inducer uptake. Our finding extends the inputs into the known transcriptional control for the PBAD system and has implications for improving its usage for tunable gene expression. PMID:27849174

  20. Synthesis of milligram quantities of proteins using a reconstituted in vitro protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuta, Yasuaki; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the amount of protein synthesized using an in vitro protein synthesis system composed of only highly purified components (the PURE system) was optimized. By varying the concentrations of each system component, we determined the component concentrations that result in the synthesis of 0.38 mg/mL green fluorescent protein (GFP) in batch mode and 3.8 mg/mL GFP in dialysis mode. In dialysis mode, protein concentrations of 4.3 and 4.4 mg/mL were synthesized for dihydrofolate reductase and β-galactosidase, respectively. Using the optimized system, the synthesized protein represented 30% (w/w) of the total protein, which is comparable to the level of overexpressed protein in Escherichia coli cells. This optimized reconstituted in vitro protein synthesis system may potentially be useful for various applications, including in vitro directed evolution of proteins, artificial cell assembly, and protein structural studies. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The catabolite repression control protein Crc plays a role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lianbo; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Gao, Qingguo

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria form complex surface-attached biofilm communities in nature. Biofilm cells differentiate into subpopulations which display tolerance towards antimicrobial agents. However, the signal transduction pathways regulating subpopulation differentiation in biofilms are largely unelucidated. In t....... In the present study, we show that the catabolite repression control protein Crc regulates the metabolic state of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in biofilms, and plays an important role in the development of antimicrobial-tolerant subpopulations in P. aeruginosa biofilms....

  2. A human Polycomb isoform lacking the Pc box does not participate to PRC1 complexes but forms protein assemblies and represses transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkel, Pamela; Le Faou, Perrine; Vandamme, Julien; Pira, Dorcas; Angrand, Pierre-Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Polycomb repression controls the expression of hundreds of genes involved in development and is mediated by essentially two classes of chromatin-associated protein complexes. The Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) trimethylates histone H3 at lysine 27, an epigenetic mark that serves as a docking site for the PRC1 protein complex. Drosophila core PRC1 is composed of four subunits: Polycomb (Pc), Posterior sex combs (Psc), Polyhomeotic (Ph) and Sex combs extra (Sce). Each of these proteins has multiple orthologs in vertebrates, thus generating an enormous scope for potential combinatorial diversity. In particular, mammalian genomes encode five Pc family members: CBX2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7 and CBX8. To complicate matters further, distinct isoforms might arise from single genes. Here, we address the functional role of the two human CBX2 isoforms. Owing to different polyadenylation sites and alternative splicing events, the human CBX2 locus produces two transcripts: a 5-exon transcript that encodes the 532-amino acid CBX2-1 isoform that contains the conserved chromodomain and Pc box and a 4-exon transcript encoding a shorter isoform, CBX2-2, lacking the Pc box but still possessing a chromodomain. Using biochemical approaches and a novel in vivo imaging assay, we show that the short CBX2-2 isoform lacking the Pc box, does not participate in PRC1 protein complexes, but self-associates in vivo and forms complexes of high molecular weight. Furthermore, the CBX2 short isoform is still able to repress transcription, suggesting that Polycomb repression might occur in the absence of PRC1 formation.

  3. Glucocorticoid effects on hippocampal protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlatter, L.K.

    1988-01-01

    Following subcutaneous injection of rats with 5 mg corticosterone, hippocampal slices in vitro show increased [ 35 S]-methionine labeling of a cytosolic protein with an apparent molecular weight (M r ) of 35,000 and an isoelectric point (IEP) of 6.6. This labeling is temporally consistent with a transcriptional event, and is steroid- and tissue-specific. The pear serum concentration of steroid occurs one hour or less following the injection. Maximal labeling of this protein is reached whenever serum corticosterone values are approximately 100 ng/ml. When endogenous corticosterone levels are elevated to 100 ng/ml through stressors or exogenous ACTH injections the same maximal increase in synthesis of the 35,000 M r protein is observed. Adrenalectomy prevents the observed response from occurring following stressor application or ACTH injections. Comparison of the increases observed after administration of the type 2 receptor agonist RU 28362 and aldosterone, which has a higher affinity for the type 1 receptor, shows a 50-fold greater sensitivity of the response to the type 2 receptor agonist. Synthesis of this protein following serum increases of steroid possibly correlates to the theorized function of the type 2 receptor feedback regulation. The similar protein in the liver has an IEP of 6.8 and a slightly higher M r . A second hippocampal protein with an M r of 46,000 and an IEP of 6.2 is also increased in labeling. Two additional liver proteins, one of Mr 53,000 (IEP of 6.2) and the other with an M r of 45,000 (IEP of 8.7-7.8) are increased in the liver following glucocorticoid administration

  4. The Ku Protein Complex Interacts with YY1, Is Up-Regulated in Human Heart Failure, and Represses α Myosin Heavy-Chain Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucharov, Carmen C.; Helmke, Steve M.; Langer, Stephen J.; Perryman, M. Benjamin; Bristow, Michael; Leinwand, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Human heart failure is accompanied by repression of genes such as α myosin heavy chain (αMyHC) and SERCA2A and the induction of fetal genes such as βMyHC and atrial natriuretic factor. It seems likely that changes in MyHC isoforms contribute to the poor contractility seen in heart failure, because small changes in isoform composition can have a major effect on the contractility of cardiac myocytes and the heart. Our laboratory has recently shown that YY1 protein levels are increased in human heart failure and that YY1 represses the activity of the human αMyHC promoter. We have now identified a region of the αMyHC promoter that binds a factor whose expression is increased sixfold in failing human hearts. Through peptide mass spectrometry, we identified this binding activity to be a heterodimer of Ku70 and Ku80. Expression of Ku represses the human αMyHC promoter in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Moreover, overexpression of Ku70/80 decreases αMyHC mRNA expression and increases skeletal α-actin. Interestingly, YY1 interacts with Ku70 and Ku80 in HeLa cells. Together, YY1, Ku70, and Ku80 repress the αMyHC promoter to an extent that is greater than that with YY1 or Ku70/80 alone. Our results suggest that Ku is an important factor in the repression of the human αMyHC promoter during heart failure. PMID:15367688

  5. A multiplexed miRNA and transgene expression platform for simultaneous repression and expression of protein coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Attila A

    2016-01-01

    Knockdown of single or multiple gene targets by RNA interference (RNAi) is necessary to overcome escape mutants or isoform redundancy. It is also necessary to use multiple RNAi reagents to knockdown multiple targets. It is also desirable to express a transgene or positive regulatory elements and inhibit a target gene in a coordinated fashion. This study reports a flexible multiplexed RNAi and transgene platform using endogenous intronic primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) as a scaffold located in the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model for any functional transgene. The multiplexed intronic miRNA - GFP transgene platform was designed to co-express multiple small RNAs within the polycistronic cluster from a Pol II promoter at more moderate levels to reduce potential vector toxicity. The native intronic miRNAs are co-transcribed with a precursor GFP mRNA as a single transcript and presumably cleaved out of the precursor-(pre) mRNA by the RNA splicing machinery, spliceosome. The spliced intron with miRNA hairpins will be further processed into mature miRNAs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) capable of triggering RNAi effects, while the ligated exons become a mature messenger RNA for the translation of the functional GFP protein. Data show that this approach led to robust RNAi-mediated silencing of multiple Renilla Luciferase (R-Luc)-tagged target genes and coordinated expression of functional GFP from a single transcript in transiently transfected HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that this design facilitates the coordinated expression of all mature miRNAs either as individual miRNAs or as multiple miRNAs and the associated protein. The data suggest that, it is possible to simultaneously deliver multiple negative (miRNA or shRNA) and positive (transgene) regulatory elements. Because many cellular processes require simultaneous repression and activation of downstream pathways, this approach offers a platform technology to achieve that dual manipulation efficiently

  6. BRCA1 Expression Is Epigenetically Repressed in Sporadic Ovarian Cancer Cells by Overexpression of C-Terminal Binding Protein 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymaa May

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality from gynecological malignancy despite advancements in novel therapeutics. We have recently demonstrated that the transcriptional co-repressor C-terminal binding protein 2 (CtBP2 is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reverse-transcribed cDNA from CtBP2 wild-type and knockdown ovarian cancer cell lines was hybridized to Affymetrix Gene 1.0 ST microarrays, and differentially expressed genes were studied. Immunohistochemical analysis of CtBP2 and BRCA1 staining of ovarian tissues was performed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and luciferase assays were carried out. The effect of the drugs 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitor Olaparib on CtBP2 wild-type and knockdown cell lines was examined using methylthiazol tetrazolium assays and an xCELLigence System. RESULTS: Eighty-five genes involved in DNA repair, mitotic checkpoint, nucleosome assembly, and the BRCA1 network were differentially regulated by CtBP2 expression. ChIP and luciferase reporter assays using a BRCA1 promoter-regulated luciferase construct indicated that the CtBP2 complex binds the BRCA1 promoter and represses BRCA1 transcription. Immunohistochemistry illustrated a significant inverse CtBP2 and BRCA1 expression in a panel of malignant ovarian tumor tissues. The CtBP2 inhibitor MTOB suppressed ovarian cancer cell survival in a CtBP2-dependent manner. Ovarian cancer cells with CtBP2 knockdown did not display increased sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor Olaparib. CONCLUSION: CtBP2 is an ovarian cancer oncogene that may play a significant role in epigenetically silencing BRCA1 function in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer. CtBP2-specific inhibitors, such as MTOB, may be effective adjunct therapies in the management of patients with CtBP2-positive ovarian carcinoma.

  7. The evolution of the protein synthesis system. I - A model of a primitive protein synthesis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1977-01-01

    A model is developed to describe the evolution of the protein synthesis system. The model is comprised of two independent autocatalytic systems, one including one gene (A-gene) and two activated amino acid polymerases (O and A-polymerases), and the other including the addition of another gene (N-gene) and a nucleotide polymerase. Simulation results have suggested that even a small enzymic activity and polymerase specificity could lead the system to the most accurate protein synthesis, as far as permitted by transitions to systems with higher accuracy.

  8. The role of mitochondria in carbon catabolite repression in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussmann, P; Zimmermann, F K

    1976-10-18

    The role of mitochondria in carbon catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated by comparing normal, respiratory competent (RHO) strains with their mitochondrially inherited, respiratory deficient mutant derivatives (rho). Formation of maltase and invertase was used as an indicator system for the effect of carbon catabolite repression on carbon catabolic reactions. Fermentation rates for glucose, maltose and sucrose were the same in RHO and rho strains. Specific activities of maltase and invertase were usually higher in the rho-mutants. A very pronounced difference in invertase levels was observed when cells were grown on maltose; rho-mutants had around 30 times more invertase than their RHO parent strains. The fact that rho-mutants were much less sensitive to carbon catabolite repression of invertase synthesis than their RHO parents was used to search for the mitochondrial factor(s) or function(s) involved in carbon catabolite repression. A possible metabolic influence of mitochondria on this system of regulation was tested after growth of RHO strains under anaerobic conditions (no respiration nor oxidative phosphorylation), in the presence of KCN (respiration inhibited), dinitrophenol (uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation) and of both inhibitors anaerobic conditions and dinitrophenol had no effect on the extent of invertase repression. KCN reduced the degree of repression but not to the level found in rho-mutants. A combination of both inhibitors gave the same results as with KCN alone. Erythromycin and chloramphenicol were used as specific inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Erythromycin prevented the formation of mitochondrial respiratory systems but did not induce rho-mutants under the conditions used. However, repression of invertase was as strong as in the absence of the inhibitor. Chloramphenicol led only to a slight reduction of the respiratory systems and did not affect invertase levels. A combination of both

  9. The Hsp70 homolog Ssb and the 14-3-3 protein Bmh1 jointly regulate transcription of glucose repressed genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübscher, Volker; Mudholkar, Kaivalya; Chiabudini, Marco; Fitzke, Edith; Wölfle, Tina; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Drepper, Friedel; Warscheid, Bettina; Rospert, Sabine

    2016-07-08

    Chaperones of the Hsp70 family interact with a multitude of newly synthesized polypeptides and prevent their aggregation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the Hsp70 homolog Ssb suffer from pleiotropic defects, among others a defect in glucose-repression. The highly conserved heterotrimeric kinase SNF1/AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is required for the release from glucose-repression in yeast and is a key regulator of energy balance also in mammalian cells. When glucose is available the phosphatase Glc7 keeps SNF1 in its inactive, dephosphorylated state. Dephosphorylation depends on Reg1, which mediates targeting of Glc7 to its substrate SNF1. Here we show that the defect in glucose-repression in the absence of Ssb is due to the ability of the chaperone to bridge between the SNF1 and Glc7 complexes. Ssb performs this post-translational function in concert with the 14-3-3 protein Bmh, to which Ssb binds via its very C-terminus. Raising the intracellular concentration of Ssb or Bmh enabled Glc7 to dephosphorylate SNF1 even in the absence of Reg1. By that Ssb and Bmh efficiently suppressed transcriptional deregulation of Δreg1 cells. The findings reveal that Ssb and Bmh comprise a new chaperone module, which is involved in the fine tuning of a phosphorylation-dependent switch between respiration and fermentation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis, Import, and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrion is arguably the most complex organelle in the budding yeast cell cytoplasm. It is essential for viability as well as respiratory growth. Its innermost aqueous compartment, the matrix, is bounded by the highly structured inner membrane, which in turn is bounded by the intermembrane space and the outer membrane. Approximately 1000 proteins are present in these organelles, of which eight major constituents are coded and synthesized in the matrix. The import of mitochondrial proteins synthesized in the cytoplasm, and their direction to the correct soluble compartments, correct membranes, and correct membrane surfaces/topologies, involves multiple pathways and macromolecular machines. The targeting of some, but not all, cytoplasmically synthesized mitochondrial proteins begins with translation of messenger RNAs localized to the organelle. Most proteins then pass through the translocase of the outer membrane to the intermembrane space, where divergent pathways sort them to the outer membrane, inner membrane, and matrix or trap them in the intermembrane space. Roughly 25% of mitochondrial proteins participate in maintenance or expression of the organellar genome at the inner surface of the inner membrane, providing 7 membrane proteins whose synthesis nucleates the assembly of three respiratory complexes. PMID:23212899

  11. Protein intake does not increase vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis during cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulston, CJ; Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of protein ingestion on leg protein turnover and vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis during bicycle exercise and recovery. METHODS: Eight healthy males participated in two experiments in which they ingested either a carbohydrate solution...... sampling, and blood flow measurements. Muscle protein synthesis was calculated from the incorporation of l-[ring-C6]phenylalanine into protein. RESULTS: Consuming protein during exercise increased leg protein synthesis and decreased net leg protein breakdown; however, protein ingestion did not increase...... protein synthesis within the highly active vastus lateralis muscle (0.029%·h(-1), ± 0.004%·h(-1), and 0.030%·h(-1), ± 0.003%·h(-1), in CHO and CHO + P, respectively; P = 0.88). In contrast, consuming protein, during exercise and recovery, increased postexercise vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis...

  12. Amino acid starvation has opposite effects on mitochondrial and cytosolic protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Johnson

    Full Text Available Amino acids are essential for cell growth and proliferation for they can serve as precursors of protein synthesis, be remodelled for nucleotide and fat biosynthesis, or be burnt as fuel. Mitochondria are energy producing organelles that additionally play a central role in amino acid homeostasis. One might expect mitochondrial metabolism to be geared towards the production and preservation of amino acids when cells are deprived of an exogenous supply. On the contrary, we find that human cells respond to amino acid starvation by upregulating the amino acid-consuming processes of respiration, protein synthesis, and amino acid catabolism in the mitochondria. The increased utilization of these nutrients in the organelle is not driven primarily by energy demand, as it occurs when glucose is plentiful. Instead it is proposed that the changes in the mitochondrial metabolism complement the repression of cytosolic protein synthesis to restrict cell growth and proliferation when amino acids are limiting. Therefore, stimulating mitochondrial function might offer a means of inhibiting nutrient-demanding anabolism that drives cellular proliferation.

  13. β3 integrin promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in MDA-MB-231 through repression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Madhumathy G.; Desai, Krisha; Prabhu, Jyothi S.; Hari, P.S.; Remacle, Jose; Sridhar, T.S., E-mail: tssridhar@sjri.res.in

    2016-08-01

    Resistance to anthracycline based chemotherapy is a major limitation in the treatment of breast cancer, particularly of the triple negative sub-type that lacks targeted therapies. Resistance that arises from tumor-stromal interaction facilitated by integrins provides the possibility of targeted disruption. In the present study, we demonstrate that integrin β3 signaling inhibits apoptosis induced by a DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agent, epirubicin, in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Drug efflux based mechanisms do not contribute to this effect. We show that integrin β3 employs the PI3K-Akt and the MAPK pathway for enabling cell survival and proliferation. Further, our results indicate that integrin β3 helps inhibit epirubicin induced cytotoxicity by repression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD, thus promoting an anti-apoptotic response. Myristoylated RGT peptide and a monoclonal antibody against integrin β3 brought about a reversal of this effect and chemosensitized the cells. These results identify β3 integrin signaling via repression of BAD as an important survival pathway used by breast cancer cells to evade chemotherapy induced stress. - Highlights: • Integrin β3 signaling promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in breast cancer cells. • Integrin β3 promotes cell survival and proliferation in drug treated cells through the PI3K and MAPK pathways. • Integrin signaling helps evade drug induced cytotoxicity by repression of pro-apoptotic molecule; BAD.

  14. Glucose de-repression by yeast AMP-activated protein kinase SNF1 is controlled via at least two independent steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salcedo, Raúl; Lubitz, Timo; Beltran, Gemma; Elbing, Karin; Tian, Ye; Frey, Simone; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Krantz, Marcus; Klipp, Edda; Hohmann, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, controls energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells but little is known about the mechanisms governing the dynamics of its activation/deactivation. The yeast AMPK, SNF1, is activated in response to glucose depletion and mediates glucose de-repression by inactivating the transcriptional repressor Mig1. Here we show that overexpression of the Snf1-activating kinase Sak1 results, in the presence of glucose, in constitutive Snf1 activation without alleviating glucose repression. Co-overexpression of the regulatory subunit Reg1 of the Glc-Reg1 phosphatase complex partly restores glucose regulation of Snf1. We generated a set of 24 kinetic mathematical models based on dynamic data of Snf1 pathway activation and deactivation. The models that reproduced our experimental observations best featured (a) glucose regulation of both Snf1 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, (b) determination of the Mig1 phosphorylation status in the absence of glucose by Snf1 activity only and (c) a regulatory step directing active Snf1 to Mig1 under glucose limitation. Hence it appears that glucose de-repression via Snf1-Mig1 is regulated by glucose via at least two independent steps: the control of activation of the Snf1 kinase and directing active Snf1 to inactivating its target Mig1. © 2014 FEBS.

  15. Msx1 Homeodomain Protein Represses the αGSU and GnRH Receptor Genes During Gonadotrope Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin; Cherrington, Brian D.; Meadows, Jason D.; Witham, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple homeodomain transcription factors are crucial for pituitary organogenesis and cellular differentiation. A homeodomain repressor, Msx1, is expressed from the ventral aspect of the developing anterior pituitary and implicated in gonadotrope differentiation. Here, we find that Msx1 represses transcription of lineage-specific pituitary genes such as the common α-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) promoters in the mouse gonadotrope-derived cell lines, αT3-1 and LβT2. Repression of the mouse GnRHR promoter by Msx1 is mediated through a consensus-binding motif in the downstream activin regulatory element (DARE). Truncation and mutation analyses of the human αGSU promoter map Msx1 repression to a site at −114, located at the junctional regulatory element (JRE). Dlx activators are closely related to the Msx repressors, acting through the same elements, and Dlx3 and Dlx2 act as transcriptional activators for GnRHR and αGSU, respectively. Small interfering RNA knockdown of Msx1 in αT3-1 cells increases endogenous αGSU and GnRHR mRNA expression. Msx1 gene expression reaches its maximal expression at the rostral edge at e13.5. The subsequent decline in Msx1 expression specifically coincides with the onset of expression of both αGSU and GnRHR. The expression levels of both αGSU and GnRHR in Msx1-null mice at e18.5 are higher compared with wild type, further confirming a role for Msx1 in the repression of αGSU and GnRHR. In summary, Msx1 functions as a negative regulator early in pituitary development by repressing the gonadotrope-specific αGSU and GnRHR genes, but a temporal decline in Msx1 expression alleviates this repression allowing induction of GnRHR and αGSU, thus serving to time the onset of gonadotrope-specific gene program. PMID:23371388

  16. Msx1 homeodomain protein represses the αGSU and GnRH receptor genes during gonadotrope development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin; Cherrington, Brian D; Meadows, Jason D; Witham, Emily A; Mellon, Pamela L

    2013-03-01

    Multiple homeodomain transcription factors are crucial for pituitary organogenesis and cellular differentiation. A homeodomain repressor, Msx1, is expressed from the ventral aspect of the developing anterior pituitary and implicated in gonadotrope differentiation. Here, we find that Msx1 represses transcription of lineage-specific pituitary genes such as the common α-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) promoters in the mouse gonadotrope-derived cell lines, αT3-1 and LβT2. Repression of the mouse GnRHR promoter by Msx1 is mediated through a consensus-binding motif in the downstream activin regulatory element (DARE). Truncation and mutation analyses of the human αGSU promoter map Msx1 repression to a site at -114, located at the junctional regulatory element (JRE). Dlx activators are closely related to the Msx repressors, acting through the same elements, and Dlx3 and Dlx2 act as transcriptional activators for GnRHR and αGSU, respectively. Small interfering RNA knockdown of Msx1 in αT3-1 cells increases endogenous αGSU and GnRHR mRNA expression. Msx1 gene expression reaches its maximal expression at the rostral edge at e13.5. The subsequent decline in Msx1 expression specifically coincides with the onset of expression of both αGSU and GnRHR. The expression levels of both αGSU and GnRHR in Msx1-null mice at e18.5 are higher compared with wild type, further confirming a role for Msx1 in the repression of αGSU and GnRHR. In summary, Msx1 functions as a negative regulator early in pituitary development by repressing the gonadotrope-specific αGSU and GnRHR genes, but a temporal decline in Msx1 expression alleviates this repression allowing induction of GnRHR and αGSU, thus serving to time the onset of gonadotrope-specific gene program.

  17. Repressive Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk

    2017-01-01

    Consultation of organised interests and others when drafting laws is often seen as an important source of both input and output legitimacy. But whereas the input side of the equation stems from the very process of listening to societal actors, output legitimacy can only be strengthened if consult......Consultation of organised interests and others when drafting laws is often seen as an important source of both input and output legitimacy. But whereas the input side of the equation stems from the very process of listening to societal actors, output legitimacy can only be strengthened...... a substantial effect on the substance of laws – shows that there is a great difference in the amenability of different branches of government but that, in general, authorities do not listen much despite a very strong consultation institution and tradition. A suggestion for an explanation could be pointing...... to an administrative culture of repressive tolerance of organised interests: authorities listen but only reacts in a very limited sense. This bears in it the risk of jeopardising the knowledge transfer from societal actors to administrative ditto thus harming the consultation institutions’ potential for strengthening...

  18. The Arabidopsis GAGA-Binding Factor BASIC PENTACYSTEINE6 Recruits the POLYCOMB-REPRESSIVE COMPLEX1 Component LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 to GAGA DNA Motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Andreas; Brand, Luise H; Peter, Sébastien; Simoncello, Nathalie; Kilian, Joachim; Harter, Klaus; Gaudin, Valérie; Wanke, Dierk

    2015-07-01

    Polycomb-repressive complexes (PRCs) play key roles in development by repressing a large number of genes involved in various functions. Much, however, remains to be discovered about PRC-silencing mechanisms as well as their targeting to specific genomic regions. Besides other mechanisms, GAGA-binding factors in animals can guide PRC members in a sequence-specific manner to Polycomb-responsive DNA elements. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GAGA-motif binding factor protein basic pentacysteine6 (BPC6) interacts with like heterochromatin protein1 (LHP1), a PRC1 component, and associates with vernalization2 (VRN2), a PRC2 component, in vivo. By using a modified DNA-protein interaction enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, we could show that BPC6 was required and sufficient to recruit LHP1 to GAGA motif-containing DNA probes in vitro. We also found that LHP1 interacts with VRN2 and, therefore, can function as a possible scaffold between BPC6 and VRN2. The lhp1-4 bpc4 bpc6 triple mutant displayed a pleiotropic phenotype, extreme dwarfism and early flowering, which disclosed synergistic functions of LHP1 and group II plant BPC members. Transcriptome analyses supported this synergy and suggested a possible function in the concerted repression of homeotic genes, probably through histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation. Hence, our findings suggest striking similarities between animal and plant GAGA-binding factors in the recruitment of PRC1 and PRC2 components to Polycomb-responsive DNA element-like GAGA motifs, which must have evolved through convergent evolution. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  20. Understanding Protein Synthesis: An Interactive Card Game Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alison; Peat, Mary; Franklin, Sue

    2005-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a complex process and students find it difficult to understand. This article describes an interactive discussion "game" used by first year biology students at the University of Sydney. The students, in small groups, use the game in which the processes of protein synthesis are actioned by the students during a…

  1. Protective effect of a non specific inflammation on bone marrow protein synthesis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Roques, P.; Court, L.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma radiations exert a decrease in mouse bone marrow total protein synthesis. A non-specific inflammatory process induced with polyacrylamide microbeads stimulates spleen and marrow protein synthesis and protects the medullar protein synthesis in irradiated mice [fr

  2. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, C.; Hardy, S.; Kleinman, R.E.; Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; Lembcke, J.; Young, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of protein nutritional status during re-feeding children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) can be difficult. We hypothesized that the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of albumin, as measured by stable isotope technology, would serve as an objective measure of changes in protein status, and that increased amounts of dietary protein (15% of calories vs 10%) would lead to higher FSR. Eight (5 M, 3 F) Peruvian children (mean age 15.5 months) with PEM (mean wt/ht Z score = -2.47) were studied twice during the first week of admission by the flooding dose technique. An intravenous dose of 13 C-leucine (57 mg/kg, 99 atom%) was given and serial blood samples were drawn in intervals up to 90 minutes in order to measure isotopic enrichment of serum albumin. Mean FSR for the day one infusion was 6.11% (range 3.07 - 15.37%) (n = 8). Mean FSR for the follow-up infusion was 7.67% (range 3.63 - 12.37%) (n = 5), and FSR was no different between the two dietary groups. FSR on day one was inversely related to age (r = -0.62), and one patient with Shigella dysentery had the highest FSR (15.9%). We conclude that FSR of albumin can be measured successfully in children with PEM using the flooding dose technique, and that assessment of albumin FSR holds promise to help determine protein requirements and status during recovery from PEM. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, C; Hardy, S; Kleinman, R E [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); [Harvard Medical School, Children` s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States). Combined Program in Pediatric GI and Nutrition; Lembcke, J [Av. La Universidad S/N - La Molina, Lima (Peru). Inst. de Investigacion Nutricional; Young, V R [Massachussetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Lab. of Human Nutrition

    1997-12-31

    Assessment of protein nutritional status during re-feeding children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) can be difficult. We hypothesized that the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of albumin, as measured by stable isotope technology, would serve as an objective measure of changes in protein status, and that increased amounts of dietary protein (15% of calories vs 10%) would lead to higher FSR. Eight (5 M, 3 F) Peruvian children (mean age 15.5 months) with PEM (mean wt/ht Z score = -2.47) were studied twice during the first week of admission by the flooding dose technique. An intravenous dose of {sup 13}C-leucine (57 mg/kg, 99 atom%) was given and serial blood samples were drawn in intervals up to 90 minutes in order to measure isotopic enrichment of serum albumin. Mean FSR for the day one infusion was 6.11% (range 3.07 - 15.37%) (n = 8). Mean FSR for the follow-up infusion was 7.67% (range 3.63 - 12.37%) (n = 5), and FSR was no different between the two dietary groups. FSR on day one was inversely related to age (r = -0.62), and one patient with Shigella dysentery had the highest FSR (15.9%). We conclude that FSR of albumin can be measured successfully in children with PEM using the flooding dose technique, and that assessment of albumin FSR holds promise to help determine protein requirements and status during recovery from PEM. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  4. Inhibition of chloroplast protein synthesis following light chilling of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, J.; Ort, D.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study we looked at the effects of a high light chill on the pulsed incorporation of 35 S methionine into total, stromal, and thylakoid proteins of lightly abraded leaflets of 18-21 day old tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ca. Floramerica) seedlings. Based on gel fluorographic patterns of marker proteins that are indicative of the net rates of chloroplast and cytoplasmic protein synthesis, there appears to be a nearly complete cessation of chloroplastic protein synthesis. No labeling is observed for either the stromal large subunit of Rubisco or the thylakoid-bound alpha and beta subunits of the coupling factor. One notable exception, however, appears to be the 32 kd, D1 protein. Its net synthetic rate remains high despite the inhibition of other chloroplastically synthesized proteins. The small subunit of Rubicso, LHCP-II, as well as several other proteins of known cytoplasmic origin, were still synthesized, albeit, at lower than control rates. Light chilling of chill-insensitive spinach produced a similar, but less dramatic differential behavior between chloroplastic and cytoplasmic protein synthesis. It appears, in chilling-sensitive plants, that chloroplast protein synthesis exhibits a greater sensitivity to low temperature inhibition than does cytoplasmic protein synthesis and that recovery of chloroplast protein synthesis may play an important role in recovery of photosynthetic activity following chilling

  5. Roles of Fe-S proteins: from cofactor synthesis to iron homeostasis to protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Debkumar; Dancis, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Fe-S cluster assembly is an essential process for all cells. Impairment of Fe-S cluster assembly creates diseases in diverse and surprising ways. In one scenario, the loss of function of lipoic acid synthase, an enzyme with Fe-S cluster cofactor in mitochondria, impairs activity of various lipoamide-dependent enzymes with drastic consequences for metabolism. In a second scenario, the heme biosynthetic pathway in red cell precursors is specifically targeted, and iron homeostasis is perturbed, but lipoic acid synthesis is unaffected. In a third scenario, tRNA modifications arising from action of the cysteine desulfurase and/or Fe-S cluster proteins are lost, which may lead to impaired protein synthesis. These defects can then result in cancer, neurologic dysfunction or type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Suppression of matrix protein synthesis in endothelial cells by herpes simplex virus is not dependent on viral protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefalides, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The synthesis of matrix proteins by human endothelial cells (EC) in vitro was studied before and at various times after infection with Herpes Simplex virus Type 1 (HSV-1) or 2 (HSV-2). Monolayers of EC were either mock-infected or infected with virus for 1 hr at a multiplicity infection (MOI) of 5 to 20 at 37 0 C. Control and infected cultures were pulse-labeled for 1 or 2 hrs with either [ 14 C]proline or [ 35 S]methionine. Synthesis of labeled matrix proteins was determined by SDS-gel electrophoresis. Suppression of synthesis of fibronectin, Type IV collagen and thrombospondin began as early as 2 hrs and became almost complete by 10 hrs post-infection. The degree of suppression varied with the protein and the virus dose. Suppression of Type IV collagen occurred first followed by that of fibronectin and then thrombospondin. Infection of EC with UV irradiated HSV-1 or HSV-2 resulted in suppression of host-cell protein synthesis as well as viral protein synthesis. Infection with intact virus in the presence of actinomycin-D resulted in suppression of both host-cell and viral protein synthesis. The data indicate that infection of EC with HSV leads to suppression of matrix protein synthesis which does not depend on viral protein synthesis

  7. Nitrogen control of photosynthetic protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.W.

    1986-09-01

    Plant growth is severely affected by impaired photosynthesis resulting from nitrogen deficiency. The molecular aspects of this effect are being studied in the green alga Chlamydomonas grown in continuous culture systems. Photosynthetic membranes of nitrogen-limited cells are dramatically depleted in chlorophylls, xanthophylls and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes. In contrast, enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and electron transport chain complexes are reduced only 40 to 65% on a per cell basis comparison with nitrogen-sufficient cultures. From analyses of mRNA levels by in vitro translation and hybridization analyses with cloned DNA sequences for photosynthetic proteins, we have found there are rather minor effects of nitrogen deficiency on nuclear or chloroplast gene transcription. Maturation of a transcript of the nuclear-encoded small subunit of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase is inhibited in nitrogen-deficient cells and causes accumulation of large amounts of mRNA precursors. Most of the effects of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthetic proteins appear to result from posttranscriptional regulatory processes: light-harvesting protein synthesis may be sustained but their import into chloroplasts or translocation to photosynthetic membranes is impaired. Nitrogen-deficient cells lack violaxanthin, a pigment that is essential for the structure, function and biogenesis of the major antenna complexes. The absence of this pigment may be a causative factor for the deficiency of light harvesting complexes. Finally, the accumulation of massive amounts of starch and triglycerides in nitrogen-limited cells indicate there are some genes whose maximal expression is dependent upon nitrogen-limiting conditions. 10 refs.

  8. Cell-specific monitoring of protein synthesis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Kourtis

    Full Text Available Analysis of general and specific protein synthesis provides important information, relevant to cellular physiology and function. However, existing methodologies, involving metabolic labelling by incorporation of radioactive amino acids into nascent polypeptides, cannot be applied to monitor protein synthesis in specific cells or tissues, in live specimens. We have developed a novel approach for monitoring protein synthesis in specific cells or tissues, in vivo. Fluorescent reporter proteins such as GFP are expressed in specific cells and tissues of interest or throughout animals using appropriate promoters. Protein synthesis rates are assessed by following fluorescence recovery after partial photobleaching of the fluorophore at targeted sites. We evaluate the method by examining protein synthesis rates in diverse cell types of live, wild type or mRNA translation-defective Caenorhabditis elegans animals. Because it is non-invasive, our approach allows monitoring of protein synthesis in single cells or tissues with intrinsically different protein synthesis rates. Furthermore, it can be readily implemented in other organisms or cell culture systems.

  9. Mitochondrial protein acetylation mediates nutrient sensing of mitochondrial protein synthesis and mitonuclear protein balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Antonella; Hofer, Annette; Tundo, Federica; Wenz, Tina

    2014-11-01

    Changes in nutrient supply require global metabolic reprogramming to optimize the utilization of the nutrients. Mitochondria as a central component of the cellular metabolism play a key role in this adaptive process. Since mitochondria harbor their own genome, which encodes essential enzymes, mitochondrial protein synthesis is a determinant of metabolic adaptation. While regulation of cytoplasmic protein synthesis in response to metabolic challenges has been studied in great detail, mechanisms which adapt mitochondrial translation in response to metabolic challenges remain elusive. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial acetylation status controlled by Sirt3 and its proposed opponent GCN5L1 is an important regulator of the metabolic adaptation of mitochondrial translation. Moreover, both proteins modulate regulators of cytoplasmic protein synthesis as well as the mitonuclear protein balance making Sirt3 and GCN5L1 key players in synchronizing mitochondrial and cytoplasmic translation. Our results thereby highlight regulation of mitochondrial translation as a novel component in the cellular nutrient sensing scheme and identify mitochondrial acetylation as a new regulatory principle for the metabolic competence of mitochondrial protein synthesis. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Inclusion of Cocoa as a Dietary Supplement Represses Expression of Inflammatory Proteins in Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus in Response to Chronic Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Ryan J.; Denson, Jennifer E.; Durham, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Scope Central sensitization is implicated in the pathology of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and other types of orofacial pain. We investigated the effects of dietary cocoa on expression of proteins involved in the development of central sensitization in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) in response to inflammatory stimulation of trigeminal nerves. Methods and results Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or an isocaloric diet consisting of 10% cocoa powder 14 days prior to bilateral injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the temporomandibular joint to promote prolonged activation of trigeminal ganglion neurons and glia. While dietary cocoa stimulated basal expression of GLAST and MKP-1 when compared to animals on a normal diet, cocoa suppressed basal calcitonin gene-related peptide levels in the STN. CFA-stimulated levels of protein kinase A, P2X3, P-p38, GFAP, and OX-42, whose elevated levels in the STN are implicated in central sensitization, were repressed to near control levels in animals on a cocoa enriched diet. Similarly, dietary cocoa repressed CFA-stimulated inflammatory cytokine expression. Conclusion Based on our findings, we speculate that cocoa enriched diets could be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for TMD and other chronic orofacial pain conditions. PMID:23576361

  11. Protein degradation and protein synthesis in long-term memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Jarome

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term memory (LTM formation requires transient changes in the activity of intracellular signaling cascades that are thought to regulate new gene transcription and de novo protein synthesis in the brain. Consistent with this, protein synthesis inhibitors impair LTM for a variety of behavioral tasks when infused into the brain around the time of training or following memory retrieval, suggesting that protein synthesis is a critical step in LTM storage in the brain. However, evidence suggests that protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system may also be a critical regulator of LTM formation and stability following retrieval. This requirement for increased protein degradation has been shown in the same brain regions in which protein synthesis is required for LTM storage. Additionally, increases in the phosphorylation of proteins involved in translational control parallel increases in protein polyubiquitination and the increased demand for protein degradation is regulated by intracellular signaling molecules thought to regulate protein synthesis during LTM formation. In some cases inhibiting proteasome activity can rescue memory impairments that result from pharmacological blockade of protein synthesis, suggesting that protein degradation may control the requirement for protein synthesis during the memory storage process. Results such as these suggest that protein degradation and synthesis are both critical for LTM formation and may interact to properly consolidate and store memories in the brain. Here, we review the evidence implicating protein synthesis and degradation in LTM storage and highlight the areas of overlap between these two opposing processes. We also discuss evidence suggesting these two processes may interact to properly form and store memories. LTM storage likely requires a coordinated regulation between protein degradation and synthesis at multiple sites in the mammalian brain.

  12. Synthesis of acid-soluble spore proteins by Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Leventhal, J M; Chambliss, G H

    1982-01-01

    The major acid-soluble spore proteins (ASSPs) of Bacillus subtilis were detected by immunoprecipitation of radioactively labeled in vitro- and in vivo-synthesized proteins. ASSP synthesis in vivo began 2 h after the initiation of sporulation (t2) and reached its maximum rate at t7. This corresponded to the time of synthesis of mRNA that stimulated the maximum rate of ASSP synthesis in vitro. Under the set of conditions used in these experiments, protease synthesis began near t0, alkaline phos...

  13. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Eva C; Herndon, David N; Lee, Jinhyung; Porter, Craig; Cotter, Matthew; Suman, Oscar E; Sidossis, Labros S; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2015-04-01

    Following a major burn, skeletal muscle protein synthesis rate increases but is often insufficient to compensate for massively elevated muscle protein breakdown rates. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that muscle protein synthesis rate would be chronically elevated in severely burned children. The objectives of this study were to characterize muscle protein synthesis rate of burned children over a period of 24 months after injury and to identify predictors that influence this response. A total of 87 children with 40% or greater total body surface area (TBSA) burned were included. Patients participated in stable isotope infusion studies at 1, 2, and approximately 4 weeks after burn and at 6, 12, and 24 months after injury to determine skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate. Generalized estimating equations with log link normal distribution were applied to account for clustering of patients and control for patient characteristics. Patients (8 ± 6 years) had large (62, 51-72% TBSA) and deep (47% ± 21% TBSA third degree) burns. Muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was elevated throughout the first 12 months after burn compared with established values from healthy young adults. Muscle protein fractional synthesis rate was lower in boys, in children older than 3 years, and when burns were greater than 80% TBSA. Muscle protein synthesis is elevated for at least 1 year after injury, suggesting that greater muscle protein turnover is a component of the long-term pathophysiologic response to burn trauma. Muscle protein synthesis is highly affected by sex, age, and burn size in severely burned children. These findings may explain the divergence in net protein balance and lean body mass in different populations of burn patients. Prognostic study, level III.

  14. Dendritic protein synthesis in the normal and diseased brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, Sharon A.; Bassell, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic activity is a spatially-limited process that requires a precise, yet dynamic, complement of proteins within the synaptic micro-domain. The maintenance and regulation of these synaptic proteins is regulated, in part, by local mRNA translation in dendrites. Protein synthesis within the postsynaptic compartment allows neurons tight spatial and temporal control of synaptic protein expression, which is critical for proper functioning of synapses and neural circuits. In this review, we discuss the identity of proteins synthesized within dendrites, the receptor-mediated mechanisms regulating their synthesis, and the possible roles for these locally synthesized proteins. We also explore how our current understanding of dendritic protein synthesis in the hippocampus can be applied to new brain regions and to understanding the pathological mechanisms underlying varied neurological diseases. PMID:23262237

  15. Stimulation of protein synthesis by internalized insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.S.; Sykes, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies showed that microinjected insulin stimulates transcription and translation in Stage 4 Xenopus oocytes by acting at nuclear and cytoplasmic sites. The present report is concerned with the question of whether hormone, internalized from an external medium, can act on those sites to alter cell function. Both intracellular accumulation of undegraded 125I-insulin and insulin-stimulated 35S-methionine incorporation into oocyte protein were measured. Anti-insulin antiserum and purified anti-insulin antibody were microinjected into the cytoplasm of insulin-exposed cells to determine if insulin derived from the medium acted through internal sites. In cells exposed for 2 h to 7 or 70 nM external insulin, methionine incorporation was stimulated, but intracellular hormone accumulation was minimal and microinjected antibody was without effect. In cells exposed for 24 h, methionine incorporation again increased, but now accumulation of undegraded, intracellular hormone was substantial (2.6 and 25.3 fmol with 7 and 70 nM, respectively), and microinjected anti-insulin antibody significantly reduced the insulin-stimulated component of incorporation; basal incorporation was not affected. For cells exposed to 70 nM insulin for 24 h, inhibition of the insulin-stimulated component was maximal at 39%. Thus under those conditions, about 40% of insulin's effects were mediated by the internal sites. Together, the data show that inhibition of insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by microinjected antibody was associated with the intracellular accumulation of insulin. They indicate that when oocytes are exposed to external insulin, hormone eventually gains access to intracellular sites of action and through these stimulates translation. Control of translation appears to be shared between the internal sites and the surface receptor

  16. Protein synthesis in the presence of carbamoyl-amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, L.M.; Stephens, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The role of exogenous carbamoyl-amino acids in protein biosynthesis has been examined in vitro using a mixture of 14 C amino acids to label newly synthesized protein in human reticulocyte rich (8-18%) peripheral blood. Aliquots of the radiolabeled newly synthesized protein were acid precipitated, washed and the radioactivity measured. Control samples which measured the synthetic capacity of the blood were aliquots of the same blood- 14 C amino acid mixture without added carbamoyl-amino acids or cyanate. N-carbamoyl leucine alone or a 3 N-carbamoyl amino acid mixture of leucine, aspartic acid and tyrosine were used to test inhibition of protein synthesis. Also carbamoyl-amino acids were synthesized using cyanate and Pierce hydrolyzate amino acid calibration standards or the mixture of 14 C amino acids. In this system the carbamoylation of endogenous amino acids by cyanate up to 8 μmol/100μl showed a linear decrease in protein synthesis with time which is inversely related to the cyanate concentration. At greater cyanate levels the inhibition of protein synthesis reaches a plateau. When N-carbamoyl-amino acids only are present there is about a 50% decrease in the 14 C protein at 30 minutes as compared to the synthesis of 14 C protein without N-carbamoyl-amino acids. These results indicate that the presence of carbamoyl-amino acids interferes with protein synthesis

  17. Intracellular high mobility group B1 protein (HMGB1) represses HIV-1 LTR-directed transcription in a promoter- and cell-specific manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghavi, Mojgan H.; Nowak, Piotr; Andersson, Jan; Soennerborg, Anders; Yang Huan; Tracey, Kevin J.; Vahlne, Anders

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether the high mobility group B 1 (HMGB1), an abundant nuclear protein in all mammalian cells, affects HIV-1 transcription. Intracellular expression of human HMGB1 repressed HIV-1 gene expression in epithelial cells. This inhibitory effect of HMGB1 was caused by repression of long terminal repeat (LTR)-mediated transcription. Other viral promoters/enhancers, including simian virus 40 or cytomegalovirus, were not inhibited by HMGB1. In addition, HMGB1 inhibition of HIV-1 subtype C expression was dependent on the number of NFκB sites in the LTR region. The inhibitory effect of HMGB1 on viral gene expression observed in HeLa cells was confirmed by an upregulation of viral replication in the presence of antisense HMGB1 in monocytic cells. In contrast to what was found in HeLa cells and monocytic cells, endogenous HMGB1 expression did not affect HIV-1 replication in unstimulated Jurkat cells. Thus, intracellular HMGB1 affects HIV-1 LTR-directed transcription in a promoter- and cell-specific manner

  18. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential a...

  19. Viral protein synthesis in cowpea mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottier, P.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) multiplication in cowpea mesophyll protoplasts were studied. The detection and characterization of proteins whose synthesis is induced or is stimulated upon virus infection was performed with the aid of radioactive labelling. (Auth.)

  20. Abscisic acid affects transcription of chloroplast genes via protein phosphatase 2C-dependent activation of nuclear genes: repression by guanosine-3'-5'-bisdiphosphate and activation by sigma factor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamburenko, Maria V; Zubo, Yan O; Börner, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) represses the transcriptional activity of chloroplast genes (determined by run-on assays), with the exception of psbD and a few other genes in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings and mature rosette leaves. Abscisic acid does not influence chloroplast transcription in the mutant lines abi1-1 and abi2-1 with constitutive protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) activity, suggesting that ABA affects chloroplast gene activity by binding to the pyrabactin resistance (PYR)/PYR1-like or regulatory component of ABA receptor protein family (PYR/PYL/RCAR) and signaling via PP2Cs and sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinases 2 (SnRK2s). Further we show by quantitative PCR that ABA enhances the transcript levels of RSH2, RSH3, PTF1 and SIG5. RelA/SpoT homolog 2 (RSH2) and RSH3 are known to synthesize guanosine-3'-5'-bisdiphosphate (ppGpp), an inhibitor of the plastid-gene-encoded chloroplast RNA polymerase. We propose, therefore, that ABA leads to an inhibition of chloroplast gene expression via stimulation of ppGpp synthesis. On the other hand, sigma factor 5 (SIG5) and plastid transcription factor 1 (PTF1) are known to be necessary for the transcription of psbD from a specific light- and stress-induced promoter (the blue light responsive promoter, BLRP). We demonstrate that ABA activates the psbD gene by stimulation of transcription initiation at BLRP. Taken together, our data suggest that ABA affects the transcription of chloroplast genes by a PP2C-dependent activation of nuclear genes encoding proteins involved in chloroplast transcription. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-03

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a "fast" protein and caseinate (CA) as a "slow" protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP.

  2. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  3. Release of the repressive activity of rice DELLA protein SLR1 by gibberellin does not require SLR1 degradation in the gid2 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Hirano, Ko; Hasegawa, Yasuko; Kitano, Hidemi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2008-09-01

    The rice (Oryza sativa) DELLA protein SLR1 acts as a repressor of gibberellin (GA) signaling. GA perception by GID1 causes SLR1 protein degradation involving the F-box protein GID2; this triggers GA-associated responses such as shoot elongation and seed germination. In GA-insensitive and GA biosynthesis mutants, SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1) accumulates to high levels, and the severity of dwarfism is usually correlated with the level of SLR1 accumulation. An exception is the GA-insensitive F-box mutant gid2, which shows milder dwarfism than mutants such as gid1 and cps even though it accumulates higher levels of SLR1. The level of SLR1 protein in gid2 was decreased by loss of GID1 function or treatment with a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, and dwarfism was enhanced. Conversely, overproduction of GID1 or treatment with GA(3) increased the SLR1 level in gid2 and reduced dwarfism. These results indicate that derepression of SLR1 repressive activity can be accomplished by GA and GID1 alone and does not require F-box (GID2) function. Evidence for GA signaling without GID2 was also provided by the expression behavior of GA-regulated genes such as GA-20oxidase1, GID1, and SLR1 in the gid2 mutant. Based on these observations, we propose a model for the release of GA suppression that does not require DELLA protein degradation.

  4. N-acetylcysteine stimulates protein synthesis in enterocytes independently of glutathione synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dan; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Lei; Long, Minhui; Hu, Shengdi; Mei, Huimin; Yan, Liqiong; Hu, Chien-An Andy; Wu, Guoyao

    2016-02-01

    Dietary supplementation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been reported to improve intestinal health and treat gastrointestinal diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. According to previous reports, NAC was thought to exert its effect through glutathione synthesis. This study tested the hypothesis that NAC enhances enterocyte growth and protein synthesis independently of cellular glutathione synthesis. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells were cultured for 3 days in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium containing 0 or 100 μM NAC. To determine a possible role for GSH (the reduced form of glutathione) in mediating the effect of NAC on cell growth and protein synthesis, additional experiments were conducted using culture medium containing 100 μM GSH, 100 μM GSH ethyl ester (GSHee), diethylmaleate (a GSH-depletion agent; 10 μM), or a GSH-synthesis inhibitor (buthionine sulfoximine, BSO; 20 μM). NAC increased cell proliferation, GSH concentration, and protein synthesis, while inhibiting proteolysis. GSHee enhanced cell proliferation and GSH concentration without affecting protein synthesis but inhibited proteolysis. Conversely, BSO or diethylmaleate reduced cell proliferation and GSH concentration without affecting protein synthesis, while promoting protein degradation. At the signaling level, NAC augmented the protein abundance of total mTOR, phosphorylated mTOR, and phosphorylated 70S6 kinase as well as mRNA levels for mTOR and p70S6 kinase in IPEC-1 cells. Collectively, these results indicate that NAC upregulates expression of mTOR signaling proteins to stimulate protein synthesis in enterocytes independently of GSH generation. Our findings provide a hitherto unrecognized biochemical mechanism for beneficial effects of NAC in intestinal cells.

  5. Protein chemical synthesis by α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, Thibault J; Murar, Claudia E; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2016-06-01

    Total chemical synthesis of proteins allows researchers to custom design proteins without the complex molecular biology that is required to insert non-natural amino acids or the biocontamination that arises from methods relying on overexpression in cells. We describe a detailed procedure for the chemical synthesis of proteins with the α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA ligation), using (S)-5-oxaproline (Opr) as a key building block. This protocol comprises two main parts: (i) the synthesis of peptide fragments by standard fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) chemistry and (ii) the KAHA ligation between fragments containing Opr and a C-terminal peptide α-ketoacid. This procedure provides an alternative to native chemical ligation (NCL) that could be valuable for the synthesis of proteins, particularly targets that do not contain cysteine residues. The ligation conditions-acidic DMSO/H2O or N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP)/H2O-are ideally suited for solubilizing peptide segments, including many hydrophobic examples. The utility and efficiency of the protocol is demonstrated by the total chemical synthesis of the mature betatrophin (also called ANGPTL8), a 177-residue protein that contains no cysteine residues. With this protocol, the total synthesis of the betatrophin protein has been achieved in around 35 working days on a multimilligram scale.

  6. Translational Repression in Malaria Sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turque, Oliver; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Thomas; Zhang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α) leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1), is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host. PMID:28357358

  7. Translational repression in malaria sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Turque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals. It is caused by the parasitic protozoan, Plasmodium. Sporozoites, the infectious form of malaria parasites, are quiescent when they remain in the salivary glands of the Anopheles mosquito until transmission into a mammalian host. Metamorphosis of the dormant sporozoite to its active form in the liver stage requires transcriptional and translational regulations. Here, we summarize recent advances in the translational repression of gene expression in the malaria sporozoite. In sporozoites, many mRNAs that are required for liver stage development are translationally repressed. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2α (eIF2α leads to a global translational repression in sporozoites. The eIF2α kinase, known as Upregulated in Infectious Sporozoite 1 (UIS1, is dominant in the sporozoite. The eIF2α phosphatase, UIS2, is translationally repressed by the Pumilio protein Puf2. This translational repression is alleviated when sporozoites are delivered into the mammalian host.

  8. Cell-free protein synthesis: applications in proteomics and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue

    2008-01-01

    Protein production is one of the key steps in biotechnology and functional proteomics. Expression of proteins in heterologous hosts (such as in E. coli) is generally lengthy and costly. Cell-free protein synthesis is thus emerging as an attractive alternative. In addition to the simplicity and speed for protein production, cell-free expression allows generation of functional proteins that are difficult to produce by in vivo systems. Recent exploitation of cell-free systems enables novel development of technologies for rapid discovery of proteins with desirable properties from very large libraries. This article reviews the recent development in cell-free systems and their application in the large scale protein analysis.

  9. The origin of polynucleotide-directed protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, Leslie E.

    1989-01-01

    If protein synthesis evolved in an RNA world it was probably preceded by simpler processes by means of which interaction with amino acids conferred selective advantage on replicating RNA molecules. It is suggested that at first the simple attachment of amino acids to the 2'(3') termini of RNA templates favored initiation of replication at the end of the template rather than at internal positions. The second stage in the evolution of protein synthesis would probably have been the association of pairs of charged RNA adaptors in such a way as to favor noncoded formation of peptides. Only after this process had become efficient could coded synthesis have begun.

  10. The Polycomb Group Protein L3MBTL1 Represses a SMAD5-Mediated Hematopoietic Transcriptional Program in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Perna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulation of key transcriptional programs is a critical mechanism that controls hematopoietic development, and, thus, aberrant expression patterns or mutations in epigenetic regulators occur frequently in hematologic malignancies. We demonstrate that the Polycomb protein L3MBTL1, which is monoallelically deleted in 20q- myeloid malignancies, represses the ability of stem cells to drive hematopoietic-specific transcriptional programs by regulating the expression of SMAD5 and impairing its recruitment to target regulatory regions. Indeed, knockdown of L3MBTL1 promotes the development of hematopoiesis and impairs neural cell fate in human pluripotent stem cells. We also found a role for L3MBTL1 in regulating SMAD5 target gene expression in mature hematopoietic cell populations, thereby affecting erythroid differentiation. Taken together, we have identified epigenetic priming of hematopoietic-specific transcriptional networks, which may assist in the development of therapeutic approaches for patients with anemia.

  11. Protein synthesis in x-irradiated rabbit lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garadi, R.; Foltyn, A.R.; Giblin, F.J.; Reddy, V.N.

    1984-01-01

    The present study deals with the incorporation of 35 S methionine into lens crystallins as a function of time after x-irradiation. Crystallin synthesis is first affected approximately 4 weeks following x-irradiation. This coincides with the time period at which the ratio of the two cations in the lens is affected, as shown in earlier studies. A greater decrease in 35 S-methionine incorporation into crystallins is observed between 5-7 weeks following x-irradiation in good agreement with a cation imbalance at these time intervals. These studies also revealed for the first time that the change in cation distribution can affect not only crystallin synthesis, but also the synthesis of certain polypeptides of lens membranes. No alteration in protein synthesis could be detected in lens epithelium even after 7 weeks following irradiation. In addition to the effect of Na+ and K+ levels on protein synthesis, an impaired transport of amino acids into the x-rayed lens was also found to be a factor in the observed reduction in synthesis of the crystallin, cytoskeletal and membrane proteins of the fiber cells. It is concluded that Na+/K+ ratio as well as the availability of amino acids in the lens are important factors in protein synthesis of x-ray cataracts

  12. Adeno-associated virus rep protein synthesis during productive infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redemann, B.E.; Mendelson, E.; Carter, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) Rep proteins mediate viral DNA replication and can regulate expression from AAV genes. The authors studied the kinetics of synthesis of the four Rep proteins, Rep78, Rep68, Rep52, and Rep40, during infection of human 293 or KB cells with AAV and helper adenovirus by in vivo labeling with [ 35 S]methionine, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting analyses. Rep78 and Rep52 were readily detected concomitantly with detection of viral monomer duplex DNA replicating about 10 to 12 h after infection, and Rep68 and Rep40 were detected 2 h later. Rep78 and Rep52 were more abundant than Rep68 and Rep40 owing to a higher synthesis rate throughout the infectious cycle. In some experiments, very low levels of Rep78 could be detected as early as 4 h after infection. The synthesis rates of Rep proteins were maximal between 14 and 24 h and then decreased later after infection. Isotopic pulse-chase experiments showed that each of the Rep proteins was synthesized independently and was stable for at least 15 h. A slower-migrating, modified form of Rep78 was identified late after infection. AAV capsid protein synthesis was detected at 10 to 12 h after infection and also exhibited synthesis kinetics similar to those of the Rep proteins. AAV DNA replication showed at least two clearly defined stages. Bulk duplex replicating DNA accumulation began around 10 to 12 h and reached a maximum level at about 20 h when Rep and capsid protein synthesis was maximal. Progeny single-stranded DNA accumulation began about 12 to 13 h, but most of this DNA accumulated after 24 h when Rep and capsid protein synthesis had decreased

  13. Protein synthesis and sublethal damage repair in synchronized CHO cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yezzi, M.J.; Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that the split dose survival response to x-rays of asynchronous CHO-TSH1 cells is reduced if the cells are held at 40 0 C,a temperature that inhibits protein synthesis, for 2 hours before the first dose and during a 2-hour interval between doses. In conjunction with the survival experiments on asynchronous cells, the authors also examined the DNA rejoining ability in split dose studies with and without inhibition of protein synthesis. The results of these experiments suggest that inhibition of protein synthesis affects a pool of proteins that are necessary for the correct expression of the DNA, although they do not appear to be involved in rejoining DNA breaks. They have extended this work to the study of cells synchronized in G1 phase (2 hour post-mitosis) and S phase (10 hour post-mitosis). Autoradiographic analyses, using 3H-TdR pulse labeling, demonstrated that a delay in the progression of each synchronized cell population occurs after inhibition of protein synthesis. Data are reported on the effects of inhibition of protein synthesis on the ability of G1 and S phase cells to repair sublethal damage

  14. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Following a major burn, muscle protein synthesis rate increases but in most patients, this response is not sufficient to compensate the also elevated protein breakdown. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that skeletal muscle prot...

  15. Nuclear transport factor directs localization of protein synthesis during mitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaart, Geert van den; Meinema, Anne C.; Krasnikov, Viktor; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M.; Poolman, Bert

    Export of messenger RNA from the transcription site in the nucleus and mRNA targeting to the translation site in the cytoplasm are key regulatory processes in protein synthesis. In yeast, the mRNA-binding proteins Nab2p and Nab4p/Hrp1p accompany transcripts to their translation site, where the

  16. In situ synthesis of protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Stoevesandt, Oda; Taussig, Michael J

    2008-02-01

    In situ or on-chip protein array methods use cell free expression systems to produce proteins directly onto an immobilising surface from co-distributed or pre-arrayed DNA or RNA, enabling protein arrays to be created on demand. These methods address three issues in protein array technology: (i) efficient protein expression and availability, (ii) functional protein immobilisation and purification in a single step and (iii) protein on-chip stability over time. By simultaneously expressing and immobilising many proteins in parallel on the chip surface, the laborious and often costly processes of DNA cloning, expression and separate protein purification are avoided. Recently employed methods reviewed are PISA (protein in situ array) and NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array) from DNA and puromycin-mediated immobilisation from mRNA.

  17. Retinal protein synthesis in relationship to environmental lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollyfield, J.G.; Anderson, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using Xenopus laevis juvenile toads was conducted to probe the relationship between environmental lighting and protein synthesis in the retina. Autoradiographic and biochemical analyses indicated that measurable changes in protein synthesis did not occur during a normal diurnal cycle when animals were conditioned to 12 hr light followed by 12 hr darkness each day (LD). However, when retinas from animals maintained in continuous darkness (DD) for 3 days were incubated with 3 H-leucine, there was a 40% reduction in the specific radioactivity of total retinal proteins compared with retinas from animals maintained in continuous light (LL) for 3 days or on the LD cycle. Retinas from DD animals injected with 3 H-leucine showed a 48% reduction in protein synthesis compared with retinas of LL animals. In autoradiographs of retinas from in vivo or in vitro experiments, grain counts were 40% lower in the total retinas of the DD animals compared with retinas of LL animals. This reduction occurred throughout the entire retina and was not restricted to any specific cell type. There was also a 35% reduction in the rate of radioactive band displacement in the rod outer segments of DD animals, although the percent of 3 H-leucine incorporated into opsin relative to total retinal protein was the same for both groups. We conclude from these studies that fluctuations in the rate of protein synthesis during the normal light-dark cycle are not detectable. However, major differences in protein synthesis are evident when animals are stressed with continuous darkness for several days. This effect is not restricted to any particular retinal layer but occurs throughout the entire retina. Moreover, prolonged darkness affects protein synthesis in extraocular tissues as well

  18. Acute myotube protein synthesis regulation by IL-6-related cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Durstine, J Larry; Koh, Ho-Jin; Carver, Wayne E; Frizzell, Norma; Carson, James A

    2017-11-01

    IL-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), members of the IL-6 family of cytokines, play recognized paradoxical roles in skeletal muscle mass regulation, being associated with both growth and atrophy. Overload or muscle contractions can induce a transient increase in muscle IL-6 and LIF expression, which has a regulatory role in muscle hypertrophy. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in this regulation have not been completely identified. The induction of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent myofiber protein synthesis is an established regulator of muscle hypertrophy, but the involvement of the IL-6 family of cytokines in this process is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of IL-6 and LIF administration on mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes. The role of glycoprotein 130 (gp130) receptor and downstream signaling pathways, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mTORC1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), was investigated by administration of specific siRNA or pharmaceutical inhibitors. Acute administration of IL-6 and LIF induced protein synthesis, which was accompanied by STAT3 activation, Akt-mTORC1 activation, and increased SOCS3 expression. This induction of protein synthesis was blocked by both gp130 siRNA knockdown and Akt inhibition. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition or Akt downstream mTORC1 signaling inhibition did not fully block the IL-6 or LIF induction of protein synthesis. SOCS3 siRNA knockdown increased basal protein synthesis and extended the duration of the protein synthesis induction by IL-6 and LIF. These results demonstrate that either IL-6 or LIF can activate gp130-Akt signaling axis, which induces protein synthesis via mTORC1-independent mechanisms in cultured myotubes. However, IL-6- or LIF-induced SOCS3 negatively regulates the activation of myotube protein synthesis. Copyright © 2017 the

  19. Glucose Synthesis in a Protein-Based Artificial Photosynthesis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Yuan, Wenqiao; Zhou, Jack; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to understand glucose synthesis of a protein-based artificial photosynthesis system affected by operating conditions, including the concentrations of reactants, reaction temperature, and illumination. Results from non-vesicle-based glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP) and glucose synthesis showed that the initial concentrations of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), lighting source, and temperature significantly affected glucose synthesis. Higher initial concentrations of RuBP and ATP significantly enhanced GAP synthesis, which was linearly correlated to glucose synthesis, confirming the proper functions of all catalyzing enzymes in the system. White fluorescent light inhibited artificial photosynthesis and reduced glucose synthesis by 79.2 % compared to in the dark. The reaction temperature of 40 °C was optimum, whereas lower or higher temperature reduced glucose synthesis. Glucose synthesis in the vesicle-based artificial photosynthesis system reconstituted with bacteriorhodopsin, F 0 F 1 ATP synthase, and polydimethylsiloxane-methyloxazoline-polydimethylsiloxane triblock copolymer was successfully demonstrated. This system efficiently utilized light-induced ATP to drive glucose synthesis, and 5.2 μg ml(-1) glucose was synthesized in 0.78-ml reaction buffer in 7 h. Light-dependent reactions were found to be the bottleneck of the studied artificial photosynthesis system.

  20. Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelso, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. [ 32 P] labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development

  1. Protein synthesis rates in atrophied gastrocnemius muscles after limb immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, K. R.; Seider, M. J.; Booth, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    Noting that protein synthesis declines in the gastrocnemius 6 hr after immobilization, the study sought to detect an increase of protein synthesis when the limb was freed, and to examine the effects of exercise on the rate of increase. Rats were used as subjects, with their hind legs in plaster of Paris in plantar flexion to eliminate strain on the gastrocnemius. Periods of immobilization were varied and samples of blood from the muscle were taken to track protein synthesis rates for different groups in immobilization and exercise regimens (running and weightlifting). Synthesis rates declined 3.6% during time in the cast, then increased 6.3%/day after the casts were removed. Both running and weightlifting were found to increase the fractional rate of protein formation in the gastrocnemius muscle when compared with contralateral muscles that were not exercised and were used as controls, suggesting that the mechanism controlling protein synthesis in skeletal muscles is rapidly responsive to changes in muscular contractile activity.

  2. Rewiring protein synthesis: From natural to synthetic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongqiang; Evans, Christopher R; Ling, Jiqiang

    2017-11-01

    The protein synthesis machinery uses 22 natural amino acids as building blocks that faithfully decode the genetic information. Such fidelity is controlled at multiple steps and can be compromised in nature and in the laboratory to rewire protein synthesis with natural and synthetic amino acids. This review summarizes the major quality control mechanisms during protein synthesis, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, elongation factors, and the ribosome. We will discuss evolution and engineering of such components that allow incorporation of natural and synthetic amino acids at positions that deviate from the standard genetic code. The protein synthesis machinery is highly selective, yet not fixed, for the correct amino acids that match the mRNA codons. Ambiguous translation of a codon with multiple amino acids or complete reassignment of a codon with a synthetic amino acid diversifies the proteome. Expanding the genetic code with synthetic amino acids through rewiring protein synthesis has broad applications in synthetic biology and chemical biology. Biochemical, structural, and genetic studies of the translational quality control mechanisms are not only crucial to understand the physiological role of translational fidelity and evolution of the genetic code, but also enable us to better design biological parts to expand the proteomes of synthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d3-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control) was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise. PMID:27367725

  4. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d3-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise.

  5. E2F/Rb Family Proteins Mediate Interferon Induced Repression of Adenovirus Immediate Early Transcription to Promote Persistent Viral Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueting Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs are cytokines that have pleiotropic effects and play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. IFNs have broad antiviral properties and function by different mechanisms. IFNs fail to inhibit wild-type Adenovirus (Ad replication in established cancer cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IFNs on Ad replication in normal human cells. Our data demonstrate that both IFNα and IFNγ blocked wild-type Ad5 replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC and TERT-immortalized normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF-TERT. IFNs inhibited the replication of divergent adenoviruses. The inhibition of Ad5 replication by IFNα and IFNγ is the consequence of repression of transcription of the E1A immediate early gene product. Both IFNα and IFNγ impede the association of the transactivator GABP with the E1A enhancer region during the early phase of infection. The repression of E1A expression by IFNs requires a conserved E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer, and IFNs increased the enrichment of the E2F-associated pocket proteins, Rb and p107, at the E1A enhancer in vivo. PD0332991 (Pabociclib, a specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, dephosphoryles pocket proteins to promote their interaction with E2Fs and inhibited wild-type Ad5 replication dependent on the conserved E2F binding site. Consistent with this result, expression of the small E1A oncoprotein, which abrogates E2F/pocket protein interactions, rescued Ad replication in the presence of IFNα or IFNγ. Finally, we established a persistent Ad infection model in vitro and demonstrated that IFNγ suppresses productive Ad replication in a manner dependent on the E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer. This is the first study that probes the molecular basis of persistent adenovirus infection and reveals a novel mechanism by which adenoviruses utilize IFN signaling to suppress lytic virus replication and to promote persistent infection.

  6. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic ''petite'' mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heude, M.; Chanet, R.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of mitochondrial proteins in the repair of UV-induced lethal and cytoplasmic genetic damages was studied in dark liquid-held exponential and stationary phase yeast cells. This was performed by using the specific inhibitors, erythromycin and chloramphenicol. It was shown that mitochondrial proteins are involved in the recovery and survival of UV-treated exponential phase cells, but not in the recovery of stationary phase cells. Mitochondrial proteins are partly implicated in the mechanisms leading to the restoration of the e + genotype in UV-irradiated dark liquid-held exponential phase cells. Here again, in stationary phase cells, mitochondrial enzymes do not seem to participate in the negative liquid-holding process for the e - induction, as shown by inhibiting mitochondrial protein synthesis of both mitochondrial and nuclear protein synthesis. When cells are grown in glycerol, the response after dark liquid-holding of the UV-treated cells in the different growth stages are similar to that found for glucose-grown cells. In other words, the fate of cytoplasmic genetic damage in particular is not correlated with the repressed or derepressed state of the mitochondria

  7. Characterisation of a novel immunophilin-like gene, repressed by low doses of ionising radiation; identification of interacting proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The effects of low dose ionising radiation on the DIR1 gene and subsequent cellular effects have been well established (Robson et al., 1997, 1999, 2000). In this study, we aimed to further characterise the DIR1 gene and protein, using bioinformatic and experimental approaches. Analysis of the 5' upstream region of the DIR1 gene, revealed a promising putative promoter-containing region of 309bp, located 1034bp upstream of the open reading frame. The analysis also revealed 88 transcription factor binding sites (TFBS), some of which have been shown to have their activity modulated following exposure to both ionising and UV radiation. The original transcription start site (TSS), was demonstrated to be incorrect by using primer extension analysis, which located the start site at 229bp upstream of the DIR1 gene. However, subsequent bioinformatic analysis revealed two TSS sites at 86 and 220bp respectively, which correlated with the true TSS. The DIR1 protein was shown to differ from the immunophilin proteins in terms of structure and active sites, with the exception of the highly conserved TPR domains. The protein was shown to contain putative protein kinase C (PKC) and caesin kinase II (CKII) sites. However, no band was observed for the DIR1 protein with a PKC assay and the CKII assay demonstrated a 21409.5 count per minute (cpm) for DIR1 in comparison to a 617384.07 cpm for the positive control, therefore demonstrating that the DIR1 protein is not phosphorylated by either enzyme. The expressed His-tagged DIR1 protein was shown by western blot to be insoluble and also demonstrated a 21.9KDa increase in molecular weight at 60KDa in comparison to the predicted size of 38.2KDa. Expression of a HA-tagged DIR1 protein in mammalian L132 cells revealed that the protein was localised to the cytoplasm with aggregation around the nuclear membrane. Subsequent immunocytochemistry results following 0.2 Gray (Gy) irradiation demonstrated that the protein translocated to the nucleus

  8. Paraquat induces extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in A549 cells by induction of DR5 and repression of anti-apoptotic proteins, DDX3 and GSK3 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaichoti, Sasiphen; Visitnonthachai, Daranee; Ngamsiri, Pronrumpa; Niyomchan, Apichaya; Tsogtbayar, Oyu; Wisessaowapak, Churaibhon; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2017-08-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a bipyridyl derivative herbicide known to cause lung toxicity partly through induction of apoptosis. Here we demonstrated that PQ caused apoptosis in A549 cells. PQ increased cleavage of caspase-8 and Bid, indicating caspase-8 activation and truncated Bid, the two key mediators of extrinsic apoptosis. Additionally, PQ treatment caused an increase in DR5 (death receptor-5) and caspase-8 interaction, indicating formation of DISC (death-inducing signaling complex). These results indicate that PQ induces apoptosis through extrinsic pathway in A549 cells. Moreover, PQ drastically increased DR5 expression and membrane localization. Furthermore, PQ caused prominent concentration dependent reductions of DDX3 (the DEAD box protein-3) and GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) which can associate with DR5 and prevent DISC formation. Additionally, PQ decreased DR5-DDX3 interaction, suggesting a reduction of DDX3/GSK3 anti-apoptotic complex. Inhibition of GSK3, which is known to promote extrinsic apoptosis by its pharmacological inhibitor, BIO accentuated PQ-induced apoptosis. Moreover, GSK3 inhibition caused a further decrease in PQ-reduced DR5-DDX3 interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that PQ may induce extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in A549 cells through upregulation of DR5 and repression of anti-apoptotic proteins, DDX3/GSK3 leading to reduction of anti-apoptotic complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins using an insect cell-free protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Ezure, Toru; Ando, Eiji; Nishimura, Osamu; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Tsunasawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitination is one of the most significant posttranslational modifications (PTMs). To evaluate the ability of an insect cell-free protein synthesis system to carry out ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation to in vitro translated proteins, poly-Ub chain formation was studied in an insect cell-free protein synthesis system. Poly-Ub was generated in the presence of Ub aldehyde (UA), a de-ubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor. In vitro ubiquitination of the p53 tumor suppressor protein was also analyzed, and p53 was poly-ubiquitinated when Ub, UA, and Mdm2, an E3 Ub ligase (E3) for p53, were added to the in vitro reaction mixture. These results suggest that the insect cell-free protein synthesis system contains enzymatic activities capable of carrying out ubiquitination. CBB-detectable ubiquitinated p53 was easily purified from the insect cell-free protein synthesis system, allowing analysis of the Ub-conjugated proteins by mass spectrometry (MS). Lys 305 of p53 was identified as one of the Ub acceptor sites using this strategy. Thus, we conclude that the insect cell-free protein synthesis system is a powerful tool for studying various PTMs of eukaryotic proteins including ubiqutination presented here.

  10. The relationship between protein synthesis and protein degradation in object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furini, Cristiane R G; Myskiw, Jociane de C; Schmidt, Bianca E; Zinn, Carolina G; Peixoto, Patricia B; Pereira, Luiza D; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-11-01

    For decades there has been a consensus that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for long-term memory. A second round of protein synthesis has been described for both extinction and reconsolidation following an unreinforced test session. Recently, it was shown that consolidation and reconsolidation depend not only on protein synthesis but also on protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a major mechanism responsible for protein turnover. However, the involvement of UPS on consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory remains unknown. Here we investigate in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus the involvement of UPS-mediated protein degradation in consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Animals with infusion cannulae stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, were exposed to an object recognition task. The UPS inhibitor β-Lactacystin did not affect the consolidation and the reconsolidation of object recognition memory at doses known to affect other forms of memory (inhibitory avoidance, spatial learning in a water maze) while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin impaired the consolidation and the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory. However, β-Lactacystin was able to reverse the impairment caused by anisomycin on the reconsolidation process in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a direct link between protein degradation and protein synthesis during the reconsolidation of the object recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Selective memory generalization by spatial patterning of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Cian; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2014-04-16

    Protein synthesis is crucial for both persistent synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. De novo protein expression can be restricted to specific neurons within a population, and to specific dendrites within a single neuron. Despite its ubiquity, the functional benefits of spatial protein regulation for learning are unknown. We used computational modeling to study this problem. We found that spatially patterned protein synthesis can enable selective consolidation of some memories but forgetting of others, even for simultaneous events that are represented by the same neural population. Key factors regulating selectivity include the functional clustering of synapses on dendrites, and the sparsity and overlap of neural activity patterns at the circuit level. Based on these findings, we proposed a two-step model for selective memory generalization during REM and slow-wave sleep. The pattern-matching framework we propose may be broadly applicable to spatial protein signaling throughout cortex and hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MicroRNA-27a-mediated repression of cysteine-rich secretory protein 2 translation in asthenoteratozoospermic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hao Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine-rich secretory protein 2 (CRISP2 is an important protein in spermatozoa that plays roles in modulating sperm flagellar motility, the acrosome reaction, and gamete fusion. Spermatozoa lacking CRISP2 exhibit low sperm motility and abnormal morphology. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the reduction of CRISP2 in asthenoteratozoospermia (ATZ remain unknown. In this study, low expression of CRISP2 protein rather than its mRNA was observed in the ejaculated spermatozoa from ATZ patients as compared with normozoospermic males. Subsequently, bioinformatic prediction, luciferase reporter assays, and microRNA-27a (miR-27a transfection experiments revealed that miR-27a specifically targets CRISP2 by binding to its 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR, suppressing CRISP2 expression posttranscriptionally. Further evidence was provided by the clinical observation of high miR-27a expression in ejaculated spermatozoa from ATZ patients and a negative correlation between miR-27a expression and CRISP2 protein expression. Finally, a retrospective follow-up study supported that both high miR-27a expression and low CRISP2 protein expression were associated with low progressive sperm motility, abnormal morphology, and infertility. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism responsible for reduced CRISP2 expression in ATZ, which may offer a potential therapeutic target for treating male infertility, or for male contraception.

  13. Correlation of repressed transcription of alpha-tocopherol transfer protein with serum alpha-tocopherol during hepatocarcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, C. G.; Hoek, F. J.; Groenink, M.; Reitsma, P. H.; van Deventer, S. J.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Using a subtraction-enhanced display technique, we identified a rodent alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) cDNA which exhibited markedly lower messenger RNA (mRNA) amounts in rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than in healthy controls. Several lines of evidence have substantiated that

  14. Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I-Mediated Repression of PDZ-LIM Domain-Containing Protein 2 Involves DNA Methylation But Independent of the Viral Oncoprotein Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengrong Yan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL. Our recent studies have shown that one important mechanism of HTLV-I-Mediated tumorigenesis is through PDZ-LIM domain-containing protein 2 (PDLIM2 repression, although the involved mechanism remains unknown. Here, we further report that HTLV-I-Mediated PDLIM2 repression was a pathophysiological event and the PDLIM2 repression involved DNA methylation. Whereas DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3b but not 3a were upregulated in HTLV-I-transformed T cells, the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC restored PDLIM2 expression and induced death of these malignant cells. Notably, the PDLIM2 repression was independent of the viral regulatory protein Tax because neither short-term induction nor long-term stable expression of Tax could downregulate PDLIM2 expression. These studies provide important insights into PDLIM2 regulation, HTLV-I leukemogenicity, long latency, and cancer health disparities. Given the efficient antitumor activity with no obvious toxicity of 5-aza-dC, these studies also suggest potential therapeutic strategies for ATL.

  15. Rheb Inhibits Protein Synthesis by Activating the PERK-eIF2α Signaling Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Tyagi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheb, a ubiquitous small GTPase, is well known to bind and activate mTOR, which augments protein synthesis. Inhibition of protein synthesis is also physiologically regulated. Thus, with cell stress, the unfolded protein response system leads to phosphorylation of the initiation factor eIF2α and arrest of protein synthesis. We now demonstrate a major role for Rheb in inhibiting protein synthesis by enhancing the phosphorylation of eIF2α by protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK. Interplay between the stimulatory and inhibitory roles of Rheb may enable cells to modulate protein synthesis in response to varying environmental stresses.

  16. Synthesis of acid-soluble spore proteins by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, J M; Chambliss, G H

    1982-12-01

    The major acid-soluble spore proteins (ASSPs) of Bacillus subtilis were detected by immunoprecipitation of radioactively labeled in vitro- and in vivo-synthesized proteins. ASSP synthesis in vivo began 2 h after the initiation of sporulation (t2) and reached its maximum rate at t7. This corresponded to the time of synthesis of mRNA that stimulated the maximum rate of ASSP synthesis in vitro. Under the set of conditions used in these experiments, protease synthesis began near t0, alkaline phosphatase synthesis began at about t2, and refractile spores were first observed between t7 and t8. In vivo- and in vitro-synthesized ASSPs comigrated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Their molecular weights were 4,600 (alpha and beta) and 11,000 (gamma). The average half-life of the ASSP messages was 11 min when either rifampin (10 micrograms/ml) or actinomycin D (1 microgram/ml) was used to inhibit RNA synthesis.

  17. SSX2 is a novel DNA-binding protein that antagonizes polycomb group body formation and gene repression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Relster, Mette Marie; Greve, Katrine Buch Viden

    2014-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes regulate cellular identity through epigenetic programming of chromatin. Here, we show that SSX2, a germline-specific protein ectopically expressed in melanoma and other types of human cancers, is a chromatin-associated protein that antagonizes BMI1 and EZH2 PcG body...... formation and derepresses PcG target genes. SSX2 further negatively regulates the level of the PcG-associated histone mark H3K27me3 in melanoma cells, and there is a clear inverse correlation between SSX2/3 expression and H3K27me3 in spermatogenesis. However, SSX2 does not affect the overall composition...

  18. A Chimeric Protein PTEN-L-p53 Enters U251 Cells to Repress Proliferation and Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; An, Yang; Wang, Fengling; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Chu; Xin, Junfang; Duan, Yongjian; Zhao, Xiaofang; Fang, Na; Ji, Shaoping

    2018-05-23

    PTEN, a well-known tumor suppressor, dephosphorylates PIP3 and inhibits AKT activity. A translational variant of PTEN has been identified and termed PTEN-Long (PTEN-L). The additional 173 amino acids (PTEN-L leader) at the N-terminal constitute a potential signal peptide. Differing from canonical PTEN, PTEN-L is secreted into the extracellular fluid and re-enters recipient cells, playing the similar roles as PTEN in vivo and in vitro. This character confers the PTEN-L a therapeutic ability via directly protein delivering instead of traditional DNA and RNA vector options. In the present study, we employed PTEN-L leader to assemble a fusion protein, PTEN-L-p53, inosculated with the transcriptional regulator TP53, which is another powerful tumor suppressor. We overexpressed PTEN-L-p53 in HEK293T cells and detected it in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. Subsequently, we found that PTEN-L-p53 was secreted outside of the cells and detected in the culture media by immunoblotting. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PTEN-L-p53 freely entered the cells and suppressed the viability of U251cells (p53 R273H , a cell line with p53 R273H-mutation). PTEN-L-p53 is composed of endogenous protein/peptide bearing low immunogenicity, and only the junction region between PTEN-L leader and p53 can act as a new immune epitope. Accordingly, this fusion protein can potentially be used as a therapeutic option for TP53-abnormality cancers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Tinkering with Translation: Protein Synthesis in Virus-Infected Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Derek; Mathews, Michael B.; Mohr, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites, and their replication requires host cell functions. Although the size, composition, complexity, and functions encoded by their genomes are remarkably diverse, all viruses rely absolutely on the protein synthesis machinery of their host cells. Lacking their own translational apparatus, they must recruit cellular ribosomes in order to translate viral mRNAs and produce the protein products required for their replication. In addition, there are other constraints on viral protein production. Crucially, host innate defenses and stress responses capable of inactivating the translation machinery must be effectively neutralized. Furthermore, the limited coding capacity of the viral genome needs to be used optimally. These demands have resulted in complex interactions between virus and host that exploit ostensibly virus-specific mechanisms and, at the same time, illuminate the functioning of the cellular protein synthesis apparatus. PMID:23209131

  20. Synthesis and thermotolerance of heat shock proteins in Campylobacter jejuni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.K.; Kim, H.O.; Lee, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The heat shock responses of Campylobacter jejuni were studied by examination of their survival rates and synthesis of heat shock proteins. When C. jejuni cells were treated at the sublethal temperatures of 48C° for 30 minutes, most of the cells maintained their viabilities and synthesized the heat shock proteins of 90, 73, and 66 kD in molecular weight. By the method of two-dimensional electrophoresis, the heat shock proteins of C. jejuni were identified to be Hsp90, Hsp73, and Hsp66. During the heat shock at 48C°, the heat shock proteins were induced from about 5 minutes after the heat shock treatment. Their synthesis was continued upto 30 minutes, but remarkably retarded after 50 minutes. When C. jejune cells were heat shocked at 51C° for 30 minutes, the survival rates of the cells were decreased by about 10 3 fold and synthesis of heat shock proteins and normal proteins was also generally retarded. The cells exposed to 55C° for 30 minutes died off by more than 10 5 cells and the new protein synthesis was not observed. But when C. jejuni cells were heat-shocked at the sublethal temperature of 48C° for 15 to 20 minutes and then were exposed at the lethal temperature of 55C° for 30 minutes, their viabilities were higher than those exposed at 55C° for 30 minutes without pre-heat shock at 48C°. Therefore, the heat shock proteins synthesized at the sublethal temperature of 48C° in C. jejuni were thought to be responsible for thermotolerance. However, when C. jejuni cells heat-shocked at various ranges of sublethal and lethal temperatures were placed back to the optimum temperature of 42C°, the multiplication patterns of the cells pretreated at different temperatures were not much different each other

  1. Inhibition of tumor cell growth by Sigma1 ligand mediated translational repression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Felix J.; Schrock, Joel M.; Spino, Christina M.; Marino, Jacqueline C.; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sigma1 ligand treatment mediates decrease in tumor cell mass. ► Identification of a Sigma1 ligand with reversible translational repressor actions. ► Demonstration of a role for Sigma1 in cellular protein synthesis. -- Abstract: Treatment with sigma1 receptor (Sigma1) ligands can inhibit cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. However, the cellular pathways engaged in response to Sigma1 ligand treatment that contribute to these outcomes remain largely undefined. Here, we show that treatment with putative antagonists of Sigma1 decreases cell mass. This effect corresponds with repressed cap-dependent translation initiation in multiple breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Sigma1 antagonist treatment suppresses phosphorylation of translational regulator proteins p70S6K, S6, and 4E-BP1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Sigma1 also results in translational repression, consistent with the effects of antagonist treatment. Sigma1 antagonist mediated translational repression and decreased cell size are both reversible. Together, these data reveal a role for Sigma1 in tumor cell protein synthesis, and demonstrate that small molecule Sigma1 ligands can be used as modulators of protein translation.

  2. Sulfur in human nutrition - effects beyond protein synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gertjan Schaafsma

    2008-01-01

    That sulfur is essential to humans is based on the requirement of S-animo acids for normal growth and maintenance of nitrogen balance and not on the optimization of metabolic proccesses involving the synthesis of non-protein sulphur containing compounds. This paper reviews the significance of sulfur

  3. Problem-Solving Test: The Mechanism of Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: protein synthesis, ribosomes, amino acids, peptides, peptide bond, polypeptide chain, N- and C-terminus, hemoglobin, [alpha]- and [beta]-globin chains, radioactive labeling, [[to the third power]H] and [[to the fourteenth power]C]leucine, cytosol, differential centrifugation, density…

  4. Determination of human muscle protein fractional synthesis rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornø, Andreas; Hulston, Carl J; van Hall, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, different MS methods for the determination of human muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) using [ring-(13)C6 ]phenylalanine as a tracer were evaluated. Because the turnover rate of human skeletal muscle is slow, only minute quantities of the stable isotopically...

  5. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Blocks Consolidation of an Acrobatic Motor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelin-Lang, Alain; Dichgans, Johannes; Schulz, Jorg B.; Luft, Andreas R.; Buitrago, Manuel M.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether motor skill learning depends on de novo protein synthesis, adult rats were trained in an acrobatic locomotor task (accelerating rotarod) for 7 d. Animals were systemically injected with cycloheximide (CHX, 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h before sessions 1 and 2 or sessions 2 and 3. Control rats received vehicle injections before…

  6. Intestinal DNA concentration and protein synthesis in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance, protein synthesis and mucosal DNA in small intestine of Leghorn hens may be affected by low quality feedstuff. An experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Main factors included diets containing 20 and 40 % barley and black and blue strains of leghorn ...

  7. Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Useni , Alain

    enzyme (EFE) on the in vitro gas production (GP) and ANKOM digestion systems on the mixture of milled ... determine the EFE effect on the DM, CP and NDF digestion of a mixture of lucerne hay and wheat straw .... and the microbial protein synthesis (MPS) measured as purine derivates (RNA equivalent in µg/DM g) on.

  8. Protein arginine methyltransferase 7-mediated microRNA-221 repression maintains Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 levels in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsai-Yu; Lee, Sung-Hun; Dhar, Shilpa S; Lee, Min Gyu

    2018-03-16

    The stemness maintenance of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) requires pluripotency transcription factors, including Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. We have previously reported that protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7), an epigenetic modifier, is an essential pluripotency factor that maintains the stemness of mouse ESCs, at least in part, by down-regulating the expression of the anti-stemness microRNA (miRNA) miR-24-2. To gain greater insight into the molecular basis underlying PRMT7-mediated maintenance of mouse ESC stemness, we searched for new PRMT7-down-regulated anti-stemness miRNAs. Here, we show that miR-221 gene-encoded miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p are anti-stemness miRNAs whose expression levels in mouse ESCs are directly repressed by PRMT7. Notably, both miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p targeted the 3' untranslated regions of mRNA transcripts of the major pluripotency factors Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2 to antagonize mouse ESC stemness. Moreover, miR-221-5p silenced also the expression of its own transcriptional repressor PRMT7. Transfection of miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p mimics induced spontaneous differentiation of mouse ESCs. CRISPR-mediated deletion of the miR-221 gene, as well as specific antisense inhibitors of miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p, inhibited the spontaneous differentiation of PRMT7-depleted mouse ESCs. Taken together, these findings reveal that the PRMT7-mediated repression of miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p expression plays a critical role in maintaining mouse ESC stemness. Our results also establish miR-221-3p and miR-221-5p as anti-stemness miRNAs that target Oct4 , Nanog , and Sox2 mRNAs in mouse ESCs. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Interaction of the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) with DNA and RNA causes repression of transcription and translation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LB; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1994-01-01

    and severely affects DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. We have analysed the interaction of Hc1 with single-stranded DNA and RNA by Southwestern and Northwestern blotting. Furthermore, we show that purified, recombinant Hc1 dramatically affects transcription and translation in vitro at physiologically relevant......The 18 kDa histone H1-like protein from Chlamydia trachomatis (Hc1) is a DNA-binding protein thought to be involved in condensation of the chlamydial chromosome during late stages in the chlamydial life cycle. Expression of Hc1 in Escherichia coli results in an overall relaxation of DNA...... concentrations. These results were found to coincide with the formation of condensed Hc1-DNA and Hc1-RNA complexes as revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The implications of these results for possible functions of Hc1 in vivo are discussed....

  10. Studies on protein synthesis by protoplasts of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis I. The effect of ribonuclease on protein synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, S.R. de; Wermeskerken, R.K.A. van; Koningsberger, V.V.

    1961-01-01

    Ribonuclease was found to inhibit the protein synthesis in the naked yeast protoplast for nearly 100%. Even small concentrations (5 μg/ml) were found inhibitory. The cause of this inhibition can be attributed at least in part to a 90% inhibition of the respiration. Amino acid uptake was found to

  11. Protein synthesis and intestinal flora in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namioka, Shigeo

    1980-01-01

    Utilization of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) by the flora in piglet colon was studied by administration of 15 N-urea and 15 N-ammonium salt to aseptic piglets and to SPF piglets which had been acclimatized to a clean environment after settling of intestinal flora. Administration of 15 N-urea did not result in 15 N uptake by any tissue-constituting protein at any site of the aseptic piglets, almost all 15 N being excreted into the urine. In contrast, the tissue and skeletal muscle of the SPF piglets showed incorporated 15 N from urea. Urea was converted, by urease of the intestinal flora, into NH 3 , which was absorbed from the mucosa of the intestinal tract to reach the liver where it was synthesized into glutamic acid, followed by conversion into various amino acids. 15 N-ammonium administration produced a significant amount of 15 N even in the tissue protein of the aseptic piglets. After NPN administration, the liver protein-constituting amino acid fraction showed 15 N-labeling of almost all essential, as well as non-essential amino acids. Culture of colonic flora with 15 N-urea revealed 15 N-labeling of all amino acids that constituted bacterial cells, indicating the presence of urea recycling mediated by bacterial urease in single rumen animals.(Chiba, N.)

  12. Ribosomal history reveals origins of modern protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Harish

    Full Text Available The origin and evolution of the ribosome is central to our understanding of the cellular world. Most hypotheses posit that the ribosome originated in the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit. However, these proposals do not link protein synthesis to RNA recognition and do not use a phylogenetic comparative framework to study ribosomal evolution. Here we infer evolution of the structural components of the ribosome. Phylogenetic methods widely used in morphometrics are applied directly to RNA structures of thousands of molecules and to a census of protein structures in hundreds of genomes. We find that components of the small subunit involved in ribosomal processivity evolved earlier than the catalytic peptidyl transferase center responsible for protein synthesis. Remarkably, subunit RNA and proteins coevolved, starting with interactions between the oldest proteins (S12 and S17 and the oldest substructure (the ribosomal ratchet in the small subunit and ending with the rise of a modern multi-subunit ribosome. Ancestral ribonucleoprotein components show similarities to in vitro evolved RNA replicase ribozymes and protein structures in extant replication machinery. Our study therefore provides important clues about the chicken-or-egg dilemma associated with the central dogma of molecular biology by showing that ribosomal history is driven by the gradual structural accretion of protein and RNA structures. Most importantly, results suggest that functionally important and conserved regions of the ribosome were recruited and could be relics of an ancient ribonucleoprotein world.

  13. Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis and isotope labeling of mammalian proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Takaho; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the cell-free protein synthesis method, using an Escherichia coli cell extract. This is a cost-effective method for milligram-scale protein production and is particularly useful for the production of mammalian proteins, protein complexes, and membrane proteins that are difficult to synthesize by recombinant expression methods, using E. coli and eukaryotic cells. By adjusting the conditions of the cell-free method, zinc-binding proteins, disulfide-bonded proteins, ligand-bound proteins, etc., may also be produced. Stable isotope labeling of proteins can be accomplished by the cell-free method, simply by using stable isotope-labeled amino acid(s) in the cell-free reaction. Moreover, the cell-free protein synthesis method facilitates the avoidance of stable isotope scrambling and dilution over the recombinant expression methods and is therefore advantageous for amino acid-selective stable isotope labeling. Site-specific stable isotope labeling is also possible with a tRNA molecule specific to the UAG codon. By the cell-free protein synthesis method, coupled transcription-translation is performed from a plasmid vector or a PCR-amplified DNA fragment encoding the protein. A milligram quantity of protein can be produced with a milliliter-scale reaction solution in the dialysis mode. More than a thousand solution structures have been determined by NMR spectroscopy for uniformly labeled samples of human and mouse functional domain proteins, produced by the cell-free method. Here, we describe the practical aspects of mammalian protein production by the cell-free method for NMR spectroscopy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Directed Evolution of Proteins through In Vitro Protein Synthesis in Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Nishikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Directed evolution of proteins is a technique used to modify protein functions through “Darwinian selection.” In vitro compartmentalization (IVC is an in vitro gene screening system for directed evolution of proteins. IVC establishes the link between genetic information (genotype and the protein translated from the information (phenotype, which is essential for all directed evolution methods, by encapsulating both in a nonliving microcompartment. Herein, we introduce a new liposome-based IVC system consisting of a liposome, the protein synthesis using recombinant elements (PURE system and a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS used as a microcompartment, in vitro protein synthesis system, and high-throughput screen, respectively. Liposome-based IVC is characterized by in vitro protein synthesis from a single copy of a gene in a cell-sized unilamellar liposome and quantitative functional evaluation of the synthesized proteins. Examples of liposome-based IVC for screening proteins such as GFP and β-glucuronidase are described. We discuss the future directions for this method and its applications.

  15. Xingshentongqiao Decoction Mediates Proliferation, Apoptosis, Orexin-A Receptor and Orexin-B Receptor Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression and Represses Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanli Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypocretin (HCRT signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy and can be significantly influenced by Chinese herbal therapy. Our previous study showed that xingshentongqiao decoction (XSTQ is clinically effective for the treatment of narcolepsy. To determine whether XSTQ improves narcolepsy by modulating HCRT signaling, we investigated its effects on SH-SY5Y cell proliferation, apoptosis, and HCRT receptor 1/2 (orexin receptor 1 [OX1R] and orexin receptor 2 [OX2R] expression. The signaling pathways involved in these processes were also assessed. Methods: The effects of XSTQ on proliferation and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells were assessed using cell counting kit-8 and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate assays. OX1R and OX2R expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway activation was performed to further assess the signaling mechanism of XSTQ. Results: XSTQ reduced the proliferation and induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. This effect was accompanied by the upregulation of OX1R and OX2R expression and the reduced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk 1/2, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. Conclusions: XSTQ inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. XSTQ also promotes OX1R and OX2R expression. These effects are associated with the repression of the Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK signaling pathways. These results define a molecular mechanism for XSTQ in regulating HCRT and MAPK activation, which may explain its ability to treat narcolepsy.

  16. Towards single-molecule observation of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulin, David; Le Gall, Antoine; Bouyer, Philippe; Perronet, Karen; Westbrook, Nathalie; Soler, Nicolas; Fourmy, Dominique; Yoshizawa, Satoko

    2009-01-01

    The ribosome is the molecular motor responsible for the protein synthesis within all cells. Ribosome motions along the messenger RNA (mRNA) to read the genetic code are asynchronous and occur along multiple kinetic paths. Consequently, a study at the single macromolecule level is desirable to unravel the complex dynamics involved. In this communication, we present the development of an advanced surface chemistry to attach an active ribosome to the microscope coverslip and follow the amino-acid incorporation by fluorescence microscopy. The ribosome is labeled with a quantum dot (QD) in order to localize it on the surface while a specific amino acid (lysine) is marked with Bodipy-FL. This fluorescent dye is small enough to enter the ribosomal channel thus leaving intact ribosomal activity. It should then be possible to observe the protein synthesis in real time as the labeled amino acids are incorporated into the polypeptide chain. (Author)

  17. Concurrent protein synthesis is required for in vivo chitin synthesis in postmolt blue crabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst, M.N.

    1990-01-01

    Chitin synthesis in crustaceans involves the deposition of a protein-polysaccharide complex at the apical surface of epithelial cells which secrete the cuticle or exoskeleton. The present study involves an examination of in vivo incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids and amino sugars into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Rates of incorporation of both 3H leucine and 3H threonine were linear with respect to time of incubation. Incorporation of 3H threonine into the endocuticle was inhibited greater than 90% in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, puromycin. Linear incorporation of 14C glucosamine into the cuticle was also demonstrated; a significant improvement of radiolabeling was achieved by using 14C-N-acetylglucosamine as the labeled precursor. Incorporation of 3H-N-acetylglucosamine into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs was inhibited 89% by puromycin, indicating that concurrent protein synthesis is required for the deposition of chitin in the blue crab. Autoradiographic analysis of control vs. puromycin-treated crabs indicates that puromycin totally blocks labeling of the new endocuticle with 3H glucosamine. These results are consistent with the notion that crustacean chitin is synthesized as a protein-polysaccharide complex. Analysis of the postmolt and intermolt blue crab cuticle indicates that the exoskeleton contains about 60% protein and 40% chitin. The predominant amino acids are arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, and threonine

  18. Chemical protein synthesis: Inventing synthetic methods to decipher how proteins work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen

    2017-09-15

    Total chemical synthesis of proteins has been rendered practical by the chemical ligation principle: chemoselective condensation of unprotected peptide segments equipped with unique, mutually reactive functional groups, enabled by formation of a non-native replacement for the peptide bond. Ligation chemistries are briefly described, including native chemical ligation - thioester-mediated, amide-forming reaction at Xaa-Cys sites - and its extensions. Case studies from the author's own works are used to illustrate the utility and applications of chemical protein synthesis. Selected recent developments in the field are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide derived from insect, inhibits the translation process in the cell-free Escherichia coli protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Akihito; Kondo, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Shun; Ishiyama, Yohei; Saitoh, Eiichi; Kato, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide (PrAMP), killed sensitive species in a dose-dependent manner by specifically binding to DnaK. Here, on the basis of the finding that DnaK-deficient Escherichia coli strains are susceptible to PrAMPs, we used pyrrhocoricin to investigate internal targets other than DnaK. Using conventional antibiotics (bleomycin, streptomycin, and fosfomycin) that have known modes of action, first, we validated the availability of an assay using a cell-free rapid translation system (RTS), which is an in vitro protein synthesis system based on E. coli lysate, for evaluating inhibition of protein synthesis. We found that, similarly to bleomycin and streptomycin, pyrrhocoricin inhibited GFP synthesis in RTS in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, blockage of transcription and translation steps in RTS was individually estimated using RT-PCR after gene expression to determine mRNA products and using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the amounts of GFP expressed from purified mRNA, respectively. The results demonstrated that this inhibition of GFP synthesis by pyrrhocoricin did not occur at the transcription step but rather at the translation step, in a manner similar to that of GFP synthesis by streptomycin, an inhibitor of the translation step by causing misreading of tRNA. These results suggest that RTS is a powerful assay system for determining if antimicrobial peptides inhibit protein synthesis and its transcription and/or translation steps. This is the first study to have shown that pyrrhocoricin inhibited protein synthesis by specifically repressing the translation step. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Racemic & quasi-racemic protein crystallography enabled by chemical protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen Bh

    2018-04-04

    A racemic protein mixture can be used to form centrosymmetric crystals for structure determination by X-ray diffraction. Both the unnatural d-protein and the corresponding natural l-protein are made by total chemical synthesis based on native chemical ligation-chemoselective condensation of unprotected synthetic peptide segments. Racemic protein crystallography is important for structure determination of the many natural protein molecules that are refractory to crystallization. Racemic mixtures facilitate the crystallization of recalcitrant proteins, and give diffraction-quality crystals. Quasi-racemic crystallization, using a single d-protein molecule, can facilitate the determination of the structures of a series of l-protein analog molecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of p70S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of eIF4B and PDCD4 proteins in the regulation of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Michael D; Jefferson, Leonard S; Kimball, Scot R

    2012-12-14

    Modulation of mRNA binding to the 40 S ribosomal subunit during translation initiation controls not only global rates of protein synthesis but also regulates the pattern of protein expression by allowing for selective inclusion, or exclusion, of mRNAs encoding particular proteins from polysomes. The mRNA binding step is modulated by signaling through a protein kinase known as the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 directly phosphorylates the translational repressors eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BP) 1 and 2, releasing them from the mRNA cap binding protein eIF4E, thereby promoting assembly of the eIF4E·eIF4G complex. mTORC1 also phosphorylates the 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), which subsequently phosphorylates eIF4B, and programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), which sequesters eIF4A from the eIF4E·eIF4G complex, resulting in repressed translation of mRNAs with highly structured 5'-untranslated regions. In the present study, we compared the role of the 4E-BPs in the regulation of global rates of protein synthesis to that of eIF4B and PDCD4. We found that maintenance of eIF4E interaction with eIF4G was not by itself sufficient to sustain global rates of protein synthesis in the absence of mTORC1 signaling to p70S6K1; phosphorylation of both eIF4B and PDCD4 was additionally required. We also found that the interaction of eIF4E with eIF4G was maintained in the liver of fasted rats as well as in serum-deprived mouse embryo fibroblasts lacking both 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2, suggesting that the interaction of eIF4G with eIF4E is controlled primarily through the 4E-BPs.

  2. Twister Protein: a ludic tool involving protein synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Weyh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies show that students of various grade levels report the Genetics as an abstract theme and difficult to assimilate by the students, with multiple problems in the teaching-learning process and becoming necessary the development of auxiliary practices. Among the teaching tools, the game is the most currently opted playful activity by stimulating multiple intelligences, allowing greater student-teacher interaction. This work seeks the production of an innovative and dynamic educational game, Twister Protein, as a pedagogical resource for Genetics discipline. The development of the game was based on the use of easily accessible and low cost materials by teachers, allowing the knowledge of transcription, translation and protein folding. The activity was proposed and applied in the classroom with pilot undergraduate students. The fun associated with the knowledge of science not only allowed a better memorization of the content addressed, as aroused the curiosity, theme reflection, character building and collaborative spirits, as well as competitiveness through the interaction between class. This practice proved to be an effective tool in the escape from routine and fault repair of the theoretical process.

  3. Monitoring protein synthesis by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Currently available methodologies for measuring protein synthesis rates rely on metabolic labelling by incorporation of radioactive amino acids into nascent polypeptides. These approaches are hampered by several limitations and cannot be applied to monitor protein synthesis in specific cells or tissues, in live specimens. Here, we describe a novel method for monitoring protein synthesis in specific cells and tissues of live Caenorhabditis elegans animals. Fluorescent reporter proteins such as...

  4. A low-protein diet restricts albumin synthesis in nephrotic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysen, G A; Jones, H; Martin, V; Hutchison, F N

    1989-01-01

    High-protein diets increase albumin synthesis in rats with Heymann nephritis but albuminuria increases also, causing serum albumin concentration to be suppressed further than in nephrotic animals eating a low-protein diet. Experiments were designed to determine whether dietary protein augmentation directly stimulates albumin synthesis, or whether instead increased albumin synthesis is triggered by the decrease in serum albumin concentration. Evidence is presented that dietary protein augmenta...

  5. Spore coat protein of Bacillus subtilis. Structure and precursor synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, L; Sadaie, Y; Doi, R H

    1978-10-10

    The coat protein of Bacillus subtilis spores comprises about 10% of the total dry weight of spores and 25% of the total spore protein. One protein with a molecular weight of 13,000 to 15,000 comprises a major portion of the spore coat. This mature spore coat protein has histidine at its NH2 terminus and is relatively rich in hydrophobic amino acids. Netropsin, and antibiotic which binds to A-T-rich regions of DNA and inhibits sporulation, but not growth, decreased the synthesis of this spore coat protein by 75%. A precursor spore coat protein with a molecular weight of 25,000 is made initially at t1 of sporulation and is converted to the mature spore coat protein with a molecular weight of 13,500 at t2 - t3. These data indicate that the spore coat protein gene is expressed very early in sporulation prior to the modifications of RNA polymerase which have been noted.

  6. Bluetongue virus non-structural protein 1 is a positive regulator of viral protein synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyce Mark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bluetongue virus (BTV is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA virus of the Reoviridae family, which encodes its genes in ten linear dsRNA segments. BTV mRNAs are synthesised by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp as exact plus sense copies of the genome segments. Infection of mammalian cells with BTV rapidly replaces cellular protein synthesis with viral protein synthesis, but the regulation of viral gene expression in the Orbivirus genus has not been investigated. Results Using an mRNA reporter system based on genome segment 10 of BTV fused with GFP we identify the protein characteristic of this genus, non-structural protein 1 (NS1 as sufficient to upregulate translation. The wider applicability of this phenomenon among the viral genes is demonstrated using the untranslated regions (UTRs of BTV genome segments flanking the quantifiable Renilla luciferase ORF in chimeric mRNAs. The UTRs of viral mRNAs are shown to be determinants of the amount of protein synthesised, with the pre-expression of NS1 increasing the quantity in each case. The increased expression induced by pre-expression of NS1 is confirmed in virus infected cells by generating a replicating virus which expresses the reporter fused with genome segment 10, using reverse genetics. Moreover, NS1-mediated upregulation of expression is restricted to mRNAs which lack the cellular 3′ poly(A sequence identifying the 3′ end as a necessary determinant in specifically increasing the translation of viral mRNA in the presence of cellular mRNA. Conclusions NS1 is identified as a positive regulator of viral protein synthesis. We propose a model of translational regulation where NS1 upregulates the synthesis of viral proteins, including itself, and creates a positive feedback loop of NS1 expression, which rapidly increases the expression of all the viral proteins. The efficient translation of viral reporter mRNAs among cellular mRNAs can account for the observed

  7. Bluetongue virus non-structural protein 1 is a positive regulator of viral protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Mark; Celma, Cristina C P; Roy, Polly

    2012-08-29

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the Reoviridae family, which encodes its genes in ten linear dsRNA segments. BTV mRNAs are synthesised by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) as exact plus sense copies of the genome segments. Infection of mammalian cells with BTV rapidly replaces cellular protein synthesis with viral protein synthesis, but the regulation of viral gene expression in the Orbivirus genus has not been investigated. Using an mRNA reporter system based on genome segment 10 of BTV fused with GFP we identify the protein characteristic of this genus, non-structural protein 1 (NS1) as sufficient to upregulate translation. The wider applicability of this phenomenon among the viral genes is demonstrated using the untranslated regions (UTRs) of BTV genome segments flanking the quantifiable Renilla luciferase ORF in chimeric mRNAs. The UTRs of viral mRNAs are shown to be determinants of the amount of protein synthesised, with the pre-expression of NS1 increasing the quantity in each case. The increased expression induced by pre-expression of NS1 is confirmed in virus infected cells by generating a replicating virus which expresses the reporter fused with genome segment 10, using reverse genetics. Moreover, NS1-mediated upregulation of expression is restricted to mRNAs which lack the cellular 3' poly(A) sequence identifying the 3' end as a necessary determinant in specifically increasing the translation of viral mRNA in the presence of cellular mRNA. NS1 is identified as a positive regulator of viral protein synthesis. We propose a model of translational regulation where NS1 upregulates the synthesis of viral proteins, including itself, and creates a positive feedback loop of NS1 expression, which rapidly increases the expression of all the viral proteins. The efficient translation of viral reporter mRNAs among cellular mRNAs can account for the observed replacement of cellular protein synthesis with viral protein

  8. Protein synthesis in vitro by Micrococcus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, M A; Rabinowitz, J C

    1991-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis and related gram-positive bacteria which have low to moderate genomic G + C contents are unable to efficiently translate mRNA derived from gram-negative bacteria, whereas Escherichia coli and other gram-negative bacteria are able to translate mRNA from both types of organisms. This phenomenon has been termed translational species specificity. Ribosomes from the low-G + C-content group (low-G + C group) of gram-positive organisms (B. subtilis and relatives) lack an equivalent to Escherichia ribosomal protein S1. The requirement for S1 for translation in E. coli (G. van Dieijen, P. H. van Knippenberg, J. van Duin, B. Koekman, and P. H. Pouwels, Mol. Gen. Genet. 153:75-80, 1977) and its specific role (A.R. Subramanian, Trends Biochem. Sci. 9:491-494, 1984) have been proposed. The group of gram-positive bacteria characterized by high genomic G + C content (formerly Actinomyces species and relatives) contain S1, in contrast to the low-G + C group (K. Mikulik, J. Smardova, A. Jiranova, and P. Branny, Eur. J. Biochem. 155:557-563, 1986). It is not known whether members of the high-G + C group are translationally specific, although there is evidence that one genus, Streptomyces, can express Escherichia genes in vivo (M. J. Bibb and S. N. Cohen, Mol. Gen. Genet. 187:265-277, 1985; J. L. Schottel, M. J. Bibb, and S. N. Cohen, J. Bacteriol. 146:360-368, 1981). In order to determine whether the organisms of this group are translationally specific, we examined the in vitro translational characteristics of a member of the high-G + C group, Micrococcus luteus, whose genomic G + C content is 73%. A semipurified coupled transcription-translation system of M. luteus translates Escherichia mRNA as well as Bacillus and Micrococcus mRNA. Therefore, M. luteus is translationally nonspecific and resembles E. coli rather than B. subtilis in its translational characteristics. Images PMID:2045372

  9. Ingestion of Wheat Protein Increases In Vivo Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates in Healthy Older Men in a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Stefan Hm; Horstman, Astrid Mh; Franssen, Rinske; Crombag, Julie Jr; Langer, Henning; Bierau, Jörgen; Respondek, Frederique; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2016-09-01

    Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis and the capacity to stimulate muscle protein synthesis after food intake. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response is modulated by the amount, source, and type of protein consumed. It has been suggested that plant-based proteins are less potent in stimulating postprandial muscle protein synthesis than animal-derived proteins. However, few data support this contention. We aimed to assess postprandial plasma amino acid concentrations and muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of a substantial 35-g bolus of wheat protein hydrolysate compared with casein and whey protein. Sixty healthy older men [mean ± SEM age: 71 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 25.3 ± 0.3] received a primed continuous infusion of l-[ring-(13)C6]-phenylalanine and ingested 35 g wheat protein (n = 12), 35 g wheat protein hydrolysate (WPH-35; n = 12), 35 g micellar casein (MCas-35; n = 12), 35 g whey protein (Whey-35; n = 12), or 60 g wheat protein hydrolysate (WPH-60; n = 12). Plasma and muscle samples were collected at regular intervals. The postprandial increase in plasma essential amino acid concentrations was greater after ingesting Whey-35 (2.23 ± 0.07 mM) than after MCas-35 (1.53 ± 0.08 mM) and WPH-35 (1.50 ± 0.04 mM) (P protein synthesis rates increased after ingesting MCas-35 (P protein synthesis rates above basal rates (0.049% ± 0.007%/h; P = 0.02). The myofibrillar protein synthetic response to the ingestion of 35 g casein is greater than after an equal amount of wheat protein. Ingesting a larger amount of wheat protein (i.e., 60 g) substantially increases myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in healthy older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01952639. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. From classical psychodynamics to evidence synthesis: the motif of repression and a contemporary understanding of a key mediatory mechanism in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mick P; Martin, Colin R

    2012-06-01

    The stress vulnerability model has proven to be a politically important model for two reasons. It has provided the framework that defines a temporal and dynamic process whereby a person's uniquely determined biopsychosocial vulnerability to schizophrenia symptoms interacts with his or her capacity to manage stress and the amount and type of stress experienced in such a way that the person experiences schizophrenia symptoms. Second, the development of this framework promoted the notion of inherited and acquired vulnerability. Implicit was that vulnerability was individually determined and that there was a role for psychosocial factors in the development/maintenance of schizophrenia symptoms. This proved to be a catalyst for the development of studies implicating psychosocial factors in the etiology of schizophrenia symptoms. Studies derived from cognitive-behavioral theories have proven the most successful in identifying thinking patterns, emotional disturbances, and neurocognitive and defensive vulnerability factors inherent in the development of schizophrenia symptoms. Historically, within the psychoanalytic school there has been debate regarding the role of repressive coping mechanisms in schizophrenia development. Psychoanalytic theories have always appeared incapable of providing etiologic explanations of schizophrenia symptoms, with the possible exception of Melanie Klein, than other more salient psychosocial schools. Mechanisms within the process of repressive coping are consistent with evidence and mechanisms supporting the stress vulnerability models and existing cognitive-behavioral theories regarding development of paranoid delusions. These mechanisms are less consistent with social cognitive explanations of schizophrenia symptoms.

  11. The synthesis of Phosphate-repressible alkaline phosphatase do not appear to be regulated by ambient pH in the filamentous mould Neurospora crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozawa Sérgio R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate further the adaptive response of moulds to ambient pH, we have measured by ELISA the pho-2-encoded Pi-repressible alkaline phosphatase synthesised by Neurospora crassa. We showed that the 74A and pho-2A strains of this mould secrete similar amounts of the pho-2-encoded enzyme irrespective of ambient pH, when both the preg and pgov genes are not functional, i.e., in strains nuc-2+ growing under Pi-starvation. This suggests that pho-2, which is responsive to Pi starvation via the action of genes nuc-2, preg, pgov and nuc-1, is not a gene responsive to ambient pH and that the differential glycosylation observed for the Pi-repressible alkaline phosphatase retained by the mycelium at pH 5.6 or secreted into the growth medium at pH 8.0 is the genetic response to ambient pH sensing in N. crassa.

  12. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic "petite" mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells. I. Nuclear-directed protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heude, M; Chanet, R; Moustacchi, E

    1975-04-01

    The contribution of nuclear-directed protein synthesis in the repair of lethal and mitochondrial genetic damage after UV-irradiation of exponential and stationary phage haploid yeast cells was examined. This was carried out using cycloheximide (CH), a specific inhibitor of nuclear protein synthesis. It appears that nuclear protein synthesis is required for the increase in survival seen after the liquid holding of cells at both stages, as well as for the "petite" recovery seen after the liquid holding of exponential phase cells. The characteristic negative liquid holding effect observed for the UV induction of "petites" in stationary phase cells (increase of the frequency of "petites" during storage) remained following all the treatments which inhibited nuclear protein synthesis. However, the application of photoreactivating light following dark holding with cycloheximide indicates that some steps of the repair of both nuclear and mitochondrial damage are performed in the absence of a synthesis of proteins.

  13. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Is Required to Maintain Visual Conditioning-Induced Behavioral Plasticity by Limiting Local Protein Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Hsuan; Cline, Hollis T

    2016-07-06

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to regulate neuronal plasticity by limiting dendritic protein synthesis, but direct demonstration of a requirement for FMRP control of local protein synthesis during behavioral plasticity is lacking. Here we tested whether FMRP knockdown in Xenopus optic tectum affects local protein synthesis in vivo and whether FMRP knockdown affects protein synthesis-dependent visual avoidance behavioral plasticity. We tagged newly synthesized proteins by incorporation of the noncanonical amino acid azidohomoalanine and visualized them with fluorescent noncanonical amino acid tagging (FUNCAT). Visual conditioning and FMRP knockdown produce similar increases in FUNCAT in tectal neuropil. Induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally in FMRP knockdown animals, but plasticity degrades over 24 h. These results indicate that FMRP affects visual conditioning-induced local protein synthesis and is required to maintain the visual conditioning-induced behavioral plasticity. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Exaggerated dendritic protein synthesis resulting from loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is thought to underlie cognitive deficits in FXS, but no direct evidence has demonstrated that FMRP-regulated dendritic protein synthesis affects behavioral plasticity in intact animals. Xenopus tadpoles exhibit a visual avoidance behavior that improves with visual conditioning in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. We showed that FMRP knockdown and visual conditioning dramatically increase protein synthesis in neuronal processes. Furthermore, induction of visual conditioning-dependent behavioral plasticity occurs normally after FMRP knockdown, but performance rapidly deteriorated in the absence of FMRP. These studies show that FMRP negatively regulates local protein synthesis and is required to maintain visual conditioning

  14. VCP and ATL1 regulate endoplasmic reticulum and protein synthesis for dendritic spine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Tzu; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-03-17

    Imbalanced protein homeostasis, such as excessive protein synthesis and protein aggregation, is a pathogenic hallmark of a range of neurological disorders. Here, using expression of mutant proteins, a knockdown approach and disease mutation knockin mice, we show that VCP (valosin-containing protein), together with its cofactor P47 and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphology regulator ATL1 (Atlastin-1), regulates tubular ER formation and influences the efficiency of protein synthesis to control dendritic spine formation in neurons. Strengthening the significance of protein synthesis in dendritic spinogenesis, the translation blocker cyclohexamide and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduce dendritic spine density, while a leucine supplement that increases protein synthesis ameliorates the dendritic spine defects caused by Vcp and Atl1 deficiencies. Because VCP and ATL1 are the causative genes of several neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, we suggest that impaired ER formation and inefficient protein synthesis are significant in the pathogenesis of multiple neurological disorders.

  15. Chloroplast protein synthesis: thylakoid bound polysomes synthesize thylakoid proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurewitz, J.; Jagendorf, A.T.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work indicated more polysomes bound to pea thylakoids in light than in the dark, in vivo. With isolated intact chloroplasts incubated in darkness, 24 to 74% more RNA was thylakoid-bound at pH 8.3 than at pH 7. Thus the major effect of light in vivo may be due to higher stroma pH. In isolated pea chloroplasts, initiation inhibitors (pactamycin and kanamycin) decreased the extent of RNA binding, and elongation inhibitors (lincomycin and streptomycin) increased it. Thus translation initiation and termination probably control the cycling of bound ribosomes. While only 3 to 6% of total RNA is in bound polysomes the incorporation of 3 H-Leu into thylakoids was proportional to the amount of this bound RNA. When Micrococcal nuclease-treated thylakoids were added to labeled runoff translation products of stroma ribosomes, less than 1% of the label adhered to the added membranes; but 37% of the labeled products made by thylakoid polysomes were bound. These data support the concept that stroma ribosomes are recruited into thylakoid proteins

  16. Evolutionary-conserved telomere-linked helicase genes of fission yeast are repressed by silencing factors, RNAi components and the telomere-binding protein Taz1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K. R.; Ibarra, P. T.; Thon, G.

    2006-01-01

    . Mutations and conditions perturbing histone acetylation had similar effects further demonstrating that the tlh genes are normally repressed by heterochromatin. In contrast, mutations in the RNAi factors Dcr1, Ago1 or Rdp1 led only to a modest derepression of the tlh genes indicating an alternate pathway...

  17. Growth hormone stimulates the collagen synthesis in human tendon and skeletal muscle without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doessing, Simon; Heinemeier, Katja M; Holm, Lars

    2010-01-01

    young individuals. rhGH administration caused an increase in serum GH, serum IGF-I, and IGF-I mRNA expression in tendon and muscle. Tendon collagen I mRNA expression and tendon collagen protein synthesis increased by 3.9-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively (P ...RNA expression and muscle collagen protein synthesis increased by 2.3-fold and 5.8-fold, respectively (P protein synthesis was unaffected by elevation of GH and IGF-I. Moderate exercise did not enhance the effects of GH manipulation. Thus, increased GH availability stimulates...... matrix collagen synthesis in skeletal muscle and tendon, but without any effect upon myofibrillar protein synthesis. The results suggest that GH is more important in strengthening the matrix tissue than for muscle cell hypertrophy in adult human musculotendinous tissue....

  18. Changes in protein patterns and in vivo protein synthesis during senescence of hibiscus petals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodson, W.R.; Handa, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in proteins associated with senescence of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was studied using SDS-PAGE. Total extractable protein from petals decreased with senescence. Changes were noted in patterns of proteins from aging petals. Flower opening and senescence was associated with appearance and disappearance of several polypeptides. One new polypeptide with an apparent mw of 41 kd was first seen the day of flower opening and increased to over 9% of the total protein content of senescent petal tissue. Protein synthesis during aging was investigated by following uptake and incorporation of 3 H-leucine into TCA-insoluble fraction of petal discs. Protein synthesis, as evidenced by the percent of label incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction, was greatest (32%) the day before flower opening. Senescent petal tissue incorporated 4% of label taken up into protein. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and labelled polypeptides identified by fluorography. In presenescent petal tissue, radioactivity was distributed among several major polypeptides. In senescent tissue, much of the radioactivity was concentrated in the 41 kd polypeptide

  19. The natural product peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth by inducing autophagic cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyu, Qing; Tou, Fangfang; Su, Hong; Wu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xinyi; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is evolutionarily conservative in eukaryotic cells that engulf cellular long-lived proteins and organelles, and it degrades the contents through fusion with lysosomes, via which the cell acquires recycled building blocks for the synthesis of new molecules. In this study, we revealed that peiminine induces cell death and enhances autophagic flux in colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells. We determined that peiminine enhances the autophagic flux by repressing the phosphorylation of mTOR through inhibiting upstream signals. Knocking down ATG5 greatly reduced the peiminine-induced cell death in wild-type HCT-116 cells, while treating Bax/Bak-deficient cells with peiminine resulted in significant cell death. In summary, our discoveries demonstrated that peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation and cell growth by inducing autophagic cell death. - Highlights: • Peiminine induces autophagy and upregulates autophagic flux. • Peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth. • Peiminine induces autophagic cell death. • Peiminine represses mTOR phosphorylation by influencing PI3K/Akt and AMPK pathway

  20. The natural product peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth by inducing autophagic cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Qing [School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Key Lab in Healthy Science and Technology, Division of Life Science, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055 (China); Tou, Fangfang [Jiangxi Provincial Key Lab of Oncology Translation Medicine, Jiangxi Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, 330029 (China); Su, Hong; Wu, Xiaoyong [First Affiliated Hospital, Guiyang College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guiyang, 550002 (China); Chen, Xinyi [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029 (China); Zheng, Zhi, E-mail: zheng_sheva@hotmail.com [Jiangxi Provincial Key Lab of Oncology Translation Medicine, Jiangxi Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, 330029 (China)

    2015-06-19

    Autophagy is evolutionarily conservative in eukaryotic cells that engulf cellular long-lived proteins and organelles, and it degrades the contents through fusion with lysosomes, via which the cell acquires recycled building blocks for the synthesis of new molecules. In this study, we revealed that peiminine induces cell death and enhances autophagic flux in colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells. We determined that peiminine enhances the autophagic flux by repressing the phosphorylation of mTOR through inhibiting upstream signals. Knocking down ATG5 greatly reduced the peiminine-induced cell death in wild-type HCT-116 cells, while treating Bax/Bak-deficient cells with peiminine resulted in significant cell death. In summary, our discoveries demonstrated that peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation and cell growth by inducing autophagic cell death. - Highlights: • Peiminine induces autophagy and upregulates autophagic flux. • Peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth. • Peiminine induces autophagic cell death. • Peiminine represses mTOR phosphorylation by influencing PI3K/Akt and AMPK pathway.

  1. Liver protein synthesis stays elevated after chemotherapy in tumour-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Sue E; McLaren, Teresa A; Knowles, Andrew L; Stewart, Sarah A; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Attaix, Didier

    2006-07-28

    We studied the effect of chemotherapy on liver protein synthesis in mice bearing colon 26 adenocarcinoma (C26). Liver protein mass decreased (-32%; Psynthesis increased (20-35%; Psynthesis. Increased protein synthesis in tumour-bearing mice was primarily mediated by increasing ( approximately 15%; Psynthesis (Cs; mg RNA/g protein). Cystemustine, a nitrosourea chemotherapy that cures C26 with 100% efficacy, rapidly restored liver protein mass; protein synthesis however stayed higher than in healthy mice ( approximately 15%) throughout the initial and later stages of recovery. Chemotherapy had no significant effect on liver protein mass and synthesis in healthy mice. Reduced food intake was not a factor in this model. These data suggest a high priority for liver protein synthesis during cancer cachexia and recovery.

  2. RNA and protein synthesis of irradiated Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skog, S.; Tribukait, B.; Nygard, O.; Wenner-Gren-Center foer Vetenskaplig Forskning, Stockholm

    1985-01-01

    Poly(A)-containing RNA (m-RNA) was studied in in vivo growing Ehrlich ascites tumour cells following a roentgen irradiation dose of 5 Gy. m-RNA increased significantly during the first 12 hours after irradiation. Thus, the observed decrease in protein synthesis rate during this time seems not to be due to radiation induced changes at the transcriptional level. The protein synthesis rate of in vivo irradiated cells incubated in vitro in culture medium was unchanged. On the other hand, the protein synthesis rate of non-irradiated cells incubated in vitro in ascites fluid from irradiated animals was decreased. We concluded that factor(s) inhibiting protein synthesis or the lack of factor(s) promoting protein synthesis in the ascites fluid is(are) of significance for the reduced protein synthesis of tumour cells found in irradiated in vivo growing cells. (orig.)

  3. Kluyveromyces marxianus as a host for heterologous protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Andreas K; Madeira, José Valdo; Cerdán, María-Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel

    2016-07-01

    The preferentially respiring and thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus is an emerging host for heterologous protein synthesis, surpassing the traditional preferentially fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in some important aspects: K . marxianus can grow at temperatures 10 °C higher than S. cerevisiae, which may result in decreased costs for cooling bioreactors and reduced contamination risk; has ability to metabolize a wider variety of sugars, such as lactose and xylose; is the fastest growing eukaryote described so far; and does not require special cultivation techniques (such as fed-batch) to avoid fermentative metabolism. All these advantages exist together with a high secretory capacity, performance of eukaryotic post-translational modifications, and with a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status. In the last years, replication origins from several Kluyveromyces spp. have been used for the construction of episomal vectors, and also integrative strategies have been developed based on the tendency for non-homologous recombination displayed by K. marxianus. The recessive URA3 auxotrophic marker and the dominant Kan(R) are mostly used for selection of transformed cells, but other markers have been made available. Homologous and heterologous promoters and secretion signals have been characterized, with the K. marxianus INU1 expression and secretion system being of remarkable functionality. The efficient synthesis of roughly 50 heterologous proteins has been demonstrated, including one thermophilic enzyme. In this mini-review, we summarize the physiological characteristics of K. marxianus relevant for its use in the efficient synthesis of heterologous proteins, the efforts performed hitherto in the development of a molecular toolbox for this purpose, and some successful examples.

  4. Racism and Surplus Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted…

  5. Influence of anabolic agents on protein synthesis and degradation in muscle cells grown in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, R.A.; Thorpe, S.D.; Byers, F.M.; Schelling, G.T.; Gunn, J.M.

    Muscle cell culture (L/sub 6/) studies were conducted to determine whether anabolic agents have a direct effect on the muscle cell. The effect of zeranol, testosterone propionate, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, dexamethasone and anabolic agent-dexamethasone combinations on protein synthesis and degradation were measured. Myoblast and myotube cultures were pretreated with 1 ..mu..M compounds for 12, 24 and 48 h before a 6-h synthesis or degradation measuring period. Protein synthesis was determined as cpm of (/sup 3/H) leucine incorporated per mg cell protein. Protein degradation was measured by a pulse-chase procedure using (/sup 3/H) leucine and expressed as the percentage labeled protein degraded in 6 h. Progesterone slightly increased protein synthesis in myoblast cultures. Testosterone propionate had no effect on synthesis. Protein synthesis was decreased by estradiol benzoate in myotube cultures. Protein degradation was not altered appreciably by anabolic agents. Protein synthesis was initially inhibited in myotubes by dexamethasone, but increased in myoblasts and myotubes in the extended incubation time. Dexamethasone also consistently increased protein degradation, but this required several hours to be expressed. Anabolic agents did not interfere with dexamethasone-induced increases in protein synthesis and degradation. The magnitude of response and sensitivity were similar for both the myoblast and the more fully differentiated myotube for all compounds tested. These results indicate that anabolic agents at the 1 ..mu..M level do not have a direct anabolic effect on muscle or alter glucocorticoid-induced catabolic response in muscle.

  6. Influence of anabolic agents on protein synthesis and degradation in muscle cells grown in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, R.A.; Thorpe, S.D.; Byers, F.M.; Schelling, G.T.; Gunn, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Muscle cell culture (L 6 ) studies were conducted to determine whether anabolic agents have a direct effect on the muscle cell. The effect of zeranol, testosterone propionate, estradiol benzoate, progesterone, dexamethasone and anabolic agent-dexamethasone combinations on protein synthesis and degradation were measured. Myoblast and myotube cultures were pretreated with 1 μM compounds for 12, 24 and 48 h before a 6-h synthesis or degradation measuring period. Protein synthesis was determined as cpm of [ 3 H] leucine incorporated per mg cell protein. Protein degradation was measured by a pulse-chase procedure using [ 3 H] leucine and expressed as the percentage labeled protein degraded in 6 h. Progesterone slightly increased protein synthesis in myoblast cultures. Testosterone propionate had no effect on synthesis. Protein synthesis was decreased by estradiol benzoate in myotube cultures. Protein degradation was not altered appreciably by anabolic agents. Protein synthesis was initially inhibited in myotubes by dexamethasone, but increased in myoblasts and myotubes in the extended incubation time. Dexamethasone also consistently increased protein degradation, but this required several hours to be expressed. Anabolic agents did not interfere with dexamethasone-induced increases in protein synthesis and degradation. The magnitude of response and sensitivity were similar for both the myoblast and the more fully differentiated myotube for all compounds tested. These results indicate that anabolic agents at the 1 μM level do not have a direct anabolic effect on muscle or alter glucocorticoid-induced catabolic response in muscle

  7. Lewis lung carcinoma regulation of mechanical stretch-induced protein synthesis in cultured myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Carson, James A

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical stretch can activate muscle and myotube protein synthesis through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. While it has been established that tumor-derived cachectic factors can induce myotube wasting, the effect of this catabolic environment on myotube mechanical signaling has not been determined. We investigated whether media containing cachectic factors derived from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) can regulate the stretch induction of myotube protein synthesis. C2C12 myotubes preincubated in control or LLC-derived media were chronically stretched. Protein synthesis regulation by anabolic and catabolic signaling was then examined. In the control condition, stretch increased mTORC1 activity and protein synthesis. The LLC treatment decreased basal mTORC1 activity and protein synthesis and attenuated the stretch induction of protein synthesis. LLC media increased STAT3 and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in myotubes, independent of stretch. Both stretch and LLC independently increased ERK1/2, p38, and NF-κB phosphorylation. In LLC-treated myotubes, the inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 rescued the stretch induction of protein synthesis. Interestingly, either leukemia inhibitory factor or glycoprotein 130 antibody administration caused further inhibition of mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in stretched myotubes. AMP-activated protein kinase inhibition increased basal mTORC1 signaling activity and protein synthesis in LLC-treated myotubes, but did not restore the stretch induction of protein synthesis. These results demonstrate that LLC-derived cachectic factors can dissociate stretch-induced signaling from protein synthesis through ERK1/2 and p38 signaling, and that glycoprotein 130 signaling is associated with the basal stretch response in myotubes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Identification of proteins whose synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is induced by DNA damage and heat shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailit, James

    1990-01-01

    Protein synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after exposure to ultraviolet light (UV) was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pulse-labelled proteins. The synthesis of 12 distinct proteins was induced by treatment with UV doses of 10-200 J/m 2 . The induced proteins differed in minimum dose necessary for induction, maximum dose at which induction still occurred and constitutive level present in unirradiated cells. A chemical mutagen, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, induced synthesis of the same proteins. Induction after UV treatment was observed in seven different yeast strains, including three mutants deficient in DNA repair. Synthesis of five of the proteins was also induced by brief heat shock treatment. These five may be members of a family of proteins whose synthesis is regulated by two different pathways responding to different types of stress. (author)

  9. Bombyx mori E26 transformation-specific 2 (BmEts2), an Ets family protein, represses Bombyx mori Rels (BmRels)-mediated promoter activation of antimicrobial peptide genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Sagisaka, A; Suzuki, N; Yamakawa, M

    2016-10-01

    E26 transformation-specific (Ets) family transcription factors are known to play roles in various biological phenomena, including immunity, in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms by which Ets proteins contribute to immunity in invertebrates remain poorly understood. In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding BmEts2, which is a putative orthologue of Drosophila Yan and human translocation-ets-leukemia/Ets-variant gene 6, from the silkworm Bombyx mori. Expression of the BmEts2 gene was significantly increased in the fat bodies of silkworm larvae in response to injection with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. BmEts2 overexpression dramatically repressed B. mori Rels (BmRels)-mediated promoter activation of antimicrobial peptide genes in silkworm cells. Conversely, gene knockdown of BmEts2 significantly enhanced BmRels activity. In addition, two κB sites located on the 5' upstream region of cecropin B1 were found to be involved in the repression of BmRels-mediated promoter activation. Protein-competition analysis further demonstrated that BmEts2 competitively inhibited binding of BmRels to κB sites. Overall, BmEts2 acts as a repressor of BmRels-mediated transactivation of antimicrobial protein genes by inhibiting the binding of BmRels to κB sites. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Effect of Insulin Infusion on Liver Protein Synthesis during Hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Frystyk, Jan; Jespersen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis (HD) is a catabolic procedure that may contribute to the high frequency of protein-energy wasting among patients receiving maintenance HD. The present study investigated the additional effect of glucose and glucose-insulin infusion on liver protein synthesis during HD...... compared with a meal alone. Methods In a randomized cross-over study with three arms, 11 non-diabetic HD patients were assigned to receive a conventional HD session with either: • no treatment (NT) • IV infusion of glucose (G) • IV infusion of glucose-insulin (GI) During infusions blood glucose levels were...... maintained at 8.0-10.0 mmol/L by additional glucose infusion. Glucose and glucose-insulin infusions were commenced 2 h prior to HD and continued throughout the HD session. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline before infusion and followed by the only meal allowed during the study. Results Blood...

  11. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  12. Synthesis of stress proteins in winter wheat seedlings under gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkova, N.V.; Kosakovskaya, I.V.; Major, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    A universal cellular response to a number of diverse stresses is the synthesis of a set of stress proteins. Most of them are heat shock proteins (HSP). We show that both heat shock and gamma-radiation enhance the synthesis of HSP70 in the total protein fractions of winter wheat seedlings. It is found that a dose of 15 Gy induced the synthesis of 35 and 45 kD proteins after 5 h of irradiation in both total and mitochondrial protein fractions. On the second day after exposure, both 35 and 45 kD proteins were not observed, but new total proteins with a molecular weight of 90 and 92 kD appeared. The synthesis of 35 and 45 kD proteins after gamma-irradiation is revealed for the first time, their function being now unknown

  13. Prolonged Adaptation to a Low or High Protein Diet Does Not Modulate Basal Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates - A Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursel, Rick; Martens, Eveline A P; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Hamer, Henrike M; Senden, Joan M G; van Loon, Luc J C; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2015-01-01

    Based on controlled 36 h experiments a higher dietary protein intake causes a positive protein balance and a negative fat balance. A positive net protein balance may support fat free mass accrual. However, few data are available on the impact of more prolonged changes in habitual protein intake on whole-body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates. To assess changes in whole-body protein turnover and basal muscle protein synthesis rates following 12 weeks of adaptation to a low versus high dietary protein intake. A randomized parallel study was performed in 40 subjects who followed either a high protein (2.4 g protein/kg/d) or low protein (0.4 g protein/kg/d) energy-balanced diet (30/35/35% or 5/60/35% energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat) for a period of 12 weeks. A subgroup of 7 men and 8 women (body mass index: 22.8±2.3 kg/m2, age: 24.3±4.9 y) were selected to evaluate the impact of prolonged adaptation to either a high or low protein intake on whole body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates. After the diet, subjects received continuous infusions with L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[ring-2H2]tyrosine in an overnight fasted state, with blood samples and muscle biopsies being collected to assess post-absorptive whole-body protein turnover and muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. After 12 weeks of intervention, whole-body protein balance in the fasted state was more negative in the high protein treatment when compared with the low protein treatment (-4.1±0.5 vs -2.7±0.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;Pprotein breakdown (43.0±4.4 vs 37.8±3.8 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;Psynthesis (38.9±4.2 vs 35.1±3.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;Pprotein group. Basal muscle protein synthesis rates were maintained on a low vs high protein diet (0.042±0.01 vs 0.045±0.01%/h;P = 0.620). In the overnight fasted state, adaptation to a low-protein intake (0.4 g/kg/d) does not result in a more negative whole-body protein balance and

  14. The mitochondrial outer membrane protein MDI promotes local protein synthesis and mtDNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Xu, Hong

    2016-05-17

    Early embryonic development features rapid nuclear DNA replication cycles, but lacks mtDNA replication. To meet the high-energy demands of embryogenesis, mature oocytes are furnished with vast amounts of mitochondria and mtDNA However, the cellular machinery driving massive mtDNA replication in ovaries remains unknown. Here, we describe a Drosophila AKAP protein, MDI that recruits a translation stimulator, La-related protein (Larp), to the mitochondrial outer membrane in ovaries. The MDI-Larp complex promotes the synthesis of a subset of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins by cytosolic ribosomes on the mitochondrial surface. MDI-Larp's targets include mtDNA replication factors, mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, and electron-transport chain subunits. Lack of MDI abolishes mtDNA replication in ovaries, which leads to mtDNA deficiency in mature eggs. Targeting Larp to the mitochondrial outer membrane independently of MDI restores local protein synthesis and rescues the phenotypes of mdi mutant flies. Our work suggests that a selective translational boost by the MDI-Larp complex on the outer mitochondrial membrane might be essential for mtDNA replication and mitochondrial biogenesis during oogenesis. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Improved synthesis of (S)-N-Boc-5-oxaproline for protein synthesis with the α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA) ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murar, Claudia E; Harmand, Thibault J; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2017-09-15

    We describe a new route for the synthesis of (S)-N-Boc-5-oxaproline. This building block is a key element for the chemical synthesis of proteins with the α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA) ligation. The new synthetic pathway to the enantiopure oxaproline is based on a chiral amine mediated enantioselective conjugate addition of a hydroxylamine to trans-4-oxo-2-butenoate. This route is practical, scalable and economical and provides decagram amounts of material for protein synthesis and conversion to other protected forms of (S)-oxaproline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of dietary protein quality and feeding level on milk secretion and mammary protein synthesis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, D.A.; Jansen, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Protein synthesis was studied in mammary tissue of rats fed diets deficient in protein quality and/or restricted in food intake throughout gestation and lactation. Diets containing 25% wheat gluten (WG), wheat gluten plus lysine and threonine (WGLT), or casein (C) were pair-fed from conception until day 15 of lactation at 100% or 85% of WG ad libitum consumption (PF100 and PF85, respectively). A seventh group was fed C ad libitum. Rates of protein synthesis were measured in vivo at day 15 of lactation from incorporation of [3- 3 H]phenylalanine. At both PF100 and PF85, fractional and absolute rates of mammary gland protein synthesis were two- to three-fold higher in rats fed C than in those fed WG. Pup weights showed similar treatment effects. Both mammary protein synthesis rates and pup weights were significantly higher in rats fed C at PF85 than rats fed WG ad libitum. Food restriction from PF100 to PF85 depressed pup weights and mammary protein synthesis rates in rats fed WGLT, but had no effect in rats fed WG. These results demonstrate that when food intake is restricted, improvement of protein quality of the maternal diet increases milk output in the rat in association with increased rates of mammary protein synthesis

  17. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects Of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements (γ- and β-actin and α-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either α-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide revealed that cycloheximide repressed accumulation of α-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or γ rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure. (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of MRNA for actin genes; and that cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to γ rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of α-tubulin and fibronectin MRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. in addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons

  18. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements (γ- and β-actin and α-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either α-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide, however, revealed several interesting and novel findings: (1) Cycloheximide repressed accumulation of α-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or γ rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of mRNA for actin genes. Cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to γ rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of α-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons

  19. Social Recognition Memory Requires Two Stages of Protein Synthesis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gerald; Engelmann, Mario; Richter, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory recognition memory was tested in adult male mice using a social discrimination task. The testing was conducted to begin to characterize the role of protein synthesis and the specific brain regions associated with activity in this task. Long-term olfactory recognition memory was blocked when the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin was…

  20. N-terminally truncated GADD34 proteins are convenient translation enhancers in a human cell-derived in vitro protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Tominari; Machida, Kodai; Masutani, Mamiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Imataka, Hiroaki

    2010-07-01

    Human cell-derived in vitro protein synthesis systems are useful for the production of recombinant proteins. Productivity can be increased by supplementation with GADD34, a protein that is difficult to express in and purify from E. coli. Deletion of the N-terminal 120 or 240 amino acids of GADD34 improves recovery of this protein from E. coli without compromising its ability to boost protein synthesis in an in vitro protein synthesis system. The use of N-terminally truncated GADD34 proteins in place of full-length GADD34 should improve the utility of human cell-based cell-free protein synthesis systems.

  1. Protein synthesis, growth and energetics in larval herring (Clupea harengus) at different feeding regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlihan, D F; Pedersen, B H; Steffensen, J F

    1995-01-01

    Rates of growth, protein synthesis and oxygen consumption were measured in herring larvae, Clupea harengus, in order to estimate the contribution that protein synthesis makes to oxygen consumption during rapid growth at 8°C. Protein synthesis rates were determined in larvae 9 to 17 d after hatching....... Larvae were bathed in (3)H phenylalanine for several hours and the free pool and protein-bound phenylalanine specific radioactivities were determined.Fractional rates of protein synthesis increased 5 to 11 fold with feeding after a period of fasting. Efficiencies of retention of synthesized protein were...... approximately 50% during rapid growth. Rapid growth in herring larvae thus appears to be characterized by moderate levels of protein turnover similar to those obtained for larger fish. Increases in growth rate occurred without changes in RNA concentration, i.e., the larvae increased the efficiency of RNA...

  2. Protein synthesis and degradation during starvation-induced cardiac atrophy in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarel, A.M.; Parmacek, M.S.; Magid, N.M.; Decker, R.S.; Lesch, M.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the relative importance of protein degradation in the development of starvation-induced cardiac atrophy, in vivo fractional synthetic rates of total cardiac protein, myosin heavy chain, actin, light chain 1, and light chain 2 were measured in fed and fasted rabbits by continuous infusion of [ 3 H] leucine. In addition, the rate of left ventricular protein accumulation and loss were assessed in weight-matched control and fasted rabbits. Rates of total cardiac protein degradation were then estimated as the difference between rates of synthesis and growth. Fasting produced left ventricular atrophy by decreasing the rate of left ventricular protein synthesis (34.8 +/- 1.4, 27.3 +/- 3.0, and 19.3 +/- 1.2 mg/day of left ventricular protein synthesized for 0-, 3-, and 7-day fasted rabbits, respectively). Inhibition of contractile protein synthesis was evident by significant reductions in the fractional synthetic rates of all myofibrillar protein subunits. Although fractional rates of protein degradation increased significantly within 7 days of fasting, actual amounts of left ventricular protein degraded per day were unaffected. Thus, prolonged fasting profoundly inhibits the synthesis of new cardiac protein, including the major protein constituents of the myofibril. Both this inhibition in new protein synthesis as well as a smaller but significant reduction in the average half-lives of cardiac proteins are responsible for atrophy of the heart in response to fasting

  3. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob G Jespersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β and forkhead box O (FoxO pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU patients compared with healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ICU patients were systemically inflamed, moderately hyperglycemic, received insulin therapy, and showed a tendency to lower plasma branched chain amino acids compared with controls. Using Western blotting we measured Akt, GSK3β, mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6k, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, and muscle ring finger protein 1 (MuRF1; and by RT-PCR we determined mRNA expression of, among others, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, FoxO 1, 3 and 4, atrogin1, MuRF1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and myostatin. Unexpectedly, in critically ill ICU patients Akt-mTOR-S6k signaling was substantially higher compared with controls. FoxO1 mRNA was higher in patients, whereas FoxO3, atrogin1 and myostatin mRNAs and MuRF1 protein were lower compared with controls. A moderate correlation (r2=0.36, p<0.05 between insulin infusion dose and phosphorylated Akt was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present for the first time muscle protein turnover signaling in critically ill ICU patients, and we show signaling pathway activity towards a stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and a somewhat inhibited proteolysis.

  4. Effect of diet protein quality on growth and protein synthesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinchalkar, D.V.; Mehta, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of diet protein quality on albino rats was studied by feeding normal and opaque-2 maize. The weight gain in rats was 60 percent higher on opaque-2 maize as compared to those fed on normal maize. Rats converted 1.0 g of dietary opaque-2 maize to 0.226 g weight gain as compared to 0.131 g for normal maize. The protein content per liver was higher with opaque-2 maize diet suggesting a higher net protein synthesis in opaque-2 maize fed rat livers. In vitro 14 C-phenylalanine incorporation showed that polysomes from opaque-2 maize fed rat livers were more efficient in protein synthesis than those from normal maize fed rat livers. Addition of poly-U resulted in more enhanced amino acid incorporation with polysomes from normal maize fed rats as compared to other group indicating greater limitation of mRNA in polysomes from normal maize fed rats. The total yield of liver polysomes from opaque-2 maize fed rats was substantially higher. (author)

  5. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of an alpha-helix mimetic library targeting protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaginian, Alex; Whitby, Landon R; Hong, Sukwon; Hwang, Inkyu; Farooqi, Bilal; Searcey, Mark; Chen, Jiandong; Vogt, Peter K; Boger, Dale L

    2009-04-22

    The design and solution-phase synthesis of an alpha-helix mimetic library as an integral component of a small-molecule library targeting protein-protein interactions are described. The iterative design, synthesis, and evaluation of the candidate alpha-helix mimetic was initiated from a precedented triaryl template and refined by screening the designs for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding. Upon identifying a chemically and biologically satisfactory design and consistent with the screening capabilities of academic collaborators, the corresponding complete library was assembled as 400 mixtures of 20 compounds (20 x 20 x 20-mix), where the added subunits are designed to mimic all possible permutations of the naturally occurring i, i + 4, i + 7 amino acid side chains of an alpha-helix. The library (8000 compounds) was prepared using a solution-phase synthetic protocol enlisting acid/base liquid-liquid extractions for purification on a scale that insures its long-term availability for screening campaigns. Screening of the library for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding not only identified the lead alpha-helix mimetic upon which the library was based, but also suggests that a digestion of the initial screening results that accompany the use of such a comprehensive library can provide insights into the nature of the interaction (e.g., an alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interaction) and define the key residues and their characteristics responsible for recognition.

  6. Repression of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE genes by KNOX homeodomain protein BREVIPEDICELLUS is essential for differentiation of secondary xylem in Arabidopsis root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerlen, Natalie; Allam, Gamalat; Popescu, Adina; Corrigan, Laura; Pautot, Véronique; Hepworth, Shelley R

    2017-06-01

    Repression of boundary genes by KNOTTED1-like homeodomain transcription factor BREVIPEDICELLUS promotes the differentiation of phase II secondary xylem in Arabidopsis roots. Plant growth and development relies on the activity of meristems. Boundaries are domains of restricted growth that separate forming organs and the meristem. Class I KNOX homeodomain transcription factors are important regulators of meristem maintenance. Members of this class including BREVIDICELLUS also called KNOTTED-LIKE FROM ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA1 (BP/KNAT1) fulfill this function in part by spatially regulating boundary genes. The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem that allows for radial expansion of organs during secondary growth. We show here that BP/KNAT1 repression of boundary genes plays a crucial role in root secondary growth. In particular, exclusion of BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1/2 (BOP1/2) and other members of this module from xylem is required for the differentiation of lignified fibers and vessels during the xylem expansion phase of root thickening. These data reveal a previously undiscovered role for boundary genes in the root and shed light on mechanisms controlling wood development in trees.

  7. Optimizing the measurement of mitochondrial protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Nicholas A; Tardif, Nicolas; Rooyackers, Olav; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of mitochondrial protein synthesis after food ingestion, contractile activity, and/or disease is often used to provide insight into skeletal muscle adaptations that occur in the longer term. Studies have shown that protein ingestion stimulates mitochondrial protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle. Minor differences in the stimulation of mitochondrial protein synthesis occur after a single bout of resistance or endurance exercise. There appear to be no measurable differences in mitochondrial protein synthesis between critically ill patients and aged-matched controls. However, the mitochondrial protein synthetic response is reduced at a more advanced age. In this paper, we discuss the challenges involved in the measurement of human skeletal muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis rates based on stable isotope amino acid tracer methods. Practical guidelines are discussed to improve the reliability of the measurement of mitochondrial protein synthesis rates. The value of the measurement of mitochondrial protein synthesis after a single meal or exercise bout on the prediction of the longer term skeletal muscle mass and performance outcomes in both the healthy and disease populations requires more work, but we emphasize that the measurements need to be reliable to be of any value to the field.

  8. Evidence for the involvement of a labile protein in stimulation of adrenal steroidogenesis under conditions not inhibitory to protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, R.J.; Orme-Johnson, N.R.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that synthesis of a labile protein is required for stimulation of steroidogenesis in rat adrenocortical cells. Amino acids L-canavanine and L-S-aminoethylcysteine, at concentrations as high as 5 mM, each inhibited steroidogenesis to a much greater extent than they inhibited protein synthesis. S-Aminoethylcysteine caused a 50% decrease in the stimulated rate of corticosterone production under conditions where incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein was unchanged. Both amino acids block stimulation of steroid synthesis at a step subsequent to the formation of cAMP and before the synthesis of progesterone. The onset of this effect, after the addition of the amino acids, on corticosterone production is quite rapid. These results provide support, that is not dependent on inhibition of protein synthesis, for the hypothesis that a labile protein mediates stimulation of steroidogenesis. Reversal of canavanine and S-aminoethylcysteine inhibition of steroidogenesis by arginine and lysine, respectively, suggests that the inhibitors are functioning as amino acid analogs. S-Aminoethylcysteine inhibits the incorporation of [3H]lysine into protein as well as inhibits steroidogenesis; further, [3H]S-aminoethylcysteine is incorporated into protein that is nonstimulatory. These results suggest that lysine residues play an essential role in the function of the labile protein or that the labile protein contains a large number of lysine residues

  9. Protein synthesis in the embryo of Pinus thunbergii seed, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Naoaki; Sasaki, Satohiko.

    1977-01-01

    14 C-Amino acid incorporating activity in the absence of exogenous mRNA was found in a cell-free system from embryos of light-germinated Pinus thunbergii seeds, but not in that from dark-imbibed seed embryos. Template activity in the cell-free system from the light-germinated seed embryos was observed in the ribosome fraction, especially the polyribosome fraction, but not in the 100,000 x g supernatant fraction (s100). These facts suggest that the nature of the block in protein synthesis during the imbibition of seeds in the dark is due to the lack or inactivity of mRNA. The s100 from light-germinated seed embryos was found to be less active in amino acid incorporation than that from dark-imbibed seed embryos. (auth.)

  10. Proteomic and functional analyses reveal MAPK1 regulates milk protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li-Min; Li, Qing-Zhang; Huang, Jian-Guo; Gao, Xue-Jun

    2012-12-27

    L-Lysine (L-Lys) is an essential amino acid that plays fundamental roles in protein synthesis. Many nuclear phosphorylated proteins such as Stat5 and mTOR regulate milk protein synthesis. However, the details of milk protein synthesis control at the transcript and translational levels are not well known. In this current study, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)/MS-based proteomic technology was used to identify phosphoproteins responsible for milk protein synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs). The effect of L-Lys on DCMECs was analyzed by CASY technology and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The results showed that cell proliferation ability and β-casein expression were enhanced in DCMECs treated with L-Lys. By phosphoproteomics analysis, six proteins, including MAPK1, were identified up-expressed in DCMECs treated with 1.2 mM L-Lys for 24 h, and were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot. Overexpression and siRNA inhibition of MAPK1 experiments showed that MAPK1 upregulated milk protein synthesis through Stat5 and mTOR pathway. These findings that MAPK1 involves in regulation of milk synthesis shed new insights for understanding the mechanisms of milk protein synthesis.

  11. Selective inhibition of influenza virus protein synthesis by inhibitors of DNA function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, P.D.; Dimmock, N.J.

    1977-01-01

    Various known inhibitors of cellular DNA function were shown to inhibit cellular RNA synthesis and influenza (fowl plague) virus multiplication. The drugs were investigated for their effect upon the synthesis of influenza virus proteins. According to this effect they could be classified with previously studied compounds as follows: Group I (ethidium bromide, proflavine, and N-nitroquinoline-N-oxide) inhibited both viral and cellular protein synthesis; Group II (nogalomycin, daunomycin and α-amanitin) inhibited viral but not cellular protein synthesis, and all viral proteins were inhibited coordinately; Group III (mithramycin, echinomycin, and actinomycin D) inhibited all viral but not cellular protein synthesis at high concentrations, but at a lower critical concentration inhibited the synthesis of viral haemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and M protein preferentially; Group IV(uv irradiation and camptothecin) inhibited the synthesis of viral haemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and M protein, but not other viral proteins, even at high doses. The mode of action of these inhibitors is discussed in relation to the mechanism of the nuclear events upon which influenza virus multiplication is dependent

  12. Protein synthesis during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response in Euglena gracilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, W.

    1990-01-01

    Growing cultures of photoheterotrophic Euglena gracilis experience an increase in chlorophyll accumulation during the initial phase of the temperature-induced bleaching response suggesting an increase in the synthesis of plastid components at the bleaching temperature of 33 degree C. A primary goal of this work was to establish whether an increase in the synthesis of plastid proteins accompanies the observed increase in chlorophyll accumulation. In vivo pulse-labeling experiments with [ 35 S]sodium sulfate were carried out with cells grown at room temperature or at 33 degree C. The synthesis of a number of plastid polypeptides of nucleocytoplasmic origin, including some presumably novel polypeptides, increased in cultures treated for 15 hours at 33 degree C. In contrast, while synthesis of thylakoid proteins by the plastid protein synthesis machinery decreased modestly, synthesis of the large subunit of the enzyme ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was strongly affected at the elevated temperature. Synthesis of novel plastid-encoded polypeptides was not induced at the bleaching temperature. It is concluded that protein synthesis in plastids declines during the initial phase of the temperature response in Euglena despite an overall increase in cellular protein synthesis and an increase in chlorophyll accumulation per cell

  13. Synthesis of erythrocyte membrane proteins in dispersed cells from fetal rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yasuo; Murakami, Akihiko; Sugimoto, Etsuro

    1984-01-01

    Protein synthesis in dispersed cells from fetal liver was studied by fluorography of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a [ 35 S] methionine labeled cell lysate. Synthesis of several proteins with molecular weights ranging from 45,000 to 220,000 was observed during erythropoiesis in fetal liver. Some of these proteins were demonstrated to be erythrocyte membrane proteins because they were immunoprecipitated with antiserum against rat red blood cells and the immunoprecipitation was competitive with non-radioactive proteins solubilized from erythrocyte ghosts. The same antiserum caused agglutination of dispered cells from fetal liver. This supported the possibility that these proteins are translocated onto plasma membranes of the dispersed cells. (author)

  14. Age-related changes in the synthesis and phosphorylation of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.A.; Heydari, A.; Richardson, A.

    1986-01-01

    It is well documented that the protein synthetic activity of liver tissue decreases significantly with age. However, very little information is available on the effect of age on the synthesis or phosphorylation of individual proteins. Hepatocytes were isolated from 5- to 30-month-old male Fischer F344 rats, and proteins were labeled with either [ 3 H]-valine or [ 32 P]-phosphate. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to monitor the synthesis and phosphorylation of a wide variety of proteins. A dramatic increase or decrease in the synthesis of approximately 2 to 3% of the proteins was observed. Most of the proteins whose synthesis increased with age were found to be plasma proteins, e.g., acute phase proteins, synthesized by the liver. In general, the synthesis of most proteins decreased 20 to 40% with age. The phosphorylation of most proteins (over 200) did not appear to change with age. However the phosphorylation of two acidic proteins (molecular weights of 148 Kd and 130 Kd and pIs of 5.4 and 5.36, respectively) decreased with age while the phosphorylation of a basic protein (molecular weight of 57 Kd and pI of 8.09) increased with age

  15. Intestinal mucosa in diabetes: synthesis of total proteins and sucrase-isomaltase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, W.A.; Perchellet, E.; Malinowski, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of insulin deficiency on nitrogen metabolism in muscle and liver have been extensively studied with recent in vivo demonstration of impaired protein synthesis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Despite the significant contribution of small intestinal mucosa to overall protein metabolism, the effect of insulin deficiency on intestinal protein synthesis have not been completely defined. The authors studied the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on total protein synthesis by small intestinal mucosa and on synthesis of a single enzyme protein of the enterocyte brush-border membrane sucrase-isomaltase. They used the flood-dose technique to minimize the difficulties of measuring specific radioactivity of precursor phenylalanine and determined incorporation into mucosal proteins and sucrase-isomaltase 20 min after injection of the labeled amino acid. Diabetes did not alter mucosal mass as determined by weight and content of protein and DNA during the 5 days after injection of streptozotocin. Increased rates of sucrase-isomaltase synthesis developed beginning on day 3, and those of total protein developed on day 5. Thus intestinal mucosal protein synthesis is not an insulin-sensitive process

  16. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob G; Nedergaard, Anders; Reitelseder, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors invol...... involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with healthy controls....

  17. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob G; Nedergaard, Anders; Reitelseder, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors invol...... involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with healthy controls....

  18. Habituation to low or high protein intake does not modulate basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Stefan Hm; Horstman, Astrid Mh; Franssen, Rinske; Kouw, Imre Wk; Wall, Benjamin T; Burd, Nicholas A; de Groot, Lisette Cpgm; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2017-02-01

    Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the ability to increase muscle protein synthesis after protein ingestion. To our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the impact of habituation to either low protein intake (LOW PRO) or high protein intake (HIGH PRO) on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response. We assessed the impact of LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO on basal and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of 25 g whey protein. Twenty-four healthy, older men [age: 62 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25.9 ± 0.4 (mean ± SEM)] participated in a parallel-group randomized trial in which they adapted to either a LOW PRO diet (0.7 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) or a HIGH PRO diet (1.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) for 14 d. On day 15, participants received primed continuous l-[ring- 2 H 5 ]-phenylalanine and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine infusions and ingested 25 g intrinsically l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine- and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine-labeled whey protein. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were collected to assess muscle protein synthesis rates as well as dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics. Plasma leucine concentrations and exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased after protein ingestion (P 0.05). Plasma exogenous phenylalanine availability over the 5-h postprandial period was greater after LOW PRO than after HIGH PRO (61% ± 1% compared with 56% ± 2%, respectively; P protein synthesis rates increased from 0.031% ± 0.004% compared with 0.039% ± 0.007%/h in the fasted state to 0.062% ± 0.005% compared with 0.057% ± 0.005%/h in the postprandial state after LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO, respectively (P protein-derived amino acids in the circulation and does not lower basal muscle protein synthesis rates or increase postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after ingestion of 25 g protein in older men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  19. Safe taste memory consolidation is disrupted by a protein synthesis inhibitor in the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Llinás, R; Ramírez-Lugo, L; Guzmán-Ramos, K; Zavala-Vega, S; Bermúdez-Rattoni, F

    2009-07-01

    Consolidation is the process by which a new memory is stabilized over time, and is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. A useful model for studying memory formation is gustatory memory, a type of memory in which a novel taste may become either safe by not being followed by negative consequences (attenuation of neophobia, AN), or aversive by being followed by post-digestive malaise (conditioned taste aversion, CTA). Here we evaluated the effects of the administration of a protein synthesis inhibitor in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell for either safe or aversive taste memory trace consolidation. To test the effects on CTA and AN of protein synthesis inhibition, anisomycin (100microg/microl) was bilaterally infused into the NAc shell of Wistar rats' brains. We found that post-trial protein synthesis blockade impaired the long-term safe taste memory. However, protein synthesis inhibition failed to disrupt the long-term memory of CTA. In addition, we infused anisomycin in the NAc shell after the pre-exposure to saccharin in a latent inhibition of aversive taste. We found that the protein synthesis inhibition impaired the consolidation of safe taste memory, allowing the aversive taste memory to form and consolidate. Our results suggest that protein synthesis is required in the NAc shell for consolidation of safe but not aversive taste memories, supporting the notion that consolidation of taste memory is processed in several brain regions in parallel, and implying that inhibitory interactions between both taste memory traces do occur.

  20. PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS’ COGNITIVE STRUCTURES CONCERNING PROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND THEIR DEGREE OF UNDERSTANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Gerçek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of education is to actualise meaningful learning. Therefore, researching the issues on how students process information and how they configure it is important for meaningful learning. The issue of protein synthesis contains a number of abstract topics and concepts. Hence, it is important in biology teaching to be informed of students’ cognitive structures concerning protein synthesis. This research aims to analyse prospective teachers’ cognitive structures about protein synthesis and their degree of understanding the subject. The research group was composed of 17 volunteering prospective teachers who had been chosen through purposeful sampling. The data were collected via semi-structured interviews. Flow maps and content analysis were used in analysing the data. The results demonstrated that prospective teachers had too many misconceptions about protein synthesis and that their knowledge extent and rich connection are inadequate. The prospective teachers’ degree of understanding protein synthesis was divided into three categories. The results obtained in this research suggested that teachers should be careful in teaching the subject of protein synthesis. Students’ prior knowledge and their misconceptions should be determined and content or contexts to facilitate them to learn an abstract subject such as protein synthesis should be presented.

  1. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-01-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-/ 14 C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects

  2. A Hexose Transporter Homologue Controls Glucose Repression in the Methylotrophic Yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stasyk, Oleh V.; Stasyk, Olena G.; Komduur, Janet; Veenhuis, Marten; Cregg, James M.; Sibirny, Andrei A.

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome biogenesis and synthesis of peroxisomal enzymes in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha are under the strict control of glucose repression. We identified an H. polymorpha glucose catabolite repression gene (HpGCR1) that encodes a hexose transporter homologue. Deficiency in GCR1

  3. Renal protein synthesis in diabetes mellitus: effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barac-Nieto, M.; Lui, S.M.; Spitzer, A.

    1991-01-01

    Is increased synthesis of proteins responsible for the hypertrophy of kidney cells in diabetes mellitus? Does the lack of insulin, and/or the effect of insulin-like growth factor I (IGFI) on renal tubule protein synthesis play a role in diabetic renal hypertrophy? To answer these questions, we determined the rates of 3H-valine incorporation into tubule proteins and the valine-tRNA specific activity, in the presence or absence of insulin and/or IGFI, in proximal tubule suspension isolated from kidneys of streptozotocin diabetic and control rats. The rate of protein synthesis increased, while the stimulatory effects of insulin and IGFI on tubule protein synthesis were reduced, early (96 hours) after induction of experimental diabetes. Thus, hypertrophy of the kidneys in experimental diabetes mellitus is associated with increases in protein synthesis, rather than with decreases in protein degradation. Factor(s) other than the lack of insulin, or the effects of IGFI, must be responsible for the high rate of protein synthesis present in the hypertrophying tubules of diabetic rats

  4. Effects of inhibitors of DNA synthesis and protein synthesis on the rate of DNA synthesis after exposure of mammalian cells to ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, T.D.; Dahle, D.B.; Meechan, P.J.; Carpenter, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Chinese hamster V-79 cells were treated with metabolic inhibitors of DNA or protein synthesis for various intervals of time after exposure of 3.0 or 5.0 J m -2 . After removal of the metabolic block(s) the rate of DNA synthesis was followed by measuring the incorporation of [ 14 C]thymidine into acid-insoluble material. A 2.5 or 5.0h incubation with cycloheximide or hydroxyurea was effective in delaying the onset of the recovery in the rate of DNA synthesis that normally becomes evident several hours after exposure to ultraviolet light. By using concentrations of cycloheximide or hydroxyurea that inhibit DNA synthesis by a similar amount (70%), but protein synthesis by vastly different amounts (95% for cycloheximide; 0% for hydroxyurea), it was apparent that the delay in recovery caused by the treatment of the cells with cycloheximide could be accounted for entirely by its inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis. This suggests that the recovery in DNA synthetic rates following exposure of V-79 cells to ultraviolet light does not appear to require de novo protein synthesis, and therefore does not appear to require the involvement of an inducible DNA repair process. (Auth.)

  5. Effect of heat stress on the pattern of protein synthesis in wheat endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwood, W.; Bernardin, J.

    1990-01-01

    The exposure of detached wheat heads (T. aestivum L. cv Cheyenne) to elevated temperatures resulted not only in the induction of a typical set of high and low molecular weight heat shock proteins (hsps), but also in a differential effect on the synthesis of wheat storage proteins in endosperm tissue when monitored by SDS PAGE of 35 S-labeled polypeptides. The synthesis of hsps in the endosperm had a rapid onset, reached a maximum rate within the first 2 hours at 40 degree C, and then steadily decreased during the next four hours. When heads were returned to 25 degree C after 3 hours at 40 degree C, hsp synthesis did not cease abruptly, but gradually declined over the next several hours. High molecular weight glutenin protein synthesis was drastically reduced with the same time course as heat shock protein synthesis was induced at 40 degree C. Conversely, the synthesis of gliadin proteins remained at a high level at 40 degree C. The synthesis rates for glutenin and gliadin proteins remained at low and high levels, respectively, for as long as the elevated temperature was maintained up to 7 hours

  6. Injury-induced inhibition of small intestinal protein and nucleic acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.A.; Hatz, R.A.; Yarmush, M.L.; Tompkins, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Small intestinal mucosal weight and nutrient absorption are significantly diminished early after cutaneous thermal injuries. Because these intestinal properties are highly dependent on rates of nucleic acid and protein synthesis, in vivo incorporation of thymidine, uridine, and leucine into small intestinal deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and proteins were measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was markedly decreased with the lowest thymidine incorporation in the jejunum (p less than 0.01); these findings were confirmed by autoradiographic identification of radiolabeled nuclei in the intestinal crypts. Protein synthesis was decreased by 6 h postinjury (p less than 0.01) but had returned to normal by 48 h. Consistent with a decreased rate of protein synthesis, ribonucleic acid synthesis was also decreased 18 h postinjury (p less than 0.01). These decreased deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis rates are not likely a result of ischemia because in other studies of this injury model, intestinal blood flow was not significantly changed by the burn injury. Potentially, factors initiating the acute inflammatory reaction may directly inhibit nucleic acid and protein synthesis and lead to alterations in nutrient absorption and intestinal barrier function after injury

  7. Prolonged Adaptation to a Low or High Protein Diet Does Not Modulate Basal Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates - A Substudy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Hursel

    Full Text Available Based on controlled 36 h experiments a higher dietary protein intake causes a positive protein balance and a negative fat balance. A positive net protein balance may support fat free mass accrual. However, few data are available on the impact of more prolonged changes in habitual protein intake on whole-body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates.To assess changes in whole-body protein turnover and basal muscle protein synthesis rates following 12 weeks of adaptation to a low versus high dietary protein intake.A randomized parallel study was performed in 40 subjects who followed either a high protein (2.4 g protein/kg/d or low protein (0.4 g protein/kg/d energy-balanced diet (30/35/35% or 5/60/35% energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat for a period of 12 weeks. A subgroup of 7 men and 8 women (body mass index: 22.8±2.3 kg/m2, age: 24.3±4.9 y were selected to evaluate the impact of prolonged adaptation to either a high or low protein intake on whole body protein metabolism and basal muscle protein synthesis rates. After the diet, subjects received continuous infusions with L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[ring-2H2]tyrosine in an overnight fasted state, with blood samples and muscle biopsies being collected to assess post-absorptive whole-body protein turnover and muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans.After 12 weeks of intervention, whole-body protein balance in the fasted state was more negative in the high protein treatment when compared with the low protein treatment (-4.1±0.5 vs -2.7±0.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.001. Whole-body protein breakdown (43.0±4.4 vs 37.8±3.8 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.03, synthesis (38.9±4.2 vs 35.1±3.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.01 and phenylalanine hydroxylation rates (4.1±0.6 vs 2.7±0.6 μmol phenylalanine/kg/h;P<0.001 were significantly higher in the high vs low protein group. Basal muscle protein synthesis rates were maintained on a low vs high protein diet (0.042

  8. The effect of chloramphenicol on synthesis of ΦX 174-specific proteins and detection of the cistron A protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, D. Van Der; Zandberg, J.; Jansz, H.S.

    1972-01-01

    Synthesis of ΦX 174-specific proteins in Escherichia coli H 502 was examined on sodium dodecyl sulphate-acrylamide gels by coelectrophoresis of proteins from [3H]leucine-labelled infected cells and [14C]leucine-labelled reference cells, which had been infected with ultraviolet-light irradiated

  9. Demonstration of synthesis of beta-trace protein in different tissues of squirrel monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, J E; Sandberg, M [Department of Neurology, University Hospital, S-221 85 Lund, Sweden

    1975-01-01

    The sites of synthesis of the low molwculat weight beta-trace protein, present in a seven times higher concentration in normal human CSF than in normal human serum, have been studied by means of a radioactive immunoprecipitation method. Adult squirrel monkey tissue were cultured in Eagle's minium essential medium in the presence of /sup 14/C-labelled valine, threonine and leucine for 24 hours. Synthesis could be demonstrated in cultures of white CNS matter, whereas cultures of grey CNS matter, peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, kidney and ovary did not show any signs of synthesis. Some cultures of spinal cord, basal ganglia, genital organs except ovary, and liver showed a probable synthesis of beta-trace protein. By means of autoradiography, the synthesis of beta-trace protein in white CNS matter could be confirmed.

  10. Demonstration of synthesis of beta-trace protein in different tissues of squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, J.-E.; Sandberg, M.

    1975-01-01

    The sites of synthesis of the low molwculat weight beta-trace protein, present in a seven times higher concentration in normal human CSF than in normal human serum, have been studied by means of a radioactive immunoprecipitation method. Adult squirrel monkey tissue were cultured in Eagle's minium essential medium in the presence of 14 C-labelled valine, threonine and leucine for 24 hours. Synthesis could be demonstrated in cultures of white CNS matter, whereas cultures of grey CNS matter, peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, kidney and ovary did not show any signs of synthesis. Some cultures of spinal cord, basal ganglia, genital organs except ovary, and liver showed a probable synthesis of beta-trace protein. By means of autoradiography, the synthesis of beta-trace protein in white CNS matter could be confirmed. (author)

  11. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 μM) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, 14 C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively. (author)

  12. Effects of toluene on protein synthesis and the interaction with ethanol in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, Aa.; Gadeholt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of three different concentrations (about 20, 100 and 1000 ..mu..M) of toluene on protein synthesis were studied in hepatocytes isolated from fed and fasted rats after 60 and 120 min. of incubation. The interaction between ethanol (60 mM) and the low and high toluene concentrations were also tested. To measure protein synthesis, /sup 14/C-valine was used as the precursor amino acid. Total valine concentration was 2 mM to ensure near-constant specific radioactivity of precursor. Toluene concentrations were measured by head-space gas chromatography. Protein synthesis was unchanged in the presence of low toluene concentrations. Intermediate toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 20% and high toluene concentration decreased protein synthesis by about 60%. Protein synthesis was similar in cells from fed and fasted rats. Ethanol alone inhibited protein synthesis by 20-30%, more in fasted than in fed rats. Toluene and ethanol in combination inhibited protein synthesis additively. The high toluene concentration with or without ethanol appeared to inhibit synthesis/secretion of export proteins in hepatocytes from fasted rats. In conclusion, our study indicates that toluene in relatively high concentrations inhibits general protein synthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toluene and ethanol seems to inhibit protein synthesis additively.

  13. The limits of adaptation of functional protein synthesis to severe undernutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, T.; Jahoor, F.; Reeds, P.

    1996-01-01

    This project was designed to investigate the limits of adaptation of protein metabolism in the stree of severe childhood malnutrition, representing as it does chronic dietary insufficiency of macronutrients and superimposed infection. The tasks included measurement of concentrations and rates of synthesis of nutrient transport proteins and hepatic acute phase proteins inseverely malnourished children during their acute illness and a recovery

  14. Response of rat brain protein synthesis to ethanol and sodium barbital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, S.; Greenberg, S.A.; Do, K.; Grey, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) depressants such as ethanol and barbiturates under acute or chronic conditions can induce changes in rat brain protein synthesis. While these data demonstrate the individual effects of drugs on protein synthesis, the response of brain protein synthesis to alcohol-drug interactions is not known. The goal of the present study was to determine the individual and combined effects of ethanol and sodium barbital on brain protein synthesis and gain an understanding of the mechanisms by which these alterations in protein synthesis are produced. Specifically, the in vivo and in vitro effects of sodium barbital (one class of barbiturates which is not metabolized by the hepatic tissue) were examined on brain protein synthesis in rats made physically dependent upon ethanol. Using cell free brain polysomal systems isolated from Control, Ethanol and 24 h Ethanol Withdrawn rats, data show that sodium barbital, when intubated intragastrically, inhibited the time dependent incorporation of 14 C) leucine into protein by all three groups of ribosomes. Under these conditions, the Ethanol Withdrawn group displayed the largest inhibition of the 14 C) leucine incorporation into protein when compared to the Control and Ethanol groups. In addition, sodium barbital when added at various concentrations in vitro to the incubation medium inhibited the incorporation of 14 C) leucine into protein by Control and Ethanol polysomes. The inhibitory effects were also obtained following preincubation of ribosomes in the presence of barbital but not cycloheximide. Data suggest that brain protein synthesis, specifically brain polysomes, through interaction with ethanol or barbital are involved in the functional development of tolerance. These interactions may occur through proteins or polypeptide chains or alterations in messenger RNA components associated with the ribosomal units

  15. Dynamic changes of the early protein synthesis in murine immune cells after low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shali; Liu Shuzheng

    1997-01-01

    It was shown that there was a marked increase in protein synthesis of thymocytes that were metabolically labelled with 3 H-Leu for 4,6,8 and 12 hours in low dose irradiated mice showing 33.26%, 51.48%, 51.54% and 34.98% increase respectively at different time intervals of incubation when the thymic and splenic cells were sampled 4 hours after whole body irradiation (WBI) with 75 mGy X-rays. The results suggest that there is an increase in protein synthesis with its peak at 6∼8 hours after radiation. Changes in protein synthesis of immune cells in mice 4 hours after radiation and incubated for 4∼12 h were observed with SDS-PAGE followed by densitometrical scanning. It is revealed that 28 kD protein synthesis was increased gradually within 12 hours of incubation and 43 kD protein synthesis was increased in the thymocytes rapidly reaching a maximum 2 hours after incubation. It was also exhibited that the synthesis of 43 kD protein and 32 kD protein was increased in the splenocytes 2 hours after incubation. These findings may have implications in the mechanism of immunoenhancement and adaptive response induced by low dose radiation

  16. Mechanism of ultraviolet light induced catabolite repression of L-arabinose isomerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, D; Bhattacharya, A K [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Inst. of Medical Sciences

    1982-12-01

    An attempt has been made to find out how U.V. irradiation of E.coli B/r cells causes catabolite repression to inhibit L-arabinose isomerase synthesis. The results presented show that U.V. irradiation leads to a lowering of the cellular cyclic AMP level and of the cyclic AMP binding activity. Unlike catabolite repression by glucose, no small molecular weight compound is involved in U.V. light induced inhibition of the binding activity. It is therefore concluded that the mechanism of catabolite repression induced by U.V. appears to be different from that of the catabolite repression by glucose.

  17. Relief memory consolidation requires protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Johann E A; Breitfeld, Tino; Kahl, Evelyn; Bergado-Acosta, Jorge R; Fendt, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Relief learning refers to the association of a stimulus with the relief from an aversive event. The thus-learned relief stimulus then can induce, e.g., an attenuation of the startle response or approach behavior, indicating positive valence. Previous studies revealed that the nucleus accumbens is essential for the acquisition and retrieval of relief memory. Here, we ask whether the nucleus accumbens is also the brain site for consolidation of relief memory into a long-term form. In rats, we blocked local protein synthesis within the nucleus accumbens by local infusions of anisomycin at different time points during a relief conditioning experiment. Accumbal anisomycin injections immediately after the relief conditioning session, but not 4 h later, prevented the consolidation into long-term relief memory. The retention of already consolidated relief memory was not affected by anisomycin injections. This identifies a time window and site for relief memory consolidation. These findings should complement our understanding of the full range of effects of adverse experiences, including cases of their distortion in humans such as post-traumatic stress disorder and/or phobias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. BDNF-induced local protein synthesis and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Graciano; Comprido, Diogo; Duarte, Carlos B

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus and in other brain regions, playing a role in the formation of certain forms of memory. The effects of BDNF in LTP are mediated by TrkB (tropomyosin-related kinase B) receptors, which are known to be coupled to the activation of the Ras/ERK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) pathways. The role of BDNF in LTP is best studied in the hippocampus, where the neurotrophin acts at pre- and post-synaptic levels. Recent studies have shown that BDNF regulates the transport of mRNAs along dendrites and their translation at the synapse, by modulating the initiation and elongation phases of protein synthesis, and by acting on specific miRNAs. Furthermore, the effect of BDNF on transcription regulation may further contribute to long-term changes in the synaptic proteome. In this review we discuss the recent progress in understanding the mechanisms contributing to the short- and long-term regulation of the synaptic proteome by BDNF, and the role in synaptic plasticity, which is likely to influence learning and memory formation. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'BDNF Regulation of Synaptic Structure, Function, and Plasticity'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Sensitivity of Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation to Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis and Kinases: Computational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yili; Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Memory consolidation and reconsolidation require kinase activation and protein synthesis. Blocking either process during or shortly after training or recall disrupts memory stabilization, which suggests the existence of a critical time window during which these processes are necessary. Using a computational model of kinase synthesis and…

  20. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Olesen, Jens L; Hansen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that an acute bout of strenuous, non-damaging exercise would increase rates of protein synthesis of collagen in tendon and skeletal muscle but these would be less than those of muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Two groups (n = 8 and 6) of healthy young men were studied...... collagen (0.077% h(-1)), muscle collagen (0.054% h(-1)), myofibrillar protein (0.121% h(-1)), and sarcoplasmic protein (0.134% h(-1))). The rates decreased toward basal values by 72 h although rates of tendon collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis remained elevated. There was no tissue damage...... of muscle visible on histological evaluation. Neither tissue microdialysate nor serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4) or procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide changed from resting values. Thus, there is a rapid increase in collagen synthesis after strenuous exercise...

  1. Inhibition of protein synthesis on the ribosome by tildipirosin compared with other veterinary macrolides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Møller; Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Warrass, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Tildipirosin is a 16-membered-ring macrolide developed to treat bacterial pathogens, including Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida, that cause respiratory tract infections in cattle and swine. Here we evaluated the efficacy of tildipirosin at inhibiting protein synthesis...

  2. Protein synthesis levels are increased in a subset of individuals with Fragile X syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacquemont, Sébastien; Pacini, Laura; Jønch, Aia E

    2018-01-01

    architecture and plasticity. Preclinical studies revealed that pharmacological interventions restore those deficits, which are thought to mediate the FXS cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Here we characterized the de novo rate of protein synthesis in patients with FXS and their relationship with clinical...... severity. We measured the rate of protein synthesis in fibroblasts derived from 32 individuals with FXS and from 17 controls as well as in fibroblasts and primary neurons of 27 Fmr1 KO mice and 20 controls. Here we show that levels of protein synthesis are increased in fibroblasts of individuals with FXS...... and Fmr1 KO mice. However, this cellular phenotype displays a broad distribution and a proportion of fragile X individuals and Fmr1 KO mice do not show increased levels of protein synthesis, having measures in the normal range. Because the same Fmr1 KO animal measures in fibroblasts predict those...

  3. Variable effects of dexamethasone on protein synthesis in clonal rat osteosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, B.O.; Kream, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    We examined the effects of dexamethasone on protein synthesis in clonal rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma (ROS) cell lines by measuring the incorporation of [ 3 H]proline into collagenase-digestible and noncollagen protein in the cell layer and medium of the cultures. In ROS 17/2 and subclone C12 of ROS 17/2.8, dexamethasone decreased collagen synthesis with no change in DNA content of the cultures. In ROS 17/2.8 and its subclone G2, dexamethasone stimulated collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis, with a concomitant decrease in the DNA content of the cells. These data indicate that ROS cell lines are phenotypically heterogeneous and suggest that in normal bone there may be distinct subpopulations of osteoblasts with varying phenotypic traits with respect to the regulation of protein synthesis

  4. mTORC1-independent reduction of retinal protein synthesis in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Patrice E; Losiewicz, Mandy K; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Jefferson, Leonard S; Kimball, Scot R; Abcouwer, Steven F; Gardner, Thomas W

    2014-09-01

    Poorly controlled diabetes has long been known as a catabolic disorder with profound loss of muscle and fat body mass resulting from a simultaneous reduction in protein synthesis and enhanced protein degradation. By contrast, retinal structure is largely maintained during diabetes despite reduced Akt activity and increased rate of cell death. Therefore, we hypothesized that retinal protein turnover is regulated differently than in other insulin-sensitive tissues, such as skeletal muscle. Ins2(Akita) diabetic mice and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats exhibited marked reductions in retinal protein synthesis matched by a concomitant reduction in retinal protein degradation associated with preserved retinal mass and protein content. The reduction in protein synthesis depended on both hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency, but protein degradation was only reversed by normalization of hyperglycemia. The reduction in protein synthesis was associated with diminished protein translation efficiency but, surprisingly, not with reduced activity of the mTORC1/S6K1/4E-BP1 pathway. Instead, diabetes induced a specific reduction of mTORC2 complex activity. These findings reveal distinctive responses of diabetes-induced retinal protein turnover compared with muscle and liver that may provide a new means to ameliorate diabetic retinopathy. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Insulin receptors mediate growth effects in cultured fetal neurons. I. Rapid stimulation of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, K.A.; Toledo, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effects of insulin on protein synthesis in cultured fetal chick neurons. Protein synthesis was monitored by measuring the incorporation of [3H]leucine (3H-leu) into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable protein. Upon addition of 3H-leu, there was a 5-min lag before radioactivity occurred in protein. During this period cell-associated radioactivity reached equilibrium and was totally recovered in the TCA-soluble fraction. After 5 min, the incorporation of 3H-leu into protein was linear for 2 h and was inhibited (98%) by the inclusion of 10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide. After 24 h of serum deprivation, insulin increased 3H-leu incorporation into protein by approximately 2-fold. The stimulation of protein synthesis by insulin was dose dependent (ED50 = 70 pM) and seen within 30 min. Proinsulin was approximately 10-fold less potent than insulin on a molar basis in stimulating neuronal protein synthesis. Insulin had no effect on the TCA-soluble fraction of 3H-leu at any time and did not influence the uptake of [3H]aminoisobutyric acid into neurons. The isotope ratio of 3H-leu/14C-leu in the leucyl tRNA pool was the same in control and insulin-treated neurons. Analysis of newly synthesized proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that insulin uniformly increased the incorporation of 14C-leu into all of the resolved neuronal proteins. We conclude from these data that (1) insulin rapidly stimulates overall protein synthesis in fetal neurons independent of amino acid uptake and aminoacyl tRNA precursor pools; (2) stimulation of protein synthesis is mediated by the brain subtype of insulin receptor; and (3) insulin is potentially an important in vivo growth factor for fetal central nervous system neurons

  6. Late protein synthesis-dependent phases in CTA long-term memory: BDNF requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli eMartínez-Moreno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that long-term memory persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related long-term memory when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC, a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA, have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis dependent in different time-windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 hours after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 μg/2 μl per side in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes.

  7. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory (LTM) persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related LTM when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC), a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis-dependent in different time windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 h after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 μg/2 μl per side) in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes.

  8. Contraction intensity and feeding affect collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis rates differently in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Hall, Gerrit van; Rose, Adam John

    2010-01-01

    Exercise stimulates muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) but the importance of contractile intensity and whether it interplays with feeding is not understood. This was investigated following two distinct resistance exercise (RE) contraction intensities using an intra-subject design...... to feeding. Further, although functionally linked, the contractile and the supportive matrix structures upregulate their protein synthesis rate quite differently in response to feeding and contractile-activity and -intensity....

  9. Measuring Protein Synthesis Rate In Living Object Using Flooding Dose And Constant Infusion Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyarti, Ulyarti

    2018-01-01

    Constant infusion is a method used for measuring protein synthesis rate in living object which uses low concentration of amino acid tracers. Flooding dose method is another technique used to measure the rate of protein synthesis which uses labelled amino acid together with large amount of unlabelled amino acid.  The latter method was firstly developed to solve the problem in determination of precursor pool arise from constant infusion method.  The objective of this writing is to com...

  10. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F.; Escobar, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory (LTM) persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related LTM when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC), a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis-dependent in different time windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 h after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 μg/2 μl per side) in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes. PMID:21960964

  11. Protein targeting to glycogen is a master regulator of glycogen synthesis in astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    E. Ruchti; P.J. Roach; A.A. DePaoli-Roach; P.J. Magistretti; I. Allaman

    2016-01-01

    The storage and use of glycogen, the main energy reserve in the brain, is a metabolic feature of astrocytes. Glycogen synthesis is regulated by Protein Targeting to Glycogen (PTG), a member of specific glycogen-binding subunits of protein phosphatase-1 (PPP1). It positively regulates glycogen synthesis through de-phosphorylation of both glycogen synthase (activation) and glycogen phosphorylase (inactivation). In cultured astrocytes, PTG mRNA levels were previously shown to be enhanced by the ...

  12. The rate of synthesis and decomposition of tissue proteins in hypokinesia and increased muscular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, I. V.; Chernyy, A. V.; Fedorov, A. I.

    1978-01-01

    During hypokinesia and physical loading (swimming) of rats, the radioactivity of skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, heart, and blood proteins was determined after administration of radioactive amino acids. Tissue protein synthesis decreased during hypokinesia, and decomposition increased. Both synthesis and decomposition increased during physical loading, but anabolic processes predominated in the total tissue balance. The weights of the animals decreased in hypokinesia and increased during increased muscle activity.

  13. Radioautographic study of protein synthesis during early embryogenesis of Leptimotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonhaute, Claude

    1976-01-01

    Protein synthesis in early embryonic stages of the Colorado beetle has been investigated by radioautography. Radioactive precursor (L. Leucine-3 H) was injected in eggs. At the stage of blastoderm formation amino-acid incorporation decreases sharply: at late blastula stage, incorporation reaches the same levels as during early cleavage, and at gastrula stage becomes higher. Nuclear protein synthesis is first detected during blastoderm formation and increases at gastrula stage [fr

  14. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S., E-mail: gsy3@psu.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  15. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling

  16. Harpin-induced expression and transgenic overexpression of the phloem protein gene AtPP2-A1 in Arabidopsis repress phloem feeding of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunling; Shi, Haojie; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xiaomeng; Lü, Beibei; Zhang, Shuping; Liang, Yuan; Liu, Ruoxue; Qian, Jun; Sun, Weiwei; You, Zhenzhen; Dong, Hansong

    2011-01-13

    Treatment of plants with HrpNEa, a protein of harpin group produced by Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria, induces plant resistance to insect herbivores, including the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, a generalist phloem-feeding insect. Under attacks by phloem-feeding insects, plants defend themselves using the phloem-based defense mechanism, which is supposed to involve the phloem protein 2 (PP2), one of the most abundant proteins in the phloem sap. The purpose of this study was to obtain genetic evidence for the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) PP2-encoding gene AtPP2-A1 in resistance to M. persicae when the plant was treated with HrpNEa and after the plant was transformed with AtPP2-A1. The electrical penetration graph technique was used to visualize the phloem-feeding activities of apterous agamic M. persicae females on leaves of Arabidopsis plants treated with HrpNEa and an inactive protein control, respectively. A repression of phloem feeding was induced by HrpNEa in wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis but not in atpp2-a1/E/142, the plant mutant that had a defect in the AtPP2-A1 gene, the most HrpNEa-responsive of 30 AtPP2 genes. In WT rather than atpp2-a1/E/142, the deterrent effect of HrpNEa treatment on the phloem-feeding activity accompanied an enhancement of AtPP2-A1 expression. In PP2OETAt (AtPP2-A1-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana) plants, abundant amounts of the AtPP2-A1 gene transcript were detected in different organs, including leaves, stems, calyces, and petals. All these organs had a deterrent effect on the phloem-feeding activity compared with the same organs of the transgenic control plant. When a large-scale aphid population was monitored for 24 hours, there was a significant decrease in the number of aphids that colonized leaves of HrpNEa-treated WT and PP2OETAt plants, respectively, compared with control plants. The repression in phloem-feeding activities of M. persicae as a result of AtPP2-A1 overexpression, and

  17. The MYB182 protein down-regulates proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin biosynthesis in poplar by repressing both structural and regulatory flavonoid genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuko; Ma, Dawei; Constabel, C Peter

    2015-03-01

    Trees in the genus Populus (poplar) contain phenolic secondary metabolites including the proanthocyanidins (PAs), which help to adapt these widespread trees to diverse environments. The transcriptional activation of PA biosynthesis in response to herbivory and ultraviolet light stress has been documented in poplar leaves, and a regulator of this process, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB134, has been identified. MYB134-overexpressing transgenic plants show a strong high-PA phenotype. Analysis of these transgenic plants suggested the involvement of additional MYB transcription factors, including repressor-like MYB factors. Here, MYB182, a subgroup 4 MYB factor, was found to act as a negative regulator of the flavonoid pathway. Overexpression of MYB182 in hairy root culture and whole poplar plants led to reduced PA and anthocyanin levels as well as a reduction in the expression of key flavonoid genes. Similarly, a reduced accumulation of transcripts of a MYB PA activator and a basic helix-loop-helix cofactor was observed in MYB182-overexpressing hairy roots. Transient promoter activation assays in poplar cell culture demonstrated that MYB182 can disrupt transcriptional activation by MYB134 and that the basic helix-loop-helix-binding motif of MYB182 was essential for repression. Microarray analysis of transgenic plants demonstrated that down-regulated targets of MYB182 also include shikimate pathway genes. This work shows that MYB182 plays an important role in the fine-tuning of MYB134-mediated flavonoid metabolism. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Prostaglandins with antiproliferative activity induce the synthesis of a heat shock protein in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, M.G.; Garaci, E.; Amici, C.

    1989-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs)A 1 and J 2 were found to potently suppress the proliferation of human K562 erythroleukemia cells and to induce the synthesis of a 74-kDa protein (p74) that was identified as a heat shock protein related to the major 70-kDa heat shock protein group. p74 synthesis was stimulated at doses of PGA 1 and PGJ 2 that inhibited cell replication, and its accumulation ceased upon removal of the PG-induced proliferation block. PGs that did not affect K562 cell replication did not induce p74 synthesis. p74 was found to be localized mainly in the cytoplasm of PG-treated cells, but moderate amounts were found also in dense areas of the nucleus after PGJ 2 treatment. p74 was not necessarily associated with cytotoxicity or with inhibition of cell protein synthesis. The results described support the hypothesis that synthesis of the 70-kDa heat shock proteins is associated with changes in cell proliferation. The observation that PGs can induce the synthesis of heat shock proteins expands our understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds whose regulatory role is well known in many physiological phenomena, including the control of fever production

  19. Two transcription products of the vesicular stomatitis virus genome may control L-cell protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunigan, D.D.; Lucas-Lenard, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    When mouse L-cells are infected with vesicular stomatitis virus, there is a decrease in the rate of protein synthesis ranging from 20 to 85% of that in mock-infected cells. Vesicular stomatitis virus, irradiated with increasing doses of UV light, eventually loses this capacity to inhibit protein synthesis. The UV inactivation curve was biphasic, suggesting that transcription of two regions of the viral genome is necessary for the virus to become inactivated in this capacity. The first transcription produced corresponded to about 373 nucleotides, and the second corresponded to about 42 nucleotides. Inhibition of transcription of the larger product by irradiating the virus with low doses of UV light left a residual inhibition of protein synthesis consisting of approximately 60 to 65% of the total inhibition. This residual inhibition could be obviated by irradiating the virus with a UV dose of greater than 20,000 ergs/mm 2 and was thus considered to represent the effect of the smaller transcription product. In the R1 mutant of another author, the inhibition of transcription of the larger product sufficed to restore protein synthesis to the mock-infected level, suggesting that the smaller transcription product is nonfunctional with respect to protein synthesis inhibition. Extracts from cells infected with virus irradiated with low doses of UV light showed a protein synthesis capacity quite similar to that of their in vivo counterparts, indicating that these extracts closely reflect the in vivo effects of virus infection

  20. Influence of exogeneous histone on DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in cells inoculated with Herpes simplex virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praskov, D.; Kavaklova, L.; Todorov, S.; Tsilka, S.; Petrova, S.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of exogeneous total histone from nucleated red cells on the incorporation of basal DNA and RNA precursors and proteins in FL cells inoculated with serotype I herpes simplex virus was followed up during the infectious process. In comparison with the purely viral infection, in the presence of exogeneous histone, there was repression in the incorporation of all three labelled precursors: 3 H-thymidine, 3 H-uridine and 14 C-leucine. This repression correlates with as high as 90% decrease in infectious virus yield. (author)

  1. Eukaryotic translation initiator protein 1A isoform, CCS-3, enhances the transcriptional repression of p21CIP1 by proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yuri; Yu, Mi-young; Park, Jungeun; Lee, Choong-Eun; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-01-01

    FBI-1, a member of the POK (POZ and Kruppel) family of transcription factors, plays a role in differentiation, oncogenesis, and adipogenesis. eEF1A is a eukaryotic translation elongation factor involved in several cellular processes including embryogenesis, oncogenic transformation, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal organization. CCS-3, a potential cervical cancer suppressor, is an isoform of eEF1A. We found that eEF1A forms a complex with FBI-1 by co-immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF Mass analysis of the immunoprecipitate. GST fusion protein pull-downs showed that FBI-1 directly interacts with eEF1A and CCS-3 via the zinc finger and POZ-domain of FBI-1. FBI-1 co-localizes with either eEF1A or CCS-3 at the nuclear periplasm. CCS-3 enhances transcriptional repression of the p21CIP1 gene (hereafter referred to as p21) by FBI-1. The POZ-domain of FBI-1 interacts with the co-repressors, SMRT and BCoR. We found that CCS-3 also interacts with the co-repressors independently. The molecular interaction between the co-repressors and CCS-3 at the POZ-domain of FBI-1 appears to enhance FBI-1 mediated transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that CCS-3 may be important in cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and oncogenesis by interacting with the proto-oncogene FBI-1 and transcriptional co-repressors. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Type I bHLH Proteins Daughterless and Tcf4 Restrict Neurite Branching and Synapse Formation by Repressing Neurexin in Postmitotic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell D’Rozario

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Proneural proteins of the class I/II basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH family are highly conserved transcription factors. Class I bHLH proteins are expressed in a broad number of tissues during development, whereas class II bHLH protein expression is more tissue restricted. Our understanding of the function of class I/II bHLH transcription factors in both invertebrate and vertebrate neurobiology is largely focused on their function as regulators of neurogenesis. Here, we show that the class I bHLH proteins Daughterless and Tcf4 are expressed in postmitotic neurons in Drosophila melanogaster and mice, respectively, where they function to restrict neurite branching and synapse formation. Our data indicate that Daughterless performs this function in part by restricting the expression of the cell adhesion molecule Neurexin. This suggests a role for these proteins outside of their established roles in neurogenesis.

  3. A statistical view of protein chemical synthesis using NCL and extended methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agouridas, Vangelis; El Mahdi, Ouafâa; Cargoët, Marine; Melnyk, Oleg

    2017-09-15

    Native chemical ligation and extended methodologies are the most popular chemoselective reactions for protein chemical synthesis. Their combination with desulfurization techniques can give access to small or challenging proteins that are exploited in a large variety of research areas. In this report, we have conducted a statistical review of their use for protein chemical synthesis in order to provide a flavor of the recent trends and identify the most popular chemical tools used by protein chemists. To this end, a protein chemical synthesis (PCS) database (http://pcs-db.fr) was created by collecting a set of relevant data from more than 450 publications covering the period 1994-2017. A preliminary account of what this database tells us is presented in this report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethylene-induced senescence-related gene expression requires protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, K.A.; Raghothama, K.G.; Woodson, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of inhibiting protein synthesis on the ethylene-induced expression of 3 carnation senescence-related genes, pSR5, pSR8, and pSR12. Treatment of preclimacteric carnation petal discs with 1μg/ml of cycloheximide, a cytoplasmic protein synthesis inhibitor, for 3h inhibited protein synthesis by >80% as quantitated by the incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein. Pre-treatment of petal discs with cycloheximide prevented ethylene-induced SR transcript accumulation. Cycloheximide treatment of petal discs held in air did not result in increased levels of SR mRNA. These results indicate that ethylene does not interact with pre-formed factors but rather that the activation of SR gene expression by ethylene is mediated by labile protein factor(s) synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes. Experiments are currently underway to determine if cycloheximide exerts its effect at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level

  5. Microsomal protein synthesis inhibition: an early manifestation of gentamicin nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.M.; Mela-Riker, L.M.; Houghton, D.C.; Gilbert, D.N.; Buss, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics achieve bacterial killing by binding to bacterial ribosomes and inhibiting protein synthesis. To examine whether similar mechanisms could be present in renal tubular cells prior to the onset of overt proximal tubular necrosis due to these drugs, we isolated microsomes from Fischer rats given 20 mg/kg gentamicin every 12 h subcutaneously for 2 days and from vehicle-injected controls. Concomitant studies of renal structure, function, and mitochondrial respiration were carried out. [3H]leucine incorporation into renal microsomes of treated animals was reduced by 21.9% (P less than 0.01), whereas brain and liver microsomes from the same animals were unaffected. Gentamicin concentration in the renal microsomal preparation was 56 micrograms/ml, a value 7- to 10-fold above concentrations necessary to inhibit bacterial growth. Conventional renal function studies were normal (blood urea, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance). Treated animals showed only a mild reduction of inulin clearance, 0.71 compared with 0.93 ml.min-1.100 g-1 in controls (P less than 0.05), and an increase in urinary excretion of N-acetylglucosaminidase of 20 compared with 14.8 units/l (P less than 0.05). Renal slice transport of p-aminohippuric acid, tetraethylammonium, and the fractional excretion of sodium were well preserved. There was no evidence, as seen by light microscopy, of proximal tubular necrosis. Mitochondrial cytochrome concentrations were normal and respiratory activities only slightly reduced. Processes similar to those responsible for bacterial killing could be involved in experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity before overt cellular necrosis

  6. Protein synthesis by isolated type II pneumocytes in suspension and in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandes, M.E.; Finkelstein, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Protein synthesis in rabbit type II pneumocytes immediately after isolation or during the first 7 days in culture was examined by incorporation of [ 3 H] leucine or [ 35 S]methionine. After a 1h incubation with label, total cellular protein was analyzed by 1 or 2-D PAGE and fluorography. Following isolation, incorporation was limited to a small number of proteins of apparent molecular weight 70kD, 55-60kD, 25kD and 20+22kD which appear to lack cognates in cultured cells. At 3h, these isolation proteins (IPs) account for ∼ 50% of the labeled protein. Pretreatment with actinomycin D abolished synthesis of the IPs suggesting a requirement for active mRNA production. These proteins are actively synthesized during the first 10h following cell isolation. Loss of active synthesis is accompanied by a gradual enhancement in synthesis of other proteins. Actin synthesis, 125 I-EGF binding to cultured type II cells indicate changing receptor number and binding affinity with time in culture

  7. Sleep deprivation impairs memory by attenuating mTORC1-dependent protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Jennifer C; Davis, Emily J; Peixoto, Lucia; Wimmer, Mathieu E; van Tilborg, Erik; Park, Alan J; Poplawski, Shane G; Chung, Caroline W; Havekes, Robbert; Huang, Jiayan; Gatti, Evelina; Pierre, Philippe; Abel, Ted

    2016-04-26

    Sleep deprivation is a public health epidemic that causes wide-ranging deleterious consequences, including impaired memory and cognition. Protein synthesis in hippocampal neurons promotes memory and cognition. The kinase complex mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) stimulates protein synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 2 (4EBP2). We investigated the involvement of the mTORC1-4EBP2 axis in the molecular mechanisms mediating the cognitive deficits caused by sleep deprivation in mice. Using an in vivo protein translation assay, we found that loss of sleep impaired protein synthesis in the hippocampus. Five hours of sleep loss attenuated both mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of 4EBP2 and the interaction between eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and eIF4G in the hippocampi of sleep-deprived mice. Increasing the abundance of 4EBP2 in hippocampal excitatory neurons before sleep deprivation increased the abundance of phosphorylated 4EBP2, restored the amount of eIF4E-eIF4G interaction and hippocampal protein synthesis to that seen in mice that were not sleep-deprived, and prevented the hippocampus-dependent memory deficits associated with sleep loss. These findings collectively demonstrate that 4EBP2-regulated protein synthesis is a critical mediator of the memory deficits caused by sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Presynaptic protein synthesis required for NT-3-induced long-term synaptic modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotrophins elicit both acute and long-term modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that the long-term synaptic modulation requires the endocytosis of neurotrophin-receptor complex, the activation of PI3K and Akt, and mTOR mediated protein synthesis. However, it is unclear whether the long-term synaptic modulation by neurotrophins depends on protein synthesis in pre- or post-synaptic cells. Results Here we have developed an inducible protein translation blocker, in which the kinase domain of protein kinase R (PKR is fused with bacterial gyrase B domain (GyrB-PKR, which could be dimerized upon treatment with a cell permeable drug, coumermycin. By genetically targeting GyrB-PKR to specific cell types, we show that NT-3 induced long-term synaptic modulation requires presynaptic, but not postsynaptic protein synthesis. Conclusions Our results provide mechanistic insights into the cell-specific requirement for protein synthesis in the long-term synaptic modulation by neurotrophins. The GyrB-PKR system may be useful tool to study protein synthesis in a cell-specific manner.

  9. [Effect of metalaxyl on the synthesis of RNA, DNA and protein in Phytophthora nicotianae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollgiehn, R; Bräutigam, E; Schumann, B; Erge, D

    1984-01-01

    Metalaxyl is used to control diseases caused by fungi of the order of the Perenosporales. We investigated the action of this fungicid eon nucleic acid and protein synthesis in liquid cultures of Phytophthora nicotianae. The uptake of 32P, 3H-uridine, 3H-thymidine and 14C-leucine as precursors of nuclei acid and protein synthesis by the mycelium was not inhibited by metalaxyl. RNA synthesis as indicated by 3H-uridine incorporation was strongly inhibited (about 80%) by 0.5 micrograms/ml of metalaxyl. The inhibition was visible already few minutes after addition of the toxicant. Since the inhibition of incorporation of 3H-thymidine into DNA and of 14C-leucine into protein became significant 2-3 hours later, we conclude that metalaxyl primarily interfers with RNA synthesis. Synthesis of ribosomal RNA is more affected (more than 90%) than that of tRNA (about 55%) and poly(A)-containing RNA. Since in the presence of actinomycin, in contrast to metalaxyl, protein synthesis is inhibited immediately as a consequence of complete inhibition of RNA synthesis and of the short life-time of mRNA, it is also evident that mRNA synthesis is less strongly inhibited, at least during the early period of metalaxyl action. The molecular mechanism of metalaxyl inhibition of the transcription process remains open. The fungicide did not inhibit the activity of a partially purified RNA polymerase isolated from the fungus. On the other hand, the RNA synthesis (14C-UTP-incorporation) by a cell homogenate and by isolated nuclear fractions was inhibited significantly. Possibilities of the molecular action of metalaxyl are discussed. The RNA synthesis of some plant systems (cell cultures of Lycopersicon peruvianum, isolated nuclei from the same cell cultures, purified RNA polymerase from Spinacia oleracea chloroplasts) was not inhibited by metalaxyl, not even at high concentrations.

  10. Spore coat protein synthesis in cell-free systems from sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T; Munoz, L E; Sadaie, Y; Doi, R H

    1978-09-01

    Cell-free systems for protein synthesis were prepared from Bacillus subtilis 168 cells at several stages of sporulation. Immunological methods were used to determine whether spore coat protein could be synthesized in the cell-free systems prepared from sporulating cells. Spore coat protein synthesis first occurred in extracts from stage t2 cells. The proportion of spore coat protein to total proteins synthesized in the cell-free systems was 2.4 and 3.9% at stages t2 and t4, respectively. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of immunoprecipitates from the cell-free systems showed the complete synthesis of an apparent spore coat protein precursor (molecular weight, 25,000). A polypeptide of this weight was previously identified in studies in vivo (L.E. Munoz, Y. Sadaie, and R.H. Doi, J. Biol. Chem., in press). The synthesis in vitro of polysome-associated nascent spore coat polypeptides with varying molecular weights up to 23,000 was also detected. These results indicate that the spore coat protein may be synthesized as a precursor protein. The removal of proteases in the crude extracts by treatment with hemoglobin-Sepharose affinity techniques may be preventing the conversion of the large 25,000-dalton precursor to the 12,500-dalton mature spore coat protein.

  11. Studies on protein synthesis by protoplasts of saccharomyces carlsbergensis III. Studies on the specificity and the mechanism of the action of ribonuclease on protein synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, S.R. de; Dam, G.J.W. van; Koningsberger, V.V.

    1962-01-01

    In this paper, the experimental results are presented of a continued study on the specificity and the mechanism of the inhibition by ribonuclease of protein synthesis in protoplasts of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis. By comparing the effects of native pancreatic ribonuclease with those of

  12. An emergency brake for protein synthesis The integrated stress response is able to rapidly shut down the synthesis of proteins in eukaryotic cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hronová, Vladislava; Valášek, Leoš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, APR 25 (2017), s. 1-3, č. článku e27085. ISSN 2050-084X Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : synthesis of proteins * eukaryotic cells * eIF2 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 7.725, year: 2016

  13. Studies on protein synthesis by protoplasts of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis II. Reversal of the RNase effect of protein synthesis by polymethacrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, S.R. de; Wermeskerken, R.K.A. van; Koningsberger, V.V.

    1961-01-01

    The ribonuclease inhibited protein synthesis and respiration of yeast protoplasts can be restored by the addition of several polyanionic compounds, among which polymethacrylic acid proved to be the most effective one. The results of preliminary experiments with the ultracentrifuge indicate a

  14. Effects of Synchronicity of Carbohydrate and Protein Degradation on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Seo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of in vitro studies were carried out to determine i the effects of enzyme and formaldehyde treatment on the degradation characteristics of carbohydrate and protein sources and on the synchronicity of these processes, and ii the effects of synchronizing carbohydrate and protein supply on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis (MPS in in vitro experiments. Untreated corn (C and enzyme-treated corn (EC were combined with soy bean meal with (ES and without (S enzyme treatment or formaldehyde treatment (FS. Six experimental feeds (CS, CES, CFS, ECS, ECES and ECFS with different synchrony indices were prepared. Highly synchronous diets had the greatest dry matter (DM digestibility when untreated corn was used. However, the degree of synchronicity did not influence DM digestibility when EC was mixed with various soybean meals. At time points of 12 h and 24 h of incubation, EC-containing diets showed lower ammonia-N concentrations than those of C-containing diets, irrespective of the degree of synchronicity, indicating that more efficient utilization of ammonia-N for MPS was achieved by ruminal microorganisms when EC was offered as a carbohydrate source. Within C-containing treatments, the purine base concentration increased as the diets were more synchronized. This effect was not observed when EC was offered. There were significant effects on VFA concentration of both C and S treatments and their interactions. Similar to purine concentrations, total VFA production and individual VFA concentration in the groups containing EC as an energy source was higher than those of other groups (CS, CES and CFS. The results of the present study suggested that the availability of energy or the protein source are the most limiting factors for rumen fermentation and MPS, rather than the degree of synchronicity.

  15. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  16. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation prior to presleep protein feeding stimulates the use of protein-derived amino acids for overnight muscle protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Marlou L; Groen, Bart B L; Franssen, Rinske; van Kranenburg, Janneau; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-01-01

    Short periods of muscle disuse result in substantial skeletal muscle atrophy. Recently, we showed that both neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as well as presleep dietary protein ingestion represent effective strategies to stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates. In this study, we test our hypothesis that NMES can augment the use of presleep protein-derived amino acids for overnight muscle protein synthesis in older men. Twenty healthy, older [69 ± 1 (SE) yr] men were subjected to 24 h of bed rest, starting at 8:00 AM. In the evening, volunteers were subjected to 70-min 1-legged NMES, while the other leg served as nonstimulated control (CON). Immediately following NMES, 40 g of intrinsically l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine labeled protein was ingested prior to sleep. Blood samples were taken throughout the night, and muscle biopsies were obtained from both legs in the evening and the following morning (8 h after protein ingestion) to assess dietary protein-derived l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine enrichments in myofibrillar protein. Plasma phenylalanine concentrations and plasma l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine enrichments increased significantly following protein ingestion and remained elevated for up to 6 h after protein ingestion (P protein-bound l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine enrichments (MPE) increased to a greater extent in the stimulated compared with the control leg (0.0344 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.0297 ± 0.0016 MPE, respectively; P protein-derived amino acids in the NMES compared with CON leg. In conclusion, application of NMES prior to presleep protein feeding stimulates the use of dietary protein-derived amino acids for overnight muscle protein synthesis in older men. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) as well as presleep dietary protein ingestion represent effective strategies to stimulate muscle protein synthesis rates. Here we demonstrate that in older men after a day of bed rest, the application of NMES prior to presleep protein feeding stimulates the use of

  17. Prolonged bed rest decreases skeletal muscle and whole body protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Lane, H. W.; Stuart, C. A.; Davis-Street, J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which the loss of lean body mass and nitrogen during inactivity was due to alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Six male subjects were studied during 7 days of diet stabilization and after 14 days of stimulated microgravity (-6 degrees bed rest). Nitrogen balance became more negative (P protein synthesis (PS; P protein also decreased by 46% (P protein breakdown and inward transport. Whole body protein synthesis determined by [15N]alanine ingestion on six subjects also revealed a 14% decrease (P protein breakdown change significantly. These results indicate that the loss of body protein with inactivity is predominantly due to a decrease in muscle PS and that this decrease is reflected in both whole body and skeletal muscle measures.

  18. Synthesis and processing of structural and intracellular proteins of two enteric coronaviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardinia, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis and processing of virus-specific proteins of two economically important enteric coronaviruses, bovine enteric coronavirus (BCV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), were studied at the molecular level. To determine the time of appearance of virus-specific proteins, virus-infected cells were labeled with 35 S-methionine at various times during infection, immunoprecipitated with specific hyperimmune ascitic fluid, and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The peak of BCV protein synthesis was found to be at 12 hours postinfection (hpi). The appearance of all virus-specific protein was coordinated. In contrast, the peak of TGEV protein synthesis was at 8 hpi, but the nucleocapsid proteins was present as early as 4 hpi. Virus-infected cells were treated with tunicamycin to ascertain the types of glycosidic linkages of the glycoproteins. The peplomer proteins of both viruses were sensitive to inhibition by tunicamycin indicating that they possessed N-linked carbohydrates. The matrix protein of TGEV was similarly affected. The matrix protein of BCV, however, was resistant to tunicamycin treatment and, therefore, has O-linked carbohydrates. Only the nucleocapsid protein of both viruses is phosphorylated as detected by radiolabeling with 32 P-orthophosphate. Pulse-chase studies and comparison of intracellular and virion proteins were done to detect precursor-product relationships

  19. mTORC1 Coordinates Protein Synthesis and Immunoproteasome Formation via PRAS40 to Prevent Accumulation of Protein Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Sung; Kim, Kwan Hyun; Tschida, Barbara; Sachs, Zohar; Noble-Orcutt, Klara E; Moriarity, Branden S; Ai, Teng; Ding, Rui; Williams, Jessica; Chen, Liqiang; Largaespada, David; Kim, Do-Hyung

    2016-02-18

    Reduction of translational fidelity often occurs in cells with high rates of protein synthesis, generating defective ribosomal products. If not removed, such aberrant proteins can be a major source of cellular stress causing human diseases. Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1 promotes the formation of immunoproteasomes for efficient turnover of defective proteins and cell survival. mTORC1 sequesters precursors of immunoproteasome β subunits via PRAS40. When activated, mTORC1 phosphorylates PRAS40 to enhance protein synthesis and simultaneously to facilitate the assembly of the β subunits for forming immunoproteasomes. Consequently, the PRAS40 phosphorylations play crucial roles in clearing aberrant proteins that accumulate due to mTORC1 activation. Mutations of RAS, PTEN, and TSC1, which cause mTORC1 hyperactivation, enhance immunoproteasome formation in cells and tissues. Those mutations increase cellular dependence on immunoproteasomes for stress response and survival. These results define a mechanism by which mTORC1 couples elevated protein synthesis with immunoproteasome biogenesis to protect cells against protein stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deoxynivalenol affects in vitro intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity through inhibition of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Walle, Jacqueline; Sergent, Therese; Piront, Neil; Toussaint, Olivier; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan

    2010-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most common mycotoxin contaminants of raw and processed cereal food, adversely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Since DON acts as a protein synthesis inhibitor, the constantly renewing intestinal epithelium could be particularly sensitive to DON. We analyzed the toxicological effects of DON on intestinal epithelial protein synthesis and barrier integrity. Differentiated Caco-2 cells, as a widely used model of the human intestinal barrier, were exposed to realistic intestinal concentrations of DON (50, 500 and 5000 ng/ml) during 24 h. DON caused a concentration-dependent decrease in total protein content associated with a reduction in the incorporation of [ 3 H]-leucine, demonstrating its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis. DON simultaneously increased the paracellular permeability of the monolayer as reflected through a decreased transepithelial electrical resistance associated with an increased paracellular flux of the tracer [ 3 H]-mannitol. A concentration-dependent reduction in the expression level of the tight junction constituent claudin-4 was demonstrated by Western blot, which was not due to diminished transcription, increased degradation, or NF-κB, ERK or JNK activation, and was also observed for a tight junction independent protein, i.e. intestinal alkaline phosphatase. These results demonstrate a dual toxicological effect of DON on differentiated Caco-2 cells consisting in an inhibition of protein synthesis as well as an increase in monolayer permeability, and moreover suggest a possible link between them through diminished synthesis of the tight junction constituent claudin-4.

  1. Cellular recovery from exposure to sub-optimal concentrations of AB toxins that inhibit protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga toxin 1, exotoxin A, diphtheria toxin and ricin are all AB-type protein toxins that act within the host cytosol to kill the host cell through a pathway involving the inhibition of protein synthesis. It is thought that a single molecule of cytosolic toxin is sufficient to kill the host cell. In...

  2. Enteral B-hydroxy-B-methylbutyrate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many low-birth weight infants are at risk for poor growth due to an inability to achieve adequate protein intake. Administration of the amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates. To determine the effects of enteral supplementation of the leucine metabolite B-hydr...

  3. Leucine pulses enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis during continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infants unable to maintain oral feeding can be nourished by orogastric tube. We have shown that orogastric continuous feeding restricts muscle protein synthesis compared with intermittent bolus feeding in neonatal pigs. To determine whether leucine leu infusion can be used to enhance protein synthes...

  4. Exogenous insulin does not increase muscle protein synthesis rate when administered systemically: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trommelen, J.; Groen, B.; Hamer, H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Though it is well appreciated that insulin plays an important role in the regulation of muscle protein metabolism, there is much discrepancy in the literature on the capacity of exogenous insulin administration to increase muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. Objective To

  5. Sepsis and development impede muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by different ribosomal mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    In muscle, sepsis reduces protein synthesis (MPS) by restraining translation in neonates and adults. Even though protein accretion decreases with development as neonatal MPS rapidly declines by maturation, the changes imposed by development on the sepsis-associated decrease in MPS have not been desc...

  6. A cell-based fluorescent assay to detect the activity of AB toxins that inhibit protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    AB-type protein toxins, produced by numerous bacterial pathogens and some plants, elicit a cytotoxic effect involving the inhibition of protein synthesis. To develop an improved method to detect the inhibition of protein synthesis by AB-type toxins, the present study characterized a Vero cell line t...

  7. Modulation of protein synthesis and secretion by substratum in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhakaran, P.R.; Stamatoglou, S.C.; Hughes, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Hepatocytes isolated by perfusion of adult rat liver and cultured on substrata consisting of one or more of the major components of the liver biomatrix (fibronectin, laminin, type IV collagen) have been examined for the synthesis of defined proteins. Under these conditions, tyrosine amino transferase, a marker of hepatocyte function, is maintained at similar levels in response to dexamethasone over 5 days in culture on each substratum, and total cellular protein synthesis remains constant. By contrast, there is a rapid decrease in synthesis and secretion of albumin and a 3-7-fold increase in synthesis and section of α-fetoprotein which are most marked on a laminin substratum, but least evident on type IV collagen, and an increased synthesis of fibronectin and type IV collagen. The newly synthesized matrix proteins are present in the cell layer as well as in cell secretions. The enhanced synthesis of fibronectin is less in cells seeded onto a fibronectin substratum than on laminin or type IV collagen substrata. These results indicate that hepatocytes cultured in serum-free medium on substrata composed of components of the liver biomatrix maintain certain functions of the differentiated state (tyrosine amino transferase), lose others (albumin secretion) and switch to increased synthesis of matrix components as well as fetal markers such as α-fetoprotein. The magnitude of these effects depends on the substratum on which the hepatocytes are cultured

  8. Effect of Antimalarial Drugs on Plasmodia Cell-Free Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ferreras

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A cell-free system from Plasmodium falciparum able to translate endogenous mRNA was used to determine the effect of artemisinin, chloroquine and primaquine on the protein synthesis mechanism of the parasite. The antimalarial drugs did not inhibit the incorporation of [³H] methionine into parasite proteins even at concentrations higher than the ones found to strongly inhibit the parasite growth. Results clearly indicate that these compounds do not have a direct effect on protein synthesis activity of P. falciparum coded by endogenous mRNA.

  9. Is there any relationship between decreased AgNOR protein synthesis and human hair loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroz, R; Tasdemir, S; Dogan, H

    2012-11-01

    Argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region associated proteins (AgNORs) play roles in cell proliferation and a variety of diseases. We attempted to determine whether decreased NOR protein synthesis causes human hair loss. We studied 21 healthy males who suffered hair loss on the frontal/vertex portion of the head. Hair root cells from normal and hair loss sites were stained for AgNOR. One hundred nuclei per site were evaluated and the AgNOR number and NORa/TNa proportions of individual cells were determined using a computer program. The cells from normal sites had significantly higher AgNOR counts than those from hair loss sites. Also, the cells from the normal sites had significantly higher NORa/TNa than cells from the hair loss sites. In the normal sites, the cells demonstrated more NOR protein synthesis than cells in hair loss sites. Therefore, decreased NOR protein synthesis appears to be related to hair loss in humans.

  10. In vitro estimation of rumen microbial protein synthesis of water buffaloes using 30S as tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendratno, C.; Abidin, Z.; Bahaudin, R.; Sastrapradja, D.

    1977-01-01

    An experiment to study the effect of diet and individual differences of animals on the in vitro estimation of rumen microbial protein synthesis in young female water buffaloes using the technique of inorganic 35 S incorporation, is described. The dietary treatments were four combinations of roughage supplemented with cassava meal. From the value of rate constant for dilution of radioactivity in the sulphide pool and percentage of inorganic 35 S incorporated into microbial protein, it can be concluded that individual differences of animals have no influence on the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis. Feed composition, on the other hand, tends to have some influence on the efficiency of protein synthesis(P3O.15). (author)

  11. Skeletal muscle morphology, protein synthesis and gene expression in Ehlers Danlos Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Rie H; Jensen, Jacob K; Voermans, Nicol C

    2017-01-01

    skeletal muscle biopsies in patients with classic EDS (cEDS, n=5 (Denmark)+ 8 (The Netherlands)) and vascular EDS (vEDS, n=3) and analyzed muscle fiber morphology and content (Western blotting and muscle fiber type/area distributions) and muscle mRNA expression and protein synthesis rate (RT-PCR and stable...... isotope technique). RESULTS: The cEDS patients did not differ from healthy controls (n = 7-11) with regard to muscle fiber type/area, myosin/α-actin ratio, muscle protein synthesis rate or mRNA expression. In contrast, the vEDS patients demonstrated higher expression of matrix proteins compared to c......EDS patients (fibronectin and MMP-2). DISCUSSION: The cEDS patients had surprisingly normal muscle morphology and protein synthesis, whereas vEDS patients demonstrated higher mRNA expression for extracellular matrix remodeling in skeletal musculature compared to cEDS patients....

  12. Transcriptional activation of the glycolytic las operon and catabolite repression of the gal operon in Lactococcus lactis are mediated by the catabolite control protein CcpA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luesink, Evert J.; Herpen, René E.M.A. van; Grossiord, Benoît P.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Vos, Willem M. de

    1998-01-01

    The Lactococcus lactis ccpA gene, encoding the global regulatory protein CcpA, was identified and characterized. Northern blot and primer extension analyses showed that the L. lactis ccpA gene is constitutively transcribed from a promoter that does not contain a cre sequence. Inactivation of the

  13. Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) interacts with CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) in mitochondria to repress oxidative phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, Shahrooz; Chueh, Fu-Yu; Chandran, Bala; Yu, Chao-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Many cancer cells exhibit reduced mitochondrial respiration as part of metabolic reprogramming to support tumor growth. Mitochondrial localization of several protein tyrosine kinases is linked to this characteristic metabolic shift in solid tumors, but remains largely unknown in blood cancer. Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) is a key T-cell kinase and widely implicated in blood malignancies. The purpose of our study is to determine whether and how Lck contributes to metabolic shift in T-cell leukemia through mitochondrial localization. We compared the human leukemic T-cell line Jurkat with its Lck-deficient derivative Jcam cell line. Differences in mitochondrial respiration were measured by the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial superoxide. Detailed mitochondrial structure was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Lck localization was evaluated by subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy. Proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins co-precipitated with Lck in leukemic T-cells. Protein interaction was validated by biochemical co-precipitation and confocal microscopy, followed by in situ proximity ligation assay microscopy to confirm close-range (<16 nm) interaction. Jurkat cells have abnormal mitochondrial structure and reduced levels of mitochondrial respiration, which is associated with the presence of mitochondrial Lck and lower levels of mitochondrion-encoded electron transport chain proteins. Proteomics identified CR6-interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) as the novel Lck-interacting protein. Lck association with CRIF1 in Jurkat mitochondria was confirmed biochemically and by microscopy, but did not lead to CRIF1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Consistent with the role of CRIF1 in functional mitoribosome, shRNA-mediated silencing of CRIF1 in Jcam resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction similar to that observed in Jurkat. Reduced interaction between CRIF1 and Tid1, another key component

  14. The extracellular adherence protein (Eap) of Staphylococcus aureus acts as a proliferation and migration repressing factor that alters the cell morphology of keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbeis, Janina; Peisker, Henrik; Backes, Christian S; Bur, Stephanie; Hölters, Sebastian; Thewes, Nicolas; Greiner, Markus; Junker, Christian; Schwarz, Eva C; Hoth, Markus; Junker, Kerstin; Preissner, Klaus T; Jacobs, Karin; Herrmann, Mathias; Bischoff, Markus

    2017-02-01

    Staphyloccocus aureus is a major human pathogen and a common cause for superficial and deep seated wound infections. The pathogen is equipped with a large arsenal of virulence factors, which facilitate attachment to various eukaryotic cell structures and modulate the host immune response. One of these factors is the extracellular adherence protein Eap, a member of the "secretable expanded repertoire adhesive molecules" (SERAM) protein family that possesses adhesive and immune modulatory properties. The secreted protein was previously shown to impair wound healing by interfering with host defense and neovascularization. However, its impact on keratinocyte proliferation and migration, two major steps in the re-epithelialization process of wounds, is not known. Here, we report that Eap affects the proliferation and migration capacities of keratinocytes by altering their morphology and adhesive properties. In particular, treatment of non-confluent HaCaT cell cultures with Eap resulted in cell morphology changes as well as a significant reduction in cell proliferation and migration. Eap-treated HaCaT cells changed their appearance from an oblong via a trapezoid to an astral-like shape, accompanied by decreases in cell volume and cell stiffness, and exhibited significantly increased cell adhesion. Eap had a similar influence on endothelial and cancer cells, indicative for a general effect of Eap on eukaryotic cell morphology and functions. Specifically, Eap was found to interfere with growth factor-stimulated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that is known to be responsible for cell shape modulation, induction of proliferation and migration of epithelial cells. Western blot analyses revealed that Eap blocked the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) in keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)-stimulated HaCaT cells. Together, these data add another antagonistic mechanism of Eap in wound healing, whereby the

  15. Amino acids augment muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs during acute endotoxemia by stimulating mTOR-dependent translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Renán A; Jeyapalan, Asumthia; Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W; Nguyen, Hanh V; Suryawan, Agus; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-11-01

    In skeletal muscle of adults, sepsis reduces protein synthesis by depressing translation initiation and induces resistance to branched-chain amino acid stimulation. Normal neonates maintain a high basal muscle protein synthesis rate that is sensitive to amino acid stimulation. In the present study, we determined the effect of amino acids on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues in septic neonates. Overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were infused with endotoxin (LPS, 0 and 10 microg.kg(-1).h(-1)), whereas glucose and insulin were maintained at fasting levels; amino acids were clamped at fasting or fed levels. In the presence of fasting insulin and amino acids, LPS reduced protein synthesis in longissimus dorsi (LD) and gastrocnemius muscles and increased protein synthesis in the diaphragm, but had no effect in masseter and heart muscles. Increasing amino acids to fed levels accelerated muscle protein synthesis in LD, gastrocnemius, masseter, and diaphragm. LPS stimulated protein synthesis in liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, and kidney in fasted animals. Raising amino acids to fed levels increased protein synthesis in liver of controls, but not LPS-treated animals. The increase in muscle protein synthesis in response to amino acids was associated with increased mTOR, 4E-BP1, and S6K1 phosphorylation and eIF4G-eIF4E association in control and LPS-infused animals. These findings suggest that amino acids stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis during acute endotoxemia via mTOR-dependent ribosomal assembly despite reduced basal protein synthesis rates in neonatal pigs. However, provision of amino acids does not further enhance the LPS-induced increase in liver protein synthesis.

  16. Arginine depletion by arginine deiminase does not affect whole protein metabolism or muscle fractional protein synthesis rate in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depl...

  17. A reproducible and scalable procedure for preparing bacterial extracts for cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Kazushige; Matsuda, Takayoshi; Tomabechi, Yuri; Yonemochi, Mayumi; Hanada, Kazuharu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Sakamoto, Kensaku; Takemoto, Chie; Shirouzu, Mikako

    2017-11-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis is a useful method for preparing proteins for functional or structural analyses. However, batch-to-batch variability with regard to protein synthesis activity remains a problem for large-scale production of cell extract in the laboratory. To address this issue, we have developed a novel procedure for large-scale preparation of bacterial cell extract with high protein synthesis activity. The developed procedure comprises cell cultivation using a fermentor, harvesting and washing of cells by tangential flow filtration, cell disruption with high-pressure homogenizer and continuous diafiltration. By optimizing and combining these methods, ∼100 ml of the cell extract was prepared from 150 g of Escherichia coli cells. The protein synthesis activities, defined as the yield of protein per unit of absorbance at 260 nm of the cell extract, were shown to be reproducible, and the average activity of several batches was twice that obtained using a previously reported method. In addition, combinatorial use of the high-pressure homogenizer and diafiltration increased the scalability, indicating that the cell concentration at disruption varies from 0.04 to 1 g/ml. Furthermore, addition of Gam protein and examinations of the N-terminal sequence rendered the extract prepared here useful for rapid screening with linear DNA templates. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M; Røntved, C M; Theil, P K; Khatun, M; Lauridsen, C; Kristensen, N B

    2017-05-01

    The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at -14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[C]Phe infusion. Plasma volume was determined at +4 and +29 DRTC by dilution of a [I]BSA dose. Synthesis rate of tissue protein in biopsied rumen papillae was determined by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment, and mRNA expression of selected genes was measured by real-time qPCR. Total and differential leukocyte counts were performed and immune responsiveness of monocytes was evaluated by tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ) concentration on ex vivo whole blood stimulation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and responsiveness of T-lymphocytes by interferon γ (IFNγ) concentration on stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin β (SEB). Further, ELISA plasma concentrations of IgM, IgA, and IgG were determined. The DRTC affected the majority of investigated parameters as expected. The CAS treatment increased milk protein yield (P = 0.04), and tended to lower TNFɑ (P = 0.06), and lowered IFNγ (P = 0.03) responsiveness per monocyte and lymphocyte, respectively, compared with CTRL. Further, fractional synthesis rate of albumin was greater at +4 DRTC for CAS compared with CTRL but did not differ by +29 DRTC (interaction: P = 0.01). In rumen papillae, synthesis rate of tissue protein was greater for CAS compared with CTRL (P protein supply seem to

  19. Noradrenaline represses PPAR (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor) gamma2 gene expression in brown adipocytes: intracellular signalling and effects on PPARgamma2 and PPARgamma1 protein levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Eva M; Nielsen, Ronni; Petrovic, Natasa

    2004-01-01

    phases, with the highest mRNA levels being found at the time of transition between the phases. PPARgamma2 mRNA levels were downregulated by noradrenaline treatment (EC50, 0.1 microM) in both proliferative and differentiating cells, with a lagtime of 1 h and lasting up to 4 h, after which expression...... was thus to investigate the influence of noradrenaline on PPARgamma gene expression in brown adipocytes. In primary cultures of brown adipocytes, PPARgamma2 mRNA levels were 20-fold higher than PPARgamma1 mRNA levels. PPARgamma expression occurred during both the proliferation and the differentiation...... gradually recovered. The down-regulation was beta-adrenoceptor-induced and intracellularly mediated via cAMP and protein kinase A; the signalling pathway did not involve phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Src, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Treatment...

  20. A human Polycomb isoform lacking the Pc box does not participate to PRC1 complexes but forms protein assemblies and represses transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völkel, Pamela; Le Faou, Perrine; Vandamme, Julien

    2012-01-01

    site for the PRC1 protein complex. Drosophila core PRC1 is composed of four subunits: Polycomb (Pc), Posterior sex combs (Psc), Polyhomeotic (Ph) and Sex combs extra (Sce). Each of these proteins has multiple orthologs in vertebrates, thus generating an enormous scope for potential combinatorial...... diversity. In particular, mammalian genomes encode five Pc family members: CBX2, CBX4, CBX6, CBX7 and CBX8. To complicate matters further, distinct isoforms might arise from single genes. Here, we address the functional role of the two human CBX2 isoforms. Owing to different polyadenylation sites...... and alternative splicing events, the human CBX2 locus produces two transcripts: a 5-exon transcript that encodes the 532-amino acid CBX2-1 isoform that contains the conserved chromodomain and Pc box and a 4-exon transcript encoding a shorter isoform, CBX2-2, lacking the Pc box but still possessing a chromodomain...

  1. Immobilization methods for the rapid total chemical synthesis of proteins on microtiter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitterbart, Robert; Krumrey, Michael; Seitz, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    The chemical synthesis of proteins typically involves the solid-phase peptide synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments that are stitched together in solution by native chemical ligation (NCL). The process is slow, and throughput is limited because of the need for repeated high performance liquid chromatography purification steps after both solid-phase peptide synthesis and NCL. With an aim to provide faster access to functional proteins and to accelerate the functional analysis of synthetic proteins by parallelization, we developed a method for the high performance liquid chromatography-free synthesis of proteins on the surface of microtiter plates. The method relies on solid-phase synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments, immobilization of the C-terminal fragment and on-surface NCL with an unprotected peptide thioester in crude form. Herein, we describe the development of a suitable immobilization chemistry. We compared (i) formation of nickel(II)-oligohistidine complexes, (ii) Cu-based [2 + 3] alkine-azide cycloaddition and (iii) hydrazone ligation. The comparative study identified the hydrazone ligation as most suitable. The sequence of immobilization via hydrazone ligation, on-surface NCL and radical desulfurization furnished the targeted SH3 domains in near quantitative yield. The synthetic proteins were functional as demonstrated by an on-surface fluorescence-based saturation binding analysis. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Acquisition, consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of eyelid conditioning responses require de novo protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Mari Carmen; Delgado-García, José María; Carrión, Angel Manuel

    2005-02-23

    Memory, as measured by changes in an animal's behavior some time after learning, is a reflection of many processes. Here, using a trace paradigm, in mice we show that de novo protein synthesis is required for acquisition, consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction of classically conditioned eyelid responses. Two critical periods of protein synthesis have been found: the first, during training, the blocking of which impaired acquisition; and the second, lasting the first 4 h after training, the blocking of which impaired consolidation. The process of reconsolidation was sensitive to protein synthesis inhibition if anisomycin was injected before or just after the reactivation session. Furthermore, extinction was also dependent on protein synthesis, following the same temporal course as that followed during acquisition and consolidation. This last fact reinforces the idea that extinction is an active learning process rather than a passive event of forgetting. Together, these findings demonstrate that all of the different stages of memory formation involved in the classical conditioning of eyelid responses are dependent on protein synthesis.

  3. Glutamic Acid as Enhancer of Protein Synthesis Kinetics in Hepatocytes from Old Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, V Y; Malchenko, L A; Butorina, N N; Lazarev Konchenko, D S; Zvezdina, N D; Dubovaya, T K

    2017-08-01

    Dense cultures of hepatocytes from old rats (~2 years old, body weight 530-610 g) are different from similar cultures of hepatocytes from young rats by the low amplitude of protein synthesis rhythm. Addition of glutamic acid (0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/ml) into the culture medium with hepatocytes of old rats resulted in increase in the oscillation amplitudes of the protein synthesis rhythm to the level of young rats. A similar action of glutamic acid on the protein synthesis kinetics was observed in vivo after feeding old rats with glutamic acid. Inhibition of metabotropic receptors of glutamic acid with α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (0.01 mg/ml) abolished the effect of glutamic acid. The amplitude of oscillation of the protein synthesis rhythm in a cell population characterizes synchronization of individual oscillations caused by direct cell-cell communications. Hence, glutamic acid, acting as a receptor-dependent transmitter, enhanced direct cell-cell communications of hepatocytes that were decreased with aging. As differentiated from other known membrane signaling factors (gangliosides, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine), glutamic acid can penetrate into the brain and thus influence the communications and protein synthesis kinetics that are disturbed with aging not only in hepatocytes, but also in neurons.

  4. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubring-Giese, Maximilian; Leemburg, Susan; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp, Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of protein synthesis inhibition within this region after experimental stroke. Long-Evans rats were trained to perform a skilled-reaching task (SRT) until they reached plateau performance. A photothrombotic stroke was induced in the forelimb representation of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the trained paw. The SRT was re-trained after stroke while the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin (ANI) or saline were injected into the peri-infarct cortex through implanted cannulas. ANI injections reduced protein synthesis within the peri-infarct cortex by 69% and significantly impaired recovery of reaching performance through re-training. Improvement of motor performance within a single training session remained intact, while improvement between training sessions was impaired. ANI injections did not affect infarct size. Thus, protein synthesis inhibition within the peri-infarct cortex impairs recovery of motor deficits after ischemic stroke by interfering with consolidation of motor memory between training sessions but not short-term improvements within one session.

  5. Suppression of STAT3 NH2 -terminal domain chemosensitizes medulloblastoma cells by activation of protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 via de-repression by microRNA-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sutapa; Coulter, Don W; Gray, Shawn D; Sughroue, Jason A; Roychoudhury, Shrabasti; McIntyre, Erin M; Chaturvedi, Nagendra K; Bhakat, Kishor K; Joshi, Shantaram S; McGuire, Timothy R; Sharp, John G

    2018-04-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant pediatric brain tumor with poor prognosis. Signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 (STAT3) is constitutively activated in MB where it functions as an oncoprotein, mediating cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we have delineated the functional role of activated STAT3 in MB, by using a cell permeable STAT3-NH 2 terminal domain inhibitor (S3-NTDi) that specifically perturbs the structure/function of STAT3. We have implemented several biochemical experiments using human MB tumor microarray (TMA) and pediatric MB cell lines, derived from high-risk SHH-TP53-mutated and MYC-amplified Non-WNT/SHH tumors. Treatment of MB cells with S3-NTDi leads to growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. S3-NTDi downregulated expression of STAT3 target genes, delayed migration of MB cells, attenuated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker expressions and reduced cancer stem-cell associated protein expressions in MB-spheres. To elucidate mechanisms, we showed that S3-NTDi induce expression of pro-apoptotic gene, C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), and decrease association of STAT3 to the proximal promoter of CCND1 and BCL2. Of note, S3-NTDi downregulated microRNA-21, which in turn, de-repressed Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a negative regulator of STAT3 signaling pathway. Furthermore, combination therapy with S3-NTDi and cisplatin significantly decreased highly aggressive MYC-amplified MB cell growth and induced apoptosis by downregulating STAT3 regulated proliferation and anti-apoptotic gene expression. Together, our results revealed an important role of STAT3 in regulating MB pathogenesis. Disruption of this pathway with S3-NTDi, therefore, may serves as a promising candidate for targeted MB therapy by enhancing chemosensitivity of MB cells and potentially improving outcomes in high-risk patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Use of protein cages as a template for confined synthesis of inorganic and organic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masaki; Qazi, Shefah; Edwards, Ethan; Douglas, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Protein cages are hollow spherical proteins assembled from a defined number of subunits. Because they are extremely homogeneous in size and structure, their interior cavities can serve as ideal templates to encapsulate and synthesize well-defined nanoparticles. Here, we describe the exemplary synthesis of a hard and a soft material in two representative protein cages, i.e., magnetite nanoparticles in ferritin and a poly(2-aminoethyl)methacrylate inside a viral capsid derived from the bacteriophage P22.

  7. Transcriptional Repression and Protein Degradation of the Ca2+-Activated K+ Channel KCa1.1 by Androgen Receptor Inhibition in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anowara Khatun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa1.1 plays an important role in the promotion of breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. The androgen receptor (AR is proposed as a therapeutic target for AR-positive advanced triple-negative breast cancer. We herein investigated the effects of a treatment with antiandrogens on the functional activity, activation kinetics, transcriptional expression, and protein degradation of KCa1.1 in human breast cancer MDA-MB-453 cells using real-time PCR, Western blotting, voltage-sensitive dye imaging, and whole-cell patch clamp recording. A treatment with the antiandrogen bicalutamide or enzalutamide for 48 h significantly suppressed (1 depolarization responses induced by paxilline (PAX, a specific KCa1.1 blocker and (2 PAX-sensitive outward currents induced by the depolarizing voltage step. The expression levels of KCa1.1 transcripts and proteins were significantly decreased in MDA-MB-453 cells, and the protein degradation of KCa1.1 mainly contributed to reductions in KCa1.1 activity. Among the eight regulatory β and γ subunits, LRRC26 alone was expressed at high levels in MDA-MB-453 cells and primary and metastatic breast cancer tissues, whereas no significant changes were observed in the expression levels of LRRC26 and activation kinetics of PAX-sensitive outward currents in MDA-MB-453 cells by the treatment with antiandrogens. The treatment with antiandrogens up-regulated the expression of the ubiquitin E3 ligases, FBW7, MDM2, and MDM4 in MDA-MB-453 cells, and the protein degradation of KCa1.1 was significantly inhibited by the respective siRNA-mediated blockade of FBW7 and MDM2. Based on these results, we concluded that KCa1.1 is an androgen-responsive gene in AR-positive breast cancer cells, and its down-regulation through enhancements in its protein degradation by FBW7 and/or MDM2 may contribute, at least in part, to the antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects of antiandrogens in

  8. Roles of Transcriptional and Translational Control Mechanisms in Regulation of Ribosomal Protein Synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Hector L; O'Connor, Kevin; Sanchez-Vazquez, Patricia; Gourse, Richard L

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial ribosome biogenesis is tightly regulated to match nutritional conditions and to prevent formation of defective ribosomal particles. In Escherichia coli , most ribosomal protein (r-protein) synthesis is coordinated with rRNA synthesis by a translational feedback mechanism: when r-proteins exceed rRNAs, specific r-proteins bind to their own mRNAs and inhibit expression of the operon. It was recently discovered that the second messenger nucleotide guanosine tetra and pentaphosphate (ppGpp), which directly regulates rRNA promoters, is also capable of regulating many r-protein promoters. To examine the relative contributions of the translational and transcriptional control mechanisms to the regulation of r-protein synthesis, we devised a reporter system that enabled us to genetically separate the cis -acting sequences responsible for the two mechanisms and to quantify their relative contributions to regulation under the same conditions. We show that the synthesis of r-proteins from the S20 and S10 operons is regulated by ppGpp following shifts in nutritional conditions, but most of the effect of ppGpp required the 5' region of the r-protein mRNA containing the target site for translational feedback regulation and not the promoter. These results suggest that most regulation of the S20 and S10 operons by ppGpp following nutritional shifts is indirect and occurs in response to changes in rRNA synthesis. In contrast, we found that the promoters for the S20 operon were regulated during outgrowth, likely in response to increasing nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) levels. Thus, r-protein synthesis is dynamic, with different mechanisms acting at different times. IMPORTANCE Bacterial cells have evolved complex and seemingly redundant strategies to regulate many high-energy-consuming processes. In E. coli , synthesis of ribosomal components is tightly regulated with respect to nutritional conditions by mechanisms that act at both the transcription and translation steps. In

  9. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits synthesis and release of decidual prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, I.; Costello, A.; Ganong, B.; Bell, R.M.; Handwerger, S.

    1986-01-01

    Activation of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C by diacylglycerol and phorbol esters has been shown to mediate release of hormones in many systems. To determine whether protein kinase C activation is also involved in the regulation of prolactin release from human decidual, the authors have examined the effects of various acylglycerols and phorbol esters on the synthesis and release of prolactin from cultured human decidual cells. sn-1,2-Dioctanolyglycerol (diC 8 ), which is known to stimulate protein kinase C in other systems, inhibited prolactin release in a dose-dependent manner with maximal inhibition of 53.1% at 100 μM. Diolein (100 μM), which also stimulates protein kinase C activity in some systems, inhibited prolactin release by 21.3%. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, and 4β-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, which activate protein kinase C in other systems, also inhibited the release of prolactin, which the protein kinase C inactivate 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate was without effect. The inhibition of prolactin release was secondary to a decrease in prolactin synthesis. Although diC 8 and PMA inhibited the synthesis and release of prolactin, these agents had no effect on the synthesis or release of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable [ 35 S]methionine-labeled decidual proteins and did not cause the release of the cytosolic enzymes lactic dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase. DiC 8 and PMA stimulates the specific activity of protein kinase C in decidual tissue by 14.6 and 14.0-fold, respectively. The inhibition of the synthesis and release of prolactin by diC 8 and phorbol esters strongly implicates protein kinase C in the regulation of the production and release of prolactin from the decidua

  10. Inhibition of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in septic intra-abdominal abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, T.C.; Siegel, J.H.; Tall, B.D.; Morris, J.G.; Smith, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic sepsis is always associated with profound wasting leading to increased release of amino acids from skeletal muscle. Net protein catabolism may be due to decreased rate of synthesis, increased rate of degradation, or both. To determine whether protein synthesis is altered in chronic sepsis, the rate of protein synthesis in vivo was estimated by measuring the incorporation of [ 3 H]-phenylalanine in skeletal muscle protein in a chronic (5-day) septic rat model induced by creation of a stable intra-abdominal abscess using an E. coli + B. fragilis-infected sterile fecal-agar pellet as foreign body nidus. Septic rats failed to gain weight at rates similar to control animals, therefore control animals were weight matched to the septic animals. The skeletal muscle protein content in septic animals was significantly reduced relative to control animals (0.18 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.21 +/- 0.01 mg protein/gm wet wt; p less than 0.02). The rate of incorporation of [ 3 H]-phenylalanine into skeletal muscle protein from control animals was 39 +/- 4 nmole/gm wet wt/hr or a fractional synthetic rate of 5.2 +/- 0.5%/day. In contrast to control animals, the fractional synthetic rate in septic animals (2.6 +/- 0.2%/day) was reduced by 50% compared to control animals (p less than 0.005). The decreased rate of protein synthesis in sepsis was not due to an energy deficit, as high-energy phosphates and ATP/ADP ratio were not altered. This decrease in protein synthesis occurred even though septic animals consumed as much food as control animals

  11. Host range restriction of vaccinia virus in Chinese hamster ovary cells: relationship to shutoff of protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drillien, R.; Spehner, D.; Kirn, A.

    1978-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were found to be nonpermissive for vaccinia virus. Although early virus-induced events occurred in these cells (RNA and polypeptide synthesis), subsequent events appeared to be prevented by a very rapid and nonselective shutoff of protein synthesis. Within less than 2 h after infection, both host and viral protein syntheses were arrested. At low multiplicities of infection, inhibition of RNA synthesis with cordycepin resulted in failure of the virus to block protein synthesis. Moreover, infection of the cells in the presence of cycloheximide prevented the immediate onset of shutoff after reversal of cycloheximide. Inactivation of virus particles by uv irradiation also impaired the capacity of the virus to inhibit protein synthesis. These results suggested that an early vaccinia virus-coded product was implicated in the shutoff of protein synthesis. Either the nonpermissive Chinese hamster ovary cells were more sensitive to this inhibition than permissive cells, or a regulatory control of the vaccinia shutoff function was defective

  12. Fluorescent in situ folding control for rapid optimization of cell-free membrane protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Müller-Lucks

    Full Text Available Cell-free synthesis is an open and powerful tool for high-yield protein production in small reaction volumes predestined for high-throughput structural and functional analysis. Membrane proteins require addition of detergents for solubilization, liposomes, or nanodiscs. Hence, the number of parameters to be tested is significantly higher than with soluble proteins. Optimization is commonly done with respect to protein yield, yet without knowledge of the protein folding status. This approach contains a large inherent risk of ending up with non-functional protein. We show that fluorophore formation in C-terminal fusions with green fluorescent protein (GFP indicates the folding state of a membrane protein in situ, i.e. within the cell-free reaction mixture, as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD, proteoliposome reconstitution and functional assays. Quantification of protein yield and in-gel fluorescence intensity imply suitability of the method for membrane proteins of bacterial, protozoan, plant, and mammalian origin, representing vacuolar and plasma membrane localization, as well as intra- and extracellular positioning of the C-terminus. We conclude that GFP-fusions provide an extension to cell-free protein synthesis systems eliminating the need for experimental folding control and, thus, enabling rapid optimization towards membrane protein quality.

  13. AKAP3 synthesis is mediated by RNA binding proteins and PKA signaling during mouse spermiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kaibiao; Yang, Lele; Zhao, Danyun; Wu, Yaoyao; Qi, Huayu

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is regulated by coordinated gene expression in a spatiotemporal manner. The spatiotemporal regulation of major sperm proteins plays important roles during normal development of the male gamete, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. A-kinase anchoring protein 3 (AKAP3) is one of the major components of the fibrous sheath of the sperm tail that is formed during spermiogenesis. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of sperm-specific Akap3 and the potential regulatory factors of its protein synthesis during mouse spermiogenesis. Results showed that the transcription of Akap3 precedes its protein synthesis by about 2 wk. Nascent AKAP3 was found to form protein complex with PKA and RNA binding proteins (RBPs), including PIWIL1, PABPC1, and NONO, as revealed by coimmunoprecipitation and protein mass spectrometry. RNA electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay showed that these RBPs bind sperm-specific mRNAs, of which proteins are synthesized during the elongating stage of spermiogenesis. Biochemical and cell biological experiments demonstrated that PIWIL1, PABPC1, and NONO interact with each other and colocalize in spermatids' RNA granule, the chromatoid body. In addition, NONO was found in extracytoplasmic granules in round spermatids, whereas PIWIL1 and PABPC1 were diffusely localized in cytoplasm of elongating spermatids, indicating their participation at different steps of mRNA metabolism during spermatogenesis. Interestingly, type I PKA subunits colocalize with PIWIL1 and PABPC1 in the cytoplasm of elongating spermatids and cosediment with the RBPs in polysomal fractions on sucrose gradients. Further biochemical analyses revealed that activation of PKA positively regulates AKAP3 protein synthesis without changing its mRNA level in elongating spermatids. Taken together, these results indicate that PKA signaling directly participates in the regulation of protein translation in postmeiotic male germ cells

  14. Neurofilament protein synthesis in DRG neurons decreases more after peripheral axotomy than after central axotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, S.G.; Lasek, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cytoskeletal protein synthesis was studied in DRG neurons after transecting either their peripheral or their central branch axons. Specifically, the axons were transected 5-10 mm from the lumbar-5 ganglion on one side of the animal; the DRGs from the transected side and contralateral control side were labeled with radiolabeled amino acids in vitro; radiolabeled proteins were separated by 2-dimensional (2D) PAGE; and the amounts of radiolabel in certain proteins of the experimental and control ganglia were quantified and compared. We focused on the neurofilament proteins because they are neuron-specific. If either the peripheral or central axons were cut, the amounts of radiolabeled neurofilament protein synthesized by the DRG neurons decreased between 1 and 10 d after transection. Neurofilament protein labeling decreased more after transection of the peripheral axons than after transection of the central axons. In contrast to axonal transections, sham operations or heat shock did not decrease the radiolabeling of the neurofilament proteins, and these procedures also affected the labeling of actin, tubulin, and the heat-shock proteins differently from transection. These results and others indicate that axonal transection leads to specific changes in the synthesis of cytoskeletal proteins of DRG neurons, and that these changes differ from those produced by stress to the animal or ganglia. Studies of the changes in neurofilament protein synthesis from 1 to 40 d after axonal transection indicate that the amounts of radiolabeled neurofilament protein synthesis were decreased during axonal elongation, but that they returned toward control levels when the axons reached cells that stopped elongation

  15. Evidence against translational repression by the carboxyltransferase component of Escherichia coli acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander C; Cronan, John E

    2014-11-01

    In Escherichia coli, synthesis of the malonyl coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) required for membrane lipid synthesis is catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a large complex composed of four subunits. The subunit proteins are needed in a defined stoichiometry, and it remains unclear how such production is achieved since the proteins are encoded at three different loci. Meades and coworkers (G. Meades, Jr., B. K. Benson, A. Grove, and G. L. Waldrop, Nucleic Acids Res. 38:1217-1227, 2010, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkp1079) reported that coordinated production of the AccA and AccD subunits is due to a translational repression mechanism exerted by the proteins themselves. The AccA and AccD subunits form the carboxyltransferase (CT) heterotetramer that catalyzes the second partial reaction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Meades et al. reported that CT tetramers bind the central portions of the accA and accD mRNAs and block their translation in vitro. However, long mRNA molecules (500 to 600 bases) were required for CT binding, but such long mRNA molecules devoid of ribosomes seemed unlikely to exist in vivo. This, plus problematical aspects of the data reported by Meades and coworkers, led us to perform in vivo experiments to test CT tetramer-mediated translational repression of the accA and accD mRNAs. We report that increased levels of CT tetramer have no detectable effect on translation of the CT subunit mRNAs. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Effects of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Røntved, Christine Maria; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL......) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at –14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [13C]Phe isotopic...... enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[13C]Phe infusion. Plasma volume was determined at +4 and +29 DRTC by dilution of a [125I]BSA dose. Synthesis rate of tissue protein in biopsied rumen papillae was determined by measuring [13C...

  17. Measurement of local cerebral protein synthesis in vivo: influence of recycling of amino acids derived from protein degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.B.; Deibler, G.E.; Eng, N.; Schmidt, K.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative autoradiographic method for the determination of local rates of protein synthesis in brain in vivo is being developed. The method employs L-[1- 14 C]leucine as the radiolabeled tracer. A comprehensive model has been designed that takes into account intracellular and extracellular spaces, intracellular compartmentation of leucine, and the possibility of recycling of unlabeled leucine derived from steady-state degradation of protein into the precursor pool for protein synthesis. We have evaluated the degree of recycling by measuring the ratio of the steady-state precursor pool distribution space for labeled leucine to that of unlabeled leucine. The values obtained were 0.58 in whole brain and 0.47 in liver. These results indicate that there is significant recycling of unlabeled amino acids derived from steady-state protein degradation in both tissues. Any method for the determination of rates of cerebral protein synthesis in vivo with labeled tracers that depends on estimation of precursor pool specific activity in tissue from measurements in plasma must take this recycling into account

  18. Synthesis and characterization of recombinant abductin-based proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Renay S-C; Renner, Julie N; Liu, Julie C

    2013-12-09

    Recombinant proteins are promising tools for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Protein-based biomaterials have several advantages over natural and synthetic polymers, including precise control over amino acid composition and molecular weight, modular swapping of functional domains, and tunable mechanical and physical properties. In this work, we describe recombinant proteins based on abductin, an elastomeric protein that is found in the inner hinge of bivalves and functions as a coil spring to keep shells open. We illustrate, for the first time, the design, cloning, expression, and purification of a recombinant protein based on consensus abductin sequences derived from Argopecten irradians . The molecular weight of the protein was confirmed by mass spectrometry, and the protein was 94% pure. Circular dichroism studies showed that the dominant structures of abductin-based proteins were polyproline II helix structures in aqueous solution and type II β-turns in trifluoroethanol. Dynamic light scattering studies illustrated that the abductin-based proteins exhibit reversible upper critical solution temperature behavior and irreversible aggregation behavior at high temperatures. A LIVE/DEAD assay revealed that human umbilical vein endothelial cells had a viability of 98 ± 4% after being cultured for two days on the abductin-based protein. Initial cell spreading on the abductin-based protein was similar to that on bovine serum albumin. These studies thus demonstrate the potential of abductin-based proteins in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications due to the cytocompatibility and its response to temperature.

  19. Deletion of Iron Regulatory Protein 1 Causes Polycythemia and Pulmonary Hypertension in Mice through Translational De-repression of HIF2α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Manik C.; Zhang, De-Liang; Jeong, Suh Young; Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Ollivierre-Wilson, Hayden; Noguchi, Audrey; Tu, Tiffany; Senecal, Thomas; Robinson, Gabrielle; Crooks, Daniel R.; Tong, Wing-Hang; Ramaswamy, Kavitha; Singh, Anamika; Graham, Brian B.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Yu, Zu-Xi; Eckhaus, Michael; Lee, Jaekwon; Springer, Danielle A.; Rouault, Tracey A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Iron regulatory proteins 1 and 2 (Irps) post-transcriptionally control the expression of transcripts that contain iron responsive element (IRE) sequences, including ferritin, ferroportin, transferrin receptor and hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF2α). We report here that mice with targeted deletion of Irp1 developed pulmonary hypertension and polycythemia that was exacerbated by a low iron diet. Hematocrits increased to 65% in iron-starved mice, and many polycythemic mice died of abdominal hemorrhages. Irp1 deletion enhanced HIF2α protein expression in kidneys of Irp1−/− mice, which led to increased erythropoietin (EPO) expression, polycythemia and concomitant tissue iron deficiency. Increased HIF2α expression in pulmonary endothelial cells induced high expression of endothelin-1, likely contributing to the pulmonary hypertension of Irp1−/− mice. Our results reveal why anemia is an early physiological consequence of iron deficiency, highlight the physiological significance of Irp1 in regulating erythropoiesis and iron distribution, and provide important insights into the molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:23395173

  20. Chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by the removable backbone modification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shan; Zuo, Chao; Huang, Dong-Liang; Cai, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Long-Hua; Tian, Chang-Lin; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Liu, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Chemical synthesis can produce membrane proteins bearing specifically designed modifications (e.g., phosphorylation, isotope labeling) that are difficult to obtain through recombinant protein expression approaches. The resulting homogeneously modified synthetic membrane proteins are valuable tools for many advanced biochemical and biophysical studies. This protocol describes the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins by condensation of transmembrane peptide segments through native chemical ligation. To avoid common problems encountered due to the poor solubility of transmembrane peptides in almost any solvent, we describe an effective procedure for the chemical synthesis of membrane proteins through the removable-backbone modification (RBM) strategy. Two key steps of this protocol are: (i) installation of solubilizing Arg4-tagged RBM groups into the transmembrane peptides at any primary amino acid through Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl) solid-phase peptide synthesis and (ii) native ligation of the full-length sequence, followed by removal of the RBM tags by TFA (trifluoroacetic acid) cocktails to afford the native protein. The installation of RBM groups is achieved by using 4-methoxy-5-nitrosalicyladehyde by reduction amination to incorporate an activated O-to-N acyl transfer auxiliary. The Arg4-tag-modified membrane-spanning peptide segments behave like water-soluble peptides to facilitate their purification, ligation and mass characterization.

  1. No effect of menstrual cycle on myofibrillar and connective tissue protein synthesis in contracting skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, B.F.; Hansen, M.; Olesen, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that acute exercise would stimulate synthesis of myofibrillar protein and intramuscular collagen in women and that the phase of the menstrual cycle at which the exercise took place would influence the extent of the change. Fifteen young, healthy female subjects were studied...... in the follicular (FP, n=8) or the luteal phase (LP, n=7, n=1 out of phase) 24 h after an acute bout of one-legged exercise (60 min of kicking at 67% W(max)), samples being taken from the vastus lateralis in both the exercised and resting legs. Rates of synthesis of myofibrillar and muscle collagen proteins were...... measured by incorporation of [(13)C]leucine. Myofibrillar protein synthesis (means+/-SD; rest FP: 0.053+/-0.009%/h, LP: 0.055+/-0.013%/h) was increased at 24-h postexercise (FP: 0.131+/-0.018%/h, Psynthesis...

  2. Long-term olfactory memories are stabilised via protein synthesis in Camponotus fellah ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Fernando Javier; D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Deveaud, J-M.

    2011-01-01

    -chain hydrocarbons, one paired with sucrose and the other with quinine solution. Differential conditioning leads to the formation of a long-term memory retrievable at least 72¿h after training. Long-term memory consolidation was impaired by the ingestion of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis blocker, prior...... to conditioning. Cycloheximide did not impair acquisition of either short-term memory (10¿min) or early and late mid-term memories (1 or 12¿h). These results show that, upon olfactory learning, ants form different memories with variable molecular bases. While short- and mid-term memories do not require protein...... synthesis, long-term memories are stabilised via protein synthesis. Our behavioural protocol opens interesting research avenues to explore the cellular and molecular bases of olfactory learning and memory in ants....

  3. The course of protein synthesis during grain filling in normal and high lysine barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, H.; Andersen, B.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the course of protein synthesis during grain filling in Bomi and the high lysine barleys Hily 82/3 and Risoe 56 showed that the four salt-soluble proteins, protein Z, β-amylase and the chymotrypsin inhibitors CI-1 and CI-2, are synthesized in greater amounts earlier in the high lysine lines than in Bomi. On the other hand, the hordeins are synthesized in greater amounts earlier during grain filling in Bomi than in Hily 82/3 and Risoe 56. There is no indication of a significant reduction of total protein synthesis in the high lysine lines compared with the standard lines Bomi and Pirrka. Hily 82/3 and Risoe 56 are very similar in protein composition in that they have a lower hordein content and higher levels, particularly of β-amylase and the chymotrypsin inhibitors, than Bomi. (author)

  4. Clofibrate-induced increases in peroxisomal proteins: effect on synthesis, degradation, and mRNA activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of clofibrate on the polypeptide composition of peroxisomes was determined. A simple method was developed for the isolation of peroxisomes with a purity of 90-95% using sedimentation in a metrizamide gradient. The specific activities of HD did not change with clofibrate treatment so that the increases in enzyme activities are solely due to increases in protein amounts. The hepatic concentration of HD increased 63 times. The HD synthesis rate, as measured by the incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine, increased 74 times, so that the increase in the synthesis was sufficient to account for the increase in protein. Clofibrate caused no discernible change in the degradation rate of HD labeled with [ 14 C]bicarbonate. The half-life of HD was approximately 2 days. The translatable mRBA coding for HD increased 55 times. This value is not significantly different from the increase in HD protein or in HD synthesis. This observation was also true for several other peroxisomal proteins. Therefore, clofibrate causes an increase in the mRNA activity, which increases the synthesis of HD leading to an accumulation of protein and enzyme activity. The kinetics of the clofibrate-induced changes in HD synthesis rate, protein level, and enzymatic activity was analyzed using a simple model which included the half-lives of the drug, mRNA, and protein. The best fit of the model to the data gave an mRNA half-life of 10 hours and a protein half-life of 1.8 days, with no significant change by clofibrate

  5. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. © FEMS 2015.

  6. Data-driven modelling of protein synthesis : A sequence perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritsenko, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in DNA sequencing, synthesis and genetic engineering have enabled the introduction of choice DNA sequences into living cells. This is an exciting prospect for the field of industrial biotechnology, which aims at using microorganisms to produce foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and

  7. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptides...

  8. Harpin-induced expression and transgenic overexpression of the phloem protein gene AtPP2-A1 in Arabidopsis repress phloem feeding of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of plants with HrpNEa, a protein of harpin group produced by Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria, induces plant resistance to insect herbivores, including the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, a generalist phloem-feeding insect. Under attacks by phloem-feeding insects, plants defend themselves using the phloem-based defense mechanism, which is supposed to involve the phloem protein 2 (PP2, one of the most abundant proteins in the phloem sap. The purpose of this study was to obtain genetic evidence for the function of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis PP2-encoding gene AtPP2-A1 in resistance to M. persicae when the plant was treated with HrpNEa and after the plant was transformed with AtPP2-A1. Results The electrical penetration graph technique was used to visualize the phloem-feeding activities of apterous agamic M. persicae females on leaves of Arabidopsis plants treated with HrpNEa and an inactive protein control, respectively. A repression of phloem feeding was induced by HrpNEa in wild-type (WT Arabidopsis but not in atpp2-a1/E/142, the plant mutant that had a defect in the AtPP2-A1 gene, the most HrpNEa-responsive of 30 AtPP2 genes. In WT rather than atpp2-a1/E/142, the deterrent effect of HrpNEa treatment on the phloem-feeding activity accompanied an enhancement of AtPP2-A1 expression. In PP2OETAt (AtPP2-A1-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, abundant amounts of the AtPP2-A1 gene transcript were detected in different organs, including leaves, stems, calyces, and petals. All these organs had a deterrent effect on the phloem-feeding activity compared with the same organs of the transgenic control plant. When a large-scale aphid population was monitored for 24 hours, there was a significant decrease in the number of aphids that colonized leaves of HrpNEa-treated WT and PP2OETAt plants, respectively, compared with control plants. Conclusions The repression in phloem-feeding activities of

  9. Content of intrinsic disorder influences the outcome of cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakov, Alexander A; Kurotani, Atsushi; Ikeda, Mariko; Terazawa, Yumiko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Stefanov, Vasily; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-09-11

    Cell-free protein synthesis is used to produce proteins with various structural traits. Recent bioinformatics analyses indicate that more than half of eukaryotic proteins possess long intrinsically disordered regions. However, no systematic study concerning the connection between intrinsic disorder and expression success of cell-free protein synthesis has been presented until now. To address this issue, we examined correlations of the experimentally observed cell-free protein expression yields with the contents of intrinsic disorder bioinformatically predicted in the expressed sequences. This analysis revealed strong relationships between intrinsic disorder and protein amenability to heterologous cell-free expression. On the one hand, elevated disorder content was associated with the increased ratio of soluble expression. On the other hand, overall propensity for detectable protein expression decreased with disorder content. We further demonstrated that these tendencies are rooted in some distinct features of intrinsically disordered regions, such as low hydrophobicity, elevated surface accessibility and high abundance of sequence motifs for proteolytic degradation, including sites of ubiquitination and PEST sequences. Our findings suggest that identification of intrinsically disordered regions in the expressed amino acid sequences can be of practical use for predicting expression success and optimizing cell-free protein synthesis.

  10. Identification of the subunit of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) that functionally interacts with CytR in CRP-CytR-mediated transcriptional repression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, K L; Kallipolitis, B H; Ebright, R H

    2000-01-01

    At promoters of the Escherichia coli CytR regulon, the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) interacts with the repressor CytR to form transcriptionally inactive CRP-CytR-promoter or (CRP)(2)-CytR-promoter complexes. Here, using "oriented heterodimer" analysis, we show that only one subunit of the CRP dimer......, the subunit proximal to CytR, functionally interacts with CytR in CRP-CytR-promoter and (CRP)(2)-CytR-promoter complexes. Our results provide information about the architecture of CRP-CytR-promoter and (CRP)(2)-CytR-promoter complexes and rule out the proposal that masking of activating region 2 of CRP...

  11. Myostatin inhibits eEF2K-eEF2 by regulating AMPK to suppress protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhao; Luo, Pei; Lai, Wen; Song, Tongxing; Peng, Jian; Wei, Hong-Kui

    2017-12-09

    Growth of skeletal muscle is dependent on the protein synthesis, and the rate of protein synthesis is mainly regulated in the stage of translation initiation and elongation. Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, is a negative regulator of protein synthesis. C2C12 myotubes was incubated with 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2, 3 μg/mL myostatin recombinant protein, and then we detected the rates of protein synthesis by the method of SUnSET. We found that high concentrations of myostatin (2 and 3 μg/mL) inhibited protein synthesis by blocking mTOR and eEF2K-eEF2 pathway, while low concentration of myostatin (0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/mL) regulated eEF2K-eEF2 pathway activity to block protein synthesis without affected mTOR pathway, and myostatin inhibited eEF2K-eEF2 pathway through regulating AMPK pathway to suppress protein synthesis. It provided a new mechanism for myostatin regulating protein synthesis and treating muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Exogenous insulin does not increase muscle protein synthesis rate when administered systemically: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Groen, Bart B L; Hamer, Henrike M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-07-01

    Though it is well appreciated that insulin plays an important role in the regulation of muscle protein metabolism, there is much discrepancy in the literature on the capacity of exogenous insulin administration to increase muscle protein synthesis rates in vivo in humans. To assess whether exogenous insulin administration increases muscle protein synthesis rates in young and older adults. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed and the presence or absence of an increase in muscle protein synthesis rate was reported for each individual study arm. In a stepwise manner, multiple models were constructed that excluded study arms based on the following conditions: model 1, concurrent hyperaminoacidemia; model 2, insulin-induced hypoaminoacidemia; model 3, supraphysiological insulin concentrations; and model 4, older, more insulin resistant, subjects. From the presented data in the current systematic review, we conclude that: i) exogenous insulin and amino acid administration effectively increase muscle protein synthesis, but this effect is attributed to the hyperaminoacidemia; ii) exogenous insulin administered systemically induces hypoaminoacidemia which obviates any insulin-stimulatory effect on muscle protein synthesis; iii) exogenous insulin resulting in supraphysiological insulin levels exceeding 50, 000  pmol/l may effectively augment muscle protein synthesis; iv) exogenous insulin may have a diminished effect on muscle protein synthesis in older adults due to age-related anabolic resistance; and v) exogenous insulin administered systemically does not increase muscle protein synthesis in healthy, young adults. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. The unified theory of repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    2006-10-01

    Repression has become an empirical fact that is at once obvious and problematic. Fragmented clinical and laboratory traditions and disputed terminology have resulted in a Babel of misunderstandings in which false distinctions are imposed (e.g., between repression and suppression) and necessary distinctions not drawn (e.g., between the mechanism and the use to which it is put, defense being just one). "Repression" was introduced by Herbart to designate the (nondefensive) inhibition of ideas by other ideas in their struggle for consciousness. Freud adapted repression to the defensive inhibition of "unbearable" mental contents. Substantial experimental literatures on attentional biases, thought avoidance, interference, and intentional forgetting exist, the oldest prototype being the work of Ebbinghaus, who showed that intentional avoidance of memories results in their progressive forgetting over time. It has now become clear, as clinicians had claimed, that the inaccessible materials are often available and emerge indirectly (e.g., procedurally, implicitly). It is also now established that the Ebbinghaus retention function can be partly reversed, with resulting increases of conscious memory over time (hypermnesia). Freud's clinical experience revealed early on that exclusion from consciousness was effected not just by simple repression (inhibition) but also by a variety of distorting techniques, some deployed to degrade latent contents (denial), all eventually subsumed under the rubric of defense mechanisms ("repression in the widest sense"). Freudian and Bartlettian distortions are essentially the same, even in name, except for motive (cognitive vs. emotional), and experimentally induced false memories and other "memory illusions" are laboratory analogs of self-induced distortions.

  14. Dependency on de novo protein synthesis and proteomic changes during metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Yue Him; Arellano, Shawn M; Zhang, Huoming; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    synthesis of proteins and, instead, involves post-translational modifications of existing proteins, providing a simple mechanism to quickly initiate metamorphosis. To test our hypothesis, we challenged B. neritina larvae with transcription and translation

  15. Brassinosteroid-Induced Transcriptional Repression and Dephosphorylation-Dependent Protein Degradation Negatively Regulate BIN2-Interacting AIF2 (a BR Signaling-Negative Regulator) bHLH Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon; Song, Ji-Hye; Park, Seon-U; Jeong, You-Seung; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant polyhydroxy-steroids that play important roles in plant growth and development via extensive signal integration through direct interactions between regulatory components of different signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that diverse helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/bHLH) family proteins are actively involved in control of BR signaling pathways and interact with other signaling pathways. In this study, we show that ATBS1-INTERACTING FACTOR 2 (AIF2), a nuclear-localized atypical bHLH transcription factor, specifically interacts with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 2 (BIN2) among other BR signaling molecules. Overexpression of AIF2 down-regulated transcript expression of growth-promoting genes, thus resulting in retardation of growth. AIF2 renders plants hyposensitive to BR-induced root growth inhibition, but shows little effects on BR-promoted hypocotyl elongation. Notably, AIF2 was dephosphorylated by BR, and the dephosphorylated AIF2 was subject to proteasome-mediated degradation. AIF2 degradation was greatly induced by BR and ABA, but relatively slightly by other hormones such as auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin and ethylene. Moreover, AIF2 transcription was significantly suppressed by a BRI1/BZR1-mediated BR signaling pathway through a direct binding of BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) to the BR response element (BRRE) region of the AIF2 promoter. In conclusion, our study suggests that BIN2-driven AIF2 phosphorylation could augment the BIN2/AIF2-mediated negative circuit of BR signaling pathways, and the BR-induced transcriptional repression and protein degradation negatively regulate AIF2 transcription factor, reinforcing the BZR1/BES1-mediated positive BR signaling pathway. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effects of grain source, grain processing, and protein degradability on rumen kinetics and microbial protein synthesis in Boer kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, M-E; Chouinard, P Y; Berthiaume, R; Tremblay, G F; Gervais, R; Martineau, R; Cinq-Mars, D

    2015-11-01

    Microbial protein synthesis in the rumen would be optimized when dietary carbohydrates and proteins have synchronized rates and extent of degradation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varying ruminal degradation rate of energy and nitrogen sources on intake, nitrogen balance, microbial protein yield, and kinetics of nutrients in the rumen of growing kids. Eight Boer goats (38.2 ± 3.0 kg) were used. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot Latin square design with grain sources (barley or corn) forming the main plots (squares). Grain processing methods and levels of protein degradability formed the subplots in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 dietary treatments. The grain processing method was rolling for barley and cracking for corn. Levels of protein degradability were obtained by feeding untreated soybean meal (SBM) or heat-treated soybean meal (HSBM). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, consisting of a 10-d adaptation period, a 7-d digestibility determination period, and a 4-d rumen evacuation and sampling period. Kids fed with corn had higher purine derivatives (PD) excretion when coupled with SBM compared with HSBM and the opposite occurred with barley-fed kids ( ≤ 0.01). Unprocessed grain offered with SBM led to higher PD excretion than with HSBM whereas protein degradability had no effect when processed grain was fed ( ≤ 0.03). Results of the current experiment with high-concentrate diets showed that microbial N synthesis could be maximized in goat kids by combining slowly fermented grains (corn or unprocessed grains) with a highly degradable protein supplement (SBM). With barley, a more rapidly fermented grain, a greater microbial N synthesis was observed when supplementing a low-degradable protein (HSBM).

  17. Quantifying protein synthesis and degradation in Arabidopsis by dynamic 13CO2 labeling and analysis of enrichment in individual amino acids in their free pools and in protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hirofumi; Obata, Toshihiro; Sulpice, Ronan; Fernie, Alisdair R; Stitt, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation represent substantial costs during plant growth. To obtain a quantitative measure of the rate of protein synthesis and degradation, we supplied (13)CO2 to intact Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Columbia-0 plants and analyzed enrichment in free amino acids and in amino acid residues in protein during a 24-h pulse and 4-d chase. While many free amino acids labeled slowly and incompletely, alanine showed a rapid rise in enrichment in the pulse and a decrease in the chase. Enrichment in free alanine was used to correct enrichment in alanine residues in protein and calculate the rate of protein synthesis. The latter was compared with the relative growth rate to estimate the rate of protein degradation. The relative growth rate was estimated from sequential determination of fresh weight, sequential images of rosette area, and labeling of glucose in the cell wall. In an 8-h photoperiod, protein synthesis and cell wall synthesis were 3-fold faster in the day than at night, protein degradation was slow (3%-4% d(-1)), and flux to growth and degradation resulted in a protein half-life of 3.5 d. In the starchless phosphoglucomutase mutant at night, protein synthesis was further decreased and protein degradation increased, while cell wall synthesis was totally inhibited, quantitatively accounting for the inhibition of growth in this mutant. We also investigated the rates of protein synthesis and degradation during leaf development, during growth at high temperature, and compared synthesis rates of Rubisco large and small subunits of in the light and dark. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F.; Escobar, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related long-term memo...

  19. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluc......Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration...

  20. Protein synthesis directed by cowpea mosaic virus RNAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuik, E.

    1979-01-01

    The thesis concerns the proteins synthesized under direction of Cowpea mosaic virus RNAs. Sufficient radioactive labelling of proteins was achieved when 35 S as sulphate was administered to intact Vigna plants, cultivated in Hoagland solution. The large polypeptides synthesized under direction of B- and M-RNA are probably precursor molecules from which the coat proteins are generated by a mechanism of posttranslational cleavage. (Auth.)

  1. Inhibition of host cell protein synthesis by UV-inactivated poliovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helentjaris, T.; Ehrenfeld, E.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of poliovirus that was irradiated with UV light at energies up to 2,160 ergs/mm 2 to subsequently inhibit host cell protein synthesis was measured. The inactivation of the host cell shutoff function followed one-hit kinetics. Increasing irradiation did not affect the rate of inhibition until the multiplicity of infection after irradiation was reduced to approximately 1 PFU/cell. At higher functional multiplicities, the rate was unchanged, but an increasing lag before the onset of inhibition was observed with increasing irradiation. The energy levels required to inactivate virus-induced inhibition of host cell protein synthesis suggest that damage to virus RNA rather than to virus capsid proteins is responsible for the loss of function. When the inactivation of host cell shutoff was compared with the inactivation of other viral functions by UV irradiation, it correlated exactly with the loss of infectivity but not with other viral functions measured. Guanidine treatment, which prevents detectable viral RNA and protein synthesis, completely inhibited host cell shutoff by low multiplicities of unirradiated virus infection but not higher multiplicities. When a high multiplicity of virus was first reduced to a low titer by irradiation, host cell shutoff was still evident in the presence of guanidine. The results demonstrate that the complete inhibition of host cell protein synthesis can be accomplished by one infectious viral genome per cell

  2. Nuclear protein synthesis in animal and vegetal hemispheres of Xenopus oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldherr, C.M.; Hodges, P.; Paine, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if nuclear proteins are preferentially synthesized in the vicinity of the nucleus, a factor which could facilitate nucleocytoplasmic exchange. Using Xenopus oocytes, animal and vegetal hemispheres were separated by bisecting the cells in paraffin oil. It was initially established that protein synthesis is not affected by the bisecting procedure. To determine if nuclear protein synthesis is restricted to the animal hemisphere (which contains the nucleus), vegetal halves and enucleated animal halves were injected with [ 3 H]leucine and incubated in oil for 90 min. The labeled cell halves were then fused with unlabeled, nucleated animal hemispheres that had been previously injected with puromycin in amounts sufficient to prevent further protein synthesis. Thus, labeled polypeptides which subsequently entered the nuclei were synthesized before fusion. Three hours after fusion, the nuclei were isolated, run on two-dimensional gels, and fluorographed. Approximately 200 labeled nuclear polypeptides were compared, and only 2 were synthesized in significantly different amounts in the animal and vegetal hemispheres. The results indicate that nuclear protein synthesis is not restricted to the cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus

  3. Control of protein synthesis in the female pupa of Bombyx mori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamao, Masami; Koga, Katsumi

    1975-01-01

    For the purpose of understanding the mechanisms of insect metamorphosis, protein synthesis by silkmoth pupae has been studied. Synthetic rate and contents of total RNA and protein changed markedly in the female pupae of Bombyx mori. Attempt was made to find what the limiting step for the synthesis of the bulk of proteins during the adult development of female pupae is. Several female pupae of hydridstrain were homogenized at each of stated periods in buffer. The ribosomal fraction prepared from the homogenates was incubated in the buffer containing 3 H-leucine or 3 H-phenylalanine. The incorporation of leucine depending on endogenous mRNA and that of phenylalanine directed by added poly U were the largest in 9--10 days and 7th day, respectively. From the results, the synthesis of protein during the late adult development of female silkworms is controlled at the level of mRNA. The increase of ribosomes, which were active to bind mRNA, preceded the appearance of available endogenous mRNA, and it may be attributed to neogenesis and ''run-off'' of previous ribosomes. It is conceivable that such neogenesis or run-off serves as less direct control for the protein synthesis during the metamorphosis of Bombix mori. (Kobatake, H.)

  4. Protein composition and synthesis in the adult mouse spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stodieck, L.S.; Luttges, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    Properties of spinal cord proteins were studied in adult mice subjected to unilateral crush or electrical stimulation of sciatic nerve. The protein composition of spinal tissue was determined using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with subcellular fractionation. Comparisons of mouse spinal cord and brain revealed similarities in the types but differences in the concentrations of myelin associated proteins, nuclear histones and other proteins. Comparisons with sciatic nerve proteins demonstrated differences in types of proteins but similarities in the concentration of myelin proteins and nuclear histones. The short term (less than 2 hrs.) incorporation of radioactive amino acids into spinal cord proteins revealed heterogeneous rates of incorporation. Neither nerve crush six days prior to testing nor sciatic nerve stimulation had a significant effect on the protein composition or amino acid incorporation rates of spinal cord tissue. These observations suggest that known differences in spinal cord function following alterations in nerve input may be dependent upon different mechanisms than have been found in the brain

  5. The antituberculosis antibiotic capreomycin inhibits protein synthesis by disrupting interaction between ribosomal proteins L12 and L10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Li, Yan; Zhu, Ningyu; Han, Yanxing; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Yanchang; Si, Shuyi; Jiang, Jiandong

    2014-01-01

    Capreomycin is a second-line drug for multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). However, with increased use in clinics, the therapeutic efficiency of capreomycin is decreasing. To better understand TB resistance to capreomycin, we have done research to identify the molecular target of capreomycin. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ribosomal proteins L12 and L10 interact with each other and constitute the stalk of the 50S ribosomal subunit, which recruits initiation and elongation factors during translation. Hence, the L12-L10 interaction is considered to be essential for ribosomal function and protein synthesis. Here we provide evidence showing that capreomycin inhibits the L12-L10 interaction by using an established L12-L10 interaction assay. Overexpression of L12 and/or L10 in M. smegmatis, a species close to M. tuberculosis, increases the MIC of capreomycin. Moreover, both elongation factor G-dependent GTPase activity and ribosome-mediated protein synthesis are inhibited by capreomycin. When protein synthesis was blocked with thiostrepton, however, the bactericidal activity of capreomycin was restrained. All of these results suggest that capreomycin seems to inhibit TB by interrupting the L12-L10 interaction. This finding might provide novel clues for anti-TB drug discovery.

  6. In vivo effects of T-2 mycotoxin on synthesis of proteins and DNA in rat tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.L.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Rats were given an ip injection of T-2 mycotoxin (T-2), the T-2 metabolite, T-2 tetraol (tetraol), or cycloheximide. Serum, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, muscle, and intestine were collected at 3, 6, and 9 hr postinjection after a 2-hr pulse at each time with [14C]leucine and [3H]thymidine. Protein and DNA synthesis levels in rats were determined by dual-label counting of the acid-precipitable fraction of tissue homogenates. Rats given a lethal dose of T-2, tetraol, or cycloheximide died between 14 and 20 hr. Maximum inhibition of protein synthesis at the earliest time period was observed in additional rats given the same lethal dose of the three treatments and continued for the duration of the study (9 hr). With sublethal doses of T-2 or tetraol, the same early decrease in protein synthesis was observed but, in most of the tissues, recovery was seen with time. In the T-2-treated rats. DNA synthesis in the six tissues studied was also suppressed, although to a lesser degree. With sublethal doses, complete recovery of DNA synthesis took place in four of the six tissues by 9 hr after toxin exposure. The appearance of newly translated serum proteins did not occur in the animals treated with T-2 mycotoxin or cycloheximide, as evidenced by total and PCA-soluble serum levels of labeled leucine. An increase in tissue-pool levels of free leucine and thymidine in response to T-2 mycotoxin was also noted. T-2 mycotoxin, its metabolite, T-2 tetraol, and cycloheximide cause a rapid inhibition of protein and DNA synthesis in all tissue types studied. These results are compared with the responses seen in in vitro studies

  7. Energetic costs of protein synthesis do not differ between red- and white-blooded Antarctic notothenioid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Johanne M; Grove, Theresa J; O'Brien, Kristin M

    2015-09-01

    Antarctic icefishes (Family Channichthyidae) within the suborder Notothenioidei lack the oxygen-binding protein hemoglobin (Hb), and six of the 16 species of icefishes lack myoglobin (Mb) in heart ventricle. As iron-centered proteins, Hb and Mb can promote the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage biological macromolecules. Consistent with this, our previous studies have shown that icefishes have lower levels of oxidized proteins and lipids in oxidative muscle compared to red-blooded notothenioids. Because oxidized proteins are usually degraded by the 20S proteasome and must be resynthesized, we hypothesized that rates of protein synthesis would be lower in icefishes compared to red-blooded notothenioids, thereby reducing the energetic costs of protein synthesis and conferring a benefit to the loss of Hb and Mb. Rates of protein synthesis were quantified in hearts, and the fraction of oxygen consumption devoted to protein synthesis was measured in isolated hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes of notothenioids differing in the expression of Hb and cardiac Mb. Neither rates of protein synthesis nor the energetic costs of protein synthesis differed among species, suggesting that red-blooded species do not degrade and replace oxidatively modified proteins at a higher rate compared to icefishes but rather, persist with higher levels of oxidized proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Yes-associated protein/TEA domain family member and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) repress reciprocally to regulate hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wang-Yu; Lin, Ling-Yun; Hao, Han; Zhang, Sai-Man; Ma, Fei; Hong, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Ye, Guo-Dong; Sun, Guang-Bin; Liu, Yun-Jia; Li, Sheng-Nan; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Cai, Jian-Chun; Li, Bo-An

    2017-04-01

    Great progress has been achieved in the study of Hippo signaling in regulating tumorigenesis; however, the downstream molecular events that mediate this process have not been completely defined. Moreover, regulation of Hippo signaling during tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unknown. In the present study, we systematically investigated the relationship between Yes-associated protein/TEA domain family member (YAP-TEAD) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) in the hepatocarcinogenesis of HCC cells. Our results indicated that HNF4α expression was negatively regulated by YAP1 in HCC cells by a ubiquitin proteasome pathway. By contrast, HNF4α was found to directly associate with TEAD4 to compete with YAP1 for binding to TEAD4, thus inhibiting the transcriptional activity of YAP-TEAD and expression of their target genes. Moreover, overexpression of HNF4α was found to significantly compromise YAP-TEAD-induced HCC cell proliferation and stem cell expansion. Finally, we documented the regulatory mechanism between YAP-TEAD and HNF4α in rat and mouse tumor models, which confirmed our in vitro results. There is a double-negative feedback mechanism that controls TEAD-YAP and HNF4α expression in vitro and in vivo, thereby regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation. Given that YAP acts as a dominant oncogene in HCC and plays a crucial role in stem cell homeostasis and tissue regeneration, manipulating the interaction between YAP, TEADs, and HNF4α may provide a new approach for HCC treatment and regenerative medicine. (Hepatology 2017;65:1206-1221). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 induce shutoff of host protein synthesis by different mechanisms in Friend erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.M.; Sinden, R.R.; Sadler, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 disrupt host protein synthesis after viral infection. We have treated both viral types with agents which prevent transcription of the viral genome and used these treated viruses to infect induced Friend erythroleukemia cells. By measuring the changes in globin synthesis after infection, we have determined whether expression of the viral genome precedes the shutoff of host protein synthesis or whether the inhibitor molecule enters the cells as part of the virion. HSV-2-induced shutoff of host protein synthesis was insensitive to the effects of shortwave (254-nm) UV light and actinomycin D. Both of the treatments inhibited HSV-1-induced host protein shutoff. Likewise, treatment of HSV-1 with the cross-linking agent 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen and longwave (360-nm) UV light prevented HSV-1 from inhibiting cellular protein synthesis. Treatment of HSV-2 with 4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen did not affect the ability of the virus to interfere with host protein synthesis, except at the highest doses of longwave UV light. It was determined that the highest longwave UV dosage damaged the HSV-2 virion as well as cross-linking the viral DNA. The results suggest that HSV-2 uses a virion-associated component to inhibit host protein synthesis and that HSV-1 requires the expression of the viral genome to cause cellular protein synthesis shutoff

  10. Protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs is enhanced by administration of Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many low-birth-weight infants experience failure to thrive. The amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of the neonate, but less is known about the effects of the leucine metabolite Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). To determine the effects of HMB on protein synthesi...

  11. Citrulline stimulates muscle protein synthesis in the post-absorptive state in healthy people fed a low-protein diet – A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Marion; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Carter, Rickey E.; Schimke, Jill; Ford, G. Charles; Marc, Julie; Aussel, Christian; Cynober, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Amino acid (AA) availability is critical to maintain protein homeostasis and reduced protein intake causes a decline in protein synthesis. Citrulline, an amino acid metabolite, has been reported to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in malnourished rats. Methods To determine whether citrulline stimulates muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults while on a low-protein diet, we studied 8 healthy participants twice in a cross-over study design. Following a 3-days of low-protein intake, either citrulline or a non-essential AA mixture (NEAA) was given orally as small boluses over the course of 8 hours. [ring-13C6] phenylalanine and [15N] tyrosine were administered as tracers to assess protein metabolism. Fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of muscle proteins were measured using phenylalanine enrichment in muscle tissue fluid as the precursor pool. Results FSR of mixed muscle protein was higher during the administration of citrulline than during NEAA (NEAA: 0.049 ± 0.005; citrulline: 0.060 ± 0.006; p=0.03), while muscle mitochondrial protein FSR and whole-body protein turnover were not different between the studies. Citrulline administration increased arginine and ornithine plasma concentrations without any effect on glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and IGF-1 levels. Citrulline administration did not promote mitochondria protein synthesis, transcripts, or citrate synthesis. Conclusions Citrulline ingestion enhances mixed muscle protein synthesis in healthy participants on 3-day low-protein intake. This anabolic action of citrulline appears to be independent of insulin action and may offer potential clinical application in conditions involving low amino acid intake. PMID:24972455

  12. Citrulline stimulates muscle protein synthesis in the post-absorptive state in healthy people fed a low-protein diet - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Marion; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Carter, Rickey E; Schimke, Jill; Ford, G Charles; Marc, Julie; Aussel, Christian; Cynober, Luc

    2015-06-01

    Amino acid (AA) availability is critical to maintain protein homeostasis and reduced protein intake causes a decline in protein synthesis. Citrulline, an amino acid metabolite, has been reported to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in malnourished rats. To determine whether citrulline stimulates muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults while on a low-protein diet, we studied 8 healthy participants twice in a cross-over study design. Following a 3-days of low-protein intake, either citrulline or a non-essential AA mixture (NEAA) was given orally as small boluses over the course of 8 h. [ring-(13)C6] phenylalanine and [(15)N] tyrosine were administered as tracers to assess protein metabolism. Fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of muscle proteins were measured using phenylalanine enrichment in muscle tissue fluid as the precursor pool. FSR of mixed muscle protein was higher during the administration of citrulline than during NEAA (NEAA: 0.049 ± 0.005; citrulline: 0.060 ± 0.006; P = 0.03), while muscle mitochondrial protein FSR and whole-body protein turnover were not different between the studies. Citrulline administration increased arginine and ornithine plasma concentrations without any effect on glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and IGF-1 levels. Citrulline administration did not promote mitochondria protein synthesis, transcripts, or citrate synthesis. Citrulline ingestion enhances mixed muscle protein synthesis in healthy participants on 3-day low-protein intake. This anabolic action of citrulline appears to be independent of insulin action and may offer potential clinical application in conditions involving low amino acid intake. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Influence of nutrition on protein synthesis and 15N tracer data in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative studies and measurements of parameters of the protein metabolism in vivo require the isotope methodology. Different 15 N tracer methods with special modifications are available which can be used depending on clinical problems. The oral single pulse application of [ 15 N]glycine is equal to other isotope tracer techniques provided that the basic assumptions of the application are fullfilled. The protein metabolism is clearly influenced by the nutritional status whereby the protein synthesis is more sensitive than the breakdown to altered dietary intakes of protein and energy. The importance of standardized experimental conditions is emphasized for studies with 15 N and the interpretation of tracer data. (author)

  14. Understanding of Protein Synthesis in a Living Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Y.; Muhammad, S.

    2006-01-01

    The assembly of proteins takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell. There are three main steps. In initiation, far left, all the necessary parts of the process are brought together by a small molecule called a ribosome. During elongation, amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are joined to one another in a long chain. The sequence in which…

  15. Effects of chilling on protein synthesis in tomato suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matadial, B.; Pauls, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of chilling on cell growth, cell viability, protein content and protein composition in suspension cultures of L. esculentum and L. hirsutum was investigated. Cell growth for both species was arrested at 2 degrees C but when cultures were transferred to 25 degree C cell growth resumed. There was no difference in viability between control and chilled cultures of L. esculentum, however, L. hirsutum control cultures exhibited larger amounts of Fluorescein Diacetate induced fluorescence than chilled cultures. 35 S-methionine incorporation into proteins was 2.5-2 times higher in L. hirsutum than in L. esculentum. Quantitative and qualitative differences, in 35 S-methionine labelled proteins, between chilled and control cultures were observed by SDS-PAGE and fluorography. Protein content in chilled cultures decreased over time but then increased when cultures were transferred to 25 degrees C

  16. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  17. Protein synthesis and the recovery of both survival and cytoplasmic ''petite'' mutation in ultraviolet-treated yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heude, M.; Chanet, R.; Moustacchi, E.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear-directed protein synthesis in the repair of lethal and mitochondrial genetic damage after UV-irradiation of exponential and stationary phase haploid yeast cells was examined. This was carried out using cycloheximide, a specific inhibitor of nuclear protein synthesis. It appears that nuclear protein synthesis is required for the increase in survival seen after the liquid-holding of cells at both stages, as well as for the ''petite'' recovery seen after the liquid-holding of exponential phase cells. The characteristic negative liquid-holding effect observed for the UV induction of ''petites'' in stationary phase cells (increase of the frequency of ''petites'' during storage) remained, following all the treatments which inhibited nuclear protein synthesis. However, the application of photoreactivating light following dark-holding with cycloheximide indicates that some steps of the repair of both nuclear and mitochondrial damage are performed in the absence of protein synthesis

  18. Higher skeletal muscle protein synthesis and lower breakdown after chemotherapy in cachectic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, S E; Knowles, A L; Tilignac, T; Debiton, E; Madelmont, J C; Attaix, D

    2001-07-01

    The influence of cancer cachexia and chemotherapy and subsequent recovery of skeletal muscle protein mass and turnover was investigated in mice. Cancer cachexia was induced using colon 26 adenocarcinoma, which is characteristic of the human condition, and can be cured with 100% efficacy using an experimental nitrosourea, cystemustine (C(6)H(12)CIN(3)O(4)S). Reduced food intake was not a factor in these studies. Three days after cachexia began, healthy and tumor-bearing mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of cystemustine (20 mg/kg). Skeletal muscle mass in tumor-bearing mice was 41% lower (P synthesis (-38%; P synthesis (~-54 to -69%; P synthesis (+46 to +73%; P synthesis and degradation.

  19. Determination of possible effects of mineral concentration on protein synthesis by rumen microbes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, J.A.; Jovanovic, M.; Andric, R.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of different concentrations of sulphide, magnesium and zinc on protein synthesis by rumen micro-organisms in vitro. Rumen content was taken from a young bull fed a diet based on maize and dried sugar beet pulp (2/1) supplemented with urea. The rate of incorporation of 35 S from Na 2 35 SO 4 in relation to the mean specific radioactivity of the sulphide pool was used to estimate the overall rate of microbial protein synthesis. It was found that the rate of protein synthesis and the net rate of utilization of ammonia-N were not affected by differences in mean sulphide concentration from 3.6-8.0 mg/litre. The rate of reduction of sulphate appeared not to be affected by the addition of sodium sulphide to the medium. The rate and efficiency of protein synthesis by rumen micro-organisms were not significantly affected by increasing the concentration of total magnesium from 8.4-15.3 mg/100 ml. The values for soluble magnesium varied widely (1.2-7.8 mg/100 ml), and appeared to be partly dependent on the pH of the medium. Zinc concentrations varying from 5.2-12.4 mg/litre did not influence the overall rate of protein synthesis, although the efficiency tended to be higher when the concentration of zinc was greater. Concentrations of soluble zinc were low (0.3-1.15 mg/litre), and not influenced by changes in the concentration of total zinc. It was concluded that increasing the concentrations of the examined elements above the basic values did not lead consistently to an improved production of microbial protein but, on the other hand, had no obvious detrimental effect on microbial metabolic activity within the limits studied. (author)

  20. Increasing the fidelity of noncanonical amino acid incorporation in cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qinglei; Fan, Chenguang

    2017-11-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis provides a robust platform for co-translational incorporation of noncanonical amino acid (ncAA) into proteins to facilitate biological studies and biotechnological applications. Recently, eliminating the activity of release factor 1 has been shown to increase ncAA incorporation in response to amber codons. However, this approach could promote mis-incorporation of canonical amino acids by near cognate suppression. We performed a facile protocol to remove near cognate tRNA isoacceptors of the amber codon from total tRNAs, and used the phosphoserine (Sep) incorporation system as validation. By manipulating codon usage of target genes and tRNA species introduced into the cell-free protein synthesis system, we increased the fidelity of Sep incorporation at a specific position. By removing three near cognate tRNA isoacceptors of the amber stop codon [tRNA Lys , tRNA Tyr , and tRNA Gln (CUG)] from the total tRNA, the near cognate suppression decreased by 5-fold without impairing normal protein synthesis in the cell-free protein synthesis system. Mass spectrometry analyses indicated that the fidelity of ncAA incorporation was improved. Removal of near cognate tRNA isoacceptors of the amber codon could increase ncAA incorporation fidelity towards the amber stop codon in release factor deficiency systems. We provide a general strategy to improve fidelity of ncAA incorporation towards stop, quadruplet and sense codons in cell-free protein synthesis systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of acute maternal starvation on tyrosine metabolism and protein synthesis in fetal sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurti, C.R.; Schaefer, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the effects of acute maternal starvation on intrauterine growth, tyrosine concentration and specific activity values in plasma, intracellular free and protein bound pools were determined in catheterized ovine fetuses following an 8 h continuous infusion of L-[2,3,5,6 3 H] or L-[U- 14 C] tyrosine into the ewe and fetus respectively at 115-125 days of gestation. From the kinetic data the rates of whole body and tissue fractional protein synthesis were calculated. Although placental protein synthesis was not significantly changed as a result of acute maternal starvation, fetal whole body protein synthesis was reduced from 63 g/d/kg in the fed to 25 g/d/kg in the starved condition. There was also a 10 fold reduction in the net placental transfer of tyrosine to the fetus in the starved ewes. In addition, a three fold increase was observed in the quantity of tyrosine used for oxidation by the fetuses of starved ewes, changing from 5.2% of tyrosine net utilization in the fed to 13.7% in the starved condition. Significant reductions in tissue fractional protein synthesis rates were also seen in the liver, brain, lung kidney and GIT tissues from 78, 37, 65, 45 and 71%/d respectively in the fed to 12, 10, 23, 22 and 35%/d in the fetuses of starved ewes. The data indicate that during acute maternal starvation the sheep fetus utilizes more tyrosine for oxidation and less for anabolic purposes which is reflected in a decrease both in whole body and tissue fractional rates of protein synthesis

  2. DCB-3503, a tylophorine analog, inhibits protein synthesis through a novel mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DCB-3503, a tylophorine analog, inhibits the growth of PANC-1 (human pancreatic ductal cancer cell line and HepG2 (human hepatocellular cancer cell line tumor xenografts in nude mice. The inhibition of growth leads to cancer cell differentiation instead of cell death. However, the mechanisms of action of tylophorine analogs is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we show that DCB-3503 suppresses the expression of pro-oncogenic or pro-survival proteins with short half-lives, including cyclin D1, survivin, beta-catenin, p53, and p21, without decreasing their mRNA levels. Proteasome inhibitor reversed the inhibitory effect of DCB-3503 on expression of these proteins. DCB-3503 inhibited the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acid and thymidine, and to a much lesser degree of uridine, in a panel of cell lines. The mechanism of inhibition of protein synthesis is different from that of cycloheximide (CHX as assayed in cell culture and HeLa in vitro translation system. Furthermore, in contrast to rapamycin, DCB-3503 does not affect protein synthesis through the mTOR pathway. DCB-3503 treatment shifts the sedimentation profiles of ribosomes and mRNAs towards the polysomal fractions while diminishing monosome abundance, indicative of the inhibition of the elongation step of protein synthesis. Preferential down regulation of several studied proteins under these conditions is likely due to the relative short half-lives of these proteins. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The inhibitory effect of DCB-3503 on translation is apparently distinct from any of the current anticancer compounds targeting protein synthesis. Translation inhibitors with novel mechanism could complement current chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of human cancers and suppress the occurrence of drug resistance.

  3. Acute effects of ethanol in the control of protein synthesis in isolated rat liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girbes, T.; Susin, A.; Ayuso, M.S.; Parrilla, R.

    1983-01-01

    The acute effect of ethanol on hepatic protein synthesis is a rather controversial issue. In view of the conflicting reports on this subject, the effect of ethanol on protein labeling from L-[ 3 H]valine in isolated liver cells was studied under a variety of experimental conditions. When tracer doses of the isotope were utilized, ethanol consistently decreased the rate of protein labeling, regardless of the metabolic conditions of the cells. This inhibition was not prevented by doses of 4-methylpyrazole large enough to abolish all the characteristic metabolic effects of ethanol, and it was not related to perturbations on the rates of L-valine transport and/or proteolysis. When ethanol was tested in the presence of saturating doses of L-[ 3 H]valine no effect on protein labeling was observed. These observations suggest that the ethanol effect in decreasing protein labeling from tracer doses of the radioactive precursor does not reflect variations in the rate of protein synthesis but reflects changes in the specific activity of the precursor. These changes probably are secondary to variations in the dimensions of the amino acid pool utilized for protein synthesis. Even though it showed a lack of effect when tested alone, in the presence of saturating doses of the radioactive precursor ethanol inhibited the stimulatory effects on protein synthesis mediated by glucose and several gluconeogenic substrates. This effect of ethanol was not prevented by inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase, indicating that a shift of the NAD system to a more reduced state is not the mediator of its action. It is suggested that ethanol probably acted by changing the steady-state levels of some common effector(s) generated from the metabolism of all these fuels or else by preventing the inactivation of a translational repressor

  4. Enteral β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation increases protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Michelle; Columbus, Daniel A.; Suryawan, Agus; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Hernandez-Garcia, Adriana; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Fiorotto, Marta L.

    2016-01-01

    Many low-birth weight infants are at risk for poor growth due to an inability to achieve adequate protein intake. Administration of the amino acid leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates. To determine the effects of enteral supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein synthesis and the regulation of translation initiation and degradation pathways, overnight-fasted neonatal pigs were studied immediately (F) or fed one of five diets for 24 h: low-protein (LP), high-protein (HP), or LP diet supplemented with 4 (HMB4), 40 (HMB40), or 80 (HMB80) μmol HMB·kg body wt−1·day−1. Cell replication was assessed from nuclear incorporation of BrdU in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle and jejunum crypt cells. Protein synthesis rates in LD, gastrocnemius, rhomboideus, and diaphragm muscles, lung, and brain were greater in HMB80 and HP and in brain were greater in HMB40 compared with LP and F groups. Formation of the eIF4E·eIF4G complex and S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in LD, gastrocnemius, and rhomboideus muscles were greater in HMB80 and HP than in LP and F groups. Phosphorylation of eIF2α and eEF2 and expression of SNAT2, LAT1, MuRF1, atrogin-1, and LC3-II were unchanged. Numbers of BrdU-positive myonuclei in the LD were greater in HMB80 and HP than in the LP and F groups; there were no differences in jejunum. The results suggest that enteral supplementation with HMB increases skeletal muscle protein anabolism in neonates by stimulation of protein synthesis and satellite cell proliferation. PMID:27143558

  5. Applications of cell-free protein synthesis in synthetic biology: Interfacing bio-machinery with synthetic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic biology is built on the synthesis, engineering, and assembly of biological parts. Proteins are the first components considered for the construction of systems with designed biological functions because proteins carry out most of the biological functions and chemical reactions inside cells. Protein synthesis is considered to comprise the most basic levels of the hierarchical structure of synthetic biology. Cell-free protein synthesis has emerged as a powerful technology that can potentially transform the concept of bioprocesses. With the ability to harness the synthetic power of biology without many of the constraints of cell-based systems, cell-free protein synthesis enables the rapid creation of protein molecules from diverse sources of genetic information. Cell-free protein synthesis is virtually free from the intrinsic constraints of cell-based methods and offers greater flexibility in system design and manipulability of biological synthetic machinery. Among its potential applications, cell-free protein synthesis can be combined with various man-made devices for rapid functional analysis of genomic sequences. This review covers recent efforts to integrate cell-free protein synthesis with various reaction devices and analytical platforms. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Detection of carriers and genetic counseling in duchenne muscular dystrophy by ribosomal protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionasescu, V; Zellweger, H; Burmeister, L

    1976-11-01

    The in vitro protein synthesis by polyribosomes extracted from biopsied muscle (vastus lateralis) was studied in 47 known carriers, 87 possible carriers and in 60 normal females. A significant increase in specific activity of monomeric ribosomes, total polyribosomes and collagen synthesis was found in 46 (97.8 per cent) known carriers and 47 (54 per cent) possible carriers of Duchenne muscular dytrophy. The latter showed an increase in ribosomal protein synthesis in 10 (52.6 per cent) of 19 mothers of isolated cases, 31 (53.3 per cent) of 58 sisters, and 6 (60 per cent) of other female relatives. Serum creatine phosphokinase was increased in 30 (63.8 per cent) of 47 known carriers.

  7. Protein synthesis in muscle cultures from patients with duchenne muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionasescu, V.; Zellweger, H.; Ionasescu, R.; Lara-Braud, C.; Cancilla, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Muscle samples for cultures were obtained from the quadriceps by open biopsy under local anesthesia in five patients with early stage of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and 10 controls. Primary cultures were grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) with 20 per cent fetal calf serum. After 4 weeks, cells were trypsinized, counted, subcultured for 5 days in MEM with 5 per cent horse serum and finally incubated for 4 h with ( 3 H) leucine. Total protein synthesis showed a significant decrease (ALF OF CONTROL VALUES) only in muscle cultures from patients with DMD. Addition of calcium chloride alone or with A23187 ionophore normalized this defect in protein synthesis. By contrast, myosin heavy chain synthesis was measured and found normal in all patients. (author)

  8. Ammonia treatment of wheat straw. 2. Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis, rumen microbial protein pool size and turnover, and small intestinal protein digestion in sheep.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.; Viets, T.C.; Lammers-Wienhoven, S.C.W.; Bruchem, van J.

    1993-01-01

    Ammonia-treated wheat straw (AWS) was compared with untreated wheat straw (UWS) and untreated wheat straw supplemented with urea (SWS) in an experiment with 6 wether sheep. Microbial protein synthesis increased after ammonia treatment due to the higher intake of rumen degradable organic matter (OM).

  9. Solid-phase synthesis of protein-polymers on reversible immobilization supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hironobu; Carmali, Sheiliza; Baker, Stefanie L; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Russell, Alan J

    2018-02-27

    Facile automated biomacromolecule synthesis is at the heart of blending synthetic and biologic worlds. Full access to abiotic/biotic synthetic diversity first occurred when chemistry was developed to grow nucleic acids and peptides from reversibly immobilized precursors. Protein-polymer conjugates, however, have always been synthesized in solution in multi-step, multi-day processes that couple innovative chemistry with challenging purification. Here we report the generation of protein-polymer hybrids synthesized by protein-ATRP on reversible immobilization supports (PARIS). We utilized modified agarose beads to covalently and reversibly couple to proteins in amino-specific reactions. We then modified reversibly immobilized proteins with protein-reactive ATRP initiators and, after ATRP, we released and analyzed the protein polymers. The activity and stability of PARIS-synthesized and solution-synthesized conjugates demonstrated that PARIS was an effective, rapid, and simple method to generate protein-polymer conjugates. Automation of PARIS significantly reduced synthesis/purification timelines, thereby opening a path to changing how to generate protein-polymer conjugates.

  10. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, T.P.; Miceli, M.; Silverman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of [ 35 S]methionine and [ 35 S]cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and amino acids stimulated synthesis; chloramphenicol, rifampin, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a proton ionophore) inhibited incorporation. Ribonucleoside triphosphates (other than ATP) had little stimulatory effect. The optimum pH for host-free synthesis was between 7.0 and 7.5. The molecular weights of proteins synthesized by host-free reticulate bodies closely resembled the molecular weights of proteins synthesized by reticulate bodies in an intracellular environment, and included outer membrane proteins. Elementary bodies of chlamydiae were unable to synthesize protein even when incubated in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol, a reducing agent which converted the highly disulfide bond cross-linked major outer membrane protein to monomeric form

  11. The limits of adaptation of functional protein synthesis to sever undernutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoor, F.; Bhattiprolu, S.; Reeds, P.; Forrester, T.; Boyne, M.

    1994-01-01

    Our goal is to determine how the stress of infections alters the adaptation to reduced food intake in children. We think that an important element is the need for hepatic synthesis of rapidly turning over acute-phase proteins, a critical factor in overall maintenance of host defenses. When the child's prior intake has been adequate, even though growth may temporarily cease, the presence of adequate amino acid stores in tissues allows the hepatic response to stress to be maintained at the same time as an adequate rate of synthesis of nutrient transport proteins. However, when the immune system is activated in a children whose nutrition is already suboptimal the ability of the liver to synthesize nutrient transport proteins is compromised thereby further impeding nutrient utilization. We will use stable isotope tracer methodology to determine the effects of severe protein energy malnutrition, with and without infection, on the rates of synthesis of nutrient transport proteins and acute-phase proteins in undernourished children at three time points during treatment; in the early resuscitative period, after appetite has returned, and at the end of the catch-up growth phase when normal growth has resumed. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. The limits of adaptation of functional protein synthesis to sever undernutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahoor, F; Bhattiprolu, S; Reeds, P [Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States). Children` s Nutrition Research Centre; Forrester, T; Boyne, M [West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Tropical Metabolism Research Unit

    1994-12-31

    Our goal is to determine how the stress of infections alters the adaptation to reduced food intake in children. We think that an important element is the need for hepatic synthesis of rapidly turning over acute-phase proteins, a critical factor in overall maintenance of host defenses. When the child`s prior intake has been adequate, even though growth may temporarily cease, the presence of adequate amino acid stores in tissues allows the hepatic response to stress to be maintained at the same time as an adequate rate of synthesis of nutrient transport proteins. However, when the immune system is activated in a children whose nutrition is already suboptimal the ability of the liver to synthesize nutrient transport proteins is compromised thereby further impeding nutrient utilization. We will use stable isotope tracer methodology to determine the effects of severe protein energy malnutrition, with and without infection, on the rates of synthesis of nutrient transport proteins and acute-phase proteins in undernourished children at three time points during treatment; in the early resuscitative period, after appetite has returned, and at the end of the catch-up growth phase when normal growth has resumed. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. In Profile: Models of Ribosome Biogenesis Defects and Regulation of Protein Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, P.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes are the mediators of protein synthesis in the cell and therefore crucial to proper cell function. In addition, ribosomes are highly abundant, with ribosomal RNA making up 80% of the RNA in the cell. A large amount of resources go into maintaining this pool of ribosomes, so ribosome

  14. Problem-Solving Test: RNA and Protein Synthesis in Bacteriophage-Infected "E. coli" Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2008-01-01

    The classic experiment presented in this problem-solving test was designed to identify the template molecules of translation by analyzing the synthesis of phage proteins in "Escherichia coli" cells infected with bacteriophage T4. The work described in this test led to one of the most seminal discoveries of early molecular biology: it dealt a…

  15. Solid-phase synthesis of an apoptosis-inducing tetrapeptide mimicking the Smac protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Quement, Sebastian Thordal; Ishøy, Mette; Petersen, Mette Terp

    2011-01-01

    An approach for the solid-phase synthesis of apoptosis-inducing Smac peptidomimetics is presented. Using a Rink linker strategy, tetrapeptides mimicking the N-4-terminal residue of the Smac protein [(N-Me)AVPF sequence] were synthesized on PEGA resin in excellent purities and yields. Following two...

  16. Using Simple Manipulatives to Improve Student Comprehension of a Complex Biological Process: Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Karen; Bartlett, John

    2012-01-01

    Biological systems and living processes involve a complex interplay of biochemicals and macromolecular structures that can be challenging for undergraduate students to comprehend and, thus, misconceptions abound. Protein synthesis, or translation, is an example of a biological process for which students often hold many misconceptions. This article…

  17. Absorption tuning of the green fluorescent protein chromophore: synthesis and studies of model compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Andersen, Lars Henrik; Rinza, Tomás Rocha

    2011-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore is a heterocyclic compound containing a p-hydroxybenzylidine attached to an imidazol-5(4H)-one ring. This review covers the synthesis of a variety of model systems for elucidating the intrinsic optical properties of the chromophore in the gas phase ...

  18. Brain tumors : L-[1-C-11]tyrosine PET for visualization and quantification of protein synthesis rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruim, J; Willemsen, A T; Molenaar, W M; Waarde, A van; Paans, A M; Heesters, M A; Go, K G; Visser, Gerben; Franssen, E J; Vaalburg, W

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography (PET) with the amino acid tracer L-[1-C-11]-tyrosine was evaluated in 27 patients with primary and recurrent brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients underwent either static (n = 14) or dynamic PET (n = 13), with quantification of protein synthesis rate

  19. Degradation and de novo synthesis of D1 protein and psbA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This shows that synthesis of D1 protein is not the only component involved in the recovery process. Our events, which ... transcript levels in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in ..... and Gaba V 1996 Accelerated degradation of the D2 ...

  20. Myelin Basic Protein synthesis is regulated by small non-coding RNA 715

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, N.M.; Moos, C.; van Horssen, J.; Witte, M.E.; van der Valk, P.; Altenhein, B.; Luhmann, H.J.; White, R.

    2012-01-01

    Oligodendroglial Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) synthesis is essential for myelin formation in the central nervous system. During oligodendrocyte differentiation, MBP mRNA is kept in a translationally silenced state while intracellularly transported, until neuron-derived signals initiate localized MBP

  1. Reconsolidation of a Context Long-Term Memory in the Terrestrial Snail Requires Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainutdinova, Tatiana H.; Tagirova, Rosa R.; Ismailova, Asja I.; Muranova, Lyudmila N.; Samarova, Elena I.; Gainutdinov, Khalil L.; Balaban, Pavel M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the protein synthesis blocker anisomycin on contextual memory in the terrestrial snail "Helix." Prior to the training session, the behavioral responses in two contexts were similar. Two days after a session of electric shocks (5 d) in one context only, the context conditioning was observed as the significant…

  2. Total chemical synthesis and X-ray structure of kaliotoxin by racemic protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentelute, Brad L; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Gates, Zachary P; Sawaya, Michael R; Yeates, Todd O; Kent, Stephen B H

    2010-11-21

    Here we report the total synthesis of kaliotoxin by 'one pot' native chemical ligation of three synthetic peptides. A racemic mixture of D- and L-kaliotoxin synthetic protein molecules gave crystals in the centrosymmetric space group P1 that diffracted to atomic-resolution (0.95 Å), enabling the X-ray structure of kaliotoxin to be determined by direct methods.

  3. Inhibition of protein synthesis by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleihues, P.; Magee, P. N.

    1973-01-01

    1. The intraperitoneal injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (100mg/kg) caused a partial inhibition of protein synthesis in several organs of the rat, the maximum effect occurring after 2–3h. 2. In the liver the inhibition of protein synthesis was paralleled by a marked disaggregation of polyribosomes and an increase in ribosome monomers and ribosomal subunits. No significant breakdown of polyribosomes was found in adult rat brains although N-methyl-N-nitrosourea inhibited cerebral and hepatic protein synthesis to a similar extent. In weanling rats N-methyl-N-nitrosourea caused a shift in the cerebral polyribosome profile similar to but less marked than that in rat liver. 3. Reaction of polyribosomal RNA with N-[14C]methyl-N-nitrosourea in vitro did not lead to a disaggregation of polyribosomes although the amounts of 7-methylguanine produced were up to twenty times higher than those found after administration of sublethal doses in vivo. 4. It was concluded that changes in the polyribosome profile induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea may reflect the mechanism of inhibition of protein synthesis rather than being a direct consequence of the methylation of polyribosomal mRNA. PMID:4774397

  4. Long lasting protein synthesis- and activity-dependent spine shrinkage and elimination after synaptic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Ramiro-Cortés

    Full Text Available Neuronal circuits modify their response to synaptic inputs in an experience-dependent fashion. Increases in synaptic weights are accompanied by structural modifications, and activity dependent, long lasting growth of dendritic spines requires new protein synthesis. When multiple spines are potentiated within a dendritic domain, they show dynamic structural plasticity changes, indicating that spines can undergo bidirectional physical modifications. However, it is unclear whether protein synthesis dependent synaptic depression leads to long lasting structural changes. Here, we investigate the structural correlates of protein synthesis dependent long-term depression (LTD mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs through two-photon imaging of dendritic spines on hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We find that induction of mGluR-LTD leads to robust and long lasting spine shrinkage and elimination that lasts for up to 24 hours. These effects depend on signaling through group I mGluRs, require protein synthesis, and activity. These data reveal a mechanism for long lasting remodeling of synaptic inputs, and offer potential insights into mental retardation.

  5. Effect of pH 5 enzyme from liver on the protein synthesis by mammary gland subcellular fractions in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jaspal; Singh, Ajit; Ganguli, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of pH 5 enzyme fraction of liver on the protein synthesizing activity of the subcellular fractions of the mammary gland has been investigated. Results indicate that (1) lactating liver pH 5 enzyme stimulates protein synthesis which is enhanced by the addition of ATP-generating system and (2) the enzyme fractions from the non-lactating liver inhibits the protein synthesis by mammary fractions, but in some cases like mitochondrial and supernatant fractions of mammary it elevates the synthesis when supplemented with ATP-generating system. Chlorella protein hydrolysate- 14 C was used as a tracer and rabits were used as experimental animals. (M.G.B.)

  6. miRNA-dependent translational repression in the Drosophila ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Reich

    Full Text Available The Drosophila ovary is a tissue rich in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Many of the regulatory factors are proteins identified via genetic screens. The more recent discovery of microRNAs, which in other animals and tissues appear to regulate translation of a large fraction of all mRNAs, raised the possibility that they too might act during oogenesis. However, there has been no direct demonstration of microRNA-dependent translational repression in the ovary.Here, quantitative analyses of transcript and protein levels of transgenes with or without synthetic miR-312 binding sites show that the binding sites do confer translational repression. This effect is dependent on the ability of the cells to produce microRNAs. By comparison with microRNA-dependent translational repression in other cell types, the regulated mRNAs and the protein factors that mediate repression were expected to be enriched in sponge bodies, subcellular structures with extensive similarities to the P bodies found in other cells. However, no such enrichment was observed.Our results reveal the variety of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that operate in the Drosophila ovary, and have implications for the mechanisms of miRNA-dependent translational control used in the ovary.

  7. T-Stimulator effect on cotton protein composition and synthesis in salinization stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimova, E.A.; Nazirova, E.R.; Samarkhodjaeva, N.R.; Nalbandyan, A.A.; Babaev, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: T-stimulator was established to possess a wide spectrum of physiological effects, to enhance plant adaptation to thermal stress and to increase plant resistance to pathogens. Plant adaptation to unfavorable conditions manifests in changes in many links of metabolism, that of proteins included. We studied effect of cottonseed treatment with T-stimulator on composition and synthesis of plasma membrane proteins upon chloride salinization by means of the radioisotope method. Electrophoretic fractionation of cottonseed plasma membrane proteins showed absence of more than 40 polypeptides with molecular mass from 10 to more than 100 kDa in the cotton root membranes. Major fractions-polypeptides with molecular mass of 61, 53, 46, 25, 21, 20 and 18 kDa constitute about 50% of the total polypeptide composition. The salinization significantly affects the total membrane protein output, proportion of some polypeptides and their synthesis rate. Analysis of phoreogram radioautographs showed that 2-hour exposition of cotton roots to 35 S methionine suppresses synthesis of major polypeptides with molecular mass of 63, 61 and 53 kDa, that of low molecular polypeptides (46, 20, 18 kDa) increasing. Changes in the proportion of major polypeptides in cotton plasma membranes, reduction in rate of biosynthesis of high molecular fractions with the general suppression of label inclusion in the membrane fraction are the evidence for a disturbance in biosynthesis of some membrane proteins in cotton tissue cells upon salinization. The inhibiting effect of salinization on the protein-synthesizing system was observed in plants treated with T-stimulator, but the rate of synthesis in plasma membranes of the treated plants was found significantly higher. The activation of some plasma membrane proteins under T-stimulator effect suggests an association with the increase in adaptation of the treated plants to the disturbing effect of salinization

  8. The differential role of cortical protein synthesis in taste memory formation and persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Gal-Ben-Ari, Shunit; Heise, Christopher; Rosenberg, Tali; Elkobi, Alina; Inberg, Sharon; Sala, Carlo; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2016-05-01

    The current dogma suggests that the formation of long-term memory (LTM) is dependent on protein synthesis but persistence of the memory trace is not. However, many of the studies examining the effect of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) on LTM persistence were performed in the hippocampus, which is known to have a time-dependent role in memory storage, rather than the cortex, which is considered to be the main structure to store long-term memories. Here we studied the effect of PSIs on LTM formation and persistence in male Wistar Hola (n⩾5) rats by infusing the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (100 μg, 1 μl), into the gustatory cortex (GC) during LTM formation and persistence in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). We found that local anisomycin infusion to the GC before memory acquisition impaired LTM formation (P=8.9E-5), but had no effect on LTM persistence when infused 3 days post acquisition (P=0.94). However, when we extended the time interval between treatment with anisomycin and testing from 3 days to 14 days, LTM persistence was enhanced (P=0.01). The enhancement was on the background of stable and non-declining memory, and was not recapitulated by another amnesic agent, APV (10 μg, 1 μl), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist (P=0.54). In conclusion, CTA LTM remains sensitive to the action of PSIs in the GC even 3 days following memory acquisition. This sensitivity is differentially expressed between the formation and persistence of LTM, suggesting that increased cortical protein synthesis promotes LTM formation, whereas decreased protein synthesis promotes LTM persistence.

  9. The induction of the oxidative burst in Elodea densa by sulfhydryl reagent does not depend on de novo protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amicucci, Enrica [Milan, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisiologia e Biochimica delle Piante

    1997-12-31

    In Elodea densa Planchon leaves, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and other sulfhydryl-binding reagents induce a marked and temporary increase of respiration that is insensitive to cyanide, hydroxamate and propylgallate and completely inhibited by diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and by quinacrine. In this paper the author investigates whether the mechanism that causes the oxidative burst depends on the activation of preexisting oxidative systems or on the activation of de novo protein synthesis. The inhibitors used were cycloheximide (CHI) which inhibits protein synthesis in plant cells by depressing the incorporation of aminoacids into proteins and cordycepin, an effective inhibitor of mRNA synthesis. The data support the idea that the mechanism investigated depends on the activation of a long lived protein(s) and not on de novo protein synthesis.

  10. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  11. Deficiency in plasma protein synthesis caused by x-ray-induced lethal albino alleles in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, R.C.; Satrustegui, J.; Gluecksohn-Waelsch, S.; Cori, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma protein synthesis was studied in mice bearing x-ray induced lethal mutations at the albino locus. Newborn albino mutants showed a decrease in each of the three principal plasma proteins, albumin, α-fetoprotein, and transferrin, when compared with colored littermate controls. Incorporation of [ 14 C] leucine into plasma proteins of the newborn albinos 30 min after injection was only 1 / 5 that of the controls, but incorporation into total liver protein was only slightly diminished. Incorporation of [ 14 C] leucine into an albumin fraction obtained by immunoprecipitation from livers incubated in vitro in an amino acid mixture was also strongly diminished. Thus, the liver of 18-day-old albino fetuses incorporated into this fraction 1 / 3 and that of newborn albinos 1 / 8 as much as the controls, but in both cases the incorporation into total liver protein was only 25 percent less than in the respective controls. These results indicate that the rather severe structural abnormalities observed in the mutants in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus are not associated with a general deficiency of hepatic protein synthesis. Instead the data from this and previous work show that the progressive deficiency from fetal life to birth involves certain specific proteins represented by several perinatally developing enzymes and by plasma proteins. It is suggested that the mutational effects observed in these mice are due to deletions involving regulatory rather than structural genes at or near the albino locus

  12. Synthesis and functioning of the colicin E1 lysis protein: Comparison with the colicin A lysis protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavard, D.

    1991-01-01

    The colicin E1 lysis protein, CelA, was identified as a 3-kDa protein in induced cells of Escherichia coli K-12 carrying pColE1 by pulse-chase labeling with either [ 35 S]cysteine or [ 3 H]lysine. This 3-kDa protein was acylated, as shown by [2- 3 H]glycerol labeling, and seemed to correspond to the mature CelA protein. The rate of modification and processing of CelA was different from that observed for Cal, the colicin A lysis protein. In contrast to Cal, no intermediate form was detected for CelA, no signal peptide accumulated, and no modified precursor form was observed after globomycin treatment. Thus, the rate of synthesis would not be specific to lysis proteins. Solubilization in sodium dodecyl sulfate of the mature forms of both CelA and Cal varied similarly at the time of colicin release, indicating a change in lysis protein structure. This particular property would play a role in the mechanism of colicin export. The accumulation of the signal peptide seems to be a factor determining the toxicity of the lysis proteins since CelA provoked less cell damage than Cal. Quasi-lysis and killing due to CelA were higher in degP mutants than in wild-type cells. They were minimal in pldA mutants

  13. Prioritized expression of BTN2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under pronounced translation repression induced by severe ethanol stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukina Yamauchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe ethanol stress (>9% ethanol, v/v as well as glucose deprivation rapidly induces a pronounced repression of overall protein synthesis in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, transcriptional activation in yeast cells under severe ethanol stress does not always indicate the production of expected protein levels. Messenger RNAs of genes containing heat shock elements can be intensively translated under glucose deprivation, suggesting that some mRNAs are preferentially translated even under severe ethanol stress. In the present study, we tried to identify the mRNA that can be preferentially translated under severe ethanol stress. BTN2 encodes a v-SNARE binding protein, and its null mutant shows hypersensitivity to ethanol. We found that BTN2 mRNA was efficiently translated under severe ethanol stress but not under mild ethanol stress. Moreover, the increased Btn2 protein levels caused by severe ethanol stress were smoothly decreased with the elimination of ethanol stress. These findings suggested that severe ethanol stress extensively induced BTN2 expression. Further, the BTN2 promoter induced protein synthesis of non-native genes such as CUR1, GIC2, and YUR1 in the presence of high ethanol concentrations, indicating that this promoter overcame severe ethanol stress-induced translation repression. Thus, our findings provide an important clue about yeast response to severe ethanol stress and suggest that the BTN2 promoter can be used to improve the efficiency of ethanol production and stress tolerance of yeast cells by modifying gene expression in the presence of high ethanol concentration.

  14. Myofibrillar protein synthesis following ingestion of soy protein isolate at rest and after resistance exercise in elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yifan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased amino acid availability stimulates muscle protein synthesis, however, aged muscle appears less responsive to the anabolic effects of amino acids when compared to the young. We aimed to compare changes in myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS in elderly men at rest and after resistance exercise following ingestion of different doses of soy protein and compare the responses to those we previously observed with ingestion of whey protein isolate. Methods Thirty elderly men (age 71 ± 5 y completed a bout of unilateral knee-extensor resistance exercise prior to ingesting no protein (0 g, or either 20 g or 40 g of soy protein isolate (0, S20, and S40 respectively. We compared these responses to previous responses from similar aged men who had ingested 20 g and 40 g of whey protein isolate (W20 and W40. A primed constant infusion of L-[1-13 C]leucine and L-[ring-13 C6]phenylalanine and skeletal muscle biopsies were used to measure whole-body leucine oxidation and MPS over 4 h post-protein consumption in both exercised and non-exercised legs. Results Whole-body leucine oxidation increased with protein ingestion and was significantly greater for S20 vs. W20 (P = 0.003. Rates of MPS for S20 were less than W20 (P = 0.02 and not different from 0 g (P = 0.41 in both exercised and non-exercised leg muscles. For S40, MPS was also reduced compared with W40 under both rested and post-exercise conditions (both P P = 0.04. Conclusions The relationship between protein intake and MPS is both dose and protein source-dependent, with isolated soy showing a reduced ability, as compared to isolated whey protein, to stimulate MPS under both rested and post-exercise conditions. These differences may relate to the lower postprandial leucinemia and greater rates of amino acid oxidation following ingestion of soy versus whey protein.

  15. Nitrate-induced changes in protein synthesis and translation of RNA in maize roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, P.R.; Omholt, T.E.; Pace, G.M.; Bouthyette, P.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Nitrate regulation of protein synthesis and RNA translation in maize (Zea mays L. var B73) roots was examined, using in vivo labeling with [ 35 S]methionine and in vitro translation. Nitrate enhanced the synthesis of a 31 kilodalton membrane polypeptide which was localized in a fraction enriched in tonoplast and/or endoplasmic reticulum membrane vesicles. The nitrate-enhanced synthesis was correlated with an acceleration of net nitrate uptake by seedlings during initial exposure to nitrate. Nitrate did not consistently enhance protein synthesis in other membrane fractions. Synthesis of up to four soluble polypeptides (21, 40, 90, and 168 kilodaltons) was also enhanced by nitrate. The most consistent enhancement was that of the 40 kilodalton polypeptide. No consistent nitrate-induced changes were noted in the organellar fraction (14,000g pellet of root homogenates). When roots were treated with nitrate, the amount of [ 35 S]methionine increased in six in vitro translation products (21, 24, 41, 56, 66, and 90 kilodaltons). Nitrate treatment did not enhance accumulation of label in translation products with a molecular weight of 31,000 (corresponding to the identified nitrate-inducible membrane polypeptide). Incubation of in vitro translation products with root membranes caused changes in the SDS-PAGE profiles in the vecinity of 31 kilodaltons. The results suggest that the nitrate-inducible, 31 kilodalton polypeptide from a fraction enriched in tonoplast and/or endoplasmic reticulum may be involved in regulating nitrate accumulation by maize roots

  16. Protein targeting to glycogen is a master regulator of glycogen synthesis in astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Ruchti, E.

    2016-10-08

    The storage and use of glycogen, the main energy reserve in the brain, is a metabolic feature of astrocytes. Glycogen synthesis is regulated by Protein Targeting to Glycogen (PTG), a member of specific glycogen-binding subunits of protein phosphatase-1 (PPP1). It positively regulates glycogen synthesis through de-phosphorylation of both glycogen synthase (activation) and glycogen phosphorylase (inactivation). In cultured astrocytes, PTG mRNA levels were previously shown to be enhanced by the neurotransmitter noradrenaline. To achieve further insight into the role of PTG in the regulation of astrocytic glycogen, its levels of expression were manipulated in primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes using adenovirus-mediated overexpression of tagged-PTG or siRNA to downregulate its expression. Infection of astrocytes with adenovirus led to a strong increase in PTG expression and was associated with massive glycogen accumulation (>100 fold), demonstrating that increased PTG expression is sufficient to induce glycogen synthesis and accumulation. In contrast, siRNA-mediated downregulation of PTG resulted in a 2-fold decrease in glycogen levels. Interestingly, PTG downregulation strongly impaired long-term astrocytic glycogen synthesis induced by insulin or noradrenaline. Finally, these effects of PTG downregulation on glycogen metabolism could also be observed in cultured astrocytes isolated from PTG-KO mice. Collectively, these observations point to a major role of PTG in the regulation of glycogen synthesis in astrocytes and indicate that conditions leading to changes in PTG expression will directly impact glycogen levels in this cell type.

  17. Synthesis of mitochondrial uncoupling protein in brown adipocytes differentiated in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, J.; Baudysova, M.; Zanotti, F.; Janikova, D.; Pavelka, S.; Houstek, J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to characterize the biogenesis of unique thermogenic mitochondria of brown adipose tissue, differentiation of precursor cells isolated from mouse brown adipose tissue was studied in cell culture. Synthesis of mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP), F1-ATPase, and cytochrome oxidase was examined by L-[35S]methionine labeling and immunoblotting. For the first time, synthesis of physiological amounts of the UCP, a key and tissue-specific component of thermogenic mitochondria, was observed in cultures at about confluence (day 6), indicating that a complete differentiation of brown adipocytes was achieved in vitro. In postconfluent cells (day 8) the content of UCP decreased rapidly, in contrast to some other mitochondrial proteins (beta subunit of F1-ATPase, cytochrome oxidase). In these cells, it was possible, by using norepinephrine, to induce specifically the synthesis of the UCP but not of F1-ATPase or cytochrome oxidase. The maximal response was observed at 0.1 microM norepinephrine and the synthesis of UCP remained activated for at least 24 h. Detailed analysis revealed a major role of the beta-adrenergic receptors and elevated intracellular concentration of cAMP in stimulation of UCP synthesis. A quantitative recovery of the newly synthesized UCP in the mitochondrial fraction indicated completed biogenesis of functionally competent thermogenic mitochondria

  18. ROLE OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN SHORT- AND LONG-TERM MEMORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, E.L.; Rosenzweig, M.R.; Flood, J.F.

    1978-10-01

    Anisomycin is an effective inhibitor of cerebral protein synthesis in mice and is also an effective amnestic agent for both passive and active behavioral tasks. From use of anisomycin in combination with a variety of stimulant and depressant drugs, we conclude that the level of arousal following acquisition plays an important role in determining the duration and the rate of the biosynthetic phase of memory formation. While we have interpreted the experiments with anisomycin as evidence for an essential role of protein in memory storage, others have suggested that side effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis on catecholamine metabolism are the main cause of amnesia. Several experiments were therefore done to compare the effects of anisemycin and catecholamine inhibitors on memory. We conclude that anisomycin's principal amnestic mechanism does not involve inhibition of the catecholamine system. The results strengthen our conclusion that protein synthesis is an essential component for longterm memory trace formation. Also, it is suggested that proteins synthesized in the neuronal cell body are used, in conjunction with other molecules, to produce permanent and semi-permanent anatomical changes.

  19. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on postoperative muscle mass and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, O; Edvardsen, L; Jensen, F

    1996-01-01

    In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein ...... protein synthesis and muscle mass after abdominal surgery and should be evaluated in other catabolic states with muscle wasting.......In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein...... synthesis were assessed by computed tomography and ribosome analysis of percutaneous muscle biopsies before surgery and on the sixth postoperative day. The percentage of polyribosomes in the ribosome suspension decreased significantly (P

  20. MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING OF RIBOSOMAL MOVEMENT AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias von der Haar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation or protein synthesis consists of a complex system of chemical reactions, which ultimately result in decoding of the mRNA and the production of a protein. The complexity of this reaction system makes it difficult to quantitatively connect its input parameters (such as translation factor or ribosome concentrations, codon composition of the mRNA, or energy availability to output parameters (such as protein synthesis rates or ribosome densities on mRNAs. Mathematical and computational models of translation have now been used for nearly five decades to investigate translation, and to shed light on the relationship between the different reactions in the system. This review gives an overview over the principal approaches used in the modelling efforts, and summarises some of the major findings that were made.

  1. Cell growth and protein synthesis of unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas in heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, M.R.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy water on the cell growth and protein synthesis of the photoautotrophically growing Chlamydomonas cells were studied. The growth rate of the cells is inversely proportional to the concentrations of heavy water. The cells can barely live in 90% heavy water, but they die in 99.85% heavy water within a few days. Incorporation of 14 Cleucine into cells is markedly stimulated by heavy water of various concentrations between 30 and 99.85% in the case of the short time incubation. Contrary to this, in the long time incubation as several days, heavy water inhibits the protein synthesis. Such two modes of the protein synthetic activities are dependent upon the incubation time of the cells grown photoautotrophically in the heavy water media. (author)

  2. The Related Transcriptional Enhancer Factor-1 Isoform, TEAD4216, Can Repress Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, Binoy; McFarland, Trevor J.; Stempel, Andrew; Kassem, Jean B.; Hartzell, Matthew; Zhang, Yi; Bond, Derek; West, Kelsey; Wilson, Reid; Stout, Andrew; Pan, Yuzhen; Ilias, Hoda; Robertson, Kathryn; Klein, Michael L.; Wilson, David; Smith, Justine R.; Stout, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Increased cellular production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is responsible for the development and progression of multiple cancers and other neovascular conditions, and therapies targeting post-translational VEGF products are used in the treatment of these diseases. Development of methods to control and modify the transcription of the VEGF gene is an alternative approach that may have therapeutic potential. We have previously shown that isoforms of the transcriptional enhancer factor 1-related (TEAD4) protein can enhance the production of VEGF. In this study we describe a new TEAD4 isoform, TEAD4216, which represses VEGF promoter activity. The TEAD4216 isoform inhibits human VEGF promoter activity and does not require the presence of the hypoxia responsive element (HRE), which is the sequence critical to hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated effects. The TEAD4216 protein is localized to the cytoplasm, whereas the enhancer isoforms are found within the nucleus. The TEAD4216 isoform can competitively repress the stimulatory activity of the TEAD4434 and TEAD4148 enhancers. Synthesis of the native VEGF165 protein and cellular proliferation is suppressed by the TEAD4216 isoform. Mutational analysis indicates that nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of any isoform determines whether it acts as an enhancer or repressor, respectively. The TEAD4216 isoform appears to inhibit VEGF production independently of the HRE required activity by HIF, suggesting that this alternatively spliced isoform of TEAD4 may provide a novel approach to treat VEGF-dependent diseases. PMID:22761647

  3. Acid phosphatase turnover during repressed and derepressed cultivation of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komano, Teruya

    1975-01-01

    Enhancement of the activity of acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) by phosphate starvation in growing Aspergillus niger mycelia was prevented by cycloheximide. This indicates that the enhancement was due to de novo protein synthesis caused by derepression. Radioactive acid phosphatase extracted from mycelia labeled with 14 C-amino acid was separated into at least four fractions. Experiments on pulse labeling and the chasing of the four acid phosphatases revealed the synthesis and degradation of each fraction occurred at different rates; showing a different rate of turnover of the enzyme molecules. The results of similar experiments performed during culture in the presence of phosphate (partially repressed condition) suggested that the marked change in the activity ratios of the four acid phosphatases during cultivation was the result of the active turnover of enzyme molecules. In contrast, the slight changes in the ratios observed during derepressed cultivation seemed to be the result of similar of synthesis and degradation of each phosphatase fraction. (auth.)

  4. The VFH1 (YLL056C) promoter is vanillin-inducible and enables mRNA translation despite pronounced translation repression caused by severe vanillin stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi My; Ishida, Yoko; Kato, Sae; Iwaki, Aya; Izawa, Shingo

    2018-03-25

    Vanillin, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are representative fermentation inhibitors generated during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass in bioethanol production. These biomass conversion inhibitors, particularly vanillin, are known to repress translation activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have reported that the mRNAs of ADH7 and BDH2 were efficiently translated under severe vanillin stress despite marked repression of overall protein synthesis. In this study, we found that expression of VFH1 (YLL056C) was also significantly induced at the protein level by severe vanillin stress. Additionally, we demonstrated that the VFH1 promoter enabled the protein synthesis of other genes including GFP and ALD6 under severe vanillin stress. It is known that transcriptional activation of VFH1 is induced by furfural and HMF, and we herein verified that Vfh1 protein synthesis was also induced by furfural and HMF. The null mutant of VFH1 delayed growth in the presence of vanillin, furfural, and HMF, indicating the importance of Vfh1 for sufficient tolerance against these inhibitors. The protein levels of Vfh1 induced by the inhibitors tested were markedly higher than those of Adh7 and Bdh2, suggesting the superior utility of the VFH1 promoter over the ADH7 or BDH2 promoter for breeding optimized yeast strains for bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Enteral leucine and protein synthesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are three members of the Branch Chain Amino Acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. As essential amino acids, these amino acids have important functions which include a primary role in protein structure and metabolism. It is intriguing that the requirement for BCAA in humans comprise about 40–...

  6. Intestinal DNA concentration and protein synthesis in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Intestinal ... transporters are membrane-bound proteins and operate ... sporters that are similar to those found on other plasma ... on fastDNA® kit (application manual revision 6540-400-4H01) and.

  7. Transcription of lncRNA prt, clustered prt RNA sites for Mmi1 binding, and RNA polymerase II CTD phospho-sites govern the repression of pho1 gene expression under phosphate-replete conditions in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debashree; Sanchez, Ana M; Goldgur, Yehuda; Shuman, Stewart; Schwer, Beate

    2016-07-01

    Expression of fission yeast Pho1 acid phosphatase is repressed during growth in phosphate-rich medium. Repression is mediated by transcription of the prt locus upstream of pho1 to produce a long noncoding (lnc) prt RNA. Repression is also governed by RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation status, whereby inability to place a Ser7-PO4 mark (as in S7A) derepresses Pho1 expression, and inability to place a Thr4-PO4 mark (as in T4A) hyper-represses Pho1 in phosphate replete cells. Here we find that basal pho1 expression from the prt-pho1 locus is inversely correlated with the activity of the prt promoter, which resides in a 110-nucleotide DNA segment preceding the prt transcription start site. CTD mutations S7A and T4A had no effect on the activity of the prt promoter or the pho1 promoter, suggesting that S7A and T4A affect post-initiation events in prt lncRNA synthesis that make it less and more repressive of pho1, respectively. prt lncRNA contains clusters of DSR (determinant of selective removal) sequences recognized by the YTH-domain-containing protein Mmi1. Altering the nucleobase sequence of two DSR clusters in the prt lncRNA caused hyper-repression of pho1 in phosphate replete cells, concomitant with increased levels of the prt transcript. The isolated Mmi1 YTH domain binds to RNAs with single or tandem DSR elements, to the latter in a noncooperative fashion. We report the 1.75 Å crystal structure of the Mmi1 YTH domain and provide evidence that Mmi1 recognizes DSR RNA via a binding mode distinct from that of structurally homologous YTH proteins that recognize m(6)A-modified RNA. © 2016 Chatterjee et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. Theiler's virus RNA and protein synthesis in the central nervous system of demyelinating mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, E.; Chamorro, M.; Brahic, M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied Theiler's virus RNA and capsid protein synthesis in sections of mouse spinal cord using in situ hybridization coupled to immunoperoxidase. They found that the majority of infected cells contain 100 to 500 viral genomes and no detectable capsid antigens. Similarly, baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are permissive to Theiler's virus, do not synthesize capsid if they contain less than 1000 viral genomes. The results demonstrate that virus multiplication is restricted in vivo at the level of RNA replication. They suggest that RNA restriction is sufficient to explain the lack of capsid antigen synthesis

  9. Ribosome-dependent ATPase interacts with conserved membrane protein in Escherichia coli to modulate protein synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Babu

    Full Text Available Elongation factor RbbA is required for ATP-dependent deacyl-tRNA release presumably after each peptide bond formation; however, there is no information about the cellular role. Proteomic analysis in Escherichia coli revealed that RbbA reciprocally co-purified with a conserved inner membrane protein of unknown function, YhjD. Both proteins are also physically associated with the 30S ribosome and with members of the lipopolysaccharide transport machinery. Genome-wide genetic screens of rbbA and yhjD deletion mutants revealed aggravating genetic interactions with mutants deficient in the electron transport chain. Cells lacking both rbbA and yhjD exhibited reduced cell division, respiration and global protein synthesis as well as increased sensitivity to antibiotics targeting the ETC and the accuracy of protein synthesis. Our results suggest that RbbA appears to function together with YhjD as part of a regulatory network that impacts bacterial oxidative phosphorylation and translation efficiency.

  10. Jatropha curcas Protein Concentrate Stimulates Insulin Signaling, Lipogenesis, Protein Synthesis and the PKCα Pathway in Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-López, Liliana; Márquez-Mota, Claudia C; Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A; Gálvez-Mariscal, Amanda; Arrieta-Báez, Daniel; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2015-09-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oil seed plant that belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. Nontoxic genotypes have been reported in Mexico. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the effect of a Mexican variety of J. curcas protein concentrate (JCP) on weight gain, biochemical parameters, and the expression of genes and proteins involved in insulin signaling, lipogenesis, cholesterol and protein synthesis in rats. The results demonstrated that short-term consumption of JCP increased serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels as well as the expression of transcription factors involved in lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis (SREBP-1 and LXRα). Moreover, there was an increase in insulin signaling mediated by Akt phosphorylation and mTOR. JCP also increased PKCα protein abundance and the activation of downstream signaling pathway targets such as the AP1 and NF-κB transcription factors typically activated by phorbol esters. These results suggested that phorbol esters are present in JCP, and that they could be involved in the activation of PKC which may be responsible for the high insulin secretion and consequently the activation of insulin-dependent pathways. Our data suggest that this Mexican Jatropha variety contains toxic compounds that produce negative metabolic effects which require caution when using in the applications of Jatropha-based products in medicine and nutrition.

  11. A Continuous-Exchange Cell-Free Protein Synthesis System Based on Extracts from Cultured Insect Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stech, Marlitt; Quast, Robert B.; Sachse, Rita; Schulze, Corina; Wüstenhagen, Doreen A.; Kubick, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present a novel technique for the synthesis of complex prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins by using a continuous-exchange cell-free (CECF) protein synthesis system based on extracts from cultured insect cells. Our approach consists of two basic elements: First, protein synthesis is performed in insect cell lysates which harbor endogenous microsomal vesicles, enabling a translocation of de novo synthesized target proteins into the lumen of the insect vesicles or, in the case of membrane proteins, their embedding into a natural membrane scaffold. Second, cell-free reactions are performed in a two chamber dialysis device for 48 h. The combination of the eukaryotic cell-free translation system based on insect cell extracts and the CECF translation system results in significantly prolonged reaction life times and increased protein yields compared to conventional batch reactions. In this context, we demonstrate the synthesis of various representative model proteins, among them cytosolic proteins, pharmacological relevant membrane proteins and glycosylated proteins in an endotoxin-free environment. Furthermore, the cell-free system used in this study is well-suited for the synthesis of biologically active tissue-type-plasminogen activator, a complex eukaryotic protein harboring multiple disulfide bonds. PMID:24804975

  12. Induction of protein synthesis in Escherichia coli following UV- or γ-irradiation, mitomycin C treatment or tif expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, S.C.; Emmerson, P.T.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of synthesis of total cellular proteins has been studied by pulse labelling cells at various periods after irradiation with UV or γ-rays, after treatment with mitomycin C (MMC) or after expression of the temperature sensitive mutation tif. Subsequent gel electrophoresis and autoradiography reveals changes in the rate of synthesis of several proteins. The most striking change is in the protein X. Synthesis of large quantities of protein X is induced by UV, γ-rays, MMC treatment or tif expression in rec + but not recA cells. A feature of recA cells is that they break down their DNA excessively after irradiation or MMC treatment. However, if protein synthesis is prohibited by chloramphenicol, post-irradiation degradation becomes excessive in recA + cells. This inverse relationship between DNA degradation and new protein synthesis is consistent with the hypothesis that an induced protein such as X is responsible for controlling DNA degradation following irradiation. Protein X is not induced in a lexB mutant following MMC treatment. In this respect the lexB mutant behaves like lexA and recA mutants in that the ability to induce protein X can be correlated with excessive DNA degradation. Studies on the induction of proteins in inf, tif and tif sfi mutants fail to reveal any correlation between induction of protein X and either the induction of prophage lambda or septation. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Partial Support Ventilation and Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidants Protect against Ventilator-Induced Decreases in Diaphragm Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Hudson

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life-saving intervention in patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragm atrophy and weakness. MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness is significant because inspiratory muscle dysfunction is a risk factor for problematic weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a clinical intervention to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is important. In this regard, MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy occurs due to both increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis. While efforts to impede MV-induced increased proteolysis in the diaphragm are well-documented, only one study has investigated methods of preserving diaphragmatic protein synthesis during prolonged MV. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of two therapeutic interventions that, conceptually, have the potential to sustain protein synthesis in the rat diaphragm during prolonged MV. Specifically, these experiments were designed to: 1 determine if partial-support MV will protect against the decrease in diaphragmatic protein synthesis that occurs during prolonged full-support MV; and 2 establish if treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant will maintain diaphragm protein synthesis during full-support MV. Compared to spontaneously breathing animals, full support MV resulted in a significant decline in diaphragmatic protein synthesis during 12 hours of MV. In contrast, diaphragm protein synthesis rates were maintained during partial support MV at levels comparable to spontaneous breathing animals. Further, treatment of animals with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant prevented oxidative stress during full support MV and maintained diaphragm protein synthesis at the level of spontaneous breathing animals. We conclude that treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants or the use of partial-support MV are potential strategies to preserve diaphragm protein synthesis during prolonged MV.

  14. Partial Support Ventilation and Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidants Protect against Ventilator-Induced Decreases in Diaphragm Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Matthew B; Smuder, Ashley J; Nelson, W Bradley; Wiggs, Michael P; Shimkus, Kevin L; Fluckey, James D; Szeto, Hazel H; Powers, Scott K

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention in patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragm atrophy and weakness. MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness is significant because inspiratory muscle dysfunction is a risk factor for problematic weaning from MV. Therefore, developing a clinical intervention to prevent MV-induced diaphragm atrophy is important. In this regard, MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy occurs due to both increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis. While efforts to impede MV-induced increased proteolysis in the diaphragm are well-documented, only one study has investigated methods of preserving diaphragmatic protein synthesis during prolonged MV. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of two therapeutic interventions that, conceptually, have the potential to sustain protein synthesis in the rat diaphragm during prolonged MV. Specifically, these experiments were designed to: 1) determine if partial-support MV will protect against the decrease in diaphragmatic protein synthesis that occurs during prolonged full-support MV; and 2) establish if treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant will maintain diaphragm protein synthesis during full-support MV. Compared to spontaneously breathing animals, full support MV resulted in a significant decline in diaphragmatic protein synthesis during 12 hours of MV. In contrast, diaphragm protein synthesis rates were maintained during partial support MV at levels comparable to spontaneous breathing animals. Further, treatment of animals with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant prevented oxidative stress during full support MV and maintained diaphragm protein synthesis at the level of spontaneous breathing animals. We conclude that treatment with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants or the use of partial-support MV are potential strategies to preserve diaphragm protein synthesis during prolonged MV.

  15. Effects of putrescine, kinetin and IAA on protein synthesis in 'Phaseolus vulgaris' coleoptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocomo, O J; Lee, T S.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    1975-01-01

    Incubation of etiolated 'Phaseolus vulgaris' coleoptiles shows a converse flux between soluble protein and reducing sugar. The rate of incorporation of radioactive arginine into protein was higher than that of radioactive leucine. Radioactive arginine incorporation into protein was linear up to 120 min and then started to decline. The rate of incorporation of radioactive leucine was increased by preincubation of the tissue in the incubation medium. Roots were found to contain more soluble protein and much less reducing sugar than the coleoptile. The optimum pH value for protein synthesis in coleoptile sections was found to be 6 for control tissues and 4 for those treated with 10-/sup 3/M IAA. This high concentration of IAA was also found to inhibit soluble protein synthesis, the incorporation rate of radioactive arginine and leucine into protein fraction, the secretion of hydrogen ion into the incubation medium and elongation of the bean segment. Kinetin at 2x10/sup -4/M and putrescine at 5mM both decreased the rate of /sup 14/C-arginine incorporation into soluble protein, but for /sup 14/C-leucine, this rate of incorporation was found to be increased after 90 min incubation with a preincubation of 30 min. In general, the change pattern of the soluble protein content, the reducing sugar level and the incorporation rate of radioactive arginine and leucine into protein in the kinetin and putrescine treated tissues were about the same although tissues that incubated with kinetin always contain more soluble protein and less reducing sugar than that of incubated with putrescine.

  16. L-Alanylglutamine inhibits signaling proteins that activate protein degradation, but does not affect proteins that activate protein synthesis after an acute resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanyi; Choi, Ran Hee; Solares, Geoffrey J; Tseng, Hung-Min; Ding, Zhenping; Kim, Kyoungrae; Ivy, John L

    2015-07-01

    Sustamine™ (SUS) is a dipeptide composed of alanine and glutamine (AlaGln). Glutamine has been suggested to increase muscle protein accretion; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms of glutamine on muscle protein metabolism following resistance exercise have not been fully addressed. In the present study, 2-month-old rats climbed a ladder 10 times with a weight equal to 75 % of their body mass attached at the tail. Rats were then orally administered one of four solutions: placebo (PLA-glycine = 0.52 g/kg), whey protein (WP = 0.4 g/kg), low dose of SUS (LSUS = 0.1 g/kg), or high dose of SUS (HSUS = 0.5 g/kg). An additional group of sedentary (SED) rats was intubated with glycine (0.52 g/kg) at the same time as the ladder-climbing rats. Blood samples were collected immediately after exercise and at either 20 or 40 min after recovery. The flexor hallucis longus (FHL), a muscle used for climbing, was excised at 20 or 40 min post exercise and analyzed for proteins regulating protein synthesis and degradation. All supplements elevated the phosphorylation of FOXO3A above SED at 20 min post exercise, but only the SUS supplements significantly reduced the phosphorylation of AMPK and NF-kB p65. SUS supplements had no effect on mTOR signaling, but WP supplementation yielded a greater phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6k, and rpS6 compared with PLA at 20 min post exercise. However, by 40 min post exercise, phosphorylation of mTOR and rpS6 in PLA had risen to levels not different than WP. These results suggest that SUS blocks the activation of intracellular signals for MPB, whereas WP accelerates mRNA translation.

  17. Relationship between synthesis and cleavage of poliovirus-specific proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, A A; Voorma, H O; Boeye, A

    1983-01-01

    Poliovirus proteinase was studied in vitro in lysates from poliovirus-infected HeLa cells. Preincubation of these lysates caused (i) a reduction in poliovirus proteinase activity and (ii) a partial dependence on exogenous mRNA for optimal translation. Proteins translated from endogenous poliovirus RNA in preincubated extracts from virus-infected HeLa cells are poorly cleaved. This cleavage deficiency is alleviated by adding fresh poliovirus RNA to the translation system, thus, allowing re-ini...

  18. Effects of moisture stress on germination and protein synthesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 3, 5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), and their abilities to synthesize protein after stress by incorporating L- 4,5-3H leucine into their root tips. Les graines de dolique non pigmentées, TVX 3236 (crème et brune) et IT81S-818 (blanche), étaient exposées aux conditions d'humidité constantes plus stressantes (-0.1 et ...

  19. Synthesis of protein in intestinal cells exposed to cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.W.; Berg, W.D. Jr.; Coppenhaver, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), formed by intestinal epithelial cells in response to cholera toxin, ultimately results in alterations in water and electrolyte transport is poorly understood. Several studies have indicated that inhibitors of transcription or translation block much of the transport of ions and water in the intestine and edema formation in tissue elicited by cholera toxin. Data presented in this study confirmed the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide on cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation in the rabbit intestinal loop model. Neither cycloheximide nor actinomycin D altered the amount of cyclic AMP that accumulated in intestinal cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to cholera toxin. An increase in [ 3 H] leucine incorporation was readily demonstrable in intestinal epithelial cells from rabbits challenged with Vibrio cholerae. Similarly, intestinal epithelial cells incubated with cholera toxin for 4 hr synthesized substantially more protein than controls as determined by relative incorporation of [ 35 S] methionine. Most of the new protein synthesized in response to cholera toxin was membrane associated and of high molecular weight. The possible significance of the toxin-induced protein relative to cholera pathogenesis was discussed

  20. Control of protein synthesis in cell-free extracts of sea urchin embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.J.; Huang, W.I.; Jagus, R.

    1986-01-01

    Although the increase in protein synthesis that occurs after fertilization of sea urchin eggs results from increased utilization of stored maternal mRNA, the underlying mechanism is unknown. The authors have prepared cell-free extracts from S.purpuratus and A.puctulata unfertilized eggs and 2-cell embryos that retain the protein synthetic differences observed in vivo. The method is based on that of Dr. Alina Lopo. 35 S methionine incorporation is linear during a 30 min incubation and is 10-20 fold higher in extracts from 2-cell embryos than unfertilized eggs. Addition of purified mRNA does not stimulate these systems, suggesting a regulatory mechanism other than mRNA masking. Addition of rabbit reticulocyte ribosomal salt wash stimulated protein synthesis in extracts from eggs but not embryos, suggesting deficiencies in translational components in unfertilized eggs. Mixing of egg and embryo lysates indicated the presence of a weak protein synthesis inhibitor in eggs. Translational control in developing sea urchin embryos thus appears to be complex, involving both stimulatory and inhibitory factors

  1. Change detection in the dynamics of an intracellular protein synthesis model using nonlinear Kalman filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G; Rigatou, Efthymia G; Djida, Jean Daniel

    2015-10-01

    A method for early diagnosis of parametric changes in intracellular protein synthesis models (e.g. the p53 protein - mdm2 inhibitor model) is developed with the use of a nonlinear Kalman Filtering approach (Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter) and of statistical change detection methods. The intracellular protein synthesis dynamic model is described by a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. It is shown that such a dynamical system satisfies differential flatness properties and this allows to transform it, through a change of variables (diffeomorphism), to the so-called linear canonical form. For the linearized equivalent of the dynamical system, state estimation can be performed using the Kalman Filter recursion. Moreover, by applying an inverse transformation based on the previous diffeomorphism it becomes also possible to obtain estimates of the state variables of the initial nonlinear model. By comparing the output of the Kalman Filter (which is assumed to correspond to the undistorted dynamical model) with measurements obtained from the monitored protein synthesis system, a sequence of differences (residuals) is obtained. The statistical processing of the residuals with the use of x2 change detection tests, can provide indication within specific confidence intervals about parametric changes in the considered biological system and consequently indications about the appearance of specific diseases (e.g. malignancies).

  2. Neuronal response of the hippocampal formation to injury: blood flow, glucose metabolism, and protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, M.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Ackermann, R.F.; Finch, D.; Lear, J.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction of the hippocampal formation to entorhinal lesions was studied from the viewpoints of cerebral blood flow ([ 123 I]isopropyl-iodoamphetamine[IMP])-glucose utilization ([ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose), and protein synthesis ([ 14 C]leucine), using single- and double-label autoradiography. Researchers' studies showed decreased glucose utilization in the inner part, and increased glucose utilization in the outer part of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, starting 3 days after the lesion; increased uptake of [ 123 I]IMP around the lesion from 1 to 3 days postlesion; and starting 3 days after the lesion, marked decrease in [ 14 C]leucine incorporation into proteins and cell loss in the dorsal CA1 and dorsal subiculum in about one-half of the rats. These changes were present only in animals with lesions which invaded the ventral hippocampal formation in which axons of CA1 cells travel. By contrast, transsection of the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves resulted, 3 to 9 days after injury, in a striking increase in protein synthesis in the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei. These results raise the possibility that in some neurons the failure of central regeneration may result from the cell's inability to increase its rate of protein synthesis in response to axonal injury

  3. Time course of protein synthesis-dependent phase of olfactory memory in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Noji, Sumihare; Mizunami, Makoto

    2003-04-01

    The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus forms a stable olfactory memory that lasts for practically a lifetime. As a first step to elucidate the cellular mechanisms of olfactory learning and memory retention in crickets, we studied the dependency of memory retention on the de novo brain protein synthesis by injecting the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) into the head capsule. Injection of CHX inhibited (3)H-leucine incorporation into brain proteins by > 90% for 3 hr. Crickets were trained to associate peppermint odor with water (reward) and vanilla odor with saline solution (non-reward) and were injected with CHX before or at different times after training. Their odor preferences were tested at 2 hr, 1 day and 4 days after training. Memory retention at 2 hr after training was unaffected by CHX injection. However, the level of retention at 1 day and 4 days after training was lowered when CHX was injected 1 hour before training or at 1 hr or 6 hr after training. To study the time course of the development of CHX-sensitive memory phase, crickets that had been injected with CHX at 1 hr after training were tested at different times from 2 to 12 hr after training. The level of retention was unaffected up to 4 hr after training but significantly lowered at 5 hr after training, and the CHX-sensitive memory phase developed gradually during the next several hours. CHX dissociates two phases of olfactory memory in crickets: earlier protein synthesis-independent phase ( 5 hr) protein synthesis-dependent phase.

  4. Bringing the science of proteins into the realm of organic chemistry: total chemical synthesis of SEP (synthetic erythropoiesis protein).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen B H

    2013-11-11

    Erythropoietin, commonly known as EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. Recombinant EPO has been described as "arguably the most successful drug spawned by the revolution in recombinant DNA technology". Recently, the EPO glycoprotein molecule has re-emerged as a major target of synthetic organic chemistry. In this article I will give an account of an important body of earlier work on the chemical synthesis of a designed EPO analogue that had full biological activity and improved pharmacokinetic properties. The design and synthesis of this "synthetic erythropoiesis protein" was ahead of its time, but has gained new relevance in recent months. Here I will document the story of one of the major accomplishments of synthetic chemistry in a more complete way than is possible in the primary literature, and put the work in its contemporaneous context. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Myocardial Oxidative Metabolism and Protein Synthesis during Mechanical Circulatory Support by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priddy, MD, Colleen M.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena; Bouchard, Bertrand; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support essential for survival in infants and children with acute cardiac decompensation. However, ECMO also causes metabolic disturbances, which contribute to total body wasting and protein loss. Cardiac stunning can also occur which prevents ECMO weaning, and contributes to high mortality. The heart may specifically undergo metabolic impairments, which influence functional recovery. We tested the hypothesis that ECMO alters oxidative. We focused on the amino acid leucine, and integration with myocardial protein synthesis. We used a translational immature swine model in which we assessed in heart (i) the fractional contribution of leucine (FcLeucine) and pyruvate (FCpyruvate) to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA formation by nuclear magnetic resonance and (ii) global protein fractional synthesis (FSR) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature mixed breed Yorkshire male piglets (n = 22) were divided into four groups based on loading status (8 hours of normal circulation or ECMO) and intracoronary infusion [13C6,15N]-L-leucine (3.7 mM) alone or with [2-13C]-pyruvate (7.4 mM). ECMO decreased pulse pressure and correspondingly lowered myocardial oxygen consumption (~ 40%, n = 5), indicating decreased overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, FcLeucine was maintained and myocardial protein FSR was marginally increased. Pyruvate addition decreased tissue leucine enrichment, FcLeucine, and Fc for endogenous substrates as well as protein FSR. Conclusion: The heart under ECMO shows reduced oxidative metabolism of substrates, including amino acids, while maintaining (i) metabolic flexibility indicated by ability to respond to pyruvate, and (ii) a normal or increased capacity for global protein synthesis, suggesting an improved protein balance.

  6. Rubella virus capsid protein modulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2005-01-01

    The ratio of the subgenomic (SG) to genome RNA synthesized by rubella virus (RUB) replicons expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene (RUBrep/GFP) is substantially higher than the ratio of these species synthesized by RUB (4.3 for RUBrep/GFP vs. 1.3-1.4 for RUB). It was hypothesized that this modulation of the viral RNA synthesis was by one of the virus structural protein genes and it was found that introduction of the capsid (C) protein gene into the replicons as an in-frame fusion with GFP resulted in an increase of genomic RNA production (reducing the SG/genome RNA ratio), confirming the hypothesis and showing that the C gene was the moiety responsible for the modulation effect. The N-terminal one-third of the C gene was required for the effect of be exhibited. A similar phenomenon was not observed with the replicons of Sindbis virus, a related Alphavirus. Interestingly, modulation was not observed when RUBrep/GFP was co-transfected with either other RUBrep or plasmid constructs expressing the C gene, demonstrating that modulation could occur only when the C gene was provided in cis. Mutations that prevented translation of the C protein failed to modulate RNA synthesis, indicating that the C protein was the moiety responsible for modulation; consistent with this conclusion, modulation of RNA synthesis was maintained when synonymous codon mutations were introduced at the 5' end of the C gene that changed the C gene sequence without altering the amino acid sequence of the C protein. These results indicate that C protein translated in proximity of viral replication complexes, possibly from newly synthesized SG RNA, participate in regulating the replication of viral RNA

  7. Protein synthesis in the rat brain: a comparative in vivo and in vitro study in immature and adult animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazian, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    Rates of protein synthesis of CNS and other organs were compared in immature and adult rats by in vivo and slice techniques with administration of flooding doses of labeled precursor. The relationship between synthesis and brain region, cell type, subcellular fraction, or MW was examined. Incorporation of [ 14 C]valine into protein of CNS regions in vivo was about 1.2% per hour for immature rats and 0.6% for adults. For slices, the rates decreased significantly more in adults. In adult organs, the highest synthesis rate in vivo was found in liver (2.2% per hour) followed by kidney, spleen, lung, heart, brain, and muscle (0.5% per hour). In immature animals synthesis was highest in liver and spleen (2.5% per hour) and lowest in muscle (0.9% per hour). Slices all showed lower rates than in vivo, especially in adults. In vivo, protein synthesis rates of immature neurons and astrocytes and adult neurons exceeded those of whole brain, while that in adult astrocytes was the same. These results demonstrate a developmental difference of protein synthesis (about double in immature animals) in all brain cells, cell fractions and most brain protein. Similarly the decreased synthesis in brain slices - especially in adults, affects most proteins and structural elements

  8. RNA and protein synthesis of irradiated Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skog, S.; Tribukait, B.; Sundius, G.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of roentgen irradiation on the incorporation of 3 H-uridine and 14 C-leucine into RNA and protein and the RNA and protein contents of in vivo growing Ehrlich ascites tumour cells were studied. The results were related to changes in the composition of cells in cell cycle and compared with the synthesis of RNA and protein in cell material from various parts of the cell cycle obtained by means of elutriator centrifuging. The incorporation expressed by the ratio between acid insoluble/acid soluble activity was unchanged for RNA during the observation period up to 24 hours after a dose of 5.0 Gy. The ratio for protein was markedly decreased between 4 and 24 hours. This decrease was partly due to a decrease of the pool size of leucine as studied by changing the amounts of 14 C leucine used. From these studies, the existence of at least two pools, an expandable and a non-expandable fixed pool can be concluded. There were no differences in the decrease of protein-synthesis between cells from the various parts of the cell cycle. The RNA and protein contents of the irradiated cells from various parts of the cell cycle corresponded to those of non-irradiated cells except for G 1 /early S-phase cells at 15 and 24 hours after irradiation. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. (orig.)

  9. A Simple and Rapid Method for Preparing a Cell-Free Bacterial Lysate for Protein Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan Krinsky

    Full Text Available Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3 and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa. This system was able to produce 40-150 μg-protein/ml, with variations depending on the plasmid type, expressed protein and E. coli strain. Interestingly, the BL21-based CFPS exhibited stability and increased activity at 40 and 45°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most rapid and affordable lab-scale protocol for preparing a cell-free protein synthesis system, with high thermal stability and efficacy in producing therapeutic proteins.

  10. A Simple and Rapid Method for Preparing a Cell-Free Bacterial Lysate for Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduri, Maya; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Goldfeder, Mor; Ivanir, Eran; Benhar, Itai; Shoham, Yuval; Schroeder, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3) and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa). This system was able to produce 40–150 μg-protein/ml, with variations depending on the plasmid type, expressed protein and E. coli strain. Interestingly, the BL21-based CFPS exhibited stability and increased activity at 40 and 45°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most rapid and affordable lab-scale protocol for preparing a cell-free protein synthesis system, with high thermal stability and efficacy in producing therapeutic proteins. PMID:27768741

  11. Gamma-ray-induced changes in the synthesis of tomato pericarp protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferullo, J.M.; Nespoulous, L.; Triantaphylides, C.

    1994-01-01

    The application of massive doses of gamma rays (1–8 kGy) to mature green cherry-tomato fruits led to a transient fall in pericarp tissue protein metabolism within 6h. A separate 3 kGy treatment resulted in the appearance of certain transcripts and proteins, and a reduction in the abundance of others. At the same dose, protein synthesis regained the control level within 24 h, and in addition a new set of proteins was induced. Gamma-induced proteins (referred to as GIPs) were divided into three groups, depending on the time-course of their induction. Group 1 GIPs were synthesized only during the first few hours following treatment, whereas group 2 GIPs were synthesized for at least 48 h. Group 3 GIPs were progressively induced when the control level of synthesis was restored. These results demonstrated that, despite its deleterious effects on DNA and cell structures, irradiation induced an active response in plant tissue. Comparative experiments suggest that the majority of group 1 GIPs might belong to the heat shock protein family. GIPs might play a role in the protection and repair of cellular structures, or may be implicated in physiological disorders triggered by irradiation. (author)

  12. Role for tryptophan in regulation of protein synthesis in porcine muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, F.D.; Smith, T.K.; Bayley, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of varying concentrations of dietary tryptophan on growth rate and protein synthesis in edible muscle tissues of growing swine. A total of 45 immature swine (initial weight approximately 24 kg) were fed corn-gelatin diets containing 0.5 (n = 8), 0.8 (n = 10), 1.3 (n = 10), 1.5 (n = 7) or 2.0 (n = 10) g tryptophan/kg diet for 35 d. Animals fed 0.5 and 0.8 g tryptophan/kg grew more slowly, consumed less feed and had a lower efficiency of feed utilization than animals fed higher concentrations of tryptophan. Thirty similar animals were used in a second experiment. Diets containing 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 g tryptophan/kg diet (n = 6) were fed for 14 d, after which all animals were killed and samples were taken of longissimus dorsi, triceps brachii and biceps femoris. Protein synthetic activity was determined by monitoring the incorporation of [ 14 C]phenylalanine into protein in vitro. There was no significant difference in synthetic activity between different muscle types. There was no effect of diet on the activity of the muscle soluble protein fraction. The activity of the muscle ribosomal fraction, however, was positively correlated with increasing concentrations of dietary tryptophan. It was concluded that tryptophan has the potential to regulate muscle protein synthesis in a manner beyond serving simply as a component of protein

  13. Synthesis and secretion of proteins by perifused caput epididymal tubules, and association of secreted proteins with spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinefelter, G.R.; Hamilton, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    We have used perifusion organ culture of proximal and distal caput epididymal tubules of the rat to study the secretion of proteins by epididymal epithelium and uptake of the luminal radioactive proteins by sperm. The amount of incorporation of L-[35S]methionine into luminal fluid proteins was time dependent and completely inhibited by cycloheximide. The association of labeled proteins with cultured sperm was also dependent on time and continuous, with sperm still acquiring labeled luminal proteins after protein synthesis was arrested. A Mr = 46,000 molecule was found to be heavily labeled in luminal fluid and sperm extracts. Fluorograms of all L-[35S]methionine extracts immunoprecipitated using an antiepididymal alpha-lactalbumin antibody (Klinefelter and Hamilton, 1984) showed labeling of an Mr = 18,000 molecule and, in addition, the Mr = 46,000 molecule, but immunostaining was specific only for the Mr = 18,000 molecule and the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin. We suggest that the Mr = 46,000 molecule may be galactosyltransferase. Galactose oxidase-NaB[3H]4 labeling of the cultured caput sperm cell surface revealed a Mr = 23,000 molecule that was able to be immunoprecipitated with antiepididymal alpha-lactalbumin antibody. Our data suggest that this cell surface molecule is similar to one component of the fluid epididymal alpha-lactalbumin-like complex and, in addition, show that glycosylation of the sperm surface can occur in the caput epididymidis

  14. Glucocorticoids regulate surfactant protein synthesis in a pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Reilly, M.A.; Gazdar, A.F.; Clark, J.C.; Pilot-Matias, T.J.; Wert, S.E.; Hull, W.M.; Whitsett, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Synthesis of pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C was demonstrated in a cell line derived from a human adenocarcinoma of the lung. The cells contained numerous lamellar inclusion bodies and formed organized groups of cells containing well-developed junctional complexes and apical microvillous membranes. Synthesis of SP-A was detected in the cells by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and by immunoprecipitation of [35S]methionine-labeled protein. SP-A was identified as an Mr 31,000-36,000 polypeptide containing asparagine-linked carbohydrate. Northern blot analysis detected SP-A mRNA of 2.2 kb. Dexamethasone (1-10 nM) enhanced the relative abundance of SP-A mRNA. Despite stimulation of SP-A mRNA, intracellular SP-A content was unaltered or inhibited by dexamethasone. SP-B and SP-C mRNAs and synthesis of the SP-B and SP-C precursors were markedly induced by dexamethasone. ProSP-B was synthesized and secreted primarily as an Mr 42,000-46,000 polypeptide. Proteolysis of the proSP-B resulted in the generation of endoglycosidase F-sensitive Mr = 19,000-21,000 and 25,000-27,000 peptides, which were detected both intra- and extracellularly. SP-C proprotein of Mr = 22,000 and smaller SP-C fragments were detected intracellularly but were not detected in the media. Mature forms of SP-B (Mr = 8,000) and SP-C (Mr = 4,000) were not detected. Glucocorticoids directly enhance the relative synthesis and mRNA of the surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C. Discrepancies among SP-A mRNA, its de novo synthesis, and cell content suggest that glucocorticoid may alter both pre- and posttranslational factors modulating SP-A expression

  15. Synthesis of nanoparticles with frog foam nest proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick; Ebersbacher, Charles F.; Myung, Nosang V.; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2012-01-01

    Microemulsions provide an efficient means of synthesizing monodispersed nanoparticles. Recent studies have demonstrated potential problems of surfactant due to the interaction with nanoparticles/precursors. To solve the problems, various types of chemical surfactants have been tested, but natural biosurfactants have not received a great deal of attention in engineering application. Here, we report the formation of microemulsions using frog foam nest protein, ranaspumin-2 (RSN-2), based on the hypothesis that RSN-2 assembles at the water–oil interface as a result of conformational change into an extended form. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed that RSN-2 undergoes a reversible transition between extended and globular conformation in foams/microemulsions and aqueous solution, respectively. Microemulsions were formulated with RSN-2 to synthesize 8–10 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by mixing precursor-containing microemulsions with base-containing microemulsions. RSN-2 proteins were recovered from microemulsions and found to be recycled to make foams and microemulsions. Fluorescence spectroscopic analyses showed that RSN-2 maintained its mechanical agitation-induced amphiphilicity throughout multiple foaming/defoaming processes. These results suggest that conformational flexibility and structural stability of RSN-2 in aggressive environments enable the recycled use of RSN-2, elucidating the cost-effective advantage.

  16. Synthesis of nanoparticles with frog foam nest proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick, E-mail: choihc@ucmail.uc.edu; Ebersbacher, Charles F. [University of Cincinnati, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering (United States); Myung, Nosang V. [University of California, Riverside, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (United States); Montemagno, Carlo D., E-mail: montemcd@ucmail.uc.edu [University of Cincinnati, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological and Medical Engineering (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Microemulsions provide an efficient means of synthesizing monodispersed nanoparticles. Recent studies have demonstrated potential problems of surfactant due to the interaction with nanoparticles/precursors. To solve the problems, various types of chemical surfactants have been tested, but natural biosurfactants have not received a great deal of attention in engineering application. Here, we report the formation of microemulsions using frog foam nest protein, ranaspumin-2 (RSN-2), based on the hypothesis that RSN-2 assembles at the water-oil interface as a result of conformational change into an extended form. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed that RSN-2 undergoes a reversible transition between extended and globular conformation in foams/microemulsions and aqueous solution, respectively. Microemulsions were formulated with RSN-2 to synthesize 8-10 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by mixing precursor-containing microemulsions with base-containing microemulsions. RSN-2 proteins were recovered from microemulsions and found to be recycled to make foams and microemulsions. Fluorescence spectroscopic analyses showed that RSN-2 maintained its mechanical agitation-induced amphiphilicity throughout multiple foaming/defoaming processes. These results suggest that conformational flexibility and structural stability of RSN-2 in aggressive environments enable the recycled use of RSN-2, elucidating the cost-effective advantage.

  17. Synthesis of nanoparticles with frog foam nest proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo-Jick; Ebersbacher, Charles F.; Myung, Nosang V.; Montemagno, Carlo D.

    2012-09-01

    Microemulsions provide an efficient means of synthesizing monodispersed nanoparticles. Recent studies have demonstrated potential problems of surfactant due to the interaction with nanoparticles/precursors. To solve the problems, various types of chemical surfactants have been tested, but natural biosurfactants have not received a great deal of attention in engineering application. Here, we report the formation of microemulsions using frog foam nest protein, ranaspumin-2 (RSN-2), based on the hypothesis that RSN-2 assembles at the water-oil interface as a result of conformational change into an extended form. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed that RSN-2 undergoes a reversible transition between extended and globular conformation in foams/microemulsions and aqueous solution, respectively. Microemulsions were formulated with RSN-2 to synthesize 8-10 nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by mixing precursor-containing microemulsions with base-containing microemulsions. RSN-2 proteins were recovered from microemulsions and found to be recycled to make foams and microemulsions. Fluorescence spectroscopic analyses showed that RSN-2 maintained its mechanical agitation-induced amphiphilicity throughout multiple foaming/defoaming processes. These results suggest that conformational flexibility and structural stability of RSN-2 in aggressive environments enable the recycled use of RSN-2, elucidating the cost-effective advantage.

  18. The host antimicrobial peptide Bac71-35 binds to bacterial ribosomal proteins and inhibits protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardirossian, Mario; Grzela, Renata; Giglione, Carmela; Meinnel, Thierry; Gennaro, Renato; Mergaert, Peter; Scocchi, Marco

    2014-12-18

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are molecules from innate immunity with high potential as novel anti-infective agents. Most of them inactivate bacteria through pore formation or membrane barrier disruption, but others cross the membrane without damages and act inside the cells, affecting vital processes. However, little is known about their intracellular bacterial targets. Here we report that Bac71-35, a proline-rich AMP belonging to the cathelicidin family, can reach high concentrations (up to 340 μM) inside the E. coli cytoplasm. The peptide specifically and completely inhibits in vitro translation in the micromolar concentration range. Experiments of incorporation of radioactive precursors in macromolecules with E. coli cells confirmed that Bac71-35 affects specifically protein synthesis. Ribosome coprecipitation and crosslinking assays showed that the peptide interacts with ribosomes, binding to a limited subset of ribosomal proteins. Overall, these results indicate that the killing mechanism of Bac71-35 is based on a specific block of protein synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucose stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs through an AMPK- and mTOR-independent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Asumthia S; Orellana, Renan A; Suryawan, Agus; O'Connor, Pamela M J; Nguyen, Hanh V; Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W; Davis, Teresa A

    2007-08-01

    Skeletal muscle protein synthesis is elevated in neonates in part due to an enhanced response to the rise in insulin and amino acids after eating. In vitro studies suggest that glucose plays a role in protein synthesis regulation. To determine whether glucose, independently of insulin and amino acids, is involved in the postprandial rise in skeletal muscle protein synthesis, pancreatic-substrate clamps were performed in neonatal pigs. Insulin secretion was inhibited with somatostatin and insulin was infused to reproduce fasting or fed levels, while glucose and amino acids were clamped at fasting or fed levels. Fractional protein synthesis rates and translational control mechanisms were examined. Raising glucose alone increased protein synthesis in fast-twitch glycolytic muscles but not in other tissues. The response in muscle was associated with increased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) and enhanced formation of the active eIF4E.eIF4G complex but no change in phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), or eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). Raising glucose, insulin, and amino acids increased protein synthesis in most tissues. The response in muscle was associated with phosphorylation of PKB, mTOR, S6K1, and 4E-BP1 and enhanced eIF4E.eIF4G formation. The results suggest that the postprandial rise in glucose, independently of insulin and amino acids, stimulates protein synthesis in neonates, and this response is specific to fast-twitch glycolytic muscle and occurs by AMPK- and mTOR-independent pathways.

  20. Synthesis of total protein (TP) and myosin heavy chain (HC) isozymes in pressure overloaded rabbit hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, R.; Martin, B.J.; Pritzl, N.; Zak, R.; Low, R.B.; Stirewalt, W.S.; Alpert, N.R.; Litten, R.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary artery banding (PO) leads to a rapid increase in right ventricular (RV) weight as well as a shift toward β myosin isozyme. They determined: (1) the contributions of changes in the capacity (RNA content) and efficiency of total protein synthesis to the increase in RV weight; and (2) the relative contributions of translational and pretranslational mechanisms to the shift in myosin HC isotypes. The rates of synthesis in vivo of TP, α- and β-HC were measured by a constant infusion technique using 3 H-leucine. TP synthesis was 7 +/- 2(SD) mg/day in control (RV:367 +/- 70 mg) and was increased by 2.6 fold at day 2 and 2.9 fold at day 4 following PO (p < 0.01). RV RNA content was increased by 83% at day 2 and 103% at day 4 PO (p < 0.05). The efficiency of synthesis (rate/RNA) was also significantly higher at these time points (1.4- and 1.3-fold). β-HC synthesis was 0.6 +/- 0.2 mg/day in control and increased by 2.6 fold at day 2 and 3.5 fold at day 4 following PO. In contrast, the rate of synthesis of α-HC was unchanged. The relative rates of β-HC to total HC synthesis was correlated linearly with the relative levels of β-myosin mRNA as measured by S1 nuclease mapping. They conclude that increases in the proportion of β-HC myosin following PO is due to increases in the relative amount of β-myosin mRNA and therefore involves modulation of a pretranslational mechanism

  1. Syndecan-2 regulates melanin synthesis via protein kinase C βII-mediated tyrosinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyejung; Chung, Heesung; Chang, Sung Eun; Choi, Sora; Han, Inn-Oc; Kang, Duk-Hee; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2014-05-01

    Syndecan-2, a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is highly expressed in melanoma cells, regulates melanoma cell functions (e.g. migration). Since melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, which largely function to synthesize melanin, we investigated the possible involvement of syndecan-2 in melanogenesis. Syndecan-2 expression was increased in human skin melanoma tissues compared with normal skin. In both mouse and human melanoma cells, siRNA-mediated knockdown of syndecan-2 was associated with reduced melanin synthesis, whereas overexpression of syndecan-2 increased melanin synthesis. Similar effects were also detected in human primary epidermal melanocytes. Syndecan-2 expression did not affect the expression of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanin synthesis, but instead enhanced the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase by increasing the membrane and melanosome localization of its regulator, protein kinase CβII. Furthermore, UVB caused increased syndecan-2 expression, and this up-regulation of syndecan-2 was required for UVB-induced melanin synthesis. Taken together, these data suggest that syndecan-2 regulates melanin synthesis and could be a potential therapeutic target for treating melanin-associated diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Phosphatase control of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation state is central for glycolytic regulation of retinal protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Thomas W; Abcouwer, Steven F; Losiewicz, Mandy K; Fort, Patrice E

    2015-09-15

    Control of protein synthesis in insulin-responsive tissues has been well characterized, but relatively little is known about how this process is regulated in nervous tissues. The retina exhibits a relatively high protein synthesis rate, coinciding with high basal Akt and metabolic activities, with the majority of retinal ATP being derived from aerobic glycolysis. We examined the dependency of retinal protein synthesis on the Akt-mTOR signaling and glycolysis using ex vivo rat retinas. Akt inhibitors significantly reduced retinal protein synthesis but did not affect glycolytic lactate production. Surprisingly, the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) markedly inhibited Akt1 and Akt3 activities, as well as protein synthesis. The effects of 2-DG, and 2-fluorodeoxyglucose (2-FDG) on retinal protein synthesis correlated with inhibition of lactate production and diminished ATP content, with all these effects reversed by provision of d-mannose. 2-DG treatment was not associated with increased AMPK, eEF2, or eIF2α phosphorylation; instead, it caused rapid dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1. 2-DG reduced total mTOR activity by 25%, but surprisingly, it did not reduce mTORC1 activity, as indicated by unaltered raptor-associated mTOR autophosphorylation and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation. Dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 was largely prevented by inhibition of PP1/PP2A phosphatases with okadaic acid and calyculin A, and inhibition of PPM1 phosphatases with cadmium. Thus, inhibition of retinal glycolysis diminished Akt and protein synthesis coinciding with accelerated dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 independently of mTORC1. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism regulating protein synthesis in the retina involving an mTORC1-independent and phosphatase-dependent regulation of 4E-BP1. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Differential effect of NMDA and AMPA receptor blockade on protein synthesis in the rat infarct borderzone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Bruhn, T; Frank, L

    1996-01-01

    treated with either saline, MK-801 (5 mg/kg i.p.) or NBQX (30 mg/kg i.p. x 3) were subjected to permanent MCAO. Regional CPSR and volumes of gray matter structures displaying normal CPSR were measured in coronal cryosections of the brain by quantitative autoradiography following an i.v. bolus injection....... Treatment with MK-801 significantly increased the volume of tissue with normal CPSR in the ischemic hemisphere compared to controls, whereas this was not seen with NBQX treatment. The results suggest that MK-801 and NBQX have different effects on peri-infarct protein synthesis after MCAO. Since both......We investigated whether the known neuroprotective effects of two selective glutamate receptor antagonists, the NMDA antagonist MK-801 and the AMPA antagonist NBQX, are reflected in the regional cerebral protein synthesis rates (CPSR) in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats...

  4. Cell-free protein synthesis enabled rapid prototyping for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Jiang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have facilitated the manufacturing of many valuable-added compounds and commodity chemicals using microbial cell factories in the past decade. However, due to complexity of cellular metabolism, the optimization of metabolic pathways for maximal production represents a grand challenge and an unavoidable barrier for metabolic engineering. Recently, cell-free protein synthesis system (CFPS has been emerging as an enabling alternative to address challenges in biomanufacturing. This review summarizes the recent progresses of CFPS in rapid prototyping of biosynthetic pathways and genetic circuits (biosensors to speed up design-build-test (DBT cycles of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Keywords: Cell-free protein synthesis, Metabolic pathway optimization, Genetic circuits, Metabolic engineering, Synthetic biology

  5. Coping with complexity: machine learning optimization of cell-free protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caschera, Filippo; Bedau, Mark A; Buchanan, Andrew; Cawse, James; de Lucrezia, Davide; Gazzola, Gianluca; Hanczyc, Martin M; Packard, Norman H

    2011-09-01

    Biological systems contain complex metabolic pathways with many nonlinearities and synergies that make them difficult to predict from first principles. Protein synthesis is a canonical example of such a pathway. Here we show how cell-free protein synthesis may be improved through a series of iterated high-throughput experiments guided by a machine-learning algorithm implementing a form of evolutionary design of experiments (Evo-DoE). The algorithm predicts fruitful experiments from statistical models of the previous experimental results, combined with stochastic exploration of the experimental space. The desired experimental response, or evolutionary fitness, was defined as the yield of the target product, and new experimental conditions were discovered to have ∼ 350% greater yield than the standard. An analysis of the best experimental conditions discovered indicates that there are two distinct classes of kinetics, thus showing how our evolutionary design of experiments is capable of significant innovation, as well as gradual improvement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Protein synthesis in vivo during the development of various muscles in the lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, M.; Ferrara, M.; Fauconneau, G.

    1976-01-01

    Protein synthesis is measured in vivo after the injection of 14 C(U) L lysine. The radioactivity incorporated in the proteins is studied as a function of the specific radioactivity of the precursor. Catabolism is estimated from the difference between real and apparent anabolism. The amount of proteins synthesized per unit weight in the tensor facialatae (TFL, the anconeus externus (AE), and the diaphragm (D) decreases rapidly until the age of 10 weeks (approximately puberty). It then levels out or increases after that age, depending on the muscle in question. The real anabolism of the white muscle (TFL) is higher than that of the red (AE and D) in one-week-old lambs. At 16 weeks, protein synthesis is higher in red muscle (D) than in white. The apparent anabolism of the muscles studied is constant during the period considered. The decrease in real anabolism per unit weight is compensated by the increased volume of the muscles, and they synthesize similar quantities of protein as long as the animal is preruminant (1-5 weeks). The protein fixation efficiency (R=ratio between apparent and real anabolism) is constant and in the neighbourhood of 20% during this period. When the animal is older, the quantity of proteins synthesized by the muscles decreases. R is variable in the ruminant animal, and increases at the age of 10 weeks, especially in white muscle, after which it decreases at the age of 16 weeks. The effect of sex hormones around puberty and the particular energy foods of the ruminant (volatile fatty acids) may explain this better efficiency. The renewal time of muscular proteins increases with age. These results facilitate understanding of the differences found in the literature in the energy cost of protein production during growth. (author)

  7. Kinetics of radiation-induced apoptosis in neonatal urogenital tissues with and without protein synthesis inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobe, G.C.; Harmon, B.; Schoch, E.; Allan, D.J. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    The difference in incidence of radiation-induced apoptosis between two neonatal urogenital tissues, kidney and testis, was analysed over a 24h period. Concurrent administration of cycloheximide (10mg/kg body weight), a protein synthesis inhibitor, with radiation treatment was used to determine whether new protein synthesis had a role in induction of apoptosis in this in vivo model. Many chemotherapeutic drugs act via protein synthesis inhibition, and we believe that the results of this latter analysis may provide information for the planning of concurrent radio and chemotherapy. Apoptosis was quantified using morphological parameters, and verified by DNA gel electrophoresis for the typical banding pattern, and by electron microscopy. The proliferative index in tissues was studied, using [6-{sup 3}H]-thymidine uptake ( 1h prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues) and autoradiography as indicators of cell proliferation (S-phase). Tissue was collected 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24h after radiation treatment. Expression of one of the apoptosis-associated genes, Bcl-2 (an apoptosis inhibitor/cell survival gene), was studied using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis peaked at 4h in the testis and 6h in the kidney, emphasising the necessity of knowing tissue differences in radiation response if comparing changes at a particular time. A higher proportion (almost five fold) of the apoptotic cells died in S-phase in the kidney than the testis, over the 24h. Protein synthesis inhibition completely negated induction of apoptosis in both tissues. Necrosis was not identified at any time. Cycloheximide treatment greatly diminished Bcl-2 expression. The differences in response of the two tissues to irradiation relates to their innate cell (genetic) controls, which may be determined by their state of differentiation at time of treatment, or the tissue type. This in vivo study also suggests the model may be useful for analysis of other cancer therapies for example polychemotherapies or chemo

  8. Kinetics of radiation-induced apoptosis in neonatal urogenital tissues with and without protein synthesis inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobe, G.C.; Harmon, B.; Schoch, E.; Allan, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The difference in incidence of radiation-induced apoptosis between two neonatal urogenital tissues, kidney and testis, was analysed over a 24h period. Concurrent administration of cycloheximide (10mg/kg body weight), a protein synthesis inhibitor, with radiation treatment was used to determine whether new protein synthesis had a role in induction of apoptosis in this in vivo model. Many chemotherapeutic drugs act via protein synthesis inhibition, and we believe that the results of this latter analysis may provide information for the planning of concurrent radio and chemotherapy. Apoptosis was quantified using morphological parameters, and verified by DNA gel electrophoresis for the typical banding pattern, and by electron microscopy. The proliferative index in tissues was studied, using [6- 3 H]-thymidine uptake ( 1h prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues) and autoradiography as indicators of cell proliferation (S-phase). Tissue was collected 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24h after radiation treatment. Expression of one of the apoptosis-associated genes, Bcl-2 (an apoptosis inhibitor/cell survival gene), was studied using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis peaked at 4h in the testis and 6h in the kidney, emphasising the necessity of knowing tissue differences in radiation response if comparing changes at a particular time. A higher proportion (almost five fold) of the apoptotic cells died in S-phase in the kidney than the testis, over the 24h. Protein synthesis inhibition completely negated induction of apoptosis in both tissues. Necrosis was not identified at any time. Cycloheximide treatment greatly diminished Bcl-2 expression. The differences in response of the two tissues to irradiation relates to their innate cell (genetic) controls, which may be determined by their state of differentiation at time of treatment, or the tissue type. This in vivo study also suggests the model may be useful for analysis of other cancer therapies for example polychemotherapies or chemo

  9. Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on carbohydrate metabolism protein synthesis in the myocardium during sustained hypodynamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    Glycolysis and the intensity of protein synthesis were studied in 140 white male rats in subcellular fractions of the myocardium during 45 day hypodynamia and hyperbaric oxygenation. Hypodynamia increased: (1) the amount of lactic acids; (2) the amount of pyruvic acid; (3) the lactate/pyruvate coefficient; and (4) the activities of aldolase and lactate dehydrogenase. Hyperbaric oxygenation was found to have a favorable metabolic effect on the animals with hypodynamia.

  10. Imaging of Protein Synthesis: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Sc-44-DOTA-Puromycin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eigner, Sebastian; Beckford, Denis R.; Fellner, M.; Loktionova, N.; Piel, M.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Rosch, F.; Ross, T. L.; Eigner-Henke, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2013), s. 79-86 ISSN 1536-1632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06165 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : protein synthesis * Scandium-44 * DOTA-Pur * therapy control * mu PET * preclinical imaging Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11307-012-0561-3

  11. Sleep and protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity: impacts of sleep loss and stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønli, Janne; Soulé, Jonathan; Bramham, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has been ascribed a critical role in cognitive functioning. Several lines of evidence implicate sleep in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Stress disrupts sleep while impairing synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. Here, we discuss evidence linking sleep to mechanisms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic scaling. We then consider how disruption of sleep by acute and chronic stress may impair these mechanisms and degrade sleep function. PMID:24478645

  12. Protein Synthesis Inhibition in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Slows Motor Recovery in Rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Schubring-Giese Maximilian; Leemburg Susan; Luft Andreas Rüdiger; Hosp Jonas Aurel

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity and reorganization of brain motor networks are thought to enable recovery of motor function after ischemic stroke. Especially in the cortex surrounding the ischemic scar (i.e., peri-infarct cortex), evidence for lasting reorganization has been found at the level of neurons and networks. This reorganization depends on expression of specific genes and subsequent protein synthesis. To test the functional relevance of the peri-infarct cortex for recovery we assessed the effect of ...

  13. Interference of transcription across H-NS binding sites and repression by H-NS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Aathmaja Anandhi; Schnetz, Karin

    2018-05-01

    Nucleoid-associated protein H-NS represses transcription by forming extended DNA-H-NS complexes. Repression by H-NS operates mostly at the level of transcription initiation. Less is known about how DNA-H-NS complexes interfere with transcription elongation. In vitro H-NS has been shown to enhance RNA polymerase pausing and to promote Rho-dependent termination, while in vivo inhibition of Rho resulted in a decrease of the genome occupancy by H-NS. Here we show that transcription directed across H-NS binding regions relieves H-NS (and H-NS/StpA) mediated repression of promoters in these regions. Further, we observed a correlation of transcription across the H-NS-bound region and de-repression. The data suggest that the transcribing RNA polymerase is able to remodel the H-NS complex and/or dislodge H-NS from the DNA and thus relieve repression. Such an interference of transcription and H-NS mediated repression may imply that poorly transcribed AT-rich loci are prone to be repressed by H-NS, while efficiently transcribed loci escape repression. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Local NSAID infusion does not affect protein synthesis and gene expression in human muscle after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Schjerling, P; Helmark, Ida Carøe

    2010-01-01

    models, and inhibit the exercise-induced satellite cell proliferation and protein synthesis in humans. However, the cellular mechanisms eliciting these responses remain unknown. Eight healthy male volunteers performed 200 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg. To block prostaglandin synthesis...... locally in the skeletal muscle, indomethacin (NSAID) was infused for 7.5 h via microdialysis catheters into m. vastus lateralis of one leg. Protein synthesis was determined by the incorporation of 1,2-(13)C(2) leucine into muscle protein from 24 to 28 h post-exercise. Furthermore, mRNA expression...... of selected genes was measured in muscle biopsies (5 h and 8 days post-exercise) by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Myofibrillar and collagen protein synthesis were unaffected by the local NSAID infusion. Five hours post-exercise, the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) was sixfold higher...

  15. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS GAME’: UTILIZING GAME-BASED APPROACH FOR IMPROVING COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS IN A-LEV