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Sample records for synthese des cytokines

  1. Functional consequences of gamma-irradiation on cytokines synthesis by monocytes/macrophages; Consequences fonctionnelles de l`irradiation gamma sur la synthese des cytokines par les monocytes/macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, I.; Gras, G.; Dormont, D.

    1994-12-31

    Inflammation is a frequent radiation-induced damage involved in the injury after therapeutic thoracic irradiation. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory cytokines regulation after in vitro monocytes/macrophages irradiation. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that expression of interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1 {beta}), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}) genes were increased 2 hours after in vitro irradiation in 24 h-differentiated monocytes. Assays in supernatants of monocytes demonstrated a maximum concentration of IL-1 {beta} 2 hours after irradiation as well as a constant increase of IL-6 between 30 minutes and 24 hours post-irradiation. (author). 4 refs.

  2. La Baie de Seine: Utilisation, environnement. Synthese des discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Mauvais, J

    1985-01-01

    This report synthesizes the communications about the processes set in motion or accelerated by man's actions in the Seine Bay. They are grouped in three categories: fishing and pollution and estuarine equipment; colored waters and pollution; and estuarine equipment.

  3. MODULATION DE L’INSULINO-SECRETION PAR LES CYTOKINES CHEZ LE RAT DES SABLES ET LE RAT WISTAR: ETUDE INTERSPECIFIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A HADDAR

    2001-12-01

    Dans cette étude, nous avons comparé l’activité insulinosécrétoire des îlots de Langerhans isolés du rat Wistar et du rat des sables, afin de déterminer les variation interspécifiques. Nos résultats préliminaires indiquent que l'effet le plus probant est observé en présence de l’IL-1b. En effet, cette cytokine stimule la sécrétion d’insuline de manière dose-dépendante également chez le rat des sables; toutefois, l'amplitude de la réponse est plus prononcée chez le rongeur désertique, avec une augmentation du taux de l’insuline libérée de l’ordre de 147%, en présence d’une concentration de 20 UI/ml de l’IL-1b, comparée à la sécrétion basale. Quant à l’IL-2, nous n’avons enregistré aucune modification dans l’activité insulinosécrétoire des 2 espèces.

  4. SYNTHESE DE PROPARGYLAMINES PAR DES CATALYSEURS Au-Co SUPPORTES SUR CeO2.

    OpenAIRE

    DALI, YOUCEF Raouf Fewzi

    2015-01-01

    Dans son introduction dans le site de l’institut de la matière condensée et des nanosciences de l’université catholique de Louvain1, le Professeur M. Haruta rappel l’historique de l’utilisation des nanoparticules d’or comme suit « L’or a longtemps été considéré comme un élément inactif d’un point de vue catalytique (élément qui n’entraîne pas l’activation ou la modification de molécules chimiques à son contact). Cette vision a prévalu jusqu’en 1987, année où l’équipe du Professeur Masatake Ha...

  5. COMPLEXES DE CUIVRE D’INTERET BIOINORGANIQUE MODELISANT LES METALLO-ENZYMES : SYNTHESE ET CARACTERISATION DES COMPLEXES DE CUIVRE(II) AVEC DES LIGANDS DERIVES DES IMIDAZOLES

    OpenAIRE

    BELFILALI, Imane

    2010-01-01

    La chimie de coordination est une discipline qui fait l’interface entre la chimie organique et la chimie inorganique. Elle a connue un développement tant dans le domaine de la chimie structurale et analytique que dans celui des applications biologiques.

  6. Cross-Linking Mast Cell Specific Gangliosides Stimulates the Release of Newly Formed Lipid Mediators and Newly Synthesized Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edismauro Garcia Freitas Filho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are immunoregulatory cells that participate in inflammatory processes. Cross-linking mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides by mAbAA4 results in partial activation of mast cells without the release of preformed mediators. The present study examines the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators following ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking the gangliosides with mAbAA4 released the newly formed lipid mediators, prostaglandins D2 and E2, without release of leukotrienes B4 and C4. The effect of cross-linking these gangliosides on the activation of enzymes in the arachidonate cascade was then investigated. Ganglioside cross-linking resulted in phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytosol to the nucleus was not induced by ganglioside cross-linking. Cross-linking of GD1b derived gangliosides also resulted in the release of the newly synthesized mediators, interleukin-4, interleukin-6, and TNF-α. The effect of cross-linking the gangliosides on the MAP kinase pathway was then investigated. Cross-linking the gangliosides induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38 as well as activating both NFκB and NFAT in a Syk-dependent manner. Therefore, cross-linking the mast cell specific GD1b derived gangliosides results in the activation of signaling pathways that culminate with the release of newly formed and newly synthesized mediators.

  7. Synthese, etude structurale et electrochimique des materiaux d'electrode positive d'oxydes mixtes lithium cobalt nickel oxide (0 /= 1) pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grincourt, Yves

    Depuis une dizaine d'annees, on observe un interet grandissant pour les batteries rechargeables au lithium de tension superieure a 4 volts. La commercialisation de ces batteries pour l'electronique grand marche tend de plus en plus a supplanter celle des accumulateurs Ni-Cd et Ni-MH, de tension nominate 1,2 V. Ces batteries au lithium font appel a des materiaux d'electrode positive (cathode a la decharge) du type oxydes mixtes de metaux de transition LiMnO 2, LiMn2O4, LiNiO2 ou LiCoO2. Si le compose LiCoO2 est relativement aise a synthetiser, il n'en demeure pas moins que le cobalt reste un metal plus couteux compare au nickel et au manganese. La synthese de LiNiO2, quart a elle, demeure un probleme du point de vue stoechiometrique. Un defaut de lithium (5 a 10% molaire) conduira a des proprietes electrochimiques mediocres de la batterie. Dans cette etude nous nous proposons donc de preparer par voie humide et par voie seche les materiaux d'electrode positive de la famille LiCoyNi1-yO2 aver (0 ≤ y ≤ 1) et d'etudier en detail l'influence du pourcentage de nickel et de cobalt sur les proprietes electrochimiques des oxydes mixtes Li-Ni-Co. Une des caracteristiques est la morphologie plus fine des poudres de materiaux, observes par microscopie electronique a balayage (MEB). Un traitement thermique a plus basse temperature (750°C) que pour LiCoO2 (850°C) ainsi qu'un leger exces de lithium dans la preparation, ont permis d'aboutir a un materiau de stoechiometrie quasi parfaite. Neanmoins, le role de pilfer joue par 2 a 4% de moles de Ni2+ presents sur les sites lithium, permet de conserver intacte la structure hexagonale de la maille entre deux cycles consecutifs. Afin de mieux comprendre l'influence du vieillissement dune demi-pile Li/LiMeO2 (Me = Ni, Co) a temperature ambiante, des etudes electrochimiques et d'impedance spectroscopique ont ete menees en parallele. Le vieillissement de la cellule s'accompagne seulement dune chute de son potentiel due a son auto

  8. Inflammatory cytokine regulation by LPS and lymphoid cells in human gamma-irradiated monocytes/macrophages; Regulation des cytokines de l`inflammation en presence de LPS ou de lymphocytes dans les monocytes/macrophages humains irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, I.; Gras, G.; Dormont, D. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)]|[Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the inflammatory cytokine regulation after ionizing radiation of monocytes/macrophages. We have not evidenced any significant induction of tumour necrosis factor-{alpha}(TNF{alpha}) after irradiation alone. For one donor only out of eight, interleukin-1{beta}(IL-l{beta}) gene expression was affected by {gamma}-irradiation, with a 2-3-fold increase in level, while for two other donors, interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression was 5-14 fold increased. For one of the eight donors tested, monocytes/macrophages responded to 10 Gy {gamma}-rays by releasing inflammatory cytokines. In the presence of LPS, a significant increase of IL-1{beta} mRNA expression was detected in 10 Gy {gamma}-irradiated cells treated with 1 {mu}g/ml LPS. In most cases, combination of LPS treatment and 10 Gy irradiation down-regulated cytokine secretion except for a TNF{alpha} induction at 6 h post-irradiation. In the presence of lymphoid cells, IL-6 mRNA level was increased in irradiated cells at 24 h. Increases of IL-1{beta} and IL-6 releases were detected at 24 h post-irradiation too. (authors)

  9. Consequences of gamma-irradiation on inflammatory cytokine regulation in human monocytes/macrophages; Consequences de l`irradiation gamma sur la regulation des cytokines de l`inflammation dans les monocytes/macrophages humains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, I.; Gras, G.; Dormont, D.

    1995-12-31

    Inflammation is a frequent radiation-induced damage, especially after therapeutic irradiation. In this study, we have investigated, the inflammatory cytokine regulation after ionizing irradiation of monocytes/macrophages from four donors. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed, after in vitro 24 h-differentiated monocytes irradiation between 5 to 40 Gy, no induction of interleukin-I{beta} (IL I{beta}), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha} mRNA) expression. Moreover, protein quantitation shows no significant increase of post-irradiation secretion. (author). 6 refs.

  10. Examination of epithelial tissue cytokine response to natural peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) infection in sheep and goats by immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, H T; Kul, O

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate expression of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and iNOS in lingual, buccal mucosa and lung epithelial tissue using immunoperoxidase technique and to compare with the tissues of control animals. The tissues used in the study were collected from 17 PPRV-affected and 5 healthy sheep and goats. In PPRV positive animals, the lungs, lingual and buccal mucosa had significantly higher iNOS, IFN-γ and TNF-α expressions compared to control group animals. There was no significant difference between PPRV positive and control groups for IL-4 and IL-10 expressions of epithelial tissues. In conclusion, the epithelial tissues infected by PPRV showed significant iNOS, IFN-γ and TNF-α expressions and they might play an important role in the initiation and regulation of cytokine response, as they take place in the first host barrier to be in contact with PPRV. It is suggested that the more epithelial damage produced by PPRV the more cytokine response may result in the infected epithelial cells. The first demonstration of iNOS expression and epithelial cytokine response to PPRV in natural cases is important because it may contribute to an early initiation of systemic immunity against PPRV infection, in addition to direct elimination of the virus during the initial epithelial phase of the infection.

  11. The HC potential of pre-Westphalian sediments in the North German basin. A synthesis; Das Kohlenwasserstoff-Potential des Praewestfals im norddeutschen Becken. Eine Synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F.; Krull, P. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Berlin (Germany).]|[Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    It was the aim of the interdisciplinary and interinstitutional research program to investigate the possibilities of HC generation from pre-Westphalian sediments in the North German basin in space and time. Potential source rock horizons exist within all pre-Westphalian structural units in Northern Europe, ranging from Cambrian to the Namurian in age and deposited in different environments. The structural framework of the basement of the North German Permian basin was described, the position of the Variscan outer front newly defined and the maturation history during the Late Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Cainozoic deciphered. Pyrolysis experiments have shown that HC generation, especially from type III kerogen, is possible even beyond a maturity of 4% Rmax. Detailed geochemical and isotope-geochemical investigations of the natural gases from all North German fields indicate gas contributions from pre-Westphalian sources in special regions (Ems Estuary region, Altmark). By integrating all the results of the study an estimation of the possibilities of pre-Westphalian gas occurrences in Northern Germany could be made and the most promising areas for prospecting have been outlined. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgabe des interdisziplinaeren und interinstitutionellen Forschungsvorhabens war es, die Moeglichkeiten der Kohlenwasserstoff-Bildung aus praewestfalen Sedimenten im Norddeutschen Becken in Raum und Zeit zu erkunden. In allen praewestfalen strukturellen Grosseinheiten Nordeuropas existieren potentielle Muttergesteinshorizonte kambrischen bis namurischen Alters aus unterschiedlichen Ablagerungsmilieus. Das strukturelle Inventar des Untergrundes des norddeutschen Permbeckens, der Verlauf der Variszidenfront in Norddeutschland und die Reifungsgeschichte der praewestfalen Muttergesteine im Verlauf der jungpalaeozoischen, mesozoischen und tertiaeren Entwicklung wurden entschluesselt. Pyrolyseversuche zeigten, dass eine KW-Genese, vor allem fuer Kerogen des Typs III, auch jenseits

  12. SynthEse, etude physico-chimique et activite biologique des complexes de cuivre et/ou nickel derivés d’Hydrazone et Thiadiazole

    OpenAIRE

    BENMANSOUR Nee BABA AHMED, Yamina

    2015-01-01

    Les composés azotés dérivés d’hydrazones et de thiadiazoles représentent une classe importante de ligands dans la chimie de coordination des métaux de transition. Ils présentent un large spectre d’activités biologiques. Leurs applications dans le domaine de la pharmacologie n’ont pas été suffisamment étudiées. La voltammètrie cyclique a fourni l'évidence pour la stabilisation de l'état d'oxydation élevé pour différents métaux de transition. Le présent travail est consacré à la syn...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silicon based complexing materials: extraction of transuranic elements from high level liquid waste; Synthese et caracterisation de gels hybrides de silice a proprietes complexantes: applications a l'extraction des transuraniens des effluents aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    1999-07-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic silica compounds with extractive properties have been developed under an enhanced decontamination program for radioactive aqueous nitric acid waste in nuclear facilities. The materials were obtained by the sol-gel process through hydrolysis and poly-condensation of complexing organo-tri-alkoxy-silanes with the corresponding tetra-alkoxy-silane. Hybrid silica compounds were initially synthesized and characterized from mono- and bis-silyl precursors with malonamide or ethylenediamine patterns. Solids with different specific areas and pore diameters were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, its functionality and its concentration in the tetra-alkoxy-silane. These compounds were then considered and assessed for use in plutonium and americium extraction. Excellent results-partitioning coefficients and capacities have been obtained with malonamide hybrid silica. The comparison with silica compounds impregnated or grafted with the same type of organic group is significant in this respect. Much of the improved performance obtained with hybrid silica may be attributed to the large quantity of complexing groups that can be incorporated in these materials. The effect of the solid texture on the extraction performance was also studied. Although the capacity increased with the specific area, little effect was observed on the distribution coefficients -notably for americium- indicating that the most favorable complexation sites are found on the outer surface. Macroporous malonamide hybrid silica compounds were synthesized to study the effects of the pore diameter, but the results have been inconclusive to date because of the unexpected molecular composition of the materials. (author)

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of new Polyfunctional Molecules for Group Actinide Extraction; Synthese et evaluation de Nouvelles Molecules Polyfonctionnelles pour la Separation Groupee des Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, C.

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this project is to design new extracting molecules for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. In order to minimize the long-term residual radiotoxicity of the waste, the GANEX process is an option based on homogeneous recycling of actinides. All actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm), present in a highly acidic aqueous solution, would be extracted together and separated from fission products (especially from lanthanides) using liquid-liquid extraction. In this context, twenty new bi-topic ligands constituted of a nitrogen poly-aromatic unit functionalized by amide groups were synthesized. Liquid-liquid extraction tests with these ligands dissolved alone in the organic phase show that N, N, N', N'-tetra-alkyl-6, 6''(2, 2':6', 2''-terpyridine)-diamides are able to selectively extract actinides at different oxidation states (Np(V et VI), U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), Cm(III)) from an aqueous solution 3M HNO{sub 3}. Nevertheless, actinides(III) are poorly extracted. According to crystallographic structures of complexes with Nd(III) and U(VI) determined by X-rays diffraction, these ligands are penta-dentate. In solution (methanol), complexes stoichiometries (1:1) of Nd(III), U(VI) and Pu(IV) were determined by electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Stability constants, evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometry in MeOH/H{sub 2}O solutions, confirm the selectivity of ligands toward actinides(III) with respect to lanthanides(III). Associate to nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and DFT calculations (Density Functional Theory), a better knowledge of their coordination mode was achieved. (author)

  15. Les cytokines et le fonctionnement du système nerveux mature

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    Cet article passe en revue des évidences récentes portant sur la fonction des cytokines (facteurs de croissance, interleucines, facteurs d'instruction). Outre leur rôle, déjà reconnu, dans la régulation de la survie des neurones, de la croissance et de l'expression des gènes, pendant le développement, ces signaux interceEulaires dirigeraient des fonctions similaires dans le système nerveux, endommagé comme normal, chez l'adulte. Ici on attire l'attention sur le rôle éventuel des cytokines dan...

  16. Synthese de champs sonores adaptative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert

    La reproduction de champs acoustiques est une approche physique au probleme technologique de la spatialisation sonore. Cette these concerne l'aspect physique de la reproduction de champs acoustiques. L'objectif principal est l'amelioration de la reproduction de champs acoustiques par "synthese de champs acoustiques" ("Wave Field Synthesis", WFS), une approche connue, basee sur des hypotheses de champ libre, a l'aide du controle actif par l'ajout de capteurs de l'erreur de reproduction et d'une boucle fermee. Un premier chapitre technique (chapitre 4) expose les resultats d'appreciation objective de la WFS par simulations et mesures experimentales. L'effet indesirable de la salle de reproduction sur les qualites objectives de la WFS fut illustre. Une premiere question de recherche fut ensuite abordee (chapitre 5), a savoir s'il est possible de reproduire des champs progressifs en salle dans un paradigme physique de controle actif: cette possibilite fut prouvee. L'approche technique privilegiee, "synthese de champs adaptative" ("Adaptive Wave Field Synthesis" [AWFS]), fut definie, puis simulee (chapitre 6). Cette approche d'AWFS comporte une originalite en controle actif et en reproduction de champs acoustiques: la fonction cout quadratique representant la minimisation des erreurs de reproduction inclut une regularisation de Tikhonov avec solution a priori qui vient de la WFS. L'etude de l'AWFS a l'aide de la decomposition en valeurs singulieres (chapitre 7) a permis de comprendre les mecanismes propres a l'AWFS. C'est la deuxieme principale originalite de la these. L'algorithme FXLMS (LMS et reference filtree) est modifie pour l'AWFS (chapitre 8). Le decouplage du systeme par decomposition en valeurs singulieres est illustre dans le domaine du traitement de signal et l'AWFS basee sur le controle independant des modes de rayonnement est simulee (chapitre 8). Ce qui constitue la troisieme originalite principale de cette these. Ces simulations du traitement de signal

  17. Cytokines as cellular communicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Debets

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines and their receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases. Here we present a detailed review on cytokines, receptors and signalling routes, and show that one important lesson from cytokine biology is the complex and diverse regulation of cytokine activity. The activity of cytokines is controlled at the level of transcription, translation, storage, processing, posttranslational modification, trapping, binding by soluble proteins, and receptor number and/or function. Translation of this diverse regulation in strategies aimed at the control of cytokine activity will result in the development of more specific and selective drugs to treat diseases.

  18. Cytokines in Drosophila immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanha-Aho, Leena-Maija; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2016-02-01

    Cytokines are a large and diverse group of small proteins that can affect many biological processes, but most commonly cytokines are known as mediators of the immune response. In the event of an infection, cytokines are produced in response to an immune stimulus, and they function as key regulators of the immune response. Cytokines come in many shapes and sizes, and although they vary greatly in structure, their functions have been well conserved in evolution. The immune signaling pathways that respond to cytokines are remarkably conserved from fly to man. Therefore, Drosophila melanogaster, provides an excellent platform for studying the biology and function of cytokines. In this review, we will describe the cytokines and cytokine-like molecules found in the fly and discuss their roles in host immunity. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro modulation of radiation-induced FAS-related apoptosis in CD34{sup +} progenitor cells by combination cytokines; Reduction de l'apoptose radio-induite impliquant le recepteur FAS au niveau des cellules hematopoietiques CD34{sup +} par une combinaison de cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouet, M.; Mathieu, J.; Grenier, N.; Soutif, A.; Herodin, F

    1998-07-01

    Combination cytokines such as SCF, Flt-3 ligand, IL-3 and thrombopoietin can modulate Fas mRNA expression by in vitro irradiated CD34{sup +} cells which results in a moderate decrease of apoptotic ratio and an improved rate of clonogenicity of the irradiated progenitors. (authors)

  20. Cytokines and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamias, Giorgos; Cominelli, Fabio

    2016-11-01

    Cytokines of the intestinal microenvironment largely dictate immunological responses after mucosal insults and the dominance of homeostatic or proinflammatory pathways. This review presents important recent studies on the role of specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. The particular mucosal effects of cytokines depend on their inherent properties but also the cellular origin, type of stimulatory antigens, intermolecular interactions, and the particular immunological milieu. Novel cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, including IL-33 and IL-36, have dominant roles in mucosal immunity, whereas more established ones such as IL-18 are constantly enriched with unique properties. Th17 cells are important mucosal constituents, although their profound plasticity, makes the specific set of cytokines they secrete more important than their mere numbers. Finally, various cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A, and death receptor, 3 demonstrate dichotomous roles with mucosa-protective function in acute injury but proinflammatory effects during chronic inflammation. The role of cytokines in mucosal health and disease is increasingly revealed. Such information not only will advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of gut inflammation, but also set the background for development of reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and cytokine-specific therapies.

  1. Cytokines and intraocular inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekzema, R.; Murray, P. I.; Kijlstra, A.

    1990-01-01

    Although new endogenous mediators of inflammatory and immune responses are reported almost on a monthly basis, the cytokines IL-1, TNF, and IL-6 have emerged as the primary regulators of local inflammation in man. In this paper, uveitogenic and other properties of these particular cytokines are

  2. Eosinophil secretion of granule-derived cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Spencer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils are tissue-dwelling leukocytes, present in the thymus, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals at baseline, and recruited, often in large numbers, to allergic inflammatory foci and sites of active tissue repair. The biological significance of eosinophils is vast and varied. In health, eosinophils support uterine and mammary gland development, and maintain bone marrow plasma cells and adipose tissue alternatively activated macrophages, while in response to tissue insult eosinophils function as inflammatory effector cells, and, in the wake of an inflammatory response, promote tissue regeneration and wound healing. One common mechanism driving many of the diverse eosinophil functions is the regulated and differential secretion of a vast array of eosinophil-derived cytokines. Eosinophils are distinguished from most other leukocytes in that many, if not all, of the over three dozen eosinophil-derived cytokines are pre-synthesized and stored within intracellular granules, poised for very rapid, stimulus-induced secretion. Eosinophils engaged in cytokine secretion in situ utilize distinct pathways of cytokine release that include: classical exocytosis, whereby granules themselves fuse with the plasma membrane and release their entire contents extracellularly; piecemeal degranulation, whereby granule-derived cytokines are selectively mobilized into vesicles that emerge from granules, traverse the cytoplasm and fuse with the plasma membrane to release discrete packets of cytokines; and eosinophil cytolysis, whereby intact granules are extruded from eosinophils, and deposited within tissues. In this latter scenario, extracellular granules can themselves function as stimulus-responsive secretory-competent organelles within the tissue. Here we review the distinctive processes of differential secretion of eosinophil granule-derived cytokines.

  3. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2012-01-01

    to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients......BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...

  4. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  5. Censored correlated cytokine concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Benn, Christine Stabell; Jørgensen, Mathias J

    2013-01-01

    Interest in cytokines as markers for the function of the immune system is increasing. Methods quantifying cytokine concentrations are often subject to detection limits, which lead to non-detectable observations and censored distributions. When distributions are skewed, geometric mean ratios (GMRs...... stacking method that uses clustered variance-covariance estimation allowing homogeneous (Stackc) or inhomogeneous (Stackh) variances. We compare it with direct estimation of the bivariate Tobit likelihood function (Bitobit) and multiple imputation. We assess sensitivity to inhomogeneity and non...

  6. Synthesis, characterization and nano-structuration of poly-thiophene derivatives for organic photovoltaic solar cells; Synthese, caracterisation et nanostructuration de derives du polythiophene pour des applications en cellules photovoltaiques organiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berson, S

    2007-10-15

    This work is devoted to the synthesis of poly-thiophene derivatives with low bandgap and preserving high oxidation potential. Disubstituted thiophenes and 'Donor-Acceptor' bi-thiophenes were synthesized and then polymerized. The side chains of these polymers, donor or acceptor, were modified in order to tune the properties of material as well from the optical point of view as electrochemical. These polymers were also tested in blend with PCBM in bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic cells. Voc delivered by the devices showed a linear dependence according to the potential of oxidation of the polymers. Copolymers containing cyano-thiophene and alkyl- or alkoxy-thiophene showed values of 0.8 V. However, in spite of power conversion efficiency of 1 %, these performances remain lower than the one obtained with the P3HT. Optimizations in terms of morphology are certainly necessary. Indeed, the morphology of the active layer plays a key role in obtaining high power conversion efficiency. An original technique of nano-structuration of the polymer on a nano-metric scale was developed during this work, leading to the development of fibrillar P3HT. These nano-structures, presenting an important degree of order, are formed spontaneously in solution. Their rate compared to amorphous material is perfectly controllable and adjustable in solution and in solid state. Measurements of mobilities show a strong improvement of the transport of load within these fibrillar layers compared to a traditional film of P3HT obtained without annealing. Power conversion efficiencies of 3.6% on glass and 3.3 % on plastic were reached without annealing. (author)

  7. Cytokiner og osteoporose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R

    1997-01-01

    During the last few years, progress has been made towards the understanding of local regulation of bone remodelling especially in relation to osteoporosis. Cytokines have shown to be powerful regulators of bone resorption and formation, though under superior control from oestrogen/testosterone, p...

  8. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirko, A.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Gora-Sochacka, A.; Redkiewicz, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 6 (2011), s. 3536-3552 ISSN 1661-6596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokines * pharmaceutical proteins * plant-based production systems Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.598, year: 2011

  9. Cytokines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Cytokiner og osteoporose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R

    1997-01-01

    /testosterone, parathyroidhormone and 1,25(OH)2D3. Some of the cytokines primarily enhance osteoclastic bone resorption e.g. IL-1 (Interleukin-1), TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) and IL-6 (Interleukin-6), while others primarily stimulate bone formation e.g. TGF-beta (Transforming Growth Factor), IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factor...

  11. Solid state synthesis and sintering of monazite-type ceramics: application to minor actinides conditioning; Synthese par voie solide et frittage de ceramiques a structure monazite. Application au conditionnement des actinides mineurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregiroux, D

    2005-11-15

    In the framework of the French law of 1991 concerning the nuclear waste management, several studies are undertaken to develop specific crystalline conditioning matrices. Monazite, a rare earth (TR{sup 3+}) orthophosphate with a general formula TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4}, is a natural mineral containing significant amount of thorium and uranium. Monazite has been proposed as a host matrix for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) specific conditioning, thanks to its high resistance to self irradiation and its low solubility. Its is now of prime importance to check the conservation of these properties on synthesized materials, which implies to master all the stages of the elaboration process, from the powder synthesis to the sintering of controlled microstructure pellets. This work can be divided into two main parts: The first part deals with the synthesis by high temperature solid state route of TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} powders (with TR{sup 3+} = La{sup 3+} to Gd{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+}). The chemical reactions occurring during the firing of starting reagents are described in the case of monazite with only one or several cations. From these results, a protocol of synthesis is described. The incorporation of tetravalent cations (Ce{sup 4+}, U{sup 4+}, Pu{sup 4+}) in the monazite structure was also studied. The second part of the present work deals with the elaboration of controlled density and microstructure monazite pellets and their related mechanical and thermal properties. The study of crushing and sintering is presented. For the first time, experimental results are confronted with theoretical models in order to deduce the densification and grain growth mechanisms. By the comprehension of the various physicochemical phenomena occurring during the various stages of the monazite pellets elaboration process (powder synthesis, crushing, sintering...), this work allowed the development of a protocol of elaboration of controlled microstructure monazite TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4

  12. Evaluation des dommages des punaisese( Heteroptera ) et des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse statistique des résultats dans les blocs témoins montre que les punaises occasionnent plus de dommages aux boutons floraux et aux capsules vertes immatures que les chenilles. Sur les jeunes capsules, la moyenne des dommages des punaises et des chenilles reste statistiquement identique. Les traitements ...

  13. Detection of autoantibodies to cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, M B; Ross, C

    2000-01-01

    Autoantibodies to various cytokines have been reported in normal individuals and in patients with various infectious and immunoinflammatory disorders, and similar antibodies (Ab) may be induced in patients receiving human recombinant cytokines. The clinical relevance of these Ab is often difficult...... to evaluate. Not only are in vitro neutralizing cytokine Ab not necessarily neutralizing in vivo, but assays for binding and neutralizing Ab to cytokines are often difficult to interpret. For example, denaturation of immobilized cytokines in immunoblotting techniques and immunometric assays may leave Ab...

  14. Sanitary impact of cleaning operations following the pollution bred by the Erika wreck: evaluation and prevention. Synthesis of available data and recommendations; Impact sanitaire des operations de nettoyage consecutives a la pollution engendree par le naufrage de l'Erika: evaluation et prevention. Synthese des donnees disponibles et recommandations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The I.N.E.R.I.S. (Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques) report relative to the consequences of cleaning operations following the pollution bred by the Erika wreck gives the following conclusions: whatever the pollutants are, the carcinogen risks by pulmonary way are negligible for people assigned to the beaches cleaning; the general carcinogen effects, linked to benzopyrene in organism after skin crossing, have been evaluated as negligible; there is a non negligible risk for the embryo-fetal development linked to the benzopyrene skin crossing; It is not possible to tell if the skin cancer risk is or not negligible, because of the uncertainty of the dose effectively absorbed by the skin and the lack of acceptable toxicological references; the risks linked to the volatile organic compounds are negligible; an uncertainty exists on the risks linked to the thiophene family that have not been determined, because of the deficiency of base data. For the second study, whatever the studied scenario, the R.I.V.M. (Riijksinstituut Voor Volksgezondheid en mileuhygiene) Dutch organism report concludes to a risk qualified as acceptable for the voluntary workers and professionals, included the birds cleaners. The risk of skin cancer consecutive to the skin exposure has been characterized with a dose response relationship model coming from previous works of the R.I.V.M. (N.C.)

  15. 2002 summary of the report on studies and activities. Research on the Disposal of High-level Long-lived Radioactive Wastes; 2002 synthese du bilan des etudes et travaux. Recherches pour le stockage des dechets radioactifs haute activite et a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    This synthesis presents the studies underway and the major results obtained in the framework of the second research area prescribed by the Law of 1991 (the feasibility study of a deep geological repository). It also clarifies the French and international contexts of that research, namely with regard to the development of scientific partnerships. Content: 1 - scientific knowledge gained in 2002: packages, materials evolution, works about the clayey environment, works about the granitic environment, modeling approach; 2 - the 2002 granite dossier: context and goals, content; 3 - the 2002 concept choices for the clayey environment: overall architecture, packages and storage cells for B-type wastes, packages and storage cells for C-type vitrified wastes, packages and storage cells for spent fuels; 4 - international context: IAEA, OECD/NEA, integrated group for the safety case (IGSC), forum for stakeholders confidence (FSC), working party on decommissioning and dismantling (WPDD), general direction of energy transport, general direction of research, status of partnerships and bilateral agreements, advance of research cooperations, European Union; 5 - ANDRA's participations to international meetings; 6 - scientific partnerships: Ecole des Mines, BRGM, GdR FORPRO, MoMas, CEA, IFP, PRACTIS, PARIS, 7 - information and evaluation: national commission of evaluation (CNE), scientific committee, permanent group, orientation and follow-up committee; 8 - ANDRA's theses; 9 - ANDRA's publications. (J.S.)

  16. Synthesis document of the presentations; Dossier de synthese des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrousos, C. [Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France); Choudat, D. [Paris-5 Univ., Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Cochin, 75 (France); Dutrillaux, B. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This colloquium has been organized to answer questions from health professionals. They are more and more confronted to public information about public health and to patient anxiety. The aim of the interventions is to realize a clearly and comprehensive synthesis of events concerning the nuclear and health domain during 2000. The following three sessions deal with this subject: occupational diseases and ionizing radiation; the public information and attitude facing nuclear accidents and especially Chernobyl; medical and sanitary aspects of a nuclear accident: management and follow up of people. (A.L.B.)

  17. Cytokine regulation of immune tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Xie, Aini; Chen, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    The immune system provides defenses against invading pathogens while maintaining immune tolerance to self-antigens. This immune homeostasis is harmonized by the direct interactions between immune cells and the cytokine environment in which immune cells develop and function. Herein, we discuss three non-redundant paradigms by which cytokines maintain or break immune tolerance. We firstly describe how anti-inflammatory cytokines exert direct inhibitory effects on immune cells to enforce immune ...

  18. Cytokines as biomarkers in depressive disorder: current standing and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtblau, Nicole; Schmidt, Frank M; Schumann, Robert; Kirkby, Kenneth C; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2013-10-01

    The frequently observed co-occurrence of depressive disorders and inflammatory diseases suggests a close connection between the nervous and the immune systems. Increased pro-inflammatory and type 1 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ, appear to be an important link. Cytokines are synthesized by immune cells in the blood and peripheral tissues and by glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence suggests that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is permeable to cytokines and immune cells, and that afferent nerves, e.g. the vagus nerve, mediate the communication between peripheral inflammatory processes and CNS. Cytokines such as IL-1ß, TNF-α and IFN-γ seem to contribute to the pathophysiology of depression by activating monoamine reuptake, stimulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and decreasing production of serotonin due to increased activity of indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). However, critical appraisal of these hypotheses is required, because cytokine elevation is not specific to depression. Moreover, several effective antidepressants such as amitriptyline and mirtazapine have been shown to increase cytokine production. When applying immunomodulatory therapies, these drugs may increase the risk of specific side effects such as infections or interact with antidepressant drugs on important functions of the body such as the coagulation system.

  19. Osteoporose und Genetik des Knochenstoffwechsels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermayer-Pietsch B

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporose ist in hohem Maß genetisch determiniert. Neue Wege der molekularbiologischen Forschung haben sich in den letzten Jahren auf diesem Gebiet etabliert. "Gene mapping" mit polymorphen genetischen Markern auf der Suche nach Phänotyp-assoziierten Genen ist ein aufwendiges, aber vielversprechendes Verfahren und wird durch die Erkenntnisse des Human Genome Projects beschleunigt. So wurde jüngst u. a. das Low-density Lipoprotein 5-Gen als wichtig für den Knochenstoffwechsel identifiziert. Kandidaten-gene wie Hormonrezeptor-, Cytokin- oder Kollagen-Gene werden hinsichtlich ihrer Gen-Gen- und Gen-Umwelt- Interaktionen untersucht und erlauben neue funktionelle Einsichten in Erkrankungen des Knochenstoffwechsels. Mutationen der Kollagen-Gene sind bei einigen seltenen Erkrankungen, wie dem Osteoporose-Pseudogliom-Syndrom oder der Osteogenesis imperfecta gefunden worden, könnten aber auch für häufige Varianten von Bindegewebsstörungen wie der congenitalen Hüftdysplasie verantwortlich sein, die etwa 10 % der weiblichen kaukasischen Bevölkerung in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß betrifft. Osteoporose am Schenkelhals und erhöhte Gelenkslaxizität sowie andere generalisierte Veränderungen des Knochen- und Kollagenstoffwechsels können hier möglicherweise ebenfalls durch Störungen des Kollagen I alpha 1-Gens erklärt werden. In Summe können wir zahlreiche neue Einsichten in die Pathophysiologie des Skelettsystems erwarten, die uns auch neue Zugangswege für Diagnostik und Therapie unserer Patienten ermöglichen werden.

  20. Class I Cytokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinocher, Helena

    , the minimal determinants for specificity between membrane spanning helices were investigated with small artificial low complexity peptides, prior found to activate the EPOR in cells. The placement of single methyl group in the so called transmembrane aptamers (traptamers) determined the stabilizing effect...... characteristics of membrane spanning helices, was designed and hGHR TMD and hEPOR TMD produced in sufficient amounts for spectroscopic investigations. The isolated hGHR TMD was revealed to associate in dimeric complexes in detergent micelles and first presumptions about the dimer interface could be made. Further...... the traptamers on the hEPOR TMD dimeric complex in detergent micelles. To gain a better understanding of hGHR regulation a point mutation in the hGHR intracellular domain (ICD), which has recently been linked to lung cancer, was characterized. The mutation was found to decrease binding of suppressor of cytokine...

  1. Olefins metathesis, synthesis and properties of homogeneous models of the Re{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst; Methathese des olefines, synthese et proprietes des modeles homogenes du catalyseur Re{sub 2}O{sub 7}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doledec, G.

    1999-10-05

    The aim of this work was to synthesize and to study homogeneous models of the rhenium oxide on alumina catalyst in order to better understand the influence of the alumina environment over the activity in olefin metathesis. A series of aluminium complexes (ArO){sub 2}Al-Y have been synthesised, where ArO is a 4-substituted-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenoxy, or (ArO){sub 2} is a CH{sub 2{sup -}} or S-ortho bridged-4,4'-di-tert-butyl-di-phenoxy, and Y is an alkyl or chlorine ligand. The reaction of (ArO){sub 2}Al-Cl with AgReO{sub 4} led to new complexes (ArO){sub 2}Al-OReO{sub 3} (A). These complexes exhibit a low to moderate activity in metathesis of 2-pentene (TOF = 0,5 min{sup -1} at 25 deg. C in a toluene solution). Complexes (ArO){sub 2}Al-R (R = iBu, Et) react with Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} in THF or dioxane giving type B complexes including oligomeric linkages like O{sub 3}Re-[Al(OAr)-O){sub 2}-ReO{sub 3}. They show a fairly high activity in the metathesis of 2-pentene, with TOF values as high as 100 min{sup -1}. As far as we know, these are the most active rhenium-based homogeneous metathesis catalysts. Complexes type A may be converted into type B complexes upon reaction with (ArO){sub 2}Al-R in an ether solvent. The high activity of B complexes is tentatively related to the Al-O-Al linkages that are molecular in the homogeneous models or present at the surface of the alumina in the heterogeneous catalyst. These results bear out again the role of the Lewis acidity in these catalysts. We used (ArO){sub 2}Al-R complexes to modify the heterogenous catalyst. It appears that it is an excellent way to reduce the rhenium loading without any loss of activity. (author)

  2. Explaining Synthesized Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Robinson, Peter; Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, Thomas; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Motivated by NASA's need for high-assurance software, NASA Ames' Amphion project has developed a generic program generation system based on deductive synthesis. Amphion has a number of advantages, such as the ability to develop a new synthesis system simply by writing a declarative domain theory. However, as a practical matter, the validation of the domain theory for such a system is problematic because the link between generated programs and the domain theory is complex. As a result, when generated programs do not behave as expected, it is difficult to isolate the cause, whether it be an incorrect problem specification or an error in the domain theory. This paper describes a tool we are developing that provides formal traceability between specifications and generated code for deductive synthesis systems. It is based on extensive instrumentation of the refutation-based theorem prover used to synthesize programs. It takes augmented proof structures and abstracts them to provide explanations of the relation between a specification, a domain theory, and synthesized code. In generating these explanations, the tool exploits the structure of Amphion domain theories, so the end user is not confronted with the intricacies of raw proof traces. This tool is crucial for the validation of domain theories as well as being important in everyday use of the code synthesis system. It plays an important role in validation because when generated programs exhibit incorrect behavior, it provides the links that can be traced to identify errors in specifications or domain theory. It plays an important role in the everyday use of the synthesis system by explaining to users what parts of a specification or of the domain theory contribute to what pieces of a generated program. Comments are inserted into the synthesized code that document these explanations.

  3. Widely tunable THz synthesizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Eliet, S.; Guinet, M.; Cuisset, A.; Bocquet, R.; Yasui, T.; Rovera, D.

    2011-09-01

    The generation of cw-THz radiation by photomixing is particularly suited to the high resolution spectroscopy of gases; nevertheless, until recently, it has suffered from a lack of frequency metrology. Frequency combs are a powerful tool that can transfer microwave frequency standards to optical frequencies and a single comb has permitted accurate (10-8) THz frequency synthesis with a limited tuning range. A THz synthesizer composed of three extended cavity laser diodes phase locked to a frequency comb has been constructed and its utility for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy demonstrated. The third laser diode allows a larger tuning range of up to 300 MHz to be achieved without the need for large frequency excursions, while the frequency comb provides a versatile link to be established from any traceable microwave frequency standard. The use of a single frequency comb as a reference for all of the cw-lasers eliminates the dependency of synthesized frequency on the carrier envelope offset frequency. This greatly simplifies the frequency comb stabilization requirements and leads to a reduced instrument complexity.

  4. Method for synthesizing HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Raymond R.; Coon, Clifford L.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Pearson, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N.sub.2 O.sub.5 cludes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N.sub.2 O.sub.5 is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).

  5. Des Connaissances Aux Politiques

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans beaucoup de pays en développement, la faible capacité du gouvernement est pratiquement la définition des problèmes de développement du pays. ...... Promouvoir l'échange des connaissances émanant des recherches ainsi que des outils et des résultats, et le dialogue entre les pays, institutions et donateurs.

  6. Variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... sont à dominance céréale et coton avec environ 75 % des assolements. Les revenus nets des EAF montrent en moyenne une prédominance des productions végétales (1 394 976 Fcfa) et animales, (1 420 430 Fcfa) sur les activités de diversification (358 449 Fcfa). Mots clés : production, revenu, économie, performance, ...

  7. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls

    2012-01-01

    -damaging exercise', primarily eccentric exercise. We review the evidence for the notion that the degree of muscle damage is related to the magnitude of the cytokine response. In the third and final section, we look at the satellite cell response to a single bout of eccentric exercise, as well as the role...... variation in individual responses to a given exercise should, however be expected. The link between cytokine and satellite cell responses and exercise-induced muscle damage is not so clear The systemic cytokine response may be linked more closely to the metabolic demands of exercise rather than muscle...... damage. With the exception of IL-6, the sources of systemic cytokines following exercise remain unclear The satellite cell response to severe muscle damage is related to regeneration, whereas the biological significance of satellite cell proliferation after mild damage or non-damaging exercise remains...

  8. (AJST) SYNTHESE ET CARACTERISATION PAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratoire de Chimie Minérale et Analytique (LACHIMIA), Département de Chimie ,. Faculté des Sciences et ... Infrarouge et Mössbauer a permis de mettre en évidence des structures discétes avec un ligand. Molybdate polydentate ou l' ... plus indiquée pour déterminer la nature cis ou trans de la coordination de l' étain.'.

  9. Modelisation des effets physico-techniques pour la conception des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    automatisation dans les installations industrielles a besoin d'une régulation automatique des commandes des processus technologiques pour lesquelles certaines contraintes sont à relever compte tenu des exigences des innovations scientifiques de ...

  10. variabilite des productions et des revenus des exploitations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), UMR Innovation,. Montpellier, France. Doubangolo COULIBALY, Email kone_b@yahoo.fr. RESUME. La durabilité des systèmes de production à base de coton dans un contexte de variabilité des prix aux producteurs et de ...

  11. Cytokines in Sjogren's syndrome: potential therapeutic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roescher, N.; Tak, P.P.; Illei, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    The dysregulated cytokine network in Sjogren's Syndrome (SS) is reflected by local and systemic overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and absent or low levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. To date, the use of cytokine based therapies in SS has been disappointing. Oral administration of low

  12. La metamorphose des cypris femelles des Rhizocephales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veillet, A.

    1964-01-01

    Depuis la découverte de la métamorphose des cypris de Sacculina carcini Thompson par Delage, peu de biologistes se sont intéressés au développement des Rhizocéphales. On admet aujourd'hui que tous les Cirripèdes parasites ont, comme Sacculina carcini, une forme kentrogone qui inocule le parasite au

  13. Use of cytokines in infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Naoko; Xing, Zhou

    2004-11-01

    Infectious disease remains an ever-growing health concern worldwide due to increasing antibiotic-resistant microbial strains, immune-compromised populations, international traffic and globalisation, and bioterrorism. There exists an urgent need to develop novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. In addition to classic antibiotic therapeutics, immune-modulatory molecules such as cytokines or their inhibitors represent a promising form of antimicrobial therapeutics or immune adjuvant used for the purpose of vaccination. These molecules, in the form of either recombinant protein or transgene, exert their antimicrobial effect by enhancing infectious agent-specific immune activation or memory development, or by dampening undesired inflammatory and immune responses resulting from infection and host defence mechanisms. In the last two decades, a number of cytokine therapy-based experimental and clinical trials have been conducted, and some of these efforts have led to the routine clinical use of cytokines. For instance, although IFNs have been used to treat hepatitis C with great success, many other cytokines are yet to be fully evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. This review discusses the biology and therapeutic potential of selected immune modulatory cytokines and their inhibitors, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IFN-gamma, IL-12 and TNF.

  14. Cytokine network in psoriasis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak-Stoma, Anna; Pietrzak, Aldona; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Chodorowska, Grażyna

    2011-12-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic genetically determined, erythemato-squamous disease associated with many comorbidities. Evidence from clinical studies and experimental models support the concept that psoriasis is a T cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease and T helper (Th) cells - Th1, Th17 and Th22 - play an important role in the pathogenesis. Th1 cytokines IFNγ, IL-2, as well as Th17 cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, and TNFα (Th1 and Th17 cytokine) are increased in serum and lesional skin. IL-22 produced by Th17 and new subset of T helper cells, Th22, is also increased within psoriatic lesions and in the serum. Other recently recognized cytokines of significant importance in psoriasis are IL-23, IL-20 and IL-15. The IL-23/Th17 pathway plays a dominant role in psoriasis pathogenesis. Currently due to enormous methodological progress, more and more clinical and histopathological psoriatic features could be explained by particular cytokine imbalance, which still is one of the most fascinating dermatological research fields stimulating new and new generations of researchers.

  15. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    37. Taux des lipides et des protéines et composition en acides gras du tissu comestible des crustacés et des mollusques pêchés en Algérie : Effet du halofénozide (RH-0345) sur la composition en acides gras de. Penaeus kerathurus (Crustacé, Décapode). Samira Gheid. 1. , Safia Nadji. 2 et Mohamed El Hadi Khebbeb. 3.

  16. Methoden Des Fremdsprachenunterrichts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Sklizmantaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Beim Unterrichten einer Fremdsprache ist es wichtig, Methoden des Fremdsprachenunterrichts zu kennen, um eine Methode des Unterrichts nach dem Niveau und Bedürfnissen der entsprechenden Gruppe opti-mal zu wählen. Im Artikel wird der Überblick des Fremdsprachenunterrichts im Hinblick auf historische Entwicklung dargeboten sowie die Hauptmerkmale einiger Methoden des Fremdsprachenunterrichts aufgezählt.

  17. Malaria: toxins, cytokines and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Bate, C A; Taverne, J

    1995-01-01

    In this review the old concept of severe malaria as a toxic disease is re-examined in the light of recent discoveries in the field of cytokines. Animal studies suggest that the induction of TNF by parasite-derived molecules may be partly responsible for cerebral malaria and anemia, while hypoglyc......In this review the old concept of severe malaria as a toxic disease is re-examined in the light of recent discoveries in the field of cytokines. Animal studies suggest that the induction of TNF by parasite-derived molecules may be partly responsible for cerebral malaria and anemia, while...

  18. Des racines et des ailes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Vincent-Geslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les mobilités pendulaires semblent être en augmentation en Europe depuis une dizaine d’années. Cette croissance du temps passé à se déplacer amène à remettre en question la conjecture de Zahavi et apparaît relativement inexplicable en regard du paradigme classique de l’acteur rationnel traditionnellement utilisé dans le champ des transports. Si, dans la littérature, les temps de déplacements sont principalement expliqués par le contexte résidentiel, la forme urbaine et le travail, ce cadre explicatif ne dit rien des processus de décision eux-mêmes qui amènent aux pendularités intensives.À partir d’une enquête qualitative menée auprès de pendulaires français, suisses et belges, cette contribution propose d’analyser les arbitrages et les éléments déterminants des processus de la grande pendularité. Les mobilités quotidiennes pendulaires apparaissent comme le résultat de compromis entre activité professionnelle, attachement résidentiel et choix de vie et prennent ainsi la forme de stratégies de conciliation entre vie privée et vie professionnelle. Ces mobilités spatiales permettent alors paradoxalement la préservation des ancrages résidentiels, sociaux et familiaux.Roots and wings. Long-distance commuting patterns, or how to conciliate professional and personal lifeLong-distance commuting patterns appear to be increasing in Europe over the last ten years. These raising mobility patterns lead to reappraise the Zahavi conjecture and appear largely inexplicable by the classical rational actor paradigm traditionally used in transportation research. In literature, commuting is mainly explained by residential contexts, urban forms and job. Nevertheless this theoretical frame says little about the decision-making processes themselves. Based on a qualitative survey conducted in three European countries - France, Belgium and Switzerland – among a population of high commuters, this paper proposes an analysis of

  19. Civili, langue des Baloango

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavoungou, Paul Achille; Ndinga-Koumba-Binza, Hugues Steve

    , Congo, Angola, etc.) issus de la décolonisation. Il présente de façon succincte quelques phénomènes historiques, phonologiques, morphosyntaxiques, homonymiques et analogiques de la langue. Des faits sémantiques des emprunts linguistiques y sont également décrits dans le cadre des changements...

  20. ANALYSE DES PERCEPTIONS LOCALES ET DES FACTEURS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    haies vives) et la valorisation des produits forestiers tels que l'utilisation des tourteaux comme engrais organiques (Francis et al.,. 2005). Plusieurs études ont montré que les perceptions paysannes d'une technologie ou d'une innovation sont déterminantes pour son adoption. (Adesina et Baidu-forson, 1996). Les travaux.

  1. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Gøran; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Raastad, Truls

    2012-01-01

    damage. With the exception of IL-6, the sources of systemic cytokines following exercise remain unclear The satellite cell response to severe muscle damage is related to regeneration, whereas the biological significance of satellite cell proliferation after mild damage or non-damaging exercise remains...

  2. Appropriation des Tic et performance des entreprises

    OpenAIRE

    Lethiais , Virginie; Smati , Wided

    2009-01-01

    Quatre pages Marsouin; L'utilisation des TIC (Technologies de l'information et de la Communication) se développe dans les entreprises pour assurer des tâches de plus en plus nombreuses : la communication, la recherche d'informations, la commercialisation des produits et services, le travail en groupe, la gestion de l'entreprise, la prospection, etc. Les équipements en TIC ainsi que l'usage qui en est fait diffèrent d'une entreprise à une autre selon de nombreux critères. L'objet de ce quatre ...

  3. MICROFLUIDIC MODULES FOR ISOLATION OF RECOMBINANT CYTOKINE FROM BACTERIAL LYSATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The portability and personalization of health-care diagnostics and treatments benefits from advancements and applications of micro and nanotechnology. Modularization and miniaturization of standardized biochemical processes and tests facilitates the advancement and customization of analyte detection and diagnosis on-chip. The goal of our work here is to develop modular platforms for on-chip biochemical processing of synthesized biologics for a range of on-demand applications. Our report focuses on the initial development, characterization and application of microfluidic size exclusion/gel filtration and ion exchange protein concentration modules for cytokine isolation from spiked cell extracts.

  4. Cytokine Correlations in Youth with Tic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Parker-Athill, E. Carla; Ehrhart, Jared; Tan, Jun; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have noted immunological disruptions in patients with tic disorders, including increased serum cytokine levels. This study aimed to determine whether or not cytokine levels could be correlated with tic symptom severity in patients with a diagnosed tic disorder.

  5. Cytokines and mood in healthy young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Fernstrand, A.M.; Van De Loo, A.J.A.E.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A link between chronic inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders has been demonstrated previously. For example, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines have shown to impact neurocircuits relevant to mood regulation. Elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines have been associated with the

  6. SYNTHESES, SPECTROSCOPIC AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SYNTHESES, SPECTROSCOPIC AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF. POLYSTYRENE-ANCHORED COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF. THIAZOLIDINONE. Dinesh Kumar1, Amit Kumar2* and Durga Dass3. 1Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana,. India. 2Department of ...

  7. Fully automated parallel oligonucleotide synthesizer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebl, M.; Burger, Ch.; Ellman, B.; Heiner, D.; Ibrahim, G.; Jones, A.; Nibbe, M.; Thompson, J.; Mudra, Petr; Pokorný, Vít; Poncar, Pavel; Ženíšek, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2001), s. 1299-1314 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : automated oligonucleotide synthesizer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2001

  8. Avian cytokines in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wigley P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are proteins secreted by cells that play an important role in the activation and regulation of other cells and tissues during inflammation and immune responses. Although well described in several mammalian species, the role of cytokines and other related proteins is poorly understood in avian species. Recent advances in avian genetics and immunology have begun to allow the exploration of cytokines in health and disease. Cytokines may be classified in a number of ways, but may be conveniently arranged into four broad groups on the basis of their function. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 and interleukin-1beta play a role in mediating inflammation during disease or injury. Th1 cytokines, including interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma, are involved in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 are involved in the induction of humoral immunity. The final group Th3 or Tr cytokines play a role in regulation of immunity. The role of various cytokines in infectious and non-infectious diseases of chickens and turkeys is now being investigated. Although there are only a few reliable ELISAs or bioassays developed for avian cytokines, the use of molecular techniques, and in particular quantitative RT-PCR (Taqman has allowed investigation of cytokine responses in a number of diseases including salmonellosis, coccidiosis and autoimmune thyroiditis. In addition the use of recombinant cytokines as therapeutic agents or as vaccine adjuvants is now being explored.

  9. Cytokine determinants of viral tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Grant; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Bartee, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The specificity of a given virus for a ceil type, tissue or species — collectively known as viral tropism — is an important factor in determining the outcome of viral infection in any particular host. Owing to the increased prevalence of zoonotic infections and the threat of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, gaining a better understanding of the factors that determine viral tropism has become particularly important. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of the central role of antiviral and pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly the interferons and tumour necrosis factor, in dictating viral tropism and how these cytokine pathways can be exploited therapeutically for cancer treatment and to better counter future threats from emerging zoonotic pathogens. PMID:19696766

  10. Integrated Review of the Association of Cytokines with Fibromyalgia and Fibromyalgia Core Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FMS) is a chronic widespread pain and fatigue syndrome that affects 3 to 6 million adults in the United States. Core symptoms of fibromyalgia include pain, fatigue, and mood and sleep disturbances. To date, consensus has not been reached among researchers regarding the pathogenesis of FMS nor the specific role of cytokine activation on the neuroendocrine-immune response patterns in persons with FMS. The purpose of this article is to describe and synthesize the results of research studies focused on the relationship between cytokines and FMS and among cytokines and core symptoms of FMS. There is some support in the literature for relationships among FMS symptoms and cytokines; however, there are discrepant findings related to whether pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are elevated or reduced in persons with FMS and whether or not their levels correlate with the core symptoms of this disorder. Although the use of cytokine biomarkers must be considered exploratory at this time due to the lack of consistent empirical findings, biobehavioral research focused on understanding the relationship of FMS with cytokines may lead to a better understanding of this complex syndrome. This knowledge may ultimately contribute to the development of interventions for symptom management that address not only the symptom manifestation but also a biological mediator of symptoms. PMID:19933683

  11. Cartographie des directions dominantes des vents au Benin : Outil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cartographie des directions dominantes des vents au Benin : Outil de conception et de dimensionnement des ouvrages. ... nous avons, après la collecte des informations météorologiques, procédé : - à l'analyse des données (directions) des six stations météorologiques principales conformément aux méthodes statistiques.

  12. The role of cytokine deficiencies and cytokine autoantibodies in clinical dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liszewski, Walter; Gniadecki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are small, secreted proteins that are essential for promoting and maintaining a normal immune response. Upregulation of cytokines frequently occurs in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Conversely, several immunodeficiency, autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders are known to occur...... review the role of cytokine deficiencies and cytokine autoantibodies in immunodeficiency syndromes, as well as in autoimmune disorders. Finally, we will examine autoinflammatory disorders due to cytokine deficiencies....

  13. Applications biotechnologiques des mycorhizes

    OpenAIRE

    Redecker, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    La symbiose mycorhizienne est une association entre un champignon mycorhizogène et une racine de plante-hôte. La mycorrhize à arbuscules (MA) est extrêmement ancienne puisqu’elle est datée de la même époque que l’apparition des plantes terrestres, il y a 460 millions d’années. Elle s’effectue entre un champignon mycorhizogène à arbuscules (CMA, phylum Glomeromycota) et plus de 80% des plantes terrestres. Les CMA sont des microorganismes ubiquitaires du sol et sont des biotrophes obligatoires ...

  14. Plasma cytokines in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Boysen, Gudrun; Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    GOALS: The aim of this study was to test the relations between plasma cytokines and the clinical characteristics, course, and risk factors in acute stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on 179 patients with acute stroke included within 24 hours of stroke onset. On inclusion and 3...... months later plasma levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNF-R2) were...

  15. Cytokines and cytokine networks target neurons to modulate long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, G Aleph; Cotman, Carl W

    2017-04-01

    Cytokines play crucial roles in the communication between brain cells including neurons and glia, as well as in the brain-periphery interactions. In the brain, cytokines modulate long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular correlate of memory. Whether cytokines regulate LTP by direct effects on neurons or by indirect mechanisms mediated by non-neuronal cells is poorly understood. Elucidating neuron-specific effects of cytokines has been challenging because most brain cells express cytokine receptors. Moreover, cytokines commonly increase the expression of multiple cytokines in their target cells, thus increasing the complexity of brain cytokine networks even after single-cytokine challenges. Here, we review evidence on both direct and indirect-mediated modulation of LTP by cytokines. We also describe novel approaches based on neuron- and synaptosome-enriched systems to identify cytokines able to directly modulate LTP, by targeting neurons and synapses. These approaches can test multiple samples in parallel, thus allowing the study of multiple cytokines simultaneously. Hence, a cytokine networks perspective coupled with neuron-specific analysis may contribute to delineation of maps of the modulation of LTP by cytokines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gestion des risques

    CERN Document Server

    Louisot, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Depuis le début du lie siècle, la gestion des risques connaît une véritable révolution culturelle. Jusqu'alors fonction technique, centrée autour de l'achat de couverture d'assurances, elle est devenue une discipline managériale et transversale : une valise d'instruments que chaque manager doit connaître et appliquer quels que soient son domaine de compétence et ses missions au sein de l'organisation. En effet, la gestion des risques est une culture qui doit être assimilée par chacun des acteurs. C'est précisément l'ambition des 101 questions rassemblées dans cet ouvrage : apporter à chaque manager d'entreprise, de collectivité, d'établissement de santé..., des réponses claires au " pourquoi " et au " comment " : Comment identifier les risques ? Comment analyser les risques ? Quels sont les objectifs de la gestion des risques ? Une carte des risques pour quoi faire ? Pourquoi faut-il financer les risques ? Les entreprises ont-elles des responsabilités pénales ? En quoi consiste la gestion...

  17. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  18. La gouvernance des risques naturels et la problematique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depuis quelques années, la gouvernance des risques naturels dus aux inondations remet en cause les processus de mise en oeuvre des politiques urbaines et la qualité de la structure des aménagements dans les grandes villes du Golfe de Guinée. La perception de la gouvernance et l'application des politiques de ...

  19. Bioanalytical Chemistry of Cytokines-A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenken, Julie A.; Poschenrieder, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are bioactive proteins produced by many different cells of the immune system. Due to their role in different inflammatory disease states and maintaining homeostasis, there is enormous clinical interest in the quantitation of cytokines. The typical standard methods for quantitation of cytokines are immunoassay-based techniques including enzyme-linked immusorbent assays (ELISA) and bead-based immunoassays read by either standard or modified flow cytometers. A review of recent developments in analytical methods for measurements of cytokine proteins is provided. This review briefly covers cytokine biology and the analysis challenges associated with measurement of these biomarker proteins for understanding both health and disease. New techniques applied to immunoassay-based assays are presented along with the uses of aptamers, electrochemistry, mass spectrometry, optical resonator-based methods. Methods used for elucidating the release of cytokines from single cells as well as in vivo collection methods are described. PMID:25467452

  20. CYTOKINE DISBALANCE AT HERPESVIRUS MYOCARDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peremot S. D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral myocarditis is a heterogeneous group of diseases not only by etiologic factors, which belong to different families of Vira kingdom, but is also characterized by a unique mechanism of inflammatory process and cytokine levels specific for each of them. According to numerous researches in сardio-immunology, at herpesvirus infection of the cardiovascular system occur both systemic and localized violations of the immune response. Unfortunately, the accessible literature did not provide the data analysis of complex cardio-immunological research that would take into account the features of herpesvirus myocarditis clinical course. This grounds relevance of immunodiagnosis directed on the exposure of dysimmunities by study of indices of general and local immunity with the estimation of the immune status in patients depending on the stage of exasperation or relapse of chronic herpetic infection in the complex of diagnostic tests. The purpose of our research was to determine features of the state of the immune system with the complex analysis of cytokine profile data, immune and interferon statuses in subacute and chronic forms of herpesvirus myocarditis. Materials and methods. 87 myocarditis patients who were receiving inpatient treatment in medical establishments of Kharkiv were examined. The average age was (M ± m 36 ± 3,46 years old. The diagnosis of myocarditis was established according to the order № 436 by the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine from 03.07.2006 of clinical findings protocol. In accordance with the term of myocarditis clinical course, the patients were divided in two sub-groups: 44 patients with subacute (from 2 to 6 months, and 43 patients with chronic (over 6 months clinical course of viral myocarditis. The control group correlated with patients of basic group by age and gender and consisted of 40 practically healthy persons without implications of cardial pathology. Definition of cytokine concentration: IL-2, IL-4, IL-6

  1. Keratinocyte cytokine and chemokine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Yalçin; Antonov, Meltem; Dolar, Neslihan; Wolf, Ronni

    2007-10-01

    Chemokines are a superfamily of small, secreted proteins that regulate cell traffic in homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Keratinocytes synthesize many chemokines, including members of the CC and CXC subfamilies, such as regulated on activation of normal T-cell expressed and secreted, gamma-interferon inducible protein-10, monokine induced by gamma-interferon, and thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine. They also express some chemokine receptors that mediate the inflammatory or immune response by attracting various kinds of leukocytes.

  2. Photonique des Morphos

    CERN Document Server

    Berthier, Serge

    2010-01-01

    La photonique est déjà présente dans notre vie quotidienne, et on attend maintenant que la manipulation des photons permette aussi le traitement logique des informations. Cependant, l’élément de base qui permet cette manipulation de la lumière, le cristal photonique, est d’une réalisation complexe et mal contrôlée. Dans la course à la maîtrise de la lumière, les structures photoniques naturelles ont beaucoup à nous apprendre. C’est ce que nous montre Serge Berthier qui étudie dans ce livre la structure des écailles des Morphos. Tenant compte de l’essor récent des approches biomimétiques, il présente de manière détaillée plus de dix-huit techniques expérimentales utilisées pour ses analyses, ainsi que les diverses approches théoriques développées pour la modélisation de structures multi-échelles complexes. Première étude quasi-exhaustive des structures fines d’un genre et des propriétés optiques ainsi que colorimétriques générées, ce livre fournit aux entomologiste...

  3. Droit des organisations internationales

    CERN Document Server

    Sorel, Jean-Marc; Ndior, Valère

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif offre aux enseignants et chercheurs en droit international, aux praticiens et aux étudiants, une analyse actualisée du droit des organisations internationales. Il dresse en cinq parties un tableau, illustré par des exemples variés, des problématiques que soulève le phénomène polymorphe d institutionnalisation de la société internationale. La première partie est consacrée au phénomène des « organisations internationales », sous l angle à la fois de l institutionnalisation progressive des relations internationales et de la difficulté à cerner une catégorie unifiée. La deuxième partie rend compte de la création, de la disparition et des mutations des organisations internationales, ici envisagées comme systèmes institutionnels et ordres juridiques dérivés. La troisième partie analyse l autonomie que l acquisition de la personnalité juridique et de privilèges et immunités, un organe administratif intégré, un personnel ou un budget propres confèrent aux organi...

  4. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  5. Solid phase syntheses of oligoureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, K.; Linthicum, D.S.; Russell, D.H.; Shin, H.; Shitangkoon, A.; Totani, R.; Zhang, A.J.; Ibarzo, J. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-02-19

    Isocyanates 7 were formed from monoprotected diamines 3 or 6, which in turn can be easily prepared from commercially available N-BOC- or N-FMOC-protected amino acid derivatives. Isocyanates 7, formed in situ, could be coupled directly to a solid support functionalized with amine groups or to amino acids anchored on resins using CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} as solvent and an 11 h coupling time at 25 {degree}C. Such couplings afforded peptidomimetics with an N-phthaloyl group at the N-terminus. The optimal conditions identified for removal of the N-phthaloyl group were to use 60% hydrazine in DMF for 1-3 h. Several sequences of amino acids coupled to ureas (`peptidic ureas`) and of sequential urea units (`oligoureas`) were prepared via solid phase syntheses and isolated by HPLC. Partition coefficients were measured for two of these peptidomimetics, and their water solubilities were found to be similar to the corresponding peptides. A small library of 160 analogues of the YGGFL-amide sequence was prepared via Houghten`s tea bag methodology. This library was tested for binding to the anti-{beta}-endorphin monoclonal antibody. Overall, this paper describes methodology for solid phase syntheses of oligourea derivatives with side chains corresponding to some of the protein amino acids. The chemistry involved is ideal for high-throughput syntheses and screening operations. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Terminologie des indices boursiers

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Yeught, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Les indices boursiers sont omniprésents en anglais financier. Les plus importants sont universellement familiers mais leur nature et leur fonctionnement restent largement méconnus. Des distinctions (average/index, narrow index/broad index, price-weighted/market value-weighted, all share/ composite/ subindex) permettront à l’angliciste de spécialité d’adapter à chaque indice la terminologie française ou anglaise qui lui correspond. Des remarques sur des erreurs courantes, un mini-glossaire, un...

  7. Synthesis and stabilization of oxide-based colloidal suspensions in organic media: application in the preparation of hybrids organic-inorganic materials for very high laser damage threshold coatings; Synthese et stabilisation de suspensions colloidales d'oxydes en milieu organique: application a la preparation de materiaux hybrides organiques-inorganiques pour des revetements a tres haute tenue au flux laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchet, N.

    2008-02-15

    Multilayer coatings are widely used in optic and particular in the field of high power laser on the components of laser chains. The development of a highly reflective coating with a laser damage resistance requires the fine-tuning of a multilayer stack constituted by a succession alternated by materials with low and high refractive index. In order to limit the number of layers in the stack, refractive indexes must be optimized. To do it, an original approach consists in synthesizing new organic-inorganic hybrid materials satisfying the criteria of laser damage resistance and optimized refractive index. These hybrid materials are constituted by nano-particles of metal oxides synthesized by sol-gel process and dispersed in an organic polymer with high laser damage threshold. Nevertheless, this composite system requires returning both compatible phases between them by chemical grafting of alc-oxy-silanes or carboxylic acids. We showed that it was so possible to disperse in a homogeneous way these functionalized nano-particles in non-polar, aprotic solvent containing solubilized organic polymers, to obtain time-stable nano-composite solutions. From these organic-inorganic hybrid solutions, thin films with optical quality and high laser damage threshold were obtained. These promising results have permitted to realize highly reflective stacks, constituted by 7 pairs with optical properties in agreement with the theoretical models and high laser damage threshold. (author)

  8. National inventory of uranium mine sites. Version 2 - September 2007. Realised in the framework of the M.I.M.A.U.S.A. program Memory and impact of Uranium Mines: synthesis and archives; Inventaire national des sites miniers d'uranium. Version 2 - Septembre 2007. Realise dans le cadre du programme MIMAUSA Memoire et Impact des Mines d'urAniUm: Synthese et Archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The M.I.M.A.U.S.A. program allows to end in a compilation and a synthesis of the available data to allow the I.R.S.N., the national and local authorities, but also the public to have a source of quality information about the history of the French uranium mining sites and the possible systems of radiological surveillance set up at the moment; To assure the perpetuity of the knowledge of these sites in spite of the stop of the concerned activities; To establish a working tool for the government services in charge of the definition of the refitting and surveillance programs; And to improve the representativeness of the national network of radiation monitoring in the environment, notably as regards the stations of measure exploited by the I.R.S.N..The M.I.M.A.U.S.A. inventory or the national inventory of the uranium mining sites in France consists of the most exhaustive possible inventory of the sites on which were practised the activities in connection with the exploration (works of recognition of significant scale, the extraction or the treatment of the uranium ore in metropolitan France. The acquired information is synthesized in the form of index cards of sites presented in this document, with in introduction, the manual of the reserved columns and the used terms. The present version follows upon a first version published in 2004. The novelties of the version 2007: a more exhaustive inventory, 30 sites were added, enriched and corrected information, more complete identification of the receiving rivers, more precise and accessible geographical localization, zoom-news on certain mining zones, a paragraph current events. The sources of information are: Areva-Nc, A.N.D.R.A., D.R.I.R.E., and A.S.N.. (N.C.)

  9. Cytokine profile of cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelbag, S.; Fleuren, G. J.; Baelde, J. J.; Schuuring, E.; Kenter, G. G.; Gorter, A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In patients with cervical carcinoma, the presence of cytokines produced by T(H)2 cells, and the presence of an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate, has been associated with a less effective immune response and tumor progression. In the present study, we have investigated the cytokine

  10. Cytokine profile of cervical cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazelbag, S; Fleuren, GJ; Baelde, JJ; Schuuring, E; Kenter, GG; Gorter, A

    2001-01-01

    Objective. In patients with cervical carcinoma, the presence of cytokines produced by T(H)2 cells, and the presence of an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate, has been associated with a less effective immune response and tumor progression. In the present study, we have investigated the cytokine

  11. Cytokines and organ failure in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Marie Louise; Hansen, Mark Berner; Andersen, Anders Møller

    2012-01-01

    We aimed at synchronously examining the early time course of 4 proinflammatory cytokines as predictive factors for development of organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP).......We aimed at synchronously examining the early time course of 4 proinflammatory cytokines as predictive factors for development of organ failure in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP)....

  12. Cytokine gene expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a predominant glycolipid in the outer membranes of gam-negative bacteria that stimulates monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils to produce cytokines. The aim was to study the expression profile of TLRs and cytokines and determine the role of LPS in the peripheral blood lymphocytes.

  13. Dental Encounter System (DES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  14. Die Wahrheit des Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stolleis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rezensiertes Werk: Raul Hilberg, Die Quellen des Holocaust. Entschlüsseln und Interpretieren. Deutsch von Udo Rennert, Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer 2002, 256 S., ISBN 3-10-033626-7

  15. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Key words: cathode sputtering magnetron; thin films; nanostructure; corrosion; alloys Fe-Si. 1. INTRODUCTION. Les alliages de fer–Silicium (FexSiy) sont des matériaux importants, largement répandus dans des circuits électroniques et magnétiques, et jouissent d‟un excellent rapport qualité/prix. Ce succès est lie aux.

  16. typologie des parcs agroforestiers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    AU SENEGAL : TYPOLOGIE DES PARCS AGROFORESTIERS. I. COLY1, L. E. AKPO1, D. SARR1, R. MALOU2, H. DACOSTA3 et F. DIOME4. 1Faculté des Sciences et ... Mots clés : Agro-écologie, parcs agro forestiers, typologie, Bas fonds de la Néma, Sénégal. .... afin d'en distinguer les sous unités, et d'en établir.

  17. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    1 mai 2011 ... microscopie électronique à balayage (MEB) et la diffraction des rayons X (DRX). Nous avons effectué des essais d‟oxydation à haute température sur trois alliages binaires FeAl à 1 000 oC, dans une atmosphère d'air de laboratoire et à pression atmosphérique. Les essais d‟oxydation menés à 1000 °C ...

  18. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    déclin avec le développement de la chimie de synthèse, toutefois les effets indésirables des médicaments ont ravivé l‟intérêt des scientifiques pour les plantes médicinales. C‟est ainsi que de nouvelles recherches ont vu le jour, notamment de l‟espoir de traiter certaines maladies infectieuses par les huiles essentielles.

  19. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    profondes aux fosses abyssales représentant ainsi un important réservoir de biodiversité. .... des animaux menacés de l‟IUCN (Union. Internationale pour la Conservation de la. Nature) comporte plus de 100 ..... lacunes de notre compréhension des capacités de réponses et d‟adaptation de la biodiversité. Jackson et al.

  20. Interactions between Autophagy and Inhibitory Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tian-Tian; Li, Wei-Min; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a degradative pathway that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Most early studies of autophagy focused on its involvement in age-associated degeneration and nutrient deprivation. However, the immunological functions of autophagy have become more widely studied in recent years. Autophagy has been shown to be an intrinsic cellular defense mechanism in the innate and adaptive immune responses. Cytokines belong to a broad and loose category of proteins and are crucial for innate and adaptive immunity. Inhibitory cytokines have evolved to permit tolerance to self while also contributing to the eradication of invading pathogens. Interactions between inhibitory cytokines and autophagy have recently been reported, revealing a novel mechanism by which autophagy controls the immune response. In this review, we discuss interactions between autophagy and the regulatory cytokines IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and IL-27. We also mention possible interactions between two newly discovered cytokines, IL-35 and IL-37, and autophagy.

  1. La revolution des savants

    CERN Document Server

    Chavanne, A

    1989-01-01

    Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...

  2. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  3. Structural and thermodynamic study of rare earth(III) complexation by poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids: synthesis of new extractants and outlook for the extraction of these cations; Etude structurale et thermodynamique de la complexation de lanthanides (III) par des acides carboxyliques polyhydroxyles: synthese de nouveaux extractants et perspectives pour l'extraction de ces cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aury, S

    2002-12-15

    The aim of this work is: to improve the knowledge on the binding sites of the poly-hydroxylated carboxylic acids with the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions by comparing them to gluconic acid (previously studied) and to molecules with different configuration and with a variable number of OH functions (threonic acid, glyceric acid, 2-hydroxy-butanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-butanoic acid). To find the best complexing agent among different acids (aldonic acids, aldaric acids, di-hydroxybenzoic acids) (determination of the set of complexes and their stability constants by potentiometry, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopy). To synthesize hydrophobic monoamides from one lactone form of saccharic acid, to study their complexing power and their capacity to extract the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions. (author)

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of new organic and phosphorous derivatives against ionizing radiation: study of the in vitro mechanism of action; Synthese et evaluation de nouveaux composes organiques et phosphores contre les effets des rayonnements ionisants. Etude de leur mecanisme d'action in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prouillac, C

    2006-10-15

    This work falls under a research program. The aim was to synthesize new organic phosphorylated compounds having an interesting radio pharmacological activity without toxicity. That is why, we carried out the synthesis of new benzothiazole and thiadiazole N-substituted derivatives as thiols, amino thiols, acids thio-sulfonic and phosphoro thioates. All these compounds were characterized by NMR (proton, carbon, phosphorus, 2D), by mass spectrometry, elementary analyzes and for some of them by diffraction of x-rays. The activity of the majority of them was evaluated by in vitro tests. The experimental results were confirmed by theoretical study: the aim of D.F.T. calculation was the study of the mechanism of capture of the free radicals by our compounds. In addition, a study of relation structure activity (Q.S.A.R.) was carried out. Our results allow us to create a model making it possible to establish structure-activity relationship. (author)

  5. Novel methods of cytokine detection: Real-time PCR, ELISPOT, and intracellular cytokine staining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Turlej

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are small hormone-like proteins that play important roles in immune system control. Cytokines regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cells and hematopoiesis and act as mediators in the inflammatory reaction. Changes in cytokine levels are found in many diseases, such as sepsis, bowel inflammatory disease, autoimmune diseases, as well as graft-versus-host disease. Cytokines levels can be detected using in vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo techniques. The level of cytokine produced can be measured by immunoenzymatic test (ELISA in supernatant after cell culture with the addition of stimulant and in plasma by techniques that measure the level of cytokine secretion in cells (e.g. immunohistochemical staining, ELISPOT, and intracellular cytokine staining, and by molecular biological methods (RPA, real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and Northern blot. Detection of cytokine mRNA in tissues is useful in the direct determination of heterogenic populations of cytokine-producing cells. Nowadays the most frequently used methods for measuring cytokine level are ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining with flow cytometry detection, and real-time PCR. These methods have an important clinical role in vaccine efficacy, in viral, bacterial, and verminous diagnostics, and in determining the efficacy of cancer treatment.

  6. Interactions between respiratory epithelial cells and cytokines: relationships to lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, K B; Fischer, B M; Wright, D T; Cohn, L A; Becker, S

    1994-05-28

    Epithelial cells lining respiratory airways can participate in inflammation in a number of ways. They can act as target cells, responding to exposure to a variety of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by altering one or several of their functions, such as mucin secretion, ion transport, or ciliary beating. Aberrations in any of these functions can affect local inflammatory responses and compromise pulmonary defense. For example, oxidant stress can increase secretion of mucin and depress ciliary beating efficiency, thereby affecting the ability of the mucociliary system to clear potentially pathogenic microbial agents. Recent studies have indicated that airway epithelial cells also can act as "effector" cells, synthesizing and releasing cytokines, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species in response to a number of pathologically relevant stimuli, thereby contributing to inflammation. Many of these epithelial-derived substances can act locally, affecting both neighboring cells and tissues, or, via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms, affect structure and function of the epithelial cells themselves. Studies in our laboratories utilized cell cultures of both human and guinea pig tracheobronchial and nasal epithelial cells, and isolated human nasal epithelial cells, to investigate activity of respiratory epithelial cells in vitro as sources of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. Primary cultures of guinea pig and human tracheobronchial and nasal epithelial cells synthesize and secrete low levels of IL-6 and IL-8 constitutively. Production and release of these cytokines increases substantially after exposure to specific inflammatory stimuli, such as TNF or IL-1, and after viral infection.

  7. Etude des comportements rheologiques des melanges de farine ble ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude des comportements rheologiques des melanges de farine ble/sorgho sans tanins issue de trois nouvelles varietes cultivees au Senegal et mise au point de pains a base de farines composees (ble/sorgho)

  8. Effets des biomasses vertes de Tithonia diversifolia et des engrais ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets des biomasses vertes de Tithonia diversifolia et des engrais minéraux sur la croissance, le développement et le rendement du manioc ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) en zone forestière du Cameroun.

  9. Modulation of cytokine production by carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M. Kouttab

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of carnitine congeners to modulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was investigated. Modulation of cytokine production by PBMC of young (30 years of age or younger and old (70 years of age or older normal donors was first compared. The PBMC were collected over Ficoll–Hypaque and incubated in the presence of various concentrations of acetyl L-carnitine for 24 h. Subsequently the supernatants were collected and examined for cytokine production. The presence of cytokines in tissue culture supernatants was examined by ELISA. The cytokines measured included IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNFα, GM–CSF, and IFNγ. The results showed that at 50 μg/ml of acetyl L-carnitine the most significant response was obtained for TNFα. In this regard four of five young donors responded, but only one of five old donors responded. More recently these studies were expanded to examine the ability of L-carnitine to modulate cytokine production at higher doses, 200 and 400 μg/ml, in young donors. The results of these studies showed that in addition to TNFα, significant production of IL-1β and IL-6 was observed. These preliminary studies provide evidence that carnitine may modulate immune functions through the production of selected cytokines.

  10. À propos des occasionnalismes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Georgette

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Les occasionnalismes (nonce formations ou contextual formations dans la terminologie anglo-saxonne, qu’on définira provisoirement comme de “new complex word[s] created by a speaker/writer on the spur of the moment to cover some immediate need” (Bauer, 1983 : 45 ont, à notre connaissance, peu retenu l’attention des morphologues du domaine francophone. Pourtant, toutes les conditions sont désormais réunies pour que cet objet, invisible lorsqu’il s’agissait de décrire le système morphologique du français (ou d’autres langues à partir de ressources dictionnairiques, émerge en tant qu’observable dans une morphologie puisant ses données dans le réel langagier des locuteurs. Par définition en effet, on s’attend à ce qu’un occasionalisme soit absent des dictionnaires (nous verrons que, dans les faits, la situation est plus complexe que cela, et que ces contextual formations ne puissent pas être étudiées en dehors du contexte dans lequel elles ont été produites. À cet égard, la Toile et les produits qui en dérivent constituent des ressources de choix. C’est particulièrement vrai des forums, dans lesquels les internautes s’expriment librement, laissant libre cours à leur potentiel créatif (ou ce qu’ils pensent tel. Dans la présente communication, après avoir défini la notion d’occasionalisme, nous utiliserons un corpus constitué au fil d’autres recherches pour dégager des motifs récurrents propices à leur apparition, autrement dit pour établir une grammaire des occasionnalismes.

  11. Reseau des polygones de bord des indicateurs de performance d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La fonction maintenance hospitalière a des composantes spécifiques qui la rendent de plus en plus complexe et fastidieuse. La politique d'une maintenance biomédicale repose sur des piliers et des leviers propres à une meilleure exploitation des dispositifs médicaux dans un système de santé. Trois niveaux de leviers ...

  12. Impact des microcredits sur les conditions sociosanitaires des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cependant, très peu d'étude se focalisent sur leurs impacts réels sur les conditions de vies des bénéficiaires de leurs services. C'est à ce propos que la présente recherche se donne comme objectif de contribuer à une meilleure connaissance des impacts des microcrédits - un des services offert par les IMF - sur les ...

  13. Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet vise à analyser la contribution réelle et potentielle de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif au bien-être des jeunes et des femmes en Côte d'Ivoire, au Burkina Faso et au Kenya. Après un état des lieux de la pratique de l'entrepreneuriat inclusif dans chacun des pays ciblés, l'équipe de recherche étudiera son incidence sur ...

  14. Cytokines: applications in domestic food animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, F

    1991-01-01

    Cytokines such as human, bovine, and porcine interferons and human and bovine interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 have been used in vivo in cattle and pigs. Colony-stimulating factors and tumor necrosis factor alpha have been evaluated in vitro in food animals. Studies to evaluate cytokines in domestic food animals have shown that specific and nonspecific immunomodulation is possible in immunosuppressed or pathogen-exposed animals. Cytokine prophylaxis or therapy in food animals may have the greatest potential for control of respiratory disease and mastitis.

  15. Cytokines in Radiobiological Responses: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaue, Dörthe; Kachikwu, Evelyn L.; McBride, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Cytokines function in many roles that are highly relevant to radiation research. This review focuses on how cytokines are structurally organized, how they are induced by radiation, and how they orchestrate mesenchymal, epithelial and immune cell interactions in irradiated tissues. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are the major components of immediate early gene programs and as such can be rapidly activated after tissue irradiation. They converge with the effects of ionizing radiation in that both generate free radicals including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). “Self” molecules secreted or released from cells after irradiation feed the same paradigm by signaling for ROS and cytokine production. As a result, multilayered feedback control circuits can be generated that perpetuate the radiation tissue damage response. The pro-inflammatory phase persists until such times as perceived challenges to host integrity are eliminated. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory cytokines then act to restore homeostasis. The balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory forces may shift to and fro for a long time after radiation exposure, creating waves as the host tries to deal with persisting pathogenesis. Individual cytokines function within socially interconnected groups to direct these integrated cellular responses. They hunt in packs and form complex cytokine networks that are nested within each other so as to form mutually reinforcing or antagonistic forces. This yin-yang balance appears to have redox as a fulcrum. Because of their social organization, cytokines appear to have a considerable degree of redundancy and it follows that an elevated level of a specific cytokine in a disease situation or after irradiation does not necessarily implicate it causally in pathogenesis. In spite of this, “driver” cytokines are emerging in pathogenic situations that can clearly be targeted for therapeutic benefit, including in radiation settings. Cytokines can greatly

  16. Interpretation der kantschen Theorie des rechtlichen Besitzes angesichts seiner Transzendentalphilosophie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio César Scherer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2016v15n3p369 Im Rahmen der Theorie Kants über die Probleme der Vernunft und seine Hilfstheorie (Transzendentalphilosophie zielt der vorliegende Artikel darauf ab, die in der Rechtslehre (1797 dargestellte Theorie des rechtlichen Besitzes anhand des analytisch-logischen Lesens zu interpretieren, dessen Beweisprozedur die Methode der Analyse und Synthese ist. Die vorliegende Untersuchung weist in eine Richtung, die die kritische Angehörigkeit dieses späten rechtlichen Textes in dem Maβe verteidigt, wie die Theorie des intelligiblen Besitzes auf die kritische Ebene der Äußerung von der Möglichkeit synthetischer Sätze a priori im Allgemeinen bezogen ist.

  17. Th17 cytokines induce pro-fibrotic cytokines release from human eosinophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Subepithelial fibrosis is one of the most critical structural changes affecting bronchial airway function during asthma. Eosinophils have been shown to contribute to the production of pro-fibrotic cytokines, TGF-β and IL-11, however, the mechanism regulating this process is not fully understood. Objective In this report, we investigated whether cytokines associated with inflammation during asthma may induce eosinophils to produce pro-fibrotic cytokines. Methods Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of 10 asthmatics and 10 normal control subjects. Eosinophils were stimulated with Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines and the production of TGF-β and IL-11 was determined using real time PCR and ELISA assays. Results The basal expression levels of eosinophil derived TGF-β and IL-11 cytokines were comparable between asthmatic and healthy individuals. Stimulating eosinophils with Th1 and Th2 cytokines did not induce expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines. However, stimulating eosinophils with Th17 cytokines resulted in the enhancement of TGF-β and IL-11 expression in asthmatic but not healthy individuals. This effect of IL-17 on eosinophils was dependent on p38 MAPK activation as inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, but not other kinases, inhibited IL-17 induced pro-fibrotic cytokine release. Conclusions Th17 cytokines might contribute to airway fibrosis during asthma by enhancing production of eosinophil derived pro-fibrotic cytokines. Preventing the release of pro-fibrotic cytokines by blocking the effect of Th17 cytokines on eosinophils may prove to be beneficial in controlling fibrosis for disorders with IL-17 driven inflammation such as allergic and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23496774

  18. La fabrique des sciences des institutions aux pratiques

    CERN Document Server

    Benninghoff, Martin; Crettaz von Roten, Fabienne; Merz, Martina

    2006-01-01

    Aujourd'hui, les façons de produire, d'organiser, d'évaluer et d'utiliser les savoirs sont en profond débat. De plus en plus, l'Etat, la société civile et l'économie tentent d'influencer les activités des universités et des laboratoires de recherche. Ces développements mettent à l'épreuve tout à la fois les fondements des systèmes d'enseignement supérieur et de recherche, l'autonomie des institutions scientifiques, la définition des frontières des savoirs et l'acceptation des sciences. Dans des contextes suisses et européens, cet ouvrage s'intéresse aux manières dont les sciences et les technologies sont fabriquées, en analysant leurs institutions et les pratiques. A partir d'une approche relationnelle, les sciences et les technologies sont conçues comme des phénomènes profondément sociaux, culturels et politiques. Une telle démarche déstabilise les visions parfois idéalisées et stéréotypées de la construction des savoirs. Des études de cas détaillées décrivent des phénomè...

  19. Effets des extraits vegetaux sur la dynamique de populations des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude se propose de trouver une alternative de l'utilisation des pesticides chimiques en testant l'effet insecticide des extraits aqueux des feuilles de Hyptis suaveolens, graines de Ricinus communis et de Azadirachta indica contre les ravageurs du niébé en conditions de champ en utilisant le cyperméthrine ...

  20. Dynamical Systems, Cytokine Storms, and Blood Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Glenn; Hubler, Alfred

    2008-03-01

    Various infections and non-infectious diseases can trigger immune cells and the proteins (cytokines) the cells use to communicate with each other to be caught in a positive feedback loop; this ``cytokine storm'' is frequently fatal. By examining the network of cytokine-immune cell interactions we will illustrate why anti-mediator drugs have been generally ineffective in stopping this feedback. A more effective approach may be to try and reduce interactions by dampening many signals at once by filtering the cytokines out of the blood directly (think dialysis). We will argue that feedback on an out of control nonlinear dynamical system is easier to understand than its normal healthy state and apply filtration to a toy model of immune response.

  1. Les lueurs des sables

    CERN Multimedia

    Les lueurs des sables

    2013-01-01

    Two CERN ladies are getting ready for the “Trophée Roses des Sables” rally adventure: Julie and Laetitia are finalizing the last details before setting off on Monday 7th October 2013. Julie from EN-MEF group and Laetitia from DGS-SEE group, met at the CERN Rugby club. This year, they are participating in the 100 % female rally which will take place in Morocco from 10 to 20 October. They will be carrying along 100 kg of humanitarian donation for children such as some clothes, books and medical material. Do not hesitate to show your support at their farewell party to be held on Monday 7 October, from 4 to 6 pm in front of the St Genis-Pouilly Mairie (city Hall). Follow their exciting adventure on the blog leslueursdessables.trophee-roses-des-sables.org and on their association’s Facebook page Les Lueurs des Sables.

  2. Influence of cobalt precursor and of its decomposition on the synthesis of cobalt nano-particles on silica for the optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts; Influence du precurseur de cobalt et de sa decomposition sur la synthese de nanoparticules de cobalt sur silice dans le cadre de l'optimisation des catalyseurs Fischer-Tropsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girardon, J.S.; Khodakov, A.Y.; Constant-Griboval, A. [Universite des sciences et technologies de Lille, Lab. de catalyse de Lille, UMR 8010, 59 - Villeneuve D' Ascq (France)

    2004-07-01

    In order to synthesize Fischer-Tropsch catalysts more active and selective in heavy hydrocarbons, the understanding at the molecular level of the chemical processes which occur during synthesis is a strategic stake. This work is based in one hand on the use of different cobalt precursors (acetate (Ac) and nitrate (N)) and in another hand on the influence of the decomposition temperature of these precursors on the formation of cobalt nano-particles. An UV-visible study shows that the impregnated cobalt coming from the two types of precursors is in an octahedral environment before its decomposition. The XRD, UV-visible and XANES-EXAFS studies show, after decomposition in air (400 C, 5 hours), that the sample prepared from cobalt nitrate (N400) presents a Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase. This phase is not detected in the case of the cobalt acetate (Ac400). These observations are in agreement with the results of the catalytic tests which show that the solid N400 is eight times more than the solid Ac400. A softer decomposition at 170 C during 70 hours of the cobalt acetate (Ac170) has allowed to minimize the formation of cobalt silicate for Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and to increase of more than three times the catalytic activity. In the case of cobalt nitrate, the XRD analysis of the solids obtained after a softer decomposition (150 C and 100 C) has revealed a decrease of the size of the cobalt nano-particles. The catalytic conversion remains the same than with N400 but a better C{sub 5}{sup +} selectivity is observed. (O.M.)

  3. Synthesis and radiosynthesis with carbon-11 and fluorine-18 of new cholinergic and glutaminergic ligands for imaging with positrons emission tomography; Synthese et radiosynthese au carbone-11 et au fluor-18 de nouveaux ligands pour l'imagerie par tomographie d'emission de positons des systemes de neurotransmission cholinergique et glutaminergique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger, G

    2005-09-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a high-resolution, sensitive, molecular, and functional imaging technique. It permits repeated, noninvasive assessment and quantification of specific biological and pharmacological processes and is the most advanced technology currently available for studying in vivo molecular interactions. Radioligands labeled with the positron-emitters carbon-11 (half-life: 20.4 minutes) or with fluorine-18 (half-life: 109.8 minutes) have been developed in this thesis to image the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2B subunit (part one) or image the nAChR a4b2 subunit (part two) with PET. In the first part, two antagonists have been synthesized and labeled with carbon-11: the 6-[3-[4-(4-fluoro-benzyl)piperidino]propionyl]-{sup 3}H-benzoxazole-2-[{sup 11}C]one ([{sup 11}C]EMD-95885) and the 5-[3-(4-benzyl-piperidine-1-yl)prop-1-ynyl] - 1,3-dihydro-benzo-imidazole-2-[{sup 11}C]one. In the second part, four agonists have been synthesised and labeled with fluor-18 or with carbon-11: the 2-exo - (2'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3'-phenyl-pyridine-5'-yl) - 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, the 2-exo - (2'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3'-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-pyridine-5'-yl) - 7 -azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, the (-)-9-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-pyridyl)cytisine and the [(R)-2-[6-chloro-5-((E)-2-pyridine-4-yl-vinyl) - pyridine-3-yl-oxy]-1-methyl-ethyl]-[{sup 11}C] methyl-amine. Pharmacological profile were assessed using biodistribution studies, brain radioactivity monitoring using intracerebral radiosensitive beta-microprobes in rat and finally brain PET imaging in non-humans primates. (author)

  4. Eosinophil cytokines: Emerging roles in immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige eLacy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils derive from the bone marrow and circulate at low levels in the blood in healthy individuals. These granulated cells preferentially leave the circulation and marginate to tissues, where they are implicated in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In diseases such as allergic inflammation, eosinophil numbers escalate markedly in the blood and tissues where inflammatory foci are located. Eosinophils possess a range of immunomodulatory factors that are released upon cell activation, including over 35 cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines. Unlike T and B cells, eosinophils can rapidly release cytokines within minutes in response to stimulation. While some cytokines are stored as preformed mediators in crystalloid granules and secretory vesicles, eosinophils are also capable of undergoing de novo synthesis and secretion of these immunological factors. Some of the molecular mechanisms that coordinate the final steps of cytokine secretion are hypothesized to involve binding of membrane fusion complexes comprised of soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs. These intracellular receptors regulate the release of granules and vesicles containing a range of secreted proteins, among which are cytokines and chemokines. Emerging evidence from both human and animal model-based research has suggested an active participation of eosinophils in several physiological/pathological processes such as immunomodulation and tissue remodeling. The observed eosinophil effector functions in health and disease implicate eosinophil cytokine secretion as a fundamental immunoregulatory process. The focus of this review is to describe the cytokines, growth factors, and chemokines that are elaborated by eosinophils, and to illustrate some of the intracellular events leading to the release of eosinophil-derived cytokines.

  5. Screening phytochimique et identification spectroscopique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le screening phytochimique des feuilles et des fleurs de cette plante, effectuée pour la première fois, a révélé la présence des alcaloïdes, des flavonoïdes, des tanins catéchiques, des terpènes, des coumarines et des composés cyanogénétiques. Quant aux saponines et les quinones libres, ils sont présents chez les fleurs ...

  6. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Résumé. Dans ce travail, on s‟intéresse à l‟effet des concentrations du xanthane, du caséinate de sodium et du tween 20 sur les propriétés rhéologiques, ... macromolécules des deux biopolymères, par effet du volume exclu, auquel cas, les ..... 25 (4), 743-749. [8] Gast A.P., Hall C.K., Russel W.B.,. 1983. Polymer-induced ...

  7. Liste des tableaux

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    1 – Importations en charbon américain en Europe de l’Ouest de 1946 à 1958 .47 2 – Organisation des demandes d’allocations de charbon allemand auprès de l’eco. 75 3 – Consommations de charbon allemand dans les zones occidentales de l’Allemagne d’octobre à décembre 1945. 86 4 – Production, exportations et consommation nationale apparente du charbon allemand dans la zone britannique en 1945 et 1946. 90 5 – Total des importations de charbons allemand et américain de janvier à avril 1946. 99 6 – I...

  8. Table des tableaux

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    Tableau 1 : Production nationale d'alcool avant 1919 68 Tableau 2 : Production nationale d'alcool après 1939 (Source : Martraire, 1955, A.D. 77 : Az 7086) 71 Tableau 3 : Les surfaces agricoles disponibles en France en 2004 123 Tableau 4 : Le régime fiscal des carburants et des biocarburants en 2005 et 2006 (source : ADEME) 175 Tableau 5 : Exemple de coût de production de biocarburants (Source : Stéphane His (IFP), Les biocarburants en Europe, 2004) 176 Tableau 6 : L’application de la directiv...

  9. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Face à ce constat, le défi de la recherche serait la détermination du niveau actuel de contamination des légumes feuilles et des eaux du barrage et celui de l'État serait l'initiation de programmes de sensibilisation des producteurs par rapport à une gestion plus rigoureuse des pesticides. Mots-clés : pratiques paysannes, ...

  10. Tin dioxide: synthesis, characterization and study of the interactions with different polluting gases - application to DeNOx catalysis; Dioxyde d'etain: synthese, caracterisation et etude des interactions avec differents gaz polluants - application a la catalyse DeNOx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergent, N.

    2003-01-01

    Two high specific surface area tin dioxides after calcination at 600 degrees C under O{sub 2} have been synthesized: SnO{sub 2}-HNO{sub 3} (24 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) and SnO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} (101 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}). The surface of the 600 degrees C - calcined SnO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} sample was found to be more hydroxylated than the 600 degrees C - calcined SnO{sub 2}-HNO{sub 3} one. The thermal treatment under O{sub 2} involves the formation of mono-ionized oxygen vacancies, leading to non-stoichiometric tin dioxides. A specific treatment like outgassing at temperatures above 300-400 degrees C, was found to be necessary to extract surface oxygen atoms. The CO adsorption at liquid N{sub 2} temperature on the SnO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} sample has shown the existence of two cationic Sn{sup 4+} sites, having different Lewis acidities. Concerning the surface OH groups, it has been observed: i) hydroxyl which are inaccessible to CO, ii) weakly acidic surface hydroxyl and iii) surface hydroxyl having a weak Broensted acidity. Then, a study of the interactions between the 600 degrees C - calcined SnO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} sample and various pollutant gases has been carried out by transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Carbon dioxide interacts with SnO{sub 2} surface, leading to CO{sub 2} species adsorbed on cationic sites together with carbonates and bicarbonates ad-species. Carbon monoxide involves the partial reduction of SnO{sub 2} surface by reaction of CO with surface oxygens to form carbonate species and CO{sub 2}. Interactions of SnO{sub 2} surface with NO{sub 2} have shown the formation of NO{sup +}, nitrite and nitrate ad-species. The NO adsorption on SnO{sub 2}-N{sub 2}H{sub 4} have shown the formation of electron donor species (nitrite and nitrate species) together with electron acceptor species (nitrosyl species). Finally, in the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by propene in oxygen excess, SnO{sub 2} was found to be active at high

  11. Synthesis in fluoride medium and characterisation of Montmorillonite type Photoelasticity. Structural study by X-ray Absorption and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies; Synthese en milieu fluore et caracterisation de phyllosilicates de type montmorillonite. etude structurale par spectroscopies d'absorption des rayons x et de resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinholdt, M.

    2001-12-15

    The aim of this work is to synthesize and characterise montmorillonite type phyllosilicates and to study the distribution of the metal elements in the structure. First, generalities about phyllosilicates are introduced. A particular attention is given to (2:1) di-octahedral phyllosilicates and especially to montmorillonite. The different methods of the synthesis of this mineral are reviewed. The method of hydrothermal synthesis in fluoride medium and the techniques used to characterize the materials (XRD, TGA-DTA, chemical analyses) are then described. The descriptions of solid state NMR and EXAFS are particularly developed. Next, a systematic study of the synthetic products is realised for two systems MO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (M = Mg or Zn). The compositions of hydrogel are based on a theoretical formula of montmorillonite: Na{sub 2x}[Al{sub 2(1-x)}M{sub 2x}-vacancy]Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}OH{sub 2} (x represents the octahedral layer charge). A montmorillonite type phyllosilicate is obtained for 0.10 {<=} x {<=} 0.25 in the MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} system and for x = 0.10 in the ZnO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} system. Besides the Mg/Al substitutions in the octahedral sheet, Al/Si substitutions in the tetrahedral sheet are observed by {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al NMR. The {sup 19}F NMR shows a clustering of the octahedral elements in (Mg)phyllosilicate. Then, the parameters of the synthesis of (Mg)phyllosilicate are introduced. Kaolinite is observed as an intermediary phase during the crystallisation. The optimal pH is found between 5.0 and 5.5. The presence of a little amount of F- is necessary (0.05 {<=} F/SiO{sub 2} {<=} 0.10). Tetrahedral substitutions are fewer with the use of Na{sup +} as compensating cation. Finally, Zn and Mg K-edges EXAFS show a distortion of the layer and a clustering of the octahedral elements for the (Zn)phyllosilicate. A quantitative {sup 27}Al MAS-NMR method is elaborated which allows to determine both total amount of aluminium

  12. Identification et surveillance des individus

    OpenAIRE

    Aghroum, Christian; Alberganti, Michel; Bonelli, Laurent; Ceyhan, Ayse; Denis, Vincent; Dufief, Vincent; Laurent, Sébastien; Piazza, Pierre; Preuss-Laussinotte, Sylvia; Rousselin, Thierry; Thorel, Jérôme; Tsoukala, Anastassia; Vitran, Jean-Claude; Alberganti, Michel; Alberganti, Michel

    2014-01-01

    « Big Brother is watching you ! » Cet avertissement placardé sur les murs de la cité imaginaire d'Océania dans le roman 1984 de Georges Orwell peut-il s'appliquer à nos sociétés contemporaines ? Passeport biométrique, fichage informatisé des individus, multiplication des caméras de surveillance, utilisation de puce dans des objets de la vie quotidienne, ou pour suivre les criminels en liberté surveillée, les mesures d'identification, de fichage et de surveillance des individus par des techniq...

  13. La structure des solutions aqueuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D. H.

    2003-09-01

    En commençant par l'étude par diffraction neutronique de la structure des liquides moléculaires puis de l'hydratation des ions en solution, ce cours montrera comment les principes présentés lors des cours précédents peuvent être appliqués à des systèmes aqueux. Des exemples tirés de la littérature seront utilisés pour illustrer les considérations expérimentales propre à ce domaine et le genre d'informations que nous pouvons obtenir. Ce cours montrera également l'applicaton de la diffraction neutronique à des systèmes d'intérêt biologique et environnemental et se terminera par un examen de la complémentarité fournie par la diffraction des rayons X, l'EXAFS et la RMN.

  14. peste des petits ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Diallo A, Minet C, Le Goff C, Berhe G, Albina E, Libeau. G, Barrett T (2007). The threat of peste des petits ruminants: progress in vaccine development for disease control. Vaccine. 25:5591–5597. Esuruoso GO (1995). The practice of preventive veterinary medicine in a devastated national economy. Being the text of an.

  15. Investir dan des solutions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gestion du risque. La gestion du risque est une responsabilité partagée entre les gestionnaires du Centre qui est intégrée à tous les processus administratifs importants. .... que préconisent les Normes internationales d'information financière (normes IFRS). TABLEAU 2. RÉPARTITION DES PRODUITS. Crédit parlementaire.

  16. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Plusieurs études cliniques et épidémiologiques ont montré que le diabète est associé à cette ... CMLs responsables de la modulation des fibroblastes en ..... Pagano P.J., 2004. Gene transfer of. NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor to the vascular adventitia attenuates medial smooth muscle hypertrophy. Circ. Res., 95, 587-. 594.

  17. Praxis des Klebens

    CERN Document Server

    Theuerkauff, Petra

    1989-01-01

    Bei diesem Buch handelt es sich um einen Leitfaden fur Klebepraktiker. Es werden die verschiedenen Einzelschritte beim kleben beschrieben, als auch die vorbereitenden Massnahmen und anschliessenden Prufverfahren auf Festigkeit behandelt. Das Buch sollte an keinem Arbeitsplatz fehlen, wo man sich mit Problemen der Fugetechnik des Klebens beschaftigt.

  18. La physique des infinis

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardeau, Francis; Laplace, Sandrine; Spiro, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Écrire l'histoire de l'Univers, tel est l'objectif commun des physiciens des particules et des astrophysiciens. Pour y parvenir, deux approches s'épaulent : la voie de l'infiniment petit, que l'on emprunte via de gigantesques accélérateurs de particules, et celle de l'infiniment grand, dont le laboratoire est l'Univers. Un Univers qui est bien loin d'avoir livré tous ses secrets. On connaît à peine 4,8 % de la matière qui le constitue, le reste étant composé de matière noire (25,8 %) et d'énergie noire (69,4 %), toutes deux de nature inconnue. Et si la récente découverte du boson de Higgs valide le Modèle standard de la physique des particules, celui-ci est toujours incomplet et doit être étendu à ou dépassé. Est-on arrivé au bout du jeu de poupées russes de la matière ? Quelles sont les particules manquantes ? Faut-il revoir les lois fondamentales ? Quels instruments faut-il mettre en œuvre pour accéder à cette « nouvelle physique » ? Comment parler de Super Big Science aux citoye...

  19. REPRISE DES COURS - Yoga

    CERN Multimedia

    Club de Yoga

    2015-01-01

    REPRISE DES COURS – Venez nombreux ! Yoga, Sophrologie, Tai Chi La liste des cours pour le semestre allant du 1er septembre 2015 au 31 janvier 2016 est disponible sur notre site web : http://club-yoga.web.cern.ch Lieu Les cours ont lieu dans la salle des clubs, à l’entresol du restaurant No 2, Bât. 504 (dans la salle no 3 pour la Sophrologie). Prix des cours Le prix pour le semestre (environ 18 leçons) est fixé à 220 CHF plus 10 CHF d’adhésion annuelle au Club. Couple : 200 CHF par personne. 2 cours par semaine : 400 CHF. Inscriptions Les inscriptions aux cours seront prises directement auprès du professeur, lors de la 1ère séance. Avant de s’inscrire pour le semestre, il est possible d’essayer une séance gratuitement. Informations : http://club-yoga.web.cern.ch ----------------------------------------- cern.ch/club-yoga/

  20. Recevabilité des communications par la Commission africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples

    OpenAIRE

    Nguema, Nisrine Eba

    2014-01-01

    La Commission africaine des droits de l’homme et des peuples constitue le principal organe de protection des droits de l’homme en Afrique. Mise en place en 1987, elle a pour mission principale de recevoir les communications des victimes des violations des droits de l’homme. L’ouverture de la procédure de traitement des communications individuelles devant la Commission africaine est conditionnée par le respect des conditions posée par l’article 56 de la Charte africaine des droits de l’homme e...

  1. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  2. Impact of graft preservation solutions for liver transplantation on early cytokine release and postoperative organ dysfunctions. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, H; Arbelot, C; Monsel, A; Parisot, C; Girard, M; Savier, E; Vezinet, C; Lu, Q; Vaillant, J-C; Golmard, J-L; Gorochov, G; Langeron, O; Rouby, J-J

    2017-10-01

    During liver transplantation, graft ischemia-reperfusion injury leads to a systemic inflammatory response producing postoperative organ dysfunctions. The aim of this observational and prospective study was to compare the impact of Solution de conservation des organes et tissus (SCOT) 15 and University of Wisconsin (UW) preservation solutions on early cytokine release, postreperfusion syndrome and postoperative organ dysfunctions. Thirty-seven liver transplantations were included: 21 in UW Group and 16 in SCOT 15 group. Five cytokines were measured in systemic blood after anesthetic induction, 30minutes after unclamping portal vein and on postoperative day 1. Following unclamping portal vein, cytokines were released in systemic circulation. Systemic cytokine concentrations were higher in UW than in SCOT 15 group: Interleukin-10, Interleukine-6. In SCOT 15 group, significant reduction of postreperfusion syndrome incidence and acute kidney injury were observed. Alanine and aspartate aminotransferase peak concentrations were higher in SCOT 15 group than in UW group. However, from postoperative day 1 to day 10, aminotransferase returned to normal values and did not differ between groups. Compared to UW, SCOT 15 decreases systemic cytokine release resulting from graft ischemia-reperfusion injury and reduces incidence of postreperfusion syndrome and postoperative renal failure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Regulation of human cytokines by Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Shao, Yani; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Lianfen; Mariga, Alfred M; Pang, Guangchang; Geng, Chaoyu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Hu, Qiuhui; Zhao, Liyan

    2014-12-01

    Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris) exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 doses) on the human immune system. The study results showed that administration of C. militaris at various dosages reduced the activity of cytokines such as eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor-2, GRO, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the activity of various cytokines, including GRO, sCD40L, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a significant downregulation of interleukin-12(p70), interferon-γ inducible protein 10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β activities, indicating that C. militaris at all three dosages downregulated the activity of cytokines, especially inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Different dosages of C. militaris produced different changes in cytokines. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Regulation of human cytokines by Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps (Cordyceps militaris exhibits many biological activities including antioxidant, inhibition of inflammation, cancer prevention, hypoglycemic, and antiaging properties, etc. However, a majority of studies involving C. militaris have focused only on in vitro and animal models, and there is a lack of direct translation and application of study results to clinical practice (e.g., health benefits. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of C. militaris micron powder (3 doses on the human immune system. The study results showed that administration of C. militaris at various dosages reduced the activity of cytokines such as eotaxin, fibroblast growth factor-2, GRO, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the activity of various cytokines, including GRO, sCD40L, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a significant downregulation of interleukin-12(p70, interferon-γ inducible protein 10, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β activities, indicating that C. militaris at all three dosages downregulated the activity of cytokines, especially inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Different dosages of C. militaris produced different changes in cytokines.

  5. Modelisation de la synthese reactive de poudres ultrafines dans un reacteur a plasma thermique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desilets, Martin

    La presente these s'inscrit dans le cadre de la modelisation mathematique des ecoulements a plasmas thermiques inertes et reactifs. Elle vise plus precisement a combler les lacunes des modeles existants en portant une attention particuliere aux phenomenes de transport multicomposant et a la prediction des transformations chimiques. Pour repondre a ces attentes et ainsi poursuivre le developpement dans ce domaine, un modele global a ete developpe. Il combine la resolution d'equations conservatives pour la masse, l'energie et le momentum. La generation d'un plasma inductif (h.f ) y est traitee au moyen d'equations representant les champs electromagnetiques. La nucleation et la croissance de poudres ultrafines sont incluses dans le modele via l'analyse des principaux moments de la distribution des tailles de particules. Enfin, tous les phenomenes physico-chimiques d'importance dans un milieu comme les plasmas thermiques, de meme que lem interactions, sont consideres. Le modele est applique ici a l'analyse de trois problematiques differentes et complementaires. La premiere concerne l'etude du melange gazeux d'un jet froid (He, N 2 ou O2), injecte au coeur d'une decharge d'argon/hydrogene ou d'argon/oxygene. La comparaison des predictions du modele avec des mesures experimentales obtenues par une sonde enthalpique permet une validation partielle de ce dernier. La deuxieme problematique a trait a l'etude numerique de la pyrolyse du methane en reacteur a plasma h.f. Elle met en evidence les difficultes de convergence de la methode numerique lorsque appliquee a la resolution d'ecoulements reactifs a haute temperature. Finalement, le dernier sujet aborde dans cette these, soit l'analyse systematique des principales conditions d'operation d'un reacteur h.f utilise pour la synthese reactive de poudres ultrafines de silicium, engage tous les elements theoriques du modele. Il implique en effet la decomposition thermique d'un precurseur gazeux, le tetrachlorure de silicium, la

  6. Utilisation des cahiers d'activites dans l'enseignement des sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats des entretiens ont mis en exergue des sujets comme l'utilisation abusive des CA par certains enseignants, l'imposition des CA aux apprenants et leur coût, la qualité des contenus des CA et le maintien ou la suppression de la production des CA. D'autre part, le rendement scolaire des apprenants a été ...

  7. Perception of Paralinguistic Traits in Synthesized Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia

    the paralinguistic traits of the synthesized voice. Using a corpus of 13 synthesized voices, constructed from acoustic concatenative speech synthesis, we assessed the response of 23 listeners from differing cultural backgrounds. Evaluating if the perception shifts from the known ground–truths, we asked listeners......Along with the rise of artificial intelligence and the internet-of-things, synthesized voices are now common in daily–life, providing us with guidance, assistance, and even companionship. From formant to concatenative synthesis, the synthesized voice continues to be defined by the same traits we...

  8. Efficacité des néonicotinoïdes et des pyréthrinoïdes utilisés contre le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité des néonicotinoïdes et des pyréthrinoïdes utilisés contre le foreur des tiges du cacaoyer ( Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder : Lepidoptera, Cossidae). Implications dans la stratégie de protection de la cacaoculture en Côte d'Ivoire.

  9. Dopage et protection des jeunes sportifs : Loin des affaires

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    National audience; Loin des affaires et des révélations polémiques de la presse, les jeunes plébiscitent massivement les activités sportives. Sport compétition, sport participation, sport détente... Pourtant, quand la pratique devient intense, que les entraînements et les compétitions s'enchaînent à un rythme soutenu, l'ombre des conduites dopantes vient déchirer la quiétude des uns et des autres. Or, que savons-nous réellement de la pratique des jeunes sportifs ? Comment préparent-ils les co...

  10. The role of cytokines in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brincat, S D; Borg, M; Camilleri, G; Calleja-Agius, J

    2014-08-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a silent systemic progressive disease characterised by a decrease in bone mass per unit volume. This condition compromises the physical strength of the skeleton and increases the susceptibility to fractures on minor trauma. The imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption is known to be responsible for postmenopausal bone loss. Estrogen deficiency contributes to bone loss by increasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow and bone cells. Clinical and molecular evidence indicates that estrogen-regulated cytokines exert regulatory effects on bone turnover implicating their role as being the primary mediators of the accelerated bone loss at menopause. The current perspective on the role and interaction of cytokines such as IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, TNF, IFN-γ and TGF-β in bone loss linked with estrogen deficiency is reviewed. Current treatment options and emerging drug therapies in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis are also evaluated.

  11. Aspects des Onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... biologiques et évolutifs des onychomycoses chez des patients camerounais. Méthode : Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective et descriptive menée de mars 2011 à mars 2014 dans l'unité de dermatologie de l'hôpital général de Douala (HGD), incluant des patients chez lesquels le diagnostic d'onychomycose avait été posé.

  12. Des dispositions responsables à prendre pour la protection des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En considérant l'effet néfaste des maladies, des parasites, du changement climatique et d'autres facteurs environnementaux (les OGM par exemple) sur la survie des abeilles, la baisse de leurs populations dans certaines parties du monde ne saurait être attribuée aux seules pesticides. En plus, l'impact de ces derniers sur ...

  13. Collection d'entretiens avec des chercheurs participant à des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-07-07

    Jul 7, 2014 ... Entretien avec…propose des entrevues vidéos avec des chercheurs participant à des projets portant sur l'adaptation aux changements climatiques réalisés en Afrique, en Asie ainsi qu'en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes que le CRDI subventionne par le truchement de son programme Changements ...

  14. Etat des controverses des approches cognitive et ecologique en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette revue de question vise à présenter dans le champ de l'apprentissage moteur, le sens des postulats des approches cognitive et écologique de même que les critiques formulées à leur encontre. Des documents scientifiques et articles de revues indexées et publiés dans la banque de données MEDLINE, ont été ...

  15. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    raises TNF-α and IL-6 to moderate levels, has only identified IL-6 as a potent cytokine, decreasing systemic amino acid levels and muscle protein metabolism. The marked decrease in circulatory and muscle amino acid concentrations was observed with a concomitant reduction in both the rates of muscle...... of IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However...

  16. Cytokines and Organ Failure in Acute Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Marie Louise; Hansen, Mark Berner; Andersen, Anders Møller

    2012-01-01

    renal, respiratory, and circulatory failure, as was the case for patients with multiorgan failure. Interleukin 18 levels were significantly elevated in renal and respiratory failure only. Tumor necrosis factor > was significantly elevated in all types of organ failures, except for intestinal failure....... Conclusions: Synchronous measurements of 4 cytokines demonstrated IL-6 and IL-8 to be predictive as early surrogate markers with regard to organ failures in AP. The fact that all of the cytokines were particularly elevated in patients with organ failures calls for evaluation of agents modifying the severe...

  17. Proinflammatory Cytokines as Regulators of Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremleva, E A; Sgibnev, A V

    2016-11-01

    It was shown that IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-6 in concentrations similar to those in the vagina of healthy women stimulated the growth of normal microflora (Lactobacillus spp.) and suppressed the growth and biofilm production by S. aureus and E. coli. On the contrary, these cytokines in higher concentrations typical of vaginal dysbiosis suppressed normal microflora and stimulated the growth of opportunistic microorganisms. TGF-β1 in both doses produced a stimulating effects on study vaginal microsymbionts. It is hypothesized that pro-inflammatory cytokines serve as the molecules of interspecies communication coordinating the interactions of all components of the vaginal symbiotic system.

  18. Fourrages ligneux des savanes du Tchad : Etat actuel des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une meilleure méthode d'aménagement et de gestion des ligneux fourragers en vue de leur utilisation optimale a été proposée. Mots clés ...... Toutefois, la présence massive des rejets de souches observée au niveau des classes supérieures à [0-0,5 m[ est une forme d'adaptation et une stratégie de survie des espèces ...

  19. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Unité de Recherche des Matériaux et des Energies Renouvelables (U.R.M.E.R). Université Abou –Baker Belkaid B.p : 119 Tlemcen 13000 Algerie. 2. Unité de Développement de la Technologie Du Silicium. UDTS, BP 399, Alger, Algérie. Accepté le : 08/06/2011. صخلم. داوﻣﻟا نﻣ ﻲﺗﻟا ﺔﺻﺎﺧو ،ﺔﻋﺎﻧﺻ يأ رﯾوطﺗ ﻲﻓ ﺎﯾﺳﯾﺋر ﻼﻣﺎﻋ ةرﯾﺧﻷا تاوﻧﺳﻟا ...

  20. Table des tableaux

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    1. District de l’Inquisition de Tolède. Distances depuis le siège 19 2. District de l’Inquisition de Tolède. Répartition de la population par régions géographiques en 1591 24 3. District de l’Inquisition de Tolède. Évolution de la population au XVIe siècle par régions géographiques 25 4. Inquisition de Tolède. Origine des étrangers vieux-chrétiens jugés par le tribunal 27 5. Inquisition de Tolède. Répartition des clercs selon le type d’agglomération 55 6. District de l’Inquisition de Tolède, ...

  1. Liste des figures

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Claudine Fabre-Vassas, Identification d'un rite 1. Ordonnance de 1779 interdisant «la méthode de guérir les hernies par la castration» 66 Christian Bromberger, Pour une ethnologie du spectacle sportif 1. La popularité relative de deux vedettes de l'Olympique de Marseille 228 2. Répartition des spectateurs marseillais dans le stade d'après leur origine résidentielle 232

  2. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    7 sept. 2011 ... D‟autre part une approche statistique sera menée à partir de l‟analyse en composantes principales (ACP) afin de déterminer les processus géochimiques responsables de l‟évolution de la salinité des sols. 2. Matériel et méthodes. 2.1 Cadre physique. Le lac Fetzara est situé à 18 km au Sud-. Ouest de ...

  3. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Notre objectif est d‟élaborer des couches minces en Fe-Si par copulvérisation cathodique magnétron à différent pourcentage de silicium dans une atmosphère inerte d‟Argon et de les caractériser du point de vue physique. (composition chimique, microstructure…). Ces couches peuvent servir comme capteur magnétique.

  4. Des Ogle's old stump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.; Sutton, D.; Wallace, R.

    1998-01-01

    On 17 October 1997 Sylvia Bryan of RD4 Kaitaia wrote to 'Dear Somebody-Everybody' at the Anthropology Department, University of Auckland, urging further examination of an adzed stump found by Des Ogle during planting out of the Te Aupouri forest. The authors have since sought out relevant information and present it here for the interests of our readers. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig

  5. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun

    2013-04-30

    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  6. Perception of Paralinguistic Traits in Synthesized Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Alice Emily; Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Parada-Cabaleiro, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Along with the rise of artificial intelligence and the internet-of-things, synthesized voices are now common in daily–life, providing us with guidance, assistance, and even companionship. From formant to concatenative synthesis, the synthesized voice continues to be defined by the same traits we...

  7. Dictionnaire des risques psychosociaux

    CERN Document Server

    Zawieja, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Stress, suicide, harcèlement, épuisement professionnel, workaholism... Au-delà de la souffrance qu'elles désignent, ces notions souvent récentes constituent une approche inédite, et demandent à mieux être comprises, dans leur ensemble et isolément. C'est tout l'enjeu de ce dictionnaire, pionnier en son genre. Le lecteur y trouvera représentés, avec les 314 entrées (rédigées par 251 contributeurs) qui le composent, tous les champs disciplinaires s'intéressant à la souffrance au travail : psychologie du travail et des organisations, psychologie sociale et psychosociologie, psychanalyse, psychopathologie et psychiatrie, ergonomie, sociologie du travail et des organisations, médecine du travail, droit du travail et de la sécurité sociale, sciences de gestion, philosophie... Y sont détaillés les principaux concepts, notions, approches, méthodes, théories, outils, études, etc., ayant cours dans l'étude des risques psychosociaux, mais aussi certaines professions emblématiques (infirmières,...

  8. Administrateur de programme, Application des connaissances ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supervision. Supervision directe : Consultants et personnel temporaire, au besoin. Supervision indirecte : Consultants chargés de préparer des sommaires des résultats de recherche et des communications internes, et personnel temporaire au besoin.

  9. Study of cerenkov radiation. Production of {gamma} rays by electron accelerators; Etude du rayonnement de freinage. Production de rayons {gamma} par des accelerateurs d'electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This study is a critical comparison of the theories of Bremsstrahlung. Experimental results obtained by the production of {gamma} radiation with electron accelerators are compared to the theoretical results in order to estimate the extent to which the various theories are valid. (author) [French] Cette etude est une synthese des theories du rayonnement de freinage. Des resultats experimentaux, obtenus par la production de rayonnements {gamma} avec des accelerateurs d'electrons, sont compares aux resultats theoriques afin d'evaluer les domaines de validite des diverses theories. (auteur)

  10. Projektmanagement in Zeiten des Wandels

    OpenAIRE

    Papesch, Gerti

    2003-01-01

    Projektmanagement in Zeiten des Wandels : 2. Fachtagung Projektmanagement, 1. Oktober 2003 / ZWW, Zentrum für Weiterbildung und Wissenstransfer. Gerhard Wilhems ... - Augsburg : ZWW, 2003. - VI, 190 S.

  11. Cytokines in atherosclerosis: an intricate balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, M.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology in the majority of clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases, which are nowadays the main global cause of mortality. Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. This inflammatory response, with cytokines as

  12. Cytokine gene expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... Key words: Lipopolysaccharide, lymphocytes, TLRs, cytokines. INTRODUCTION. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a predominant glycolipid in the outer membranes of Gam-negative bacteria, stimulates monocyte, macrophages, and neutrophils and increase expression of cell adhesion molecules (Trent et al., ...

  13. Study of cytokines microenvironment during autoimmune diseases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    22, IL-23, TNF-α and TGF-β) were determined. We used the immunoenzymatic technology to assess the titer of cytokines. We found that there was no significant variation of TNF-α level in normal controls and autoimmune diseases ...

  14. Current status and challenges of cytokine pharmacology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zídek, Zdeněk; Anzenbacher, P.; Kmoníčková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 3 (2009), s. 342-361 ISSN 0007-1188 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/08/0535; GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cytokines * immunotherapy * immunopharmacology Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 5.204, year: 2009

  15. Immunodeficiency secondary to anti-cytokine autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Sarah K.; Holland, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Anti-cytokine autoantibodies are an important and emerging mechanism of disease pathogenesis. We will review the clinical and laboratory features of syndromes in which immunodeficiency is caused by or associated with neutralizing anti-cytokine autoantibodies. Recent findings A growing number of patients have been described who demonstrate unique infectious phenotypes associated with neutralizing autoantibodies that target a particular cytokine known to participate in host defense against the offending organism. Examples include anti-granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibodies and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; anti-interferon(IFN)-γ autoantibodies and disseminated nontuberculous mycobacteria(NTM); anti-(interleukin)IL-6 autoantibodies and severe staphylococcal skin infection; anti-IL-17A, antiIL-17F or anti-IL-22 autoantibodies in patients with mucocutaneous candidiasis in the setting of both the autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis, ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome and in cases of thymoma. Summary Anti-cytokine autoantibodies have manifestations that are diverse, ranging from asymptomatic to life-threatening. These emerging and fascinating causes of acquired immunodeficiency may explain some previously idiopathic syndromes. PMID:20966748

  16. Omics and cytokine discovery in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson, Gregory; Muncaster, Simon; Mensink, Koen; Forlenza, Maria; Elliot, Nick; Broomfield, Grant; Signal, Beth; Bird, Steve

    2017-01-01

    A continued programme of research is essential to overcome production bottlenecks in any aquacultured fish species. Since the introduction of genetic and molecular techniques, the quality of immune research undertaken in fish has greatly improved. Thousands of species specific cytokine genes have

  17. Proinflammatory cytokine responses in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Katoulis, Alexandros; Georgitsi, Marianna; Giatrakou, Sofia; Papadavid, Evangelia; Netea, Mihai G; Stavrianeas, Nikolaos; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most common, immune-mediated, chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines play an important pathogenetic role at a local level. To assess whether the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α are released systemically during psoriasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 30 patients with psoriasis and 30 healthy volunteers. Cytokine production was assessed in supernatants using an enzyme immunoassay after stimulation of PBMCs with microbial stimuli. In addition, flow cytometry was used to determine the subsets of monocytes involved and the intracellular TNF-α production in monocytes. IL-17 levels were significantly higher in the supernatants of PBMCs from psoriatic patients after stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. TNF-α production was also significantly higher in cells from psoriatic patients after stimulation with all stimuli, as compared with health volunteers. Similar changes were not found for the other cytokines. A statistically significant difference was observed between patients and controls for inflammatory CD14(+)/CD16(+) monocytes (ppsoriasis. These results support the concept that there is a systemic, proinflammatory component in psoriasis.

  18. Cytokines and Immune Responses in Murine Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, Pascal J. H.; Lutgens, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the vessel wall characterized by activation of the innate immune system, with macrophages as the main players, as well as the adaptive immune system, characterized by a Th1-dominant immune response. Cytokines play a major role in the initiation and

  19. Cytokines as biomarkers of nanoparticle immunotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L

    2013-06-21

    Nanoscale objects, whether of biologic origin or synthetically created, are being developed into devices for a variety of bionanotechnology diagnostic and pharmaceutical applications. However, the potential immunotoxicity of these nanomaterials and mechanisms by which they may induce adverse reactions have not received sufficient attention. Nanomaterials, depending on their characteristics and compositions, can interact with the immune system in several ways and either enhance or suppress immune system function. Cytokines perform pleiotropic functions to mediate and regulate the immune response and are generally recognized as biomarkers of immunotoxicity. While the specificity and validity of certain cytokines as markers of adverse immune response has been established for chemicals, small and macromolecular drugs, research on their applicability for predicting and monitoring the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials is still ongoing. The goal of this review is to provide guidelines as to important cytokines that can be utilized for evaluating the immunotoxicity of nanomaterials and to highlight the role of those cytokines in mediating adverse reactions, which is of particular importance for the clinical development of nanopharmaceuticals and other nanotechnology-based products. Importantly, the rational design of nanomaterials of low immunotoxicity will be discussed, focusing on synthetic nanodevices, with emphasis on both the nanoparticle-forming materials and the embedded cargoes.

  20. Cytokines and immune surveillance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. Among the parameters shown, by us and others, to be affected is the production of interferons. Interferons are a family of cytokines that are antiviral and play a major role in regulating immune responses that control resistance to infection. Alterations in interferon and other cytokine production and activity could result in changes in immunity and a possible compromise of host defenses against both opportunistic and external infections. The purpose of the present study is to explore further the effects of space flight on cyotokines and cytokine-directed immunological function. Among the tests carried out are interferon-alpha production, interferon-gamma production, interleukin-1 and -2 production, signal transduction in neutrophils, signal transduction in monocytes, and monocyte phagocytic activity. The experiments will be performed using peripheral blood obtained from human subjects. It is our intent to eventually carry out these experiments using astronauts as subjects to determine the effects of space flight on cytokine production and activity. However, these subjects are not currently available. Until they become available, we will carry out these experiments using subjects maintained in the bed-rest model for microgravity.

  1. Cytokines as biomarkers of nanoparticle immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale objects, whether of biologic origin or synthetically created, are being developed into devices for a variety of bionanotechnology diagnostic and pharmaceutical applications. However, the potential immunotoxicity of these nanomaterials and mechanisms by which they may induce adverse reactions have not received sufficient attention. Nanomaterials, depending on their characteristics and compositions, can interact with the immune system in several ways and either enhance or suppress immune system function. Cytokines perform pleiotropic functions to mediate and regulate the immune response and are generally recognized as biomarkers of immunotoxicity. While the specificity and validity of certain cytokines as markers of adverse immune response has been established for chemicals, small and macromolecular drugs, research on their applicability for predicting and monitoring the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials is still ongoing. The goal of this review is to provide guidelines as to important cytokines that can be utilized for evaluating the immunotoxicity of nanomaterials and to highlight the role of those cytokines in mediating adverse reactions, which is of particular importance for the clinical development of nanopharmaceuticals and other nanotechnology-based products. Importantly, the rational design of nanomaterials of low immunotoxicity will be discussed, focusing on synthetic nanodevices, with emphasis on both the nanoparticle-forming materials and the embedded cargoes. PMID:23549679

  2. Cytokines in Sjögren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roescher, N.; Tak, P. P.; Illei, G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Cytokines play a central role in the regulation of immunity and are often found to be deregulated in autoimmune diseases. Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and loss of secretory function of the salivary and lachrymal glands. This review highlights the

  3. Neuropathic pain and cytokines: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark AK

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anna K Clark, Elizabeth A Old, Marzia Malcangio Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, King's College London, London, UK Abstract: Neuropathic pain represents a major problem in clinical medicine because it causes debilitating suffering and is largely resistant to currently available analgesics. A characteristic of neuropathic pain is abnormal response to somatic sensory stimulation. Thus, patients suffering peripheral neuropathies may experience pain caused by stimuli which are normally nonpainful, such as simple touching of the skin or by changes in temperature, as well as exaggerated responses to noxious stimuli. Convincing evidence suggests that this hypersensitivity is the result of pain remaining centralized. In particular, at the first pain synapse in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, the gain of neurons is increased and neurons begin to be activated by innocuous inputs. In recent years, it has become appreciated that a remote damage in the peripheral nervous system results in neuronal plasticity and changes in microglial and astrocyte activity, as well as infiltration of macrophages and T cells, which all contribute to central sensitization. Specifically, the release of pronociceptive factors such as cytokines and chemokines from neurons and non-neuronal cells can sensitize neurons of the first pain synapse. In this article we review the current evidence for the role of cytokines in mediating spinal neuron–non-neuronal cell communication in neuropathic pain mechanisms following peripheral nerve injury. Specific and selective control of cytokine-mediated neuronal–glia interactions results in attenuation of the hypersensitivity to both noxious and innocuous stimuli observed in neuropathic pain models, and may represent an avenue for future therapeutic intervention. Keywords: anti-inflammatory cytokines, proinflammatory cytokines, microglia, astrocytes, first pain synapse

  4. Inflammatory cytokines as biomarkers in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Thor; Gullestad, Lars; Nymo, Ståle H; Yndestad, Arne; Aukrust, Pål; Askevold, Erik T

    2015-03-30

    Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). In addition to their direct involvement as mediators in the pathogenesis of HF, inflammatory cytokines and related mediators could also be suitable markers for risk stratification and prognostication in HF patients. Many reports have suggested that inflammatory cytokines may predict adverse outcome in these patients. However, most studies have been limited in sample size and lacking full adjustment with the most recent and strongest biochemical predictor such as NT-proBNP and high sensitivity troponins. Furthermore, a number of pre-analytical and analytical aspects of cytokine measurements may limit their use as biomarkers. This review focuses on technical, informative and practical considerations concerning the clinical use of inflammatory cytokines as prognostic biomarkers in HF. We focus on the predictive value of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, the TNF family receptors sTNFR1 and osteoprotegerin, interleukin (IL)-6 and its receptor gp130, the chemokines MCP-1, IL-8, CXCL16 and CCL21 and the pentraxin PTX-3 in larger prospective fully adjusted studies. No single inflammatory cytokine provides sufficient discrimination to justify the transition to everyday clinical use as a prognosticator in HF. However, while subjecting potential new HF markers to rigorous comparisons with "gold-standard" markers, such as NT-proBNP, using receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) and HF risk models, makes sense from a clinical standpoint, it may pose a threat to a broadening of mechanistic insight if the new markers are dismissed solely on account of lower statistical power. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Meconnaissance des traumatismes des voies urinaires dans un ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meconnaissance des traumatismes des voies urinaires dans un contexte de poly traumatisme: a propos de deux observations. ... They insist on good clinical assessment of abdominal trauma doubled the achievement of imaging tests to not overlook lesions of the urinary tract that can put patient's life threatening. Keywords: ...

  6. Composition chimique et effet Acaricide des huiles essentielles des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La composition chimique et l\\'effet acaricide des huiles essentielles des feuilles de Chenopodium ambrosioides et Eucalyptus saligna vis-à-vis de Rhipicephalus lunulatus ont été évalués au Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquée et Environnementale de l\\'Université de Dschang dans l\\'Ouest du Cameroun. Cinq doses de ...

  7. Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac du sud de la province de Nyanza, au Kenya - phase II. Au cours de la première phase du projet (projet no 103765), les chercheurs ont effectué une analyse de marché pour le bambou et les produits du bambou, comparé les ...

  8. Diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'économie du Malawi repose essentiellement sur la culture du tabac, qui représente plus de 70 % des revenus d'exportation. Pour 60 % des 100 000 membres de la National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), le tabac est la seule et unique source de revenus. Les cultivateurs de tabac, au Malawi ...

  9. Etude des interactions entre les differents acteurs des interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Etude des interactions entre les differents acteurs des interventions sous directives communautaires et changements obtenus au Benin et au Togo. P.V. Malou Adom, Ch. P. Makoutode, T Gnaro, A.R. Ouro-Koura, E.M. Ouendo, G Napo-Koura, M Makoutode ...

  10. Effets des biomasses vertes de Tithonia diversifolia et des engrais ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Innovation (MINRESI) pour avoir financé l'intégralité des activités relatives à cette étude. RESUME. L'amélioration de la productivité des sols ferralitiques en zone forestière peut être possible grâce aux intrants locaux en complément à la fertilisation ...

  11. Gestion des ressources naturelles : des solutions avantageuses à ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    environnement et l'accès aux ressources naturelles est un enjeu crucial. Ces 40 dernières années, des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI ont trouvé des moyens novateurs de réduire la pauvreté tout en protégeant les ressources naturelles dont ...

  12. La recherche en action : des solutions locales, des effets durables ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2010 ... Le Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) appuie la production et l'application de connaissances qui améliorent de façon notable la situation des habitants des pays en développement.

  13. Roles et taches des accompagnateurs des patients hospitalises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roles et taches des accompagnateurs des patients hospitalises dans le service de pneumo-phtysiologie au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouedraogo de ... Logistical support represented by material support, drug supply, cleaning of premises, and littering occupied respectively 100%, 91%, 42% and 73%.

  14. La diffraction des neutrons et des rayons X pour l'étude structurale des liquides et des verres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H. E.; Salmon, P. S.; Barnes, A. C.

    2003-02-01

    La compréhension de mainte propriété physique d'un verre ou d'un liquide nécessite la connaissance des facteurs de structure partiels (PSFs) qui décrivent chacun la distribution d'une espèce atomique autour d'une autre. La technique de diffraction des neutrons avec substitution isotopique (NDIS) [1,2,3], ayant bien réussi a déterminer les PSFs de certains composés [4,5], est pourtant restreinte aux isotopes présentant un contraste suffisant en longueur de diffusion. D'un autre cote, la technique de diffusion anomale des rayons X (AXS ou AXD) [6] permet de faire varier la longueur de diffusion d'une espèce atomique pourvu que son énergie d'absorption soit à la fois accessible et suffisamment élevée pour donner un assez grand transfert du moment. La combinaison des techniques de diffraction des neutrons (avec ou sans substitution isotopique) et de diffraction des rayons X (avec ou sans diffusion anomale) peut donc permettre d'obtenir un meilleur contraste en longueurs de diffusion pour un système donné, mais exige une analyse de données plus soignée pour pouvoir bien tenir compte des erreurs systématiques qui sont différentes pour les 2 techniques [7]. Pour les atomes ayant des distributions électroniques quasi-sphériques, e.g. dans le cas d'un alliage liquide, la combinaison des techniques de NDIS et de diffraction des rayons X s'est déjà montrée très avantageuse pour la détermination des PSFs [8,9]. Dans le cas des verres ayant d'importantes liaisons covalentes, l'effective combinaison des 2 techniques peut être moins directe mais facilitée lorsqu'il s'agit des atomes de grand Z [10,11]. Nous présentons ici un sommaire du méthode et quelques exemples des résultats.

  15. Can a functional assay on cytokine kinetics be used for the identification of a disease-related role for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in Ankolysing spondylitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Kjærsgaard, Pernille; Jørgensen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 1α (IL-1α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family. It is produced mainly by macrophages at sites of infection and regarded as an essential regulator of acute inflammation. IL-1α is synthesized as a 33 kDa precursor peptide that is cleaved by a calpain-like prote...

  16. Inflammasome-independent regulation of IL-1-family cytokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Dinarello, C.A.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Induction, production, and release of proinflammatory cytokines are essential steps to establish an effective host defense. Cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family induce inflammation and regulate T lymphocyte responses while also displaying homeostatic and metabolic activities. With the

  17. La cogestion des Ressources naturelles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Comprend des réf. bibliogr. ISBN 1-55250-329-1. 1. Cogestion des ressources naturelles—Pays en voie de développement—Cas, Études de. 2. Conservation ...... De fait, les villageois en imputaient la faute aux fonctionnaires nationaux et locaux qui n'avaient pas su mettre efficacement en oeuvre les politiques forestières.

  18. Cytokine Correlations in Youth with Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Athill, E. Carla; Ehrhart, Jared; Tan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Studies have noted immunological disruptions in patients with tic disorders, including increased serum cytokine levels. This study aimed to determine whether or not cytokine levels could be correlated with tic symptom severity in patients with a diagnosed tic disorder. Methods: Twenty-one patients, ages 4–17 years (average 10.63±2.34 years, 13 males), with a clinical diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD), were selected based on having clinic visits that coincided with a tic symptom exacerbation and a remission. Ratings of tic severity were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) and serum cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology. Results: During tic symptom exacerbation, patients had higher median serum TNF-α levels (z=−1.962, p=0.05), particularly those on antipsychotics (U=9.00, p=0.033). Increased IL-13 was also associated with antipsychotic use during exacerbation (U=4.00, p=0.043) despite being negatively correlated to tic severity scores (ρ=−0.599, p=018), whereas increased IL-5 was associated with antibiotic use (U=6.5, p=0.035). During tic symptom remission, increased serum IL-4 levels were associated with antipsychotic (U=6.00, p=0.047) and antibiotic (U=1.00, p=0.016) use, whereas increased IL-12p70 (U=4.00, p=0.037) was associated with antibiotic use. Conclusions: These findings suggest a role for cytokine dysregulation in the pathogenesis of tic disorders. It also points toward the mechanistic involvement and potential diagnostic utility of cytokine monitoring, particularly TNF-α levels. Larger, systematic studies are necessary to further delineate the role of cytokines and medication influences on immunological profiling in tic disorders. PMID:25658821

  19. Cytokine correlations in youth with tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker-Athill, E Carla; Ehrhart, Jared; Tan, Jun; Murphy, Tanya K

    2015-02-01

    Studies have noted immunological disruptions in patients with tic disorders, including increased serum cytokine levels. This study aimed to determine whether or not cytokine levels could be correlated with tic symptom severity in patients with a diagnosed tic disorder. Twenty-one patients, ages 4-17 years (average 10.63±2.34 years, 13 males), with a clinical diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD), were selected based on having clinic visits that coincided with a tic symptom exacerbation and a remission. Ratings of tic severity were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) and serum cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) were measured using Luminex xMAP technology. During tic symptom exacerbation, patients had higher median serum TNF-α levels (z=-1.962, p=0.05), particularly those on antipsychotics (U=9.00, p=0.033). Increased IL-13 was also associated with antipsychotic use during exacerbation (U=4.00, p=0.043) despite being negatively correlated to tic severity scores (ρ=-0.599, p=018), whereas increased IL-5 was associated with antibiotic use (U=6.5, p=0.035). During tic symptom remission, increased serum IL-4 levels were associated with antipsychotic (U=6.00, p=0.047) and antibiotic (U=1.00, p=0.016) use, whereas increased IL-12p70 (U=4.00, p=0.037) was associated with antibiotic use. These findings suggest a role for cytokine dysregulation in the pathogenesis of tic disorders. It also points toward the mechanistic involvement and potential diagnostic utility of cytokine monitoring, particularly TNF-α levels. Larger, systematic studies are necessary to further delineate the role of cytokines and medication influences on immunological profiling in tic disorders.

  20. Prospects for cytokine and chemokine biotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, J J; Murphy, W J; Chertox, O; Schirrmacher, V; Wang, J M

    1997-12-01

    Cytokines with immunostimulating effects have the capacity to induce tumor immunity in animal models, whereas some cytokines interfere with tumor growth based on their angiostatic effects. Despite these capabilities, cytokines, such as IFN-, IFN-, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-2, have had limited clinical efficacy and many undesirable side effects. In preclinical models, cytokines can even promote tumor growth and increase metastatic spread. Although chemokines have had limited clinical evaluation, studies of animal models show that they can also have tumor-suppressive or tumor-enhancing effects. In mice, chemokines, such as IP-10, RANTES, and TCA3, have resulted in tumor regression and immunity to subsequent tumor challenge. Those chemokines that are angiostatic (e.g., PF4, IP-10, and MIG) can also induce tumor regression by reducing the tumor blood supply. Conversely, IL-8, which is angiogenic, can promote tumor growth. Our studies show that nasopharyngeal cell line cells (FADU) show a chemotactic as well as a proliferative response to MCP-1. In addition, a variant murine T cell lymphoma cell line Esb-MP, unlike the parental variant Esb, was selectively chemoattracted by murine MCP-1/JE. When injected s.c. into mice, the Esb-MP variant metastasized to the kidney with much higher frequency than the Esb variant. Both cultured kidneys from normal mice and a mesangial cell line constitutively produced chemoattractants that acted on Esb-MP but not Esb parental cells. Purification to homogeneity of these chemoattractants led to the identification of RANTES and JE. These results demonstrate that some chemokines may promote tumor growth and organ-specific metastatic spread of those tumors that have adapted and become responsive to chemokines. Finally, tumors appear to use numerous adaptive mechanisms to subvert and suppress the immune system. More effective therapy with cytokines and chemokines will require better characterization of the means by

  1. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    diabète et le tabagisme sont des facteurs de risque reconnus [2-4]. Les données épidémiologiques recueillies au cours de ces trente dernières années laissent ... réduction d‟expression du gène LOX-1 et de la libération de TNFα stimulée par les. LDL-oxydées [22]. Chez l‟homme, in vivo, Voutilainen et al. [23] ont mis en ...

  2. COMPLICATIONS CHIRURGICALES DES AVORTEMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 janv. 2004 ... liquide purulent, sérosanguinolent, ou fécaloïde. Les lésions retrouvées étaient classées en lésions utérines et annexielles (Tableau I), lésions ... femmes par an dans le Monde d'après l'Organisation. Mondiale de la Santé [15]. Leur fréquence élevée dans notre série impose une prise systématique des ...

  3. Direction des Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthese

    Revue Synthèse N° 22, Décembre 2010. N. Benrachou et al. 19. Tableau 3. Composition en triglycérides des trois huiles d'olive). Blanquette. Limli. Bouricha. Variétés. Triglycérides. N° pic. NCE. 3,24 ± 0,01. 2,86± 0,02. 1,06 ± 0,03. LLL. 1. 42. 2,97 ± 0,01. 2,15 ± 0,07. 1,71 ± 0,06. OLLn +PoLL. 2. 0,21 ± 0,01. 0,66 ± 0,02.

  4. Liste des auteurs

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Garry Apgar The Voltair Society of America, New York Jean Balcou Université de Bretagne occidentale, Brest Annie Becq Université de Caen Paul Benhamou. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Reed Benhamou Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana Jacqueline Biard-Millerioux Université de Poitiers Françoise Bléchet Bibliothèque nationale de France, département des manuscrits, Paris Nicolas Brucker Université de Metz Else-Marie Bukdahl The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Art, Copenhague Christo...

  5. Gestion des ressources naturelles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mais la situation évolue grâce aux travaux du Réseau international sur le bam- bou et le rotin (INBAR), créé par le CRDI dans les années 1990. À Allahabad, en Inde, la culture du bam- bou a permis de rétablir la fertilité des sols dégradés par l'extraction de l'argile nécessaire à la fabrication de briques, et les agriculteurs.

  6. Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and luminescence behaviour of terephthalate bridged heptacoordinated dinuclear lead(II) complexes containing a pentadentate N-donor Schiff base. SUBHASIS ROYa, SOMNATH CHOUBEYa, SUMITAVA KHANa, KISHALAY BHARa,. PARTHA MITRAb and BARINDRA ...

  7. Synthese en chemotherapeutisch onderzoek van sulfanilamidopyrimidinen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grevenstuk, Anton Bernard

    1942-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of substitution in the pyrimidine nucleous on the activity of the three isomeric sulfanilamidopyrimidines (2, 5 and 6), a number of substituted sulfanilamidopyrimidines were synthesized and tested on chemotherapeutic activity. ... Zie: Summary

  8. Characterization and potential clinical applications of autoantibodies against cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lemos Rieper, Carina; Galle, Pia; Hansen, Morten Bagge

    2009-01-01

    Autoantibodies recognizing cytokines arise in certain patients during the course of therapy with recombinant cytokines, although they may arise spontaneously as well. They are typically high avidity and in vitro neutralizing IgG antibodies present in picomolar to nanomolar concentrations. Methodo....... There are many ways in which the autoantibodies could be naturally induced, and they have been experimentally induced with ease. Therefore, a new therapeutic concept of inducing cytokine autoantibodies via anti-cytokine vaccination is currently rapidly emerging....

  9. CAMAC programmable-control frequency synthesizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumaguzin, T.Kh.; Vyazovkin, D.E.; Nazirov, Eh.P.; Tuktarov, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Synthesizer allows to set frequency with 0.015% accuracy and to scan it with variable step. Frequency controlled divider with further summing-up of divided frequency with fundamental one is used in synthesizer, and it has allowed to use digit of the input code and to obtain 3-4 MHz frequency range. Variation of operation flowsheet in the other frequency range is possible. K-155 and K-531 series microcircuits were used during development

  10. Raman assisted lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level.......We present a Lightwave Synthesized Frequency Sweeper comprising a Raman amplifier for loss compensation. The generated pulse train contains 123 pulses and has a flat signal level as well as a low noise level....

  11. Utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excréta et des eaux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les responsables de ce projet piloteront l'application et l'adaptation des principes directeurs relatifs à l'utilisation sans risque des eaux usées, des excreta et des eaux grises en agriculture et en aquaculture (Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater in Agriculture and Aquaculture), que ...

  12. Psychoacoustic Analysis of Synthesized Jet Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okcu, Selen; Rathsam, Jonathan; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    An aircraft noise synthesis capability is being developed so the annoyance caused by proposed aircraft can be assessed during the design stage. To make synthesized signals as realistic as possible, high fidelity simulation is required for source (e.g., engine noise, airframe noise), propagation and receiver effects. This psychoacoustic study tests whether the jet noise component of synthesized aircraft engine noise can be made more realistic using a low frequency oscillator (LFO) technique to simulate fluctuations in level observed in recordings. Jet noise predictions are commonly made in the frequency domain based on models of time-averaged empirical data. The synthesis process involves conversion of the frequency domain prediction into an audible pressure time history. However, because the predictions are time-invariant, the synthesized sound lacks fluctuations observed in recordings. Such fluctuations are hypothesized to be perceptually important. To introduce time-varying characteristics into jet noise synthesis, a method has been developed that modulates measured or predicted 1/3-octave band levels with a (<20Hz) LFO. The LFO characteristics are determined through analysis of laboratory jet noise recordings. For the aft emission angle, results indicate that signals synthesized using a generic LFO are perceived as more similar to recordings than those using no LFO, and signals synthesized with an angle-specific LFO are more similar to recordings than those synthesized with a generic LFO.

  13. Cytokine-producing T cell subsets in human leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania specific Th1/Th2 cells have been identified in humans as well as in mice. There is a correlation between the clinical outcome of the infection and the cytokine response profile. Generally, the production of Th2 cytokines leads to severe infection, whereas the production of Th1 cytokine...

  14. Cytokines as Immunological Markers for Follow up of Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cytokines play a major role in protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and regulate the immune responses at a cellular level. Cytokine profile determines clinical outcome of the disease and responses to treatment as well. A T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-U) is one of the most ...

  15. Cytokines and Other Mediators in Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatis Gregoriou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata, a disease of the hair follicles with multifactorial etiology and a strong component of autoimmune origin, has been extensively studied as far as the role of several cytokines is concerned. So far, IFN-, interleukins, TNF-, are cytokines that are well known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, while several studies have shown that many more pathways exist. Among them, MIG, IP-10, BAFF, HLA antigens, MIG, as well as stress hormones are implicated in disease onset and activity. Within the scope of this paper, the authors attempt to shed light upon the complexity of alopecia areata underlying mechanisms and indicate pathways that may suggest future treatments.

  16. Rosacea: the Cytokine and Chemokine Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Peter Arne; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Steinhoff, Martin; Homey, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Rosacea is one of the most common dermatoses of adults. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of rosacea. Current concepts suggest that known clinical trigger factors of rosacea such as UV radiation, heat, cold, stress, spicy food, and microbes modulate Toll-like receptor signaling, induce reactive oxygen species, as well as enhance antimicrobial peptide and neuropeptide production. Downstream of these events cytokines and chemokines orchestrate an inflammatory response that leads to the recruitment and activation of distinct leukocyte subsets and induces the characteristic histopathological features of rosacea. Here we summarize the current knowledge of the cytokine and chemokine network in rosacea and propose pathways that may be of therapeutic interest. PMID:22076326

  17. Original Research Rotavirus antigen, cytokine, and neutralising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cytokines examined were IL-1β, IL-2, IL-7, IL-12, IL-. 17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-8,. G-CSF, GM-CSF, MCP-1(MCAF), and MIP-1β. Rotavirus-. Table 1: Comparison of demographic and rotavirus antigenaemia data by HIV status among children with rotavirus diarrhoea in Blantyre, Malawi. Variables.

  18. Cytokine Expression in Homozygous Sickle Cell Anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnodim Johnkennedy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited disease in which the red blood cells become rigid and sticky, and change from being disc-shaped to being crescent-shaped. The change in shape is due to the presence of an abnormal form of haemoglobin. This results in severe pain and damage to some organs. Aim and Objective: The study was carried out to determine the levels of cytokine in sickle cell anemia. Material and Methods: Thirty confirmed sickle cell patients in steady state (HbSS-SS and thirty persons with normal haemoglobin (HbAA as well as sixteen sickle cell disease in crises (HbSS-cr between the ages of 15 to 30 years were selected in this study. Cytokines including interleukin 1 beta (IL- 1β, interleukin 2 (IL- 2, interleukin (IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and interferon gamma (IFN- λ were measured by commercially available ELISA kits. Results: The results obtained showed that the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in sickle cell anaemia patients in crisis were significantly elevated when compared with sickle cell in steady state (P<0.05. Similarly, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN- λ were significantly increased in sickle cell anaemia stable state when compared to HbAA subjects (P<0.05. Conclusion: This may probably implies that cytokine imbalance is implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell crisis. Also, cytokines could be used as an inflammatory marker as well as related marker in disease severity and hence therapeutic intervention.

  19. Chirurgie des grassmanniennes

    CERN Document Server

    Lafforgue, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Les compactifications diverses de variétés de modules sont un thème important et récurrent des mathématiques modernes, et elles connaissent un grand nombre d'applications. Ce livre traite le cas de cellules de Schubert minces, qui sont de sous-variétés naturelles de grassmanniennes. L'auteur a été amené à traiter ces questions par un cas particulier lié à ses travaux sur le programme de Langlands. Dans cette monographie, il en développe une théorie plus systématique, présentant le fortes similarités avec celle des modules du courbes stables. The various compactifications of moduli spaces are an important recurrent theme of modern mathematics, and they have a large number of applications. This book treats the case of thin Schubert varieties, which are natural subvarieties of Grassmannians. The author was led to these questions by a particular case linked to his work on the Langlands program. In this monograph, he develops the theory in a more systematic way, which exhibits strong similarities...

  20. Mécanique des sols et des roches

    CERN Document Server

    Vullier, Laurent; Zhao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    La mécanique des sols et la mécanique des roches sont des disciplines généralement traitées séparément dans la littérature. Pour la première fois, un traité réunit ces deux spécialités, en intégrant également les connaissances en lien avec les écoulements souterrains et les transferts thermiques. A la fois théorique et pratique, cet ouvrage propose tout d'abord une description détaillée de la nature et de la composition des sols et des roches, puis s'attache à la modélisation de problèmes aux conditions limites et présente les essais permettant de caractériser les sols et les roches, tant d'un point de vue mécanique qu'hydraulique et thermique. La problématique des sols non saturés et des écoulements multiphasiques est également abordée. Une attention particulière est portée aux lois de comportement mécanique et à la détermination de leurs paramètres par des essais in situ et en laboratoire, et l'ouvrage offre également une présentation détaillée des systèmes de classi...

  1. Cytokines in systemic lupus erythematosus: far beyond Th1/Th2 dualism lupus: cytokine profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Poliana Macedo; Scavuzzi, Bruna Miglioranza; Stadtlober, Nicole Perugini; Franchi Santos, Lorena Flor da Rosa; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Iriyoda, Tatiana Mayumi Veiga; Costa, Neide Tomimura; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Maes, Michael; Dichi, Isaias; Simão, Andréa Name Colado

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to delineate cytokine profiles of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), construct prediction models for diagnosis and disease activity using those profiles, and to examine the associations between TNFB Ncol polymorphism, body mass index (BMI) and vitamin D levels with cytokine levels. Two hundred SLE patients and 196 healthy controls participated in this case-control study. Plasma cytokines levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL- 4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-17 were measured and cytokines profiles were computed. IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in SLE, while IL-4 was lower in SLE. The Th1/Th2 and Th1+Th17/Th2 profiles were significantly higher in SLE than in healthy controls, whereas there were no significant differences in the proinflammatory cytokine profile (TNFα+IL-6+IL-1β). In total, 90.4% of all subjects were correctly classified using Th1+Th17 profile and IL-10 (positively associated) and IL-4 (negatively associated) as predictor variables (sensitivity=66.7% and specificity=96.9%). In all, 20.9% of the variance in the SLE Disease Activity Index was predicted by the Th1+Th17/Th2 ratio, IL-10 and BMI (all positively) and proinflammatory profile (inversely associated). B1/B1 genotype is accompanied by increased IL-17 and Th17/Th2 ratio, while B1/B2 genotype is accompanied by higher IL-4 and IFNγ values. 25-OH vitamin D was inversely associated with IFN-γ levels. SLE is accompanied by Th1, Th17 and Treg profile and lowered IL-4 production. Lowered vitamin D levels and B1/B1 genotype, but not BMI, contribute to changes in cytokines profiles. Future treatments should target Th1, Th2 and Th17 profiles rather than inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Perception des producteurs sur l'utilisation des déjections de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: L'étude vise à analyser la perception des producteurs sur la contribution des chenilles dans la gestion de la fertilité des sols et dans la production des ... Les producteurs enquêtés ont par ailleurs, identifié les facteurs anthropiques, climatiques et édaphiques comme les facteurs pouvant influencer la dynamique des ...

  3. The role of cytokines in skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M; Brincat, S; Camilleri, G; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Brincat, M; Calleja-Agius, J

    2013-10-01

    Cutaneous aging is one of the major noticeable menopausal complications that most women want to fight in their quest for an eternally youthful skin appearance. It may contribute to some maladies that occur in aging which, despite not being life-threatening, affect the well-being, psychological state and quality of life of aged women. Skin aging is mainly affected by three factors: chronological aging, decreased levels of estrogen after menopause, and environmental factors. Aged skin is characterized by a decrease in collagen content and skin thickness which result in dry, wrinkled skin that is easily bruised and takes a longer time to heal. Cytokines play a crucial role in the manifestation of these features of old skin. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits collagen synthesis and enhances collagen degradation by increasing the production of MMP-9. It also lowers the skin immunity and thus increases the risk of cutaneous infections in old age. Deranged levels of several interleukins and interferons also affect the aging process. The high level of CCN1 protein in aged skin gives dermal fibroblasts an 'age-associated secretory phenotype' that causes abnormal homeostasis of skin collagen and leads to the loss of the function and integrity of skin. Further research is required especially to establish the role of cytokines in the treatment of cutaneous aging.

  4. Cytokines as Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Burska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RA is a complex disease that develops as a series of events often referred to as disease continuum. RA would benefit from novel biomarker development for diagnosis where new biomarkers are still needed (even if progresses have been made with the inclusion of ACPA into the ACR/EULAR 2010 diagnostic criteria and for prognostic notably in at risk of evolution patients with autoantibody-positive arthralgia. Risk biomarkers for rapid evolution or cardiovascular complications are also highly desirable. Monitoring biomarkers would be useful in predicting relapse. Finally, predictive biomarkers for therapy outcome would allow tailoring therapy to the individual. Increasing numbers of cytokines have been involved in RA pathology. Many have the potential as biomarkers in RA especially as their clinical utility is already established in other diseases and could be easily transferable to rheumatology. We will review the current knowledge’s relation to cytokine used as biomarker in RA. However, given the complexity and heterogeneous nature of RA, it is unlikely that a single cytokine may provide sufficient discrimination; therefore multiple biomarker signatures may represent more realistic approach for the future of personalised medicine in RA.

  5. Cytokines as Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burska, Agata; Boissinot, Marjorie; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    RA is a complex disease that develops as a series of events often referred to as disease continuum. RA would benefit from novel biomarker development for diagnosis where new biomarkers are still needed (even if progresses have been made with the inclusion of ACPA into the ACR/EULAR 2010 diagnostic criteria) and for prognostic notably in at risk of evolution patients with autoantibody-positive arthralgia. Risk biomarkers for rapid evolution or cardiovascular complications are also highly desirable. Monitoring biomarkers would be useful in predicting relapse. Finally, predictive biomarkers for therapy outcome would allow tailoring therapy to the individual. Increasing numbers of cytokines have been involved in RA pathology. Many have the potential as biomarkers in RA especially as their clinical utility is already established in other diseases and could be easily transferable to rheumatology. We will review the current knowledge's relation to cytokine used as biomarker in RA. However, given the complexity and heterogeneous nature of RA, it is unlikely that a single cytokine may provide sufficient discrimination; therefore multiple biomarker signatures may represent more realistic approach for the future of personalised medicine in RA. PMID:24733962

  6. Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Jean-Francois

    Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la

  7. La Flore Des Adventices Des Cultures Cotonnieres De La Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A partir de relevés itinérants réalisés dans des cultures cotonnières de la région du Worodougou, en Côte d\\'Ivoire, précisement à Mankono, Dianra et Séguéla, 230 espèces d\\'adventices ont été recensées. Dans chacune des trois localités inventoriées, il apparaît que les familles des Poaceae, Fabaceae et Asteraceae ...

  8. Evaluation de la gestion des dechets issus des activites de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le moyen d'élimination des déchets utilisé est l'incinération. Tous les agents impliqués dans la vaccination ont une connaissance des risques de contamination liés aux déchets vaccinaux. La gestion des déchets reste un système global dont tous les aspects méritent d'être considérés. Chaque étape de l'élimination est ...

  9. The study of some thiazinic and indaminic dye syntheses induced by ionising radiation; Etude de quelques syntheses de colorants thianziniques et indaminiques amorcees par les rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestic, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-03-15

    With a view to finding some radiochemical reactions applicable on an industrial scale for evaluating the radioactive waste from nuclear reactors, a systematic study was made of the radiochemical synthesis of thiazinic dyes such as methylene blue and Lauths' violet, on which the first tests were carried out in 1954. The first part of the study concerned the identification and the dosage, during radiolysis, of dyes by means of their absorption spectra after separation from the reaction medium by adsorption chromatography or ion-exchange; other radiolysis products such as ammonium chloride and hydrogen peroxide were also identified. During a later stage by systematically varying the physico-chemical parameters it was possible to determine the most favourable conditions for radio-synthesis; the maximum radiochemical yields obtained had the following values: G (Lauths' violet) 1,65; G (Methylene blue) = 1,75. Furthermore, the study of the influence of variously substituted aminated products on the radiochemical yield showed the possibility of synthesising Bindsehedlers green and Wursters blue by radiochemical methods. Finally the discovery of a fundamental intermediate product, Wursters red, together with the kinetic study of the chemical synthesis of methylene blue made it possible to determine the main stages of the reaction mechanism and to decide which of these stages could be attributed to ionising radiations in the case of the radiochemical synthesis. (author) [French] Dans le but de trouver des reactions radiochimiques susceptibles d'une application industrielle pour valoriser les dechets radioactifs provenant des reacteurs nucleaires, il a ete entrepris une etude systematique de la synthese radiochimique des colorants thiazimiques tels que le Bleu de Methylene et le Violet de Lauth dont les premiers essais ont ete effectues par Loiseleur en 1954. La premiere partie de l'etude a porte sur l'identification et le dosage des colorants formes

  10. Cytokines, cytokine antagonists, and soluble adhesion molecules in pediatric OMS and other neuroinflammatory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D; McGee, Nathan R; Colliver, Jerry A

    2013-03-15

    To test for hypothesized disease- and treatment-induced changes in cytokines and adhesion molecules in children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS). Multiplex bead assay technology was used for simultaneous measurement of 34 soluble cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured by ELISA. In total, there were 388 children (239 OMS, 114 controls, and 35 other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND)). In untreated OMS, mean CSF IL-6 was elevated 2.3-fold, but 67-fold in OIND, without significant differences in other CSF cytokines. Mean serum concentrations of sIL-2Ra (+50%) and CXCL1 (+70%) (pOMS than controls (p=0.005), as was serum CCL11 and IL-13 in treated OMS. Mean CSF CCL4 and IL-1Ra were selectively higher in IVIg-treated OMS (p≤0.0001). CSF sICAM-1 was elevated only in OIND (3.3-fold); serum sICAM-1 was higher in untreated OMS (+21%); and sVCAM-1 was not affected. No correlations with OMS severity or duration were identified. Novel cytokine, cytokine antagonist, and soluble adhesion molecule abnormalities due to OMS or treatment were found. However, the normality of much of the data strengthens previous findings implicating B cell mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation des activites antihyperglycemiantes d'extraits aqueux de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    écorce de Casuarina equisetifolia révèle la présence des alcaloïdes, des tanins, des flavonoïdes, des leucoanthocyanes, des dérivés anthracéniques, des coumarines et des composés réducteurs, composés aux propriétés médicales multiples, ...

  12. Regulation of cytokines by small RNAs during skin inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkelsen Jacob G

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intercellular signaling by cytokines is a vital feature of the innate immune system. In skin, an inflammatory response is mediated by cytokines and an entwined network of cellular communication between T-cells and epidermal keratinocytes. Dysregulated cytokine production, orchestrated by activated T-cells homing to the skin, is believed to be the main cause of psoriasis, a common inflammatory skin disorder. Cytokines are heavily regulated at the transcriptional level, but emerging evidence suggests that regulatory mechanisms that operate after transcription play a key role in balancing the production of cytokines. Herein, we review the nature of cytokine signaling in psoriasis with particular emphasis on regulation by mRNA destabilizing elements and the potential targeting of cytokine-encoding mRNAs by miRNAs. The proposed linkage between mRNA decay mediated by AU-rich elements and miRNA association is described and discussed as a possible general feature of cytokine regulation in skin. Moreover, we describe the latest attempts to therapeutically target cytokines at the RNA level in psoriasis by exploiting the cellular RNA interference machinery. The applicability of cytokine-encoding mRNAs as future clinical drug targets is evaluated, and advances and obstacles related to topical administration of RNA-based drugs targeting the cytokine circuit in psoriasis are described.

  13. Engagements contractuels et performances des organisations de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amélioration des performances des organisations des producteurs (OP) à l'Ouest Cameroun. Il est basé sur des enquêtes par questionnaires auprès des délégués de 33 OP de maïs bénéficiaires de l'encadrement du Programme d'Amélioration de la ...

  14. The Role of Cytokine in the Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Iwata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus nephritis (LN is a major clinical manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Although numerous abnormalities of immune system have been proposed, cytokine overexpression plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of LN. In the initial phase of the disease, the immune deposits and/or autoantibodies induce cytokine production in renal resident cells, leading to further inflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration and activation. Then, infiltrate leukocytes, such as macrophages (Mφ and dendritic cells (DCs, secrete a variety of cytokines and activate naïve T cells, leading the cytokine profile towards T helper (Th1, Th2, and/or Th17. Recent studies revealed these inflammatory processes in experimental animal models as well as human LN. The cytokine targeted intervention may have the therapeutic potentials for LN. This paper focuses on the expression of cytokine and its functional role in the pathogenesis of LN.

  15. Médecine des voyages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  16. In ovo delivery of Newcastle disease virus conjugated hybrid calcium phosphate nanoparticle and to study the cytokine profile induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Rathish, P.; Gopinath, V.P.; Janice, R.; Dhinakar Raj, G.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, the hybrid calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). These nanoparticles were synthesized by a combination of co-precipitation and polymerization process and functionalized with amino propyl triethoxy silane before coupling to NDV. The 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay of chicken spleen cells incubated with these nanoparticles indicated that, these particles did not exert any significant cytotoxicity. The effects of hybrid CaP nanoparticles on cell cycle were assayed using a flow cytometer. The results demonstrated that the cell viability and proliferation capacity of spleen cells were not affected by hybrid CaP nanoparticles compared with their control cells. The hybrid CaP nanoparticles were characterized by scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM); Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). These methods revealed that NDV was successfully conjugated on nanoparticles. The ability of the hybrid CaP nanoparticles to induce different cytokine mRNAs in the spleen cells of 18-day old embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). NDV conjugated particles induced a high expression of Th1 cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α of and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10. Uncoupled NDV induced only Th1 cytokines, IFN-α, INF-γ and TNF-α. The hybrid particles alone did not induce any cytokines. This confirmed that nanoparticle coupling could induce differential cytokine profiles and hence can be used as an alternate strategy to direct favorable immune responses in animals or chickens using appropriate vaccination carrier. - Highlights: • NDV conjugated hybrid CaP NP induced differential cytokine profiles in embryonated chicken eggs.

  17. In ovo delivery of Newcastle disease virus conjugated hybrid calcium phosphate nanoparticle and to study the cytokine profile induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal [Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB), Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 051, Tamil Nadu (India); Rathish, P.; Gopinath, V.P.; Janice, R. [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 007 (India); Dhinakar Raj, G., E-mail: dhinakarrajg@tanuvas.org.in [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 007 (India); Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB), Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 051, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, the hybrid calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). These nanoparticles were synthesized by a combination of co-precipitation and polymerization process and functionalized with amino propyl triethoxy silane before coupling to NDV. The 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay of chicken spleen cells incubated with these nanoparticles indicated that, these particles did not exert any significant cytotoxicity. The effects of hybrid CaP nanoparticles on cell cycle were assayed using a flow cytometer. The results demonstrated that the cell viability and proliferation capacity of spleen cells were not affected by hybrid CaP nanoparticles compared with their control cells. The hybrid CaP nanoparticles were characterized by scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM); Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). These methods revealed that NDV was successfully conjugated on nanoparticles. The ability of the hybrid CaP nanoparticles to induce different cytokine mRNAs in the spleen cells of 18-day old embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). NDV conjugated particles induced a high expression of Th1 cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α of and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10. Uncoupled NDV induced only Th1 cytokines, IFN-α, INF-γ and TNF-α. The hybrid particles alone did not induce any cytokines. This confirmed that nanoparticle coupling could induce differential cytokine profiles and hence can be used as an alternate strategy to direct favorable immune responses in animals or chickens using appropriate vaccination carrier. - Highlights: • NDV conjugated hybrid CaP NP induced differential cytokine profiles in embryonated chicken eggs.

  18. Influence des facteurs agro-écologiques et des herbicides sur le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence des facteurs agro-écologiques et des herbicides sur le rendement et les caractéristiques technologiques des grains et farines de blés tendres ( Triticum aestivum L.) et durs ( Triticum durum Desf.)

  19. Evaluation des pratiques de gestion des adventices en riziculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le riz est l'aliment principal pour la quasi-totalité des populations vivant en Côte d'Ivoire. Cependant, les adventices sont considérées comme la contrainte biologique la plus importante faisant obstacle à la production rizicole. L'objectif de cette étude menée en 2015 était d'évaluer différentes techniques de gestion des ...

  20. Des agriculteurs trouvent des moyens d'exploiter les avantages ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    19 sept. 2013 ... Le tout dernier prototype sera adapté en vue de son utilisation dans les collectivités et les villages. On continuera d'y apporter des améliorations pour lui permettre de moudre d'autres mils (le pied de coq et l'herbe à épée ou kodo). Des chercheurs de la Tamil Nadu Agricultural University s'emploient aussi ...

  1. Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les marchés agroalimentaires connaissent de rapides changements dans les pays en développement et les pays en transition. Sous l'influence de la libéralisation du commerce et des nouvelles technologies de transformation des aliments et de commerce de détail, les marchés agroalimentaires évoluent vers une plus ...

  2. Therapie des Harnwegsinfekts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiser B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Harnwegsinfektionen gehören zu den häufigsten entzündlichen Erkrankungen im niedergelassenen Bereich. Eine intelligente Therapiestrategie stellt damit nicht nur eine klinische Herausforderung dar, sondern ermöglicht rasche Heilung, Vermeidung von Resistenzbildungen sowie oft unnötiger, teurer diagnostischer Schritte. Der erste entscheidende Schritt ist die genaue Klassifizierung des Harnweginfektes – asymptomatische Bakteriurie bis zur komplizierten Pyelonephritis. Hier entscheiden sich bereits Aggressivität der Behandlung sowie diagnostischer Aufwand. Für die Entwicklung einer empirischen antimikrobiellen Therapie ist die Kenntnis der häufigsten Erreger sowie lokaler Resistenzmuster wichtig. Bei gezieltem Vorgehen können die meisten Harnwegsinfekte ohne erhöhten diagnostischen Aufwand therapiert werden.

  3. Code des baux 2018

    CERN Document Server

    Vial-Pedroletti, Béatrice; Kendérian, Fabien; Chavance, Emmanuelle; Coutan-Lapalus, Christelle

    2017-01-01

    Le code des baux 2018 vous offre un contenu extrêmement pratique, fiable et à jour au 1er août 2017. Cette 16e édition intègre notamment : le décret du 27 juillet 2017 relatif à l’évolution de certains loyers dans le cadre d’une nouvelle location ou d’un renouvellement de bail, pris en application de l’article 18 de la loi n° 89-462 du 6 juillet 1989 ; la loi du 27 janvier 2017 relative à l’égalité et à la citoyenneté ; la loi du 9 décembre 2016 relative à la transparence, à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique ; la loi du 18 novembre 2016 de modernisation de la justice du xxie siècle

  4. Antibacterial, Antiproliferative, and Immunomodulatory Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized with Fucans from the Alga Dictyota mertensii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Medeiros Fernandes-Negreiros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticles containing fucans from Dictyota mertensii (Martius Kützing using an environmentally friendly method and to characterize their structure as well as antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, and antibacterial effects. Fucan-coated silver nanoparticles (FN were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared analysis, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. They were evaluated for their effect on cell viability, minimum inhibitory bactericidal concentration, and release of nitric oxide and cytokines. The FN were successfully synthesized using an environmentally friendly method. They were size-stable for 16 months, of a spherical shape, negative charge (−19.1 mV, and an average size of 103.3 ± 43 nm. They were able to inhibit the proliferation of the melanoma tumor cell line B16F10 (60%. In addition, they had immunomodulatory properties: they caused an up to 7000-fold increase in the release of nitric oxide and cytokines (IL-10; IL-6 and TNF-α up to 7000 times. In addition, the FN showed inhibitory effect on Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, with MIC values of 50 µg/mL. Overall, the data showed that FN are nanoparticles with the potential to be used as antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antibacterial agents.

  5. Prise en compte du gonflement des terrains dans le dimensionnement des revêtements des tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Bultel, Frédéric

    2001-01-01

    Travail préparé au Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées (LCPC-Paris) dans le cadre d'une convention CIFRE avec la société Scetauroute,Composition du jury : MM. R. KASTNER professeur à l'Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (rapporteur),I. SHAHROUR professeur à l'Ecole Universitaire Des Ingénieurs de Lille (rapporteur), P. EGGER professeur à l'Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Examinateur), B. GAUDIN expert géotechnique à Scetauroute-DTTS (Examinateur), J.P. MAGNAN D...

  6. Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes (Europas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Gruber, M. R. (2011, 13 December). Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes (Europas). Guest lecture at the IPMZ - Institute of Mass Communication and Media Research, Devision Media Change & Innovation, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Harmonization of the intracellular cytokine staining assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welters, Marij J P; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H; Letsch, Anne; Ottensmeier, Christian H; Britten, Cedrik M; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2012-07-01

    Active immunotherapy for cancer is an accepted treatment modality aiming to reinforce the T-cell response to cancer. T-cell reactivity is measured by various assays and used to guide the clinical development of immunotherapeutics. However, data obtained across different institutions may vary substantially making comparative conclusions difficult. The Cancer Immunotherapy Immunoguiding Program organizes proficiency panels to identify key parameters influencing the outcome of commonly used T-cell assays followed by harmonization. Our successes with IFNγ-ELISPOT and peptide HLA multimer analysis have led to the current study on intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). We report the results of three successive panels evaluating this assay. At the beginning, 3 out of 9 participants (33 %) were able to detect >6 out of 8 known virus-specific T-cell responses in peripheral blood of healthy individuals. This increased to 50 % of the laboratories in the second phase. The reported percentages of cytokine-producing T cells by the different laboratories were highly variable with coefficients of variation well over 60 %. Variability could partially be explained by protocol-related differences in background cytokine production leading to sub-optimal signal-to-noise ratios. The large number of protocol variables prohibited identification of prime guidelines to harmonize the assays. In addition, the gating strategy used to identify reactive T cells had a major impact on assay outcome. Subsequent harmonization of the gating strategy considerably reduced the variability within the group of participants. In conclusion, we propose that first basic guidelines should be applied for gating in ICS experiments before harmonizing assay protocol variables.

  8. Hypothyroidism and depression: Are cytokines the link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimal S Tayde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Primary hypothyroidism has been thought of as an inflammatory condition characterized by raised levels of cytokines such as C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. Depression is also well known to occur in hypothyroidism. Depression is also characterized by elevated inflammatory cytokines. We planned to study whether cytokines play an important part in linking these two conditions. Objectives: (1 To know the prevalence of depression in overt hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroid disease. (2 To correlate the levels of inflammatory markers with the occurrence of depression. (3 To study the effect of levothyroxine on inflammatory markers and depression. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal, case–controlled study, 33 patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone >10 uIU/ml were included with 33 age-, sex-, and body max index-matched healthy controls. Individuals were tested for Serum TNF-α, IL-6, high-sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP. They were assessed for depression using Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS and World Health Organization Quality of Life (QOL Scale. Patients received L Thyroxine titrated to achieve euthyroidism and were reassessed for inflammatory markers and cognitive dysfunction. Results: Nineteen patients (57% had mild to moderate depression (MADRS >11. After 6 months of treatment, eight patients (42% had remission of depression with significant improvement in QOL scores (P < 0.05. TNF-α, IL-6, and hs-CRP were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls and reduced with therapy but did not reach baseline as controls. The change in inflammatory markers correlated with improvement in QOL scores in social and environmental domains (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Primary autoimmune hypothyroidism is an inflammatory state characterized by elevated cytokines which decline with LT4 therapy. It is associated with depression and poor

  9. Cytokines in the modulation of eosinophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccioli Lúcia H

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we discuss our recently results showing interleukin 5 (IL-5 involvement in eosinophil migration and in the maintenance of eosinophilia in blood, bone marrow, lung and peritoneal cavity, in a visceral larva migrans syndrome model using guinea-pigs infected with Toxocara canis. We also describe the sequential release of TNF-alpha and IL-8 during the course of infection, and the interaction between these cytokines and IL-5 during infection. Finally we propose a new biological role for IL-5, at least in our model, as a modulator of IL-8 release and secretion.

  10. Diabetes, Inflammation, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Navarro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and its complications have become a public health problem. Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of renal failure. In spite of our higher knowledge on this complication, the intimate mechanisms leading to the development and progression of renal injury are not yet fully known. Activated innate immunity and inflammation are relevant factors in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Moreover, inflammation, and more specifically proinflammatory cytokines and other molecules with a relevant role within the inflammatory process, may be critical factors in the development of microvascular diabetic complications, including nephropathy. This new pathogenic perspective may lead to important new therapeutic considerations and new therapeutic goals for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. La cogestion des Ressources naturelles

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Liban — les conflits sur les ressources et la modification des moyens de subsistance à Arsaal . 71. Chapitre ..... Ainsi, un seul arbre d'une forêt peut fournir des fruits, du bois de chauffage, du fourrage et de l'ombrage; constituer un stabilisateur du sol et un habitat faunique et représenter un lien avec l'identité ancestrale.

  12. CONTRAINTES INSTITUTIONNELLES ET LABELLISATION DES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    de labellisation des produits algériens (particulièrement le vin et les dattes) par le biais des indications géographiques et les contraintes institutionnels et territoriales qui contrarient ce processus. Le contexte algérien, très marqué par une économie mono-ex- portatrice et très dépendante à l'égard d'un seul type de produit, ...

  13. Macrophage cytokines: Involvement in immunity and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eArango Duque

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of macrophages has made them primordial for both development and immunity. Their functions range from the shaping of body plans to the ingestion and elimination of apoptotic cells and pathogens. Cytokines are small soluble proteins that confer instructions and mediate communication among immune and non-immune cells. A portfolio of cytokines is central to the role of macrophages as sentries of the innate immune system that mediate the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. In concert with other mediators, cytokines bias the fate of macrophages into a spectrum of inflammation-promoting ‘classically activated’, to anti-inflammatory or ‘alternatively activated’ macrophages. Deregulated cytokine secretion is implicated in several disease states ranging from chronic inflammation to allergy. Macrophages release cytokines via a series of beautifully orchestrated pathways that are spatiotemporally regulated. At the molecular level, these exocytic cytokine secretion pathways are coordinated by multi-protein complexes that guide cytokines from their point of synthesis to their ports of exit into the extracellular milieu. These trafficking proteins, many of which were discovered in yeast and commemorated in the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, coordinate the organelle fusion steps that are responsible for cytokine release. This review discusses the functions of cytokines secreted by macrophages, and summarizes what is known about their release mechanisms. This information will be used to delve into how selected pathogens subvert cytokine release for their own survival.

  14. Macrophage cytokines: involvement in immunity and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango Duque, Guillermo; Descoteaux, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of macrophages has made them primordial for both development and immunity. Their functions range from the shaping of body plans to the ingestion and elimination of apoptotic cells and pathogens. Cytokines are small soluble proteins that confer instructions and mediate communication among immune and non-immune cells. A portfolio of cytokines is central to the role of macrophages as sentries of the innate immune system that mediate the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. In concert with other mediators, cytokines bias the fate of macrophages into a spectrum of inflammation-promoting "classically activated," to anti-inflammatory or "alternatively activated" macrophages. Deregulated cytokine secretion is implicated in several disease states ranging from chronic inflammation to allergy. Macrophages release cytokines via a series of beautifully orchestrated pathways that are spatiotemporally regulated. At the molecular level, these exocytic cytokine secretion pathways are coordinated by multi-protein complexes that guide cytokines from their point of synthesis to their ports of exit into the extracellular milieu. These trafficking proteins, many of which were discovered in yeast and commemorated in the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, coordinate the organelle fusion steps that are responsible for cytokine release. This review discusses the functions of cytokines secreted by macrophages, and summarizes what is known about their release mechanisms. This information will be used to delve into how selected pathogens subvert cytokine release for their own survival.

  15. Inflammatory Cytokines in Depression: Neurobiological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felger, Jennifer C.; Lotrich, Francis E.

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that inflammatory cytokines contribute to the development of depression in both medically ill and medically healthy individuals. Cytokines are important for development and normal brain function, and have the ability to influence neurocircuitry and neurotransmitter systems to produce behavioral alterations. Acutely, inflammatory cytokine administration or activation of the innate immune system produces adaptive behavioral responses that promote conservation of energy to combat infection or recovery from injury. However, chronic exposure to elevated inflammatory cytokines and persistent alterations in neurotransmitter systems can lead to neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. Mechanisms of cytokine behavioral effects involve activation of inflammatory signaling pathways in the brain that results in changes in monoamine, glutamate, and neuropeptide systems, and decreases in growth factors, e.g. brain derived neurotrophic factor. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokines may serve as mediators of both environmental (e.g. childhood trauma, obesity, stress, and poor sleep) and genetic (functional gene polymorphisms) factors that contribute to depression’s development. This review explores the idea that specific gene polymorphisms and neurotransmitter systems can confer protection from or vulnerability to specific symptom dimensions of cytokine-related depression. Additionally, potential therapeutic strategies that target inflammatory cytokine signaling or the consequences of cytokines on neurotransmitter systems in the brain to prevent or reverse cytokine effects on behavior are discussed. PMID:23644052

  16. The Cross-talk between Tristetraprolin and Cytokines in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Shiyi; Xia, Jiazeng; Jin, Shimao

    2017-11-24

    Cytokines are small secreted proteins serving as vital mediators that mediate the host immune responses. Transcription and post-transcription play a critical role in cytokine expression through the regulation of message RNA (mRNA) cytoplasmic localization, translation initiation and decay. Researches have been conducted to reveal regulatory mechanisms of cytokines production in cells involved in cancer. AU-rich element (ARE) can regulate the degradation and translation of mRNA by connecting with specific ARE binding proteins. It is now clear that tristetraprolin (TTP), as the most common ARE binding protein, negatively regulates many aspects of the cytokines through binding to the AREs in the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of mRNA. Furthermore, some certain cytokines have an impact on TTP expression and function. Therefore, the cross-regulation between cytokines and TTP has come into sight. The complicated regulatory networks between cytokines and TTP are closely related to tumorigenesis. In this review, we summarize specific regulatory mechanisms of cytokine mRNAs. We focus on how TTP negatively regulates inflammatory and oncogenic cytokines expression after combining with AREs, we also pay attention to some cytokines mediating the expression of TTP and their cross-talk in various cancers in detail. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Concise total syntheses of (+/-)-strychnine and (+/-)-akuammicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirasani, Gopal; Paul, Tapas; Dougherty, William; Kassel, Scott; Andrade, Rodrigo B

    2010-05-21

    Concise total syntheses of Strychnos alkaloids strychnine (1) and akuammicine (2) have been realized in 13 and 6 operations, respectively. Key steps include (1) the vinylogous Mannich reaction; (2) a novel, sequential one-pot spirocyclization/intramolecular aza-Baylis-Hillman reaction; and (3) a Heck cyclization. The synthesis of 1 proceeds via the Wieland-Gumlich aldehyde (26).

  18. Ferromagnetic Behavior in Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc ferrite have been produced and used by humans since long time, however understanding of ZnFe2O4 as a nano structured materials is very useful in order to be used for technological applications. ZnFe2O4 structural, magnetic and electrical properties are different when synthesized using different techniques.

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  20. nanoparticles synthesized by citrate precursor m

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. Ni0.5M0.5Fe2O4 (M = Co, Cu) ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized using citrate precursor method. The citrate precursor was annealed at temperatures 400oC, 450oC, 500oC and 550oC. The annealed powders were characterized using X-ray diffractometer. (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).

  1. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The C. halicacabum leaf extract synthesized AgNPs efficiency were tested against different bacterial pathogens MTCC-426 Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-2453 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MTCC-96 Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-441 Bacillus subtilis andMTCC-735 Salmonella paratyphi, and fungal pathogens Alternaria solani ...

  2. Syntheses of copper complexes of nicotinohydroxamic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicotinohydroxamic acid (NHA) and isonicotinohydroxamic acid (INHA) were synthesized, characterized by electronic and spectral studies,magnetic measurements and their pKa determined spectrophotometrically as 8.68 ± 0.02 in aqueous medium of 0.1mol dm-3 I=ionic strength. The composition of the complexes was ...

  3. Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 4. Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and luminescence behaviour of terephthalate bridged heptacoordinated dinuclear lead(II) complexes containing a pentadentate N-donor Schiff base. Subhasis Roy Somnath Choubey Sumitava Khan ...

  4. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The C. halicacabum leaf extract synthesized AgNPs efficiency were tested against different bacterial pathogens MTCC-426 Proteus vulgaris, MTCC-2453 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, MTCC-96 Staphylococcus aureus, MTCC-441 Bacillus subtilis andMTCC-735 Salmonella paratyphi, and fungal pathogens Alternaria solani ...

  5. Method and apparatus for synthesizing filamentary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Height, Murray J [Somerville, MA; Howard, Jack B [Winchester, MA; Vandersande, John B [Newbury, MA

    2008-02-26

    Method and apparatus for producing filamentary structures. The structures include single-walled nanotubes. The method includes combusting hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen to establish a non-sooting flame and providing an unsupported catalyst to synthesize the filamentary structure in a post-flame region of the flame. Residence time is selected to favor filamentary structure growth.

  6. Cytotoxicity of Nanoliposomal Cisplatin Coated with Synthesized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of pegylated nanoliposomal cisplatin on human ovarian cancer cell line A2780CP. Methods: Synthesized methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) propionaldehyde was characterized by 1Hnuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and used ...

  7. Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syntheses, molecular and crystalline architectures, and luminescence behaviour of terephthalate bridged heptacoordinated dinuclear lead(II) complexes containing a pentadentate N-donor Schiff base ... The complexes display intraligand (-*) fluorescence in the solid state and in DMF solutions at room temperature.

  8. Cytotoxicity of Nanoliposomal Cisplatin Coated with Synthesized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Synthesized methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) propionaldehyde was characterized by 1H- nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and used as coating agent for the preparation of liposomal nanodrug formulation by reverse phase evaporation method.

  9. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  10. Synthese et caracterisation par spectroscopie infrarouge et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT:- About six new Molybdato adducts of tin tetrahalide and tin(IV) organometallics have been synthesized and characterized. Their infrared and Mössbauer study allow us to suggest discrete structures with only one polydentate ligand or two types of ligands of different symmetries in the same adduct. KEYWORDS: ...

  11. Relationship of cytokines and cytokine signaling to immunodeficiency disorders in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morawetz R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of cytokines to the development and progression of disease in a mouse model of retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency (MAIDS are controversial. Some studies have indicated an etiologic role for type 2 cytokines, while others have emphasized the importance of type 1 cytokines. We have used mice deficient in expression of IL-4, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-10, IFN-g, or ICSBP - a transcriptional protein involved in IFN signaling - to examine their contributions to this disorder. Our results demonstrate that expression of type 2 cytokines is an epiphenomenon of infection and that IFN-g is a driving force in disease progression. In addition, exogenously administered IL-12 prevents many manifestations of disease while blocking retrovirus expression. Interruption of the IFN signaling pathways in ICSBP-/- mice blocks induction of MAIDS. Predictably, ICSBP-deficient mice exhibit impaired responses to challenge with several other viruses. This immunodeficiency is associated with impaired production of IFN-g and IL-12. Unexpectedly, however, the ICSBP-/- mice also develop a syndrome with many similarities to chronic myelogenous leukemia in humans. The chronic phase of this disease is followed by a fatal blast crisis characterized by clonal expansions of undifferentiated cells. ICSBP is thus an important determinant of hematopoietic growth and differentiation as well as a prominent signaling molecule for IFNs

  12. Anti-cytokine autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellano, Giuseppe; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Woldetsadik, Abiy D; Boggio, Elena; Soluri, Maria F; Comi, Cristoforo; Sblattero, Daniele; Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Dianzani, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current literature is showing that autoantibodies (AutoAbs) against cytokines are produced in several pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, but can also be detected in healthy individuals. In autoimmune diseases, these AutoAbs may also be prognostic markers, either negative (such as AutoAbs to IL-8 and IL-1α in rheumatoid arthritis) or positive (such as AutoAbs to IL-6 in systemic sclerosis and those to osteopontin in rheumatoid arthritis). They may have neutralizing activity and influence the course of the physiological and pathological immune responses. High levels of AutoAbs against cytokines may even lead to immunodeficiency, such as those to IL-17 in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I or those to IFN-γ in mycobacterial infections. Their role in human therapy may be exploited not only through passive immunization but also through vaccination, which may improve the costs for long lasting treatments of autoimmune diseases. Detection and quantification of these AutoAbs can be profoundly influenced by the technique used and standardization of these methods is needed to increase the value of their analysis. PMID:23885320

  13. Evolution of Class I cytokine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; Ward, Alister C

    2007-01-01

    Background The Class I cytokine receptors have a wide range of actions, including a major role in the development and function of immune and blood cells. However, the evolution of the genes encoding them remains poorly understood. To address this we have used bioinformatics to analyze the Class I receptor repertoire in sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Results Only two Class I receptors were identified in sea squirt, one with homology to the archetypal GP130 receptor, and the other with high conservation with the divergent orphan receptor CLF-3. In contrast, 36 Class I cytokine receptors were present in zebrafish, including representative members for each of the five structural groups found in mammals. This allowed the identification of 27 core receptors belonging to the last common ancestor of teleosts and mammals. Conclusion This study suggests that the majority of diversification of this receptor family occurred after the divergence of urochordates and vertebrates approximately 794 million years ago (MYA), but before the divergence of ray-finned from lobe-finned fishes around 476 MYA. Since then, only relatively limited lineage-specific diversification within the different Class I receptor structural groups has occurred. PMID:17640376

  14. Interplay of cytokines in preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pandey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants (i.e., born before <37 wk of gestation are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality and long-term disabilities. Global prevalence of preterm birth (PTB varies from 5 to 18 per cent. There are multiple aetiological causes and factors associated with PTB. Intrapartum infections are conventionally associated with PTB. However, maternal genotype modulates response to these infections. This review highlights the association of cytokine gene polymorphisms and their levels with PTB. Varying PTB rates across the different ethnic groups may be as a result of genetically mediated varying cytokines response to infections. Studies on genetic variations in tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and toll-like receptor-4 genes and their association with PTB, have been reviewed. No single polymorphism of the studied genes was found to be associated with PTB. However, increased maternal levels of IL-1β and IL-6 and low levels of IL-10 have been found to be associated with PTB.

  15. Évaluation des pratiques agricoles des légumes feuilles : le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2017 ... sont le barrage, les puits à faible profondeur (1 à 2 m) et les tranchées creusées dans la cuvette par les maraîchers. 22 % des producteurs utilisent l'eau du barrage directement, 60 % l'eau des puits (figure 2) uniquement et 18 % utilisent les deux types de ressources (figure 3). Toutes les cultures en saison ...

  16. Étude des caractéristiques des peuplements et des noix de Cocos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocos nucifera est l'un des arbres cultivés le plus répandu. Il se propage par graine avec un long cycle biologique. Cette étude qui avait pour objectif de caractériser les populations naturelles de cocotiers des Niayes (Sénégal), notamment leur structure et leur fruit, a montré que les arbres sont âgés et leur régénération ...

  17. L'accumulation des métaux lourds au niveau des cultures : Cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le Bassin de Sebou présente une importance socio-économique pour le Maroc. En effet, il est sujet de diverses utilisations ; eau potable, eau d'irrigation et eau industrielle. Toutefois, ce bassin subit des pressions multiples, notamment par la pollution métallique. Considérant le risque de bioaccumulation des métaux par ...

  18. Cytokine genes as potential biomarkers for muscle weakness in OPMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Raz, Yotam; van der Slujis, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    been exploited in the last decade. Cytokines are released from many tissues, including skeletal muscles, but their application to monitor muscle pathology is sparse. We report that the cytokine functional group is altered in the transcriptome of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). OPMD...... is a dominant, late-onset myopathy, caused by an alanine-expansion mutation in the gene encoding for poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (expPABPN1). Here, we investigated the hypothesis that cytokines could mark OPMD disease state. We determined cytokines levels the vastus lateralis muscle from genetically...... confirmed expPABPN1 carriers at a symptomatic or a presymptomatic stage. We identified cytokine-related genes candidates from a transcriptome study in a mouse overexpressing exp PABPN1 Six cytokines were found to be consistently down-regulated in OPMD vastus lateralis muscles. Expression levels...

  19. Poissons Characoïdes des Guyanes. I. Généralités. II. Famille des Serrasalmidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Géry, J.

    1972-01-01

    TABLE DES MATIÈ RES ENGLISH PREFACE AND SUMMARY......... 5 AVANT-PROPOS................. 8 RESUME ................... 9 PREMIERE PARTIE : GENERALITES SUR LES GUYANES ET LES POISSONS CHARACOÏDES................. 12 Chapitre 1. Introduction 1-1. Historique.................. 12 1- 2. Sources et

  20. Onlinespieler abseits des Mainstreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Baumgartlinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available MMO(RPGs „Massively Multiplayer Online (Role-Playing Games“ nehmen einen Sonderstatus unter den Onlinespielen ein, welcher durch den wachsenden wirtschaftlichen Erfolg, insbesondere durch den „breakthrough hit“ (Duchenaut et al. 2006: 407 World of Warcraft (WoW, auch an Bedeutung für die Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaft gewinnt (vgl. Inderst 2009: 15; vgl. Seifert/Jöckel 2008: 297. Der Primus des Genres, WoW, repräsentiert gemeinsam mit einigen nahezu identen Titeln insgesamt 85 Prozent der gespielten MMOGs (vgl. Williams et al. 2008: 999. Daher befasst sich auch die Mehrheit der vorliegenden Studien mit eben diesen Spielen. Neue Formen von MMO(Gs können jedoch zu ebenso neuartigen Spielerfahrungen führen und damit unterschiedliche Nutzungsmotive befriedigen (vgl. Seifert/Jöckel 2008: 309 und folglich zu einem gänzlich anderen Spielerleben führen. Während im Mainstream die kooperativen Spielerbeziehungen überwiegen, dominiert in Darkfall Online der soziale Wettbewerb. Der von Williams et al. 2008 verwendete Fragebogen diente als Rohling für die Kreation eines für die speziellen Anforderungen adaptierten Erhebungstools zur Erforschung der Spielertypologie und der Motive der Darkfall-Online-SpielerInnen. Die in der Onlinebefragung (N = 506 gesammelten Daten belegen, dass sich sowohl die Spielerdemographie, als auch die Motive der Spieler von den Mainstream MMOs unterscheiden. Zudem konnten realweltliche Eigenschaften der Spieler als signifikante Einflussfaktoren für die Spielzuwendung identifiziert werden.

  1. Terre des hommes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    Transformez votre téléphone portable en geste de solidarité ! Collecte du 12 au 23 novembre 2012   Faites un geste simple et utile en déposant vos téléphones portables inutilisés dans les urnes installées dans les trois restaurants du CERN. En Suisse, une personne change tous les 12 à 18 mois de téléphone portable. La plupart de nos vieux appareils sont simplement laissés à l’abandon avec comme seule fonction de parer une éventuelle panne à venir. On  estime ainsi que 8 millions de portables sont inutilisés, alors qu'entre 30 et 50% peuvent être réutilisés. L'action Solidarcomm leur offre une deuxième vie ! Terre des Hommes Suisse, dans le cadre de la campagne Solidarcomm, collecte et valorise vos téléphones inutilis&...

  2. Cytokine ratios in chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Anirudh B; Thakur, Srinath; Muddapur, M V; Kulkarni, Raghavendra D

    Chronic periodontitis may influence systemic cytokines in type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the cytokine ratios in type 2 diabetes with, and without chronic periodontitis. Gingival status, periodontal, glycemic parameters and serum cytokines were evaluated in participants grouped as healthy, chronic periodontitis, and type 2 diabetes with, and without chronic periodontitis. Cytokine ratios showed significant differences in type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis, were highest in participants having both type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis, with a statistically significant cut-off point and area under curve by receiver operating characteristic. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in animal and human gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulesu, Luana; Bhattacharjee, Jayonta; Bechi, Nicoletta; Romagnoli, Roberta; Jantra, Silke; Ietta, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    The story of cytokines in pregnancy began about 30 years ago, approximately in concomitance with the understanding that cytokines are autocrine-paracrine regulators of physiological processes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are predominant in the early and late events of gestation, e.g. pregnancy establishment and parturition, both of which have been described as inflammatory-like events. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are also produced in response to microbes constantly in contact with the female reproductive tract. While a pro-inflammatory response is beneficial to successful pregnancy, an exaggerated response, as may occur for an unresolved infection, could result in an unfavorable pregnancy outcome in animals and humans. Therapeutic strategies are required to avoid the risks to the health of fetus and mother. In this review, we discuss the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines in pregnancy at implantation and parturition, including the pathologies which might be related to an alteration of the cytokine levels. We also deal with the use of anti-cytokines and/or anti-inflammatory mediators to antagonize the action of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally we discuss the potential of animal models to evaluate the association of cytokines in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.

  4. Recoupement des politiques: renforcer les initiatives de reddition de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au cours des dernières années, les acquisitions massives (achats, locations ou autres arrangements) de terres agricoles dans les pays en développement par des particuliers, des entreprises et des gouvernements étrangers ont eu des effets économiques positifs tout comme des effets négatifs sur les moyens de ...

  5. 107 Etude des facteurs de variation des prix d'intérêt des matières ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Imen BELHADJ SLIMEN et Taha NAJAR. Etude des facteurs de variation des prix d'intérêt des matières premières de substitution utilisées dans les aliments concentrés des animaux d'élevage. Imen BELHADJ SLIMEN1,2* et Taha NAJAR1,2. 1Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, Département Ressources Animales, ...

  6. Enzymatic synthesizing of phytosterol oleic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinxin; Chen, Biqiang; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zhul, Biyun; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    A method of synthesizing the phytosterol esters from oleic acid and sterols was studied, using immobilized lipase Candida sp. 99-125 as catalyst. Molar ratio (oleic acid/phytosterols), temperature, reaction period, organic solvents, catalyst, and silica-gel drier were optimized, and the result showed that 93.4% of the sterols had been esterified under the optimal synthetic condition: the molar ratio of oleic acid/phytosterol is 1:1 in 10 mL iso-octane, immobilized lipase (w, 140% of the sterols), incubated in an orbital shaker (200 rpm) at a temperature of 45 °C for 24 h. The immobilized lipase could be reused for at least 13 times with limited loss of esterification activity. The conversion still maintained up to 86.6%. Hence, this developed process for synthesizing phytosterol esters could be considered as simple and low-energy consumption compared to existing chemical processes.

  7. Difference-Equation-Based Digital Frequency Synthesizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Ting Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel algorithm and architecture for digital frequency synthesis (DFS. It is based on a simple difference equation. Simulation results show that the proposed DFS algorithm is preferable to the conventional phase-locked-loop frequency synthesizer and the direct digital frequency synthesizer in terms of the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR and the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR. Specifically, the results of SFDR and PSNR are more than 186.91 dBc and 127.74 dB, respectively. Moreover, an efficient DFS architecture for VLSI implementation is also proposed, which has the advantage of saving hardware cost and power consumption.

  8. Syntheses and studies of organosilicon compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Ren [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-02-12

    The syntheses of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as silicon carbide ceramic precursors have been active research areas in the Barton Research Group. In this thesis, the work is focused on the preparation of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as stoichiometric silicon carbide precursor polymers. The syntheses of the precursor polymers are discussed and the conversions of these precursors to silicon carbide via pyrolysis are reported. The XRD pattern and elemental analyses of the resulting silicon carbide ceramics are presented. Silicon monoxide is an important intermediate in the production of silicon metal. The existence of silicon monoxide in gap phase has been widely accepted. In the second part of this thesis, the generation of gaseous silicon monoxide in four different reactors and the reactions of gaseous silicon monoxide towards organic compounds are discussed.

  9. Gyrodactylidae et Gyrodactylose des Salmonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALMBERG G.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Vingt et une espèces de Gyrodactylus de Salmonidae arrangées en six groupes sont présentées. Les observations concernant ces espèces dans les milieux naturels et en pisciculture sont résumées. Sur la base de données générales relatives aux espèces de Gyrodactylus en milieu naturel en Scandinavie et Baltique, les observations biologiques, écologiques et comportementales de G. salaris Malmberg, 1957 et G. derjavini MALMBERG et MALMBERG (1987 des salmonidae sauvages des rivières norvégiennes et suédoises sont présentées. La viviparité unique, la reproduction asexuée et sexuée et le pouvoir de reproduction chez les Gyrodactylus sont développés. La Gyrodactylose à G. salaris est abordée en milieu naturel, dans les rivières norvégiennes et en pisciculture, en Suède et au Danemark. L'étude ultrastructurale des blessures causées par G. salaris ainsi que les résultats expérimentaux sur les espèces norvégiennes et canadiennes sont présentés. La distribution géographique naturelle des Salmonidae, les modifications liées à l'homme et à l'activité économique ainsi que les Salmonidae élevés sont revus. La présence de six groupes d'espèces de Gyrodactylus en Amérique du Nord et Eurasie est discutée en fonction de la distribution géographique des espèces hôtes. Il est souligné qu'une propagation intercontinentale des espèces de Gyrodactylus de Salmonidae a dû être impossible à cause de leur origine limnique d'une part et de la salinité élevée des océans atlantique et pacifique d'autre part. Les exigences micro et macro environnementales des espèces sont discutées dans les conditions naturelles et les variations saisonnières, préférendums et tolérances du parasitisme sont signalés. L'effet des conditions de pisciculture sur les espèces de Gyrocactylus sont discutées : la capacité reproductrice et de propagation ainsi que la spécificité — stricte dans la nature — peuvent être influenc

  10. Apolipoprotein CIII Reduces Proinflammatory Cytokine-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Pancreatic Islets via the Akt Prosurvival Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Juntti-Berggren, Lisa; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII) is mainly synthesized in the liver and is important for triglyceride metabolism. The plasma concentration of ApoCIII is elevated in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and in vitro ApoCIII causes apoptosis in pancreatic ß-cells in the absence of inflammatory stress...... µg/ml) did not cause apoptosis. In the presence of the islet-cytotoxic cytokines IL-1ß + interferon-¿, ApoCIII reduced cytokine-mediated islet cell death and impairment of ß-cell function. ApoCIII had no effects on mitogen-activated protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, and ERK) and had...... of the survival serine-threonine kinase Akt. Inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway by the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 counteracted the antiapoptotic effect of ApoCIII on cytokine-induced apoptosis. We conclude that ApoCIII in the presence of T1D-relevant proinflammatory cytokines reduces...

  11. Biological activities of synthesized silver nanoparticles from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ical scavenging activity was measured by the salicylic acid method [16]. The synthesized AgNPs solution at different concentrations (10 to 80 μg ml. −1. ) was dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water. One millilitre of AgNPs mixed with 1 ml of. 9 mM salicylic acid, 1 ml of 9 mM ferrous sulphate and 1ml of 9 mM hydrogen peroxide.

  12. Spurious in PLL-DDS frequency synthesizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Věnceslav František; Štursa, Jarmil

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2002), s. 48-51 ISSN 1335-8243. [Digital Signal Processing and Multimedia Communications DSP-MCOM 2001 /5./. Košice, 27.11.2001-29.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/0958 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : frequency synthesizers * phase locked loops * direct digital synthesis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  13. Total syntheses of (-)-haemanthidine, (+)-pretazettine, and (+)-tazettine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, S W; Debenham, J S

    2000-01-27

    [structures: see text] The total syntheses of the amaryllidaceae alkaloids haemanthidine, pretazettine, and tazettine as optically pure enantiomers are reported. Using D-mannose as the starting material, the critical relative stereochemical relationships are established with an intramolecular nitrone-alkene cycloaddition reaction. The synthetic route leads successively to (-)-haemanthidine and then to (+)-pretazettine and (+)-tazettine, taking advantage of the well-established complex relationships among these three alkaloids.

  14. Promouvoir l'inclusion économique des jeunes et des femmes par l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    entrepreneuriat à Madagascar. Le projet vise à promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat des femmes et des jeunes à Madagascar à travers le renforcement des capacités locales de recherche et des analyses pertinentes et utiles. En particulier les objectifs sont de ...

  15. Contamination des moules ( Mytilus galloprovincialis ) des côtes de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans ce travail, nous avons etudie la contamination par les Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques des moules recoltees au niveau des cotes de la region de Dakar. Les sites ont ete choisis en fonction des activites qui y sont developpees. Lfextraction des HAPs a ete faite au moyen dfun extracteur Soxhlet avec un ...

  16. Taux des lipides et des protéines et composition en acides gras du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taux des lipides et des protéines et composition en acides gras du tissu comestible des crustacés et des mollusques pêchés en Algérie : Effet du halofénozide (RH-0345) sur la composition en acides gras de Penaeus kerathurus (Crustacé, Décapode).

  17. Étude des impacts écologiques du dynamisme spatio-temporel des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    changement, (iv) élaborer une prospective des changements en 2050 et (v) évaluer les impacts du changement. Le change- ment des habitats naturels s'est déroulé au cours des temps mais il n'a ... assesses the impacts of habitat change on the resident glob- ... La gestion des changements, qui se manifestent presque.

  18. Ostéosynthèse des fractures des métacarpiens et des phalanges de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ostéosynthèse des fractures des métacarpiens et des phalanges de la main par mini plaque: à propos de 12 cas. Erraji Moncef, Derfoufi Abdelhafid, Kharraji Abdessamad, Agoumi Omar, Abdeljaouad Najib, Daoudi Abdelkrim, Yacoubi Hicham ...

  19. Magnesioferrite synthesized from magnesian-magnetites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Hidemassa Anami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesioferrite is an important mineral due to its use in different scientific fields and by the fact that the soil through the action of weathering, can be a source of nutrients essential for plant development by the fact that in the soil. Its use in pure form or associated with other minerals is only possible through the synthesis in laboratory conditions. This study aimed to synthesize magnesioferrite and hematite from magnesian-magnetite by a co-precipitation procedure. The methodology used is an adaptation of the method of synthesis of pure magnetite, partially replacing the soluble salts of iron with soluble magnesium salts in the proportion of 30.0 mol% of Fe for Mg. The characterization of the synthetic minerals used x-rays diffraction, total chemical analysis and mass specific magnetic susceptibility. The results showed that besides the magnesian-magnetite an unprecedented muskoxita was synthesized, which upon annealing was converted to magnesioferrite and hematite and in the proportion of 93.1% and 6.9% respectively. The isomorphous substitution of Fe for Mg enhanced the thermal stability of the ferrimagnetic mineral synthesized.

  20. Cytokines and Pancreatic β-Cell Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, L A; Prause, M; Størling, J

    2016-01-01

    in the low to the high picomolar-femtomolar range and vary exposure time for up to 14-16h to reproduce the acute regulatory effects of systemic inflammation on β-cell secretory responses, with a shift to inhibition at high picomolar concentrations or more than 16h of exposure to illustrate adverse effects...... of anticytokine therapies has yet to be shown by testing the incremental effects of appropriate dosing, timing, and combinations of treatments. Due to the considerable translational importance of enhancing the precision, specificity, and safety of antiinflammatory treatments of diabetes, we review here......The discovery 30 years ago that inflammatory cytokines cause a concentration, activity, and time-dependent bimodal response in pancreatic β-cell function and viability has been a game-changer in the fields of research directed at understanding inflammatory regulation of β-cell function and survival...

  1. Cytokines and Angiogenesis in the Corpus Luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M. Galvão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In adults, physiological angiogenesis is a rare event, with few exceptions as the vasculogenesis needed for tissue growth and function in female reproductive organs. Particularly in the corpus luteum (CL, regulation of angiogenic process seems to be tightly controlled by opposite actions resultant from the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. It is the extremely rapid sequence of events that determines the dramatic changes on vascular and nonvascular structures, qualifying the CL as a great model for angiogenesis studies. Using the mare CL as a model, reports on locally produced cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF, interferon gamma (IFNG, or Fas ligand (FASL, pointed out their role on angiogenic activity modulation throughout the luteal phase. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the interaction between immune, endothelial, and luteal steroidogenic cells, regarding vascular dynamics/changes during establishment and regression of the equine CL.

  2. La convergence des rôles respectifs des relationnistes et des journalistes influence-t-elle la perception qu'ils ont les uns des autres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    la convergence des rôles respectifs des praticiens des relations publiques et des journalistes a un effet favorable sur la perception qu’ils ont les uns des autres. L’effet est plus marqué chez les praticiens des relations publiques, car leur vision de la profession en journalisme correspond à celle...... profession et de celle de leurs contreparties? Comment perçoivent-ils leurs rôles, leurs méthodes de travail et leurs interactions? Nous avons employé une méthode mixte, comprenant des entretiens en personne et des enquêtes en ligne, afin de recueillir et d’analyser les données. Les résultats indiquent que...

  3. Effets des extraits des feuilles de Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faisant suite à deux études préliminaires, le but de cette étude est de rechercher, un effet antioxydant des feuilles de Alchornea cordifolia vis-à-vis du H2O2 relargué par le polynucléaire neutrophile stimulé. Deux extraits ont été préparés à partir des feuilles séchées : un macérât aqueux et un extrait à l'acétate d'éthyle.

  4. Promouvoir l'entrepreneuriat inclusif des jeunes et des femmes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un débat d'experts organisé par le CRDI s'attaque au mariage précoce lors du forum sur la condition des femmes à l'ONU. Des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI parlent de leurs expériences au Comité sur les ONG lors du forum de la Commission de la condition de la femme. Voir davantageUn débat d'experts organisé par ...

  5. Impact des proprietes physicochimiques des sols de culture du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La proportion moyenne de spores non-viables (55 %) est élevée. Il a été noté des corrélations positives entre les communautés de CMA et le magnésium (R = 0,65), la CEC (R = 0,69), l'argile (R = 0,74) et le limon grossier (R = 0,79). Par contre des corrélations négatives ont été obtenues avec le sable fin (R = -0,60) et le ...

  6. Evaluation economique des performances des services d'eau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. En Algérie, le recours à des entreprises spécialisées dans la production et la distribution d'eau potable implique la nécessité de disposer d'évaluations du coût de ces activités. Cet article propose une étude micro-économétrique de la fonction de coût de l'alimentation en eau potable sur des données de panel, ...

  7. Evolution des intensites maximales annuelles des pluies horaires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ces résultats ne sont pas suffisants pour établir une relation entre les variations graduelles observées et le phénomène de changement climatique. La complexité du système climatique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, la variabilité naturelle des données extrêmes et la longueur des séries utilisées suggèrent une prudence en la ...

  8. Evaluation des connaissances des enseignants du secondaire de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation des connaissances des enseignants du secondaire de l'atlantique au Benin sur les facteurs de risques du cancer du col de l'uterus en 2014. ... Les données ont été collectées à l'aide d'un questionnaire auto-administré. Une régression logistique pas à pas descendante a été faite. L'adéquation du modèle a été ...

  9. Comportement des polluants des eaux pluviales urbaines en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C'est dans ce contexte que s'inscrit le présent travail qui porte sur la dégradation des paramètres organiques (DBO5, DCO, MES, O2, NO-3, pH, T, Fer, turbidité) dans différents milieux : naturel (rivière), canal artificiel, rivière (aux rives revêtues). Le traitement des données, effectué sur les trois sites d'observation sur deux ...

  10. Labellisation des miels et valorisation des spécifications régionales ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    régionaux qui pilote les activités dénommé « Plate Forme Miel de Boeny ». Des outils ont été également conçus : des guides, des manuels, des supports de communication permettant de mieux gérer et de contrôles la qualité des miels. Des dispositifs de suivis et de contrôle sont en vue, mais aussi la création des ...

  11. Modulation of Cytokine and Cytokine Receptor/Antagonist by Treatment with Doxycycline and Tetracycline in Patients with Dengue Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Z. Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus infection can lead to dengue fever (DF or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. Disease severity has been linked to an increase in various cytokine levels. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of doxycycline and tetracycline to modulate serum levels of IL-6, IL-1B, and TNF and cytokine receptor/receptor antagonist TNF-R1 and IL-1RA in patients with DF or DHF. Hospitalized patients were randomized to receive standard supportive care or supportive care combined with doxycycline or tetracycline therapy. Serum cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels were determined at the onset of therapy and after 3 and 7 days. Cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels were substantially elevated at day 0. IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF remained at or above day 0 levels throughout the study period in untreated patients. Treatment with tetracycline or doxycycline resulted in a significant decline in cytokine levels. Similarly, IL-1RA and TNF-R1 serum concentrations were elevated at baseline and showed a moderate increase among untreated patients. Both drugs resulted in a significant rise in IL-1Ra levels by day 3 in patients. In contrast, treatment did not affect a similar result for TNF-R1. When compared to the control group, however, a significant rise post-treatment was seen upon intragroup analysis. Further analysis demonstrated that doxycycline was significantly more effective at modulating cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels than tetracycline.

  12. Increased Blood Levels of Growth Factors, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Th17 Cytokines in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnek, Kristi; Kisand, Kalle; Heilman, Kaire; Peet, Aleksandr; Varik, Karin; Uibo, Raivo

    2015-01-01

    The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In particular, the activation of T helper (Th) type 1 (Th1) cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the role of cytokines before and at the onset of T1D, the corresponding findings are inconsistent across studies. Moreover, conflicting data exist regarding the blood cytokine levels in T1D patients. The current study was performed to investigate genetic and autoantibody markers in association with the peripheral blood cytokine profiles by xMap multiplex technology in newly diagnosed young T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls. The onset of young-age T1D was characterized by the upregulation of growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-7, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β (but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), Th17 cytokines, and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Ketoacidosis and autoantibodies (anti-IA-2 and -ZnT8), but not human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype, influenced the blood cytokine levels. These findings broaden the current understanding of the dysregulation of systemic levels of several key cytokines at the young-age onset of T1D and provide a further basis for the development of novel immunoregulatory treatments in this disease.

  13. Cross-regulation of cytokine signalling: pro-inflammatory cytokines restrict IL-6 signalling through receptor internalisation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Simone; Wüller, Stefan; Yang, Xiang-ping; Lippok, Barbara E; Mütze, Barbara; Mais, Christine; de Leur, Hildegard Schmitz-Van; Bode, Johannes G; Gaestel, Matthias; Heinrich, Peter C; Behrmann, Iris; Schaper, Fred; Hermanns, Heike M

    2010-03-15

    The inflammatory response involves a complex interplay of different cytokines which act in an auto- or paracrine manner to induce the so-called acute phase response. Cytokines are known to crosstalk on multiple levels, for instance by regulating the mRNA stability of targeted cytokines through activation of the p38-MAPK pathway. In our study we discovered a new mechanism that answers the long-standing question how pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress restrict immediate signalling of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. We show that p38, activated by IL-1beta, TNFalpha or environmental stress, impairs IL-6-induced JAK/STAT signalling through phosphorylation of the common cytokine receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent internalisation and degradation. We identify MK2 as the kinase that phosphorylates serine 782 in the cytoplasmic part of gp130. Consequently, inhibition of p38 or MK2, deletion of MK2 or mutation of crucial amino acids within the MK2 target site or the di-leucine internalisation motif blocks receptor depletion and restores IL-6-dependent STAT activation as well as gene induction. Hence, a novel negative crosstalk mechanism for cytokine signalling is described, where cytokine receptor turnover is regulated in trans by pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress stimuli to coordinate the inflammatory response.

  14. Modulation of cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist by treatment with doxycycline and tetracycline in patients with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J E Z; Vado-Solis, I; Perez-Osorio, C; Fredeking, T M

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus infection can lead to dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Disease severity has been linked to an increase in various cytokine levels. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of doxycycline and tetracycline to modulate serum levels of IL-6, IL-1B, and TNF and cytokine receptor/receptor antagonist TNF-R1 and IL-1RA in patients with DF or DHF. Hospitalized patients were randomized to receive standard supportive care or supportive care combined with doxycycline or tetracycline therapy. Serum cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels were determined at the onset of therapy and after 3 and 7 days. Cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels were substantially elevated at day 0. IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF remained at or above day 0 levels throughout the study period in untreated patients. Treatment with tetracycline or doxycycline resulted in a significant decline in cytokine levels. Similarly, IL-1RA and TNF-R1 serum concentrations were elevated at baseline and showed a moderate increase among untreated patients. Both drugs resulted in a significant rise in IL-1Ra levels by day 3 in patients. In contrast, treatment did not affect a similar result for TNF-R1. When compared to the control group, however, a significant rise post-treatment was seen upon intragroup analysis. Further analysis demonstrated that doxycycline was significantly more effective at modulating cytokine and cytokine receptor/antagonist levels than tetracycline.

  15. Facteurs climatiques et environnementaux des risques palustres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La santé des populations est tributaire des conditions climatiques et environnementales dans lesquelles elles vivent. La présente étude analyse les liens entre le climat, l'environnement et la prévalence du paludisme dans le Département des Collines. L'analyse des données pluviométriques, thermométriques et ...

  16. Etude des potentialites germinatives pour une regeneration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les différents aspects germinatifs du fruit de Neocarya macrophylla, ressource génétique fruitière spontanée du Niger, ont fait l'objet d'analyses. L'étude des performances germinatives de cette espèce a donc porté sur des graines récentes et des graines conservées à la température ambiante dans des flacons en verre ...

  17. Integration et exclusion des communautes : La curieuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le sport s'est imposé aujourd'hui comme un puissant vecteur d'intégration. C'est par la médiation du sport que des individus et des cultures différentes se rencontrent, communient ensemble au cours des compétitions et finissent par se socialiser ou se « resocialiser ». C'est donc dire que le sport contribue à construire des ...

  18. ETUDE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES CATIONS ECHANGEABLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    déterminé les pourcentages en silice et carbonates. Nous avons aussi mis au point la présence des ions chlorures en pourcentage assez important pouvant être responsable de la corrosion des aciers de frettage des tuyaux en béton précontraint et par conséquent des dégradations affectant ces tuyaux. La présence d'un.

  19. ETUDE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES CATIONS ECHANGEABLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    pollution. L'objectif du présent travail est l'étude de la qualité des eaux superficielles et souterraines pour évaluer le degré de pollution provenant des lixiviats de la décharge et des cours d'eaux dans lesquels les ..... Les métaux lourds dosés ont montré une pollution métallique des eaux souterraine par rapport à la norme.

  20. Zur odonatenfauna des Fintlandsmoores (Landkreis ammerland)

    OpenAIRE

    Gueffroy, Daniel; Liekweg, Tammo

    2000-01-01

    Zur Untersuchung der Libellenfauna des Fintlandsmoores im Landkreis Ammerland wurden 1999 zehn Exkursionen durchgeführt. Der Untersuchungsschwerpunkt lag im bereich der dystrophen Torfstiche im süden sowie des unabgetorften Hochmoorrestes im Zentrum des Naturschutzgebietes. Insgesamt wurden 15 Libellenarten als bodenständig nachgewiesen. Aufgrund früherer Untersuchungen aus den Jahren 1973-78 und 1986 läßt sich die zunehmende Eutrophierung anhand der Veränderung des Artenspektr...

  1. ETUDE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES CATIONS ECHANGEABLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    D'autre part, à cause de la corrélation directe entre l'étendue des inondations et les quantités de poissons et de pâturages fournies par la plaine, il y a eu dégradation des ... aux changements climatiques en zone sahélienne du Cameroun. Un des objectifs de notre étude était de préciser le comportement des agriculteurs ...

  2. LES APPROCHES PSYCHOSOCIOLOGIQUES DES ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaconu Alecxandrina

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Les préoccupations pour bien comprendre la complexité des organisations sont bien connues dans la théorie et la pratique du management. La motivation la plus fréquente pour toutes les recherches et les investigationes faites a été fondée sur le besoin de savoir gérer les situations diverses en vue de maximiser la performance organisationnelle. En ce qui nous concerne, pour enrichir les informations disponibles, nous voulons élargir, dans notre communication, les approches traditionelles, focaliser l’attention sur la dimension psychologiques des organisations et présenter les mécanismes qui favorisent l’implication des salariés.

  3. Parasites et parasitoses des poissons

    OpenAIRE

    De Kinkelin, Pierre; Morand, Marc; Hedrick, Ronald; Michel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Cet ouvrage, richement illustré, offre un panorama représentatif des agents parasitaires rencontrés chez les poissons. S'appuyant sur les nouvelles conceptions de la classification phylogénétique, il met l'accent sur les propriétés biologiques, l'épidémiologie et les conséquences cliniques des groupes d'organismes en cause, à la lumière des avancées cognitives permises par les nouveaux outils de la biologie. Il est destiné à un large public, allant du monde de l'aquaculture à ceux de la santé...

  4. L’Internet des objets

    OpenAIRE

    Benghozi, Pierre-Jean; Bureau, Sylvain; Massit-Folléa, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    L’ « internet des objets » est une dimension majeure de l’internet du futur. Mais tout le monde ne s’accorde pas encore sur sa définition, ni sur la mesure de son importance économique ou des risques qu’il induit. L’étude de nombreux rapports prospectifs et l’observation des innovations d’ores et déjà engagées a permis de mettre en relief les incertitudes techniques, économiques et socio-politiques qui pèsent sur cette véritable mutation programmée de l’internet et de proposer une approche eu...

  5. Aux origines des Jeux olympiques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Debilly

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Si les Jo modernes sont régulièrement sous les feux de l’actualité, soit par la répétition temporelle des Olympiades elle-même, soit par les enjeux économiques féroces qui découlent du choix des lieux, ceux de l’Antiquité sont en général cantonnés au domaine scolaire ou universitaire. Néanmoins, ils bénéficient tous les quatre ans d`un éclairage médiatique. L’ouvrage Olympie. La victoire pour les dieux est au croisement des deux domaines. En effet, écrit par un ...

  6. Agent des projets et des partenariats (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    appuie la coordination des activités de mobilisation de ressources et des bailleurs de fonds (politiques et planification, etc.) et l'appui au Comité de gestion de la haute direction et au Conseil des gouverneurs;; facilite des relations clés entre la DPDA et des clients (programmes et bureaux régionaux), le conseiller juridique ...

  7. Quantification des apports et des exores d'un lac : cas du lac Fetzara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... permet de déterminer l'impact des facteurs environnementaux sur les variations de la composition chimique des eaux aux entrées et à la sortie du lac. Les résultats des analyses chimiques couplés aux débits mesurés dans différents points des Oueds Zied, Mellah, Hout et Meboudja ont permis le calcul des flux transitant ...

  8. Potentiel en biogaz des résidus agropastoraux et des excréments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La potentialité en biogaz des excréments humains et des résidus agropastoraux du bassin versant du fleuve Sassandra (BVS) a été évaluée à partir des statistiques agricoles et de la population, ainsi que des indices de productivité de biogaz. Egalement, la mise en oeuvre des technologies de production de biogaz dans ...

  9. Prise en charge des urgences au service d'accueil des urgences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: La prise en charge des patients dans les services d'accueil des urgences est une des meilleures vitrines d'un système de santé. En Afrique subsaharienne, la gestion des urgences se heurte à des difficultés humaines et matérielles. Le but de ce travail était d'évaluer les difficultés de prise en charge au Service ...

  10. Synthèse des faits empiriques et des leçons : Comment l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    5 déc. 2013 ... and Flora Hewlett Foundation, le programme Croissance de l'Économie et Débouchés Économiques des Femmes ... des enseignements tirés au sujet des liens qui existent entre l'autonomisation économique des femmes ..... examens systématiques à l'aide des principes Cochrane/Campbell/3iE. Toutefois ...

  11. Récupération des eaux grises et des eaux pluviales pour l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Récupération des eaux grises et des eaux pluviales pour l'agriculture urbaine et périurbaine à La Soukra, dans le gouvernorat d'Ariana (Tunisie). Jusqu'à la fin des années 1960, la plaine de la Soukra était une zone de verdure adjacente à Tunis. Au début des années 1970, les agriculteurs utilisaient des eaux usées ...

  12. Kodifikation des Privatrechts in Ungarn und die Tradition des römischen Rechts

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Das erste ungarische Zivilgesetzbuch wurde im Jahre 1959 verabschiedet. Das ungarische Zivilgesetzbuch ist am 1. Mai 1960 in Kraft getreten. Das ZGB spiegelt den Einfluss des schweizerischen Zivilgesetzbuches, des schweizerischen Obligationenrechts, des deutschen BGB und des Entwurfes des ungarischen Bürgerlichen Gesetzbuches aus dem Jahre 1928 wider. Das ungarische ZGB hat keinen Allgemeinen Teil, sondern nur in sieben Paragraphen gegliederte einleitende Bestimmungen. Der Kodex gliedert sic...

  13. Étude des politiques relatives à l'établissement des prix et à la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Étude des politiques relatives à l'établissement des prix et à la taxation de l'alcool en Inde. L'Inde est le troisième marché mondial pour les ... Les données proviendront de sources multiples, dont le National Sample Survey Office et les départements des taxes d'accise des dix États. En fonction des résultats obtenus, les ...

  14. Architecture, des normes et des systèmes d'information libres, phase ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Architecture, des normes et des systèmes d'information libres, phase II (OASIS II) - Renforcement des capacités dans l'ensemble de l'Afrique. Sur presque tout le continent africain, la prestation des services de santé est limitée en raison des maigres ressources disponibles et de la charge de morbidité de plus en plus ...

  15. Intensifier l'inclusion financière des femmes et des jeunes en Afrique ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Intensifier l'inclusion financière des femmes et des jeunes en Afrique subsaharienne. Bien que d'énormes progrès aient été accomplis en vue d'offrir des services financiers à un plus large éventail de clients dans de nombreux pays de l'Afrique subsaharienne, des femmes et des jeunes marginalisés sont toujours laissés ...

  16. Perceptions locales de la manifestation des changements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    . PRPR. ERMA. DC. UD cluster 1 cluster 2. Pauvres. Riches et moyens. Figure 4. Positionnement des classes d'impacts socio-économiques des changements climatiques dans un système d'axes de l'analyse factorielle des ...

  17. Die Problematik des Begriffes hebraica veritas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Nach ihm waren sowohl der Text des Tanak als auch sein Umfang Ausdruck der wahren Offenbarung Gottes an Israel, daher konnte nur diese Form des Alten Testaments die Wahrheit erhalten. Folgerichtig betrachtete er sie als Bibel der Verfasser des Neuen. Testaments und Norm für Lehre und Leben. Untersucht man die.

  18. Pecheries maritimes artisanales Togolaises : analyse des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pecheries maritimes artisanales Togolaises : analyse des debarquements et de la valeur commerciale des captures. K.M. Sedzro, E.D. Fiogbe, E.B. Guerra. Abstract. Description du sujet : La connaissance scientifique de la pression des pêcheries artisanales sur les ressources marines togolaises s'avère nécessaire pour ...

  19. Migration transnationale des Vietnamiennes en Asie | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Souvent, cependant, les pays d'origine ne disposent pas des politiques ni des lois ayant force exécutoire qui permettraient d'assurer des pratiques d'embauche ... Women's movements in India are struggling to address problems arising from rapidly changing social relations and vulnerabilities associated with, among other ...

  20. CYTOKINE - The Official Journal of the International Cytokine Society. Volume 11, Number 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-09

    AND CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS Disease Targets for Therapeutic Development November 15-16,1999 • The Ritz - Carlton , Tysons Corner • McLean, Virginia As...but rather on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of chemokine biology. Many presentations extended the concept that the signals present at the...Legend. The cover is an original painting commissioned from the artist Tina York. It depicts the artist’s conceptions of cytokines emanating from a

  1. Cytokine and anti-cytokine therapy for the treatment of asthma and allergic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Holgate

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways superimposed upon structural changes that include an increase in smooth muscle and airway wall remodeling. In addition to a background of chronic mediator release, asthma is characterized by considerable variations in airway function brought about by important interactions with the environment, including allergen, pollutant and virus exposure. At least in mild-moderate disease, cytokines released from Th2 cells appear important in orchestrating the inflammation. The situation in more severe disease is complicated by the superimposition of a Th1 on top of a Th2 response. Until recently, the only controller treatment for chronic asthma has been corticosteroids. However, identification of specific effector molecules in asthma has led to targeting of specific pathways by using cytokines and cytokine inhibitors. Administration of a monoclonal blocking antibody against IgE has been shown to be highly efficacious in severe allergic asthma, but enhancement of Th1 responses or attempts to reduce eosinophils using anti-interleukin-5 monoclonal antibodies have no clinical benefit. In more severe asthma, blockade of tumor necrosis factor-a using the decoy etanercept has revealed efficacy in a small open study supporting the view that Th1, in addition to Th2, pathways are important as the disease adopts a more severe phenotype. Thus, like atopic dermatitis, it is likely that asthma is not a single disease, but a group of disorders that differ in

  2. Caractérisation des plantes médicinales à flavonoïdes des marchés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les plantes à flavonoïdes constituent un atout majeur pour le maintien de la santé. Le présent travail a été conduit dans deux marchés de la ville de Douala afin de valoriser l'utilisation des plantes à flavonoïdes dans la médecine traditionnelle. Des enquêtes ethnobotaniques réalisées auprès de 40 vendeurs des plantes ...

  3. Cytokine Levels in the Serum of Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Kleiner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing knowledge about the cytokine network response has led to a better comprehension of mechanisms of pathologies and to the development of new treatments with biological drugs, able to block specific molecules of the immune response. Indeed, when the cytokine production is deregulated, diseases often occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions. Moreover, since the immune system and response change their properties with development, differences in patients' age should be taken into account, both in physiological and in pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the profile of 48 cytokines and chemokines in the serum of healthy subjects, comparing adults (≥18 years with young children and children (1–6 and 7–17 years. We found that a certain number of cytokines were not being produced in healthy subjects; others showed a constant serum level amongst the groups. Certain cytokines exhibited a downward or an upward trend with increasing age. The remaining cytokines were up- or downregulated in the group of the children with respect to the other groups. In conclusion, we drew some kinds of guidelines about the physiological production of cytokines and chemokines, underling the difference caused by aging.

  4. Anti-cytokine therapies in T1D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepom, Gerald T; Ehlers, Mario; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic targeting of proinflammatory cytokines is clinically beneficial in several autoimmune disorders. Several of these cytokines are directly implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, suggesting opportunities for design of clinical trials in type 1 diabetes that incorporate select...... suitable for modulating the immune response in T1D....

  5. Modulation of cytokine production profiles in splenic dendritic cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the role of splenic dendritic cells in immune response to Toxoplasma gondii infection in SAG1 (P30+) transgenic mice by investigating the kinetics of intracellular cytokines expression of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) using flow cytometry, and compared the results to those of ...

  6. Cytokines and Chemokines Involved in Acute Retinal Necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, JH; de Visser, L; Rijkers, G.; Wiertz, K.; van den Ham, H.J.; van Loon, A.M.; Rothova, Aniki; Mijnes, JDF

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate which cytokines and chemokines are involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute retinal necrosis (ARN), and whether cytokine profiles are associated with clinical manifestations, such as visual outcome. Methods: Serum and aqueous humor (AH) samples of 19 patients with ARN were

  7. Cytokines and chemokines involved in acute retinal necrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. De Visser (Lenneke); J.H. de Boer (Joke); G.T. Rijkers; Wiertz, K. (Karin); H.J. van den Ham; de Boer, R. (Rob); van Loon, A.M. (Anton M.); A. Rothová (Aniki); J.D.F. de Groot-Mijnes (Jolanda )

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. To investigate which cytokines and chemokines are involved in the immunopatho-genesis of acute retinal necrosis (ARN), and whether cytokine profiles are associated with clinical manifestations, such as visual outcome. METHODS. Serum and aqueous humor (AH) samples of 19 patients

  8. Peripheral parasitaemia and its association with plasma cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, plasma levels of cytokines were measured using Th1/Th2 human cytokine ELISA kits (Abcam, UK). Analysis of Variance and Student's t-test were used for Comparison of groups while Pearson's Correlation Coefficient was used for tests of association. Results: The results revealed a mean parasite density of ...

  9. Cytokines and the neurodevelopmental basis of mental illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udani eRatnayake

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that prenatal exposure to different types of viral or bacterial infections may be associated with similar outcomes; i.e., an increased risk of mental illness disorders in the offspring. Infections arising from various causes have similar debilitating effects in later life, suggesting that the exact pathogen may not be the critical factor in determining the neurological and cognitive outcome in the offspring. Instead, it is thought that response of the innate immune system, specifically the increased production of inflammatory cytokines, may be the critical mediator in altering fetal brain development pre-disposing the offspring to mental illness disorders later in life. Inflammatory cytokines are essential for normal brain development. Factors such as the site of cytokine production, a change in balance between anti- and pro- inflammatory cytokines, placental transfer of cytokines, the effects of cytokines on glial cells, and the effects of glucocorticoids are important when evaluating the impact of maternal infection on fetal brain development. Although it is clear that cytokines are altered in the fetal brain following maternal infection, further evidence is required to determine if cytokines are the critical factor that alters the trajectory of brain development, subsequently leading to postnatal behavioural and neurological abnormalities.

  10. Autoantibodies induced by chimeric cytokine-HIV envelope glycoprotein immunogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isik, Gözde; van Montfort, Thijs; Chung, Nancy P. Y.; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are often used as adjuvants to increase the immunogenicity of vaccines because they can improve the immune response and/or direct it into a desired direction. As an alternative to codelivering Ags and cytokines separately, they can be fused into a composite protein, with the advantage that

  11. Cytokines: abnormalities in major depression and implications for pharmacological treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    The role of cytokines in depression was first considered when the cytokine interferon resulted in "sickness behaviour", the symptoms of which are similar to those of major depression. The latter is associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). These cytokines are potent modulators of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) which produces heightened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity characterized by increases in ACTH and cortisol, both of which are reported elevated in major depression. Antidepressant treatment has immunomodulatory effects with increases in the production of IL-10, which is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. This review based on a Medline search from 1980-2003, focuses on the evidence available of cytokine changes in acute stress, chronic stress and major depression. It examines the effects of antidepressant treatment on immune parameters in both animal models and clinical trials. We suggest that future antidepressants may target the immune system by either blocking the actions of pro-inflammatory cytokines or increasing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  12. Impact of weight loss on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    addressed the beneficial effects of weight reduction in modulating biomarkers of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress for obesity associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective: This study was designed to detect the effects of weight loss on the inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress markers in obese type 2 ...

  13. Biologics for Targeting Inflammatory Cytokines, Clinical Uses, and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Rider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokines are potent mediators of numerous biological processes and are tightly regulated in the body. Chronic uncontrolled levels of such cytokines can initiate and derive many pathologies, including incidences of autoimmunity and cancer. Therefore, therapies that regulate the activity of inflammatory cytokines, either by supplementation of anti-inflammatory recombinant cytokines or by neutralizing them by using blocking antibodies, have been extensively used over the past decades. Over the past few years, new innovative biological agents for blocking and regulating cytokine activities have emerged. Here, we review some of the most recent approaches of cytokine targeting, focusing on anti-TNF antibodies or recombinant TNF decoy receptor, recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra and anti-IL-1 antibodies, anti-IL-6 receptor antibodies, and TH17 targeting antibodies. We discuss their effects as biologic drugs, as evaluated in numerous clinical trials, and highlight their therapeutic potential as well as emphasize their inherent limitations and clinical risks. We suggest that while systemic blocking of proinflammatory cytokines using biological agents can ameliorate disease pathogenesis and progression, it may also abrogate the hosts defense against infections. Moreover, we outline the rational need to develop new therapies, which block inflammatory cytokines only at sites of inflammation, while enabling their function systemically.

  14. Cytokines in lethal graft-versus-host disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.C.; Bril-Bazuin, C.; Tibbe, G.J.M.; Oudenaren, van A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    1992-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is caused by donor T lymphocytes that recognize foreign antigens on host tissues. This leads to T cell activation, which involves a cascade of events including the transcription of genes for cytokines and their receptors and the production of cytokines. One of the

  15. Cytokines and the Risk of Preterm Delivery in Twin Pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Klein, Katharina; Larsen, Helle

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the association between cytokine levels in twin pregnancies and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, including the effect of progesterone treatment.......To estimate the association between cytokine levels in twin pregnancies and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, including the effect of progesterone treatment....

  16. Inflammatory cytokines and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaptoge, Stephen; Seshasai, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally; Gao, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Because low-grade inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD), and pro-inflammatory cytokines govern inflammatory cascades, this study aimed to assess the associations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and CHD risk in a new prospective study, including meta...

  17. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines by human mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Rieneck, Klaus; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone (SPIR) reduces the mortality and morbidity in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the development and progression of CHF.......The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone (SPIR) reduces the mortality and morbidity in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the development and progression of CHF....

  18. Pathogen interactions with cytokines and host defence: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, H F

    1998-05-15

    This review summarises some of the immune evasion tactics adopted by pathogens. They include the antagonism of immune function through the use of homologues of cytokine receptors, expression of viral proteins which interact with cytokine signal transduction and expression of cytokine mimics and host proteins that influence the Type I or II cytokine responses. Some of the viral defense molecules that interfere with the functions of cytokines include the EBV protein BCRF1 (viral IL-10) which blocks synthesis of cytokines such as IFN-gamma, viral IL-17 and IL-8 receptor encoded by the herpesvirus saimiri genome and chemokine receptor homologues of Epstein-Barr virus, herpesvirus saimiri and cytomegalovirus. These immunomodulatory tactics function to protect the host from the lethal inflammatory effects as well as inhibit the local inflammatory response elicited to kill the foreign pathogen. Other strategies include the alterations in cytokine expression such as demonstrated with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein and terminal protein which can inhibit interferon-beta gene expression, the interactions of the hepatitis C virus core protein to lymphotoxin-beta receptor and the effects of the interferon signal transduction pathway by adenovirus EIA oncogene and HBV by reducing levels or activity of the cytosolic latent transcriptional factors (STATS). Immune evasive strategies of helminth parasites related to cytokine activities will also be briefly discussed.

  19. Cardiotoxicité des psychotropes

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIRI, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Même à dose thérapeutique, les médicaments psychotropes sont susceptibles d'engendrer des troubles du rythme cardiaque graves avec risque létal concourant à expliquer la pré valence de la mort subite dans la population psychiatrique. Les situations cliniques à risque telles que poly médication (des psychotropes entre eux ou d'un psychotrope avec un non psychotrope allongeur de QTc), interactions médicamenteuses aussi bien pharmacodynamiques que pharmacocinétiques, traitement pa...

  20. (AJST) BIOSTRATIGRAPHIE DES FORAMINIFERES ET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Département de Géologie, Faculté des Sciences, Université d'Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 3Département de Géologie et Sciences de l'Environnement, Université de Buea, Cameroun. ARESUME:- 115 déblais de sondage et des ..... Cette méthode a été appliquée au lieu de la première apparition et de la denière apparition ...

  1. The cytokines cardiotrophin-like cytokine/cytokine-like factor-1 (CLC/CLF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) differ in their receptor specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormo, Aurélie Jeanne; Letellier, Marie-Claude; Lissilaa, Rami; Batraville, Laurie-Anne; Sharma, Mukut; Ferlin, Walter; Elson, Greg; Crabé, Sandrine; Gauchat, Jean-François

    2012-12-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC) are two cytokines with neurotrophic and immunomodulatory activities. CNTF is a cytoplasmic factor believed to be released upon cellular damage, while CLC requires interaction with a soluble cytokine receptor, cytokine-like factor 1 (CLF), to be efficiently secreted. Both cytokines activate a receptor complex comprising the cytokine binding CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα) and two signaling chains namely, leukemia inhibitory factor receptor β (LIFRβ) and gp130. Human CNTF can recruit and activate an alternative receptor in which CNTFRα is substituted by IL-6Rα. As both CNTF and CLC have immune-regulatory activities in mice, we compared their ability to recruit mouse receptors comprising both gp130 and LIFRβ signaling chains and either IL-6Rα or IL-11Rα which, unlike CNTFRα, are expressed by immune cells. Our results indicate that 1) mouse CNTF, like its human homologue, can activate cells expressing gp130/LIFRβ with either CNTFRα or IL-6Rα and, 2) CLC/CLF is more restricted in its specificity in that it activates only the tripartite CNTFR. Several gp130 signaling cytokines influence T helper cell differentiation. We therefore investigated the effect of CNTF on CD4 T cell cytokine production. We observed that CNTF increased the number of IFN-γ producing CD4 T cells. As IFN-γ is considered a mediator of the therapeutic effect of IFN-β in multiple sclerosis, induction of IFN-γ by CNTF may contribute to the beneficial immunomodulatory effect of CNTF in mouse multiple sclerosis models. Together, our results indicate that CNTF activates the same tripartite receptors in mouse and human cells and further validate rodent models for pre-clinical investigation of CNTF and CNTF derivatives. Furthermore, CNTF and CLC/CLF differ in their receptor specificities. The receptor α chain involved in the immunomodulatory effects of CLC/CLF remains to be identified. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by

  2. Contribution des radios communautaires a l'education des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TIC » ont sur l'éducation des adolescents. Par une démarche d'étude essentiellement transversale, quantitative et qualitative, nous avons interrogé 160 sujets et les données collectées ont fait découvrir autant d'influences positives que ...

  3. Cartographie des zones d'intervention des partenaires techniques et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Il s'agit des Communes ayant 7 à 10 partenaires (niveau 1), les. Communes ayant 11 à 14 (niveau 2) et les Communes ayant plus de 15 partenaires (niveau 3). Mots clés : Cartographie, Bénin, zones d'intervention, partenaires techniques et financiers (PTF), taux spatial d'intervention (TSI), taux de population couverte ...

  4. Traits morphologiques des graines et vigueur des jeunes plants de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    écologique du Sénégal afin de pouvoir sélectionner une meilleure semence qui sera destinée aux programmes de développement des énergies renouvelables. Morphological traits of seeds and seedling vigor of two sources of Jatropha curcas L. in ...

  5. Traits morphologiques des graines et vigueur des jeunes plants de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    écologique du Sénégal afin de pouvoir sélectionner une meilleure semence qui sera destinée aux programmes de développement des énergies renouvelables. Journal of Applied Biosciences 88:8249– 8255. ISSN 1997–5902 ...

  6. Evaluation des conditions de germination des noyaux de Grewia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    personnel

    31 janv. 2014 ... 1Laboratoire de Physiologie et Production Végétales, Université Marien NGOUABI,. Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, BP.69. Brazzaville, Republique du Congo. 2Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Agronomie et Forestérie, Université Marien NGOUABI,. BP. 69. Brazzaville, Republique du Congo.

  7. Cytokines in Bipolar Disorder: Paving the Way for Neuroprogression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a severe, chronic, and recurrent psychiatric illness. It has been associated with high prevalence of medical comorbidities and cognitive impairment. Its neurobiology is not completely understood, but recent evidence has shown a wide range of immune changes. Cytokines are proteins involved in the regulation and the orchestration of the immune response. We performed a review on the involvement of cytokines in BD. We also discuss the cytokines involvement in the neuroprogression of BD. It has been demonstrated that increased expression of cytokines in the central nervous system in postmortem studies is in line with the elevated circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines in BD patients. The proinflammatory profile and the immune imbalance in BD might be regarded as potential targets to the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  8. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianli Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future.

  9. The inflammatory cytokines: molecular biomarkers for major depressive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charlotte; Tansey, Katherine E; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Powell, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are pleotropic cell signaling proteins that, in addition to their role as inflammatory mediators, also affect neurotransmitter systems, brain functionality and mood. Here we explore the potential utility of cytokine biomarkers for major depressive disorder. Specifically, we explore how genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic information relating to the cytokines might act as biomarkers, aiding clinical diagnosis and treatment selection processes. We advise future studies to investigate whether cytokine biomarkers might differentiate major depressive disorder patients from other patient groups with overlapping clinical characteristics. Furthermore, we invite future pharmacogenetic studies to investigate whether early antidepressant-induced changes to cytokine mRNA or protein levels precede behavioral changes and act as longer-term predictors of clinical antidepressant response.

  10. [Cytokine imbalance in critically ill patients: SIRS and CARS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, A; Kikuchi, M; Mishima, S; Sakaki, S; Goto, H; Matsuoka, T; Tanaka, H; Yukioka, T; Shimazaki, S

    1999-07-01

    It remains difficult to treat severely ill patients, especially those who have sepsis and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. We propose the hypothesis that the pathophysiology in the sequential sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome may be strongly related to the imbalance between inflammatory cytokines and antiinflammatory cytokines induced for the host defense to active neutrophils and endothelial cells. Thus we attempted to develop cytokine modulation therapy to normalize the cytokine balance in the host defense system. In this review, we elucidate the relationship between cytokine imbalance and SIRS/CARS in patients with severe burn injury. Furthermore, we examine the possible usage of G-CSF to amplify neutrophil function, and clarify the reasons why various innovative therapies against sepsis have failed.

  11. Unique Cytokine Signature in the Plasma of Patients with Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Sturgill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FMS is a chronic pain syndrome with a complex but poorly understood pathogenesis affecting approximately 10 million adults in the United States. The lack of a clear etiology of FMS has limited the effective diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating condition. The objective of this secondary data analysis was to examine plasma cytokine levels in women with FMS using the Bio-Plex Human Cytokine 17-plex Assay. Post hoc analysis of plasma cytokine levels was performed to evaluate patterns that were not specified a priori. Upon examination, patients with FMS exhibited a marked reduction in TH2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. The finding of this pattern of altered cytokine milieu not only supports the role of inflammation in FMS but also may lead to more definitive diagnostic tools for clinicians treating FMS. The TH2 suppression provides strong evidence of immune dysregulation in patients with FMS.

  12. Biocompatibility of poly allylamine synthesized by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, E.; Enriquez, M.A.; Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.J.; Morales, J.; Olayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the electric and hydrophilic properties of poly allylamine (PAI) synthesized by plasma whose structure contains N-H, C-H, C-O and O-H bonds is presented, that promote the biocompatibility with the human body. To study the PAI hydrolytic affinity, solutions of salt concentration similar to those of the human body were used. The results indicate that the solutions modify the charge balance in the surfaces reducing the hydrophobicity in the poly allylamine whose contact angle oscillates among 10 and 16 degrees and the liquid-solid surface tension between 4 and 8 dina/cm. (Author)

  13. Syntheses and electronic structures of decamethylmanganocenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.L.; Edelstein, N.M.; Cooper, S.R.; Smart, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The syntheses of [(C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) 2 Mn]PF 6 , (C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) 2 Mn, and Na[(C 5 (CH 3 ) 5 ) 2 Mn] are described. Magnetic susceptibility, infrared, electrochemical, NMR, and reactivity studies suggest the formulation of these complexes as low-spin 16-, 17-, and 18-electron planar metallocenes. EPR spectra of the neutral complex are consistent with the 2 E/sub 2g/ configuration determined for other low-spin 17-electron metallocenes. 1 figure, 3 tables

  14. CNN based texture synthesize with Semantic segment

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xianye; Zhuo, Bocheng; Li, Peijie; He, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning algorithm display powerful ability in Computer Vision area, in recent year, the CNN has been applied to solve problems in the subarea of Image-generating, which has been widely applied in areas such as photo editing, image design, computer animation, real-time rendering for large scale of scenes and for visual effects in movies. However in the texture synthesize procedure. The state-of-art CNN can not capture the spatial location of texture in image, lead to significant distorti...

  15. Waste management - cytokines, growth factors and cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Amarjit; Al-Shanti, Nasser; Nasser, Al-Shanti; Stewart, Claire E H

    2006-12-01

    Muscle damage with a lack of regeneration, manifests itself in several life-threatening diseases, including cancer cachexia, congestive heart failure, AIDS and sepsis. Often misdiagnosed as a condition simply of weight loss, cachexia is actually a highly complex metabolic disorder involving features of anorexia, anaemia, lipolysis and insulin resistance. A significant loss of lean body mass arises from such conditions, resulting in wasting of skeletal muscle. Unlike starvation, the weight loss seen in chronic illnesses arises equally from loss of muscle and of fat. The cachectic state is particularly problematic in cancer, typifying poor prognosis and often lowering responses to chemotherapy and radiation treatment. More than half of cancer patients suffer from cachexia, and strikingly, nearly one-third of cancer deaths are related to cachexia rather than the tumour burden. In considering this disorder, we are faced with a conundrum; how is it possible for uncontrolled growth to prevail in the tumour, in the face of unrestrained tissue loss in our muscles? Consistently, the catabolic state has been associated with a shift in the homeostatic balance between muscle synthesis and degradation mediated by the actions of growth factors and cytokines. Indeed, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels are raised in several animal models of cachectic muscle wasting, whereas the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system acts potently to regulate muscle development, hypertrophy and maintenance. This concept of skeletal muscle homeostasis, often viewed as the net balance between two separate processes of protein synthesis and degradation has however changed. More recently, the view is that these two biochemical processes are not occurring independently of each other but in fact are finely co-ordinated by a web of intricate signalling networks. This review, therefore, aims to discuss data currently available regarding the mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration with

  16. La maison des mathématiques

    CERN Document Server

    Villani, Cédric; Moncorgé, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Comment travaillent les mathématiciens ? C'est peut-être en se promenant dans les couloirs de la première des " maisons des mathématiques " de France, l'institut Henri Poincaré, que l'on trouvera quelques réponses. Le mathématicien Cédric Villani et le physicien Jean-Philippe Uzan nous invitent à découvrir cette discipline et ses acteurs. Au fil des pages on suit, à travers de superbes images signées du photographe Vincent Moncorgé, la façon dont se fabrique cette science qui reste souvent mystérieuse. Toutes les dimensions, scientifique, esthétique et poétique, des mathématiques sont convoquées grâce à des regards croisés : la diversité des inspirations des chercheurs, la source de leur créativité, l'imaginaire littéraire et artistique des mathématiques, la drôle de tribu des mathématiciens. Un voyage au cœur de cette " auberge espagnole " des mathématiques, campus " à la française " accueillant des centaines de chercheurs du monde entier, devenu un lieu d'émulation et d'éc...

  17. Etude des erreurs d'estimation des populations par la méthode des captures successives (DeLURY, 2 captures et des captures-recaptures (PETERSEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURENT M.

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available L'estimation des populations naturelles par capture-recapture et par captures successives est souvent entachée d'erreur car, dans de nombreux cas, l'hypothèse fondamentale d'égalité des probabilités de captures pour tous les individus dans le temps et dans l'espace n'est pas respectée. Dans le cas des populations de poissons envisagés ici, les captures ont lieu par la pêche électrique. On a pu chiffrer l'ordre de grandeur des erreurs systématiques faites sur l'estimation des peuplements, en fonction des conditions particulières, biotiques et abiotiques, des différents milieux inventoriés.

  18. REPARTITION BRANCHIALE DES MONOGENES Gotocotyla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Sur la base des données recoltées, nous avons défini et discuté de la localisation branchiale de ces deux monogènes dans le cas d'infestations monospécifiques et .... et Pyragraphorus hollisae. Monospecific infections of Trachinotus ovatus with Gotocotyla acanthura and. Pyragraphorus hollisae. Nbre = Nombre ...

  19. Les parcs des porcelainiers Haviland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Chabrely

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Les parcs du Reynou et de Mont-Méry en Limousin, anciennes propriétés des porcelainiers Haviland, présentent l’un et l’autre un grand intérêt paysager et botanique. Dans les deux cas, l’attribution de la création est incertaine. Cet article propose pour le Reynou une analyse de documents figurés anciens permettant de préciser la chronologie des travaux du château et du parc. Pour Mont-Méry il s’agit de poser de nouveaux jalons pour une étude plus approfondie des sources et de la composition des jardins afin d’envisager de nouvelles pistes pour leur attribution.The Reynou and Mont-Méry parks near Limoges originally belonged to the city’s porcelain manufacturers, the Havilands. Both parks are of considerable interest in terms of their landscaping and their botany. In both cases, there is some uncertainty as to the identity of their designers. This article offers an analysis of the graphic representations of the Reynou park, clarifying the chronology of the creation of the château and its park. For the Mont-Méry park, the aim is to offer some guidelines for further research in the source material and on the design of the park itself, perhaps allowing for the designer to be identified.

  20. Reduction des effectifs ou licenciements

    CERN Multimedia

    Maiani, Luciano

    2002-01-01

    "Vous faites un amalgame entre la reduction en cours des effectifs du CERN (organisation europeenne pour la recherche nucleaire) et les economies que le laboratoire doit realiser dans les cinq ans a venir pour financer le projet de grand collisionneur de hadrons (Le Monde du 4 septembre)" (1/2 page).

  1. Neue Lycaeniden des Leiderner Museums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fruhstorfer, H.

    1916-01-01

    Einige Exemplare aus der Lycaena cleotas Guér.-Gruppe des Leidener Museums veranlassten mich das Material meiner Sammlung und meine Übersicht übe die Formen der Gattung Luthrodes, Iris 1915, pp. 47-49, nochmals nachzuprüfen. Bei dieser Gelegenheit fand ich, dass die unbedeutende Chilades laius Cram,

  2. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Abhijeet; Sharma, Madan Mohan

    2016-01-01

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO 3 via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  3. Squid Giant Axons Synthesize NF Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Marianna; Chun, Jong Tai; Giuditta, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Squid giant axon has been an excellent model system for studying fundamental topics in neurobiology such as neuronal signaling. It has been also useful in addressing the questions of local protein synthesis in the axons. Incubation of isolated squid giant axons with [ 35 S]methionine followed by immunoprecipitation with a rabbit antibody against all squid neurofilament (NF) proteins demonstrates the local synthesis of a major 180 kDa NF protein and of several NF proteins of lower molecular weights. Their identification as NF proteins is based on their absence in the preimmune precipitates. Immunoprecipitates washed with more stringent buffers confirmed these results. Our data are at variance with a recent study based on the same experimental procedure that failed to visualize the local synthesis of NF proteins by the giant axon and thereby suggested their exclusive derivation from nerve cell bodies (as reported by Gainer et al. in Cell Mol Neurobiol 37:475-486, 2017). By reviewing the pertinent literature, we confute the claims that mRNA translation is absent in mature axons because of a putative translation block and that most proteins of mature axons are synthesized in the surrounding glial cells. Given the intrinsic axonal capacity to synthesize proteins, we stress the glial derivation of axonal and presynaptic RNAs and the related proposal that these neuronal domains are endowed with largely independent gene expression systems (as reported by Giuditta et al. in Physiol Rev 88:515-555, 2008).

  4. Recent Advances in Chemoenzymatic Peptide Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Yazawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemoenzymatic peptide synthesis is the hydrolase-catalyzed stereoselective formation of peptide bonds. It is a clean and mild procedure, unlike conventional chemical synthesis, which involves complicated and laborious protection-deprotection procedures and harsh reaction conditions. The chemoenzymatic approach has been utilized for several decades because determining the optimal conditions for conventional synthesis is often time-consuming. The synthesis of poly- and oligopeptides comprising various amino acids longer than a dipeptide continues to pose a challenge owing to the lack of knowledge about enzymatic mechanisms and owing to difficulty in optimizing the pH, temperature, and other reaction conditions. These drawbacks limit the applications of the chemoenzymatic approach. Recently, a variety of enzymes and substrates produced using recombinant techniques, substrate mimetics, and optimal reaction conditions (e.g., frozen aqueous media and ionic liquids have broadened the scope of chemoenzymatic peptide syntheses. In this review, we highlight the recent advances in the chemoenzymatic syntheses of various peptides and their use in developing new materials and biomedical applications.

  5. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Abhijeet, E-mail: abhijeet.singh@jaipur.manipal.edu; Sharma, Madan Mohan [Manipal University Jaipur (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO{sub 3} via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  6. Globalisation des marchés de capitaux et valorisation des actifs financiers

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Pepin

    2000-01-01

    Ce papier examine les effets de la libéralisation ou globalisation des marchés de capitaux sur les prix des actifs financiers. La comparaison des modèles de segmentation (douce) et d'intégration des marchés montre que la libéralisation des marchés a pour effet de favoriser la hausse des prix des actifs. Nous montrons que ce résultat ne résiste pas à une généralisation de l'analyse. La prise en compte du caractère multiple et simultanée des processus de libéralisation des marchés de capitaux a...

  7. Cytokine production and visualized effects in the feto-maternal unit. Quantitative and topographic data on cytokines during intrauterine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmach, T; Hebisch, G; Joller-Jemelka, H I; Orban, P; Schwaller, J; Engelmann, M

    1995-09-01

    A large array of cytokines show high activity in amniotic fluid. Attempts have been made to quantify the concentrations or to track rising levels for diagnostic purposes when examining disturbances of the feto-maternal unit. However, the kinetics of cytokine production in the amniotic fluid are not well understood, and there is lack of knowledge about concomitant levels in fetal and maternal blood. The presence of cytokines in fetal and placental cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry using mAb. Cytokines were quantified by enzymimmunoassay in amniotic fluid and fetal and maternal blood. This was done with regard to two disease states that quite frequently complicate the course of pregnancy, namely chorioamnionitis and intrauterine growth retardation. The cytokines examined were G-CSF, GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8. In chorioamnionitis, all cytokines, except GM-CSF, were elevated about 100 times in the amniotic fluid. An accompanying increase in maternal and fetal blood was only found for IL-6 and G-CSF; IL-8 was elevated in fetal blood only. Intrauterine growth retardation was characterized by elevated levels of TNF-alpha in the amniotic fluid, whereas G-CSF, GM-CSF, and IL-1 beta were significantly reduced. Immunohistochemistry showed that under normal conditions the cytokines are to be found in a characteristic distribution in certain cell types in the fetus, the placenta, and the placental bed. With rising concentrations, more cells seemed to be recruited for cytokine production, especially macrophages and decidual cells. In chorioamnionitis, fetal extramedullary granulopoiesis was augmented, and in intrauterine growth retardation, erythropoiesis as well as granulopoiesis were depressed. Not only inflammatory disease but also intrauterine growth retardation is characterized by a changing cytokine pattern. Alterations in fetal hematopoiesis observed at postmortem examination of perinatal deaths can be correlated to changes in cytokine

  8. Reduced Fc∊RI-Mediated Release of Asthma-Promoting Cytokines and Chemokines from Human Basophils during Omalizumab Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Janet M.; Tarleton, Christy A.; Gilmartin, Laura; Archibeque, Tereassa; Qualls, Clifford R.; Diehl, Lorena; Wilson, Bridget S.; Schuyler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background Treating asthmatics with the humanized IgE-scavenging antibody, omalizumab (rhuMAb-E25, Xolair®), reduces airways inflammation and asthma symptoms. Previously, omalizumab was shown to cause a dramatic and reversible loss of cell surface high-affinity IgE receptors, Fc∊RI, from the peripheral blood basophils of asthmatics. The consequences of receptor loss for the Fc∊RI-mediated synthesis and release of cytokines implicated in allergic asthma have not been examined. Methods Fifteen asthmatic volunteers each received omalizumab for 12 weeks. Peripheral blood basophils were isolated before, during, 2 weeks after and 6 months after omalizumab. Basophils were assayed for the basal and anti-IgE-stimulated release of cytokines, chemokines and histamine. Pooled data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and by paired t tests. Results Anti-IgE-stimulated human basophils synthesize and release Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13) and chemokines (IL-8, RANTES). The anti-IgE-stimulated release of IL-4, IL-13 and IL-8 was reduced during omalizumab treatment and returned to pretreatment levels after omalizumab withdrawal. Omalizumab did not alter basophil histamine levels or basal and anti-IgE-stimulated histamine release. Conclusions Omalizumab may reduce asthma symptoms in part by suppressing the Fc∊RI-mediated production by basophils of Th2 cytokines and selected chemokines. Anti-IgE-stimulated basophil cytokine synthesis appears more sensitive than histamine release to the loss of Fc∊RI caused by omalizumab treatment. PMID:19844128

  9. Biologie des populations des Monogènes Polystomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TINSLEY R. C.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Les cycles des monogènes polystomatidae montrent une très grande diversité. Parmi ceux qui infestent des amphibiens anoures, on devrait s'attendre à ce que la taille des populations parasites montre des différences prononcées, selon que des réinfestations interviennent régulièrement chaque année, ou qu'il n'y en ait qu'une dans la vie de l'hôte. Toutefois, à quelques exceptions près, les niveaux d'infestation sont généralement bas, quelle que soit la durée de vie de l'hôte. Les facteurs susceptibles de réguler les populations de polystomatidae parasites d'amphibiens anoures sont récapitulés ici, et nous nous penchons plus particulièrement sur les mécanismes contrôlant l'infestation et, par voie de conséquence, la survie post-infestation. Les effets d'un éventail de facteurs sont envisagés, parmi lesquels les contraintes environnementales externes (en particulier, la température, les facteurs liés à l'hôte (dont le comportement et la durée de vie et les facteurs propres au parasite (dont la compétition intraspécifique. Deux genres de Polystomatidae témoignent d'une régulation densité-dépendante des infrapopulations unique, contrôlée par la production de deux types de larves. Il existe des données de terrain et de laboratoire qui permettent de quantifier les effets de ces différents paramètres pour un certain nombre d'espèces de Polystomes. Les résultats obtenus pour Pseudodiplorchis americanus suggèrent que, même lorsqu'ils sont combinés, les effets de ces différents facteurs ne suffisent pas à rendre compte de la puissante régulation que l'on observe dans les populations naturelles où, malgré de massives infestations annuelles, les populations de parasites adultes sont faibles en effectif et remarquablement stables d'une année à l'autre. C'est la preuve indirecte qu'une importante régulation intervient par l'intermédiaire de l'immunité-hôte. Pour pouvoir pousser plus loin l

  10. Tirer parti des données massives des réseaux mobiles pour établir ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tirer parti des données massives des réseaux mobiles pour établir des politiques de développement. Nombre de pays en développement sont dépourvus des capacités et des ressources requises pour recueillir et analyser des données aux fins de l'élaboration de politiques basées sur des données probantes.

  11. Gliovascular and cytokine interactions modulate brain endothelial barrier in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya, Ganta V; Cromer, Walter E; Wells, Shannon R; Jennings, Merilyn H; Couraud, P Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Mathis, J Michael; Minagar, Alireza; Alexander, J Steven

    2011-11-23

    The glio-vascular unit (G-unit) plays a prominent role in maintaining homeostasis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and disturbances in cells forming this unit may seriously dysregulate BBB. The direct and indirect effects of cytokines on cellular components of the BBB are not yet unclear. The present study compares the effects of cytokines and cytokine-treated astrocytes on brain endothelial barrier. 3-dimensional transwell co-cultures of brain endothelium and related-barrier forming cells with astrocytes were used to investigate gliovascular barrier responses to cytokines during pathological stresses. Gliovascular barrier was measured using trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), a sensitive index of in vitro barrier integrity. We found that neither TNF-α, IL-1β or IFN-γ directly reduced barrier in human or mouse brain endothelial cells or ECV-304 barrier (independent of cell viability/metabolism), but found that astrocyte exposure to cytokines in co-culture significantly reduced endothelial (and ECV-304) barrier. These results indicate that the barrier established by human and mouse brain endothelial cells (and other cells) may respond positively to cytokines alone, but that during pathological conditions, cytokines dysregulate the barrier forming cells indirectly through astrocyte activation involving reorganization of junctions, matrix, focal adhesion or release of barrier modulating factors (e.g. oxidants, MMPs). © 2011 Chaitanya et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Inflammasome-independent regulation of IL-1-family cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Mihai G; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; van der Meer, Jos W M; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo A B

    2015-01-01

    Induction, production, and release of proinflammatory cytokines are essential steps to establish an effective host defense. Cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family induce inflammation and regulate T lymphocyte responses while also displaying homeostatic and metabolic activities. With the exception of the IL-1 receptor antagonist, all IL-1 family cytokines lack a signal peptide and require proteolytic processing into an active molecule. One such unique protease is caspase-1, which is activated by protein platforms called the inflammasomes. However, increasing evidence suggests that inflammasomes and caspase-1 are not the only mechanism for processing IL-1 cytokines. IL-1 cytokines are often released as precursors and require extracellular processing for activity. Here we review the inflammasome-independent enzymatic processes that are able to activate IL-1 cytokines, paying special attention to neutrophil-derived serine proteases, which subsequently induce inflammation and modulate host defense. The inflammasome-independent processing of IL-1 cytokines has important consequences for understanding inflammatory diseases, and it impacts the design of IL-1-based modulatory therapies.

  13. Inflammation, cytokines and anti-inflammatory therapies in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, J Y; Lopes, M E; Champagne, S; Su, J B; Merlet, P; Hittinger, L

    2002-03-01

    Both experimental and clinical studies have shown a role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of heart failure. This seems related to an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Certain categories in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy have shown the presence of humoral and cellular immunity activation suggesting a possible relation between myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Recent studies suggest a link between the circulating levels of cytokines (TNF alpha IL-1 et IL-6), the clinical status and prognostic. However, the mechanisms connecting heart failure and cytokine activation are unclear and the sites of cytokines production remain controversial. In the clinical setting, specific measurements of cytokines are not available. As tests of inflammation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein concentration appear to have interesting pronostic values. Current conventional therapy i.e. ACE inhibitors, type I angiotensin II antagonist and beta-blockers have shown some anti-cytokine properties. Recently, immunosuppressive therapies have shown their ability to improve symptoms and LV ejection in selected patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and clear sign of myocardium inflammation. Specific anti-cytokine therapy have been developed and showed interesting results in preliminary clinical studies. However large clinical trials testing this new therapy have been stoppel prematurely because of deterious effects.

  14. Cytokine Expression in Patients Hospitalized for Severe Odontogenic Infection in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette-Dias, Augusto C; Maciel, Kamilla F; Abdo, Evandro N; Brito, Luciana C N; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora R; Vieira, Leda Q; Farias, Luiz M; Ribeiro-Sobrinho, Antônio P; Magalhães, Paula P

    2016-05-01

    Severe odontogenic infections remain an important public health concern and a significant economic burden to public health care facilities. Despite this, several aspects of the disease, such as its immune response profile, remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to search for an association between mRNA levels of the cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-17A, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β and the chemokines IL-8, CCL2/MCP-1, and CCL5 and odontogenic infection. The case group was composed of 12 patients hospitalized in consequence of severe odontogenic infection, and our control group included 12 individuals with healthy periapical tissues. Clinical samples were taken from the case (drainage site) and control (periapical interstitial fluid) groups with the aid of paper points. Total RNA was extracted, complementary DNA was synthesized, and mRNA levels were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS, and the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine statistical significance (P odontogenic infection patients. The mRNA levels of IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and CCL5 were similar in both study groups. In general, individuals presenting with odontogenic infections exhibited extraordinary proinflammatory cytokine profiles paralleled with unaltered expression of regulatory mediators. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Etats des lieux des e-services internes dans les organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Orru, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    A l’heure actuelle, les techniques de communication interne ont évoluées. Au fil des années, la communication passe des outils dit classiques vers une communication de plus en plus orientée vers des outils virtuels et informatisés tels que l’internet, l’intranet, les réseaux sociaux, … Ce mémoire consistait à faire un « Etat des lieux des e-services internes existants dans les organisations ». La recherche de ce travail, soutenue par une étude quantitative, a permis d’analyser l’impact des e-...

  16. Synthese von analogen Filtern auf einer rekonfigurierbaren Hardware-Architektur mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trendelenburg

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Rekonfigurierbare Analog-Arrays (FPAAs sind der Versuch, die Vorteile der aus der digitalen Welt bekannten FPGAs (Flexibilität, Entwurfsgeschwindigkeit auch für analoge Anwendungen verfügbar zu machen. Aufgrund der Vielfalt der analogen Schaltungstechnik ist die Abbildung von vorgegebenen Schaltungskonzepten auf eine FPAA-Architektur nicht immer einfach lösbar.

    Diese Arbeit stellt einen neuen Ansatz für die Synthese von Filtern auf einer FPAA-Architektur für zeitkontinuierliche Analogfilter mittels eines Genetischen Algorithmus (GA vor. Anhand eines Matlab-Modells des FPAA, das eine gute übereinstimmung mit Simulationen des FPAA auf Transistorebene aufweist, wurde gezeigt, dass eine große Vielzahl verschiedener Filterstrukturen auf dieser Architektur dargestellt werden kann. Daraufhin wurde ein Genetischer Algorithmus entwickelt, der es erlaubt, aus einer gegebenen Filterspezifikation Konfigurationsdatensätze zu synthetisieren, die den gewünschten Filter auf die FPAA-Architektur abbilden.

  17. Évaluation de la valeur nutritive et recherche des substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2016 ... et des lipides. Puis, l'évaluation a été effectuée sur ces échantillons pour rechercher la présence des alcaloïdes, des saponines, des quinones, des stéroïdes, des terpenoïdes, des flavonoïdes, des leucoanthocyanes, des tannoïdes et des hétérosides cyanogénétiques. Les teneurs moyennes en humidité ...

  18. Multistatic Surveillance and Reconnaissance: Sensor, Signals and Data Fusion (Surveillance et Reconnaissance Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs, des signaux et des donnees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    capteurs , des signaux et des données) Research and Technology Organisation (NATO) BP 25, F-92201 Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex, France RTO-EN-SET-133...Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs , des signaux et des données) The material in this publication was assembled to support a Lecture Series under the...Surveillance et Reconnaissance Multistatiques : Fusion des capteurs , des signaux et des données (RTO-EN-SET-133) Synthèse Les systèmes radar

  19. Enzymatically synthesized glycogen inhibits colitis through decreasing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Takakazu; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Yamashita, Yoko; Shirai, Yasuhito; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2017-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are a group of chronic inflammation conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the mucosal immune response causes accumulation of oxidative stress, resulting in the induction of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG), which is produced from starch, on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice. Oral administration of ESG suppressed DSS- and TNBS-induced shortening of large intestine in female mice and significant decreased DSS-induced oxidative stress and TNBS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the large intestine. ESG increase in the expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor for HO-1 expressed in the large intestine. Furthermore, ESG-induced HO-1 and Nrf2 were expressed mainly in intestinal macrophages. ESG is considered to be metabolized to resistant glycogen (RG) during digestion with α-amylase in vivo. In mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, RG, but not ESG decreased 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Knockdown of Nrf2 inhibited RG-induced HO-1 expression and negated the decrease in AAPH-induced ROS brought about by RG. RG up-regulated the protein stability of Nrf2 to decrease the formation of Nrf2-Keap1 complexes. RG-induced phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser40 was suppressed by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. Our data indicate that ESG, digested with α-amylase to RG, suppresses DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis by increasing the expression of HO-1 in the large intestine of mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RG induces HO-1 expression by promoting phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser40 through activation of the ERK1/2 and JNK cascade in macrophages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. La territorialisation des politiques environnementales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amédée Mollard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Le point de départ de cet article est la grande variabilité de la pollution nitrique diffuse de l’eau due à l’agriculture. Celle-ci dépend en particulier du climat, des types de sol et des systèmes de production agricole. Nos recherches réalisées de façon interdisciplinaire à partir de deux sites différents en France, montrent que cette hétérogénéité spatio-temporelle conditionne les pratiques agricoles mises en œuvre pour réduire la pollution au niveau de la norme admise. De ce fait, les pratiques les plus « coût-efficaces » diffèrent d’un territoire à l’autre, en fonction des caractéristiques locales. Ces résultats mettent donc en évidence une efficacité potentielle d’une territorialisation des politiques publiques. En théorie, de telles politiques sont considérées comme optimales par les économistes, car elles incitent les agents à moduler leurs efforts en fonction de la sensibilité du milieu. Mais, selon les études empiriques, cet avantage serait annulé par un coût élevé de mise en œuvre, de contrôle et de surveillance. Pour maintenir leur avantage sur des politiques uniformes, les politiques territorialisées devraient être mises en œuvre à un niveau spatial optimal. Un tel niveau devrait au minimum atteindre un compromis entre l’économie réalisée grâce à une modulation adaptée aux conditions locales et les sur-coûts dus à la décentralisation des solutions mises en œuvre. Cet article analyse la pertinence d’une prise en compte de ces spécificités par des politiques territorialisées. L’efficacité d’une régulation différenciée de la pollution nitrique est étudiée ici en évaluant l’importance de la variabilité spatiale des paramètres physiques et des coûts de la territorialisation.The paper starts with the wide variability of nonpoint water nitrogenous pollution generated by agriculture. This variability depends especially on climate, soil types and farming

  1. Synthesizing lattice structures in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lingzhen; Marthaler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In one dimensional systems, it is possible to create periodic structures in phase space through driving, which is called phase space crystals (Guo et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 205303). This is possible even if for particles trapped in a potential without periodicity. In this paper we discuss ultracold atoms in a driven optical lattice, which is a realization of such a phase space crystals. The corresponding lattice structure in phase space is complex and contains rich physics. A phase space lattice differs fundamentally from a lattice in real space, because its coordinate system, i.e., phase space, has a noncommutative geometry, which naturally provides an artificial gauge (magnetic) field. We study the behavior of the quasienergy band structure and investigate the dissipative dynamics. Synthesizing lattice structures in phase space provides a new platform to simulate the condensed matter phenomena and study the intriguing phenomena of driven systems far away from equilibrium. (paper)

  2. Sorption of mercury on chemically synthesized polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remya Devi, P.S.; Verma, R.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and methyl mercury, on chemically synthesized polyaniline, in 0.1-10N HCl solutions has been studied. Hg 2+ is strongly sorbed at low acidities and the extent of sorption decreases with increase in acidity. The sorption of methyl mercury is very low in the HCl concentration range studied. Sorption of Hg 2+ on polyaniline in 0.1-10N LiCl and H 2 SO 4 solutions has also been studied. The analysis of the data indicates that the sorption of Hg 2+ depends on the degree of protonation of polyaniline and the nature of mercury(II) chloride complexes in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS) of polyaniline sorbed with mercury show that mercury is bound as Hg 2+ . Sorbed mercury is quantitatively eluted from polyaniline with 0.5N HNO 3 . Polyaniline can be used for separation and pre-concentration of inorganic mercury from aqueous samples. (author)

  3. Hydrothermal syntheses and crystal structure of NH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Z. J.; Wang, Y. X.; You, F. T.; Lin, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Ammonium rare earth fluorides NH(sub 4)Ln(sub 3)F(sub 10) (Ln=Dy, Ho, Y, Er, Tm) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Two polymorphs, of the hexagonal(beta)-KYb(sub 3)F(sub 10) and the cubic(gamma)-KYb(sub 3)F(sub 10) structure types, were formed under hydrothermal conditions for most of the rare earth fluorides except NH(sub 4)Dy(sub 3)F(sub 10), for which only the cubic -phase was obtained. The crystal structures of MLn(sub 3)F(sub 10) (M=alkaline metal, NH(sup+4) and Ln=rare earth) show a strong correlation to the ratio of ionic radii (R(sub M)/R(sub Ln)), which has been expressed in a structure phase diagram of the ionic radii of univalent and rare earth cations

  4. Methods for synthesizing metal oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kumar, Vivekanand; Kim, Jeong H.; Clark, Ezra Lee

    2016-08-09

    A method of synthesizing a metal oxide nanowire includes the steps of: combining an amount of a transition metal or a transition metal oxide with an amount of an alkali metal compound to produce a mixture; activating a plasma discharge reactor to create a plasma discharge; exposing the mixture to the plasma discharge for a first predetermined time period such that transition metal oxide nanowires are formed; contacting the transition metal oxide nanowires with an acid solution such that an alkali metal ion is exchanged for a hydrogen ion on each of the transition metal oxide nanowires; and exposing the transition metal oxide nanowires to the plasma discharge for a second predetermined time period to thermally anneal the transition metal oxide nanowires. Transition metal oxide nanowires produced using the synthesis methods described herein are also provided.

  5. Structure of the enzymatically synthesized fructan inulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyer, A.G.; Schroeer, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 25, 14476 Golm (Germany); Radosta, S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Angewandte Polymerforschung, Postfach 126, 14504 Teltow (Germany); Wolff, D.; Czapla, S.; Springer, J. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, FG Makromolekulare Chemie, Str. des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-12-15

    Construction, purification and characterization of a fusion protein of maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli and the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans is described. With the purified protein, in vitro synthesis of inulin was performed. The obtained polysaccharide was characterized by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and static light scattering (SLS) in dilute aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide solution. For all samples very high molecular weights between 60x10{sup 6} and 90x10{sup 6} g/mol and a remarkable small polydispersity index of 1.1 have been determined. Small root-mean-square radii of gyration point to a compact conformation in dilute solution. No difference between native and enzymatically synthesized inulin was observed by X-ray powder diffraction and thermoanalysis of solid samples. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Structure of the enzymatically synthesized fructan inulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyer, A.G.; Schroeer, B.; Radosta, S.; Wolff, D.; Czapla, S.; Springer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Construction, purification and characterization of a fusion protein of maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli and the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans is described. With the purified protein, in vitro synthesis of inulin was performed. The obtained polysaccharide was characterized by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and static light scattering (SLS) in dilute aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide solution. For all samples very high molecular weights between 60x10 6 and 90x10 6 g/mol and a remarkable small polydispersity index of 1.1 have been determined. Small root-mean-square radii of gyration point to a compact conformation in dilute solution. No difference between native and enzymatically synthesized inulin was observed by X-ray powder diffraction and thermoanalysis of solid samples. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Synthesis, characterization, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the dissolution of ThO{sub 2} and of solid solutions Th{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 2} (M = U, Pu); Synthese, caracterisation et etudes cinetique et thermodynamique de la dissolution de ThO{sub 2} et des solutions solides Th{sub 1-x}M{sub x}O{sub 2} (M = U, Pu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisbourg, G

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this work was to understand the mechanisms of dissolution of ThO{sub 2} and of thorium mixed oxides such as Th{sub 1-x}U{sub x}O{sub 2} and Th{sub 1-x}Pu{sub x}O{sub 2} in aqueous, oxygenated or inert media. Several solids have been synthesized by precipitation in oxalic medium: Th{sub 1-x}U{sub x}O{sub 2} (x= 0.11; 0.24; 0.37; 0.53; 0.67; 0.81 and 0.91) and Th{sub 1-x}Pu{sub x}O{sub 2} (x= 0.13; 0.32 and 0.66). They have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, XAS, PIXE and EPMA. The sintering conditions of these materials have been studied and optimized in order to obtain sintered samples with a measured density very near the theoretical densities. A kinetic study of the dissolution of ThO{sub 2} and of solid solutions Th{sub 1-x}U{sub x}O{sub 2} has been carried out in several aqueous media (HNO{sub 3}, HCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) in terms of several parameters: protons concentration, temperature, pH, ionic strength, nature of the electrolyte solution and uranium molar ratio for the solid solutions Th{sub 1-x}U{sub x}O{sub 2} in order to determine the kinetic laws of dissolution of the solid solutions having different compositions comparatively to ThO{sub 2}. The leaching tests carried out in natural waters of compositions near those of the deep geologic sites considered for the storage of nuclear wastes have shown that the dissolution of the solids was bound to the complexing effect of the constitutional ions of the water considered. The leaching tests carried out on sintered samples of the same composition have led to the same normalized dissolution velocities. The thermodynamic aspect of the dissolution of the solid solutions Th{sub 1-x}U{sub x}O{sub 2} in nitric medium has been studied at last. (O.M.)

  8. National Gas Survey. Synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    The supply-Technical Advisory Task Force-Synthesized Gaseous Hydrocarbon Fuels considered coal, hydrocarbon liquids, oil shales, tar sands, and bioconvertible materials as potential feedstocks for gaseous fuels. Current status of process technology for each feedstock was reviewed, economic evaluations including sensitivity analysis were made, and constraints for establishment of a synthesized gaseous hydrocarbon fuels industry considered. Process technology is presently available to manufacture gaseous hydrocarbon fuels from each of the feedstocks. In 1975 there were eleven liquid feedstock SNG plants in the United States having a capacity of 1.1 billion SCFD. There can be no contribution of SNG before 1982 from plants using feedstocks other than liquids because there are no plants in operation or under construction as of 1977. Costs for SNG are higher than current regulated prices for U.S. natural gas. Because of large reserves, coal is a prime feedstock candidate although there are major constraints in the area of coal leases, mining and water permits, and others. Commercial technology is available and several new gasification processes are under development. Oil shale is also a feedstock in large supply and commercial process technology is available. There are siting and permit constraints, and water availability may limit the ultimate size of an oil shale processing industry. Under projected conditions, bioconvertible materials are not expected to support the production of large quantities of pipeline quality gas during the next decade. Production of low or medium Btu gas from municipal solid wastes can be expected to be developed in urban areas in conjunction with savings in disposal costs. In the economic evaluations presented, the most significant factor for liquid feedstock plants is the anticipated cost of feedstock and fuel. The economic viability of plants using other feedstocks is primarily dependent upon capital requirements.

  9. Porous oxides synthesized by the combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo L, V.

    2005-01-01

    The result of this work, seeks to be a contribution for the treatment of radioactive wastes, with base to the sorption properties that present those porous oxides, synthesized by a method that allows to increase the sorption capacity. The main objective of the present investigation has been the modification of the structural characteristics of the oxides of Fe, Mg and Zn to increase its capacity of sorption of 60 Co in particular. It was studied the effect of the synthesis method by combustion in the inorganic oxides; the obtained solids were characterized using the following techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), semiquantitative elementary analysis by Dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS) and determination of surface area by the Brunauner-Emmett-Teller method (BET). Also was carried out batch type experiments for the sorption of Co 2+ , with the purpose of studying the sorption capacity of each one of the prepared oxides. In accordance with that previously exposed, the working plan that was carried out in this investigation is summarized in the following stages: 1. Preparation of inorganic oxides by two different methods, studying the effect of the temperature in the synthesis process. 2. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by XRD, by means of which those were chosen the solids with better properties. 3. Characterization of the inorganic oxides by SEM and EDS where it was studied the morphology of the synthesized materials and the semiquantitative elemental composition. 4. Realization of a sorption experiment type Batch with non radioactive Co 2+ to simulate the sorption of 60 Co and determination of the sorption capacity by means of neutron activation of the non radioactive cobalt. 5. Determination of the surface area by the (BET) technique of the inorganic oxides with better sorption properties. (Author)

  10. Synthesizing Earth's geochemical data for hydrogeochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Kubicki, J.; Miller, D.; Richter, D.; Giles, L.; Mitra, P.

    2007-12-01

    For over 200 years, geochemical, microbiological, and chemical data have been collected to describe the evolution of the surface earth. Many of these measurements are data showing variations in time or in space. To forward predict hydrologic response to changing tectonic, climatic, or anthropogenic forcings requires synthesis of these data and utilization in hydrogeochemical models. Increasingly, scientists are attempting to synthesize such data in order to make predictions for new regions or for future time periods. However, to make such complex geochemical data accessible requires development of sophisticated cyberinfrastructures that both invite uploading as well as usage of data. Two such cyberinfrastructure (CI) initiatives are currently developing, one to invite and promote the use of environmental kinetics data (laboratory time course data) through ChemxSeer, and the other to invite and promote the use of spatially indexed geochemical data for the Earth's Critical Zone through CZEN.org. The vision of these CI initiatives is to provide cyber-enhanced portals that encourage domain scientists to upload their data before publication (in private cyberspace), and to make these data eventually publicly accessible (after an embargo period). If the CI can be made to provide services to the domain specialist - e.g. to provide data analysis services or data comparison services - we envision that scientists will upload data. In addition, the CI can promote the use and comparison of datasets across disciplines. For example, the CI can facilitate the use of spatially indexed geochemical data by scientists more accustomed to dealing with time-course data for hydrologic flow, and can provide user-friendly interfaces with CI established to facilitate the use of hydrologic data. Examples of the usage of synthesized data to predict soil development over the last 13ky and its effects on active hydrological flow boundaries in surficial systems will be discussed for i) a N

  11. Géographie des interfaces. Une nouvelle vision des territoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Redon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Littéralement, une interface est une surface de séparation entre deux états distincts de la matière. Le terme, ayant cheminé de la physique à la biologie, et aussi désormais d’usage répandu en informatique. En géographie, l’usage du mot s’est développé dans les années 1980 et peut être défini comme un espace permettant la mise en relation de deux espaces/territoires différents, influencé par des échanges entre l’un et l’autre, et se distinguant par là-même des deux espaces contigus. Intégrant...

  12. Enquête de satisfaction des restaurants

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Comité de surveillance des restaurants L’Association du personnel est représentée dans plusieurs comités dont le Comité de surveillance des restaurants (CSR) qui a pour mandat : de donner son avis sur toute question relative à la politique générale de l’Organisation en matière de restauration sur le site, y compris en ce qui concerne les termes et l’attribution des contrats d’exploitation des restaurants ; de définir dans le cadre des contrats d’exploitation des restaurants, les prestations correspondant aux besoins et, dans la mesure du possible, aux désirs du personnel ; de surveiller les prestations des restaurants, y compris en ce qui concerne la qualité et la préparation des produits ; de négocier avec les concessionnaires des restaurants au sujet des tarifs et de surveill...

  13. Administration et gestion des contrats XL

    CERN Document Server

    Senouf, J

    2000-01-01

    Les grands contrats de travaux génèrent un grand nombre de commandes (OSVC) passées par un grand nombre de responsables techniques. Ils sont généralement basés sur des bordereaux de prix associés à un éventail de conditions économiques adaptées aux besoins complexes et variés des multiples utilisateurs du CERN nécessitant des calculs sophistiqués. L'administration des commandes, le suivi des travaux et de la facturation doivent répondre aux besoins de tous les acteurs. Les responsables techniques doivent jouir de la plus large indépendance administrative dans le respect des règlements CERN et des conditions contractuelles. Le contrôle des métrés et décomptes doit être rigoureux et d'une traçabilité complète. L'utilisation des bases de données Oracle a déjà permis l'intégration des données administratives et techniques. Le Web nous invite à une communication totale et transparente entre les utilisateurs, les services techniques et les contractants. De nouveaux types de contrat so...

  14. Polymorphisms in cytokine genes and serum cytokine levels among New Mexican women with and without breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Esther; Kang, Huining; Meisner, Angela; White, Kirsten; Pickett, Gavin; Baca, Cynthia; Royce, Melanie; Berwick, Marianne

    2010-07-01

    Among New Mexican Hispanic women, breast cancer is detected at a more advanced stage than compared to Non-Hispanic White women. One central factor that has been little studied is the role of critical cytokines. We genotyped incident breast cancer cases and their age-, gender- and smoking-matched controls (N=40 matched pairs) for 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytokine genes. We measured corresponding serum cytokine levels as well. Five cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-5, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-2) were significantly associated with disease and based on their serum levels, concentrations were higher in the cases than in the controls. Disease odds ratios corresponding to one standard deviation change in log-transformed concentrations of these cytokines were 18.87, 4.10, 3.61, 3.27 and 2.52. Three most statistically significant SNPs were rs2069705, located in the promoter region of the interferon gamma gene (INF-gamma); rs2243248, in the promoter of IL-4 (rs2243248); and rs1800925, in the promoter of the IL-13 gene. Increased serum cytokine levels at diagnosis are indicative for immunological alterations and possibly related to genetic susceptibility markers as well. These findings might guide us to understand the presence of SNPs in cytokine genes and serum concentrations among breast cancer patients and potentially in other cancers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regroupement des statistiques sur le secteur des TIC et analyse ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La présence et l'influence des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) continuent de s'élargir et de s'accroître, tout comme leurs répercussions sur le développement économique. Toutefois, il reste encore beaucoup de travail à faire avant de pouvoir comprendre d'une manière systématique et ...

  16. Analyse des caractéristiques structurelles et des performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    28 févr. 2014 ... 4p. Depieu ME, Doumbia S, Keli ZJ et Zouzou M, 2010. Typologie des exploitations en riziculture de la région de Saïoua, en zone forestière de la Côte d'Ivoire. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 35 :2301-2309. Doumbia, S et Depieu, M.E. 2013. Perception paysanne du changement climatique et stratégies.

  17. Planification optimisee des reseaux electriques par la methode des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif principal de cette planification est l'optimisation des coûts de production de ces sources d'énergie électrique renouvelables et de transit de puissance dans les lignes du réseau lors de leur insertion dans le réseau électrique en tenant compte de la quantité maximale de tonne de CO2 évitée pour la protection de ...

  18. Étude cytogenetique des aberrations chromosomiques chez des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ces techniciens et volontaires témoins ont été soumis à l'épreuve de prélèvement de 5 ml de sang veineux au pli du coude dans des tubes d'héparine sodique. Après 48 ... These technicians and Volunteers (controls) were subjected to the test sample of 5 ml of venous blood to the elbow crease in sodium heparin tubes.

  19. Comportement des polluants des eaux pluviales urbaines en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    échange de l'oxygène de l'air avec les eaux usées [20]. 5. CONCLUSION. Ce travail a pour objectif d'évaluer le degré de dégradation de la pollution des eaux usées dans différents milieux (naturel, artificiel et semi naturel) en période humide.

  20. Prevision des ventes et efficacite des chaines logistiques - Essai de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'application de ces méthodes se fera dans une entreprise algérienne (la laiterie de RIO) spécialisée dans la production du yaourt. On étudiera les caractéristiques de la production et on estimera les ventes hebdomadaires en utilisant la méthode de Box et Jenkins. La modélisation des chaines logistiques se fera grâce à la ...

  1. DES EFFETS DURABLES DES VIES TRANSFORMÉES

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Son but est simple : veiller à ce que les personnes les plus vulnérables dans le monde, en particulier ... Simple et pourtant très efficace, le filtre biosable fournit de l'eau potable dans plus de 300 000 foyers de par le ... de rétablir la fertilité des sols dégradés par l'extraction de l'argile nécessaire à la fabrication de briques, ...

  2. Influence du mode de pollinisation et des caracteristiques des fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La graine est l'organe principal de propagation du papayer (Carica papaya), chez qui les problèmes de germination sont récurrents. L'influence du mode de pollinisation et de la conservation des papayes sur la qualité de leurs semences est étudiée. Six cents fleurs hermaphrodites, de la lignée Solo n°8, sont marquées au ...

  3. Etudes des mecanismes de dissolution des phosphates naturels de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans le cadre de la recherche sur la dissolution du phosphate calcique apatitique, une étude du mécanisme de cette dissolution basé sur la complexation des ions métalliques du minerai par deux acides humiques extraits d'un sol (AHS) et d'un compost (AHC) a été réalisée. L'ion calcium (Ca2+), ion majoritaire dans les ...

  4. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 4. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a ... ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method in aqueous media from zinc nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a crystalline structure ...

  5. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method in aqueous media from zinc nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a crystalline structure with hexagonal structure of the wurtzite. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles presented a spherical ...

  6. Increased Blood Levels of Growth Factors, Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Th17 Cytokines in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Alnek

    Full Text Available The production of several cytokines could be dysregulated in type 1 diabetes (T1D. In particular, the activation of T helper (Th type 1 (Th1 cells has been proposed to underlie the autoimmune pathogenesis of the disease, although roles for inflammatory processes and the Th17 pathway have also been shown. Nevertheless, despite evidence for the role of cytokines before and at the onset of T1D, the corresponding findings are inconsistent across studies. Moreover, conflicting data exist regarding the blood cytokine levels in T1D patients. The current study was performed to investigate genetic and autoantibody markers in association with the peripheral blood cytokine profiles by xMap multiplex technology in newly diagnosed young T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls. The onset of young-age T1D was characterized by the upregulation of growth factors, including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin (IL-7, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β (but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, Th17 cytokines, and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-27. Ketoacidosis and autoantibodies (anti-IA-2 and -ZnT8, but not human leukocyte antigen (HLA genotype, influenced the blood cytokine levels. These findings broaden the current understanding of the dysregulation of systemic levels of several key cytokines at the young-age onset of T1D and provide a further basis for the development of novel immunoregulatory treatments in this disease.

  7. Class I Cytokine Receptors: Structure and function in the Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Katrine Østergaard

    Class I cytokine receptors are involved in important biological functions of both physiological and pathological nature in mammals. However, the molecular details of the cross-membrane signal transduction through these receptors remain obscure. One of the major reasons for this is the lack...... ample material of high quality for structural studies with NMR spectroscopy of several class I cytokine receptor TMDs. Furthermore, the structure of a class I cytokine receptor TMD in DHPC micelles was solved with solution-state NMR spectroscopy. Additionally, since structural studies of intact proteins...... receptor. This integrative structure opens up for interpreting these receptors in their intact form and offers unique insights on the topology of single-pass transmembrane receptors with intrinsically disordered domains. Dimerization of the TMDs of class I cytokine receptors has been shown to be important...

  8. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and their association with cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytokine gene polymorphisms and their association with cervical cancer: A North Indian study. ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... factors and adhesion molecules promotes tumor progression and involves inflammation, angiogenesis and thrombosis, thus providing optimal conditions for cancer development.

  9. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which......://www.crd.york.ac.uk/NIHR_PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013004236). In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies investigating the influence of phthalates on cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in animals and humans were included. A total of 11 reports, containing 12 studies, were found eligible for inclusion. In these, a total of four...... different phthalate diesters, six primary metabolites (phthalate monoesters) and seven different cytokines were investigated. Though all studies varied greatly in study design and species sources, four out of five studies that investigated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate found an increased tumour necrosis factor...

  10. Cytokines in bipolar disorder vs. healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder may be associated with peripheral immune system dysfunction; however, results in individual studies are conflicting. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of peripheral cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder integrating findings from various affective states....

  11. Serum Cytokine Profile in a Patient Diagnosed with Dysferlinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana F. Khaiboullina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 (LGMD2B is a mild form of dysferlinopathy, characterized by limb weakness and wasting. It is an autosomal recessive disease, with currently 140 mutations in the LGMD2B gene identified. Lack of functional dysferlin inhibits muscle fiber regeneration in voluntary muscles, the main pathological finding in LGMD2B patients. However, the immune system has been suggested to contribute to muscle cell death and tissue regeneration. Serum levels of 27 cytokines were evaluated in a dysferlinopathy patient. Levels of 8 cytokines differed in patient serum compared to controls. Five cytokines (IL-10, IL-17, CCL2, CXCL10, and G-CSF were higher while 3 were lower in the patient than in controls (IL-2, IL-8, and CCL11. Together, these data on serum cytokine profile of this dysferlinopathy patient suggest immune response activation, which could explain leukocyte infiltration in the muscle tissue.

  12. The Immune System, Cytokines, and Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Anne; Glozier, Nicholas; Dale, Russell; Guastella, Adam J

    2017-04-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental condition characterized by variable impairments in communication and social interaction as well as restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Heterogeneity of presentation is a hallmark. Investigations of immune system problems in ASD, including aberrations in cytokine profiles and signaling, have been increasing in recent times and are the subject of ongoing interest. With the aim of establishing whether cytokines have utility as potential biomarkers that may define a subgroup of ASD, or function as an objective measure of response to treatment, this review summarizes the role of the immune system, discusses the relationship between the immune system, the brain, and behavior, and presents previously-identified immune system abnormalities in ASD, specifically addressing the role of cytokines in these aberrations. The roles and identification of biomarkers are also addressed, particularly with respect to cytokine profiles in ASD.

  13. High efficiency cell-specific targeting of cytokine activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Geneviève; Paul, Franciane; Staufenbiel, Markus; Bordat, Yann; van der Heyden, José; Wilmes, Stephan; Cartron, Guillaume; Apparailly, Florence; de Koker, Stefaan; Piehler, Jacob; Tavernier, Jan; Uzé, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Systemic toxicity currently prevents exploiting the huge potential of many cytokines for medical applications. Here we present a novel strategy to engineer immunocytokines with very high targeting efficacies. The method lies in the use of mutants of toxic cytokines that markedly reduce their receptor-binding affinities, and that are thus rendered essentially inactive. Upon fusion to nanobodies specifically binding to marker proteins, activity of these cytokines is selectively restored for cell populations expressing this marker. This ‘activity-by-targeting’ concept was validated for type I interferons and leptin. In the case of interferon, activity can be directed to target cells in vitro and to selected cell populations in mice, with up to 1,000-fold increased specific activity. This targeting strategy holds promise to revitalize the clinical potential of many cytokines.

  14. Isolement des bactéries lactiques à partir des produits laitiers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolement des bactéries lactiques à partir des produits laitiers traditionnels Marocains et formulation d'un lait fermenté proche du Kéfir. S Lairini, N Beqqali, R Bouslamti, R Belkhou, F Zerrouq ...

  15. Role of cytokines in Trypanosoma brucei-induced anaemia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Publications on the cytokines studied in trypanosomiasis-associated anaemia ordered by year. Publication. Infecting trypanosome. Clinical sample. Cytokines. Other factors associated with anaemia. Magez et al. 1999. T.b.b AnTat1.1E. Blood from TNF-α -/-. TNF-α. -. Namangala et al. 2001. T.b.b AnTat1.1E. T.b.b PLC-/-.

  16. Systemic Cytokines in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Anirudh B; Thakur, Srinath; Muddapur, M V; Kulkarni, Raghavendra D

    2018-01-01

    Cytokine dysregulation plays an important role in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Chronic Periodontitis (CP) with a commonality in pathogenic mechanisms. CP is considered the sixth complication of diabetes and may have an increased influence on systemic levels of cytokines in individuals with T2DM. This study investigated two pro-, and two presumed anti-inflammatory cytokines and their ratios in the serum of healthy individuals, in chronic periodontitis with and without T2DM with, and without CP and in CP alone aimed at evaluating the systemic inflammatory burden of a local oral infection. Eighty participants were divided equally into four groups as healthy volunteers (H) and patients having T2DM with, and without CP (T2DM+CP, and T2DM) and only CP (CP). Serum samples were collected to measure glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Random Blood Sugar (RBS) and also Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin (IL)-4, -6 - 10 were assessed using commercially available ELISA kits. The cytokines were detected in all groups. Significant differences were observed between groups for all the clinical, biochemical parameters and cytokines. Cytokine levels and the ratios showed significant correlations. The ratios of the cytokines differed significantly amongst groups, were highest in T2DM+CP. In this study, the cytokine ratios provided a qualitative profile along with the absolute levels in T2DM with periodontitis, indicative of an intensified systemic inflammatory state. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Relationship between cytokines and running economy in marathon runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna Junior Luiz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Running economy (RE, expresses the relationship between the energy cost of running (Cr and the work performed by a runner and is an predictor of performance. Given the intense effort of marathon runners during training and competition and the dearth of studies that address performance and cytokines in this population, the objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between RE and cytokines in marathon runners.

  18. Cytokine profile associated with human chronic schistosomiasis mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Andréa; Miranda, Delfin Gonzalez; Miranda, Roberval Gonzalez; Araujo, Maria Ilma Andrade Santos; Jesus, Adriana Almeida de

    2004-01-01

    p. 21-26 This study objective was to evaluate the cytokines associated with early events of hepatic fibrosis in schistosomiasis mansoni. Hepatic fibrosis was classified by ultrasonography in 94 patients.Immunological evaluation was performed by measurement of secreted cytokines (interleukin IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon-g, tumor necrosis factor-a and transforming growth factors-b) in peripherl blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Schistosoma mansoni antigens. Significantly, higher levels...

  19. Human astrocytes: secretome profiles of cytokines and chemokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung S Choi

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play a key role in maintenance of neuronal functions in the central nervous system by producing various cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, which act as a molecular coordinator of neuron-glia communication. At the site of neuroinflammation, astrocyte-derived cytokines and chemokines play both neuroprotective and neurotoxic roles in brain lesions of human neurological diseases. At present, the comprehensive profile of human astrocyte-derived cytokines and chemokines during inflammation remains to be fully characterized. We investigated the cytokine secretome profile of highly purified human astrocytes by using a protein microarray. Non-stimulated human astrocytes in culture expressed eight cytokines, including G-CSF, GM-CSF, GROα (CXCL1, IL-6, IL-8 (CXCL8, MCP-1 (CCL2, MIF and Serpin E1. Following stimulation with IL-1β and TNF-α, activated astrocytes newly produced IL-1β, IL-1ra, TNF-α, IP-10 (CXCL10, MIP-1α (CCL3 and RANTES (CCL5, in addition to the induction of sICAM-1 and complement component 5. Database search indicated that most of cytokines and chemokines produced by non-stimulated and activated astrocytes are direct targets of the transcription factor NF-kB. These results indicated that cultured human astrocytes express a distinct set of NF-kB-target cytokines and chemokines in resting and activated conditions, suggesting that the NF-kB signaling pathway differentially regulates gene expression of cytokines and chemokines in human astrocytes under physiological and inflammatory conditions.

  20. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in cryptoglandular anal fistulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Onkelen, R S; Gosselink, M P; van Meurs, M; Melief, M J; Schouten, W R; Laman, J D

    2016-09-01

    Sphincter-preserving procedures for the treatment of transsphincteric fistulas fail in at least one out of every three patients. It has been suggested that failure is due to ongoing disease in the remaining fistula tract. Cytokines play an important role in inflammation. At present, biologicals targeting cytokines are available. Therefore, detection and identification of cytokines in anal fistulas might have implications for future treatment modalities. The objective of the present study was to assess local production of a selected panel of cytokines in anal fistulas, including pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Fistula tract tissue was obtained from 27 patients with a transsphincteric fistula of cryptoglandular origin who underwent flap repair, ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract or a combination of both procedures. Patients with a rectovaginal fistula or a fistula due to Crohn's disease were excluded. Frozen tissue samples were sectioned and stained using advanced immuno-enzyme staining methods for detection of selected cytokines, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-36 and TNF-α. The presence and frequencies of cytokine-producing cells in samples were quantitated. The key finding was abundant expression of IL-1β in 93 % of the anal fistulas. Frequencies of IL-1β-producing cells were highest (>50 positive stained cells) in 7 % of the anal fistulas. Also, cytokines IL-8, IL-12p40 and TNF-α were present in respectively 70, 33 and 30 % of the anal fistulas. IL-1β is expressed in the large majority of cryptoglandular anal fistulas, as well as several other pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  1. Poser et reposer des choix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Van Hauwermeiren- Echement

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionEn 1955, le legs de la collection Franckignoul – composée notamment d’un ensemble de quatre panneaux du XVIe siècle – vient enrichir les collections du Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Liège (Belgique. La fermeture de ce dernier en 1976 débouche sur  la scission des collections. Une partie est donnée au Musée de l’Art Wallon, l’autre partie allant au Musée d’Art Moderne et d’Art Contemporain (Mamac. Toutes les œuvres n’entrant pas dans ces deux collections sont reléguées en r...

  2. Signature spectrale des grains interstellaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, A.

    Notre connaissance de la nature des grains interstellaires reposait sur un nombre très restreint de signatures spectrales dans la courbe d'extinction du milieu interstellaire. Une information considérable est contenue dans les 40 bandes interstellaires diffuses dans le visible, mais reste inexploitée. L'interprétation récente des cinq bandes IR en émission, en terme de molécules d'hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques, est développée. Elle permet l'utilisation d'une information spectroscopique comparable, à elle seule, à ce sur quoi était basée jusqu'alors notre connaissance de la matière interstellaire condensée. Différentes implications de cette mise en évidence sont proposées.

  3. Rapport officiel des Jeux COVAN

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Le rapport officiel de Vancouver 2010 se présente sous une forme inédite : un livre commémoratif officiel publié par Wiley, “Des plus brillants exploits” et un coffret multimédia, “Guide du rapport après les Jeux: le rapport officiel des Jeux Olympiques et Paralympiques d'hiver de 2010 à Vancouver”. Ce dernier contient une brochure explicative, deux CD-ROM comprenant les textes et résultats officiels, ainsi que le DVD d’un film commémoratif, “Le Canada à l’échelle 2010”. Les deux volumes sont...

  4. Des maux pour le taire

    OpenAIRE

    Dussy, Dorothée; Caisne, Léonore Le

    2011-01-01

    Cette enquête ethnographique effectuée dans une association parisienne d’entraide aux victimes d’inceste montre que les enfants sexuellement abusés par un familier doivent se construire sur une double approche de la réalité sociale : d’un côté un discours dominant qui prône l’interdit de l’inceste et le respect des valeurs ordinaires, de l’autre l’expérience quotidienne des viols perpétrés par un de ceux qui transmettent ces valeurs. Grâce à un annonciateur, l’inceste perd son caractère anomi...

  5. La caravane des animaux. Circulation des « orangs-outans » et des savoirs, reconfigurations des frontières de l’humain

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastiani, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    L’article interroge la présence des animaux exotiques dans la Grande-Bretagne des Lumières, et en particulier des « orangs-outans ». Il retrace la mobilité de ces bêtes, met en lumière les réseaux au long cours de leur circulation, dessine les multiples espaces de sociabilité de leur mise en observation et le foisonnement des registres de discours dont ils font l’objet. Mis au cœur des travaux d’anatomie comparée dès la fin du xviie siècle, les orangs-outans deviennent l’une des grandes attra...

  6. Zukunft des IT-Sourcing

    OpenAIRE

    von Jouanne-Diedrich, Holger; Zarnekow, Rüdiger; Brenner, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Im Oktober 2005 wurden in Kooperation mit der Analystenfirma Gartner zwei Workshops in Frankfurt am Main und in München zum Thema Sourcing & Benchmarking durchgeführt. Diese wurde vom Autor H. v. Jouanne-Diedrich mit moderiert und wissenschaftlich begleitet. Thema war die Zukunft des IT-Sourcing, deren Management sich zunehmend den Herausforderungen einer Industrialisierung der IT stellen muss. Die 30 teilnehmenden Personen stammten dabei sowohl aus den Geschäftsbereichen als auch aus Bereich...

  7. Aspects echocardiographiques et etiologiques des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Buts: Décrire les aspects échocardiographiques et étiologiques des cardiomyopathies chez le noir africain. Patients et méthodes: Il s'est agit d'une étude prospective réalisée à la clinique cardiologique du CHUCampus de Lomé du 1er janvier 2007 au 31 décembre 2009. Etaient inclus dans l'étude, les patients consultants ...

  8. Déplacements des gouverneurs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    Transit. Tout endroit qui n'est pas considéré comme la destination où l'on se rend par affaires. Voyageur. Désigne un gouverneur dans le contexte du présent règlement. 5. Rôles et responsabilités. 5.1. Personnes participant au processus lié aux déplacements des gouverneurs. Toutes les personnes, dont les gouverneurs, ...

  9. Biostratigraphie des foraminiferes et interpretation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats montre que du bas vers le haut de l'intervalle, les sédiments sont des argiles noires qui passent progresssivement aux sables argileux et finallement au grés au sommet du puits. Les grès sont plus ou moins bien triés, anguleux à subanguleux, fins à grossiers. La présence de la pyrite diagénétique dans toute ...

  10. Renforcement des capacités d'adaptation des acteurs ruraux ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Renforcement des capacités d'adaptation des acteurs ruraux béninois face aux changements climatiques. Ce projet de recherche-action cherche à réduire la vulnérabilité des populations et les amener à mieux s'adapter aux changements climatiques. Le projet agit à trois niveaux hiérarchiques de décision, en facilitant des ...

  11. Perceptions locales des déterminants de la fragmentation des îlots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2013 ... Bariba estiment que l'érosion hydrique est le principal facteur de la fragmentation des forêts denses. Tandis que pour les Lokpa, et les Peulh, la fragmentation des forêts denses a pour cause la pauvreté des sols. De même, les groupes socioculturels estiment que la durée de la fragmentation des forêts ...

  12. Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la consommation de produits du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Incidence des prix et des taxes sur la consommation de produits du tabac en Argentine, en Bolivie et au Chili. Partout en Amérique du Sud, les adultes et les enfants font une grande consommation de tabac. Un nouveau projet de recherche se penchera sur les avantages et les limites des stratégies de fixation des prix et de ...

  13. Renforcement de l'autonomie des collectivités au moyen des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra au ministère des Communications et des Technologies de l'information de l'Égypte ainsi qu'au fonds spécial réservé aux TI de consolider le modèle actuel des clubs de TI en Égypte, par l'entremise de services d'assistance sur demande, d'activités de formation à l'intention du personnel des ...

  14. L'enrichissement des sols et des semences permet d'améliorer la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    nutritifs des sols (par un engrais à base de zinc) et les méthodes de transformation des aliments utilisées par les ménages. Le bioenrichissement est un moyen .... rapport coût-efficacité d'ajouter des micronutriments à l'alimentation et d'améliorer l'état nutritionnel. L'accroissement de la fertilité des sols et du rendement.

  15. La participation des femmes à la vie politique se traduit par des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La participation des femmes à la vie politique se traduit par des économies locales plus vigoureuses. 08 juin 2016. Image. Des femmes assistent à une réunion d'un groupe d'entraide près d'. Edgard Rodriguez - IDRC. Des femmes assistent à une réunion d'un groupe d'entraide près d'Hyderabad, en Inde. Keenara ...

  16. Gestion des côtes marocaines : renforcement des capacités d ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gestion des côtes marocaines : renforcement des capacités d'adapter aux changements climatiques. Les répercussions de la hausse du niveau de la mer, de l'inondation des côtes et des ondes de tempête constituent un enjeu de plus en plus important en matière de politiques pour les planificateurs, les autorités locales ...

  17. Respect des normes de salubrité des aliments privées chez les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Depuis quelques années, les petits exploitants agricoles des pays en développement se tournent vers l'étranger pour élargir leur marché. C'est pourquoi le respect des diverses normes de salubrité des aliments a gagné en importance. Le référentiel GLOBALGAP (anciennement EUREPGAP) est l'un des ensembles de ...

  18. OASIS : une architecture, des normes et des systèmes d'information ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    OASIS : une architecture, des normes et des systèmes d'information libres pour les services de santé en Afrique. Ce projet a pour but d'aider certains pays africains à concevoir puis à gérer des systèmes d'information sur la santé peu coûteux, viables et répondant aux besoins des établissements de santé et du secteur de ...

  19. Connaissances, attitudes et pratiques des prestataires de santé des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... des prestataires interrogés avaient respectivement une bonne connaissance des facteurs de risque et des moyens de dépistage. Les signes évocateurs et les examens complémentaires nécessaires au diagnostic du cancer du sein étaient connus par 15,3 % des prestataires. La définition du cancer du sein et les moyens ...

  20. Evaluation de l'abondance des kystes des protozoaires flagellés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les analyses statistiques montrent des corrélations significatives (P ≤ 0,05) entre la densité des kystes des protozoaires flagelles identifiées et les paramètres physico-chimiques tels que les MES, l'oxydabilité et la turbidité. Conclusions et application des resultsts: Les plantes doivent être bien lavées, désinfectées et bien ...

  1. Accès à l'eau : des solutions techniques et sociales aident des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grâce à la modélisation par ordinateur faisant appel à des techniques de pointe et à la consultation des collectivités, l'organisme bolivien Agua Sustentable a trouvé des solutions politiques à des conflits qui auraient pu s'avérer désastreux au sujet de l'accès à l'eau. Cet organisme de recherche subventionné par le CRDI a ...

  2. Diagnostic des capteurs pour la commande des entrainements électriques

    OpenAIRE

    Diao , Sidath; DIALLO , Demba; MAKNI , Zaatar; Marchand , Claude

    2014-01-01

    Ce papier traite de la détection des défauts sur les capteurs pour un ensemble Machine Synchrone et Onduleur par des méthodes d'estimation d'état. Les capteurs à surveiller dans notre cas sont ceux de la position/vitesse et des courants de phase. Des résultats expérimentaux illustrent l'approche utilisée.

  3. Contribution des TICs à l'abandon des mutilations génitales ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le projet sera mené au Burkina Faso, au Mali et au Sénégal avec des collectifs de jeunes de communautés excisantes, disposant d'infrastructure de TIC et où sont menées des actions sur l'excision. Il permettra de sensibiliser des jeunes, des décideurs communautaires et le public à travers de rencontres réelles et ...

  4. Inventaire floristique et écologie des algues des rivières Kambo et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif général de l'étude est de contribuer à la connaissance des algues des rivières Kambo et Longmayagui de Douala. Les objectifs spécifiques ont consisté à mesurer les paramètres physico-chimiques des rivières, de faire les inventaires des algues et d'en dégager les variations spatio-temporelles en relation avec ...

  5. Des collectivités forestières du Nigeria prennent des mesures pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des collectivités forestières du Nigeria prennent des mesures pour réduire les émissions de carbone. 08 juin 2016. Image. Deforestation in Nigeria. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. En Afrique subsaharienne, il est crucial de conserver et de protéger les forêts pour assurer la durabilité des moyens de subsistance des ...

  6. Effets des changements socio-économiques sur les stratégies des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets des changements socio-économiques sur les stratégies des agriculteurs des zones cotonnières d'Afrique Centrale. ... Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science ... défensive de diversification des activités monétaires dès qu'un créneau économique peut être exploité, créant ainsi de nouvelles filières économiques.

  7. Sécurité des femmes et des personnes lesbiennes, gaies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sécurité des femmes et des personnes lesbiennes, gaies, bisexuelles, transgenres, intersexuées dans les régions touchées par les conflits en Colombie. La Colombie est en train de conclure les négociations de paix avec le groupe de rebelles des Forces armées révolutionnaires de Colombie (FARC). Une des attentes ...

  8. Évaluation des caractéristiques des stomates chez le palmier à huile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2016 ... stomates chez le palmier à huile normal diploïde afin d'appliquer dans le futur les méthodes de la. Biotechnologie. Les objectifs spécifiques portent sur l'évaluation de la densité, de la longueur et de la largeur des stomates des feuilles de palmier à huile en fonction des variétés, de l'âge de la plante et des.

  9. Caractérisation des peuplements ligneux des parcs à Faidherbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2015 ... 1Département de Gestion des Ressources Naturelles (DGRN), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique du. Niger (INRAN), BP 240 Maradi, Niger .... faciliter la gestion de ces ressources au profit des populations. Cette étude ...... très peu des rejets des souches relatifs à ces espèces ont été observés.

  10. Anti-parasite effects of cytokines in malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, K N; Naotunne, T D; Karunaweera, N D; Del Giudice, G; Grau, G E; Carter, R

    1990-08-01

    Cytokines induced during natural malaria infections, e.g., at crisis of a blood infection of Plasmodium cynomolgi, and during clinical paroxysms in human Plasmodium vivax infections, mediate killing of intra-erythrocytic blood stage malaria parasites. These cytokines, TNF and IFN-gamma, require additional, yet unidentified complementary factors that are present in "crisis" and "paroxysm" serum to kill intra-erythrocytic blood stage parasites. In contrast, cytokines, (mainly IFN-gamma) are able to effect killing of intra-hepatic stages of the parasite by themselves independent of serum complementary factors, suggesting that the mechanisms of killing may be different with respect to the two parasite stages. Cytokines also appear to be critical intermediates in mechanisms of clinical disease in malaria. Serum cytokine (TNF) levels and killing effects on blood stage malaria parasites were lower in patients who were exposed to endemic P. vivax malaria who had partial clinical immunity, than in non-immune patients. Evidence suggest that individuals acquire natural immunity to the disease by avoiding the induction of high levels of cytokines and complementary factors.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF CYTOKINE PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Gaponova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Pathogenesis of reactive arthritis (ReA is not clear yet. Several trials suggest that increased production of proinflammatory cytokines is responsible for development of arthritis in ReA, while other studies report that Th1 cytokine response in ReA is impaired in favor of Th2 response. The aim of our study was to investigate serum levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ and IL-1Ra in the patients with ReA of different etiology, as compared with infection-related arthritis. The results of our study had demonstrated that serum levels of IL-1β and TNFα in the patients with ReA were significantly higher, whereas IL-1Ra, IL-4, IL-6 proved to be significantly lower than in healthy controls. Serum levels of IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with chronic ReA, as compared to the cases of acute and recurrent ReA. No significant differences in cytokine profiles were found between the patients with ReA, and the persons with infection-related arthritis. The data obtained are, generally, suggestive for proinflammatory Th1 cytokine profile in ReA patients studied, this confirming the mostly assumed pathogenetic hypothesis for reactive arthritis where an underlying cytokine imbalance is suggested. (Med. Immunol., 2008, vol. 10, N 2-3, pp 167-172.

  12. Temporal Regulation of Cytokines by the Circadian Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuhito Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several parameters of the immune system exhibit oscillations with a period of approximately 24 hours that refers to “circadian rhythms.” Such daily variations in host immune system status might evolve to maximize immune reactions at times when encounters with pathogens are most likely to occur. However, the mechanisms behind circadian immunity have not been fully understood. Recent studies reveal that the internal time keeping system “circadian clock” plays a key role in driving the daily rhythms evident in the immune system. Importantly, several studies unveil molecular mechanisms of how certain clock proteins (e.g., BMAL1 and CLOCK temporally regulate expression of cytokines. Since cytokines are crucial mediators for shaping immune responses, this review mainly summarizes the new knowledge that highlights an emerging role of the circadian clock as a novel regulator of cytokines. A greater understanding of circadian regulation of cytokines will be important to exploit new strategies to protect host against infection by efficient cytokine induction or to treat autoimmunity and allergy by ameliorating excessive activity of cytokines.

  13. [Prospects of the anti-cytokine therapy in rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, G V

    2003-01-01

    The development and introduction of the anti-cytokine therapy applicable to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a most significant achievement in RA therapy. A high degree of purpose-orientation and selectivity of the mentioned method ensuring a high therapeutic effect and providing, simultaneously, for defining a number of important chains in RA pathogenesis is an essential advantage of the discussed approach. The clinical use of neutralization of key cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IF-gamma is a serious progress within this trend. Possibilities of developing new directions of the cytokines therapy are preconditioned, to a great extent, by the role of new, including little-studied cytokines, in the evolution of immune inflammation. A search for more simple low-molecular inhibitors of cytokines, which do not cause any tolerance-related problems, is another important trend. Hopefully, a further study of anti-cytokines and of their application in combination with other antirheumatic drugs will improve the general treatment results and outline new opportunities in antirheumatic therapy.

  14. FEATURES OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT HERPETIC INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Novikovа

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cytokines play an important role in resistance to herpesvirus infections. Therefore, studies of cytokine profile are necessary in recurrent herpetic infection. However, functional studies of cytokine network upon remission of the disease yielded controversial results. In this paper, we provide some results concerning comprehensive evaluation of ex vivo cytokine production by whole blood leukocytes drawn from 15 patients observed during clinical remission of recurrent Herpes Simplex virus infection. We have found a decrease of IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10 production, as well as imbalance of cytokine profile, with predominance of IFNγ and IL-8 synthesis over IL-10 production, along with increased IL-4 and IL-13 levels to IL-1β contents. Differently directed correlations between the content of activated lymphocytes (CD3+HLA-DR+ and CD3+CD4+CD25+, natural killers (СD3-СD16/56+, NKT-cells and cytokine production levels were found in the groups of patients and healthy individuals. These differences may be due to shifts in major cytokineproducing populations in herpesvirus infections.

  15. Synthese De Diols Copolyesters (Synthesis of Copolyester Diols)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    RESUME Des diols copolyesters ont 6t6 preper6s en pr6sence du titanate dt t6traoctylane glycol comme catalyseur 9 160 - 2300 C, A Spartir d’-caprolactone... de propergols At partir des polyesters . . . . 4 3.0 PARTIE EXPERIMENTALE .. .. ...... .......... ..................6 3.1 Preparation de diols...d16poxydes et dtce-caprolactone (c-CL) .. .. ...... ........ 6 3 .3 Preparation de diols copol~yesters At partir du diol polyesteramine N-8 et l1

  16. Des pommes de terre plus saines et plus nutritives contribuent à la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    De plus, les activités de recherche impliquant des femmes ont permis de redécouvrir des recettes ancestrales et des connaissances culinaires pour assaisonner des aliments avec des produits naturels plutôt qu'avec des condiments artificiels à haute teneur en sodium. Des institutions et des universités publiques ont.

  17. ETUDE DE LA DISTRIBUTION DES CATIONS ECHANGEABLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SEI Joseph

    ces formations, la nature des phases minérales, les différentes phases de métamorphisme ayant affecté les corps minéralisés et les roches encaissantes, ainsi qu'une mise en évidence des différentes paragenèses entrant dans la composition des corps minéralisés [2,3]. Dans cette note, nous proposons la discussion de.

  18. Parasitisme des loranthaceae et association culturale en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cependant, quelques exceptions existent, liées notamment à la présence des arbres qui leur sont associés et qui sont densément parasités avec un degré moyen d'infestation de 32,65 p.c. et de 14,04 touffes/plante. Hevea brasiliensis, Mangifera indica et Myrianthus arboreus ont été épargnées des attaques des ...

  19. Developpement des systemes de production innovants d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pourtant, les associations maïs/légumineuses ont l'avantage d'améliorer la production et l'alimentation animale. Elles représentent une alternative dans la gestion des risques et des incertitudes pour les agro-éleveurs, confrontés aux changements globaux (climatiques, pression foncière, dégradation des ressources ...

  20. (TEC) et ciblage des pauvres au Mali

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Comment est-ce que c'est vrai. La preuve par … □ Différentiel de ciblage entre P et NP. □ Part normalisée de consommation/achat des Pauvres. □ Part normalisée de la pression fiscale. (totale et de porte) sur les achats des P. □ Part normalisée des "exonérations" revenant aux Pauvres ...

  1. La Gestion des Déchets Urbains

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le Service d'inspection des installations classées évolue actuellement en conformité avec les règlements français de 1926 régissant les établissements malsains, dérangeants ou dangereux. En effet, la loi ivoirienne, adoptée à la hâte en 1988 pendant la crise du transport des déchets radioactifs en provenance des pays ...

  2. Adaptation des organismes communautaires d'approvisionnement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les villes connaissent également une croissance rapide, ce qui augmente la demande en eau. Ces changements réduisent la capacité des organismes communautaires à combler la demande en eau potable, la stabilité des sources d'eau étant menacée. Ce projet de recherche vise à étudier les effets des changements ...

  3. Contamination des eaux souterraines par le lixiviat des décharges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La percolation du lixiviat en provenance des dechets des decharges constitue une source de pollution des ressources en eau souterraine par infiltration, constituant ainsi une menace aussi importante que celle liee a l'accentuation du deficit hydrique. La decharge publique de Larache constitue un modele type de ...

  4. Contribution des TICs à l'abandon des mutilations génitales ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Contribution des TIC à l'abandon des MGF en Afrique de l'Ouest francophone : rôle des jeunes citoyennes; rapport technique no. 5 (rapport technique final), 18 octobre 2008 - 31 mars 2009. Download PDF. Related content. New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all. A new website ...

  5. Etat des lieux de la gestion des insecticides au Togo, Afrique de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pour parvenir à une gestion optimale des maladies à transmission vectorielle ou tout au moins la nuisance culicidienne, une surveillance permanente des facteurs de risque devient nécessaire. Le principal facteur de risque est le vecteur qui transmet la maladie, et le contrôle du vecteur passe par des stratégies de lutte qui ...

  6. Qualité microbiologique des eaux des fleuves Nyong et Wouri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualité microbiologique des eaux des fleuves Nyong et Wouri (Cameroun) et impact potentiel sur la santé des populations riveraines. Larissa Abologo Azeme, Claudine Mireille Ntsama Essomba, Lucie Leme Banock, Charles Félix Bilong Bilong ...

  7. Evaluation de l\\'activité hémagglutinante des lectines des graines de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % de saturation, de l\\'extrait brut de Csp présente l\\'activité hémagglutinante la plus élevée (512). Le traitement thermique à 100°C pendant 15 minutes réduit significativement l\\'activité hémagglutinante des lectines des extraits bruts des graines ...

  8. Association des universités africaines - section des TIC pour les ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Association des universités africaines - section des TIC pour les réseaux nationaux de recherche et d'éducation. L'Association ... Africa's New Frontier : Innovation. Technology. ... L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique en Afrique subsaharienne remporte le prix de la diplomatie scientifique.

  9. Emploi des jeunes et autonomisation économique des femmes en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Emploi des jeunes et autonomisation économique des femmes en Afrique : le rôle des petites et moyennes entreprises dans le secteur du tourisme ... le secteur du tourisme menées par les gouvernements et leurs partenaires, participera à la formulation de recommandations stratégiques fiables, et renforcera les capacités ...

  10. Aggressive Periodontitis and Chronic Arthritis: Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression and Plasma Protein Levels of Cytokines and Cytokine Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Korsbæk Connor; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    -inflammatory cytokines and cytokine receptors in patients with periodontitis and patients with arthritis representing two examples of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis and arthritis. To identify possible disease-specific characteristics of subjects with periodontitis relative to subjects with chronic...... inflammation in general, patients with arthritis (juvenile idiopathic arthritis [JIA] and rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) were included. METHODS: The study population consisted of white adults aggressive periodontitis (LAgP; n = 18), generalized aggressive periodontitis......TNF-RI plasma levels in patients with LAgP and RA. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated only a few changes in the PBMC expression of various cytokine and cytokine inhibitor genes in aggressive periodontitis and chronic arthritis compared to controls. There were a few similarities among disease groups...

  11. Vivre et survivre au bord des villes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Péraldi

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available De quels revenus vivent, ou plutôt survivent, les populations des quartiers dits défavorisés ? Telle est, malgré son apparente banalité, la question qui initie aujourd'hui une partie de nos recherches. Question banale en effet puisque les médias et le débat politique nous donnent une réponse sans appel, statistiquement fiable : dans ces univers sociaux où se croisent des communautés issues des plus récentes migrations et les fractions les plus fragiles économiquement des classes populaires fr...

  12. Modalites de consommation et valeur nutritionnelle des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les légumineuses niébé, voandzou et zamnè sont consommées sous forme de ragout et de plats associés à des céréales respectivement par 99%, 93% et 76%. L'arachide et le soja sont utilisés comme des ingrédients ou comme des collations. Les légumineuses ont des teneurs importantes en protéines, 35,76%, 31,04%, ...

  13. Fusion des bourses : analyse de cas

    OpenAIRE

    Frunz, Dylan; Tuchschmid, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Dans le cadre de mon travail de Bachelor, je vais tenter de déterminer les raisons et conséquences des importantes fusions actuelles entre bourses historiques mondiales. Les bourses, représentées par leurs différents indices, représentent le niveau actuel de l’économie des pays par le biais des nombreuses sociétés y étant cotées. Le regroupement des activités entre bourses traditionnelles s’est dessiné avec pour objectif de contrer la nouvelle concurrence, apparue suite à la nouvelle directiv...

  14. Liste des abréviations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    AI : Amnesty International CADH : Convention américaine des droits de l'homme CEDH : Commission européenne des droits de l'homme CIDH : Commission interaméricaine des droits de l'homme CIJ : Cour internationale de Justice ECOSOC : Economic and Social Council (UN) IACHR : Inter-American Commission on Human Rights IIJ :Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas (UNAM) IIDH : Instituto Interamericano de Derechos Humanos LGDJ : Librairie générale de droit et de jurisprudence OEA : Organisation des Ét...

  15. Évaluation de la valeur nutritive et recherche des substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puis, l'évaluation a été effectuée sur ces échantillons pour rechercher la présence des alcaloïdes, des saponines, des quinones, des stéroïdes, des terpenoïdes, des flavonoïdes, des leucoanthocyanes, des tannoïdes et des hétérosides cyanogénétiques. Les teneurs moyennes en humidité, en cendres, en protéines, en ...

  16. Mechanochemically Driven Syntheses of Boride Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Richard G.

    Solid state metathesis reactions have proven to be a viable route to the production of unfunctionalized nanomaterials. However, current implementations of this approach are limited to self-propagating reactions. We have been investigating mechanically driven metathesis reactions. The use of high-energy ball mills allows control of crystallite sizes without the use of a capping group. Reinforcement materials with crystallite sizes on the order of 5-30 nm can be produced in such a manner. Borides are of particular interest due to their strength, high melting point, and electrical conductivity. The ultimate goal of this work is to prepare oxide and capping group-free nanoparticles suitable for incorporation in thermoelectric, polymer, and ceramic composites. Ultimately this work will facilitate the production of improved thermoelectric materials that will provide robust, deployable, power generation modules to supplement or replace fuel cell, Stirling, and battery-derived power sources. It will also result in scalable, bulk syntheses of tough, refractory, conductive nanomaterials for polymer composites with improved electrical properties, ceramic composites with enhanced fracture toughness, and composites with enhanced neutron reflectance and/or absorbance.

  17. Syntheses of surfactants from oleochemical epoxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwel Siegfried

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-based surfactants were obtained in good yields (up to 100% under mild conditions (70°C, methanol or mixtures of methanol and water by ring-opening of terminal epoxides with aminopolyols, derived from glucose. Reaction of N-methyl glucamine with epoxides from even-numbered C4-C18 alpha-olefins or from terminal unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters leads to linear products, while corresponding reactions with N-dodecyl glucamine or glucamine yield surfactants with different Y-structures. Products obtained by conversion of omega-epoxy fatty acid methyl esters were saponificated with NaOH or hydrolyzed enzymatically to sodium salts or free acids respectively, which are amphoteric surfactants. Studies of the surfactants at different pH-values demonstrate different surface active properties in aqueous solutions. Critical micelle concentrations (c.m.c. in a range between 2 and 500mg/l and surface tensions of 25-40mN/m were measured for several of the synthesized sugar-based surfactants. The ring-opening products are rather poor foamers, whereas some of the corresponding hydrobromides show good foaming properties.

  18. [Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano

    2017-01-01

    The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.

  19. Feedback Synthesizes Neural Codes for Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Stephen E; Maler, Leonard

    2017-05-08

    In senses as diverse as vision, hearing, touch, and the electrosense, sensory neurons receive bottom-up input from the environment, as well as top-down input from feedback loops involving higher brain regions [1-4]. Through connectivity with local inhibitory interneurons, these feedback loops can exert both positive and negative control over fundamental aspects of neural coding, including bursting [5, 6] and synchronous population activity [7, 8]. Here we show that a prominent midbrain feedback loop synthesizes a neural code for motion reversal in the hindbrain electrosensory ON- and OFF-type pyramidal cells. This top-down mechanism generates an accurate bidirectional encoding of object position, despite the inability of the electrosensory afferents to generate a consistent bottom-up representation [9, 10]. The net positive activity of this midbrain feedback is additionally regulated through a hindbrain feedback loop, which reduces stimulus-induced bursting and also dampens the ON and OFF cell responses to interfering sensory input [11]. We demonstrate that synthesis of motion representations and cancellation of distracting signals are mediated simultaneously by feedback, satisfying an accepted definition of spatial attention [12]. The balance of excitatory and inhibitory feedback establishes a "focal" distance for optimized neural coding, whose connection to a classic motion-tracking behavior provides new insight into the computational roles of feedback and active dendrites in spatial localization [13, 14]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EFFET DES TRAITEMENTS THERMIQUES SUR LA REACTION ENTRE DES COUCHES MINCES DE TITANE ET DES SUBSTRATS EN ACIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Slimani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Des couches minces du titane pur ont été déposées avec la méthode de pulvérisation cathodique sur des substrats en acier, type FF80 K-1 contenants ~1% mass. en carbone. La réaction entre les deux parties du système substrat-couche mince est activée avec des traitements thermiques sous vide dans l’intervalle de températures de 400 à900°Cpendant 30 minutes. Les Spectres de diffraction de rayons x confirment l’inter- diffusion des éléments  chimiques du système résultants la formation et la croissance des nouvelles phases en particulier le carbure binaire TiC ayant des caractéristiques thermomécaniques importantes. L’analyse morphologique des échantillons traités  avec le microscope électronique à balayage (MEB montre l’augmentation du flux de diffusion atomique avec la température de recuit, notamment la diffusion du manganèse et du fer vers la surface libre des échantillons aux températures élevées provoquant la dégradation des propriétés mécaniques des revêtements contrairement au premiers stades d’interaction où on a obtenu des bonnes valeurs de la microdureté.