WorldWideScience

Sample records for syntax

  1. SyntaxTrain: Relieving the pain of learning syntax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moth, Andreas Leon Aagaard; Villadsen, Jørgen; Ben-Ari, Mordechai

    2011-01-01

    SyntaxTrain parses a Java program and displays the syntax diagrams associated with a syntax error.......SyntaxTrain parses a Java program and displays the syntax diagrams associated with a syntax error....

  2. Le fonctionnalisme en syntaxe (Functionalism in Syntax)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Frederic

    1977-01-01

    A definition of the positive contributions of functionalism in the polemic against phonetics and traditional, generative and transformational grammars. Three themes are discussed: synchronic analysis, the dynamics of the development of linguistics, and the role of syntax in language facts. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  3. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  4. Dual Syntax for XML Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2008-01-01

    XML is successful as a machine processable data interchange format, but it is often too verbose for human use. For this reason, many XML languages permit an alternative more legible non-XML syntax. XSLT stylesheets are often used to convert from the XML syntax to the alternative syntax; however......, such transformations are not reversible since no general tool exists to automatically parse the alternative syntax back into XML. We present XSugar, which makes it possible to manage dual syntax for XML languages. An XSugar specification is built around a context-free grammar that unifies the two syntaxes...... of a language. Given such a specification, the XSugar tool can translate from alternative syntax to XML and vice versa. Moreover, the tool statically checks that the transformations are reversible and that all XML documents generated from the alternative syntax are valid according to a given XML schema....

  5. Dual Syntax for XML Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2005-01-01

    XML is successful as a machine processable data interchange format, but it is often too verbose for human use. For this reason, many XML languages permit an alternative more legible non-XML syntax. XSLT stylesheets are often used to convert from the XML syntax to the alternative syntax; however......, such transformations are not reversible since no general tool exists to automatically parse the alternative syntax back into XML. We present XSugar, which makes it possible to manage dual syntax for XML languages. An XSugar specification is built around a context-free grammar that unifies the two syntaxes...... of a language. Given such a specification, the XSugar tool can translate from alternative syntax to XML and vice versa. Moreover, the tool statically checks that the transformations are reversible and that all XML documents generated from the alternative syntax are valid according to a given XML schema....

  6. Memory, Meaning, and Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    occasion searching memory for question concept searching directly for input -- sM- SOCIAL -OCC found (GN590) The answer is: (CON233) yes, most recently at...UNCLASSIFIED TR-189 NL*° uuuuuuum I IuuIIInl --- I--I I/ MEMORY , MEANING, AND SYNTAX Roger C. Schank and Lawrence Birnbaum Research Report #189 November...1980 Appf ,r𔄃! f𔄁" * ,P,?, .- , lei so;ict ~YALE UNIVERSITY IDEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE 812 24 0Ot MEMORY , MEANING, AND SYNTAX Roger C. Schank

  7. Dual Syntax for XML Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2005-01-01

    XML is successful as a machine processable data interchange format, but it is often too verbose for human use. For this reason, many XML languages permit an alternative more legible non-XML syntax. XSLT stylesheets are often used to convert from the XML syntax to the alternative syntax; however...

  8. Linear Projective Program Syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.

    2004-01-01

    Based on an extremely simple program notation more advanced program features can be developed in linear projective program syntax such as conditional statements, while loops, recursion, use of an evaluation stack, object classes, method calls etc. Taking care of a cumulative and bottom up

  9. SPSS met syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Visscher, C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Dit boekje wijkt af van de gebruikelijke statistiekboeken omdat het sec gaat over het bekende statistische computerprogramma SPSS, en dan alleen nog de oorspronkelijke variant waarin wordt gewerkt met syntax (intypen commando's -zoals bij DOS) i.p.v. de later ontwikkelde 'Windows-schil' (aanklikken

  10. Nuestra verdad sobre SYNTAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Carnero-Alcázar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo clínico Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX ha marcado un hito en la historia de la revascularización miocárdica. El análisis del objetivo primario demostró que la cirugía era capaz de reducir el riesgo de eventos cardiovasculares mayores frente al intervencionismo coronario con stents recubiertos en pacientes con enfermedad multivaso o del tronco coronario. Sin embargo, la interpretación de los análisis de subgrupos y eventos secundarios ha servido para justificar la revascularización con stents recubiertos en grupos seleccionados de enfermos. Las conclusiones de SYNTAX han tenido un gran y discutido impacto en las guías de revascularización miocárdica europeas y en la práctica clínica diaria, forzando nuevas indicaciones, fomentando la reunión del Heart Team y poniendo a nuestro alcance nuevas herramientas como SYNTAX score. Los cirujanos cardiacos y cardiólogos hemos asumido todos estos cambios sin apenas crítica. Pero, ¿cuánta verdad irrefutable hay en SYNTAX?

  11. The Matlab Syntax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Heide; Skajaa, Anders

    Matlab (MATrix LABoratory) is one of the most widely used programming environments for numerical computations and simulations in the technical sciences. The reason is that Matlab makes it easy to get started as well as to construct advanced programs. This book is a practical guide to understanding...... and using Matlab. It works as a quick reference for anyone who is starting to use Matlab for example while enrolled in university studies. For this reason, the book is limited to covering what is typically used by a university student and is designed as a reference of the syntax including plenty of examples....... While the primary audience of the book is university students, it is well suited for anyone who wants to become acquainted with Matlab....

  12. Strategy for Syntax Error Recovering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry F Báez

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new strategy for syntax error recovering for a compiler that does not have instruction separators like ";" or opening and closing brackets like "{" and "}". This strategy is based on 4 steps. 1. Find a set of tokens (called ACEPTA set for each non terminal symbol of the grammar. 2. During the syntax analysis of each non terminal symbol, eliminate the tokens that are not in the ACEPTA set. 3. Eliminate repeated tokens that are not accepted by the grammar, and 4. Complete symbols in the syntax analysis with the hope that the token that has not been erased later will match with a terminal symbol expected by the syntax analyser; otherwise the symbol will be eliminated in some particular productions. The strategy for sintax error recovering is a method that can be used in whatever not ambiguos context free grammar includying those that use instruction separators like ";". It is implemented with an algorithm and it is much more easy to implement than other strategies for syntax error recovering like those based on stacks.

  13. Syntax próz Bohumila Hrabala

    OpenAIRE

    Hobstová, Alžběta

    2008-01-01

    This study is an analysis ofthe syntax in Bohumil Hrabal's prosaic works. It looks into the way Hrabal's syntax deviates from the "Czech norm", and the way his style evolved over time. For the purposes ofthe analysis, Hrabal's creative life has been divided into three chronological parts - early, middle and late. This periodization is essential for conceptualizing Bohumil Hrabal' s syntax usage and its evolution. Methodologically the study is based on a statistical analysis of observed traits...

  14. Syntax and reading comprehension: a meta-analysis of different spoken-syntax assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimo, Danielle; Lund, Emily; Sapp, Alysha

    2017-12-18

    Syntax is a language skill purported to support children's reading comprehension. However, researchers who have examined whether children with average and below-average reading comprehension score significantly different on spoken-syntax assessments report inconsistent results. To determine if differences in how syntax is measured affect whether children with average and below-average reading comprehension score significantly different on spoken-syntax assessments. Studies that included a group comparison design, children with average and below-average reading comprehension, and a spoken-syntax assessment were selected for review. Fourteen articles from a total of 1281 reviewed met the inclusionary criteria. The 14 articles were coded for the age of the children, score on the reading comprehension assessment, type of spoken-syntax assessment, type of syntax construct measured and score on the spoken-syntax assessment. A random-effects model was used to analyze the difference between the effect sizes of the types of spoken-syntax assessments and the difference between the effect sizes of the syntax construct measured. There was a significant difference between children with average and below-average reading comprehension on spoken-syntax assessments. Those with average and below-average reading comprehension scored significantly different on spoken-syntax assessments when norm-referenced and researcher-created assessments were compared. However, when the type of construct was compared, children with average and below-average reading comprehension scored significantly different on assessments that measured knowledge of spoken syntax, but not on assessments that measured awareness of spoken syntax. The results of this meta-analysis confirmed that the type of spoken-syntax assessment, whether norm-referenced or researcher-created, did not explain why some researchers reported that there were no significant differences between children with average and below

  15. A syntax-oriented translator

    CERN Document Server

    Ingerman, Peter Zilahy

    1966-01-01

    A Syntax-Oriented Translator focuses on the field of programming and the characteristics and functions of compilers and translators.The book first offers information on the metasyntactic language and the details of a parsing processor. Discussions focus on processing, recovery, and output sections, detailed flow-chart of the parsing processor, parsing form of a grammar, canonical ordering, and the metasyntactic language in general. The text then elaborates on some extensions to the metasyntactic language and metasemantic and metapragmatic language, including punctuation marks and format contro

  16. Topics in the syntax of Sarikoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.

    2017-01-01

    This book is a synchronic description of the syntax of Sarikoli, an Eastern Iranian and Pamir language spoken exclusively in China. It is the first modern linguistic description of Sarikoli syntax in English. The approach is theory-neutral, presenting and describing language data with

  17. Archaism and Orality in Homeric Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleps, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    The paratactic and appositional nature of Homeric Greek syntax, as compared with Classical Greek syntax, is currently explained in two different ways. According to the archaism theory, originally proposed in the context of late 19th and early 20th century research into comparative-historical grammar, Homeric language preserves features of an early…

  18. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  19. The Psychic Organ Point of Autistic Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…

  20. Combinatorial algebra syntax and semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Sapir, Mark V

    2014-01-01

    Combinatorial Algebra: Syntax and Semantics provides a comprehensive account of many areas of combinatorial algebra. It contains self-contained proofs of  more than 20 fundamental results, both classical and modern. This includes Golod–Shafarevich and Olshanskii's solutions of Burnside problems, Shirshov's solution of Kurosh's problem for PI rings, Belov's solution of Specht's problem for varieties of rings, Grigorchuk's solution of Milnor's problem, Bass–Guivarc'h theorem about the growth of nilpotent groups, Kleiman's solution of Hanna Neumann's problem for varieties of groups, Adian's solution of von Neumann-Day's problem, Trahtman's solution of the road coloring problem of Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss. The book emphasize several ``universal" tools, such as trees, subshifts, uniformly recurrent words, diagrams and automata.   With over 350 exercises at various levels of difficulty and with hints for the more difficult problems, this book can be used as a textbook, and aims to reach a wide and diversified...

  1. CURIE Syntax 1.0, A syntax for expressing Compact URIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    institution W3C; M. Birbeck (Mark); not CWI et al

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this document is to outline a syntax for expressing URIs in a generic, abbreviated syntax. While it has been produced in conjunction with the HTML Working Group, it is not specifically targeted at use by XHTML Family Markup Languages. Note that the target audience for this

  2. Wie viel Syntax braucht die Semantik, und wie viel Semantik enthält die Syntax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Haider

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the syntax-semantics interface is a controversial issue in grammar theory. Current theorizing in Generative Grammar endorses a 'tight fit' conception. Abstract syntax is to provide distinct structural configurations for distinct semantic entities in terms of semantically typed functional heads that project functional phrases. Positive and convincing evidence for the tight fit approach is wanting. The opposite viewpoint, once called the autonomy viewpoint in Generative Grammar, takes syntax to be a module of grammar that is not necessarily tailored to the needs of semantics. It is an algorithm that maps strings on structures and vice versa. The semantic construction algorithm maps syntactic structure on adequate semantic domains. In this contribution, evidence from three areas syntax of adverbials, syntax of negation, alleged semantic correlates of argument structure are reviewed in order to clarify which of the two viewpoints is more likely to be adequate. It is argued that the autonomy approach is superior.

  3. Wie viel Syntax braucht die Semantik, und wie viel Semantik enthält die Syntax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Haider

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the syntax-semantics interface is a controversial issue in grammar theory. Current theorizing in Generative Grammar endorses a 'tight fit' conception. Abstract syntax is to provide distinct structural configurations for distinct semantic entities in terms of semantically typed functional heads that project functional phrases. Positive and convincing evidence for the tight fit approach is wanting. The opposite viewpoint, once called the autonomy viewpoint in Generative Grammar, takes syntax to be a module of grammar that is not necessarily tailored to the needs of semantics. It is an algorithm that maps strings on structures and vice versa. The semantic construction algorithm maps syntactic structure on adequate semantic domains. In this contribution, evidence from three areas syntax of adverbials, syntax of negation, alleged semantic correlates of argument structure are reviewed in order to clarify which of the two viewpoints is more likely to be adequate. It is argued that the autonomy approach is superior.

  4. Growing Languages with Metamorphic Syntax Macros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    "From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions of program......"From now on, a main goal in designing a language should be to plan for growth." Guy Steele: Growing a Language, OOPSLA '98 invited talk.We present our experiences with a syntax macro language which we claim forms a general abstraction mechanism for growing (domain-specific) extensions...... of programming languages. Our syntax macro language is designed to guarantee type safety and termination.A concept of metamorphisms allows the arguments of a macro to be inductively defined in a meta level grammar and morphed into the host language. We also show how the metamorphisms can be made to operate...

  5. Handcrafted physical syntax elements for illiterate children: initial concepts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available June 11-13, 2008 - Chicago, IL, USA Handcrafted Physical Syntax Elements for Illetterate Children: Initial Concepts Abstract We present two technology-augmented physical materials that illetterate coders can sculpt for use as physical syntax... illetterate (a narrow definition of non-literacy [8, p11]) children to the topic of programming. Our physical syntax, although simple, has the benefit of eliminating syntax errors such as those encountered in most text-based or icon-based programming...

  6. Book Review: Elisabeth O. Selkirk, The syntax of words | Udeze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Syntax of Words provides a new insight into the study of the structure of words and the system for generating that structure. This treatment is a firm departure from the hitherto traditional notion in the study of morphology which considers words as part of a language's syntax or grammar and not having its own syntax.

  7. The Syntax-Semantics Interface in Distributed Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Justin Robert

    2013-01-01

    Distributed Morphology (DM; Halle & Marantz 1993; Marantz 1997) is founded on the premise that the syntax is the only computational component of the grammar. Much research focuses on how this premise is relevant to the syntax-morphology interface in DM. In this dissertation, I examine theory-internal issues related to the syntax-semantics…

  8. Normalization by evaluation with typed abstract syntax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Rhiger, Morten; Rose, Kristoffer H.

    2001-01-01

    In higher-order abstract syntax, the variables and bindings of an object language are represented by variables and bindings of a meta-language. Let us consider the simply typed λ-calculus as object language and Haskell as meta-language. For concreteness, we also throw in integers and addition...

  9. Towards a syntax for multimedia semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.-M. Nack (Frank); L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis article describes the current state of the art on representing the fouressential conceptual facets of a multimedia unit, namely the form and substance of content and the form and substance of its expression, and points to the still un solved problems regarding the syntax for media

  10. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  11. ALGOL compiler. Syntax and semantic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbouriech, Robert

    1971-01-01

    In this research thesis, the author reports the development of an ALGOL compiler which performs the main following tasks: systematic scan of the origin-programme to recognise the different components (identifiers, reserved words, constants, separators), analysis of the origin-programme structure to build up its statements and arithmetic expressions, processing of symbolic names (identifiers) to associate them with values they represent, and memory allocation for data and programme. Several issues are thus addressed: characteristics of the machine for which the compiler is developed, exact definition of the language (grammar, identifier and constant formation), syntax processing programme to provide the compiler with necessary elements (language vocabulary, precedence matrix), description of the first two phases of compilation: lexicographic analysis, and syntax analysis. The last phase (machine-code generation) is not addressed

  12. OpenCL programming using Python syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Di Pierro

    2013-01-01

    We describe ocl, a Python library built on top of p yOpenCL and numpy. It allows programming GPU devices using Python. Python functions which ar e marked up using the provided decorator, are converted into C99/OpenCL and compil ed using the JIT at runtime. This approach lowers the barrier to entry to programming GPU devices since it requires only Python syntax and no external compilation or linkin g steps. The resulting Pyth...

  13. Une Analyse automatique en syntaxe textuelle (An Automated Analysis of Textual Syntax). Publication K-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Jacques

    This study reports the use of automated textual analysis on a French novel. An introductory section chronicles the history of artificial intelligence, focusing on its use with natural languages, and discusses its application to textual syntax. The first chapter examines computational linguistics in greater detail, looking at its relationship to…

  14. A Uniform Syntax and Discourse Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    I present arguments in favor of the Uniformity Hypothesis: the hypothesis that discourse can extend syntax dependencies without conflicting with them. I consider arguments that Uniformity is violated in certain cases involving quotation, and I argue that the cases presented in the literature...... are in fact completely consistent with Uniformity. I report on an analysis of all examples in the Copenhagen Dependency Treebanks involving violations of Uniformity. I argue that they are in fact all consistent with Uniformity, and conclude that the CDT should be revised to reflect this....

  15. How to use SPSS syntax: An overview of common commands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Visscher, C.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Rather than focusing on SPSS menus and the graphic user interface, How to Use SPSS Syntax focuses on the syntax rules in SPSS, a more encompassing approach that allows readers to replicate statistical analyses by storing them in a file for future use. Practical, accessible, and highly focused, the

  16. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  17. What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

  18. Joint action syntax in Japanese martial arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Yokoyama, Keiko; Okumura, Motoki; Kijima, Akifumi; Kadota, Koji; Gohara, Kazutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Participation in interpersonal competitions, such as fencing or Japanese martial arts, requires players to make instantaneous decisions and execute appropriate motor behaviors in response to various situations. Such actions can be understood as complex phenomena emerging from simple principles. We examined the intentional switching dynamics associated with continuous movement during interpersonal competition in terms of their emergence from a simple syntax. Linear functions on return maps identified two attractors as well as the transitions between them. The effects of skill differences were evident in the second- and third-order state-transition diagrams for these two attractors. Our results suggest that abrupt switching between attractors is related to the diverse continuous movements resulting from quick responses to sudden changes in the environment. This abrupt-switching-quick-response behavior is characterized by a joint action syntax. The resulting hybrid dynamical system is composed of a higher module with discrete dynamics and a lower module with continuous dynamics. Our results suggest that intelligent human behavior and robust autonomy in real-life scenarios are based on this hybrid dynamical system, which connects interpersonal coordination and competition.

  19. Shipibo-Spanish: Differences in Residual Transfer at the Syntax-Morphology and the Syntax-Pragmatics Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Liliana; Camacho, Jose; Ulloa, Jose Elias

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a study that tests the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace and Filiaci, 2006) at the syntax-pragmatics interface and its possible extension to the syntax-morphology interface in two groups of first language (L1) speakers of Shipibo with different levels of formal instruction in Spanish as a second language (L2). Shipibo is a…

  20. Songs to syntax: the linguistics of birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Beckers, Gabriel J L; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2011-03-01

    Unlike our primate cousins, many species of bird share with humans a capacity for vocal learning, a crucial factor in speech acquisition. There are striking behavioural, neural and genetic similarities between auditory-vocal learning in birds and human infants. Recently, the linguistic parallels between birdsong and spoken language have begun to be investigated. Although both birdsong and human language are hierarchically organized according to particular syntactic constraints, birdsong structure is best characterized as 'phonological syntax', resembling aspects of human sound structure. Crucially, birdsong lacks semantics and words. Formal language and linguistic analysis remains essential for the proper characterization of birdsong as a model system for human speech and language, and for the study of the brain and cognition evolution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Roland; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-05-28

    Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically) structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal.

  2. Space syntax in healthcare facilities research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Saif; Luo, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Space Syntax is a theory and method that has been developing for the last 40 years. Originally conceived as a theory of "society and space," it has expanded to other areas. An important aspect of this is technical; it allows the quantification of layouts, and unit spaces within a layout, so that the environment itself can produce independent variables in quantitative research. Increasingly, it is being used to study healthcare facilities. Space Syntax has thereby become relevant to healthcare facilities researchers and designers. This paper attempts to explain Space Syntax to a new audience of healthcare designers, administrators, and researchers; it provides a literature review on the use of Space Syntax in healthcare facility research and suggests some possibilities for future application.

  3. A Conformance Test Suite for Arden Syntax Compilers and Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Klimek, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules is a standardized and well-established programming language to represent medical knowledge. To test the compliance level of existing compilers and interpreters no public test suite exists. This paper presents the research to transform the specification into a set of unit tests, represented in JUnit. It further reports on the utilization of the test suite testing four different Arden Syntax processors. The presented and compared results reveal the status conformance of the tested processors. How test driven development of Arden Syntax processors can help increasing the compliance with the standard is described with two examples. In the end some considerations how an open source test suite can improve the development and distribution of the Arden Syntax are presented.

  4. Fuzzy Arden Syntax: A fuzzy programming language for medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterlein, Thomas; Mandl, Harald; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2010-05-01

    The programming language Arden Syntax has been optimised for use in clinical decision support systems. We describe an extension of this language named Fuzzy Arden Syntax, whose original version was introduced in S. Tiffe's dissertation on "Fuzzy Arden Syntax: Representation and Interpretation of Vague Medical Knowledge by Fuzzified Arden Syntax" (Vienna University of Technology, 2003). The primary aim is to provide an easy means of processing vague or uncertain data, which frequently appears in medicine. For both propositional and number data types, fuzzy equivalents have been added to Arden Syntax. The Boolean data type was generalised to represent any truth degree between the two extremes 0 (falsity) and 1 (truth); fuzzy data types were introduced to represent fuzzy sets. The operations on truth values and real numbers were generalised accordingly. As the conditions to decide whether a certain programme unit is executed or not may be indeterminate, a Fuzzy Arden Syntax programme may split. The data in the different branches may be optionally aggregated subsequently. Fuzzy Arden Syntax offers the possibility to formulate conveniently Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) based on the principle of a continuously graded applicability of statements. Furthermore, ad hoc decisions about sharp value boundaries can be avoided. As an illustrative example shows, an MLM making use of the features of Fuzzy Arden Syntax is not significantly more complex than its Arden Syntax equivalent; in the ideal case, a programme handling crisp data remains practically unchanged when compared to its fuzzified version. In the latter case, the output data, which can be a set of weighted alternatives, typically depends continuously from the input data. In typical applications an Arden Syntax MLM can produce a different output after only slight changes of the input; discontinuities are in fact unavoidable when the input varies continuously but the output is taken from a discrete set of possibilities

  5. Russian syntax for students of “Foreign linguistics” department

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorova Marina Yurievna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the principles of formation of the course Russian syntax for the students of “Foreign linguistics” department considering application tasks and modern concepts of active teaching. It is demonstrated how without abandoning theoretical problematics and maintaining the necessary sections (syntax of words, sentences and text) within the course it is developed syntactic knowledge and skills necessary for teaching, translation, editing activities, creation and critique texts,...

  6. Syntax: Its Evolution and Its Representation in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Progovac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Poeppel (2008 observes that there is no clear correspondence between units of analysis in linguistics (especially the abstract and arbitrary-looking principles of syntax and biological units of neuroscience, concluding that current neurolinguistic research presents a case of cross-sterilization, rather than cross-fertilization. Here the proposal is developed that decomposing syntax into intermediate evolutionary layers, into its evolutionary primitives, not only makes syntax compatible with gradualist accounts, but it also renders it more tangible and less abstract. In this approach, at least some complexities (and oddities of syntax, such as Subjacency effects and the small clause core, can be seen as side-effects/by-products of evolutionary tinkering. It is conceivable that such evolutionary considerations are a necessary missing ingredient in any attempt to establish links between the postulates of syntax and the units of neuroscience. This article considers concrete linguistic data and suggestions as to where and how to look for neurobiological correlates of syntax.

  7. The neurobiology of syntax: beyond string sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity to acquire language is an outstanding scientific challenge to understand. Somehow our language capacities arise from the way the human brain processes, develops and learns in interaction with its environment. To set the stage, we begin with a summary of what is known about the neural organization of language and what our artificial grammar learning (AGL) studies have revealed. We then review the Chomsky hierarchy in the context of the theory of computation and formal learning theory. Finally, we outline a neurobiological model of language acquisition and processing based on an adaptive, recurrent, spiking network architecture. This architecture implements an asynchronous, event-driven, parallel system for recursive processing. We conclude that the brain represents grammars (or more precisely, the parser/generator) in its connectivity, and its ability for syntax is based on neurobiological infrastructure for structured sequence processing. The acquisition of this ability is accounted for in an adaptive dynamical systems framework. Artificial language learning (ALL) paradigms might be used to study the acquisition process within such a framework, as well as the processing properties of the underlying neurobiological infrastructure. However, it is necessary to combine and constrain the interpretation of ALL results by theoretical models and empirical studies on natural language processing. Given that the faculty of language is captured by classical computational models to a significant extent, and that these can be embedded in dynamic network architectures, there is hope that significant progress can be made in understanding the neurobiology of the language faculty. PMID:22688633

  8. Modeling the Arden Syntax for medical decisions in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sukil; Haug, Peter J; Rocha, Roberto A; Choi, Inyoung

    2008-10-01

    A new model expressing Arden Syntax with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) was developed to increase its portability. Every example was manually parsed and reviewed until the schema and the style sheet were considered to be optimized. When the first schema was finished, several MLMs in Arden Syntax Markup Language (ArdenML) were validated against the schema. They were then transformed to HTML formats with the style sheet, during which they were compared to the original text version of their own MLM. When faults were found in the transformed MLM, the schema and/or style sheet was fixed. This cycle continued until all the examples were encoded into XML documents. The original MLMs were encoded in XML according to the proposed XML schema and reverse-parsed MLMs in ArdenML were checked using a public domain Arden Syntax checker. Two hundred seventy seven examples of MLMs were successfully transformed into XML documents using the model, and the reverse-parse yielded the original text version of MLMs. Two hundred sixty five of the 277 MLMs showed the same error patterns before and after transformation, and all 11 errors related to statement structure were resolved in XML version. The model uses two syntax checking mechanisms, first an XML validation process, and second, a syntax check using an XSL style sheet. Now that we have a schema for ArdenML, we can also begin the development of style sheets for transformation ArdenML into other languages.

  9. Visual syntax of UML class and package diagram constructs as an ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thomas, A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagrams are often studied as visual languages with an abstract and a concrete syntax (concrete syntax is often referred to as visual syntax), where the latter contains the visual representations of the concepts in the former. A formal specification...

  10. Individual Differences in Statistical Learning Predict Children's Comprehension of Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Evan; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Variability in children's language acquisition is likely due to a number of cognitive and social variables. The current study investigated whether individual differences in statistical learning (SL), which has been implicated in language acquisition, independently predicted 6- to 8-year-old's comprehension of syntax. Sixty-eight (N = 68)…

  11. Semantic Inferences: The Role of Count/Mass Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study tested the validity of a theory of count/mass syntax in word learning. The theory proposes that children infer one of two procedures, depending on whether the referent is an object or a non-solid substance. Subjects were 36 2-year-olds, divided according to three experimental conditions. All were taught a novel word with reference to…

  12. Linear Order and the Construction of Meaning: Is Syntax Deceptive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève GIRARD-GILLET

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Il est communément admis que la syntaxe d'une phrase et sa sémantique fonctionnent de manière harmonieuse, pour que la langue soit cohérente. Nous analysons ici quelques exemples où la syntaxe impose ses propres règles, en dépit des données sémantiques, et où ce sont nos connaissances cognitives générales qui nous permettent de construire convenablement le sens. A l'inverse, la sémantique peut “tordre” certaines règles syntaxiques pour permettre à l'énonciateur une meilleure stratégie communicative.It is commonly assumed that the syntax of a sentence and its semantic interpretation cannot differ radically, if some kind of coherence is to be maintained. We analyse here some examples that tend to show that syntax sometimes imposes its own rules, regardless of the semantic data, and that the interpretation is then saved because of our general cognitive knowledge about the world. Conversely semantics sometimes “twists” the grammatical rules so as to enrich the linguistic tools the speaker requires for a better encoding of his/her communicative desires.

  13. Constructing a Parser for a given Deterministic Syntax Graph: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aimed at developing a syntax graph into a parser capable of being transformed into a translator, in this circumstance a complier. The rules of graph to program translation were laid down and followed religiously to arrive at the required program. These rules make provisions for various constructs or structures of ...

  14. SXF (Standard eXchange Format): definition, syntax, examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Holt, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Malitsky, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pilat, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Talman, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trahern, C. G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    An SXF lattice description is an ascii listing that contains one named, "flat", ordered list of ele­ments, delimited as {...}, with one entry for each element. The list resembles a MAD "sequence" describing the entire machine. The syntax is supposed to be adapted for ease of reading by human beings and for ease of parsing by LEX and YACC.

  15. Syntax of Emotional Narratives of Persons Diagnosed with Antisocial Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawda, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show some specificity of syntax of narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality. The author attempted to verify and supplement information that persons with antisocial personality have an incapacity for emotional language. Scores of 60 prisoners with high antisocial tendencies, 40 prisoners with…

  16. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…

  17. On the syntax of spatial adpositions in sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Aboh, E.O.

    2012-01-01

    In investigations of sign language grammar - phonology, morphology, and syntax - the impact of language modality on grammar is a recurrent issue. The term 'modality,' as used in this context, refers to the distinction between languages that are expressed and perceived in the oral-auditive modality

  18. Syntax Error Handling in Scannerless Generalized LR Parsers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Valkering

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis is about a master's project as part of the one year master study 'Software-engineering'. This project is about methods for improving the quality of reporting and handling of syntax errors that are produced by a scannerless generalized left-to-right rightmost (SGLR) parser,

  19. Syntax For Speech-Language Pathologists | van Dulm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 32 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Syntax For Speech-Language Pathologists. O van Dulm ...

  20. Syntax institucionálního dialogu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffmannová, Jana

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2001), s. 113-120 ISSN 0027-8203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV405/96/K096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9061902 Keywords : institutional dialogue * syntax * pragmatics Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  1. SYNCOM: A general syntax conversion language and computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, D.C.

    1972-09-01

    The problems of syntax conversion are discussed and the reasons given for the choice of the Interpretive method. A full description is given of the SYNCON language and computer program together with brief details of some programs written in the language. (author)

  2. A minimalist approach to Kiswahili Syntax | Mwihaki | Kiswahili

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A minimalist approach to Kiswahili Syntax. Alice Mwihaki. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ksh.v70i1.64852 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  3. Exclamatives: Issues of syntax, logical form and interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfitto, Denis; Fiorin, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we formulate a hypothesis about the interface conditions that regulate the interaction between the logical form of exclamative sentences (mediated by their syntax), and the semantics of the exclamative speech act. We argue that it is exactly these interface conditions that enable

  4. Generalizing the Arden Syntax to a Common Clinical Application Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Systems is a standard for encoding and sharing knowledge in the form of Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). Although the Arden Syntax has been designed to meet the requirements of data-driven clinical event monitoring, multiple studies suggest that its language constructs may be suitable for use outside the intended application area and even as a common clinical application language. Such a broader context, however, requires to reconsider some language features. The purpose of this paper is to outline the related modifications on the basis of a generalized Arden Syntax version. The implemented prototype provides multiple adjustments to the standard, such as an option to use programming language constructs without the frame-like MLM structure, a JSON compliant data type system, a means to use MLMs as user-defined functions, and native support of restful web services with integrated data mapping. This study does not aim to promote an actually new language, but a more generic version of the proven Arden Syntax standard. Such an easy-to-understand domain-specific language for common clinical applications might cover multiple additional medical subdomains and serve as a lingua franca for arbitrary clinical algorithms, therefore avoiding a patchwork of multiple all-purpose languages between, and even within, institutions.

  5. Anna Dziemianko: User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Anna Dziemianko. User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical Dictionaries of English. 2006, XII + 229 pp. ISBN-13: 978-3-484-39130-7. ISBN- 10: 3-484-39130-8. Lexicographica. Series Maior 130. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. Price: €124.

  6. Deriving Case, Agreement and Voice Phenomena in Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Einar Freyr

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation places case, agreement and Voice phenomena in syntax. It argues that the derivation is driven by so-called derivational features, that is, structure-building features (Merge) and probe features (Agree) (Heck and Muller 2007 and Muller 2010; see also Chomsky 2000, 2001). Both types are essential in deriving case and agreement in…

  7. Buddhist Ritual from Syntax to Cognition: Insight Meditation and Homa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Payne

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “ritual syntax” is developed by relating it to cognitive studies of ritual, providing a fuller theoretical basis. Developing theoretical grounding requires differentiating between the members of five pairs of concepts: production is not the same as analysis, syntax is not the same as semantics, ritual is not the same as the mental, cognition is not the same as the mental, and syntax is not the same as language. These distinctions help avoid overly strong interpretations of the analogy between ritual and language. A discussion of “ritual” suggests that it is best conceptualized in terms of multiple scalar characteristics with degrees of ritualization. Two Buddhist practices, insight meditation and homa, are introduced as instances for the cognitive study of ritual. Syntax involves not simply ordering of elements, but also hierarchical organization of those elements. While syntax allows sentential elements to move within a sentence, ritual tends toward invariance. Invariance seems to contradict the claim that ritual is syntactically organized. However, rituals are often modeled on ordinary activities, producing a kind of “semantic” motivation for invariance.

  8. Using SPSS syntax: a beginner's guide Jacqueline Collier Using SPSS syntax: a beginner's guide Sage Pages: 216 £24.99 9781412922180 1412922186 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    As someone who is comfortable with analysing data in SAS using coding language, it is perplexing that I run from the use of syntax in SPSS. But, my apprehension has subsided with the Collier's guide. Syntax command can automate processes, increase reproducibility and give the user broader access to features otherwise unavailable in SPSS.

  9. An EMOF-Compliant Abstract Syntax for Bigraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Kehrer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bigraphs are an emerging modeling formalism for structures in ubiquitous computing. Besides an algebraic notation, which can be adopted to provide an algebraic syntax for bigraphs, the bigraphical theory introduces a visual concrete syntax which is intuitive and unambiguous at the same time; the standard visual notation can be customized and thus tailored to domain-specific requirements. However, in contrast to modeling standards based on the Meta-Object Facility (MOF and domain-specific languages typically used in model-driven engineering (MDE, the bigraphical theory lacks a precise definition of an abstract syntax for bigraphical modeling languages. As a consequence, available modeling and analysis tools use proprietary formats for representing bigraphs internally and persistently, which hampers the exchange of models across tool boundaries. Moreover, tools can be hardly integrated with standard MDE technologies in order to build sophisticated tool chains and modeling environments, as required for systematic engineering of large systems or fostering experimental work to evaluate the bigraphical theory in real-world applications. To overcome this situation, we propose an abstract syntax for bigraphs which is compliant to the Essential MOF (EMOF standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG. We use typed graphs as a formal underpinning of EMOF-based models and present a canonical mapping which maps bigraphs to typed graphs in a natural way. We also discuss application-specific variation points in the graph-based representation of bigraphs. Following standard techniques from software product line engineering, we present a framework to customize the graph-based representation to support a variety of application scenarios.

  10. Utility of Arden Syntax for Representation of Fuzzy Logic in Clinical Quality Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenders, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Prior work has established that fuzzy logic is prevalent in clinical practice guidelines and that Arden Syntax is suitable for representing clinical quality measures (CQMs). Approved since then, Arden Syntax v2.9 (2012) has formal constructs for fuzzy logic even as new formalisms are proposed to represent quality logic. Determine the prevalence of fuzzy logic in CQMs and assess the utility of a contemporary version of Arden Syntax for representing them. Linguistic variables were tabulated in the 329 Assessing Care of the Vulnerable Elderly (ACOVE-3) CQMs, and these logic statements were encoded in Arden Syntax. In a total of 392 CQMs, linguistic variables occurred in 30.6%, and Arden Syntax could be used to represent these formally. Fuzzy logic occurs commonly in CQMs, and Arden Syntax offers particular utility for the representations of these constructs.

  11. Initial Semantics for higher-order typed syntax in Coq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ahrens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial Semantics aims at characterizing the syntax associated to a signature as the initial object of some category. We present an initial semantics result for typed higher-order syntax together with its formalization in the Coq proof assistant. The main theorem was first proved on paper in the second author’s PhD thesis in 2010, and verified formally shortly afterwards.To a simply–typed binding signature S over a fixed set T of object types we associate a category called the category of representations of S. We show that this category has an initial object Sigma(S, i.e. an object Sigma(S from which there is precisely one morphism i_R : Sigma(S -> R to any object R of this category. From its construction it will be clear that the object Sigma(S merits the name abstract syntax associated to S: it is given by an inductive set – parametrized by a set of free variables and dependent on object types – the type of whose constructors are each given by the arities of the signature S.Our theorem is implemented and proved correct in the proof assistant Coq through heavy use of dependent types. The approach through monads gives rise to an implementation of syntax where both terms and variables are intrinsically typed, i.e. where the object types are rejected in the meta–level types. Terms are implemented as a Coq data type – which play the role of sets – dependent on an object type as well as on a type family of free variables.This article is to be seen as a research article rather than about the formalization of a classical mathematical result. The nature of our theorem – involving lengthy, technical proofs and complicated algebraic structures – makes it particularly interesting for formal verification. Our goal is to promote the use of computer theorem provers as research tools, and, accordingly, a new way of publishing mathematical results: a parallel description of a theorem and its formalization should allow the verification of

  12. Syntax and Morphology in Danish-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynskov, Cecilia; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Jørgensen, Meta; Lemcke, Sanne; Bohn, Ocke-Schwen; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined delays in syntax and morphology, and vocabulary, in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children ages 4-6 years with ASD (n = 21) and typical development (n = 21), matched on nonverbal mental age, completed five language tasks. The ASD group had significant delays in both syntax and morphology, and vocabulary measures, with…

  13. Cognitive, Environmental, and Linguistic Predictors of Syntax in Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estigarribia, Bruno; Martin, Gary E.; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine which cognitive, environmental, and speech-language variables predict expressive syntax in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), boys with Down syndrome (DS), and typically developing (TD) boys, and whether predictive relationships differed by group. Method: We obtained Index of Productive Syntax ( Scarborough, 1990) scores for…

  14. Spatial Configuration and Online Attention: A Space Syntax Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixue Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial behavior of tourists is an important part of the research on congestion management and sustainable planning of tourism destinations. Combined with user-generated content (UGC and site-based survey data, this study conducted an overlaying analysis between street network configurations that resulted from space syntax and tourist preferences. Based on space syntax, tourist movement is influenced by the distribution of scenic spots and the structure of tourist trails in scenic mountain areas. The results reveal that the distribution of scenic spots has a significant impact on tourist flow and visitors’ choices of entrance to the mountain; the volume of online sign-ins is highly correlated with landscape attention, axial control values and the local integration value of the trails; and tourists’ attention focuses on the entrance area and the few tourist-sight markers. This study advances the understanding of the spatial patterns of within-destination tourist behavior; this knowledge will be helpful in alleviating congestion in mountain scenic areas and providing effective guidance for tourists to plan an ideal tour route.

  15. Visual Interactive Syntax Learning: A Case of Blended Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Vinther

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of the computer as a tool in language learningat the tertiary level brings several opportunities for adaptingto individual student needs, but lack of appropriate material suited for the level of student proficiency in Scandinavia has meant that university teachers have found it difficult to blendthe traditional approach with computer tools. This article will present one programme (VISL which has been developed with the purpose of supporting and enhancing traditional instruction. Visual Interactive Syntax Learning (VISL is a programme which is basically a parser put to pedagogical use. The pedagogical purpose is to teach English syntax to university students at an advanced level. The programme allows the students to build sophisticated tree diagrams of Englishsentences with provisions for both functions and forms (simple or complex, incl. subclauses. VISL was initiated as an attempt to facilitate the metalinguistic learning process. Thisarticle will present VISL as a pedagogical tool and tries to argue the case for the benefits of blending traditional lecturing with modern technology while pointing out some of the issues involved.

  16. The missing link in the embodiment of syntax: prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Hamutal; Eviatar, Zohar

    2014-10-01

    Neurolinguistic theories are challenged by the amodal abstract representations assumed by linguists. Embodied linguistics offers a conceptualization of the relationship between linguistic representation, experience, and the brain. Findings correlating brain activation patterns with referential features of words (e.g., body parts), suggest that the mechanism underlying linguistic embodiment is an "action-perception simulation". This mechanism accounts for embodied representation of words, but is harder to adapt to syntactic abstractions. We suggest that prosody is the missing link. Prosody is a sensory-motor phenomenon that can evoke an "action-perception simulation" that underpins the syntax-experience-brain association. Our review discusses different embodiment models and then integrates psycholinguistic and neurocognitive studies into a new approach to linguistic embodiment. We propose a novel implementation of the syntax-experience-brain relationship via the mapping between the temporo-spectral aspects of speech prosody and temporo-spectral patterns of synchronized behavior of neural populations. We discuss the potential implications for psycho- and neuro-linguistic research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of syntax of intuition-based learning model in solving mathematics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeni Heryaningsih, Nok; Khusna, Hikmatul

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to produce syntax of Intuition Based Learning (IBL) model in solving mathematics problem for improving mathematics students’ achievement that valid, practical and effective. The subject of the research were 2 classes in grade XI students of SMAN 2 Sragen, Central Java. The type of the research was a Research and Development (R&D). Development process adopted Plomp and Borg & Gall development model, they were preliminary investigation step, design step, realization step, evaluation and revision step. Development steps were as follow: (1) Collected the information and studied of theories in Preliminary Investigation step, studied about intuition, learning model development, students condition, and topic analysis, (2) Designed syntax that could bring up intuition in solving mathematics problem and then designed research instruments. They were several phases that could bring up intuition, Preparation phase, Incubation phase, Illumination phase and Verification phase, (3) Realized syntax of Intuition Based Learning model that has been designed to be the first draft, (4) Did validation of the first draft to the validator, (5) Tested the syntax of Intuition Based Learning model in the classrooms to know the effectiveness of the syntax, (6) Conducted Focus Group Discussion (FGD) to evaluate the result of syntax model testing in the classrooms, and then did the revision on syntax IBL model. The results of the research were produced syntax of IBL model in solving mathematics problems that valid, practical and effective. The syntax of IBL model in the classroom were, (1) Opening with apperception, motivations and build students’ positive perceptions, (2) Teacher explains the material generally, (3) Group discussion about the material, (4) Teacher gives students mathematics problems, (5) Doing exercises individually to solve mathematics problems with steps that could bring up students’ intuition: Preparations, Incubation, Illumination, and

  18. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  19. Native syntax and translation effects: Adnominal arguments in the Greek and Latin New Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Gianollo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the syntax of adnominal arguments in the Greek original and in the Latin Vulgate translation of the Gospels shows that word order in this domain is strikingly parallel in the two languages. The fact that faithfulness in translating evidently extends to syntax, leveling Latin to the Greek model, must not lead to the conclusion that the language of the Latin translation is artificially shaped in conformity to the Greek; rather, it shows that Latin, at this diachronic stage, shared with New Testament Greek some significant parametric settings pertaining to nominal syntax.

  20. WASTK: A Weighted Abstract Syntax Tree Kernel Method for Source Code Plagiarism Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiang Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a source code plagiarism detection method, named WASTK (Weighted Abstract Syntax Tree Kernel, for computer science education. Different from other plagiarism detection methods, WASTK takes some aspects other than the similarity between programs into account. WASTK firstly transfers the source code of a program to an abstract syntax tree and then gets the similarity by calculating the tree kernel of two abstract syntax trees. To avoid misjudgment caused by trivial code snippets or frameworks given by instructors, an idea similar to TF-IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency in the field of information retrieval is applied. Each node in an abstract syntax tree is assigned a weight by TF-IDF. WASTK is evaluated on different datasets and, as a result, performs much better than other popular methods like Sim and JPlag.

  1. A generalized profile syntax for biomolecular sequence motifs and its function in automatic sequence interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, P. [Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bairoch, A. [Centre Medical Universitaire, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    A general syntax for expressing bimolecular sequence motifs is described, which will be used in future releases of the PROSITE data bank and in a similar collection of nucleic acid sequence motifs currently under development. The central part of the syntax is a regular structure which can be viewed as a generalization of the profiles introduced by Gribskov and coworkers. Accessory features implement specific motif search strategies and provide information helpful for the interpretation of predicted matches. Two contrasting examples, representing E. coli promoters and SH3 domains respectively, are shown to demonstrate the versatility of the syntax, and its compatibility with diverse motif search methods. It is argued, that a comprehensive machine-readable motif collection based on the new syntax, in conjunction with a standard search program, can serve as a general-purpose sequence interpretation and function prediction tool.

  2. User-defined functions in the Arden Syntax: An extension proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimas, Harry; Ebrahiminia, Vahid; Lepage, Eric

    2015-12-11

    The Arden Syntax is a knowledge-encoding standard, started in 1989, and now in its 10th revision, maintained by the health level seven (HL7) organization. It has constructs borrowed from several language concepts that were available at that time (mainly the HELP hospital information system and the Regenstrief medical record system (RMRS), but also the Pascal language, functional languages and the data structure of frames, used in artificial intelligence). The syntax has a rationale for its constructs, and has restrictions that follow this rationale. The main goal of the Standard is to promote knowledge sharing, by avoiding the complexity of traditional programs, so that a medical logic module (MLM) written in the Arden Syntax can remain shareable and understandable across institutions. One of the restrictions of the syntax is that you cannot define your own functions and subroutines inside an MLM. An MLM can, however, call another MLM, where this MLM will serve as a function. This will add an additional dependency between MLMs, a known criticism of the Arden Syntax knowledge model. This article explains why we believe the Arden Syntax would benefit from a construct for user-defined functions, discusses the need, the benefits and the limitations of such a construct. We used the recent grammar of the Arden Syntax v.2.10, and both the Arden Syntax standard document and the Arden Syntax Rationale article as guidelines. We gradually introduced production rules to the grammar. We used the CUP parsing tool to verify that no ambiguities were detected. A new grammar was produced, that supports user-defined functions. 22 production rules were added to the grammar. A parser was built using the CUP parsing tool. A few examples are given to illustrate the concepts. All examples were parsed correctly. It is possible to add user-defined functions to the Arden Syntax in a way that remains coherent with the standard. We believe that this enhances the readability and the robustness

  3. Mechanisms for interaction: Syntax as procedures for online interactive meaning building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempson, Ruth; Chatzikyriakidis, Stergios; Cann, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    We argue that to reflect participant interactivity in conversational dialogue, the Christiansen & Chater (C&C) perspective needs a formal grammar framework capturing word-by-word incrementality, as in Dynamic Syntax, in which syntax is the incremental building of semantic representations reflecting real-time parsing dynamics. We demonstrate that, with such formulation, syntactic, semantic, and morpho-syntactic dependencies are all analysable as grounded in their potential for interaction.

  4. Syntax of change in the mid-twentieth century American house

    OpenAIRE

    Vialard, Alice; Bafna, Sonit

    2009-01-01

    How strongly is the spatial organization of a building related to its and its physical aspects and its stylistic attributes? The question is of particular relevance to space syntax theory since historically much of the analytical work on the morphology of buildings has been weighed in favor of spatial analysis partially resulting from the assumption that genotypical attributes are essentially lodged within the spatial syntax of a building and that the corporeal, or stylistic elements, carry m...

  5. Co-localizing linguistic and musical syntax with intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Daniela; Koelsch, Stefan; Ball, Tonio; Brandt, Armin; Grigutsch, Maren; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Knösche, Thomas R; Wellmer, Jörg; Widman, Guido; Elger, Christian E; Friederici, Angela D; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Despite general agreement on shared syntactic resources in music and language, the neuroanatomical underpinnings of this overlap remain largely unexplored. While previous studies mainly considered frontal areas as supramodal grammar processors, the domain-general syntactic role of temporal areas has been so far neglected. Here we capitalized on the excellent spatial and temporal resolution of subdural EEG recordings to co-localize low-level syntactic processes in music and language in the temporal lobe in a within-subject design. We used Brain Surface Current Density mapping to localize and compare neural generators of the early negativities evoked by violations of phrase structure grammar in both music and spoken language. The results show that the processing of syntactic violations relies in both domains on bilateral temporo-fronto-parietal neural networks. We found considerable overlap of these networks in the superior temporal lobe, but also differences in the hemispheric timing and relative weighting of their fronto-temporal constituents. While alluding to the dissimilarity in how shared neural resources may be configured depending on the musical or linguistic nature of the perceived stimulus, the combined data lend support for a co-localization of early musical and linguistic syntax processing in the temporal lobe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plagiarism and Source Deception Detection Based on Syntax Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Salih Al-Shamery

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the shingle algorithm with Jaccard method are employed as a new approach to detect deception in sources in addition to detect plagiarism . Source deception occurs as a result of taking a particular text from a source and relative it to another source, while plagiarism occurs in the documents as a result of taking part or all of the text belong to another research, this approach is based on Shingle algorithm with Jaccard coefficient , Shingling is an efficient way to compare the set of shingle in the files that contain text which are used as a feature to measure the syntactic similarity of the documents and it will work with Jaccard coefficient that measures similarity between sample sets . In this proposed system, text will be checked whether it contains syntax plagiarism or not and gives a percentage of similarity with other documents , As well as research sources will be checked to detect deception in source , by matching it with available sources from Turnitin report of the same research by using shingle algorithm with Jaccard coefficient. The motivations of this work is to discovery of literary thefts that occur on the researches , especially what students are doing in their researches , also discover the deception that occurs in the sources.

  7. On the syntax and semantics of Spanish spatial prepositions

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    Francesco-Alessio Ursini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to offer a novel account on the Syntax and Semantics of Spanish Spatial Prepositions. This account is novel in at least three aspects. First, the account offers a unified syntactic analysis that covers understudied types of Spanish Spatial Prepositions (e.g. en el centro de, junto y a la izquierda de. Second, the account shows that such treatment can be extended to morphological phenomena, and can capture both their internal structure (e.g. de-bajo, and licensing patterns pertaining to argument demotion. The account also captures an alternation between "a-" (e.g. alante and "de-" Prepositions (e.g. debajo, with respect to demotion, and is consistent with standard treatments of where-questions (dónde, in Spanish. Third, the account offers a "direct compositionality" semantic treatment, in which the interpretation of Spanish Spatial Prepositions is directly "read off" from their structure. This account is shown to capture all the semantic data discussed in the paper (argument demotion, interaction of Prepositions with Verbs, coordinated Prepositions, and to successfully extend previous accounts of this category.

  8. Syntax-phonology mapping and the Tongan DP

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    Byron Ahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tongan, a Polynesian language, is almost entirely head-initial. There are some exceptions to this, including Demonstrative enclitics and the so-called Definitive Accent (Churchward 1953, which appears to be a stress-shift operation, typically in the rightmost word of the DP. One question that arises here is: where does the morphophonological status of being an enclitic come from – particularly in a rather radically head-initial language? By investigating the distributional properties of the Definitive Accent, it will become clear that this is the result of syntactic and phonological structures proceeding without any direct appeal to morphophonological properties. A new formal analysis presented here derives the positions of the Definitive Accent and possible prosodic phrasings, appealing to independently motivated phonological constraints applying to structures with three cross-linguistically supported movement operations. It is shown that achieving this requires neither including morpheme-indexed constraints, nor having lexemes pre-specified with morphophonological properties such as “enclitic” or “prefix”. Finally, Tongan Definitive Accents raise important issues about the immutability of phases. Specifically, it must be that Phonology may access and manipulate previously spelled out material in a way that Syntax cannot, which is in fact exactly what a Minimalist architecture predicts.

  9. INVESTIGATING THE SYNTAX OF POSTVERBAL MODALS IN HAKKA

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    Jui-Yi Zoey Chung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a syntactic account for the odd distribution of the postverbal modal element, tet, in Sixian Hakka, an SVO language in which a modal auxiliary precedes the main verb. Inspired by the cartographic approach (Cinque 1999, Rizzi 1997, I propose that the modal element tet patterns with regular modals in being syntactically higher than the VP, and the surface form is derived to satisfy the morphonological requirement of tet via either Move (of V-raising or Merge (with the light verb zo ‘do’. Three types of tet sentences show the spectrum of modality across functional projections (Tsai 2010. Furthermore, the present analysis can explain the asymmetries of the three types of tet in the passivization and disposal construals as well as the interaction with certain adverbials. Finally, I compare tet with Cantonese dak (Cheng and Sybesma 2004, to achieve a broader cross-dialectal perspective. This analysis provides a better understanding of the mapping between syntax and semantics.

  10. Developmental language disorders: cognitive processes, semantics, pragmatics, phonology, and syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, R F

    1981-03-01

    Five areas of research concerned with language acquisition--cognitive processes, semantics, pragmatics, phonology, and syntax--are reviewed in terms of their contribution to understanding language disorders. Two views of cognitive processes are discussed. One of these, emphasizing cognitive mechanisms such as short-term memory, is seen as providing possible explanations for some types of language deficits. The other, a concern with conceptual knowledge, is subjected to a critical analysis questioning how complete an explanation it is able to offer for some aspects of language acquisition. Problems of definition are also discussed when semantic aspects of language are considered. Problems in the pragmatic component of language are seen as providing an explanation for particular aspects of language disorder in some autistic children. The importance of focusing on phonology as a central grammatical process is discussed and linked to dyslexia and to spelling disorders. Finally, it is argued that the acquisition of syntactic structure is not yet understood. Impairments such as a hierarchical planning order deficit may affect syntactic ability and lead to disordered language, as found in some types of developmentally aphasic children. It is concluded that it is important to study all five areas of the title, and their interrelationships, if various language disorders are to be adequately understood.

  11. Semantic Information and the Syntax of Propositional Attitude Verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Aaron S; Hacquard, Valentine; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    Propositional attitude verbs, such as think and want, have long held interest for both theoretical linguists and language acquisitionists because their syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties display complex interactions that have proven difficult to fully capture from either perspective. This paper explores the granularity with which these verbs' semantic and pragmatic properties are recoverable from their syntactic distributions, using three behavioral experiments aimed at explicitly quantifying the relationship between these two sets of properties. Experiment 1 gathers a measure of 30 propositional attitude verbs' syntactic distributions using an acceptability judgment task. Experiments 2a and 2b gather measures of semantic similarity between those same verbs using a generalized semantic discrimination (triad or "odd man out") task and an ordinal (Likert) scale task, respectively. Two kinds of analyses are conducted on the data from these experiments. The first compares both the acceptability judgments and the semantic similarity judgments to previous classifications derived from the syntax and semantics literature. The second kind compares the acceptability judgments to the semantic similarity judgments directly. Through these comparisons, we show that there is quite fine-grained information about propositional attitude verbs' semantics carried in their syntactic distributions-whether one considers the sorts of discrete qualitative classifications that linguists traditionally work with or the sorts of continuous quantitative classifications that can be derived experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Syntax at hand: common syntactic structures for actions and language.

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    Alice C Roy

    Full Text Available Evidence that the motor and the linguistic systems share common syntactic representations would open new perspectives on language evolution. Here, crossing disciplinary boundaries, we explore potential parallels between the structure of simple actions and that of sentences. First, examining Typically Developing (TD children displacing a bottle with or without knowledge of its weight prior to movement onset, we provide kinematic evidence that the sub-phases of this displacing action (reaching + moving the bottle manifest a structure akin to linguistic embedded dependencies. Then, using the same motor task, we reveal that children suffering from specific language impairment (SLI, whose core deficit affects syntactic embedding and dependencies, manifest specific structural motor anomalies parallel to their linguistic deficits. In contrast to TD children, SLI children performed the displacing-action as if its sub-phases were juxtaposed rather than embedded. The specificity of SLI's structural motor deficit was confirmed by testing an additional control group: Fragile-X Syndrome patients, whose language capacity, though delayed, comparatively spares embedded dependencies, displayed slower but structurally normal motor performances. By identifying the presence of structural representations and dependency computations in the motor system and by showing their selective deficit in SLI patients, these findings point to a potential motor origin for language syntax.

  13. Syntax at hand: common syntactic structures for actions and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alice C; Curie, Aurore; Nazir, Tatjana; Paulignan, Yves; des Portes, Vincent; Fourneret, Pierre; Deprez, Viviane

    2013-01-01

    Evidence that the motor and the linguistic systems share common syntactic representations would open new perspectives on language evolution. Here, crossing disciplinary boundaries, we explore potential parallels between the structure of simple actions and that of sentences. First, examining Typically Developing (TD) children displacing a bottle with or without knowledge of its weight prior to movement onset, we provide kinematic evidence that the sub-phases of this displacing action (reaching + moving the bottle) manifest a structure akin to linguistic embedded dependencies. Then, using the same motor task, we reveal that children suffering from specific language impairment (SLI), whose core deficit affects syntactic embedding and dependencies, manifest specific structural motor anomalies parallel to their linguistic deficits. In contrast to TD children, SLI children performed the displacing-action as if its sub-phases were juxtaposed rather than embedded. The specificity of SLI's structural motor deficit was confirmed by testing an additional control group: Fragile-X Syndrome patients, whose language capacity, though delayed, comparatively spares embedded dependencies, displayed slower but structurally normal motor performances. By identifying the presence of structural representations and dependency computations in the motor system and by showing their selective deficit in SLI patients, these findings point to a potential motor origin for language syntax.

  14. Progressive Syntax-Rich Coding of Multichannel Audio Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Yang

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Being able to transmit the audio bitstream progressively is a highly desirable property for network transmission. MPEG-4 version 2 audio supports fine grain bit rate scalability in the generic audio coder (GAC. It has a bit-sliced arithmetic coding (BSAC tool, which provides scalability in the step of 1 Kbps per audio channel. There are also several other scalable audio coding methods, which have been proposed in recent years. However, these scalable audio tools are only available for mono and stereo audio material. Little work has been done on progressive coding of multichannel audio sources. MPEG advanced audio coding (AAC is one of the most distinguished multichannel digital audio compression systems. Based on AAC, we develop in this work a progressive syntax-rich multichannel audio codec (PSMAC. It not only supports fine grain bit rate scalability for the multichannel audio bitstream but also provides several other desirable functionalities. A formal subjective listening test shows that the proposed algorithm achieves an excellent performance at several different bit rates when compared with MPEG AAC.

  15. Design of progressive syntax-rich multichannel audio codec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dai; Ai, Hongmei; Kyriakakis, Christos; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2001-12-01

    Being able to transmit the audio bitstream progressively is a highly desirable property for network transmission. MPEG-4 version-2 audio supports fine grain bit rate scalability in the Generic Audio Coder (GAC). It has a Bit-Sliced Arithmetic Coding (BSAC) tool, which provides scalability in the step of 1kbit/sec per audio channel. However, this fine grain scalability tool is only available for mono and stereo audio material. Not much work has been done on progressively transmitting multichannel audio sources. MPEG Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is one of the most distinguished multichannel digital audio compression systems. Based on AAC, we develop a progressive syntax-rich multichannel audio codec in this work. It not only supports fine grain bit rate scalability for the multichannel audio bitstream, but also provides several other desirable functionalities. A formal subjective listening test shows that the proposed algorithm achieves a better performance at several different bit rates when compared with MPEG-4 BSAC for the mono audio sources.

  16. Progressive Syntax-Rich Coding of Multichannel Audio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dai; Ai, Hongmei; Kyriakakis, Chris; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2003-12-01

    Being able to transmit the audio bitstream progressively is a highly desirable property for network transmission. MPEG- [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] version [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] audio supports fine grain bit rate scalability in the generic audio coder (GAC). It has a bit-sliced arithmetic coding (BSAC) tool, which provides scalability in the step of 1 Kbps per audio channel. There are also several other scalable audio coding methods, which have been proposed in recent years. However, these scalable audio tools are only available for mono and stereo audio material. Little work has been done on progressive coding of multichannel audio sources. MPEG advanced audio coding (AAC) is one of the most distinguished multichannel digital audio compression systems. Based on AAC, we develop in this work a progressive syntax-rich multichannel audio codec (PSMAC). It not only supports fine grain bit rate scalability for the multichannel audio bitstream but also provides several other desirable functionalities. A formal subjective listening test shows that the proposed algorithm achieves an excellent performance at several different bit rates when compared with MPEG AAC.

  17. Prediction of Mymensingh Town Future Expansion Using Space Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Alam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban space changes according to different space use with the passage of time, as seen in land use, location, and land value distribution. The paper intends to analyze the change of integration core related to the growth of commercial land use through different time periods. Two phases of Commercial land-use pattern is studied. The phases are i 1974, ii 2013. The entire spatial structure of the commercial land use of Mymensingh reacts to the entire city system, particularly the road network pattern. In this context, this study aims to identify the influence spatial configuration exerts on the location of different types of commercial activity in terms of land use. The results of this study will help to interpret and predict the future commercial land use related to its road network. In this paper the process was conducted in the following steps: Step-01: A field survey was conducted to collect data regarding locations of commercial activity,Step-02: Land-use maps of two phases were collected to analyze the relation between commercial activity and road network,Step-03: Space syntax theory was applied to simulate the data to analyze the relationship and Step-04: Proposition. 

  18. Using Arden Syntax for the creation of a multi-patient surveillance dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Stefan; Drescher, Caroline; Sedlmayr, Martin; Castellanos, Ixchel; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Toddenroth, Dennis

    2015-10-09

    Most practically deployed Arden-Syntax-based clinical decision support (CDS) modules process data from individual patients. The specification of Arden Syntax, however, would in principle also support multi-patient CDS. The patient data management system (PDMS) at our local intensive care units does not natively support patient overviews from customizable CDS routines, but local physicians indicated a demand for multi-patient tabular overviews of important clinical parameters such as key laboratory measurements. As our PDMS installation provides Arden Syntax support, we set out to explore the capability of Arden Syntax for multi-patient CDS by implementing a prototypical dashboard for visualizing laboratory findings from patient sets. Our implementation leveraged the object data type, supported by later versions of Arden, which turned out to be serviceable for representing complex input data from several patients. For our prototype, we designed a modularized architecture that separates the definition of technical operations, in particular the control of the patient context, from the actual clinical knowledge. Individual Medical Logic Modules (MLMs) for processing single patient attributes could then be developed according to well-tried Arden Syntax conventions. We successfully implemented a working dashboard prototype entirely in Arden Syntax. The architecture consists of a controller MLM to handle the patient context, a presenter MLM to generate a dashboard view, and a set of traditional MLMs containing the clinical decision logic. Our prototype could be integrated into the graphical user interface of the local PDMS. We observed that with realistic input data the average execution time of about 200ms for generating dashboard views attained applicable performance. Our study demonstrated the general feasibility of creating multi-patient CDS routines in Arden Syntax. We believe that our prototypical dashboard also suggests that such implementations can be relatively

  19. Risk stratification in 3-vessel coronary artery disease: Applying the SYNTAX Score II in the Heart Team Discussion of the SYNTAX II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos M; Stanetic, Bojan M; Farooq, Vasim; Walsh, Simon; Ishibashi, Yuki; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Escaned, Javier; Banning, Adrian; Serruys, Patrick W

    2015-11-15

    Heart Team (HT) and the SYNTAX Score II (SSII) have been integrated to the contemporary guidelines with the aim to provide a multidisciplinary decision-making process between coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). To prospectively assess the agreement between the HT decision and the SSII recommendation regarding the revascularization strategy in patients with 3-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) of the SYNTAX II trial. The SSII predicts the 4-year mortality of an individual patient both after PCI and after CABG. Patients were treated by PCI when the SSII predicted a mortality risk favoring PCI or when risk predictions were equipoise between PCI and CABG. However, the HT could overrule the SSII and recommend either CABG or PCI. A total of 202 patients have been screened and 24 did not fulfill inclusion criteria. The median age was 67.0 (IQR 59.0-73.3), and 167 (82.7%) were male. The HT endorsed SSII treatment recommendation, for CABG or PCI, in 152 patients (85.4%). Three patients had preference for PCI, irrespective of the HT decision. The main reason for the HT to overrule the SSII and recommend CABG was the prospect of a more complete revascularization (21 of 25 patients). Patients recommended for CABG by the HT had significantly higher anatomical SYNTAX score (P = 0.03) and higher predicted mortality risk for PCI (P = 0.04) when compared with patients that were enrolled in the trial. The SYNTAX score II showed to be a suitable tool for guiding treatment decisions of patients with 3-vessel coronary artery disease being endorsed by the HT in the vast majority of the patients that have been enrolled in the SYNTAX II trial. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The syntax of information structure and the PF interface

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    Kriszta Szendrői

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Focus movement to a left-peripheral position has been posited for both Hungarian and Italian. In this paper I argue against a unified cartographic treatment of focus movement, which analyses both as instances of movement to [Spec, Focus0]. I raise some theoretical issues for cartography, such as the proliferation of focus heads and the difficulties with accounting for optionality. Empirically, I show that a set of properties distinguish Hungarian and Italian left-peripheral focus movement suggesting a different syntactic analysis for the two constructions. Following Hamlaoui & Szendrői’s (2015 proposal for the syntax-prosody mapping of clauses, I show that Hungarian focus movement is prosodically motivated in that it is movement targeting the position that main stress is assigned to in the prosody. I show how the same proposal extends to right-peripheral and string-medial focus in Italian and heavy NP shift in English. I discuss the typological predictions of the that it follows from the proposal that left-peripheral focus movement is always accompanied by verb movement, while right-peripheral focus movement will target a position lower than the surface position of the finite verb. Finally, I propose that Italian left-peripheral focus movement is motivated by contrastivity. This accounts for the different characteristics of the two constructions: (i that Hungarian, but not Italian, focus movement is accompanied by the movement of the finite verb; (ii that Hungarian left-peripheral focus is prosodically unmarked, while Italian left-peripheral focus comes with marked prosody; and (iii that Hungarian focus movement is pragmatically unmarked, in the sense that it can answer a 'wh'-question, while Italian focus movement is explicitly contrastive (or perhaps even mirative or corrective.  This article is part of the special collection: What drives syntactic computation?

  1. Unifying Prepositions and Prefixes in Russian: Conceptual structure versus syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Tolskaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to unify the polysemous verbal prefixes and prepositions in Russian. At first glance, the variety of possible denotations of a given prefix might appear a chaotic set of idiomatic meanings, e.g., the prefix za- may refer to beginning of an action, movement to a position behind an object, a brief deviation from a path, completion of an action, while the corresponding preposition za can mean ‘behind,’ ‘after,’ ‘for,’ ‘in’ (like in ‘in an hour’, ‘at’ (like in ‘at the table’. I will propose a unified analysis, where the differences in meaning are claimed to arise from different syntactic positions, while the lexical entry of a prefix remains the same. The main focus is on the verbs of motion due to the consistent duality displayed by the prefix meanings when added to directional and non-directional motion verbs. It will turn out that many prefixes appear to modify path when added onto a directional motion verb and to refer to movement in time with non-directional motion verbs. This semantic distinction corresponds to distinct sets of syntactic properties, specific for each set of prefixes. These two classes of prefixes correspond to the lexical versus superlexical distinction. However, a tripartite division will emerge in each set, corresponding to source, path, and goal of motion (FROM, VIA and TO for lexical prefixes and to initiation, process and result for superlexical prefixes. This leads to the suggestion that the syntactic representation of a VP contains at least six distinct nodes for the Russian verbal prefixes, each characterized by predictable semantic and syntactic properties. The same prefix with a consistent meaning, shared with the corresponding preposition, will receive part of its denotation from the syntactic head it attaches to, thus allowing the polysemy to arise from position, rather than from arbitrary homophony. Thus, conceptual structure will be unified with syntax.

  2. Urban greenways: Operationalizing design syntax and integrating mathematics and science in design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous sameness of urban greenways prompts questions on generative design grammar and syntax, whether creative, critical rethinking at that level might be lacking. However the design syntax of urban greenways is not explicitly discussed thus leaving a critical gap in knowledge. This paper begins tackling the larger question by acting on the fundamental subset of it, by operationalizing the design syntax of urban greenways. This is done through mathematics-based graph studies to analyze patterns and shapes, photography based thermal, material and morphology studies, and section analyses to make imagery-derived deductions on the design syntax. Recommendation on approaches to diversify and enrich the design syntax includes a more direct reference from ecosystem science theories such for siting and planning the urban greenways at macro- to meso-scale, a mixed-method approach, combining mathematics, photography and drawings based frames for analyses at meso-, to micro-scale, and a turtle view scale for designing at meso- to micro-scale, with an emphasis on latter.

  3. The Urge to Merge: Ritual Insult and the Evolution of Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Progovac

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout recorded history, sexually mature males have issued humorous insults in public. These ‘verbal duels’ are thought to discharge aggressive dispositions, and to provide a way to compete for status and mating opportunities without risking physical altercations. But, is there evidence that such verbal duels, and sexual selection in general, played any role in the evolution of specific principles of language, syntax in particular? In this paper, concrete linguistic data and analysis will be presented which indeed point to that conclusion. The prospect will be examined that an intermediate form of ‘proto-syntax’, involving ‘proto-Merge’, evolved in a context of ritual insult. This form, referred to as exocentric compound, can be seen as a ‘living fossil’ of this stage of proto-syntax — providing evidence not only of ancient structure (syntax/semantics, but also arguably of sexual selection.

  4. Complexity, Predictability and Time Homogeneity of Syntax in the Songs of Cassin's Vireo (Vireo cassinii.

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    Richard W Hedley

    Full Text Available Many species of animals deliver vocalizations in sequences presumed to be governed by internal rules, though the nature and complexity of these syntactical rules have been investigated in relatively few species. Here I present an investigation into the song syntax of fourteen male Cassin's Vireos (Vireo cassinii, a species whose song sequences are highly temporally structured. I compare their song sequences to three candidate models of varying levels of complexity-zero-order, first-order and second-order Markov models-and employ novel methods to interpolate between these three models. A variety of analyses, including sequence simulations, Fisher's exact tests, and model likelihood analyses, showed that the songs of this species are too complex to be described by a zero-order or first-order Markov model. The model that best fit the data was intermediate in complexity between a first- and second-order model, though I also present evidence that some transition probabilities are conditioned on up to three preceding phrases. In addition, sequences were shown to be predictable with more than 54% accuracy overall, and predictability was positively correlated with the rate of song delivery. An assessment of the time homogeneity of syntax showed that transition probabilities between phrase types are largely stable over time, but that there was some evidence for modest changes in syntax within and between breeding seasons, a finding that I interpret to represent changes in breeding stage and social context rather than irreversible, secular shifts in syntax over time. These findings constitute a valuable addition to our understanding of bird song syntax in free-living birds, and will contribute to future attempts to understand the evolutionary importance of bird song syntax in avian communication.

  5. Fuzzy-Arden-Syntax-based, Vendor-agnostic, Scalable Clinical Decision Support and Monitoring Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Fehre, Karsten; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective is to develop and use a scalable genuine technology platform for clinical decision support based on Arden Syntax, which was extended by fuzzy set theory and fuzzy logic. Arden Syntax is a widely recognized formal language for representing clinical and scientific knowledge in an executable format, and is maintained by Health Level Seven (HL7) International and approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Fuzzy set theory and logic permit the representation of knowledge and automated reasoning under linguistic and propositional uncertainty. These forms of uncertainty are a common feature of patients' medical data, the body of medical knowledge, and deductive clinical reasoning.

  6. Behavioral Synthesis of Asynchronous Circuits Using Syntax Directed Translation as Backend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Sparsø, Jens; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The current state-of-the art in high-level synthesis of asynchronous circuits is syntax directed translation, which performs a one-to-one mapping of a HDL-description into a corresponding circuit. This paper presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits which builds on top...... of syntax directed translation, and which allows the designer to perform automatic design space exploration guided by area or speed constraints. The paper presents an asynchronous implementation template consisting of a data-path and a control unit and its implementation using the asynchronous hardware...

  7. Investigating deaf students' knowledge of Persian syntax: further evidence for a critical period hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheitury, Amer; Ashraf, Vida; Hashemi, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The present study aims to investigate syntactic deficits in 13 Iranian deaf students aged between 17 and 21 years. Four tests in the form of sentence-recognition and sentence-completion were administered to examine their knowledge of verb inflection, derivational morphology, word order, and prepositions. A between-category analysis of errors indicated a significant dissociation between categories, most notably between verb inflection and derivational morphology and between word order as the category with fewest errors and the three others. On theoretical grounds, the fact that subjects have not acquired much syntax even after years of learning seemed to strengthen the significance of acquiring syntax and morphology in the early years.

  8. Neural bases of syntax-semantics interface processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evguenia; Newman, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    The binding problem-question of how information between the modules of the linguistic system is integrated during language processing-is as yet unresolved. The remarkable speed of language processing and comprehension (Pulvermüller et al. 2009) suggests that at least coarse semantic information (e.g. noun animacy) and syntactically-relevant information (e.g. verbal template) are integrated rapidly to allow for coarse comprehension. This EEG study investigated syntax-semantics interface processing during word-by-word sentence reading. As alpha-band neural activity serves as an inhibition mechanism for local networks, we used topographical distribution of alpha power to help identify the timecourse of the binding process. We manipulated the syntactic parameter of verbal event structure, and semantic parameter of noun animacy in reduced relative clauses (RRCs, e.g. "The witness/mansion seized/protected by the agent was in danger"), to investigate the neural bases of interaction between syntactic and semantic networks during sentence processing. The word-by-word stimulus presentation method in the present experiment required manipulation of both syntactic structure and semantic features in the working memory. The results demonstrated a gradient distribution of early components (biphasic posterior P1-N2 and anterior N1-P2) over function words "by" and "the", and the verb, corresponding to facilitation or conflict resulting from the syntactic (telicity) and semantic (animacy) cues in the preceding portion of the sentence. This was followed by assimilation of power distribution in the α band at the second noun. The flattened distribution of α power during the mental manipulation with high demand on working memory-thematic role re-assignment-demonstrates a state of α equilibrium with strong functional coupling between posterior and anterior regions. These results demonstrate that the processing of semantic and syntactic features during sentence comprehension proceeds

  9. A Simple Take on Typed Abstract Syntax in Haskell-Like Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Rhiger, Morten

    2000-01-01

    We present a simple way to program typed abstract syntax in a language following a Hindley-Milner typing discipline, such as Haskell and ML, and we apply it to automate two proofs about normalization functions as embodied in type-directed partial evaluation for the simply typed lambda calculus...

  10. Space Syntax: a method to measure urban space related to social, economic and cognitive factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, Akkelies; Yamu, Claudia; Yamu, Claudia; Poplin, Alenka; Devisch, Oswald; De Roo, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Configurational analysis represented by the method of space syntax allows the modelling of a city that links intuition and science, and it can be used for designing and planning cities, as well as in research (Hillier 2009). Developed by Bill Hillier and his colleagues at the University College

  11. Impact of Typical Aging and Parkinson's Disease on the Relationship among Breath Pausing, Syntax, and Punctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica E.; Darling, Meghan; Francis, Elaine J.; Zhang, Dabao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the impact of typical aging and Parkinson's disease (PD) on the relationship among breath pausing, syntax, and punctuation. Method: Thirty young adults, 25 typically aging older adults, and 15 individuals with PD participated. Fifteen participants were age- and sex-matched to the individuals with PD.…

  12. Mluvená syntax v Naší řeči

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeman, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 3 (2017), s. 114-120 ISSN 0027-8203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01116S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : conversation * spoken Czech * spoken syntax * turn * utterance Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics

  13. Syntax and morphology in Danish-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Cecilia; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Jørgensen, Meta

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined delays in syntax and morphology, and vocabulary, in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children ages 4–6 years with ASD (n = 21) and typical development (n = 21), matched on nonverbal mental age, completed five language tasks. The ASD group had significant delays in both...

  14. Co je nářeční syntax?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipková, Milena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, 1-2 (2013), s. 220-224 ISSN 0037-6736 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP406/11/1786 Keywords : Czech dialect ology * dialect syntax * common language * spontaneous speech Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  15. Syntax in language and music: What is the right level of comparison?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eAsano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that music and language share a process of hierarchical structure building, a mental syntax. Although several lines of research point to commonalities, and possibly a shared syntactic component, differences between language syntax and music syntax can also be found at several levels: conveyed meaning, and the atoms of combination, for example. To bring music and language closer to one another, some researchers have suggested a comparison between music and phonology (‘phonological syntax’, but here too, one quickly arrives at a situation of intriguing similarities and obvious differences. In this paper we suggest that a fruitful comparison between the two domains could benefit from taking the grammar of action into account. In particular, we suggest that what is called syntax can be investigated in terms of goal of action, action planning, motor control, and sensory-motor integration. At this level of comparison, we suggest that some of the differences between language and music could be explained in terms of different goals reflected in the hierarchical structures of action planning: the hierarchical structures of music arise to achieve goals with a strong relation to the affective-gestural system encoding tension-relaxation patterns as well as socio-intentional system, whereas hierarchical structures in language are embedded in a conceptual system that gives rise to compositional meaning. Similarities between music and language are most clear in the way several hierarchical plans for executing action are processed in time and sequentially integrated to achieve various goals.

  16. An Integrated Modeling Approach Combining Multifractal Urban Planning with a Space Syntax Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Yamu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Paris agreement of 2015 highlighted the need for urban planning to prevent and contain urban sprawl so as to reduce trip lengths through an efficient distribution of agglomerations and a well-balanced urban pattern distribution, all while considering travel behavior and accessibility to green areas, services, and facilities on different temporal scales. For the Vienna-Bratislava metropolitan region, our integrated modeling approach uses a combination of multifractal spatial modeling along with a space syntax perspective. Multifractal strategies are intrinsically multiscalar and adhere to five planning principles: hierarchical (polycentric urban development to manage urban sprawl; sustainable transit-oriented development; locally well-balanced urban pattern and functions distribution to enhance vital urban systems, local centers, and neighborhoods; penetration of green areas into built-up areas; and the preservation of large interconnected networks of green areas to conserve biodiversity. Adding space syntax modeling to a multifractal strategy integrates how space relates to functional patterns based on centrality, thus applying a socio-spatial perspective. In this paper, we used the following workflow for an integrated modeling approach: (1 Space syntax to identify the urban systems’ hierarchy and so determine a spatial strategy regionally; (2 Fractalopolis to create a multifractal development plan for potential urbanization; and (3 Space syntax to design a strategic urban master plan for locating new housing and facilities vis-à-vis socioeconomic factors.

  17. Syntax and semantics of a high-level intermediate representation for ASF+SDF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Brand, M.G.J. van den

    2000-01-01

    Developing a compiler for ASF+SDF has been a challenging task. The compilation of ASF+SDF is performed using an intermediate language μASF, an abstract syntax representation of ASF+SDF. Although ASF+SDF is quite simple to use, it provides a number of features which have an unclear semantics. By

  18. Syntax and semantics of a high-level intermediate representation for ASF+SDF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bergstra; M.G.J. van den Brand (Mark)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDeveloping a compiler for asdf has been a challenging task. The compilation of asdf is performed using an intermediate language muasf, an abstract syntax representation of asdf. Although asdf is quite simple to use, it provides a number of features which have an unclear semantics. By

  19. Issues in Development of the Test Battery for Australian Sign Language Morphology and Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Johnston, Trevor; Leigh, Greg; Adam, Robert; Barker, Roz

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation of the Test Battery for American Sign Language Morphology and Syntax for Australian Sign Language. Data collected from a group of native signers who were deaf (n=25) demonstrate the range of variability in key grammatical features of Australian Sign Language and raise methodological issues. (Contains…

  20. Is Young Children's Passive Syntax Semantically Constrained? Evidence from Syntactic Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Katherine; Branigan, Holly P.; McLean, Janet F.; Sorace, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that English-speaking children comprehend agent-patient verb passives earlier than experiencer-theme verb passives (Maratsos, Fox, Becker, & Chalkley, 1985). We report three experiments examining whether such effects reflect delayed acquisition of the passive syntax or instead are an artifact of the experimental task,…

  1. Bilingual First Language Acquisition at the Interface between Syntax and Pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulk, Aafke; Muller, Natascha

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that in acquiring two languages from birth, bilingual children separate their grammars from very early on. Focuses on the acquisition of syntax in a generative framework. Argues that cross-linguistic influence can occur if an interface level between two modules of grammar is involved, and the two languages overlap at the surface level…

  2. Effects of Distributed Practice on the Acquisition of Second Language English Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steve

    2010-01-01

    A longitudinal study compared the effects of distributed and massed practice schedules on the learning of second language English syntax. Participants were taught distinctions in the tense and aspect systems of English at short and long practice intervals. They were then tested at short and long intervals. The results showed that distributed…

  3. Evidence for Knowledge of the Syntax of Large Numbers in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Thevenot, Catherine; Fayol, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence for knowledge of the syntax governing the verbal form of large numbers in preschoolers long before they are able to count up to these numbers. We reasoned that if such knowledge exists, it should facilitate the maintenance in short-term memory of lists of lexical primitives that constitute a number…

  4. The Impact of Personality: Extrovert vs. Introvert on the Ability in Syntax in Essay Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Zainuddin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to find out if there would be any significant difference in scores for syntax in essay writing between extrovert and introvert EFL learners. The quantitative data were collected by applying writing rubrics from Brown (2007. The participants of this study were 40 English learners (20 extroverts and 20 introverts at Universitas Negeri Medan, Indonesia. The data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 2.0. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant difference in the scores for syntax between extrovert and introvert learners. In this study, introvert EFL learners did better than extrovert EFL learners in constructing sentences (syntax. Thus, both groups still have an equal chance to improve their ability in a learning foreign language particularly in writing skills but extrovert EFL learners must pay more attention to using good syntax because they tend to be careless and less correct in constructing their phrases when doing a writing task.

  5. A Simple Take on Typed Abstract Syntax in Haskell-like Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Rhiger, Morten

    2001-01-01

    We present a simple way to program typed abstract syntax in a language following a Hindley-Milner typing discipline, such as Haskell and ML, and we apply it to automate two proofs about normalization functions as embodied in type-directed partial evaluation for the simply typed lambda calculus......: normalization functions (1) preserve types and (2) yield long beta-eta normal forms....

  6. Mapping among Knowledge Bases and Data Repositories: Precise Definition of Its Syntax and Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jose Miguel; Goni, Alfredo; Illarramendi, Arantza

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of data repositories available in global information systems focuses on facilitating access by providing semantic views. Highlights include the mapping relation; syntax and semantics of the mapping; query formulation and processing; terminological systems for semantic views; and relational algebraic expressions. (LRW)

  7. The Syntax of Spoken Arabic: A Comparative Study of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian, and Kuwaiti Dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustad, Kristen E.

    This book is a comparative study of the syntax of Arabic dialects based on natural language data recorded in Morocco, Egypt, Syria, and Kuwait. These four dialect regions are distinct and geographically diverse and representative of four distinct dialect groups. The analytical approach of the book is both functional and descriptive, combining…

  8. Modern Greek Language: Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax by Non-Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…

  9. Shared Syntax in Language Production and Language Comprehension-An fMRI Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segaert, K.R.; Menenti, L.M.E.; Weber, K.M.; Petersson, K.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2012-01-01

    During speaking and listening syntactic processing is a crucial step. It involves specifying syntactic relations between words in a sentence. If the production and comprehension modality share the neuronal substrate for syntactic processing then processing syntax in one modality should lead to

  10. Learning Verb Syntax via Listening: New Evidence from 22-Month-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Katherine; Yuan, Sylvia; Fisher, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Children recruit verb syntax to guide verb interpretation. We asked whether 22-month-olds spontaneously encode information about a particular novel verb's syntactic properties through listening to sentences, retain this information in long-term memory over a filled delay, and retrieve it to guide interpretation upon hearing the same novel verb…

  11. The logical syntax of number words: theory, acquisition and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, Julien

    2009-04-01

    Recent work on the acquisition of number words has emphasized the importance of integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives [Musolino, J. (2004). The semantics and acquisition of number words: Integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives. Cognition93, 1-41; Papafragou, A., Musolino, J. (2003). Scalar implicatures: Scalar implicatures: Experiments at the semantics-pragmatics interface. Cognition, 86, 253-282; Hurewitz, F., Papafragou, A., Gleitman, L., Gelman, R. (2006). Asymmetries in the acquisition of numbers and quantifiers. Language Learning and Development, 2, 76-97; Huang, Y. T., Snedeker, J., Spelke, L. (submitted for publication). What exactly do numbers mean?]. Specifically, these studies have shown that data from experimental investigations of child language can be used to illuminate core theoretical issues in the semantic and pragmatic analysis of number terms. In this article, I extend this approach to the logico-syntactic properties of number words, focusing on the way numerals interact with each other (e.g. Three boys are holding two balloons) as well as with other quantified expressions (e.g. Three boys are holding each balloon). On the basis of their intuitions, linguists have claimed that such sentences give rise to at least four different interpretations, reflecting the complexity of the linguistic structure and syntactic operations involved. Using psycholinguistic experimentation with preschoolers (n=32) and adult speakers of English (n=32), I show that (a) for adults, the intuitions of linguists can be verified experimentally, (b) by the age of 5, children have knowledge of the core aspects of the logical syntax of number words, (c) in spite of this knowledge, children nevertheless differ from adults in systematic ways, (d) the differences observed between children and adults can be accounted for on the basis of an independently motivated, linguistically-based processing model [Geurts, B. (2003). Quantifying kids. Language

  12. Executable medical guidelines with Arden Syntax-Applications in dermatology and obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitinger, Alexander; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Leitich, Harald; Binder, Michael; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter

    2016-08-12

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) are being developed to assist physicians in processing extensive data and new knowledge based on recent scientific advances. Structured medical knowledge in the form of clinical alerts or reminder rules, decision trees or tables, clinical protocols or practice guidelines, score algorithms, and others, constitute the core of CDSSs. Several medical knowledge representation and guideline languages have been developed for the formal computerized definition of such knowledge. One of these languages is Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Systems, an International Health Level Seven (HL7) standard whose development started in 1989. Its latest version is 2.10, which was presented in 2014. In the present report we discuss Arden Syntax as a modern medical knowledge representation and processing language, and show that this language is not only well suited to define clinical alerts, reminders, and recommendations, but can also be used to implement and process computerized medical practice guidelines. This section describes how contemporary software such as Java, server software, web-services, XML, is used to implement CDSSs based on Arden Syntax. Special emphasis is given to clinical decision support (CDS) that employs practice guidelines as its clinical knowledge base. Two guideline-based applications using Arden Syntax for medical knowledge representation and processing were developed. The first is a software platform for implementing practice guidelines from dermatology. This application employs fuzzy set theory and logic to represent linguistic and propositional uncertainty in medical data, knowledge, and conclusions. The second application implements a reminder system based on clinically published standard operating procedures in obstetrics to prevent deviations from state-of-the-art care. A to-do list with necessary actions specifically tailored to the gestational week/labor/delivery is generated. Today, with the latest versions of

  13. Stimulation of development of notion about syntax in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of the research the goal of which was to study the notion about syntax as one of the meta-linguistic abilities that contributes to adoption of reading. Research comprised two hundred children of pre-school age, divided into two groups, balanced according to gender, intelligence and socioeconomic status. The research was conducted by an experimental method test-retest. In the initial measuring, experimental and control group were given the list comprising three kinds of experimental tasks for determining the level of development of notion about syntax, constructed by the author of the research. Experimental program consisted of tasks for stimulation of development of notion about syntax, which children practiced in the course of ten days (up to 30 minutes a day, with the help of previously trained pre-school teachers. After the ten-day training, final measuring in both groups was performed in both groups of respondents, by parallel form of tasks. The goal of the research was to determine whether it is possible to encourage the development of notion about syntax in children of pre-school age by systematic practice. The results of final measuring indicate that both in experimental and control group there have been significant improvements with respect to development of notion about syntax, and that the number of answers in which judgement was based on the semantic criterion (experience and meaning was significantly reduced. In making judgements based on consequences (content of the sentence points to something which is a good or not a good thing to do, moral or immoral there were no significant differences in the final compared to the initial measuring in both groups. Significant differences in retest were found in making judgements based on meaning. The mere experience with test material at pre-school age brings about the improvement of the notion about language, and practice contributes considerably to shifting the

  14. Boosting syntax training with temporally regular musical primes in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, N; Besombes, A-M; Escande, E; Dumont, A; Lalitte, P; Tillmann, B

    2017-05-11

    Previous research has suggested the use of rhythmic structures (implemented in musical material) to improve linguistic structure processing (i.e., syntax processing), in particular for populations showing deficits in syntax and temporal processing (e.g., children with developmental language disorders). The present study proposes a long-term training program to improve syntax processing in children with cochlear implants, a population showing syntax processing deficits in perception and production. The training program consisted of morphosyntactic training exercises (based on speech processing) that were primed by musical regular primes (8 sessions) or neutral baseline primes (environmental sounds) (8 sessions). A crossover design was used to train 10 deaf children with cochlear implants. Performance in grammatical processing, non-word repetition, attention and memory was assessed before and after training. Training increased performance for syntax comprehension after both prime types but for grammaticality judgements and non-word repetition only when musical primes were used during training. For the far-transfer tests, some effects were also observed for attention tasks, especially if fast and precise sequential analysis (sequencing) was required, but not for memory tasks. The findings extend the previously observed beneficial short-term effects of regular musical primes in the laboratory to long-term training effects. Results suggest that the musical primes improved the processing of the syntactic training material, thus enhancing the training effects on grammatical processing as well as phonological processing and sequencing of speech signals. The findings can be interpreted within the dynamic attending theory (postulating the modulation of attention over time) and associated oscillatory brain activity. Furthermore, the findings encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) in language training programs and outline perspectives for

  15. ASSIST - a package of Fortran routines for handling input under specified syntax rules and for management of data structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, J.E.

    1991-02-01

    The ASSIST package (A Structured Storage and Input Syntax Tool) provides for Fortran programs a means for handling data structures more general than those provided by the Fortran language, and for obtaining input to the program from a file or terminal according to specified syntax rules. The syntax-controlled input can be interactive, with automatic generation of prompts, and dialogue to correct any input errors. The range of syntax rules possible is sufficient to handle lists of numbers and character strings, keywords, commands with optional clauses, and many kinds of variable-format constructions, such as algebraic expressions. ASSIST was developed for use in two large programs for the analysis of safety of radioactive waste disposal facilities, but it should prove useful for a wide variety of applications. (author)

  16. Exploring the boundary between syntax and pragmatics: relevance and the binding of pronouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, S H

    1994-02-01

    This paper explores the interface between syntax and pragmatics, focusing on the binding of pronouns and the pragmatics of the paradigms used to test this aspect of syntactic knowledge. Reinhart's (1986) version of Binding Theory (which accords a specific role to pragmatics in processes of pronoun resolution) and Sperber & Wilson's (1986) Theory of Relevance are used to examine the syntax and pragmatics of pronoun interpretation. A set of predictions based on Relevance Theory are evaluated against published results of tests of Binding Theory. The paper concludes that Relevance Theory provides a means of understanding constraints on testing syntactic knowledge and argues that pragmatic factors must be systematically controlled in any evaluation of syntactic knowledge.

  17. On Drafting a New Architectural Syntax: Case Study of the Great Mosque of Algiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Chebaiki Adli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The project to build the Great Mosque of Algiers is underway. This will be the largest mosque in the world, after the mosques at Mecca and Medina. Trying to reflect the Algiers’ context, this project refers in his architectural design to Almoravid (11th century influences, through an abstract way of interpretation. The aim of this paper is to explain this mode of interpretation by using a new approach. This approach combines both syntactic and semantic categories of the architectural object. It consists on the architectural syntax which tries the combination of space syntax and figurative abstract process. It is through a comparative study between the former mosque of Algiers: Djama’ al-A’dam (AH 490/ AD 1096–1097 and the future great mosque of Algiers that will explain this abstract way of interpretation, which seems more expressive than figurative.

  18. Pseudocode Interpreter (Pseudocode Integrated Development Environment with Lexical Analyzer and Syntax Analyzer using Recursive Descent Parsing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lester D. Gimeno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available –This research study focused on the development of a software that helps students design, write, validate and run their pseudocode in a semi Integrated Development Environment (IDE instead of manually writing it on a piece of paper.Specifically, the study aimed to develop lexical analyzer or lexer, syntax analyzer or parser using recursive descent parsing algorithm and an interpreter. The lexical analyzer reads pseudocodesource in a sequence of symbols or characters as lexemes.The lexemes are then analyzed by the lexer that matches a pattern for valid tokens and passes to the syntax analyzer or parser. The syntax analyzer or parser takes those valid tokens and builds meaningful commands using recursive descent parsing algorithm in a form of an abstract syntax tree. The generation of an abstract syntax tree is based on the specified grammar rule created by the researcher expressed in Extended Backus-Naur Form. The Interpreter takes the generated abstract syntax tree and starts the evaluation or interpretation to produce pseudocode output. The software was evaluated using white-box testing by several ICT professionals and black-box testing by several computer science students based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 9126 software quality standards. The overall results of the evaluation both for white-box and black-box were described as “Excellent in terms of functionality, reliability, usability, efficiency, maintainability and portability”.

  19. Space Syntax Analysis: Tools for Augmenting the Precision of Healthcare Facility Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Ahmed Hassem; Shepley, Mardelle McCuskey

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews and addresses various spatial measures that provide and facilitate accurate descriptions of different layout typologies with particular focus on healthcare facilities. Evidence-based design is a field of study that emphasizes the importance of using credible data in order to influence the design process. It addresses whether/how the design and operation of buildings support positive health outcomes through a growing collection of solutions informed by research and practical knowledge. In order to acquire this knowledge, we must consider the environment in a very precise and measurable way, which can then be investigated quantitatively with regard to various human behaviors and cognitive processes. Space Syntax theory and methods are concerned with understanding how spaces are arranged and connected to one another. It provides quantitative measures of individual spaces and of the entire layout, thereby achieving great accuracy. Space Syntax researchers have used graph theory to define spatial measures and have produced computer tools to quantify the relational properties of spaces and to provide numerical and display values for each. Moreover, they have developed more precise tools that can be embedded within basic Space Syntax concepts in order to augment the credibility of the acquired data. The study elaborates on the effectiveness of Space Syntax and its newly developed measures for the field of healthcare facility design and research. We present a comprehensive model that brings together these measures with their correlated behavioral and perceptual consequences, thereby providing a point of departure for further investigation and exploration. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Syntax and semantics of a high-level intermediate representation for ASF+SDF

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.; Brand, Mark

    2000-01-01

    textabstractDeveloping a compiler for asdf has been a challenging task. The compilation of asdf is performed using an intermediate language muasf, an abstract syntax representation of asdf. Although asdf is quite simple to use, it provides a number of features which have an unclear semantics. By means of a number of examples in muasf and a more mathematical notation a number of these semantic issues are clarified. These examples are helpful for both the compiler designer and the specification...

  1. (Invariability in the Samoan syntax/prosody interface and consequences for syntactic parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine M. Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While it has long been clear that prosody should be part of the grammar influencing the action of the syntactic parser, how to bring prosody into computational models of syntactic parsing has remained unclear. The challenge is that prosodic information in the speech signal is the result of the interaction of a multitude of conditioning factors. From this output, how can we factor out the contribution of syntax to conditioning prosodic events? And if we are able to do that factorization and define a production model from the syntactic grammar to a prosodified utterance, how can we then define a comprehension model based on that production model? In this case study of the Samoan morphosyntax-prosody interface, we show how to factor out the influence of syntax on prosody in empirical work and confirm there is invariable morphosyntactic conditioning of high edge tones. Then, we show how this invariability can be precisely characterized and used by a parsing model that factors the various influences of morphosyntax on tonal events. We expect that models of these kinds can be extended to more comprehensive perspectives on Samoan and to languages where the syntax/prosody coupling is more complex.

  2. Clinical decision support systems at the Vienna General Hospital using Arden Syntax: Design, implementation, and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Christian; de Bruin, Jeroen S; Seeling, Walter

    2015-12-01

    The Allgemeines Krankenhaus Informations Management (AKIM) project was started at the Vienna General Hospital (VGH) several years ago. This led to the introduction of a new hospital information system (HIS), and the installation of the expert system platform (EXP) for the integration of Arden-Syntax-based clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). In this report we take a look at the milestones achieved and the challenges faced in the creation and modification of CDSSs, and their integration into the HIS over the last three years. We introduce a three-stage development method, which is followed in nearly all CDSS projects at the Medical University of Vienna and the VGH. Stage one comprises requirements engineering and system conception. Stage two focuses on the implementation and testing of the system. Finally, stage three describes the deployment and integration of the system in the VGH HIS. The HIS provides a clinical work environment for healthcare specialists using customizable graphical interfaces known as parametric medical documents. Multiple Arden Syntax servers are employed to host and execute the CDSS knowledge bases: two embedded in the EXP for production and development, and a further three in clinical routine for production, development, and quality assurance. Three systems are discussed; the systems serve different purposes in different clinical areas, but are all implemented with Arden Syntax. MONI-ICU is an automated surveillance system for monitoring healthcare-associated infections in the intensive care setting. TSM-CDS is a CDSS used for risk prediction in the formation of cutaneous melanoma metastases. Finally, TacroDS is a CDSS for the manipulation of dosages for tacrolimus, an immunosuppressive agent used after kidney transplantation. Problems in development and integration were related to data quality or availability, although organizational difficulties also caused delays in development and integration. Since the inception of the AKIM

  3. Syntax mentioned seven times in the CEFR – and how many times at school, in foreign language classrooms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Mertelj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the teaching of foreign languages, complex-clause syntax does not seem to have had an established role over the last 20 years, especially within the communicative approach and, of course, the CEFR. It was previously part of methods which stressed formal approaches to foreign languages and their being taught, but not of natural, acquisition-based methods. With the communicative approach, two important premises were introduced: authentic texts and grammar as a tool when necessary. This is one probable reason why explicit, complex-clause syntax is hardly mentioned in the CEFR, even though it is implicitly present in descriptors, even though it is particularly recognisable in those for writing skills, and even though we know that it can be used for all four skills, as well as to guide learners towards some self-directed learning about language features. To date, in the era of the communicative approach, not much is known about the role of complex-clause syntax in foreign/second language classrooms, in particular from the learners’ viewpoint. In order to bridge this research gap, the paper analyses a questionnaire among learners in secondary schools that looked at their perspectives regarding the (possible role of syntax. The examined aspects consider its role for the four skills, and the benefits of knowing syntax; implicitly, the paper touches on some affective factors and related methodological approaches, along with problems concerning the teaching of syntax. The findings are based on quantitative data; an evaluation of the need for complex-clause syntax is included, and some pedagogical implications are presented.

  4. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  5. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBigand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, it has been argued that 1 music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and 2 that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  6. The contribution of surgical brain mapping to the understanding of the anatomo-functional basis of syntax: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Elia; Riva, Marco; Bambini, Valentina; Cappa, Stefano F; Magrassi, Lorenzo; Moro, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    A wide range of studies on language assessment during awake brain surgery is nowadays available. Yet, a consensus on a standardized protocol for intraoperative language mapping is still lacking. More specifically, very limited information is offered about intraoperative assessment of a crucial component of language such as syntax. This review aims at critically analyzing the intraoperative studies investigating the cerebral basis of syntactic processing. A comprehensive query was performed on the literature, returning a total of 18 studies. These papers were analyzed according to two complementary criteria, based on the distinction between morphosyntax and syntax. The first criterion focused on the tasks and stimuli employed intraoperatively. Studies were divided into three different groups: group 1 included those studies that overtly aimed at investigating morphosyntactic processes; group 2 included studies that did not explicitly focus on syntax, yet employed stimuli requiring morphosyntactic processing; and group 3 included studies reporting some generic form of syntactic deficit, although not further investigated. The second criterion focused on the syntactic structures of the sentences assessed intraoperatively, analyzing the canonicity of sentence structure (i.e., canonical versus non-canonical word order). The global picture emerging from our analysis indicates that what was investigated in the intraoperative literature is morphosyntactic processing, rather than pure syntax. The study of the neurobiology of syntax during awake surgery seems thus to be still at an early stage, in need of systematic, linguistically grounded investigations.

  7. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language: integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2013-01-01

    The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties.

  8. Implementation of visitor pattern in processing a syntax tree in Qlab project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenić Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Qlab is an open-source project that supports various mathematical calculations, specialized for academic use. It has been developed at the Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, and is supported by Microsoft Serbia. In this paper we present some of Qlab’s successfully implemented core solutions. More precisely, in our approach we use a specialized Visitor pattern to optimize the management of syntax tree commands that our parser sends to our engine. This allows the processing of a larger scale of tree implementation using the Visitor interface.

  9. Evaluation and Classification of Syntax Usage in Determining Short-Text Semantic Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Batanović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines and categorizes ways of using syntactic information in a number of algorithms for determining the semantic similarity of short texts. We consider the use of word order information, part-of-speech tagging, parsing and semantic role labeling. We analyze and evaluate the effects of syntax usage on algorithm performance by utilizing the results of a paraphrase detection test on the Microsoft Research Paraphrase Corpus. We also propose a new classification of algorithms based on their applicability to languages with scarce natural language processing tools.

  10. Discriminative feature-rich models for syntax-based machine translation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kevin R.

    2012-12-01

    This report describes the campus executive LDRD %E2%80%9CDiscriminative Feature-Rich Models for Syntax-Based Machine Translation,%E2%80%9D which was an effort to foster a better relationship between Sandia and Carnegie Mellon University (CMU). The primary purpose of the LDRD was to fund the research of a promising graduate student at CMU; in this case, Kevin Gimpel was selected from the pool of candidates. This report gives a brief overview of Kevin Gimpel's research.

  11. Neural bases of event knowledge and syntax integration in comprehension of complex sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Newman, Sharlene

    2015-01-01

    Comprehension of complex sentences is necessarily supported by both syntactic and semantic knowledge, but what linguistic factors trigger a readers' reliance on a specific system? This functional neuroimaging study orthogonally manipulated argument plausibility and verb event type to investigate cortical bases of the semantic effect on argument comprehension during reading. The data suggest that telic verbs facilitate online processing by means of consolidating the event schemas in episodic memory and by easing the computation of syntactico-thematic hierarchies in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The results demonstrate that syntax-semantics integration relies on trade-offs among a distributed network of regions for maximum comprehension efficiency.

  12. Empirical analysis of knowledge bases to support structured output in the Arden syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Structured output has been suggested for the Arden Syntax to facilitate interoperability. Tabulate the components of WRITE statements in a corpus of medical logic modules (MLMs)in order to validate requiring structured output. WRITE statements were tabulated in 258 MLMs from 2 organizations. In a total of 351 WRITE statements, email destinations (226) predominated, and 39 orders and 40 coded output elements also were tabulated. Free-text strings predominated as the message data. Arden WRITE statements contain considerable potentially structured data now included as free text. A future, normative structured WRITE statement must address a variety of data types and destinations.

  13. Syntaxe et sémantique chez Tesnière

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Garde

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce qui frappe avant tout dans les Eléments de syntaxe structurale de Lucien Tesnière, c'est leur caractère exhaustif: il s'agit d' une somme, rendant compte potentiellement de tous les phénomènes syntaxiques de toutes les langues. Aucun des autres grands linguistes du XX0 siècle ne nous presénte une oeuvre comparable, tous, de Hjelmslev à Chomsky, insistent davantage sur des questions de méthode sans en rechercher l’application à tous les problèmes possibles.

  14. Value of the SYNTAX score for periprocedural myocardial infarction according to WHO and the third universal definition of myocardial infarction: insights from the TWENTE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tandjung, K.; Tandjung, K.; Lam, M.K.; Sen, H.; de Man, F.H.; Louwerenburg, H.; Stoel, M.; van Houwelingen, G.; Linssen, G.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The SYNTAX score is a tool to quantify the complexity of coronary artery disease. We investigated the relation between the SYNTAX score and the occurrence of a periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) according to the historical definition of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the

  15. The prognostic utility of the SYNTAX score on 1-year outcomes after revascularization with zotarolimus- and everolimus-eluting stents: a substudy of the RESOLUTE All Comers Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garg, Scot; Serruys, Patrick W; Silber, Sigmund

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of the SYNTAX score (SXscore) to stratify risk in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using zotarolimus-eluting or everolimus-eluting stents.......This study assessed the ability of the SYNTAX score (SXscore) to stratify risk in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using zotarolimus-eluting or everolimus-eluting stents....

  16. Space and crime in North-African city of Annaba : Using Space Syntax to understand the strategy of offenders in the choice of location of street crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laouar, Dounia; Mazouz, Said; van Nes, A.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between space and crime by using space syntax. The aim is to describe the spatial characteristics of the built environment and the spatial distribution of crime pattern. The space syntax variables are connected to the statistical data on street crime data

  17. Exploring item and higher order factor structure with the Schmid-Leiman solution: syntax codes for SPSS and SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans-Georg; Preising, Katja

    2005-02-01

    To ease the interpretation of higher order factor analysis, the direct relationships between variables and higher order factors may be calculated by the Schmid-Leiman solution (SLS; Schmid & Leiman, 1957). This simple transformation of higher order factor analysis orthogonalizes first-order and higher order factors and thereby allows the interpretation of the relative impact of factor levels on variables. The Schmid-Leiman solution may also be used to facilitate theorizing and scale development. The rationale for the procedure is presented, supplemented by syntax codes for SPSS and SAS, since the transformation is not part of most statistical programs. Syntax codes may also be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  18. Analysis of syntax and word use to predict successful participation in guided self-help for anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinken, Jörg; Zinken, Katarzyna; Wilson, J. Clare

    2010-01-01

    with a primary care mental health service were analysed. Outcome measures were completion of the guided self-help programme, and change in symptoms assessed by a standardised scale (CORE-OM). Regression analyses indicated that some aspects of participants' syntax helped to predict completion of the programme...... of causation words and complex syntax (adverbial clauses) predicted improvement, accounting for 50% of the variation in well-being benefit. These results suggest that the analysis of narrative style can provide useful information for assessing the likelihood of success of individuals participating in a mental...... health guided self-help programme....

  19. Accuracy of CT for Selecting Candidates for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: Combination with the SYNTAX Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young Joo; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Sae Rom; Kim, Tae Hoon; Seo, Jae Seung; Yoo, Kyung-Jong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography for selecting candidates for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery according to the 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for CABG surgery and determine the added value of SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery) scoring for selecting CABG surgery candidates. Approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived for this retrospective study. A total of 399 patients (mean age, 63.8 years; 244 men and 155 women) who underwent both coronary CT angiography and invasive coronary angiography were included. Eligible criteria for CABG surgery were established on the basis of the 2011 ACCF/AHA guidelines. from coronary CT angiography and invasive coronary angiography were retrospectively reviewed, and SYNTAX scores were determined. The diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography for selecting CABG surgery candidates was calculated with invasive coronary angiography as the reference method. The diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography alone, the CT-based SYNTAX score, and the combined coronary CT angiography with CT-based SYNTAX score were assessed by using a combination of invasive coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiography-based SYNTAX scores as a reference method. Statistical analyses were performed by using the generalized estimating equation, independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, Fisher exact test, and χ(2) statistics. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value of coronary CT angiography for selecting CABG surgery candidates were 96.5%, 96.5%, 88.3%, and 99.0%, respectively. When a combination of invasive coronary angiography with an invasive coronary angiography-based SYNTAX score was used as a standard reference, combined coronary CT

  20. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kunert

    Full Text Available Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects. A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1 general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2 error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.

  1. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.

  2. A longitudinal investigation of morpho-syntax in children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jennifer; Rvachew, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the longitudinal morpho-syntactic progression of children with Speech Sound Disorders (SSD) grouped according to Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) scores. Thirty-seven children separated into four clusters were assessed in their pre-kindergarten and Grade 1 years. Cluster 1 were children with typical development; the other clusters were children with SSD. Cluster 2 had good pre-kindergarten MLU; Clusters 3 and 4 had low MLU scores in pre-kindergarten, and (respectively) good and poor MLU outcomes. Children with SSD in pre-kindergarten had lower Developmental Sentence Scores (DSS) and made fewer attempts at finite embedded clauses than children with typical development. All children with SSD, especially Cluster 4, had difficulty with finite verb morphology. Children with SSD and typical MLU may be weak in some areas of syntax. Children with SSD who have low MLU scores and poor finite verb morphology skills in pre-kindergarten may be at risk for poor expressive language outcomes. However, these results need to be replicated with larger groups. The reader should (1) have a general understanding of findings from studies on morpho-syntax and SSD conducted over the last half century (2) be aware of some potential areas of morpho-syntactic weakness in young children with SSD who nonetheless have typical MLU, and (3) be aware of some potential longitudinal predictors of continued language difficulty in young children with SSD and poor MLU. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Error Made in Conversation by Indonesian Learners Learning English Based on Syntax and Exchanging Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Wiannastiti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In learning a second language or foreign language (L2, learners should master the competences. Normally, L2 learners first should master the linguistic competence which includes the mastery of vocabularies, pronunciation, and grammar. The study is to find out the syntax error made by L2 learners in conversation as well as to find out the exchanging information. The data were the recording conversation of Visual Communication Design students first semester of Binus University joining English Entrant. Error analysis was used to analyze the data. There are two points of view to analyze the data: syntax from taxonomy and exchanging information. Taxonomy employs the error in omission, addition, misinformation, and mis-ordering. Exchanging information point of view employs the error in finite element and mood. The result shows that L2 learners made some errors in grammar and exchanging information because they are influenced by the L1. They tend to transfer from L1 to L2 rather than thinking to create the utterances in L2. 

  4. Syntax, action verbs, action semantics, and object semantics in Parkinson's disease: Dissociability, progression, and executive influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Yamile; García, Adolfo M; Pineda, David; Buriticá, Omar; Villegas, Andrés; Lopera, Francisco; Gómez, Diana; Gómez-Arias, Catalina; Cardona, Juan F; Trujillo, Natalia; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have recently shown that basal ganglia (BG) deterioration leads to distinctive impairments in the domains of syntax, action verbs, and action semantics. In particular, such disruptions have been repeatedly observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it remains unclear whether these deficits are language-specific and whether they are equally dissociable from other reported disturbances -viz., processing of object semantics. To address these issues, we administered linguistic, semantic, and executive function (EFs) tasks to two groups of non-demented PD patients, with and without mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI and PD-nMCI, respectively). We compared these two groups with each other and with matched samples of healthy controls. Our results showed that PD patients exhibited linguistic and semantic deficits even in the absence of MCI. However, not all domains were equally related to EFs and MCI across samples. Whereas EFs predicted disturbances of syntax and object semantics in both PD-nMCI and PD-MCI, they had no impact on action-verb and action-semantic impairments in either group. Critically, patients showed disruptions of action-verb production and action semantics in the absence of MCI and without any executive influence, suggesting a sui generis deficit present since early stages of the disease. These findings indicate that varied language domains are differentially related to the BG, contradicting popular approaches to neurolinguistics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca’s Area: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M.; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca’s area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca’s area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains—music and language—might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca’s area. PMID:26536026

  6. Complex Clause Syntax in the Italian Classroom – the Learners Between Transfer and Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Mertelj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When teaching Italian as a foreign language, learners’ insecurities about using conjunctions and tenses in subordinate clauses can be noticed very early. Temporality, relative temporality and modality are signalled by Italian verb forms which function in a largely different (or apparently similar way in comparison to Slovene. If ‘true’ similarities can be exploited in the process of teaching/learning by means of a positive transfer, apparent ‘similarities’ and ‘differences’ between the two language systems should, on the other hand, be clarified to avoid negative transfer (interference. During the whole learning process language awareness should be developed, also through contrastive insights into the linguistic systems concerned. Taking as a starting point a text suitable for level B1, some problematic points are presented, for which a series of tasks can be suggested with the aim of helping the learner master complex clause syntax and develop language awareness. Key words: Italian, foreign/second language, complex clause, syntax, transfer, language awareness

  7. Neural syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Fitz, H.

    2009-01-01

    Children learn their mother tongue spontaneously and effortlessly through communicative interaction with their environment; they do not have to be taught explicitly or learn how to learn first. The ambient language to which children are exposed, however, is highly variable and arguably deficient with regard to the learning target. Nonetheless, most normally developing children learn their native language rapidly and with ease. To explain this accomplishment, many theories of acquisition posit...

  8. Syntax acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several studies of child language that have been conducted with the goal of helping to adjudicate between the alternative approaches to language development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:185-203. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1158 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The Acquisition of the Syntax of Negation in French and German: Contrasting First and Second Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Jurgen M.

    1997-01-01

    Compares the acquisition of the syntax of negation in first-language development and second-language acquisition, particularly the acquisition of colloquial French and German by native speakers of Spanish. The comparison is intended to shed light on the principles and mechanisms underlying first- and second-language development. (67 references)…

  10. What is the explanatory power of space syntax theory? the application of modal logics from theory of science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, A.

    2017-01-01

    This contribution shows various approaches from the theory of science for revealing the explanatory power of the Space Syntax. In this contribution Bhaskar's critical realistic model of science and Georg Henrik von Wright's account of explanation and understanding are used to assess the

  11. Výzkum syntaxe mluvené češtiny: inventarizace problémů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffmannová, Jana; Zeman, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2017), s. 45-66 ISSN 0037-7031 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01116S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : spoken Czech * syntax * hypersyntax * conversation * utterance * turn Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016

  12. Language and Theory of Mind in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Relationship between Complement Syntax and False Belief Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Sophie E.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use their knowledge of complement syntax as a means of "hacking out" solutions to false belief tasks, despite lacking a representational theory of mind (ToM). Participants completed a "memory for complements" task, a measure of receptive vocabulary, and…

  13. Complex syntax in autism spectrum disorders: a study of relative clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrleman, Stephanie; Hippolyte, Loyse; Zufferey, Sandrine; Iglesias, Katia; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have evaluated syntax in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded conflicting findings: some suggest that once matched on mental age, ASD and typically developing controls do not differ for grammar, while others report that morphosyntactic deficits are independent of cognitive skills in ASD. There is a need for a better understanding of syntax in ASD and its relation to, or dissociation from, nonverbal abilities. Syntax in ASD was assessed by evaluating subject and object relative clause comprehension in adolescents and adults diagnosed with ASD with a performance IQ within the normal range, and with or without a history of language delay. Twenty-eight participants with ASD (mean age 21.8) and 28 age-matched controls (mean age 22.07) were required to point to a character designated by relative clauses that varied in syntactic complexity. Scores indicate that participants with ASD regardless of the language development history perform significantly worse than age-matched controls with object relative clauses. In addition, participants with ASD with a history of language delay (diagnosed with high-functioning autism in the DSM-IV-TR) perform worse on subject relatives than ASD participants without language delay (diagnosed with Asperger syndrome in the DSM-IV-TR), suggesting that these two groups do not have equivalent linguistic abilities. Performance IQ has a positive impact on the success of the task for the population with ASD. This study reveals subtle grammatical difficulties remaining in adult individuals with ASD within normal IQ range as compared with age-matched peers. Even in the absence of a history of language delay in childhood, the results suggest that a slight deficit may nevertheless be present and go undetected by standardized language assessments. Both groups with and without language delay have a similar global performance on relative clause comprehension; however, the study also indicates that the participants with

  14. Subduction and Slab Advance at Orogen Syntaxes: Predicting Exhumation Rates and Thermochronometric Ages with Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettesheim, Matthias; Ehlers, Todd A.; Whipp, David M.

    2017-04-01

    The change in plate boundary orientation and subducting plate geometry along orogen syntaxes may have major control on the subduction and exhumation dynamics at these locations. Previous work documents that the curvature of subducting plates in 3D at orogen syntaxes forces a buckling and flexural stiffening of the downgoing plate. The geometry of this stiffened plate region, also called indenter, can be observed in various subduction zones around the world (e.g. St. Elias Range, Alaska; Cascadia, USA; Andean syntaxis, South America). The development of a subducting, flexurally stiffened indenter beneath orogen syntaxes influences deformation in the overriding plate and can lead to accelerated and focused rock uplift above its apex. Moreover, the style of deformation in the overriding plate is influenced by the amount of trench or slab advance, which is the amount of overall shortening not accommodated by underthrusting. While many subduction zones exhibit little to no slab advance, the Nazca-South America subduction and especially the early stages of the India-Eurasia collision provide end-member examples. Here, we use a transient, lithospheric-scale, thermomechanical 3D model of an orogen syntaxis to investigate the effects of subducting a flexurally stiffened plate geometry and slab advance on upper plate deformation. A visco-plastic upper-plate rheology is used, along with a buckled, rigid subducting plate. The free surface of the thermomechanical model is coupled to a landscape evolution model that accounts for erosion by fluvial and hillslope processes. The cooling histories of exhumed rocks are used to predict the evolution of low-temperature thermochronometer ages on the surface. With a constant overall shortening for all simulations, the magnitude of slab advance is varied stepwise from no advance, with all shortening accommodated by underthrusting, to full slab advance, i.e. no motion on the megathrust. We show that in models where most shortening is

  15. Classical determinants of coronary artery disease as predictors of complexity of coronary lesions, assessed with the SYNTAX score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Cabezas, J M; Karalis, I; Wolterbeek, R; Kraaijeveld, A O; Hoefer, I E; Pasterkamp, G; Pijls, N H; Doevendans, P A; Walterberger, J; Kuiper, J; van Zonneveld, A J; Jukema, J W

    2017-09-01

    We need new biomarkers that can predict cardiovascular disease to improve both diagnosis and therapeutic strategies. The CIRCULATING CELLS study was designed to study the role of several cellular mediators of atherosclerosis as biomarkers of coronary artery disease (CAD). An objective and reproducible method for the quantification of CAD extension is required to establish relationships with these potential biomarkers. We sought to analyse the correlation of the SYNTAX score with known CAD risk factors to test it as a valid marker of CAD extension. A subgroup of 279 patients (67.4% males) were included in our analysis. Main exclusion criteria were a history of previous percutaneous coronary intervention or surgical revascularisation that prevent an accurate assessment of the SS. Diabetes mellitus, smoking, renal insufficiency, body mass index and a history of CAD and myocardial infarction were all positively and strongly associated with a higher SYNTAX score after adjustment for the non-modifiable biological factors (age and sex). In the multivariate model, age and male sex, along with smoking and renal insufficiency, remain statistical significantly associated with the SYNTAX score. In a selected cohort of revascularisation-naive patients with CAD undergoing coronary angiography, non-modifiable cardiovascular risk factors such as advanced age, male sex, as well as smoking and renal failure were independently associated with CAD complexity assessed by the SYNTAX score. The SYNTAX score may be a valid marker of CAD extension to establish relationships with potential novel biomarkers of coronary atherosclerosis.

  16. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Aguado Syntax Test (AST) into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Gustavo Inheta; Hage, Simone Rocha de Vasconcellos

    2017-12-07

    To perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the Aguado Syntax Test (AST) into Brazilian Portuguese considering the linguistic and cultural reality of the language. The AST assesses the early morphosyntactic development in children aged 3 to 7 in terms of understanding and expression of various types of structures such as sentences, pronouns, verbal voices, comparisons, prepositions and verbal desinence as to number, mode and tense. The process of translation and cultural adaptation followed four steps: 1) preparation of two translations; 2) synthesis of consensual translations; 3) backtranslation; and 4) verification of equivalence between the initial translations and backtranslations that resulted in the final translated version. The whole process of translation and cultural adaptation revealed the presence of equivalence and reconciliation of the translated items and an almost complete semantic equivalence between the two translations and the absence of consistent translation difficulties. The AST was translated and culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese, constituting the first step towards validation and standardization of the test.

  17. NIZAMS: THE HIDDEN SYNTAX UNDER THE SURFACE. URBAN MORPHOLOGY IN TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaiyeh Falahat

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The reasons behind the urban form of traditional ‘Islamic cities’ are still disputable themes among authors. As a step forward, the city should be observed by taking into consideration the indigenous structures and concepts. This article, after reviewing the earlier ideas and efforts in this regard, suggests that the city is the result of interaction of various Niams and the major reason underlying the urban morphology is the simultaneous presence of these Niams and the fact that their hierarchy of importance was flat and horizontal. It defines the Nizams as interlinked frameworks including various dimensions which make the syntax of the city’s order

  18. The morphology and syntax of individuals who use AAC: research review and implications for effective practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binger, Cathy; Light, Janice

    2008-01-01

    A research review of 31 studies pertaining to the morphology and syntax of individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) and who had severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI) was completed. Results suggest that, although many individuals who use AAC exhibit comprehension and expression of a wide range of grammatical structures, these individuals are at risk for experiencing grammar deficits. A wide range of individual differences was noted, both within and across many of the investigations. One of the more robust findings was that individuals tended to produce shorter utterances when they used graphic symbol-based AAC systems than would be expected, based on participant profiles; however, there appeared to be a developmental trend toward using longer utterances. There has been a dearth of research pertaining to the development and evaluation of appropriate assessment tools and intervention techniques to enhance grammar acquisition for individuals who use AAC. Considerations for developing such tools and techniques are discussed.

  19. Issues in development of the test battery for Australian sign language morphology and syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Wigglesworth, Gillian; Johnston, Trevor; Leigh, Greg; Adam, Robert; Barker, Roz

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we outline the initial stages in development of an assessment instrument for Australian Sign Language and explore issues involved in the development of such a test. We first briefly describe the instruments currently available for assessing grammatical skills in Australian Sign Language and discuss the need for a more objective measure. We then describe our adaptation of an existing American Sign Language test, the Test Battery for American Sign Language Morphology and Syntax. Finally, this article presents some of the data collected from a group of deaf native signers. These data are used to demonstrate the range of variability in key grammatical features of Australian Sign Language and to raise methodological issues associated with signed language test design.

  20. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. A survey of compiler development aids. [concerning lexical, syntax, and semantic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, B. P.; Hodges, B. C.; Hsia, P.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical background was established for the compilation process by dividing it into five phases and explaining the concepts and algorithms that underpin each. The five selected phases were lexical analysis, syntax analysis, semantic analysis, optimization, and code generation. Graph theoretical optimization techniques were presented, and approaches to code generation were described for both one-pass and multipass compilation environments. Following the initial tutorial sections, more than 20 tools that were developed to aid in the process of writing compilers were surveyed. Eight of the more recent compiler development aids were selected for special attention - SIMCMP/STAGE2, LANG-PAK, COGENT, XPL, AED, CWIC, LIS, and JOCIT. The impact of compiler development aids were assessed some of their shortcomings and some of the areas of research currently in progress were inspected.

  2. The Interface of Syntax with Pragmatics and Prosody in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Francis, Kostantinos

    2016-08-01

    In order to study problems of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with morphosyntax, we investigated twenty high-functioning Greek-speaking children (mean age: 6;11) and twenty age- and language-matched typically developing children on environments that allow or forbid object clitics or their corresponding noun phrase. Children with ASD fell behind typically developing children in comprehending and producing simple clitics and producing noun phrases in focus structures. The two groups performed similarly in comprehending and producing clitics in clitic left dislocation and in producing noun phrases in non-focus structures. We argue that children with ASD have difficulties at the interface of (morpho)syntax with pragmatics and prosody, namely, distinguishing a discourse prominent element, and considering intonation relevant for a particular interpretation that excludes clitics.

  3. Die dependenzsyntax Tesnières uno die Naturlichkeitstheoretische Syntax: Einige Beriihrungspunkte wie auch Differenzen

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    Willi Mayerthaler

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Mit Tesnière und anderen Valenztheoretikem teilt die NTS die Auffassung, daß das Verb "centre organisateur de la phrase" sei. Frege nannte den Satz ein "gesättigtes Verb". Die NTS drtickt eben dies dadurch aus, daß sie den Satz als Verbentfaltung darstellt. Generell gilt, daß Bäume bzw. P-Marker der NTS informationsreicher sind als entsprechende Stemmata à la Tesnière, da Dependenz wie Konstituenz simultan ausgedrückt wird. Darstellungen der Grundstruktur der NTS finden sich z.B. in Mayerthaler/Fliedl/Winkler (1993: 118-154 oder in Mayerthaler/Fliedl (1993. Im folgenden gebe ich lediglich einige Strukturen an, die aus Mayerthaler/Fliedl/Winkler: Liexikon der natürlichkeitstheoretischen Syntax und Morphosyntax (in Vorbereitung, Publikation fiir 1995 geplant stammen.

  4. Space and crime in North-African city of Annaba: Using Space Syntax to understand the strategy of offenders in the choice of location of street crime

    OpenAIRE

    Laouar, Dounia; Mazouz, Said; van Nes, A.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between space and crime by using space syntax. The aim is to describe the spatial characteristics of the built environment and the spatial distribution of crime pattern. The space syntax variables are connected to the statistical data on street crime data registered in Annaba.This inquiry seeks to identify the spatial features of the crime locations to understand the relationship between the spatial configuration and crime behaviour. Most studies on spa...

  5. Late Cenozoic Climate Change and its Implications on the Denudation of Orogen Syntaxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutz, Sebastian; Ehlers, Todd

    2017-04-01

    The denudation history of active orogens is often interpreted in the context of modern climate gradients. Despite the influence of climatic conditions on erosion rates, information about paleoclimate evolution is often not available and thus not considered when denudation histories are interpreted. In this study, we analyze output from paleoclimate simulations conducted with ECHAM5-wiso at T159 (ca. 80x80km) resolution. Specifically, we analyze simulations of pre-industrial (PI, pre-1850), Mid-Holocene (MH, ca. 6ka), Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 21ka) and Pliocene (PLIO, ca. 3ka) climates and focus on a selection of orogen syntaxes as study regions (e.g. Himalaya, SE Alaska, Cascadia, and Central Andes). For the selected region, we carry out a cluster analysis using a hybrid of hierarchical and k-means clustering procedures using mean annual temperature (MAT), temperature amplitude, mean annual precipitation (MAP), precipitation amplitude and u-wind and v-wind in different months to provide a general overview of paleoclimates in the study regions. Additionally, we quantify differences between paleoclimates by applying two-group linear discrimination analyses to the simulation output for a similar selection of variables. Results indicate the largest differences to the PI climate are observed for the LGM and PLIO climates in the form of widespread cooling and reduced precipitation in the LGM and warming and enhanced precipitation during the PLIO. These global trends can be observed for most locations in the investigated areas, but the strength varies regionally and the trends in precipitation are less uniform than trends in temperatures. The LGM climate shows the largest deviation in annual precipitation from the PI climate, and shows enhanced precipitation in the temperate Andes, and coastal regions for both SE Alaska and the US Pacific Northwest Pacific. Furthermore, LGM precipitation is reduced in the western Himalayas and enhanced in the eastern Himalayas

  6. EEG microstate duration and syntax in acute, medication-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: a multi-center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L; Galderisi, Silvana; Herrmann, Werner M; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Koukkou, Martha; Mucci, Armida; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Saito, Naomi; Wackermann, Jiri; Winterer, Georg; Koenig, Thomas

    2005-02-28

    In young, first-episode, productive, medication-naive patients with schizophrenia, EEG microstates (building blocks of mentation) tend to be shortened. Koenig et al. [Koenig, T., Lehmann, D., Merlo, M., Kochi, K., Hell, D., Koukkou, M., 1999. A deviant EEG brain microstate in acute, neuroleptic-naive schizophrenics at rest. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 249, 205-211] suggested that shortening concerned specific microstate classes. Sequence rules (microstate concatenations, syntax) conceivably might also be affected. In 27 patients of the above type and 27 controls, from three centers, multichannel resting EEG was analyzed into microstates using k-means clustering of momentary potential topographies into four microstate classes (A-D). In patients, microstates were shortened in classes B and D (from 80 to 70 ms and from 94 to 82 ms, respectively), occurred more frequently in classes A and C, and covered more time in A and less in B. Topography differed only in class B where LORETA tomography predominantly showed stronger left and anterior activity in patients. Microstate concatenation (syntax) generally were disturbed in patients; specifically, the class sequence A-->C-->D-->A predominated in controls, but was reversed in patients (A-->D-->C-->A). In schizophrenia, information processing in certain classes of mental operations might deviate because of precocious termination. The intermittent occurrence might account for Bleuler's "double bookkeeping." The disturbed microstate syntax opens a novel physiological comparison of mental operations between patients and controls.

  7. The relationship between executive functioning and language: Examining vocabulary, syntax, and language learning in preschoolers attending Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lisa J; Alexander, Alexandra; Greenfield, Daryl B

    2017-12-01

    Early childhood marks a time of dynamic development within language and cognitive domains. Specifically, a body of research focuses on the development of language as related to executive functions, which are foundational cognitive skills that relate to both academic achievement and social-emotional development during early childhood and beyond. Although there is evidence to support the relationship between language and executive functions, existing studies focus mostly on vocabulary and fail to examine other components of language such as syntax and language learning skills. To address this gap, this study examined the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and three aspects of language: syntax, vocabulary, and language learning. A diverse sample of 182 children (67% Latino and 33% African American) attending Head Start were assessed on both EF and language ability. Findings demonstrated that EF related to a comprehensive latent construct of language composed of vocabulary, syntax, and language learning. EF also related to each individual component of language. This study furthers our understanding of the complex relationship between language and cognitive development by measuring EF as it relates to various components of language in a sample of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Terminology for Neuroscience Data Discovery: Multi-tree Syntax and Investigator-Derived Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Robert, Adrian; Gardner, Esther P.

    2009-01-01

    The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), developed for the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and available at http://nif.nih.gov and http://neurogateway.org, is built upon a set of coordinated terminology components enabling data and web-resource description and selection. Core NIF terminologies use a straightforward syntax designed for ease of use and for navigation by familiar web interfaces, and readily exportable to aid development of relational-model databases for neuroscience data sharing. Datasets, data analysis tools, web resources, and other entities are characterized by multiple descriptors, each addressing core concepts, including data type, acquisition technique, neuroanatomy, and cell class. Terms for each concept are organized in a tree structure, providing is-a and has-a relations. Broad general terms near each root span the category or concept and spawn more detailed entries for specificity. Related but distinct concepts (e.g., brain area and depth) are specified by separate trees, for easier navigation than would be required by graph representation. Semantics enabling NIF data discovery were selected at one or more workshops by investigators expert in particular systems (vision, olfaction, behavioral neuroscience, neurodevelopment), brain areas (cerebellum, thalamus, hippocampus), preparations (molluscs, fly), diseases (neurodegenerative disease), or techniques (microscopy, computation and modeling, neurogenetics). Workshop-derived integrated term lists are available Open Source at http://brainml.org; a complete list of participants is at http://brainml.org/workshops. PMID:18958630

  9. The study of a space configuration using space syntax analysis Case study: an elderly housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Yosica; Triwardhani, Arindra J.; Isnaeni Djimantoro, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The improvement in various aspect leads to prolong the life span of human life, which increasing the number of elderly in the urban areas in return. But the increasing population is not supported by the provision of adequate housing facilities for them. Most of the elderly house in Jakarta, is designed just like for common people without relizing thatthey had physical and mentally degradation following the age. Therefore, the elderly house need to design with special attention to their daily activity mobility which applied in effective room configuration. The connectivity between the activities is most important element to order the room configuration. This research conduct to search the room configuration in elderly house which can improve their productivity and live quality by using the space syntax theory. The research methods by using the syntactic plug-in in Grasshooper software and analyse the integration, choice, control value and entrophy in the activity configuration. The result show that the effective and efficient for elderly house is cluster centralized pattern. The lobby and reception take the important role as the integration aspect and the spatial awareness according to elderly activity.

  10. Measuring accessibility of sustainable transportation using space syntax in Bojonggede area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawinata, B. A.; Mariana, Y.; Wijaksono, S.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the physical structure of regional space as a result of the increase of planned and unplanned settlements in the Bojonggede area have an impact on the road network pattern system. Changes in road network patterns will have an impact on the permeability of the area. Permeability measures the extent to which road network patterns provide an option in traveling. If the permeability increases the travel distance decreases and the route of travel choice increases, permeability like this can create an easy access system and physically integrated. This study aims to identify the relationship of physical characteristics of residential area and road network pattern to the level of space permeability in Bojonggede area. By conducting this research can be a reference for the arrangement of circulation, accessibility, and land use in the vicinity of Bojonggede. This research uses quantitative method and space syntax method to see global integration and local integration on the region which become the parameter of permeability level. The results showed that the level of permeability globally and locally high in Bojonggede physical area is the physical characteristics of the area that has a grid pattern of road network grid.

  11. Terminology for neuroscience data discovery: multi-tree syntax and investigator-derived semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Daniel; Goldberg, David H; Grafstein, Bernice; Robert, Adrian; Gardner, Esther P

    2008-09-01

    The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), developed for the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and available at http://nif.nih.gov and http://neurogateway.org , is built upon a set of coordinated terminology components enabling data and web-resource description and selection. Core NIF terminologies use a straightforward syntax designed for ease of use and for navigation by familiar web interfaces, and readily exportable to aid development of relational-model databases for neuroscience data sharing. Datasets, data analysis tools, web resources, and other entities are characterized by multiple descriptors, each addressing core concepts, including data type, acquisition technique, neuroanatomy, and cell class. Terms for each concept are organized in a tree structure, providing is-a and has-a relations. Broad general terms near each root span the category or concept and spawn more detailed entries for specificity. Related but distinct concepts (e.g., brain area and depth) are specified by separate trees, for easier navigation than would be required by graph representation. Semantics enabling NIF data discovery were selected at one or more workshops by investigators expert in particular systems (vision, olfaction, behavioral neuroscience, neurodevelopment), brain areas (cerebellum, thalamus, hippocampus), preparations (molluscs, fly), diseases (neurodegenerative disease), or techniques (microscopy, computation and modeling, neurogenetics). Workshop-derived integrated term lists are available Open Source at http://brainml.org ; a complete list of participants is at http://brainml.org/workshops.

  12. The development of morphology and syntax in a pair of DZ twin boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Y

    1997-01-01

    Twins provide a natural set-up for the study of some of the basic issues that concern the field of language acquisition and of developmental language disorders and brain pathology, in that they present a unique hereditary and environmental situation within which development takes place. Yet, few studies have detailed the development of formal aspects of language in twins. This paper reports on a prospective, longitudinal study of the acquisition of selected aspects of Hebrew syntax and morphology in a pair of DZ twin boys, aged 3;6-4;0, one of whom had a congenital brain abnormality. MLU levels suggest a marked delay for both children in the onset and progression of language development. However, both the healthy and the brain-injured twin followed a normal developmental course. Data to that effect concern frequency of sentences of various lengths, distribution of sentence types, use of tenses, use of pronouns, correct usage of various syntactic markers, variability of verb types and tokens and the distribution of errors of morphology and morphophonology. It is argued that this case study offers support for claims concerning brain plasticity for language. Furthermore, it is in line with previous studies of normal and brain-injured children which, rather unexpectedly, pointed at the relative ease with which formal, linguistic systems were acquired.

  13. Native-like brain processing of syntax can be attained by university foreign language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Harriet Wood; Steinhauer, Karsten; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T

    2013-11-01

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined the neurocognition of late-learned second language (L2) Spanish in two groups of typical university foreign-language learners (as compared to native (L1) speakers): one group with only one year of college classroom experience, and low-intermediate proficiency (L2 Low), and another group with over three years of college classroom experience as well as 1-2 semesters of immersion experience abroad, and advanced proficiency (L2 Advanced). Semantic violations elicited N400s in all three groups, whereas syntactic word-order violations elicited LAN/P600 responses in the L1 and L2 Advanced groups, but not the L2 Low group. Indeed, the LAN and P600 responses were statistically indistinguishable between the L1 and L2 Advanced groups. The results support and extend previous findings. Consistent with previous research, the results suggest that L2 semantic processing always depends on L1-like neurocognitive mechanisms, whereas L2 syntactic processing initially differs from L1, but can shift to native-like processes with sufficient proficiency or exposure, and perhaps with immersion experience in particular. The findings further demonstrate that substantial native-like brain processing of syntax can be achieved even by typical university foreign-language learners. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards a typology of focus: Subject position and microvariation at the discourse–syntax interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel L. Jiménez-Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work I explore the different discourse–syntax interface properties of focus fronting in Standard Spanish (SS and Southern Peninsular Spanish (SPS including Andalusian and Extremaduran varieties. In SS it is taken for granted that in focus fronting the verb is obligatorily adjacent to the preposed constituent. I show that this is not the case in SPS, where this condition is optional. I carry out an analysis of three types of foci which involve movement to the left periphery (contrastive focus, mirative focus and quantifier fronting and one type of topic (resumptive preposing. Discourse, syntactic, and semantic properties are taken into account to illustrate this typology. Crucially, only contrastive and mirative focus contexts allow for preverbal subjects in SPS, which are proposed to be Given Topics in this variety. On the other hand, resumptive preposing is shown to entail a case of topic fronting. I use different experiments with empirical data and judgements by native speakers to test my proposal that focus-verb (or topic-verb adjacency is subject to microparametric variation in Spanish.

  15. Manipulative-semantic complications of utterance syntax based on the British parliamentary speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyubina Irina Anatolevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the possible impact on the addressee by manipulating. The analysis was applied to the manipulative strategy of the syntax complexity by the targeted and motivated selection of the best linguistic units of semantic pragmatic content. The relevance of the parliamentary discourse study is dictated by the need to search the best ways of speech influence on the audience for the parliament members, on the one hand, and the need to understand the real intentions of the audience and latent methods of language manipulation, on the other hand. The purpose of this article is to consider and identify the peculiarities of the mechanism of linguistic manipulation in the parliamentary speeches of the UK at the syntactic level. The study analyses the texts of the parliamentary political discourse of Britain on the issues related to the situation in the Ukraine in 2015. As a result, it was found out that the most frequent are the following means of manipulation: repetition inside a statement, antithesis, anaphora, syntactic parallelism, ellipse, inversion, rhetorical question, graduation, anadiplosis and epiphora. The study of such a mechanism of manipulation with the help of linguistic means and understanding its laws are important because they help to avoid the psycho-technical effect of speech manipulation, aggression or even speech abuse.

  16. Tah štětce u Van Gogha. Sémiotika, funkce, syntax

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    Jan Zachariáš

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This text focuses on the role of the brushstroke in Vincent van Gogh’s work. Van Gogh’s brushstroke technique draws on the tradition of European painting, spanning from Titian to Delacroix and the Impressionists, a tradition in which brushstroke played an important role. Van Gogh, however, was the first to make it an autonomous element in his paintings. European Post-Renaissance painting features tendencies which favored either colors or lines, with the contradiction between these two trends being essential for defining different principles in painting, and naturally in the brushstroke as well. Van Gogh’s prominent brushstroke represents a deliberate synthesis of the line and the color, thus bringing the line-color controversy to an end. Van Gogh’s brushstroke, however, also has its semiotic meaning. Constituting an artistic formula, an individual stroke can represent different objects, which makes it not only a medium, but also a sign. Van Gogh arranges brushstrokes to create an open system, which is capable of the unique rendition of the notion of time, or a moment in time through a semiotic syntax of strokes. This text presents an analysis of van Gogh’s individual works of art as well as his texts.

  17. Changes in Postural Syntax Characterize Sensory Modulation and Natural Variation of C. elegans Locomotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland F Schwarz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Locomotion is driven by shape changes coordinated by the nervous system through time; thus, enumerating an animal's complete repertoire of shape transitions would provide a basis for a comprehensive understanding of locomotor behaviour. Here we introduce a discrete representation of behaviour in the nematode C. elegans. At each point in time, the worm's posture is approximated by its closest matching template from a set of 90 postures and locomotion is represented as sequences of postures. The frequency distribution of postural sequences is heavy-tailed with a core of frequent behaviours and a much larger set of rarely used behaviours. Responses to optogenetic and environmental stimuli can be quantified as changes in postural syntax: worms show different preferences for different sequences of postures drawn from the same set of templates. A discrete representation of behaviour will enable the use of methods developed for other kinds of discrete data in bioinformatics and language processing to be harnessed for the study of behaviour.

  18. Peer conflict explanations in children, adolescents, and adults: examining the development of complex syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A; Mansfield, Tracy C; Billow, Jesse L

    2007-05-01

    Expository discourse, the use of language to convey information, requires facility with complex syntax. Although expository discourse is often employed in school and work settings, little is known about its development in children, adolescents, and adults. Hence, it is difficult to evaluate this genre in students who have language disorders. This study examined syntactic complexity in expository discourse in an effort to begin to establish a normative database. Speakers with typical development whose mean ages were 11, 17, and 25 years old (n=60) participated in a peer conflict resolution (PCR) task designed to elicit expository discourse. The results were compared with an additional measure of expository discourse, the favorite game or sport (FGS) task, reported in a previous study that included these same participants (M. A. Nippold, L. J. Hesketh, J. K. Duthie, & T. C. Mansfield, 2005). The PCR task elicited expository discourse from speakers in all 3 groups. Older speakers packed more information into their utterances than did younger ones, and the PCR task elicited greater syntactic complexity than did the FGS task. The PCR task is potentially a useful tool for examining expository discourse. Research is needed to expand the database and administer the task to clinical groups.

  19. Promises and pitfalls of machine scoring of the Index of Productive Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberg, Evelyn P; Roberts, Jenny A

    2016-01-01

    The AC-IPSyn computerised system for scoring the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn) was evaluated. Twenty language samples, ten taken at 30 months and ten of the same children at 42 months, were each scored for the IPSyn by hand and by AC-IPSyn. Point differences and point-to-point reliability were examined at the levels of the total, subscale, and individual structure scores. Points missed and erroneously given at each level were also analysed. The difference in total scores between manual and AC-IPSyn scoring was relatively small; point-to-point agreement was lower than reported elsewhere. Age differences were also found. AC-IPSyn accuracy varied by subscale and structure, with results suggesting that AC-IPSyn be used at this point in conjunction with hand scoring of more error-prone and low frequency structures. The relatively small total point difference masked the lower reliability revealed by other measures, demonstrating the importance of detailed comparisons of manual and machine scoring.

  20. Relation of presystolic wave on doppler examination to syntax score in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Ihsan; Kul, Selim; Sahin, Sinan; Kalaycioglu, Ezgi; Akyuz, Ali Riza; Korkmaz, Levent

    2018-04-01

    There are few reports demonstrating a relationship between presystolic wave (PSW) and left ventricular function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between PSW and angiographic and echocardiographic characteristics of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We studied 348 consecutive patients with AMI. Pulsed Doppler-echocardiography was used to assess the both diastolic functions and presence of PSW from left ventricular outflow tract. Patients were divided into two groups by the presence or absence of PSW. The Syntax score (SXscore) was calculated from baseline angiograms to assess the complexity and severity of coronary artery disease. The overall prevalence of PSW was 51.1%. Compared to patients without PSW, patients with PSW presence had greater left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), greater septal a' velocity, lower mitral E and septal e' velocity and lower E/A and e'/a' ratios. Also, median SXscore were significantly lower in the PSW presence group compared to PSW absence group [1 (6-14) vs. 12 (7-18), P = 0.013]. In addition, the number of patients with high-SXscore (> 16) was significantly lower in PSW presence group (24 vs. 42), (P = 0.006). In multiple logistic regression analysis, absence of PSW found independent predictor of high-SXscore (OR 2.297 95% CI 1.235-4.272; P = 0.009). We found that the presence of PSW was related with higher LVEF, lower SXscore and lower stage diastolic dysfunction in patients with AMI. PSW may be used in prediction of the coronary artery disease complexity and it could help risk stratification in patients with AMI.

  1. The SYNTAX score does not predict presence of carotid disease in a multivessel coronary disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Luca; Campisano, Maria Barbara; Capodanno, Davide; Sole, Andrea; Grasso, Carmelo; Ragusa, Mario; Ronsivalle, Giuseppe; Tamburino, Claudia; Tamburino, Corrado; Di Pino, Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Numerous reports have shown the relationship between carotid artery atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the association between complex CAD evaluated by SYNTAX score (SxScore) and prevalence of carotid lesion (CL) has not been fully investigated. We sought to assess the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with multivessel CAD assessed by SxScore and the relationship between SxScore severity and features of carotid atherosclerosis. Subjects were 204 consecutive patients with multivessel CAD assessed by coronary angiography and no previous history of carotid atherosclerosis that underwent carotid ultrasound scan from June 2012 to 2013. Presence of CL, significant carotid disease (SCD) and carotid plaque morphology was evaluated. At least one CL was found in 159 patients (77.9%) with no significant difference among SxScore groups (P = 0.20 and P = 0.54, respectively). High prevalence of complex carotid plaque (CCP) was found without significant different distribution in SxScore groups (P = 0.69). Age was independently associated with the presence of CL [odds ratio (OR) 1.055; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.015-1.097; P = 0.007] and SCD (OR 1.057; 95% CI: 1.008-1.097; P = 0.019). Age and diabetes were independently associated with CCP (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.023-1.095; P = 0.001; OR 1.848; 95% CI: 1.026-3.327; P = 0.041). SxScore was not independently associated with CL, SCD and CCP (all P > 0.2). We found high prevalence of CL in patients with multivessel complex CAD. However, SxScore does not seem to correlate with carotid atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Characteristics of written syntax in ten-year-old fourth-graders

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    Ivanović Maja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present an inventory of different types of syntactic constructions found in written discourse of ten-year-old fourth graders, that is, to examine the existing variations in text syntactic structures which were produced by fourth graders. Written text corpus was collected from 88 fourth graders from Belgrade. In three different sessions, students composed three texts in three different genres: narrative, expository, and argumentative. Thematic and genre versatility enriched the corpus and created favourable conditions for elicitation of different types of syntactic constructions. Different quantitative and qualitative characteristics of texts from the database were taken into account and analysed: the mean length of text measured by the number of words, the number of utterances, and the mean length of utterance measured by the number of words and clauses, as well as the presence of various types of syntactic constructions (kernel, simple, compound, complex and complex-compound sentences. The frequency of appearance of each of these was then established. The results provide an insight into the average length of texts and sentences produced by the fourth-grade primary school pupils, as well as into the means used to produce them (the kind of sentences they form. The results are much more valuable because they are concerned with examining the syntax in children who are native speakers of Serbian. They also show that in ten-year-olds’ texts all the analysed types of sentence structure may appear, but the use frequency varies. Besides providing an inventory of syntactic attainments in written production of ten-year-old children, the research presented a new insight into their syntactic competence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 178002: Jezici i kulture u vremenu i prostoru i br. OI 179068: Evaluacija tretmana stečenih poremećaja govora i jezika

  3. Syntax in language and music: what is the right level of comparison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Rie; Boeckx, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    It is often claimed that music and language share a process of hierarchical structure building, a mental “syntax.” Although several lines of research point to commonalities, and possibly a shared syntactic component, differences between “language syntax” and “music syntax” can also be found at several levels: conveyed meaning, and the atoms of combination, for example. To bring music and language closer to one another, some researchers have suggested a comparison between music and phonology (“phonological syntax”), but here too, one quickly arrives at a situation of intriguing similarities and obvious differences. In this paper, we suggest that a fruitful comparison between the two domains could benefit from taking the grammar of action into account. In particular, we suggest that what is called “syntax” can be investigated in terms of goal of action, action planning, motor control, and sensory-motor integration. At this level of comparison, we suggest that some of the differences between language and music could be explained in terms of different goals reflected in the hierarchical structures of action planning: the hierarchical structures of music arise to achieve goals with a strong relation to the affective-gestural system encoding tension-relaxation patterns as well as socio-intentional system, whereas hierarchical structures in language are embedded in a conceptual system that gives rise to compositional meaning. Similarities between music and language are most clear in the way several hierarchical plans for executing action are processed in time and sequentially integrated to achieve various goals. PMID:26191034

  4. Integration of non-invasive functional assessments with anatomical risk stratification in complex coronary artery disease: the non-invasive functional SYNTAX score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Carlos; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Morel, Marie-Angèle; Serruys, Patrick W

    2017-04-01

    Since the early days of coronary angiography, the extension and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) have been used for risk stratification. The SYNTAX score objectively characterizes CAD in patients with multivessel disease. Furthermore, recalculating the SYNTAX score by the incorporation of the functional component coronary stenosis (i.e., FFR) increases the discrimination for the risk of adverse events. The calculation of the SYNTAX score derived from non-invasive modalities such as coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has emerged as a mean to obtain the SYNTAX score before invasive cardiac catheterization. Likewise, the computation of the non-invasive fractional flow reserve CT (FFR CT ) allows for the calculation of the non-invasive functional SYNTAX score. Ultimately, the combination of anatomical and functional evaluations with clinical factors further refines the identification of patients at risk and provides a recommendation for the Heart Team regarding the treatment strategy (i.e., PCI or CABG) based on the predicted 4-year mortality. The purpose of this review is to describe the integration of a novel non-invasive functional coronary assessment with the angiographic risk score in patients with multivessel CAD.

  5. Tracking Training-Related Plasticity by Combining fMRI and DTI: The Right Hemisphere Ventral Stream Mediates Musical Syntax Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechslin, Mathias S; Gschwind, Markus; James, Clara E

    2018-04-01

    As a functional homolog for left-hemispheric syntax processing in language, neuroimaging studies evidenced involvement of right prefrontal regions in musical syntax processing, of which underlying white matter connectivity remains unexplored so far. In the current experiment, we investigated the underlying pathway architecture in subjects with 3 levels of musical expertise. Employing diffusion tensor imaging tractography, departing from seeds from our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study on music syntax processing in the same participants, we identified a pathway in the right ventral stream that connects the middle temporal lobe with the inferior frontal cortex via the extreme capsule, and corresponds to the left hemisphere ventral stream, classically attributed to syntax processing in language comprehension. Additional morphometric consistency analyses allowed dissociating tract core from more dispersed fiber portions. Musical expertise related to higher tract consistency of the right ventral stream pathway. Specifically, tract consistency in this pathway predicted the sensitivity for musical syntax violations. We conclude that enduring musical practice sculpts ventral stream architecture. Our results suggest that training-related pathway plasticity facilitates the right hemisphere ventral stream information transfer, supporting an improved sound-to-meaning mapping in music.

  6. Morpho-syntactic processing of Arabic plurals after aphasia: dissecting lexical meaning from morpho-syntax within word boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaileh, Tariq; Body, Richard; Herbert, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Within the domain of inflectional morpho-syntax, differential processing of regular and irregular forms has been found in healthy speakers and in aphasia. One view assumes that irregular forms are retrieved as full entities, while regular forms are compiled on-line. An alternative view holds that a single mechanism oversees regular and irregular forms. Arabic offers an opportunity to study this phenomenon, as Arabic nouns contain a consonantal root, delivering lexical meaning, and a vocalic pattern, delivering syntactic information, such as gender and number. The aim of this study is to investigate morpho-syntactic processing of regular (sound) and irregular (broken) Arabic plurals in patients with morpho-syntactic impairment. Three participants with acquired agrammatic aphasia produced plural forms in a picture-naming task. We measured overall response accuracy, then analysed lexical errors and morpho-syntactic errors, separately. Error analysis revealed different patterns of morpho-syntactic errors depending on the type of pluralization (sound vs broken). Omissions formed the vast majority of errors in sound plurals, while substitution was the only error mechanism that occurred in broken plurals. The dissociation was statistically significant for retrieval of morpho-syntactic information (vocalic pattern) but not for lexical meaning (consonantal root), suggesting that the participants' selective impairment was an effect of the morpho-syntax of plurals. These results suggest that irregular plurals forms are stored, while regular forms are derived. The current findings support the findings from other languages and provide a new analysis technique for data from languages with non-concatenative morpho-syntax.

  7. Prognostic Implication of Functional Incomplete Revascularization and Residual Functional SYNTAX Score in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Hong; Lee, Joo Myung; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Rhee, Tae-Min; Hwang, Doyeon; Park, Jonghanne; Zhang, Jinlong; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Hu, Xinyang; Wang, Jianan; Ye, Fei; Chen, Shaoliang; Yang, Junqing; Chen, Jiyan; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Takashima, Hiroaki; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Akasaka, Takashi

    2018-02-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic implication of functional incomplete revascularization (IR) and residual functional SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score (rFSS) in comparison with 3-vessel fractional flow reserve (FFR) and residual SYNTAX score. IR is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. A total of 385 patients who underwent 3-vessel FFR measurement after stent implantation were included in this study. The rFSS was defined as residual SYNTAX score measured only in vessels with FFR ≤0.8. The study population was divided into the functional IR group (rFSS ≥1) and the functional complete revascularization (CR) group (rFSS = 0). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven revascularization) at 2 years. Functional CR was achieved in 283 patients (73.5%). At 2-year follow-up, the functional IR group showed a significantly higher risk for MACEs (functional IR vs. CR, 14.6% vs. 4.2%; hazard ratio: 4.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.82 to 9.21; p system (rFSS) after stent implantation better discriminated the risk for adverse events than anatomic or physiological assessment alone. (Clinical Implication of 3-Vessel Fractional Flow Reserve [FFR]; NCT01621438). Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language:Integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinri eOhta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words of phrases. We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM, i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties.

  9. The application of rules in morphology, syntax and number processing: a case of selective deficit of procedural or executive mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoir, Joël; Fossard, Marion; Nespoulous, Jean-Luc; Demonet, Jean-François; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2010-08-01

    Declarative memory is a long-term store for facts, concepts and words. Procedural memory subserves the learning and control of sensorimotor and cognitive skills, including the mental grammar. In this study, we report a single-case study of a mild aphasic patient who showed procedural deficits in the presence of preserved declarative memory abilities. We administered several experiments to explore rule application in morphology, syntax and number processing. Results partly support the differentiation between declarative and procedural memory. Moreover, the patient's performance varied according to the domain in which rules were to be applied, which underlines the need for more fine-grained distinctions in cognition between procedural rules.

  10. Nuno Ramos and the visual work: from the baroque syntax to the dadaist allegory in Tables without titles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Pereira Arcuri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the visual work of Nuno Ramos (1960: from the baroque syntax to the dadaist allegory in Tables without titles (between 1987 and 2008. We have noticed –with respect to the plastic-conceptual aspect –howthe aesthetic features, sometimes similar to the Baroque period (XVII-XVIII centuries, as well as the particularities originatedfrom the stylistic language recurrent inthe technique of the dadaist Merz process (XX century,both echo in Tables without titles. I establish a relation between theaesthetic (representation of the visual object in the constitution of the antiobject with the ephemerality and the daily waste of contemporaneity.

  11. Clinical outcomes of state-of-the-art percutaneous coronary revascularization in patients with de novo three vessel disease: 1-year results of the SYNTAX II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaned, Javier; Collet, Carlos; Ryan, Nicola; De Maria, Giovanni Luigi; Walsh, Simon; Sabate, Manel; Davies, Justin; Lesiak, Maciej; Moreno, Raul; Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Hoole, Stephan P; Ej West, Nick; Piek, J J; Zaman, Azfar; Fath-Ordoubadi, Farzin; Stables, Rodney H; Appleby, Clare; van Mieghem, Nicolas; van Geuns, Robert Jm; Uren, Neal; Zueco, Javier; Buszman, Pawel; Iñiguez, Andres; Goicolea, Javier; Hildick-Smith, David; Ochala, Andrzej; Dudek, Dariusz; Hanratty, Colm; Cavalcante, Rafael; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Taggart, David P; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Morel, Marie-Angèle; de Vries, Ton; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Farooq, Vasim; Serruys, Patrick W; Banning, Adrian P

    2017-11-07

    To investigate if recent technical and procedural developments in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) significantly influence outcomes in appropriately selected patients with three-vessel (3VD) coronary artery disease. The SYNTAX II study is a multicenter, all-comers, open-label, single arm study that investigated the impact of a contemporary PCI strategy on clinical outcomes in patients with 3VD in 22 centres from four European countries. The SYNTAX-II strategy includes: heart team decision-making utilizing the SYNTAX Score II (a clinical tool combining anatomical and clinical factors), coronary physiology guided revascularisation, implantation of thin strut bioresorbable-polymer drug-eluting stents, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guided stent implantation, contemporary chronic total occlusion revascularisation techniques and guideline-directed medical therapy. The rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE [composite of all-cause death, cerebrovascular event, any myocardial infarction and any revascularisation]) at one year was compared to a predefined PCI cohort from the original SYNTAX-I trial selected on the basis of equipoise 4-year mortality between CABG and PCI. As an exploratory endpoint, comparisons were made with the historical CABG cohort of the original SYNTAX-I trial. Overall 708 patients were screened and discussed within the heart team; 454 patients were deemed appropriate to undergo PCI. At one year, the SYNTAX-II strategy was superior to the equipoise-derived SYNTAX-I PCI cohort (MACCE SYNTAX-II 10.6% vs. SYNTAX-I 17.4%; HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.39-0.85, P = 0.006). This difference was driven by a significant reduction in the incidence of MI (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11-0.70, P = 0.007) and revascularisation (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.9, P = 0.015). Rates of all-cause death (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.27-1.73, P = 0.43) and stroke (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.10-4.89, P = 0.71) were similar. The rate of definite stent thrombosis was

  12. Multiclausal Utterances Aren't Just for Big Kids: A Framework for Analysis of Complex Syntax Production in Spoken Language of Preschool- and Early School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Karen Barako; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Complex syntax production emerges shortly after the emergence of two-word combinations in oral language and continues to develop through the school-age years. This article defines a framework for the analysis of complex syntax in the spontaneous language of preschool- and early school-age children. The purpose of this article is to provide…

  13. Data-driven knowledge acquisition, validation, and transformation into HL7 Arden Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Maqbool; Afzal, Muhammad; Ali, Taqdir; Ali, Rahman; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Jamshed, Arif; Lee, Sungyoung; Kang, Byeong Ho; Latif, Khalid

    2015-10-28

    The objective of this study is to help a team of physicians and knowledge engineers acquire clinical knowledge from existing practices datasets for treatment of head and neck cancer, to validate the knowledge against published guidelines, to create refined rules, and to incorporate these rules into clinical workflow for clinical decision support. A team of physicians (clinical domain experts) and knowledge engineers adapt an approach for modeling existing treatment practices into final executable clinical models. For initial work, the oral cavity is selected as the candidate target area for the creation of rules covering a treatment plan for cancer. The final executable model is presented in HL7 Arden Syntax, which helps the clinical knowledge be shared among organizations. We use a data-driven knowledge acquisition approach based on analysis of real patient datasets to generate a predictive model (PM). The PM is converted into a refined-clinical knowledge model (R-CKM), which follows a rigorous validation process. The validation process uses a clinical knowledge model (CKM), which provides the basis for defining underlying validation criteria. The R-CKM is converted into a set of medical logic modules (MLMs) and is evaluated using real patient data from a hospital information system. We selected the oral cavity as the intended site for derivation of all related clinical rules for possible associated treatment plans. A team of physicians analyzed the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for the oral cavity and created a common CKM. Among the decision tree algorithms, chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) was applied to a refined dataset of 1229 patients to generate the PM. The PM was tested on a disjoint dataset of 739 patients, which gives 59.0% accuracy. Using a rigorous validation process, the R-CKM was created from the PM as the final model, after conforming to the CKM. The R-CKM was converted into four candidate MLMs, and was

  14. Using Space Syntax to Assess Safety in Public Areas - Case Study of Tarbiat Pedestrian Area, Tabriz-Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihangir Çamur, Kübra; Roshani, Mehdi; Pirouzi, Sania

    2017-10-01

    In studying the urban complex issues, simulation and modelling of public space use considerably helps in determining and measuring factors such as urban safety. Depth map software for determining parameters of the spatial layout techniques; and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software for analysing and evaluating the views of the pedestrians on public safety were used in this study. Connectivity, integration, and depth of the area in the Tarbiat city blocks were measured using the Space Syntax Method, and these parameters are presented as graphical and mathematical data. The combination of the results obtained from the questionnaire and statistical analysis with the results of spatial arrangement technique represents the appropriate and inappropriate spaces for pedestrians. This method provides a useful and effective instrument for decision makers, planners, urban designers and programmers in order to evaluate public spaces in the city. Prior to physical modification of urban public spaces, space syntax simulates the pedestrian safety to be used as an analytical tool by the city management. Finally, regarding the modelled parameters and identification of different characteristics of the case, this study represents the strategies and policies in order to increase the safety of the pedestrians of Tarbiat in Tabriz.

  15. The ‘exceptional finds’ of Iruña-Veleia (Álava: syntax of an archaeological forgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio RODRÍGUEZ TEMIÑO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, news broke of the discovery of ostraca bearing text in Latin and Basque, as well as Christian drawings, during the 2005 and 2006 excavation campaigns at the Iruña-Veleia site in Álava, Spain. In 2008, these pieces were shown to be fakes. The ‘Iruña-Veleia case’, as it has come to be known, has been the subject of several partial studies, primarily focused on the forgeries. This paper will analyse it from a contextual perspective. To this end, it first defines the general pattern, or ‘syntax’, followed by historical forgeries. It then applies this syntax to the Iruña-Veleia case, reviewing how it unfolded in the academic, political, institutional and social spheres. In each one, the syntax showed certain oddities, mainly due to the social context in which the events took place and their link to nationalist identity, a subject related to the content of the forged specimens. Despite this link, however, in this case it cannot be concluded that nationalism was the driving force behind the forgery.

  16. How to start a V2 declarative clause: Transfer of syntax vs. information structure in L2 German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Bohnacker

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses V2 word order and information structure in Swedish, German and non-native German. Concentrating on the clause-initial position of V2 declaratives, the ‘prefield’, we investigate the extent of L1 transfer in a closely related L2. The prefield anchors the clause in discourse, and although almost any type of element can occur in this position, naturalistic text corpora of native Swedish and native German show distinct language-specific patterns. Certain types of elements are more common than others in clause-initial position, and their frequencies in Swedish differ substantially from German (subjects, fronted objects, certain adverbs. Nonnative cross-sectional production data from Swedish learners of German at beginner, intermediate and advanced levels are compared with native control data, matched for age and genre (Bohnacker 2005, 2006, Rosén 2006. The learners’ V2 syntax is largely targetlike, but their beginnings of sentences are unidiomatic. They have problems with the language-specific linguistic means that have an impact on information structure: They overapply the Swedish principle of “rheme later” in their L2 German, indicating L1 transfer at the interface of syntax and discourse pragmatics, especially for structures that are frequent in the L1 (subject-initial and expletive-initial clauses, and constructions with så (‘so’ and object det (‘it/that’.

  17. The Comparison of the Skill of Understanding Complex Syntax at Children Attending to a Preschool Education Institution (TRNC-TR Sample)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Elçin

    2016-01-01

    The current study was carried out to compare the skills of understanding complex syntax at children attending to preschool education institutions. In the current study, relational screening model, a model providing to determine the current study, was used. The working group of the study was made up of 224 children at the age of 4-5 attending to a…

  18. Vzájemné ovlivňování prozódie a syntaxe v překryvech replik

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlík, Martin; Zaepernicková, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 1 (2016), s. 33-44 ISSN 0027-8203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01116S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : conversation analysis * overlaps * prosody * syntax Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  19. Predictive Performance of SYNTAX Score II in Patients With Left Main and Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease - Analysis of CREDO-Kyoto Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A.M. Campos (Carlos); D. van Klaveren (David); A. Iqbal (Anwarul); Y. Onuma (Yoshinobu); Y. Zhang (Ying); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); M.-A. Morel (Marie-Angel); V. Farooq (Vasim); Shiomi, H; Furukawa, Y; Nakagawa, Y; Kadota, K; P.A. Lemos Neto (Pedro); T. Kimura (Takeshi); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: SYNTAX score II (SSII) provides individualized estimates of 4-year mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in order to facilitate decision-making between these revascularization methods. The purpose of the present

  20. Views of Nature and the Human-Nature Relations: An Analysis of the Visual Syntax of Pictures about the Environment in Greek Primary School Textbooks--Diachronic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoni, Rea; Lefkaditou, Ageliki; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Schizas, Dimitrios; Stamou, George P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the function of the visual syntax of images in Greek primary school textbooks. By using a model for the formal analysis of the visual material, which will allow us to disclose the mechanisms through which meanings are manifested, our aim is to investigate the discursive transition relating to the view of nature and the…

  1. Prosody-Syntax Integration in a Second Language: Contrasting Event-Related Potentials from German and Chinese Learners of English Using Linear Mixed Effect Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Stefanie; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    The role of prosodic information in sentence processing is not usually addressed in second language (L2) instruction, and neurocognitive studies on prosody-syntax interactions are rare. Here we compare event-related potentials (ERP) of Chinese and German learners of English L2 to those of native English speakers and show how first language (L1)…

  2. Vocabulary, Syntax, and Narrative Development in Typically Developing Children and Children with Early Unilateral Brain Injury: Early Parental Talk about the "There-and-Then" Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L.; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input--talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized--in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk…

  3. Clinical outcomes of state-of-the-art percutaneous coronary revascularization in patients with de novo three vessel disease: 1-year results of the SYNTAX II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escaned, Javier; Collet, Carlos; Ryan, Nicola; Luigi de Maria, Giovanni; Walsh, Simon; Sabate, Manel; Davies, Justin; Lesiak, Maciej; Moreno, Raul; Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Hoole, Stephan P.; Ej West, Nick; Piek, J. J.; Zaman, Azfar; Fath-Ordoubadi, Farzin; Stables, Rodney H.; Appleby, Clare; van Mieghem, Nicolas; van Geuns, Robert Jm; Uren, Neal; Zueco, Javier; Buszman, Pawel; Iñiguez, Andres; Goicolea, Javier; Hildick-Smith, David; Ochala, Andrzej; Dudek, Dariusz; Hanratty, Colm; Cavalcante, Rafael; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Taggart, David P.; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Morel, Marie-Angèle; de Vries, Ton; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Farooq, Vasim; Serruys, Patrick W.; Banning, Adrian P.

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate if recent technical and procedural developments in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) significantly influence outcomes in appropriately selected patients with three-vessel (3VD) coronary artery disease. Methods and results The SYNTAX II study is a multicenter, all-comers,

  4. Effectiveness of a Computer-Based Syntax Program in Improving the Morphosyntax of Students Who Are Deaf/Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Joanna E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the frequent use of LanguageLinks: Syntax Assessment and Intervention (LL), produced by Laureate Learning Systems, Inc., as a supplemental classroom activity, affected morphosyntax structures (determiners, tense, and complementizers) in participants who are Deaf/Hard of Hearing (DHH) and use American…

  5. Vocabulary, syntax, and narrative development in typically developing children and children with early unilateral brain injury: Early parental talk about the there-and-then matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Rowe, Meredith L.; Heller, Gabriella; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of a particular kind of linguistic input––talk about the past and future, pretend, and explanations, that is, talk that is decontextualized––in the development of vocabulary, syntax, and narrative skill in typically developing (TD) children and children with pre- or perinatal brain injury (BI). Decontextualized talk has been shown to be particularly effective in predicting children’s language skills, but it is not clear why. We first explored the nature of parent decontextualized talk and found it to be linguistically richer than contextualized talk in parents of both TD and BI children. We then found, again for both groups, that parent decontextualized talk at child age 30 months was a significant predictor of child vocabulary, syntax, and narrative performance at kindergarten, above and beyond the child’s own early language skills, parent contextualized talk and demographic factors. Decontextualized talk played a larger role in predicting kindergarten syntax and narrative outcomes for children with lower syntax and narrative skill at 30 months, and also a larger role in predicting kindergarten narrative outcomes for children with BI than for TD children. The difference between the two groups stemmed primarily from the fact that children with BI had lower narrative (but not vocabulary or syntax) scores than TD children. When the two groups were matched in terms of narrative skill at kindergarten, the impact that decontextualized talk had on narrative skill did not differ for children with BI and for TD children. Decontextualized talk is thus a strong predictor of later language skill for all children, but may be particularly potent for children at the lower-end of the distribution for language skill. The findings also suggest that variability in the language development of children with BI is influenced not only by the biological characteristics of their lesions, but also by the language input they receive. PMID:25621756

  6. A sintaxe da violência entre Hegel e Marx The syntax of violence between Hegel and Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Morfino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de investigar a tese marxiana acerca do papel da violência na história, tal como enunciada em O Capital, analisando sua sintaxe de matriz hegeliana e o modo como Engels articula tal tese, para então defender uma interpretação não-teleológica da violência, segundo a qual esta apresenta uma pluralidade de formas, um caráter totalmente difuso e uma pesada materialidade.The Marxian Thesis about the role of violence in History, as it is enunciated in The Capital, is investigated through an analysis of the Hegelian character of its syntax, and the way Engels develops it; a non-teleological interpretation of the thesis is then defended, one that understands that violence presents a plurality of forms, a pervasive character and a heavy materiality.

  7. Correlation between global longitudinal peak systolic strain and coronary artery disease severity as assessed by the angiographically derived SYNTAX score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Vrettos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we investigate the correlation between reduced global longitudinal peak systolic strain (GLPSS and the SYNTAX score (SS in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods: We examined 71 patients undergoing both echocardiogram and coronary angiography within 15 days. All patients had normal global and/or regional wall motion on resting echocardiogram. We calculated GLPSS using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. SS was calculated for each group of patients based on the presence and/or the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD: no CAD on angiogram (n = 10, control group, low SS (n = 36, SS < 22 and high SS (n = 25, SS ≥ 22. We hypothesised that GLPSS at rest is inversely correlated with the angiographically derived SS. Results: Age, sex and most of the risk factors were equally distributed among the groups. There was a significant inverse correlation between GLPSS and SS values (r2 = 0.3869, P < 0.001. This correlation was weaker in the low-SS group (r2 = 0.1332, P < 0.05, whereas it was lost in the high-SS group (r2 = 0.0002, P = NS. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified that the optimal cut-off for the detection of high-SS patients was 13.95% (sensitivity = 71%, specificity = 90%, P < 0.001. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that GLPSS might be promising for the detection of patients with high SYNTAX score on coronary angiogram. There is an inverse correlation between resting GLPSS and SS as assessed by coronary angiography. In patients with the highest SS, however, the correlation with GLPSS was less significant.

  8. Hubungan Kadar Leptin Serum dengan Kompleksitas Lesi Koroner berdasarkan Skor SYNTAX pada Penderita Penyakit Arteri Koroner Stabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajar Ashari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptin has been shown to play a potential role in the atherosclerotic plaque formation by activating immune and inflammatory cells or directly acting on the vessel wall. Earlier reports of the correlation of serum leptin levels with the degree of coronary lesion stated are still controversial. This study determined the correlation between serum leptin levels and complexity of coronary artery lesion in patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD. This is an observational cross-sectional study. Data were collected from January to May 2014 in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Central General Hospital Bandung. Blood samples were collected before angiography procedures. The complexity of coronary artery lesion was assessed using SYNTAX score. There were 44 patients who met inclusion criteria, male 84%, median age 54.68 (+10.24 years. Mean body mass index 24.71 (+ 3.05 kg/m2. Dyslipidemia was the most common risk factor (84%, followed by smoking (72%, hypertension (38.4%, diabetes mellitus (22.7%, and obesity (4.5%. Median leptin level was 7,242 (780-36,929 pq/mL. Mean SYNTAX score was 19.52 (+9.93. Leptin level had no correlation with the complexity of coronary artery lesion (p=0.61, r=0.078. The difference between this study from prior studies might be caused by differences in subject selection and criteria used for complexity of coronary artery lesion. In conclusion, there is no correlation between serum leptin levels and complexity of coronary artery lesion in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

  9. Differential effects of internal and external factors on the development of vocabulary, tense morphology and morpho-syntax in successive bilingual children

    OpenAIRE

    Chondrogianni, Vicky; Marinis, Theo

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of child internal (age/time) and child external/environmental factors on the development of a wide range of language domains in successive bilingual (L2) Turkish-English children of homogeneously low SES. Forty-three L2 children were tested on standardized assessments examining the acquisition of vocabulary and morpho-syntax. The L2 children exhibited a differential acquisition of the various domains: they were better on the general comprehension of ...

  10. Perception of Time in Music in Patients with Parkinson's Disease-The Processing of Musical Syntax Compensates for Rhythmic Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Daniel; Altenmüller, Eckart; Volkmann, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Perception of time as well as rhythm in musical structures rely on complex brain mechanisms and require an extended network of multiple neural sources. They are therefore sensitive to impairment. Several psychophysical studies have shown that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have deficits in perceiving time and rhythms due to a malfunction of the basal ganglia (BG) network. Method: In this study we investigated the time perception of PD patients during music perception by assessing their just noticeable difference (JND) in the time perception of a complex musical Gestalt . We applied a temporal discrimination task using a short melody with a clear beat-based rhythm. Among the subjects, 26 patients under L-Dopa administration and 21 age-matched controls had to detect an artificially delayed time interval in the range between 80 and 300 ms in the middle of the musical period. We analyzed the data by (a) calculating the detection threshold directly, (b) by extrapolating the JNDs, (c) relating it to musical expertise. Results: Patients differed from controls in the detection of time-intervals between 220 and 300 ms ( * p = 0.0200, n = 47). Furthermore, this deficit depended on the severity of the disease ( * p = 0.0452; n = 47). Surprisingly, PD patients did not show any deficit of their JND compared to healthy controls, although the results showed a trend ( * p = 0.0565, n = 40). Furthermore, no significant difference of the JND was found according to the severity of the disease. Additionally, musically trained persons seemed to have lower thresholds in detecting deviations in time and syntactic structures of music ( * p = 0.0343, n = 39). Conclusion: As an explanation of these results, we would like to propose the hypothesis of a time-syntax-congruency in music perception suggesting that processing of time and rhythm is a Gestalt process and that cortical areas involved in processing of musical syntax may compensate for impaired BG circuits that are

  11. Improving the human readability of Arden Syntax medical logic modules using a concept-oriented terminology and object-oriented programming expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Bakken, Suzanne; Lussier, Yves A; Mendonça, Eneida A

    2006-01-01

    Medical logic modules are a procedural representation for sharing task-specific knowledge for decision support systems. Based on the premise that clinicians may perceive object-oriented expressions as easier to read than procedural rules in Arden Syntax-based medical logic modules, we developed a method for improving the readability of medical logic modules. Two approaches were applied: exploiting the concept-oriented features of the Medical Entities Dictionary and building an executable Java program to replace Arden Syntax procedural expressions. The usability evaluation showed that 66% of participants successfully mapped all Arden Syntax rules to Java methods. These findings suggest that these approaches can play an essential role in the creation of human readable medical logic modules and can potentially increase the number of clinical experts who are able to participate in the creation of medical logic modules. Although our approaches are broadly applicable, we specifically discuss the relevance to concept-oriented nursing terminologies and automated processing of task-specific nursing knowledge.

  12. Integrating Arden-Syntax-based clinical decision support with extended presentation formats into a commercial patient data management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Stefan; Castellanos, Ixchel; Toddenroth, Dennis; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Bürkle, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce clinical decision support (CDS) that exceeds conventional alerting at tertiary care intensive care units. We investigated physicians' functional CDS requirements in periodic interviews, and analyzed technical interfaces of the existing commercial patient data management system (PDMS). Building on these assessments, we adapted a platform that processes Arden Syntax medical logic modules (MLMs). Clinicians demanded data-driven, user-driven and time-driven execution of MLMs, as well as multiple presentation formats such as tables and graphics. The used PDMS represented a black box insofar as it did not provide standardized interfaces for event notification and external access to patient data; enabling CDS thus required periodically exporting datasets for making them accessible to the invoked Arden engine. A client-server-architecture with a simple browser-based viewer allows users to activate MLM execution and to access CDS results, while an MLM library generates hypertext for diverse presentation targets. The workaround that involves a periodic data replication entails a trade-off between the necessary computational resources and a delay of generated alert messages. Web technologies proved serviceable for reconciling Arden-based CDS functions with alternative presentation formats, including tables, text formatting, graphical outputs, as well as list-based overviews of data from several patients that the native PDMS did not support.

  13. Coronary collateral circulation in patients with chronic coronary total occlusion; its relationship with cardiac risk markers and SYNTAX score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börekçi, A; Gür, M; Şeker, T; Baykan, A O; Özaltun, B; Karakoyun, S; Karakurt, A; Türkoğlu, C; Makça, I; Çaylı, M

    2015-09-01

    Compared to patients without a collateral supply, long-term cardiac mortality is reduced in patients with well-developed coronary collateral circulation (CCC). Cardiovascular risk markers, such as N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) are independent predictors for cardiovascular mortality. The main goal of this study was to examine the relationship between CCC and cardiovascular risk markers. We prospectively enrolled 427 stable coronary artery disease patients with chronic total occlusion (mean age: 57.5±11.1 years). The patients were divided into two groups, according to their Rentrop scores: (a) poorly developed CCC group (Rentrop 0 and 1) and (b) well-developed CCC group (Rentrop 2 and 3). NT-proBNP, hs-CRP, hs-cTnT, uric acid and other biochemical markers were also measured. The SYNTAX score was calculated for all patients. The patients in the poorly developed CCC group had higher frequencies of diabetes and hypertension (prisk markers, such as NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT and hs-CRP are independently associated with CCC in stable coronary artery disease with chronic total occlusion. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C.; Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C.; Devauchelle, A.D.; Pallier, C.; Oppenheim, C.; Rizzi, L.; Dehaene, S.

    2009-01-01

    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycho-linguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a sentence's content or syntax. Participants read or listened to sentences organized in series which could or not share similar syntactic constructions and/or lexico-semantic content. The repetition of lexico-semantic content yielded adaptation in most of the temporal and frontal sentence processing network, both in the visual and the auditory modalities, even when the same lexico-semantic content was expressed using variable syntactic constructions. No fMRI adaptation effect was observed when the same syntactic construction was repeated. Yet behavioral priming was observed at both syntactic and semantic levels in a separate experiment where participants detected sentence endings. We discuss a number of possible explanations for the absence of syntactic priming in the fMRI experiments, including the possibility that the conglomerate of syntactic properties defining 'a construction' is not an actual object assembled during parsing. (authors)

  15. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [INSERM, Gif sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, NeuroSpin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Pallier, C. [Univ. Paris 11, Orsay (France); Oppenheim, C. [Univ Paris 05, Ctr Hosp St Anne, Paris (France); Rizzi, L. [Univ Siena, CISCL, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Dehaene, S. [Coll France, F-75231 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycho-linguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a sentence's content or syntax. Participants read or listened to sentences organized in series which could or not share similar syntactic constructions and/or lexico-semantic content. The repetition of lexico-semantic content yielded adaptation in most of the temporal and frontal sentence processing network, both in the visual and the auditory modalities, even when the same lexico-semantic content was expressed using variable syntactic constructions. No fMRI adaptation effect was observed when the same syntactic construction was repeated. Yet behavioral priming was observed at both syntactic and semantic levels in a separate experiment where participants detected sentence endings. We discuss a number of possible explanations for the absence of syntactic priming in the fMRI experiments, including the possibility that the conglomerate of syntactic properties defining 'a construction' is not an actual object assembled during parsing. (authors)

  16. Comparison of African American Children's Performances on a Minimal Competence Core for Morphosyntax and the Index of Productive Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Ida J; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L; Swartzlander, Elaina; Morris, Lekeitha R

    2016-02-01

    This study is a response to the need for evidence-based measures of spontaneous oral language to assess African American children under the age of 4 years. We determined if pass/fail status on a minimal competence core for morphosyntax (MCC-MS) was more highly related to scores on the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn)-the measure of convergent criterion validity-than to scores on 3 measures of divergent validity: number of different words (Watkins, Kelly, Harbers, & Hollis, 1995), Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised (Shriberg, Austin, Lewis, McSweeney, & Wilson, 1997), and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Roid & Miller, 1997). Archival language samples for 68 African American 3-year-olds were analyzed to determine MCC-MS pass/fail status and the scores on measures of convergent and divergent validity. Higher IPSyn scores were observed for 60 children who passed the MCC-MS than for 8 children who did not. A significant positive correlation, rpb = .73, between MCC-MS pass/fail status and IPSyn scores was observed. This coefficient was higher than MCC-MS correlations with measures of divergent validity: rpb = .13 (Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised), rpb = .42 (number of different words in 100 utterances), and rpb = .46 (Percentage of Consonants Correct-Revised). The MCC-MS has convergent criterion validity with the IPSyn. Although more research is warranted, both measures can be potentially used in oral language assessments of African American 3-year-olds.

  17. The Value of the SYNTAX Score II in Predicting Clinical Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicola; Nombela-Franco, Luis; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Biagioni, Corina; Salinas, Pablo; Aldazábal, Andrés; Cerrato, Enrico; Gonzalo, Nieves; Del Trigo, María; Núñez-Gil, Iván; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Macaya, Carlos; Escaned, Javier

    2017-11-27

    The predictive value of the SYNTAX score (SS) for clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is very limited and could potentially be improved by the combination of anatomic and clinical variables, the SS-II. We aimed to evaluate the value of the SS-II in predicting outcomes in patients undergoing TAVI. A total of 402 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis undergoing transfemoral TAVI were included. Preprocedural TAVI angiograms were reviewed and the SS-I and SS-II were calculated using the SS algorithms. Patients were stratified in 3 groups according to SS-II tertiles. The coprimary endpoints were all-cause death and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of all-cause death, cerebrovascular event, or myocardial infarction at 1 year. Increased SS-II was associated with higher 30-day mortality (P=.036) and major bleeding (P=.015). The 1-year risk of death and MACE was higher among patients in the 3rd SS-II tertile (HR, 2.60; P=.002 and HR, 2.66; P<.001) and was similar among patients in the 2nd tertile (HR, 1.27; P=.507 and HR, 1.05; P=.895) compared with patients in the 1st tertile. The highest SS-II tertile was an independent predictor of long-term mortality (P=.046) and MACE (P=.001). The SS-II seems more suited to predict clinical outcomes in patients undergoing TAVI than the SS-I. Increased SS-II was associated with poorer clinical outcomes at 1 and 4 years post-TAVI, independently of the presence of coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. For a syntax of the TV news: a proposal for teaching Por uma sintaxe do telejornal: uma proposta de ensino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvana Fechine

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Featuring the contributions of semiotic discourse to the teaching of telejournalism, this article proposes the first stage of a project that seeks to highlight the syntax that governs the construction of the TV news, and in particular the report. It requires an examination of how its constituent units (off, sound, images, art, appearance of the reporter, etc. are combined to produce a "whole meaning" - a text. From the analysis of the report's structure, we verify the most recurrent uses and functions of each of these constituent units. In this article, the appearance of the reporter is the subject of a preliminary analysis of the "functioning" of the textual TV reporting. Based on a study of 100 scripts, we propose the description of seven syntactic features of the appearance of the reporter. Apresentando as contribuições que a semiótica discursiva pode dar ao ensino do telejornalismo, este artigo propõe-se a apresentar a primeira etapa de um projeto que busca evidenciar a sintaxe que preside à construção do telejornal e, em especial, da reportagem. A construção de uma sintaxe da reportagem requer o exame do modo como as suas unidades constitutivas (off, sonoras, imagens, arte, passagens, etc. se combinam para produzir um "todo de sentido" – um texto. Partindo da análise da roteirização das reportagens, buscamos verificar quais os usos e as funções recorrentes de cada uma dessas suas unidades constitutivas. Neste artigo, a passagem é objeto de um exercício preliminar de análise do "funcionamento" textual da reportagem. Baseados no estudo de 100 roteiros, propomos a descrição de sete funções sintáticas da passagem no texto-reportagem.

  19. What Does the Sleeping Brain Say? Syntax and Semantics of Sleep Talking in Healthy Subjects and in Parasomnia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Gay, Frederick; Baldayrou, Etienne; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Gayraud, Frederique; Devevey, Alain

    2017-11-01

    Speech is a complex function in humans, but the linguistic characteristics of sleep talking are unknown. We analyzed sleep-associated speech in adults, mostly (92%) during parasomnias. The utterances recorded during night-time video-polysomnography were analyzed for number of words, propositions and speech episodes, frequency, gaps and pauses (denoting turn-taking in the conversation), lemmatization, verbosity, negative/imperative/interrogative tone, first/second person, politeness, and abuse. Two hundred thirty-two subjects (aged 49.5 ± 20 years old; 41% women; 129 with rapid eye movement [REM] sleep behavior disorder and 87 with sleepwalking/sleep terrors, 15 healthy subjects, and 1 patient with sleep apnea speaking in non-REM sleep) uttered 883 speech episodes, containing 59% nonverbal utterance (mumbles, shouts, whispers, and laughs) and 3349 understandable words. The most frequent word was "No": negations represented 21.4% of clauses (more in non-REM sleep). Interrogations were found in 26% of speech episodes (more in non-REM sleep), and subordinate clauses were found in 12.9% of speech episodes. As many as 9.7% of clauses contained profanities (more in non-REM sleep). Verbal abuse lasted longer in REM sleep and was mostly directed toward insulting or condemning someone, whereas swearing predominated in non-REM sleep. Men sleep-talked more than women and used a higher proportion of profanities. Apparent turn-taking in the conversation respected the usual language gaps. Sleep talking parallels awake talking for syntax, semantics, and turn-taking in conversation, suggesting that the sleeping brain can function at a high level. Language during sleep is mostly a familiar, tensed conversation with inaudible others, suggestive of conflicts. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society]. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Child writers' construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: contributions of syntax and transcription to translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Beers, Scott

    2011-02-01

    Children in grades one to four completed two sentence construction tasks: (a) Write one complete sentence about a topic prompt (sentence integrity, Study 1); and (b) Integrate two sentences into one complete sentence without changing meaning (sentence combining, Study 2). Most, but not all, children in first through fourth grade could write just one sentence. The sentence integrity task was not correlated with sentence combining until fourth grade, when in multiple regression, sentence integrity explained unique variance in sentence combining, along with spelling. Word-level skills (morphology in first and spelling in second through fourth grade) consistently explained unique variance in sentence combining. Thus, many beginning writers have syntactic knowledge of what constitutes a complete sentence, but not until fourth grade do both syntax and transcription contribute uniquely to flexible translation of ideas into the syntax of a written sentence. In Study 3, eleven syntactic categories were identified in single- and multi- sentence composing from second to fifth grade. Complex clauses (independent plus subordinate) occurred more often on single-sentence composing, but single independent clauses occurred more often on multi-sentence composing. For multi-sentence text, more single, independent clauses were produced by pen than keyboard in grades 3 to 7. The most frequent category of complex clauses in multi-sentence texts varied with genre (relative for essays and subordinate for narratives). Thus, in addition to syntax-level sentence construction and word-level transcription, amount of translation (number of sentences), mode of transcription, and genre for multiple sentence text also influence translation of ideas into written language of child writers. Results of these studies employing descriptive linguistic analyses are discussed in reference to cognitive theory of writing development.

  1. Child writers’ construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: contributions of syntax and transcription to translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Beers, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Children in grades one to four completed two sentence construction tasks: (a) Write one complete sentence about a topic prompt (sentence integrity, Study 1); and (b) Integrate two sentences into one complete sentence without changing meaning (sentence combining, Study 2). Most, but not all, children in first through fourth grade could write just one sentence. The sentence integrity task was not correlated with sentence combining until fourth grade, when in multiple regression, sentence integrity explained unique variance in sentence combining, along with spelling. Word-level skills (morphology in first and spelling in second through fourth grade) consistently explained unique variance in sentence combining. Thus, many beginning writers have syntactic knowledge of what constitutes a complete sentence, but not until fourth grade do both syntax and transcription contribute uniquely to flexible translation of ideas into the syntax of a written sentence. In Study 3, eleven syntactic categories were identified in single- and multi- sentence composing from second to fifth grade. Complex clauses (independent plus subordinate) occurred more often on single-sentence composing, but single independent clauses occurred more often on multi-sentence composing. For multi-sentence text, more single, independent clauses were produced by pen than keyboard in grades 3 to 7. The most frequent category of complex clauses in multi-sentence texts varied with genre (relative for essays and subordinate for narratives). Thus, in addition to syntax-level sentence construction and word-level transcription, amount of translation (number of sentences), mode of transcription, and genre for multiple sentence text also influence translation of ideas into written language of child writers. Results of these studies employing descriptive linguistic analyses are discussed in reference to cognitive theory of writing development. PMID:21383865

  2. Second Language Syntax Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Tomac, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the acquisition of syntactic properties in a second language. To understand how syntactic properties are acquired, a theoretical approach of Universal Grammar is presented, with an emphasis on the application of the Universal Grammar approach to second language acquisition. Acquisition of the following syntactic properties is being described: acquisition of morphemes, acquisition of negation and verb movement, acquisition of word order, acquisition of questions and acquisi...

  3. Tool development in threat assessment: syntax regularization and correlative analysis. Final report Task I and Task II, November 21, 1977-May 21, 1978. [Linguistic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miron, M.S.; Christopher, C.; Hirshfield, S.; Su, B.

    1978-05-01

    Psycholinguistics provides crisis managers in nuclear threat incidents with a quantitative methodology which can aid in the determination of threat credibility, authorship identification and perpetrator apprehension. The objective of this contract is to improve and enhance present psycholinguistic software systems by means of newly-developed, computer-automated techniques which significantly extend the technology of automated content and stylistic analysis of nuclear threat. In accordance with this overall objective, the first two contract Tasks have been completed and are reported on in this document. The first Task specifies the development of software support for the purpose of syntax regularization of vocabulary to root form. The second calls for the exploration and development of alternative approaches to correlative analysis of vocabulary usage.

  4. Long-term forecasting and comparison of mortality in the Evaluation of the Xience Everolimus Eluting Stent vs. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization (EXCEL) trial: prospective validation of the SYNTAX Score II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos M; van Klaveren, David; Farooq, Vasim; Simonton, Charles A; Kappetein, Arie-Pieter; Sabik, Joseph F; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Stone, Gregg W; Serruys, Patrick W

    2015-05-21

    To prospectively validate the SYNTAX Score II and forecast the outcomes of the randomized Evaluation of the Xience Everolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization (EXCEL) Trial. Evaluation of the Xience Everolimus Eluting Stent vs. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization is a prospective, randomized multicenter trial designed to establish the efficacy and safety of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with the everolimus-eluting stent compared with coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in subjects with unprotected left-main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease and low-intermediate anatomical SYNTAX scores (EXCEL, the SYNTAX Score II was prospectively applied to predict 4-year mortality in the CABG and PCI arms. The 95% prediction intervals (PIs) for mortality were computed using simulation with bootstrap resampling (10 000 times). For the entire study cohort, the 4-year predicted mortalities were 8.5 and 10.5% in the PCI and CABG arms, respectively [odds ratios (OR) 0.79; 95% PI 0.43-1.50). In subjects with low (≤22) anatomical SYNTAX scores, the predicted OR was 0.69 (95% PI 0.34-1.45); in intermediate anatomical SYNTAX scores (23-32), the predicted OR was 0.93 (95% PI 0.53-1.62). Based on 4-year mortality predictions in EXCEL, clinical characteristics shifted long-term mortality predictions either in favour of PCI (older age, male gender and COPD) or CABG (younger age, lower creatinine clearance, female gender, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction). The SYNTAX Score II indicates at least an equipoise for long-term mortality between CABG and PCI in subjects with ULMCA disease up to an intermediate anatomical complexity. Both anatomical and clinical characteristics had a clear impact on long-term mortality predictions and decision making between CABG and PCI. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The

  5. Syntax mluvené češtiny jako nástroj subjektivizačních postupů v prózách P. Soukupové

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoffmannová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2016), s. 229-252 ISSN 1230-2287 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01116S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : reported speech * reported thought * direct speech/thought * indirect speech/thought * free direct speech/thought * free indirect speech/thought * internal monologue * subjectivization * spoken Czech syntax Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  6. Due antichi quartieri romani sotto la lente di ingrandimento: un’analisi space syntax dei quartieri delle città antiche e della loro vita sociale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöger, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neighbourhoods and the social use of space are areas of growing interest. By combining archaeological methods and space syntax, the article offers new insights into the physical environment of daily life in the Roman city. The detailed examination of two city blocks from Ostia (Rome’s imperial port-town, allows the authors to identify spaces which fostered social cohesion and community building. The shared courtyards and passage spaces of Block IV ii suggest continued community focus (2nd - 5th centuries AD. In contrast, Block IV iv lacks common spaces and revealed self-contained buildings centred on individual access to public space. Block IV ii enjoyed shared spaces within its own perimeter, while Block IV iv looks toward external community building, with activities centred on the street confining the block. The results show the flexibility of Roman urban structures and allow for suggestive glimpses into the community that sustained the city in the long-term.El estudio de los vecindarios y el uso social del espacio habitado son temas de interés creciente. Mediante la combinación de métodos arqueológicos y space syntax, este artículo ofrece nuevas formas de analizar el entorno físico de la vida cotidiana en las ciudades romanas. El examen detallado de dos bloques urbanos en Ostia (la ciudad portuaria de Roma en época imperial nos ha permitido identificar espacios que fomentan la cohesión social y la vida en comunidad. El uso común de patios y pasillos en el Bloque IV ii sugiere un uso comunal continuado desde el siglo II hasta el siglo V d. C. En claro contraste con este sector, el Bloque IV iv no tiene espacios comunes y muestra edificios aislados con accesos individuales al espacio público. El Bloque IV ii disfruta de espacios compartidos dentro de su propio perímetro, mientras que el Bloque IV iv parece estar orientado por el interés de comunidades externas con actividades desarrolladas hacia la calle creando cierto aislamiento

  7. A faculdade da linguagem e os sistemas de interface: as relações entre a sintaxe e a semântica The language faculty and the interface systems: interactions between syntax and semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Vailati Negrão

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo defende a tese de que o minimalismo substantivo assumido por Chomsky nos desenvolvimentos recentes do programa de pesquisa em Sintaxe Gerativa abre uma perspectiva interessante para o tratamento das relações entre a sintaxe e a semântica. A concepção de ciência adotada na história desse projeto norteou a formulação de um modelo de gramática no qual a propriedade do deslocamento de constituintes tem papel central. O estudo das características dessa propriedade demonstra que os sistemas concepto-intencionais da mente humana distinguem entre diferentes tipos de relações semânticas e impõem exigências sobre o modo como essas relações são marcadas na sintaxe.This article claims that substantive minimalism, as assumed by Chomsky in the recent developments of the Generative Syntax program, opens a new perspective for the treatment of the Syntax-Semantics Interface. We first characterize the scientific view supporting the Generative model of grammar. The movement metaphor, proposed in order to capture the property observed in human languages that some constituents seem to occupy two different positions in the sentence structure at the same time, reveals that the conceptual-intentional system of the human mind distinguishes among different kinds of semantic relations marked by different mechanisms in the Syntax.

  8. Validating the EXCEL hypothesis: a propensity score matched 3-year comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass graft in left main patients with SYNTAX score ≤32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodanno, Davide; Caggegi, Anna; Capranzano, Piera; Cincotta, Glauco; Miano, Marco; Barrano, Gionbattista; Monaco, Sergio; Calvo, Francesco; Tamburino, Corrado

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to verify the study hypothesis of the EXCEL trial by comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in an EXCEL-like population of patients. The upcoming EXCEL trial will test the hypothesis that left main patients with SYNTAX score ≤ 32 experience similar rates of 3-year death, myocardial infarction (MI), or cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) following revascularization by PCI or CABG. We compared the 3-year rates of death/MI/CVA and death/MI/CVA/target vessel revascularization (MACCE) in 556 patients with left main disease and SYNTAX score ≤ 32 undergoing PCI (n = 285) or CABG (n = 271). To account for confounders, outcome parameters underwent extensive statistical adjustment. The unadjusted incidence of death/MI/CVA was similar between PCI and CABG (12.7% vs. 8.4%, P = 0.892), while MACCE were higher in the PCI group compared to the CABG group (27.0% vs. 11.8%, P EXCEL-like cohort of patients with left main disease, there seems to be a clinical equipoise between PCI and CABG in terms of death/MI/CVA. However, even in patients with SYNTAX score ≤ 32, CABG is superior to PCI when target vessel revascularization is included in the combined endpoint. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Idiosyncratic gesture use in atypical language development, and its interaction with speech rhythm, word juncture, syntax, pragmatics and discourse: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sara J; Perkins, Michael R; Sowden, Hannah

    2012-10-01

    Very little is known about the use of gesture by children with developmental language disorders (DLDs). This case study of 'Lucy', a child aged 4;10 with a DLD, expands on what is known and in particular focuses on a type of idiosyncratic "rhythmic gesture" (RG) not previously reported. A fine-grained qualitative analysis was carried out of video recordings of Lucy in conversation with the first author. This revealed that Lucy's RG was closely integrated in complex ways with her use of other gesture types, speech rhythm, word juncture, syntax, pragmatics, discourse, visual processing and processing demands generally. Indeed, the only satisfactory way to explain it was as a partial byproduct of such interactions. These findings support the theoretical accounts of gesture which see it as just one component of a multimodal, integrated signalling system (e.g. Goldin-Meadow, S. (2000). Beyond words: The importance of gesture to researchers and learners. Child Development, 71(1), 231-239), and emergentist accounts of communication impairment which regard compensatory adaptation as integral (e.g. Perkins, M. R. (2007). Pragmatic Impairment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.).

  10. Syntax Score and Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Results from a Cohort Study in a University-Affiliated Hospital in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Felipe C; Ribeiro, Jorge P; Fuchs, Flávio D; Wainstein, Marco V; Bergoli, Luis C; Wainstein, Rodrigo V; Zen, Vanessa; Kerkhoff, Alessandra C; Moreira, Leila B; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2016-09-01

    The importance of coronary anatomy in predicting cardiovascular events is well known. The use of traditional anatomical scores in routine angiography, however, has not been incorporated to clinical practice. SYNTAX score (SXscore) is a scoring system that estimates the anatomical extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). Its ability to predict outcomes based on a baseline diagnostic angiography has not been tested to date. To evaluate the performance of the SXscore in predicting major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients referred for diagnostic angiography. Prospective cohort of 895 patients with suspected CAD referred for elective diagnostic coronary angiography from 2008 to 2011, at a university-affiliated hospital in Brazil. They had their SXscores calculated and were stratified in three categories: no significant CAD (n = 495), SXscoreLOW-INTERMEDIATE: anatomia coronariana na predição de eventos cardiovasculares é bem conhecida. O uso de escores anatômicos tradicionais na cineangiocoronariografia de rotina, entretanto, não foi incorporado à prática clínica. O SYNTAX escore (SXescore) é um sistema de escore que estima a extensão anatômica da doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Sua capacidade para predizer desfechos com base na cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica de base ainda não foi testada. Avaliar o desempenho do SXescore para predizer eventos cardíacos adversos maiores (MACE) em pacientes encaminhados para cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica. Coorte prospectiva de 895 pacientes com suspeita de DAC encaminhados para cineangiocoronariografia diagnóstica eletiva de 2008 a 2011, em hospital universitário no Brasil. Os pacientes tiveram seus SXescores calculados e foram estratificados em três categorias: 'sem DAC significativa' (n = 495); SXescoreBAIXO-INTERMEDIÁRIO: < 23 (n = 346); e SXescoreALTO: ≥ 23 (n = 54). O desfecho primário foi composto de morte cardíaca, infarto do miocárdio e revascularização tardia. Os desfechos secund

  11. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and genesis of the high-temperature geothermal system in the Tashkorgan basin of the Pamir syntax, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiman; Pang, Zhonghe; Yang, Fengtian; Yuan, Lijuan; Tang, Pinghui

    2017-11-01

    High-temperature geothermal systems in China, such as those found in Tenchong and Tibet, are common. A similar system without obvious manifestations found in the Tashkorgan basin in the western Xinjiang Autonomous Region, however, was not expected. The results from borehole measurements and predictions with geothermometers, such as quartz, Na-K and Na-K-Mg, indicate that the reservoir temperature is approximately 250-260 °C. Geothermal water is high in Total Dissolved Solids (>2.5 g/L) and SiO2 content (>273 mg/L), and the water type is Cl·SO4-Na, likely resulting from water-rock interactions in the granodiorite reservoirs. Based on isotope analysis, it appears to be recharged by local precipitation and river water. Evidence from the relationships between major ions and the Cl and molar Na/Cl ratio suggests mixing between deep geothermal water and shallow cold groundwater during the upwelling process. Mixing ratios calculated by the relationship between Cl and SiO2 show that the proportion from cold end-members are 96-99% and 40-90% for riparian zone springs and geothermal water from boreholes, respectively. Active regional tectonic and Neo-tectonic movements in the Pamir syntax as well as radioactive elements in the granodiorite reservoir of the Himalayan stage provide basis for the high heat flow background (150-350 mW/m2). NNW trending fault systems intersecting with overlying NE faults provide circulation conduits with high permeability for geothermal water.

  12. Networks for memory, perception, and decision-making, and beyond to how the syntax for language might be implemented in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Deco, Gustavo

    2015-09-24

    Neural principles that provide a foundation for memory, perception, and decision-making include place coding with sparse distributed representations, associative synaptic modification, and attractor networks in which the storage capacity is in the order of the number of associatively modifiable recurrent synapses on any one neuron. Based on those and further principles of cortical computation, hypotheses are explored in which syntax is encoded in the cortex using sparse distributed place coding. Each cortical module 2-3 mm in diameter is proposed to be formed of a local attractor neuronal network with a capacity in the order of 10,000 words (e.g. subjects, verbs or objects depending on the module). Such a system may form a deep language-of-thought layer. For the information to be communicated to other people, the modules in which the neurons are firing which encode the syntactic role, as well as which neurons are firing to specify the words, must be communicated. It is proposed that one solution to this (used in English) is temporal order encoding, for example subject-verb-object. It is shown with integrate-and-fire simulations that this order encoding could be implemented by weakly forward-coupled subject-verb-object modules. A related system can decode a temporal sequence. This approach based on known principles of cortical computation needs to be extended to investigate further whether it could form a biological foundation for the implementation of language in the brain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Alterations in grooming activity and syntax in heterozygous SERT and BDNF knockout mice: the utility of behavior-recognition tools to characterize mutant mouse phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pham, Mimi; Roth, Andrew; Cachat, Jonathan; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Kalueff, Allan V

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin transporter (SERT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are key modulators of molecular signaling, cognition and behavior. Although SERT and BDNF mutant mouse phenotypes have been extensively characterized, little is known about their self-grooming behavior. Grooming represents an important behavioral domain sensitive to environmental stimuli and is increasingly used as a model for repetitive behavioral syndromes, such as autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The present study used heterozygous ((+/-)) SERT and BDNF male mutant mice on a C57BL/6J background and assessed their spontaneous self-grooming behavior applying both manual and automated techniques. Overall, SERT(+/-) mice displayed a general increase in grooming behavior, as indicated by more grooming bouts and more transitions between specific grooming stages. SERT(+/-) mice also aborted more grooming bouts, but showed generally unaltered activity levels in the observation chamber. In contrast, BDNF(+/-) mice displayed a global reduction in grooming activity, with fewer bouts and transitions between specific grooming stages, altered grooming syntax, as well as hypolocomotion and increased turning behavior. Finally, grooming data collected by manual and automated methods (HomeCageScan) significantly correlated in our experiments, confirming the utility of automated high-throughput quantification of grooming behaviors in various genetic mouse models with increased or decreased grooming phenotypes. Taken together, these findings indicate that mouse self-grooming behavior is a reliable behavioral biomarker of genetic deficits in SERT and BDNF pathways, and can be reliably measured using automated behavior-recognition technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. OOPS : une approche orientée objet pour l’interrogation et l’analyse linguistique de l’interface prosodie/syntaxe/discours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beliao Julie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons à la problématique de l'étude de la langue parlée multi-annotée. Dans de tels corpus, un même échantillon de parole est associé à des informations inhérentes à différents niveaux linguistiques. Cela soulève des problématiques liées à la difficulté d’organisation, de stockage et d’accès à ces informations pour l'analyse conjointe de niveaux linguistiques : intonosyntaxe, discours-prosodie et syntaxe-pragmatique par exemple. La principale difficulté qui sous-tend l'exploitation d'un tel corpus multi-annoté de langue parlée est la mise en relation d’unités qui appartiennent à des niveaux linguistiques différents. Pour tous les niveaux linguistiques représentés, chaque annotation conduit en effet à une hiérarchie particulière. L’agrégation de toutes ces hiérarchies ou arborescences linguistiques est l’enjeu du formalisme proposé. Pour étudier l'interface entre différents niveaux linguistiques, nous proposons une approche orientée objet OOPS (Object-Oriented Processing of Speech permettant de représenter une large variété d’annotations au sein d’une architecture globale. Une telle structure ne peut en effet pas être réalisée entièrement à partir de la seule transcription annotée, qui est au mieux exploitable par un humain. Elle nécessite au contraire une mise en relation du signal et des autres support d’annotation avec cette transcription pour l'étude conjointe d’unités linguistiques appartenant à des niveaux différents. La particularité de l’aproche que nous proposons est qu'elle repose entièrement sur un formalisme modulaire, ou objet. Une unité linguistique sera vue comme un objet (au sens informatique du terme de la hiérarchie dépendant du niveau linguistique auquel elle appartient. Ces différentes hiérarchies sont reliées par les mots de la transcription, qui leurs sont communs. Ainsi, il devient possible de faire des requ

  15. Automata learning algorithms and processes for providing more complete systems requirements specification by scenario generation, CSP-based syntax-oriented model construction, and R2D2C system requirements transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Margaria, Tiziana (Inventor); Rash, James L. (Inventor); Rouff, Christopher A. (Inventor); Steffen, Bernard (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, automata learning algorithms and techniques are implemented to generate a more complete set of scenarios for requirements based programming. More specifically, a CSP-based, syntax-oriented model construction, which requires the support of a theorem prover, is complemented by model extrapolation, via automata learning. This may support the systematic completion of the requirements, the nature of the requirement being partial, which provides focus on the most prominent scenarios. This may generalize requirement skeletons by extrapolation and may indicate by way of automatically generated traces where the requirement specification is too loose and additional information is required.

  16. Syntaxe de l'adverbe de phrase et structure prédicative de la proposition allemande : Eléments pour une description fonctionnelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modicom, Pierre-Yves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The syntax of higher-order adverbials (modal and argumentative adverbials, among others raises several challenges for the topological model of German sentence structure when it comes to its semantic and/or information structural interpretation. It is often assumed that, when used in post-verbal position, in the so-called middle field of the sentence, or in a subordinate clause, they mark the border between a topical or thematic field (defined as « what the proposition is about » and the comment or rheme (« what is said about the topic/theme ». More specifically, researchers such as FOURQUET and ZEMB have given a predicational reading of this theme-rheme opposition; the placement of higher-order adverbials and/or sentence negation is supposed to be the index of the border between the main predicate (corresponding to the « right middle field » and its domain of validity (« left middle field ». Yet, on the basis of authentic data, it appears that the crucial requirement for this claim, namely that there is one and only one slot for such « phematic » adverbials in each proposition, does not fit with reality. More specifically, higher-order adverbials can be realized inside the allegedly thematic part of the middle field. The article proposes to use a framework derived from DIK's Functional Grammar to solve this problem. According to this approach, the proposition is generated through a succession of predications corresponding to a precise number of representational levels. I argue that constituent order in German exhibits some regularities corresponding to this view. Once this finite series of predications is taken for granted, ZEMB's model can be reformulated in such a way that there is a slot for higher-order adverbials at each predicational level. This claim matches the semantic intuitions of both FOURQUET and ZEMB, and the data observed in corpora. Finally, I propose that higher-order adverbials be treated as commending both the domain

  17. The count-mass distinction in typically developing and grammatically specifically language impaired children: new evidence on the role of syntax and semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froud, Karen; van der Lely, Heather K J

    2008-01-01

    By the age of three, typically developing children can draw conceptual distinctions between "kinds of individual" and "kinds of stuff" on the basis of syntactic structures. They differ from adults only in the extent to which syntactic knowledge can be over-ridden by semantic properties of the referent. However, the relative roles of syntax and semantics in determining the nature of the count-mass distinction in language acquisition are still not well-understood. This paper contributes to this debate by studying novel noun acquisition in a subgroup of children, aged 8-15 years, with specific language impairment, whose core deficits are limited to within the grammatical system (G-SLI), We conducted two experiments: a production task and a word extension task. Such children might be expected to rely to a greater extent than their age-matched peers on semantic properties of referents in order to assign noun interpretations, since by hypothesis they have greater difficulty in accessing and utilizing syntactic category distinctions than typically developing children. In the production task, the Children with G-SLI demonstrated rigid over-application of a pluralization rule which masked even basic knowledge of semantic information about individuated objects versus non-individuated substances. Age-matched control children only performed in this way when all syntactic and conceptual/perceptual cues were neutralized. In the word extension task, which required a non-verbal response, the Children with G-SLI showed evidence of only very limited abilities to use syntactic or semantic information for word-learning. Thus, developmental deficits in the grammatical system can be seen to impact on lexical acquisition as well as syntactic development. As a result of this activity, the reader will be able to: (1) describe how syntactic (grammatical) impairment affects the ability to use syntactic cues for lexical acquisition, resulting in difficulties representing the structure of even

  18. On the Nature of Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alona Soschen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency in science to proceed from descriptive methods towards an adequate explanatory theory and then move beyond its conclusions. Our purpose is to discover the concepts of computational efficiency in natural language that exclude redundancy, and to investigate how these relate to more general principles. By developing the idea that linguistic structures possess the features of other biological systems this article focuses on the third factor that enters into the growth of language in the individual. It is suggested that the core principles of grammar can be observed in nature itself. The Faculty of Language is an efficient mechanism designed for the continuation of movement in compliance with optimization requirements. To illustrate that, a functional explanation of syntactic Merge is offered in this work, and an attempt is made to identify some criteria that single out this particular computational system as species-specific.

  19. Viable Syntax: Rethinking Minimalist Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Safir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hauser et al. (2002 suggest that the human language faculty emerged as a genetic innovation in the form of what is called here a ‘keystone factor’—a single, simple, formal mental capability that, interacting with the pre-existing faculties of hominid ancestors, caused a cascade of effects resulting in the language faculty in modern humans. They take Merge to be the keystone factor, but instead it is posited here that Merge is the pre-existing mechanism of thought made viable by a principle that permits relations interpretable at the interfaces to be mapped onto c-command. The simplified minimalist architecture proposed here respects the keystone factor as closely as possible, but is justified on the basis of linguistic analyses it makes available, including a relativized intervention theory applicable across Case, scope, agreement, selection and linearization, a derivation of the A/A’-distinction from Case theory, and predictions such as why in situ wh-interpretation is island-insensitive, but susceptible to intervention effects.

  20. 159 THEORETICAL SYNTAX IN SECOND LANGUAGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three broad properties of language profiency have subsequently been considered for the ... result from the use of general cognitive strategies which are part of the .... language structure or grammar instruction, learner production, interaction and strategies. Chaudron suggests that much more research needs to be done to ...

  1. RDFa in XHTML: Syntax and Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Adida (Ben); S. Pemberton (Steven); not CWI et al

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractThe current Web is primarily made up of an enormous number of documents that have been created using HTML. These documents contain significant amounts of structured data, which is largely unavailable to tools and applications. When publishers can express this data more completely, and

  2. The Phonology-Syntax interface in Avikam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lavri 's navel. The rule is straightforward. It applies if a High tone or a sequence of High tones follows a lexical phrase. In an associative or possessive construction, the first. High tones become Low, depending on the prosodic structure of the word. Now, we are in a better position to choose to postulate a floating Low tone, ...

  3. Syntax and morphology in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, H; Almazan, M

    1998-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neuro-developmental disorder which is characterized by an unusual fractionation of language abilities and other cognitive functions. We have investigated four cases of English-speaking subjects with WS, and we show that despite their low IQs the WS children's performance on syntactic tasks and on regular inflection is not impaired. Irregular inflection, however, is affected causing many errors. We also report results from studies investigating the same linguistic phenomena in children with specific language impairment. These children exhibit a different pattern of impairment, with relatively poor performance on syntactic tasks and regular inflection. We suggest a linguistic characterization of the morphosyntax in WS according to which WS subjects are impaired in accessing (particular kinds of) information from lexical entries, with their computational system for language appearing to be intact. We interpret the selective impairments found in WS and SLI as supporting the theoretical distinction between a computational system and an associative memory system for language.

  4. When linearity prevails over hierarchy in syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer Gold, Jana; Arsenijević, Boban; Batinić, Mia; Becker, Michael; Čordalija, Nermina; Kresić, Marijana; Leko, Nedžad; Marušič, Franc Lanko; Milićev, Tanja; Milićević, Nataša; Mitić, Ivana; Peti-Stantić, Anita; Stanković, Branimir; Šuligoj, Tina; Tušek, Jelena; Nevins, Andrew

    2018-01-16

    Hierarchical structure has been cherished as a grammatical universal. We use experimental methods to show where linear order is also a relevant syntactic relation. An identical methodology and design were used across six research sites on South Slavic languages. Experimental results show that in certain configurations, grammatical production can in fact favor linear order over hierarchical structure. However, these findings are limited to coordinate structures and distinct from the kind of production errors found with comparable configurations such as "attraction" errors. The results demonstrate that agreement morphology may be computed in a series of steps, one of which is partly independent from syntactic hierarchy. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Sensitivity to syntax in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikker, Suzanne; Rabagliati, Hugh; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2009-03-01

    One of the most intriguing findings on language comprehension is that violations of syntactic predictions can affect event-related potentials as early as 120 ms, in the same time-window as early sensory processing. This effect, the so-called early left-anterior negativity (ELAN), has been argued to reflect word category access and initial syntactic structure building (Friederici, 2002). In two experiments, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate whether (a) rapid word category identification relies on overt category-marking closed-class morphemes and (b) whether violations of word category predictions affect modality-specific sensory responses. Participants read sentences containing violations of word category predictions. Unexpected items varied in whether or not their word category was marked by an overt function morpheme. In Experiment 1, the amplitude of the visual evoked M100 component was increased for unexpected items, but only when word category was overtly marked by a function morpheme. Dipole modeling localized the generator of this effect to the occipital cortex. Experiment 2 replicated the main results of Experiment 1 and eliminated two non-morphology-related explanations of the M100 contrast we observed between targets containing overt category-marking and targets that lacked such morphology. Our results show that during reading, syntactically relevant cues in the input can affect activity in occipital regions at around 125 ms, a finding that may shed new light on the remarkable rapidity of language processing.

  6. Dynamic Typing: Syntax and Proof Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic typing, coercions, dynamically typed lambda-calculus, type inference coherence, completions, safety, minimality......Dynamic typing, coercions, dynamically typed lambda-calculus, type inference coherence, completions, safety, minimality...

  7. The Minimalist Syntax of Control in Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetangianni, Konstantia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates Control phenomena in three distinct domains of the grammar of Modem Greek (subjunctive complements, "V-ondas" adjuncts and ke-complements) and proposes a unifying syntactic account of Control by appealing to the tense properties of these domains. I argue that Control in Greek is best analyzed as an instance of…

  8. How Can Syntax Support Number Word Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien; Gelman, Rochel

    2012-01-01

    We expand upon a previous proposal by Bloom and Wynn (1997) that young children learn about the meaning of number words by tracking their occurrence in particular syntactic environments, in combination with the discourse context in which they are used. An analysis of the Childes database (MacWhinney, 2000) reveals that the environments studied by…

  9. Grammar and Syntax: The Student's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, Ed

    1987-01-01

    Argues that problems in teaching grammar stem from failure to help students develop, as opposed to memorize, grammatical concepts. Recommends discussion of style and vocabulary, student stylistic analysis of their own writing, and deciphering syntactic use, not just definition, of parts of speech. Suggests that such training should begin in…

  10. Symbolic logic syntax, semantics, and proof

    CERN Document Server

    Agler, David

    2012-01-01

    Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into English and from English into formal language; how to use truth trees and truth tables to test propositions for logical properties; and how to construct and strategically use derivation rules in proofs.

  11. Syntax and semantics of the dative case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author presents the survey of syntactic-semantic, and, in relevant instances, also pragmatic-semantic characteristics of the dative case in the contemporary standard Serbian language. On the one hand, the existing, extensive descriptions of syntactic-semantic behavior of the dative case in large grammar books (cf. Daničić 1858; Stevanović 1979 taking into account the time when they were written - by their methodological approach and manner of presentation belong to the history of grammatical description; and, by the corpus they described, they belong to the history of the standard Serbian language. On the other hand, unlike other cases in the Serbian language, the dative case has not been monographically described so far, but it has been extensively discussed only in the confrontative research of the Russian and the Serbian language (cf. Milinković 1988. Taking into account all these facts, this paper is the author's attempt to point out to the well known characteristics of the dative case, along with some new details, presented in a different manner than before, but systematically comprehensively, clearly and, at the same time, without the extensive description of details irrelevant for the whole system. The author distinguishes eleven basic types of the dative case in the contemporary standard Serbian language. These are: the subject dative, the predicative dative, the object directive dative (that is the dative as the indirect object [the second object] and the explicative dative as the complement and at the same time, as a broadly understood, object-goal [and the single object at the same time], the possesive dative, the spatial directive dative, the instrumental dative, the causative dative, the criterion dative, the concessive dative, the ethic dative, and the dative in the speech acts of oaths and praises.

  12. The grammar and syntax of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, A.

    1990-01-01

    Quantum theory is expressed in a language using the vocabulary of classical physics. However, new meanings are attached to various words, and phrases which make sense in a classical situation become utterly meaningless in a quantum context. (author)

  13. 78 FR 63522 - Syntax Analytics, LLC and Syntax ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Fund will be marketed as an ``actively-managed exchange-traded fund.'' In any advertising material... concerns about undue influence, excessive layering of fees and overly complex structures. 11. Applicants submit that certain of their proposed conditions address concerns about potential for undue influence. To...

  14. Exercises in Free Syntax. Syntax Definition, Parsing, and Assimilation of Language Conglomerates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, M.

    2008-01-01

    In modern software development the use of multiple software languages to constitute a single application is ubiquitous. Despite the omnipresent use of combinations of languages, the principles and techniques for using languages together are ad-hoc, unfriendly to programmers, and result in a poor

  15. Geographical Difference of the Interaction of Sex With Treatment Strategy in Patients With Multivessel Disease and Left Main Disease: A Meta-Analysis From SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery), PRECOMBAT (Bypass Surgery Versus Angioplasty Using Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in Patients With Left Main Coronary Artery Disease), and BEST (Bypass Surgery and Everolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation in the Treatment of Patients With Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease) Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomi, Yohei; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Cavalcante, Rafael; Ahn, Jung-Min; Lee, Cheol Whan; van Klaveren, David; de Winter, Robbert J; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Farooq, Vasim; Morice, Marie-Claude; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Park, Seung-Jung; Serruys, Patrick W

    2017-05-01

    The impact of sex on clinical outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft for patients with multivessel coronary disease and unprotected left main disease could be dissimilar between Western and Asian populations. To assess clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass graft in women and men with multivessel coronary disease and unprotected left main disease, a pooled analysis (n=3280) was performed using the patient-level data from 3 large randomized trials: SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery), PRECOMBAT (Bypass Surgery Versus Angioplasty Using Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in Patients With Left Main Coronary Artery Disease), and BEST (Bypass Surgery and Everolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation in the Treatment of Patients with Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease) trials. The primary end point was all-cause death. Of 3280 patients, 794 patients (24.2%) were women. The median follow-up period was 1806 days (1611-1837 days). In women, a high heterogeneity of the treatment effect among the 3 trials was found for all-cause death ( I 2 >50%), whereas in men, it was consistent across the 3 trials. In the Western trial (SYNTAX), female sex favored coronary artery bypass graft compared with percutaneous coronary intervention (hazard ratio (percutaneous coronary intervention) 2.213; 95% confidence interval, 1.242-3.943; P =0.007), whereas in the Asian women (PRECOMBAT and BEST), the treatment effect was neutral between both strategies. Sex interaction with treatment strategy was evident in the Western trial ( P interaction =0.019) but not in the Asian trials (PRECOMBAT P interaction =0.469 and BEST P interaction =0.472; I 2 =58%). The present meta-analysis suggested the presence of the heterogeneous sex-treatment interaction across Asian and Western trials. Considering the ongoing globalization of our medical practice, the heterogeneity of the sex-treatment interaction needs to be

  16. Anna Dziemianko. User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Dziemianko questions the benefits of often oversophisticated and heavy code systems, especially for language users with limited dictionary skills. Statistical research has shown how cryptic the syntac- tic patterns presented by dictionaries can appear for the common user. The lack of standardisation between dictionaries is ...

  17. Designing Syntax Embeddings and Assimilations for Language Libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, M.; Visser, E.

    2009-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: Models in Software Engineering, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5002, 2008; doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69073-3_5 Language libraries extend regular libraries with domain-specific notation. More precisely, a language library is a combination of a domain-specific language

  18. At the interface of syntax and prosody: Differentiating left dislocated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fourth approach views the pronominal element as a “last resort” syntactic strategy—the pronominal element is a pronominal clitic, which provides agreement features for the subject (Naudé 1990, 1993, 1994, 1999, 2002). The pronominal element is obligatory when the nominal predicate is a referring noun phrase—the ...

  19. Diachronic syntax and language change: The case of Qumran Hebrew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to outline a constrained theory of language change and diffusion. Earlier views on syntactic change will be presented and evaluated. It will be shown that the shortcomings in conceptualisation and method which have given rise to misconceptions of syntactic change lie in the failure to utilise a ...

  20. The phonetic rhythm/syntax headedness connection: Evidence from Tagalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sonya; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet

    2005-04-01

    Ramus, Nespor, and Mehler [Cognition (1999)] show that the rhythm of a language (broadly: stress- versus syllable- versus mora-timing) results from the proportion of vocalic material in an utterance (%V) and the standard deviation of consonantal intervals (delta-C). Based on 14 languages, Shukla, Nespor, and Mehler [submitted] further argue that rhythm is correlated with syntactic headedness: low %V is correlated with head-first languages (e.g., English); high %V is correlated with head-final languages (e.g., Japanese). Together, these proposals have important implications for language acquisition: infants can discriminate across rhythm classes [Nazzi, Bertoncini, and Mehler, J. Exp. Psych: Human Perception and Performance (1998)]. If rhythm, as defined by %V and delta-C, can predict headedness, then infants can potentially use rhythm information to bootstrap into their languages syntactic structure. This paper reports on a study analyzing rhythm in a language not yet considered: Tagalog. Results support the Shukla et al. proposal in an interesting way: based on its %V and delta-C, Tagalog falls between head-first and head-last languages, slighty closer to the head-first group. This placement correlates well with the fact that, although Tagalog is said to be primarily head-first syntactically, head-last phrases are permitted and common in the language.

  1. The Effect of Syntax on Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the…

  2. Does syntax help discourse segmentation? Not so much

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braud, Chloé Elodie; Lacroix, Ophélie; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Discourse segmentation is the first step in building discourse parsers. Most work on discourse segmentation does not scale to real-world discourse parsing across languages, for two reasons: (i) models rely on constituent trees, and (ii) experiments have relied on gold standard identification...

  3. The Syntax of the Setswana Noun Phrase | Letsholo | Marang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the structure of the Noun Phrase in Setswana, and specifically addresses the following questions: a) In what ways can the Setswana noun be modified? b) How are constituents within the Noun Phrase (NP) ordered relative to the head noun? c) What is the role of the morphemes that surface after the ...

  4. Specific language impairment as a syntax-phonology (PF) interface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    here" but not Ø staan hier en eet haar pap "stands here and eats her porridge" where the whole. DP or possibly a ... assessing the production of tense, for example, *het eet het 'have eat have' in response to Hierdie beer kan elke ..... (i) past participles as a whole – *hulle altwee het op 'n blou bed (geslaap)"both of them.

  5. Formas de Funcionalismo na Sintaxe Functionalism in Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A KATO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura mostrar que o termo "funcionalismo", frequentemente suposto como uma abordagem única ou uniforme na lingüística, precisa ser compreendida em suas diversas perspectivas. Inicio o trabalho apresentando o contraste conceitual semelhante às de Língua-I e Língua-E, em Chomsky (1986. Tal como na primeira concepção, a língua, na visão funcionalista, pode ser tomada como um modelo abstrato do mecanismo interno da mente responsável pela produção e percepção da língua ou , como na segunda, pode ser entendida como a descrição dos usos externos da língua. Também paralelamente aos formalistas, há funcionalistas que procuram a variação translingüística possível(os universais do uso da língua e funcionalistas que procuram determinar as causas da variação intra-lingüística. Também procuro mostrar que os funcionalistas podem diferir na extensão do uso de variáveis sociais na explicação da forma lingüística.This article shows that the term "functionalism", very often understood as a single or uniform approach in linguistics, has to be understood in its different perspectives. I start by presenting an opposing conception similar to the I-language vs E-language in Chomsky (1986. As in the latter conception , language can be understood as an abstract model of a mind internal mechanism responsible for language production and perception or, as in the former one, it can be the description of the external use of language. Also like with formalists , there are functionalists who look for cross-linguistic variation (and universals of language use and functionalists who look for language internal variation. It is also shown that functionalists can differ in the extent to which social variables are considered in the explanation of linguistic form.

  6. The Morphology and Syntax of Ergativity: A Typological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rill, Justin

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to answer three loosely-related questions regarding ergativity. First, what is the nature of the morphological phenomena known as ERG=GEN and ERG=POSS? After providing a thorough description with ample data from a wide range of sources, a typological survey of 40 ergative languages concludes that together, they are a fairly…

  7. Parameters of Variation in the Syntax of Homophones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Steriopolo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that homophonous linguistic objects differ in their syntactic structures. A case study of Russian homophonous suffixes shows that homophonous objects belong to two distinct syntactic types: heads vs. modifiers. The question remains if it is also true cross-linguistically.

  8. Making syntax of sense: number agreement in sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Kathleen M; Cutting, J Cooper; Bock, Kathryn

    2005-07-01

    Grammatical agreement flags the parts of sentences that belong together regardless of whether the parts appear together. In English, the major agreement controller is the sentence subject, the major agreement targets are verbs and pronouns, and the major agreement category is number. The authors expand an account of number agreement whose tenets are that pronouns acquire number lexically, whereas verbs acquire it syntactically but with similar contributions from number meaning and from the number morphology of agreement controllers. These tenets were instantiated in a model using existing verb agreement data. The model was then fit to a new, more extensive set of verb data and tested with a parallel set of pronoun data. The theory was supported by the model's outcomes. The results have implications for the integration of words and structures, for the workings of agreement categories, and for the nature of the transition from thought to language.

  9. Complex Word-Formation and the Morphology-Syntax Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Padrosa Trias, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 14-07-2011 L'objectiu d’aquesta tesi és estudiar un tipus específic de formació de paraules complexes, és a dir, els compostos, i la seva relació amb la interfície morfologia-sintaxi, amb l’objectiu final d’entendre millor el fenomen. S’analitzen diferents aspectes de la composició. A continuació es resumeixen les preguntes principals que s’adrecen a cada capítol. En el primer capítol es presenten arguments per a la plausibilitat d’una teoria de la gramàtica en què l...

  10. A Term-Graph Syntax for Algebras over Multisets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadducci, Fabio

    Earlier papers argued that term graphs play for the specification of relation-based algebras the same role that standard terms play for total algebras. The present contribution enforces the claim by showing that term graphs are a sound and complete representation for multiset algebras, i.e., algebras whose operators are interpreted over multisets.

  11. Studies in the syntax of Targum Jonathan to Samuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuty, Renaud Jean

    2008-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation consists of a linguistic study of the Aramaic of Targum Jonathan. Targum Jonathan (and its twin Targum Onqelos) is a paraphrastic translation of the Hebrew Bible into Aramaic. Although it is usually recognized that it reached its final shape in Babylonia in the early

  12. The Logical Syntax of Number Words: Theory, Acquisition and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Recent work on the acquisition of number words has emphasized the importance of integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives [Musolino, J. (2004). The semantics and acquisition of number words: Integrating linguistic and developmental perspectives. "Cognition 93", 1-41; Papafragou, A., Musolino, J. (2003). Scalar implicatures: Scalar…

  13. Growth of Expressive Syntax in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komesidou, Rouzana; Brady, Nancy C.; Fleming, Kandace; Esplund, Amy; Warren, Steven F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored syntactic growth in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) over a 5-year period, and variability in growth in relation to autism symptoms, nonverbal cognition, maternal responsivity, and gender. Method: Language samples at 4 time points from 39 children with FXS, 31 boys and 8 girls, were analyzed using the Index of…

  14. Scope shift with numeral indefinites - syntax or processing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, T.

    2006-01-01

    To appear in L. Tasmowski & S Vogeleer (eds), Indefiniteness and Plurality, Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today Series, Benjamins. It has been argued extensively that numeral indefinite plurals cannot scope out (Ruys (1992), Beghelli and Stowell (1997), Kamp and Reyle (1993) Szabolcsi (1997)).

  15. At the interface of syntax and prosody: Differentiating left dislocated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Stellenbosch Papers in .... important system is known as the Tiberian Masoretic system and is the product of the work of the Ben Asher family ... punctuation to give a division of the verse into syntactic units (Ofer 2016: 192). Khan (2013: ...

  16. Generation of abstract programming interfaces from syntax definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. de Jong (Hayco); P.A. Olivier (Pieter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractTree Manipulation; Using the ATerm-Library to represent tree-like data structures has become a popular activity, especially amongst developers of e.g. lexical scanners, parsers, rewrite engines and model checkers. Practical experience with the ATerm-Library in the ASF+SDF

  17. Creating New Features – Case: ARMA3 SQF Syntax Scripting

    OpenAIRE

    Alamäki, Arto

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the game ARMA 3 is lacking in features in some areas and to battle this, community members have created scripts to solve these problems. One of these problems is the lack of Active Protection System on tanks, which can be found in their real life counterparts. The script which tried to improve this situation, was the Bakerman Armour Improvement System. However, even this script is lacking in some basic features. This thesis seeks to extend the Bakerman Armour Improvement System scr...

  18. Categorial Minimalist Grammar: From Generative Syntax To Logical Form

    OpenAIRE

    Amblard, Maxime; Lecomte, Alain; Retoré, Christian

    2010-01-01

    International audience; We first recall some basic notions on minimalist grammars and on categorial grammars. Next we shortly introduce partially commutative linear logic, and our representation of minimalist grammars within this categorial system, the so-called categorial minimalist grammars. Thereafter we briefly present λμ-DRT (Discourse Representation Theory) an extension of λ-DRT (compositional DRT) in the framework of λμ calculus: it avoids type raising and derives different readings fr...

  19. Transitivity, Space, and Hand: The Spatial Grounding of Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Timothy W; Almor, Amit

    2017-05-01

    Previous research has linked the concept of number and other ordinal series to space via a spatially oriented mental number line. In addition, it has been shown that in visual scene recognition and production, speakers of a language with a left-to-right orthography respond faster to and tend to draw images in which the agent of an action is located to the left of the patient. In this study, we aim to bridge these two lines of research by employing a novel method that measures the spatial bias produced by transitive sentences that use a wide variety of abstract and concrete verbs. Across four experiments, participants read sentences and then responded to probe words appearing on either the left or right sides of the screen. Probe words consisted of agents, patients, other words in the sentence, or newly encountered words. We found consistent lateral biases to responding to agents and patients, which appears to be independent of order of mention in the sentence but which does reflect a correspondence between position in the sentence and role in the causal sequence of the action. Our results also show that this spatial bias is driven by the use of the hands in two different ways: The left hand shows a greater sensitivity to the spatial effect than the right hand, and vocal responses produce no spatial effect. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Wide-coverage relation extraction from MEDLINE using deep syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhung T H; Miwa, Makoto; Tsuruoka, Yoshimasa; Chikayama, Takashi; Tojo, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    Relation extraction is a fundamental technology in biomedical text mining. Most of the previous studies on relation extraction from biomedical literature have focused on specific or predefined types of relations, which inherently limits the types of the extracted relations. With the aim of fully leveraging the knowledge described in the literature, we address much broader types of semantic relations using a single extraction framework. Our system, which we name PASMED, extracts diverse types of binary relations from biomedical literature using deep syntactic patterns. Our experimental results demonstrate that it achieves a level of recall considerably higher than the state of the art, while maintaining reasonable precision. We have then applied PASMED to the whole MEDLINE corpus and extracted more than 137 million semantic relations. The extracted relations provide a quantitative understanding of what kinds of semantic relations are actually described in MEDLINE and can be ultimately extracted by (possibly type-specific) relation extraction systems. PASMED extracts a large number of relations that have previously been missed by existing text mining systems. The entire collection of the relations extracted from MEDLINE is publicly available in machine-readable form, so that it can serve as a potential knowledge base for high-level text-mining applications.

  1. Locative inversion and agreement syntax in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanito Ornelas de Avelar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the Minimalist Program framework (CHOMSKY 2000, 2001, this paper suggests that, in Brazilian Portuguese, sentences with a locative prepositional phrase in preverbal position can be characterized as instances of locative inversion in which prepositional constituents occupy the grammatical subject position. It will be proposed that particularities involving the patterns of locative inversion in Brazilian Portuguese derive from properties of the subject-verb agreement in this language.

  2. Syntax in Spanish-speaking children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Garayzábal, Elena; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The syntactic skills of Spanish-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS) were assessed in different areas (phrase structure, recursion, and bound anaphora). Children were compared to typically-developing peers matched either in chronological age (CA-TD) or in verbal age (VA-TD). In all tasks children with WS performed significantly worse than CA-TD children, but similarly to VA-TD children. However, significant differences were observed in specific domains, particularly regarding sentences with cross-serial dependencies. At the same time, children with WS were less sensitive to syntactic constraints and exhibited a poorer knowledge of some functional words (specifically, of nonreflexive pronouns). A processing bottleneck or a computational constraint may account for this outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. UML 2.0 Pocket Reference UML Syntax and Usage

    CERN Document Server

    Pilone, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Globe-trotting travelers have long resorted to handy, pocket-size dictionaries as an aid to communicating across the language barrier. Dan Pilone's UML 2.0 Pocket Reference is just such an aid for on-the-go developers who need to converse in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Use this book to decipher the many UML diagrams you'll encounter on the path to delivering a modern software system. Updated to cover the very latest in UML, you'll find coverage of the following UML 2.0 diagram types: Class diagramsComponent diagrams*Sequence diagrams*Communication diagrams*Timing diagrams*Interactio

  4. The Enriched Effect Calculus: Syntax and Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers; Simpson, Alex; Egger, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the enriched effect calculus, which extends established type theories for computational effects with primitives from linear logic. The new calculus provides a formalism for expressing linear aspects of computational effects; e.g. the linear usage of imperative features...

  5. Anna Dziemianko. User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    tionaries of English. 2006, XII + 229 pp. ISBN-13: 978-3-484-39130-7. ISBN-. 10: 3-484-39130-8. Lexicographica. Series Maior 130. Tübingen: Max. Niemeyer. ... mented monograph provides extensive research on the way modern, currently ... bilingual English dictionaries have sought a complete picture of the syntactic.

  6. ON SYNTAX OF RUMELIAN DIALECTS-I (THE EXAMPLE OF MACEDONIAN AND KOSOVAN TURK DIALECTS RUMELİ AĞIZLARININ SÖZ DİZİMİ ÜZERİNE-I (MAKEDONYA VE KOSOVA TÜRK AĞIZLARI ÖRNEĞİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet GÜNŞEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since mid-14th Century in Balkans Turkish clans and tribes have established an area of relatively different new dialects with the influence of the local minority languages together with protecting their own Anatolian dialects characteristics.The Rumelian dialects which actually have been divided into two main branches have been in language interaction with various languages, especially with Slavic origins, which are the member of Indo-European language family on account of the historical, geographical and socio-cultural circumstances in more than one hundred and fifty years. As a result of this reciprocal language influence, while some language elements were transfered from Turkish to the other languages, there has been some influences regarding phonetics, word presence, grammatical structures and even syntax from these languages to Turkish as well.In this study, dealing with the “word order” of Macedonian and Kosovan Turkish dialects which constitude the western branch of Rumelian dialects, we tried to bring up that Rumelian dialects which happened to be minority languages in this geographical area have influenced enormously word orders of the foreign languages and therefore various sentence types which were not formerly present in Turkish language were established. 14. yüzyıl ortalarından itibaren Balkanlarda değişik Türk boy ve oymaklarınca, bölgenin yerlisi azınlık dillerinin de etkisiyle, Anadolu ağızlarından farklı ve yeni bir ağızlar bölgesi oluşturulmuştur. Batı ve Doğu Rumeli ağızları olarak iki kola ayrılan Rumeli ağızları; tarihî, coğrafî ve sosyo-kültürel şartları dolayısıyla altı yüz yılı aşkın bir sürede aynı coğrafyadaki, başta Slav kökenliler olmak üzere, Hint-Avrupa dil ailesine mensup birçok dille etkileşimde bulunmuştur. Karşılıklı gerçekleşen bu dil etkileşimi sonucu, Türkçeden diğer Balkan dillerine birtakım dil unsurları geçerken, bu dillerden de T

  7. ПОЕТИЧНИЙ СИНТАКСИС ТВОРІВ СИДОРА ВОРОБКЕВИЧА РАННЬОГО ПЕРІОДУ ТВОРЧОСТІ (1863-1867 / POETIC SYNTAX OF EARLY S.VOROBKEVYCH’S WORKS (1863-1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна НИКИФОРУК

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Никифорук Татьяна. Поэтический синтаксис произведений Сидора Воробкевича раннего периода творчества (1863-1864. В статье указано, что у стихах С. Воробкевича раннего периода творчества (1863- 1864 лидируют такие поэтические фигуры: анафора, епизевксис, амплификация, антитеза (ЧК – 0.01 каждой, риторические вопросы, эпифоры, градации, (ЧК- 0.02 каждой, рефрены, полисиндетоны – 0.003 каждой, риторические возгласы, инверсии, кондубликации – 0.005 каждой, полиптоты и традукции, асиндетон, силепсис – 0.006 каждой, реже используют эллипс (ЧК- 0.007 и др. Ключевые слова: стилистические фигуры, параллелизм, анафора, эпифора, сымплока, рефрен, эпанастрофа, кондубликация, полиптота, асиндетон, полисиндетон, инверсия, антитеза, частотный коэффициент. Nykyforuk Tetyana. Poetic Syntax of Early S. Vorobkevych’s Works (1863-1867. Having examined poetic syntax as a component of poetics of S. Vorobkevych’s verses in this creative period (1863-1867 on the basis of determining the frequency coefficient (FC of different kinds of syntactic or stylistic figures. And also allow us to outline S. Vorobkevych’s figure in an oll-Ukrainian literary context more clearly and complement our idea of poetic peculiarities of this period. Due to frequency coefficient (percentage of a certain poetic tlement in correlation to the overall numer of lines usage we can make a comporative analysis and objective

  8. Integrating Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse DARPA Natural Language Understanding Program. Volume 2. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-14

    4,8 (14) 1 nr 4 sac can be operated in an alarm condition.____________ 20.0.0 Tech asist req. 1 2 (2) 1 20.1.1 During gth motor start, air pressure...rather than sa. In general, sa attachment of subcategorized-for pn’s is not regarded as an error, unless the verb + pn form a virtual idiom. The variety of

  9. The Syntax and Semantics of Purepecha Noun Phrases and the Mass/Count Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Rojas Maldonado, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Purepecha (isolate, central Western Mexico) nouns can be assigned to one of three classes depending on their inherent number characteristics: count nouns denote atomic units, mass nouns denote plural entities and count-mass nouns (Doetjes 1997) denote sets that contain pluralities and atomic units as well. This tri-partite distinction guides the…

  10. The syntax of appositive relativization : On specifying coordination, false free relatives, and promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Appositive relative clauses differ in some essential respects from restrictive relative clauses. I argue that appositive relatives and appositions can be put together as a third class of coordination denoting specification. Thus, an appositive relative is a specifying conjunct to the visible

  11. Studying cities to learn about minds: some possible implications of space syntax for spatial cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Hillier, B.

    2009-01-01

    What can we learn of the human mind by examining its products? The city is a case in point. Since the beginning of cities human ideas about them have been dominated by geometric ideas, and the real history of cities has always oscillated between the geometric and the ‘organic’. Set in the context of the suggestion from cognitive neuroscience that we impose more geometric order on the world than it actually possesses, and intriguing question arises: what is the role of the geometric intuition ...

  12. Exploring bicycle route choice behavior with space syntax analysis : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-31

    Cycling provides an environmentally friendly alternative mode of transportation. It improves : urban mobility, livability, and public health, and it also helps in reducing traffic congestion and : emissions. Cycling is gaining popularity both as a re...

  13. the interaction of classifiers and syntax in south african sign language

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LANGUAGE. Introduction. Debra Aarons, University of Stell en bosch, South Africa. Ruth Morgan, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. In this paper 1 we examine two aspects of ... the use of classifier predicates in South Afiican Sign Language (henceforth SASL). .... In this case, DOG is the topic (and the subject).

  14. Preventing Injection Attacks with Syntax Embeddings : A Host and Guest Language Independent Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravenboer, M.; Dolstra, E.; Visser, E.

    2007-01-01

    Software written in one language often needs to construct sentences in another language, such as SQL queries, XML output, or shell command invocations. This is almost always done using unhygienic string manipulation, the concatenation of constants and client-supplied strings. A client can then

  15. Impairment of Syntax and Lexical Semantics in a Patient with Bilateral Paramedian Thalamic Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Lieve; Wilssens, Ineke; Engelborghs, Sebastian; De Deyn, Peter P.; Marien, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Bilateral vascular thalamic lesions are rare. Although a variety of neurobehavioral manifestations have been described, the literature is less documented with regard to accompanying linguistic disturbances. This article presents an in-depth neurolinguistic analysis of the language symptoms of a patient who incurred bilateral paramedian ischemic…

  16. Can the late bird catch the worm? : ultimate attainment in L2 syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, Sonja Joke van

    2005-01-01

    According to the Critical Period Hypothesis for second language acquisition a native-like level of proficiency should not be attainable after puberty due to maturational changes in the brain that make people less sensitive to language input. In this dissertation this hypothesis is tested and related

  17. Measuring the Changes in Aggregate Cycling Patterns between 2003 and 2012 from a Space Syntax Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Law

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been a world-wide surge of interest in cycling over the last 10 years of which London has seen a continuous growth in cyclists and investment in infrastructure that has resulted in the introduction of the Barclays Cycle Superhighway and Barclays Cycling Hiring Scheme. Despite the investment in cycling infrastructure, there has been little understanding of cycling activity patterns in general and the effect of spatial configuration on cycling route choices. This research aims at measuring the impact of cycling infrastructure and spatial configuration on aggregate cyclist movement over two time periods. To do so, this paper presents a spatial-based cyclist movement statistical model that regress cyclist movement flows with measure of spatial configuration, safety and infrastructure and urban character attributes. Using Elephant and Castle, a Central London location, as a case study, the authors analyze cycling movement data sets from 2003 and 2012 to compare the change in cycling behaviour and the impact that the Cycling Superhighway 07, introduced in 2011, has had on cycling patterns. Findings confirm the growth of cycling in London with a 1000% increase in cyclists along some routes in comparison to a 10% increase in population at the same time. More importantly, results also suggest that higher cyclist movement were observed along routes with greater convenience and continuity—over and above route segregation from vehicular traffic. The relationship between spatial configuration and aggregate cyclists movement is consistent between 2003 and 2012 where spatial configuration have remained the same while changes were observed in both modal split and cycling infrastructure. This result is in line with previous research wherein aggregate higher cyclists movement are observed on major routes offering direct connections than less direct routes. From a spatial cognition perspective, this research enriches our understanding on how the external built environment as measured by the spatial configuration measure relates to aggregated cyclists movement overtime and in identifying key potential factors in influencing cyclist wayfinding. Further research is needed into validating the results and examining this relationship at an individual basis on route choice. These results help us better understand the trade off between cycling safety and cycling legibility which could help inform cycling route design in the future.

  18. Bean Soup Translation: Flexible, Linguistically-Motivated Syntax for Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehay, Dennis Nolan

    2012-01-01

    Machine translation (MT) systems attempt to translate texts from one language into another by translating words from a "source language" and rearranging them into fluent utterances in a "target language." When the two languages organize concepts in very different ways, knowledge of their general sentence structure, or…

  19. The Syntax of the Abstract-type Measurement Construction in Mandarin Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a special sub-type of measurement construction in Mandarin Chinese, namely the [Num-measure word-de-N] construction where the N is an abstract dimension-denoting noun. Evidence is presented to show that the abstract-type [Num-measure word-de-N] should be fundamentally distinguished from the quantifying-/modifying-type [Num-measure word-de-N], in which the [Num-measure word] sequence serves to quantize/modify a semantically concrete, entity-denoting N. At the interpretive level, this paper claims that the abstracttype [Num-measure word-de-N] is semantically definite. At the syntactic level, a clausal analysis within the framework of the Predicate Inversion theory is pursued to account for the derivation of the abstract-type measurement construction. Last, it is proposed that the word order distinction between the Chinese abstracttype measurement construction, which is N-final, and its English counterpart, where the N linearly precedes [Num-measure word], can be explained in terms of a parametric variation with respect to the (non-application of N-raising after Predicate Inversion.

  20. The Syntax of the Abstract-type Measurement Construction in Mandarin Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Jing

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates a special sub-type of measurement construction in Mandarin Chinese, namely the [Num-measure word-de-N] construction where the N is an abstract dimension-denoting noun. Evidence is presented to show that the abstract-type [Num-measure word-de-N] should be fundamentally distinguished from the quantifying-/modifying-type [Num-measure word-de-N], in which the [Num-measure word] sequence serves to quantize/modify a semantically concrete, entity-denoting N. At the interpreti...

  1. Multifunctionality : The Internal and External Syntax of D- and W-Items in German and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hachem, M.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the phenonemon of multifunctionality, i.e. the ability of a linguistic element such as a word or a morpheme to acquire a number of different functions depending on the syntactic environment in which it surfaces. The author approaches multifunctionality from two

  2. Towards behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits - an implementation template targeting syntax directed compilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Sparsø, Jens; Madsen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits. Our approach aims at providing a synthesis flow which is very similar to what is found in existing synchronous design tools. We adapt the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...

  3. Syntax of the Self in Damon Galgut's In a Strange | Jacobs | English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toby Lichtig describes it as a narrative which “radiates alienation” (21); Philip Womack characterises Galgut as “a master of isolation and intensity;” while Eileen Battersby defines the theme of the novel as “loneliness and the search for love,” adding that Galgut “invariably describes psychological suffering and emotional ...

  4. Punctuation and syntax of the RNA polymerase II CTD code in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwer, Beate; Sanchez, Ana M; Shuman, Stewart

    2012-10-30

    The primary structure and phosphorylation pattern of the tandem Y(1)S(2)P(3)T(4)S(5)P(6)S(7) repeats of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) convey information about the transcription apparatus--a CTD code--to a large ensemble of CTD-binding receptor proteins. Four of the seven coding "letters" of the fission yeast CTD (Tyr1, Pro3, Ser5, Pro6) are essential in vivo, but the grammatical rules of the code are obscure. Here we show that the minimal fission yeast CTD coding unit is a decapeptide Y(1)S(2)P(3)T(4)S(5)P(6)S(7)Y(1)S(2)P(3) and the spacing between coding units is flexible; the coding unit must contain two Tyr1 residues and the spacing between consecutive tyrosines is important; Ser5-PO(4)-Pro6 comprises an essential two-letter code "word" that is read by the mRNA capping apparatus; and a threshold number of Ser5-PO(4)-Pro6 words are needed to comprise a readable "sentence" of CTD information. Bypassing the essentiality of the Ser5 and Pro6 letters by fusion of capping enzymes to the CTD helped reveal how CTD phosphorylation circuits are wired in vivo. We found that the Ser2-PO(4) mark is independent of Ser5, Pro6, Ser7, and Thr4, whereas the Ser5-PO(4) mark is independent of Ser2, Ser7, and Thr4. These results provide unique insights to the reading and writing of the CTD code.

  5. An Integrated Modeling Approach Combining Multifractal Urban Planning with a Space Syntax Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamu, Claudia; van Nes, Akkelies

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations Paris agreement of 2015 highlighted the need for urban planning to prevent and contain urban sprawl so as to reduce trip lengths through an efficient distribution of agglomerations and a well-balanced urban pattern distribution, all while considering travel behavior and

  6. Between Syntax and Pragmatics: The Causal Conjunction Protože in Spoken and Written Czech

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, Anna; Komrsková, Zuzana; Kopřivová, Marie; Poukarová, Petra

    -, 25.04.2017 (2017), s. 393-414 ISSN 2509-9507 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01116S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : Causality * Discourse marker * Spoken language * Czech Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Linguistics https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs41701-017-0014-y.pdf

  7. Getting from x to y without Crashing: Computer Syntax in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, David J.

    2010-01-01

    When we use technology to teach mathematics, we hope to focus on the mathematics, restricting the computer software systems to providing support for our pedagogy. It is a matter of common experience, however, that students can become distracted or frustrated by the quirks of the particular software system being used. Here, experience using the…

  8. The development of Japanese passive syntax as indexed by structural priming in comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Manabu; Mazuka, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies reported a phenomenon of syntactic priming with young children as evidence for cognitive representations required for processing syntactic structures. However, it remains unclear how syntactic priming reflects children's grammatical competence. The current study investigated structural priming of the Japanese passive structure with 5- and 6-year-old children in a visual-world setting. Our results showed a priming effect as anticipatory eye movements to an upcoming referent in these children but the effect was significantly stronger in magnitude in 6-year-olds than in 5-year-olds. Consistently, the responses to comprehension questions revealed that 6-year-olds produced a greater number of correct answers and more answers using the passive structure than 5-year-olds. We also tested adult participants who showed even stronger priming than the children. The results together revealed that language users with the greater linguistic competence with the passives exhibited stronger priming, demonstrating a tight relationship between the effect of priming and the development of grammatical competence. Furthermore, we found that the magnitude of the priming effect decreased over time. We interpret these results in the light of an error-based learning account. Our results also provided evidence for prehead as well as head-independent priming.

  9. A Longitudinal Investigation of Morpho-Syntax in Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jennifer; Rvachew, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The intent of this study was to examine the longitudinal morpho-syntactic progression of children with Speech Sound Disorders (SSD) grouped according to Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) scores. Methods: Thirty-seven children separated into four clusters were assessed in their pre-kindergarten and Grade 1 years. Cluster 1 were children with…

  10. Die prädikatsergänzung (das prädikatsattribut in der Slovenischen Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Pogorelec

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available In der vorliegenden Abhandlung wird die erwähnte Problematik in der slovenischen grammatischen -Überlieferung behandelt und mit interessanten Ergebnissen vor allem der tschechischen Sprachtheorie ergänzt, es wird der Terminus Prädikatsergänzung gegenüber dem Terminus Prädikatsattribut begründet; auf dieser Grundlage werden auch die bisher behandelten Arten von Prädikatsergänzungen mit neuen ergänzt. Dabei findet wenn nur möglich das einfache Transformationsverfahren Verwendung, das die Veranschaulichung der stufenweisen Determinierung durch das Prädikatsattribut ermöglicht. Das Material entstammt vorwiegend der Sprache der Kunst, der Grund dafür ist vor allem in der Tatsache zu suchen, daß in dieser Sprache dieser Form die Rolle eines natürlichen Kondensators zufällt, weshalb sie verhältnismäßig häufig vorkommt. Die Abhandlung befaßt sich eingehender auch mit dem Problem der Wortfolge und berührt auch die graphische Darstellung der bei der Prädikatsergänzung üblichen Pausen.

  11. The syntax of single words: Evidence from a patient with a selective function word reading deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druks, Judit; Froud, Karen

    2002-05-01

    We describe the reading performance of a patient who has selective deficits for reading nonwords, function words, and morphologically complex words in isolation. His reading of highly abstract nouns and verbs, however, is relatively well preserved. He can recognise and comprehend the meaning of written function words, of derivational morphology, and of most inflectional morphology. We suggest that his deficit in reading grammatical morphemes is unrelated to his problems in reading nonwords and cannot be explained by their low semanticity and imageability. The patient's speech is ungrammatical but is not devoid of grammatical morphemes and his reading of functional elements improves when these are presented within the context of sentences. We argue that syntactic information relevant to individual lexical items including information about how the word may potentially be used within a phrase must be accessed during single word reading tasks (e.g., Levelt, 1989). This is particularly difficult for function words due to their linguistic specification, which is different from that of lexical categories (Chomsky, 1995). Both linguistic theory and Garrett's (e.g., 1982) model of sentence processing account for the patient's improved reading of function words in the context of sentences.

  12. Expressive Vocabulary, Morphology, Syntax and Narrative Skills in Profoundly Deaf Children after Early Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience and research reveal generic spoken language benefits after cochlear implantation. However, systematic research on specific language domains and error analyses are required to probe sub-skills. Moreover, the effect of predictive factors on distinct language domains is unknown. In this study, outcomes of 70 school-aged children…

  13. The role of tone and morphology in the syntax of the Ikalanga DP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that Ikalanga DPs are not simple DPs but relative clauses, supporting Koopman's (2003) proposal that the structure of DP is really D CP rather than D NP. The agreement morphology on all three types of DPs discussed in this paper carry a low tone, a feature characteristic of relativisation. The low tone on ...

  14. The Syntax and Morphology of the Negative Morphemes [sa] in Sesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Nyefolo Malete

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sesotho is one of the African Languages where sentence negation is expressed by means of bound negative morphemes. It has only three negative morphemes which are spread across the Sesotho matrix and subordinate clauses. They are the negative morphemes /ha/, /sa/ and /se/.These morphemes are bound verbal morphemes that negate various predicate forms and only appear in restricted sentence types. The central aim of this paper is to examine sentence constructions that realize negation by means of the negative morpheme /sa/ and its syntactic distribution within copulative verbs, non - copulative verbs, deficient verbs and aspect morphemes over a full range of inflectional categories such as tense, aspect and mood. This morpheme will be examined within the general framework of the Minimalist Programme, which holds that inflectional categories occur as heads of phrasal categories. This paper will further illustrate the morphological representations of these morphemes within Beard’s (1995 Lexeme-Morpheme Base Morphology, which defines morphology as the sum of all the phonological means of expressing the relations of constituents in words, of words in phrases and of phrasal constituents in sentences. It distinguishes lexemes from bound morphemes.

  15. Hans Christian Andersen's spelling and syntax: Allegations of specific dyslexia are unfounded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kihl, Preben; Gregersen, K.; Sterum, N.

    2000-01-01

    %-4%). A methodologically independent reliability study confirmed these figures. Andersen's error percentages in poems and letters from age 11 to 19 show a typical initial part of a learning curve that, together with the results from the diaries, gives a life span curve of his spelling development. The diaries , letters...

  16. Designing with Space Syntax : A configurative approach to architectural layout, proposing a computational methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nourian, P.; Rezvani, S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a design methodology and a toolkit developed as a parametric CAD program for configurative design of architectural plan layouts. Using this toolkit, designers can start plan layout process with sketching the way functional spaces need to connect to each other. A tool draws an

  17. Eye-Tracking and Corpus-Based Analyses of Syntax-Semantics Interactions in Complement Coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Matthew W.; Gordon, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the difficulty associated with processing complex semantic expressions is reduced when the critical constituents appear in separate clauses as opposed to when they appear together in the same clause. We investigated this effect further, focusing in particular on complement coercion, in which an event-selecting verb (e.g., began) combines with a complement that represents an entity (e.g., began the memo). Experiment 1 compared reading times for coercion versus control expressions when the critical verb and complement appeared together in a subject-extracted relative clause (SRC) (e.g., The secretary that began/wrote the memo) compared to when they appeared together in a simple sentence. Readers spent more time processing coercion expressions than control expressions, replicating the typical coercion cost. In addition, readers spent less time processing the verb and complement in SRCs than in simple sentences; however, the magnitude of the coercion cost did not depend on sentence structure. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that the coercion cost was reduced when the complement appeared as the head of an object-extracted relative clause (ORC) (e.g., The memo that the secretary began/wrote) compared to when the constituents appeared together in an SRC. Consistent with the eye-tracking results of Experiment 2, a corpus analysis showed that expressions requiring complement coercion are more frequent when the constituents are separated by the clause boundary of an ORC compared to when they are embedded together within an SRC. The results provide important information about the types of structural configurations that contribute to reduced difficulty with complex semantic expressions, as well as how these processing patterns are reflected in naturally occurring language. PMID:28529960

  18. Organizing agent organizations : syntax and operational semantics of an organization-oriented programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinnemeier, N.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The history of software engineering in general and programming languages in particular is marked by the introduction of high-level engineering concepts, abstracting away from the rather low-level principles that are used by the machine on which the software is executed. Such high-level abstractions

  19. Visualizing Non-subordination and Multidominance in Tree Diagrams : Testing Five Syntax Tree Variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld-de Smet, Leonie; de Vries, M.; Stapleton, G.; Howse, J.; Lee, J.

    2008-01-01

    In linguistics, it is quite common to use tree diagrams for immediate constituent analysis of sentences. Traditionally, these trees are binary and two-dimensional. However, phenomena Such as coordination and right node raising have led to the view that a simple hierarchical approach of sentences is

  20. Conversational and Narrative Speaking in Adolescents: Examining the Use of Complex Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W.; Cramond, Paige M.; Kirk, Cecilia; Hayward-Mayhew, Christine; MacKinnon, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Few tools are available to examine the narrative speaking ability of adolescents. Hence, the authors designed a new narrative task and sought to determine whether it would elicit a higher level of syntactic complexity than a conversational task in adolescents with typical language development. Method: Forty adolescents (M[subscript age] =…

  1. Constituent Order in Minimalist Syntax, Universals and Parameters. (VP-Specifier and VP-Complement Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Bouziane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural Languages adopt a variety of structural strategies and architectures in ordering syntactic constituents. We will try in this paper to explain how these strategies and architectures are explained within the Minimalist Program framework. According to this framework, the most significant parametric differences between natural languages in constituent word order are widely and strongly limited to lexical differences. They are specifically attributed to the N-features and V-features of lexical items that occupy the functional category nodes, basically elements belonging to the functional categories Agreement and Tense: “The N-features are those that are checked off against a DP in [Spec, AGRP] (or, potentially, [Spec, TP]”, and “the V-features are those that are checked off against a V that adjoins to a functional head”.

  2. Movement Constraints on Transformations That Do Not Move Elements. Studies in East Asian Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, Robert

    A number of grammatical transformations are studied which often, but not always, involve the movement of constituents. Data from English, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Mandarin Chinese and Thai are investigated in an attempt to discover a principle (of potentially universal scope) that governs certain constraints that must be imposed on these…

  3. A future big one in the North-West Himalayan syntax ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, R.; Vignon, V.; Mugnier, J.-L.; Jayangondaperumal, R.; Srivastava, P.; Malik, M. A.; Mouchené, M.; Jouanne, F.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last millions years, the crustal shortening across the Himalaya of the Indian Kashmir have been accommodated by three sub-parallel emerging thrusts: the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), the Medlicott-Wadia Thrust (MWT) and the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). The alternate occurrence of in sequence and out of sequence deformational patterns at the historical time-scale confirm that the seismogenic activity can shift from one thrust to a sub-parallel one, connected at depth to the same main décollement. In such a sismo-tectonic context, a fundamental issue is to identify the structures absorbing the most part of the deformation and to quantify the shortening rates through them. This yields important implications in terms of seismogenic potential and natural hazard for the densely populated region. We studied the geometry of the alluvial terraces and fans across the three main thrusts (MBT, MWT and MFT) in order to quantify the amount of cumulated Late Quaternary deformation. Then we dated these markers to estimate slip rates along these thrust faults. The main result is that all the deformation since at least ~15 ka is absorbed on the two most external thrusts (i.e. MWT and MFT), with rates in the order of 1cm/yr, while the regional segment of the Main Boundary Thrust is no more active. We excavated a paleoseismological trench across the MWT, the only active structure reaching the surface. Our analysis of the deformations within the alluvial-colluvial material coupled with 14C dating suggests that the most recent event is ascribed to the last strong Kashmiri earthquake (1555). The ruptures associated with this event, as well as those associated to at least two older events, show minimum co-seismic displacements of several meters. This portion of the MWT shows litho-structural analogies - steep ramp and old cratonic basement at the hanging-wall - with the Balakhot Bagh Fault (Pakistan) affected by Mw 7.6 event in 2005. However, in Indian Kashmir, the five centuries seismic gap over a 100-km segment, the slip rate across the fault and the amplitude of the co-seismic paleo-displacements, all converge for the possibility of an even greater magnitude on this fault in the next decades.

  4. La lutte des classes des unités linguistiques : micro- et macro-syntaxe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Fernández-Echevarría

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a synchronic approach to discourse we postulate a dynamic unit that constructs macro-syntactic meaning as it is uttered. This conventionalised segment (fr. période énonciative, elaborated in order to anticipate the reactions of the hearer, forms part of a linguistic repertory (vocabulary while at the same time behaving as a space-time module (syllabification. Conceived in this way, this unit is flexible enough to undergo possible deformation and accentual attrition in the evolution of a given language. It is also the basis of a meta-language capable of generating progressively more precise linguistic objects whose categorial membership is a matter of debate. We may observe this conventionalised segment in the analysis of set expressions (paremies that testify to shared meanings and, by default, in automatic deviant sub-titles that reveal the shortcomings of a virtual translator.

  5. Bounding Theory and Greek Syntax: Evidence for WH-Movement in NP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, G.; Stavrou, M.

    1987-01-01

    Given that the principal bounding nodes, or barriers, for subjacency are noun phrase (NP), S, and S-bar, with S optionally a barrier, NP and S-bar obligatorily barriers, differences between Greek and English WH-movement are discussed. The contrasts are derived from independently motivated differences in NP structure between the two languages.…

  6. Aspects of Subordination in English Syntax and its Use Among Bette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subordination is a significant aspect of the English grammar as can be found in both oral and written discourse in the communicative use of language and the texts that result from such usages. The objectives of the research were to: (a) identify specific errors of syntactic subordination found in the English of Bette learners of ...

  7. Les dessins animés au Chili : syntaxe, circulation et consommation

    OpenAIRE

    Del Villar Muñoz , Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to describe cognitive diegetic operating modes in cartoons transmitted in open access television in Chile, as well as their traffic conditions (supply) and consumption during 2000. The analysis draws correlations between the scheduler’s description of the programming, the audience (statistical description), and the cognitive worlds and proposed diegetic protocols (qualitative analysis). Such description will allow us to detect that Japanese cartoons are the most pop...

  8. A NEW DESCRIPTION OF THE SYNTAX OF ‘STANDARD PORTUGUESE’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Lammoglia Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as a starting point Perini’s (1985 proposal, according to which a new description of the grammar of standard Portuguese in the light of linguistic findings and based on a corpus of real data from technical and journalistic literature was imperative. Some results from contemporary writing reveal that such a description must take into account its variable character, exhibiting a mixture of features of European Portuguese (the target grammar of school and of Brazilian Portuguese.

  9. An ERP study on L2 syntax processing : When do learners fail?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulman, Nienke; Stowe, Laurie A.; Sprenger, Simone A.; Bresser, Moniek; Schmid, Monika S.

    2014-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) can reveal online processing differences between native speakers and second language (L2) learners during language comprehension. Using the P600 as a measure of native-likeness, we investigated processing of grammatical gender agreement in highly proficient

  10. Music and language syntax interact in Broca's area: An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunert, R.; Willems, R.M.; Casasanto, D.; Patel, A.D.; Hagoort, P.

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous

  11. Music and language syntax interact in Broca's area: An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunert, R.; Willems, R.M.; Casasanto, D.; Patel, A.D.; Hagoort, P.

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierar-chically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody.

  12. Theory of Mind in SLI Revisited: Links with Syntax, Comparisons with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrleman, Stephanie; Burnel, Morgane; Reboul, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background: According to the linguistic determinism approach, knowledge of sentential complements such as: "John says that the earth" is flat plays a crucial role in theory of mind (ToM) development by providing a means to represent explicitly people's mental attitudes and beliefs. This approach predicts that mastery of complements…

  13. Verb agreement and the syntax of ciNsenga relative clauses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relativisation of a non-subject NP in ciNsenga (Bantu) results in the inversion of the subject nd the appearance on the verb of a prefix which agrees with the relativised noun. Recent studies on Bantu relative constructions (for example, Demuth & Harford, 1999; Ngonyani, 999; 2001) have shown that subject inversion results ...

  14. Effects of selective attention on syntax processing in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidhof, Clemens; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated the effects of auditory selective attention on the processing of syntactic information in music and speech using event-related potentials. Spoken sentences or musical chord sequences were either presented in isolation, or simultaneously. When presented simultaneously, participants had to focus their attention either on speech, or on music. Final words of sentences and final harmonies of chord sequences were syntactically either correct or incorrect. Irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN), whose amplitude was decreased when music was simultaneously presented with speech, compared to when only music was presented. However, the amplitude of the ERAN-like waveform elicited when music was ignored did not differ from the conditions in which participants attended the chord sequences. Irregular sentences elicited an early left anterior negativity (ELAN), regardless of whether speech was presented in isolation, was attended, or was to be ignored. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of syntactic structure of music and speech operate partially automatically, and, in the case of music, are influenced by different attentional conditions. Moreover, the ERAN was slightly reduced when irregular sentences were presented, but only when music was ignored. Therefore, these findings provide no clear support for an interaction of neural resources for syntactic processing already at these early stages.

  15. Integrating Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse DARPA Natural Language Understanding Program. Volume 2. Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-30

    All rights reserved. 1310 Villa Street, Mountain View, California (415) 965-7700 1 ?- switches. 1. enter.new-.word ------------------ > OFF 2. np...reserved. 1310 Villa Street, Mountain View, California (415) 965-7700 [consulting /mn2/cball/prolog. ini...]I Setting selection switch unknown-selection to...the oerm! abels of all postverbal elements appear in capital letters, e.g. SUB.J: in the example below.) 5 OPS: past VERB: repair SUB2: pro: she (sing

  16. The Development of Abstract Syntax: Evidence from Structural Priming and the Lexical Boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Chang, Franklin; Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Lieven, Elena V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming paradigms have been influential in shaping theories of adult sentence processing and theories of syntactic development. However, until recently there have been few attempts to provide an integrated account that explains both adult and developmental data. The aim of the present paper was to begin the process of integration by…

  17. Developmental Sequences in L1 (Normal and Impaired) and L2 Acquisition of Swedish Syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakansson, Gisela; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    1993-01-01

    Examined syntactic development in acquisition of Swedish as a first language in normal (L1) and specifically language-impaired (SLI) children, and acquisition of Swedish as a second language (L2). Similarity between SLI learners and L2 learners is evidence against the hypothesis that there is a fundamental L1-L2 difference. Some data are appended.…

  18. Themes, syntax and other necessary steps in the network analysis of texts : A research paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, R.

    1996-01-01

    Recent approaches to the qualitative analysis of texts afford visual depictions of words as networks. Yet network characteristics can also be quantified, enabling one to draw probabilistic inferences about a population of texts from a sample of texts-encoded-as-networks. This article describes three

  19. Linguistic fundamentals for natural language processing 100 essentials from morphology and syntax

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Emily M

    2013-01-01

    Many NLP tasks have at their core a subtask of extracting the dependencies-who did what to whom-from natural language sentences. This task can be understood as the inverse of the problem solved in different ways by diverse human languages, namely, how to indicate the relationship between different parts of a sentence. Understanding how languages solve the problem can be extremely useful in both feature design and error analysis in the application of machine learning to NLP. Likewise, understanding cross-linguistic variation can be important for the design of MT systems and other multilingual a

  20. A syntactic representation of units of genetic information--a syntax of units of genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vides, J

    1991-02-07

    The experimental study of the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of operons and other units of genetic information (UGIs) has not been accompanied by a parallel effort in integrative approaches. Following a recently obtained mathematical justification in the search of a grammatical theory of regulation, in this paper it is shown that a syntactic representation of prokaryotic simple UGIs can help the search for general rules governing their organization and regulation. Molecular categories like promoter, operator, structural gene, etc, are the elements for this level of analysis. Based on diverse types of evidence available in the literature, a principle which establishes a strictly successive representation of UGIs regulated at the initiation of transcription is derived. This linear array of categories is not enough for proposing general rules, which can be obtained by identifying groups of these categories as clusters or syntactic categories. It is shown that the notion of syntactic categories is implicitly used in the classical definition of an operon. Based on a hierarchy of biological restrictions for the construction of UGIs, a grammatical principle that defines a hierarchical relation among activator regions, promoters and operators is proposed. These proposals are integrated in a grammar that accounts for simple positively and negatively regulated UGIs.

  1. Can the late bird catch the worm? Ultimate attainment in L2 syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, S.J. van

    2005-01-01

    According to the Critical Period Hypothesis for second language acquisition a native-like level of proficiency should not be attainable after puberty due to maturational changes in the brain that make people less sensitive to language input. In this dissertation this hypothesis is tested and related

  2. Measuring the Changes in Aggregate Cycling Patterns between 2003 and 2012 from a Space Syntax Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Stephen; Sakr, Fernanda Lima; Martinez, Max

    2014-09-01

    There has been a world-wide surge of interest in cycling over the last 10 years of which London has seen a continuous growth in cyclists and investment in infrastructure that has resulted in the introduction of the Barclays Cycle Superhighway and Barclays Cycling Hiring Scheme. Despite the investment in cycling infrastructure, there has been little understanding of cycling activity patterns in general and the effect of spatial configuration on cycling route choices. This research aims at measuring the impact of cycling infrastructure and spatial configuration on aggregate cyclist movement over two time periods. To do so, this paper presents a spatial-based cyclist movement statistical model that regress cyclist movement flows with measure of spatial configuration, safety and infrastructure and urban character attributes. Using Elephant and Castle, a Central London location, as a case study, the authors analyze cycling movement data sets from 2003 and 2012 to compare the change in cycling behaviour and the impact that the Cycling Superhighway 07, introduced in 2011, has had on cycling patterns. Findings confirm the growth of cycling in London with a 1000% increase in cyclists along some routes in comparison to a 10% increase in population at the same time. More importantly, results also suggest that higher cyclist movement were observed along routes with greater convenience and continuity-over and above route segregation from vehicular traffic. The relationship between spatial configuration and aggregate cyclists movement is consistent between 2003 and 2012 where spatial configuration have remained the same while changes were observed in both modal split and cycling infrastructure. This result is in line with previous research wherein aggregate higher cyclists movement are observed on major routes offering direct connections than less direct routes. From a spatial cognition perspective, this research enriches our understanding on how the external built environment as measured by the spatial configuration measure relates to aggregated cyclists movement overtime and in identifying key potential factors in influencing cyclist wayfinding. Further research is needed into validating the results and examining this relationship at an individual basis on route choice. These results help us better understand the trade off between cycling safety and cycling legibility which could help inform cycling route design in the future.

  3. Students' Preferences for Syntax Usage in Turkish Language Using Distributional Linguistic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Cem

    2017-01-01

    Communication is one of the most important aspects of social life. Social interactions have increased the necessity for communication and learning of language. Social needs which constitute the main goal of teaching activities fill the gap of learning language. Linguistic surveys have revealed an important finding on educational activities and…

  4. Is Passive Syntax Semantically Constrained? Evidence from Adult Grammaticality Judgment and Comprehension Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambridge, Ben; Bidgood, Amy; Pine, Julian M.; Rowland, Caroline F.; Freudenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To explain the phenomenon that certain English verbs resist passivization (e.g., "*£5 was cost by the book"), Pinker (1989) proposed a semantic constraint on the passive in the adult grammar: The greater the extent to which a verb denotes an action where a patient is affected or acted upon, the greater the extent to which it is…

  5. Syntax Error : -Affective Prosody and Vocalization based Musical Icons in Game Sound Design-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tom Langhorst

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this paper several meaningful audio icons of classic arcade games such as Pong, Donkey Kong, Mario World and Pac-Man are analyzed, using the PRAAT software for speech analysis and musical theory. The analysis results are used to describe how these examples of best practice sound design

  6. Anna Dziemianko. User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical Dictionaries of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Abecassis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To be user-friendly, monolingual and bilingual dictionaries for foreign users must be both easy to use and easy to read. They are designed to help prospective users both encode and decode, and to facilitate the comprehension of some vocabulary items or particular grammatical constructions. However, it often happens in practice that dictionaries are not used fully because some users are not aware of the richness of their contents. In carrying out the redesign of their dictionaries, lexicographers have been helped greatly by the views, needs, and preferences of a wide range of language users, many of them, of course, from schools and universities as well as general language learners. Further adaptations always follow, based on the experience of using a new dictionary and for this purpose feedback is always of great importance. In the process of establishing a user-friendly dictionary, the changes, though extensive, remain modest but in the much longer term, more complex changes take place to incorporate revisions and give them new clarity and coherence across the many and expanding contexts in which they are used. Whether this redesign actually helps users is the subject of much research. Both traditional and electronic dictionaries have now included a large number of tools in the definition, such as IPA pronunciation, examples and syntactic information, often presented in the shape of codes which will enable users not only to understand a particular structure, but to be able to reuse it.

  7. Exploring the Boundary between Syntax and Pragmatics: Relevance and the Binding of Pronouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.

    1994-01-01

    A set of predictions based on Reinhart's (1986) Theory of Relevance are evaluated against published results of tests of Binding Theory. Relevance Theory provides a means of understanding constraints on testing syntactic knowledge. Pragmatic factors must be systematically controlled in any evaluation of syntactic knowledge. (Contains 22…

  8. From Synapse to Syntax: The Science of Learning and the Teaching of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancia, Kathleen A. St. Peters

    2013-01-01

    To best meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population, we must develop an integrative writing pedagogy that is informed by what the cognitive and neurosciences have uncovered about learning so that our theories of learning and practices of instruction are consistent with our most current and accurate knowledge of the biological and…

  9. The Intonation-Syntax Interface in the Speech of Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Huber, Jessica E.; Snow, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effect of Parkinson's disease (PD) on the intonational marking of final and nonfinal syntactic boundaries and investigated whether the effect of PD on intonation was sex specific. Method: Eight women and 8 men with PD and 16 age- and sex-matched control participants read a passage at comfortable pitch, rate, and…

  10. An Analysis of HTML and CSS Syntax Errors in a Web Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas H.; Dorn, Brian; Forte, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Many people are first exposed to code through web development, yet little is known about the barriers beginners face in these formative experiences. In this article, we describe a study of undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory web development course taken by both computing majors and general education students. Using data collected…

  11. On Drafting a New Architectural Syntax: Case Study of the Great Mosque of Algiers

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Chebaiki Adli; Naima Chabbi Chemrouk

    2015-01-01

    The project to build the Great Mosque of Algiers is underway. This will be the largest mosque in the world, after the mosques at Mecca and Medina. Trying to reflect the Algiers' context, this project refers in his architectural design to Almoravid (11th century) influences, through an abstract way of interpretation. The aim of this paper is to explain this mode of interpretation by using a new approach. This approach combines both syntactic and semantic categories of the architectural object....

  12. the syntax of multi-word expressions in yorulish code-mixing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Obadele Kambon

    The expressions with deep/embedded meaning as opposed to those with literal mean- ings include idioms and metaphors. Regardless of the compositional status of MWEs, however, there is an internal unity orchestrated by the head and the complements in conformity with the rules of the language. If, for instance, a ...

  13. Preserved processing of musical syntax in a person with agrammatic aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhvi Saxena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of work suggests that processing hierarchical structure in language and in music rely on shared systems (review: Slevc, 2012, however this conclusion is tempered by neuropsychological dissociations between linguistic and musical processing (i.e., aphasia and amusia; review: Peretz, 2006. An influential reconciliation comes from Patel’s (2003 shared syntactic integration resource hypothesis (SSIRH, which suggests that evidence for shared processes reflect reliance on shared syntactic integration processes whereas dissociations result from damage to domain-specific syntactic representations. The SSIRH thus predicts that patients with deficits in the processing of linguistic syntax–such as agrammatic aphasics–should show parallel deficits in musical structural (harmonic processing. This prediction is countered by findings of impaired harmonic processing in patients with (apparently spared linguistic syntactic processing (e.g., Sammler et al., 2011, however evidence for the opposite dissociation–preserved harmonic processing in agrammatic aphasia–is lacking. While there are reports of preserved musical abilities despite global aphasia (Basso & Capitani, 1985 or severe Wernicke’s aphasia (Luria, Tsvetkova, & Futer, 1965, of preserved reading and writing of music in the face of alexia and agraphia (Signoret et al., 1987, and of preserved musical sound naming in the face of severe anomia (Tzortzis et al., 2000, no study (to our knowledge has demonstrated preserved musical structural processing in an agrammatic patient. In addition, at least one group of agrammatic aphasics did not show normal effects of harmonic priming, and showed a relationship between accuracy on acceptability judgments in language and in music (Patel et al., 2008. Here, we report a detailed analysis of structural processing in language and in music in HV, a 63 year-old native English-speaking female musician who sustained a left peri-Sylvian stroke. She showed a profile of Broca’s aphasia with agrammatic speech (WAB aphasia quotient = 33.6; Fluency = 2/10, Proportion grammatical sentences = 0.04. We evaluated HV’s linguistic and musical structural processing, as well as that of twelve age-matched control participants, using matched “off-line” acceptability judgment tasks and “on-line” priming tasks. HV performed much worse than controls when judging sentences that sometimes contained morphosyntactic violations (Crawford’s t = -3.84, p < .01, however she performed as well as controls when judging chord sequences that sometimes contained a chord from a distant key (t = -0.47. Similarly, HV showed no sensitivity to syntactic violations in a word-monitoring task, unlike control participants (t = -4.81, p < .001, however she showed normal harmonic priming effects (t = -0.30. HV thus showed a classical dissociation between linguistic and musical syntactic processing (assessed with Crawford & Garthwaite’s (2005 Revised Standardized Difference Test for both off-line (t = 2.52, p < .05 and on-line (t = 2.65, p < .05 measures. To our knowledge, this is the first non-anecdotal report of a patient with agrammatic aphasia demonstrating preserved harmonic processing abilities, posing a challenge for claims of a straightforward link between syntactic processing in language and music.

  14. The Syntax of Word Order Derivation and Agreement in Najrani Arabic: A Minimalist Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Abdul-Hafeed Ali; Al-Sharif, Hadeel Ali

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims to explore word order derivation and agreement in Najran Arabic (henceforth, NA) and examines the interaction between the NA data and Chomsky's (2001, 2005) Agree theory which we adopt in this study. The objective is to investigate how word order occurs in NA and provide a satisfactorily unified account of the derivation of SVO and…

  15. Statistical learning and the challenge of syntax: Beyond finite state automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Jeff

    2003-10-01

    Over the past decade, it has been clear that even very young infants are sensitive to the statistical structure of language input presented to them, and use the distributional regularities to induce simple grammars. But can such statistically-driven learning also explain the acquisition of more complex grammar, particularly when the grammar includes recursion? Recent claims (e.g., Hauser, Chomsky, and Fitch, 2002) have suggested that the answer is no, and that at least recursion must be an innate capacity of the human language acquisition device. In this talk evidence will be presented that indicates that, in fact, statistically-driven learning (embodied in recurrent neural networks) can indeed enable the learning of complex grammatical patterns, including those that involve recursion. When the results are generalized to idealized machines, it is found that the networks are at least equivalent to Push Down Automata. Perhaps more interestingly, with limited and finite resources (such as are presumed to exist in the human brain) these systems demonstrate patterns of performance that resemble those in humans.

  16. Representing syntax by means of properties: a formal framework for descriptive approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Blache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic description and language modelling need to be formally sound and complete while still being supported by data. We present a linguistic framework that bridges such formal and descriptive requirements, based on the representation of  syntactic information by means of local properties. This approach, called Property Grammars, provides a formal basis for the description of specific characteristics as well as entire constructions. In contrast with other formalisms, all information is represented at the same level (no property playing a more important role than another and independently (any property being evaluable separately. As a consequence, a syntactic description, instead of a complete hierarchical structure (typically a tree, is a set of multiple relations between words. This characteristic is crucial when describing unrestricted data, including spoken language. We show in this paper how local properties can implement any kind of syntactic information and constitute a formal framework for the representation of constructions (seen as a set of interacting properties. The Property Grammars approach thus offers the possibility to integrate the description of local phenomena into a general formal framework.

  17. Exuberant Complexity: The Interplay of Morphology, Syntax, and Prosody in Central Alaskan Yup'ik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Mithun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Written varieties of many languages show greater syntactic complexity than their spoken counterparts. The difference is not surprising: writers have more time to create elaborate structures than speakers, who must produce speech in a steady stream. As documentation grows of the effects of language contact in the Americas, it is becoming ever clearer that exposure to languages with strong literary traditions has often had a significant impact on syntactic structure. Complexity is, however, not always due to literacy or contact with literacy. Here it is shown that though contact can indeed result in copied markers or replicated categories, it is not a precondition for the development of complexity.

  18. Morphology and Syntax: What Future Teachers of a Second Language Should Know about Them and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monod, M. J.

    Morphological and syntactical considerations of problems of interference which arise between the mother tongue and the target language are developed in this paper written in English and in French. Linguistically oriented, the article focuses on the identification of different linguistic elements which compose a syntagmatic form. A detailed…

  19. The Interface of Syntax with Pragmatics and Prosody in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Francis, Kostantinos

    2016-01-01

    In order to study problems of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with morphosyntax, we investigated twenty high-functioning Greek-speaking children (mean age: 6;11) and twenty age- and language-matched typically developing children on environments that allow or forbid object clitics or their corresponding noun phrase. Children with…

  20. The Morpho-Syntax and Pragmatics of Levantine Arabic Negation: A Synchronic and Diachronic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqassas, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the morphosyntax and pragmatics of Levantine Arabic negation from both a synchronic and a diachronic perspective. It is shown that the complex distribution of the negation morphemes "ma," "la" and "-sh" is subject to morphosyntactic and pragmatic constraints. The morphosyntactic…

  1. Present-day tendencies in the morpho-syntax of Istró-Romanian dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sârbu

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available As compared to the idiom spoken by the southern Istro-Romanians who people several small villages and hamlets in the south of mount Učka, and speak a language subject to constant changes the idiom spoken by the inhabitants of Žejane (Yugos­ lavia has preserved to a higher degree the archaic structures and elements inherited from proto-Romanian. The Istro-Romanians of Žejane have lived compactly to our days (102 house numbers, about 400 speakers,being more isolated from the massi­ ve influence, of Croatian (i.e., the literary variant of the Ceacavian dialect, and of­ fering us, through their language, a pattern of Romance idiom (of the Romanian ty­ pe that has long opposed, especially phonologically and morpho-syntactically a po­ werful alloglotic influence (Croatian, Slovenian, Italian. The restrictive use of Istro-Romanian, especially in the last five decades (since it is hardly an instrument of communication, especially for the young commuters employed in the factories of Rieka, Opatia and the neighbourhood, or for those who, through mixed marriages, moved to other Yugoslavian towns of villages is a process in full development even nowadays.

  2. An ERP study on L2 syntax processing: When do learners fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulman, Nienke; Stowe, Laurie A; Sprenger, Simone A; Bresser, Moniek; Schmid, Monika S

    2014-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) can reveal online processing differences between native speakers and second language (L2) learners during language comprehension. Using the P600 as a measure of native-likeness, we investigated processing of grammatical gender agreement in highly proficient immersed Romance L2 learners of Dutch. We demonstrate that these late learners consistently fail to show native-like sensitivity to gender violations. This appears to be due to a combination of differences from the gender marking in their L1 and the relatively opaque Dutch gender system. We find that L2 use predicts the effect magnitude of non-finite verb violations, a relatively regular and transparent construction, but not that of gender agreement violations. There were no effects of age of acquisition, length of residence, proficiency or offline gender knowledge. Additionally, a within-subject comparison of stimulus modalities (written vs. auditory) shows that immersed learners may show some of the effects only in the auditory modality; in non-finite verb violations, an early native-like N400 was only present for auditory stimuli. However, modality failed to influence the response to gender. Taken together, the results confirm the persistent problems of Romance learners of Dutch with online gender processing and show that they cannot be overcome by reducing task demands related to the modality of stimulus presentation.

  3. An ERP study on L2 syntax processing: When do learners fail?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke eMeulman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Event-related brain potentials (ERPs can reveal online processing differences between native speakers and second language (L2 learners during language comprehension. Using the P600 as a measure of native-likeness, we investigated processing of grammatical gender agreement in highly proficient immersed Romance L2 learners of Dutch. We demonstrate that these late learners consistently fail to show native-like sensitivity to gender violations. This appears to be due to a combination of differences from the gender marking in their L1 and the relatively opaque Dutch gender system. We find that L2 use predicts the effect magnitude of non-finite verb violations, a relatively regular and transparent construction, but not that of gender agreement violations. There were no effects of age of acquisition, length of residence, proficiency or offline gender knowledge. Additionally, a within-subject comparison of stimulus modalities (written vs. auditory shows that immersed learners may show some of the effects only in the auditory modality; in non-finite verb violations, an early native-like N400 was only present for auditory stimuli. However, modality failed to influence the response to gender. Taken together, the results confirm the persistent problems of Romance learners of Dutch with online gender processing and show that they cannot be overcome by reducing task demands related to the modality of stimulus presentation.

  4. The Role of the Second Language in Third Language Acquisition: The Case of Germanic Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardel, Camilla; Falk, Ylva

    2007-01-01

    In this study of the placement of sentence negation in third language acquisition (L3), we argue that there is a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true second language (L2) and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Although there is considerable evidence for L2 influence on vocabulary acquisition in L3, not all researchers believe…

  5. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 404 - Content and Syntax for Papaha

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... of pollution incident or goods lost overboard within the Monument, the Reporting Area, or the U.S... well as, if necessary, information relating to pollution incidents or loss of cargo. Safety related...

  6. Serbo-Croatian. SC-15A. Part 3. Advanced Grammar and Syntax,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    leti. Vrana vrani oci ne kopa. Isao ie svome bratu. Intention of the action: / Otac Je sinu sagradio kucu. Sebi ores, sebi sijes, sebi ces i zeti. A...sedi kraj mora ak sama sebi govori. Nismo ga ni videli ni culi. Noga mu se Izmakla I on pad ne na snijeg. b) Adversative conjunctions which occur in

  7. Die Dependenzgrammatik von Tesnière uno die neue slowenische Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda Pogorelec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available In der Enzyklopädie der slowenischen Sprache (Toporišič 1992: 159 wird die Dependenzgrammatik unter besonderem Stichwort erklärt, in dem diese Grammatik zuerst als "eine Grammatik, die vor allem die Dependenzrelationen im Satz untersucht", definiert wird. Dann werden laut Lucien Tesnière im Satz Reza poje drei Elemente dargestellt: Reza, poje + die Verbindung dazwischen und dann werden drei Stufen des Graphs mit dem Verb als "dem Element, das die Ganzheit zusammenhält" erklärt; außerdem wird gesagt, daß die Koordination gemäß dieser Theorie durch die entsprechende Konjunktion ausgedrückt wird (aus dem graphischen Schema ist ersichtlich, daß dabei die Satzteilkoordination gemeint ist: pojeta -Tine -in -Tone. Im Kommentar wird hinzugefügt, daß auch "unsere" (= moderne slowenische Satzanalyse so aussieht, d. i. sie fängt mit dem Prädikat an, dann fragt man nach folgenden drei Hauptsatzteilen (Subjekt, Objekt, adverbiellen Prädikatbestimmungen, dann nach Attributen und deren Bestimmungen. Es wird die Methode des Unterstreichens von Satzteilen dargestellt, außerdem wird auf mehrere Arten der Dependenzgrammatik und auf verschiedene graphische Bezeichnungen der sprachlichen Erscheinungen aufgrund dieser Methode hingewiesen. -Im demselben Werk werden unter dem Stichwort translativ (Toporišič 1992: 331 zwei Bedeutungen gezeigt, von denen die erste auf einen entfernten Zusammenhang mit der Theorie von Tesnière hinweist, obwohl diese nicht erwähnt ist, lediglich bei der Definition selbst, nicht aber bei den Beispielen; translativ ist nach dieser Enzyklopädie "was aus einem Zustand in den anderen übertragen wird". Aber aus den Beispielen kann man sehen, das geht es um die Translation und nicht um Translativ als Instrument dieser Translation.

  8. The mathematics of the modernist villa architectural analysis using space syntax and isovists

    CERN Document Server

    Ostwald, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first detailed mathematical analysis of the social, cognitive and experiential properties of Modernist domestic architecture. The Modern Movement in architecture, which came to prominence during the first half of the twentieth century, may have been famous for its functional forms and machine-made aesthetic, but it also sought to challenge the way people inhabit, understand and experience space. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s buildings were not only minimalist and transparent, they were designed to subvert traditional social hierarchies. Frank Lloyd Wright’s organic Modernism not only attempted to negotiate a more responsive relationship between nature and architecture, but also shape the way people experience space. Richard Neutra’s Californian Modernism is traditionally celebrated for its sleek, geometric forms, but his intention was to use design to support a heightened understanding of context. Glenn Murcutt’s pristine pavilions, seemingly the epitome of regional Modernism, actu...

  9. The Syntax-Information Structure Interface: Subjects and Clausal Word Order in Galician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupton, Timothy Michael

    2010-01-01

    Previous accounts of preverbal subjects in Spanish and European Portuguese (EP) in the literature have debated the syntactic position of these elements. According to some analyses, preverbal subjects are canonical arguments appearing in an A-position (e.g. Goodall 2001, 2002; Suner 2003 for Spanish; Duarte 1997; Costa 2004 for EP). Other analyses…

  10. Hans Christian Andersen's spelling and syntax: Allegations of specific dyslexia are unfounded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kihl, Preben; Gregersen, K.; Sterum, N.

    2000-01-01

    %-4%). A methodologically independent reliability study confirmed these figures. Andersen's error percentages in poems and letters from age 11 to 19 show a typical initial part of a learning curve that, together with the results from the diaries, gives a life span curve of his spelling development. The diaries , letters......Sources contemporary with Danish author Hans Christian Andersen claimed that he did not master the Danish Language, which modern studies interpret as specific dyslexia. A systematic study of his diaries from age 20 to 70 found a mean spelling error percentage of approximately 1.7 (SD=1%, range 0...... and poems contain only insignificant syntactic errors. Andersen's spelling in the above studies is compared with that of his contemporaries and with data from modern studies. His mean error percentages at different ages are equal to or better than the figures from nondisabled participants, but between 2...

  11. Event-related potentials reveal early activation of syntax information in Chinese verb processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuan; Wu, Qiuyan; Wang, Jin; Feng, Liping; Xiao, Qing

    2016-09-19

    By taking advantage of the semantic-syntactic characteristics of Chinese verbs, the current study examined the brain activity of automatic activation of syntactic features at the single word level. Both syntactic (transitivity) and semantic (integrity) features of the verb were manipulated. Event-related potentials were measured while subjects performed lexical decision tasks on visually presented verbs at the single word level. The results showed that there was a significant transitivity effect in both lateral and midline areas for the 150-200ms time window (N200 effect), indicating the retrieval of the syntactic feature. There was also a significant syntactic-semantic interaction at the late stage of verb processing (N400 effect) in the midline central-parietal region, reflecting syntactic influences on semantic processing. These findings suggest that transitivity is an integral part of the mental representation of Chinese verbs and such information can be retrieved at the early stage of single verb processing and can influence subsequent semantic integration. These results also reveal the special features of Chinese language processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Verb Production in Aphasia: Testing the Division of Labor between Syntax and Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Julia; Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    Some individuals with aphasia preferably use semantically general light verbs, whereas others prefer semantically specific heavy verbs. This study aimed to test Gordon and Dell's "division of labor" hypothesis that light versus heavy verb usage depends on syntactic and semantic processes, respectively. In a retrospective analysis of data from the AphasiaBank corpus, narrative language of neurologically healthy individuals and individuals with aphasia was analyzed for the proportion of light verbs used, and its relationship with narrative measures of syntactic and semantic sophistication and verb naming scores was examined. In individuals with aphasia, light verb usage was positively correlated with a syntactic measure (developmental sentence score) and negatively associated with two semantic measures (idea density and verb naming). For healthy individuals, the number of verbs per utterance, which is a measure of syntactic complexity, predicted light verb use. These findings suggest that light verb usage in aphasia observes an inverse relationship with syntactic and semantic abilities, supporting the division of labor hypothesis. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Induction of syntax constituents in Spanish through clustering and filtering out criterion based on mutual information Inducción de constituyentes sintácticos en español con técnicas de clustering y filtrado por información mutua Inducción de constituyentes sintácticos en español con técnicas de clustering y filtrado por información mutua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Balbachan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Argument from the Poverty of Stimulus (APS is the great epistemological debate arena between simbolic and statistical paradigms in computational linguistics. Since 2000, several works inside statistical paradigm have been published, attacking APS as they present some unsupervised general-purpose algorithm for language acquisition. Among the most important contributions, Clark’s Ph.D. thesis (2001 appeals to diverse statistical techniques in order to come up with an unsupervised general-purpose algorithm for inducing language and, more precisely, a complete Context-Free Grammar (CFG for English.  

    Clark (2001 works with several induction techniques for each linguistic phenomenon modelized: morphology from Hidden Markovian Models (HMM, POS-tagging from clustering, etc. Particularly, in this current paper we are interested in the induction of syntax constituency, given a POS-tagged corpus, as a previous step towards the whole process of inducing a complete CFG. In his own thesis, the author admits that more crosslinguistic evidence is needed, so as to support the psycholinguistic plausibility of an approach such as his. Currently, there is no work that have proposed to prove Clark’s approach in very inflected languages with free-order constituents like Spanish. Thus, our work is intended to contribute with that crosslinguistic evidence, analyzing the feasibilty of the

  14. AutoMap User’s Guide 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    Inflectional and Derivational. • Inflectional morphology describes predictable changes a word undergoes as a result of syntax (the plural and...26 Tag Syntax in AM3Script ........................................................................ 26 Output Directory syntax ...148 Tag Syntax in AM3Script

  15. Statistique linguistique et syntaxe latine: l'imparfait et le parfait du subjonctif dans les consecutives (Linguistic Statistics and Latin Syntax: The Imperfect and Perfect Subjective in Consecutive Phrases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffe, Michel

    1978-01-01

    Intends to demonstrate the value of statistical analysis in linguistic inquiry through a specific problem, mainly the distribution of and the correlation between the perfect and imperfect subjunctive in Latin. (AM)

  16. PHENOMENA OF CONVERSATIONAL SYNTAX IN THE WRITTEN BUSINESS LANGUAGE OF THE 18TH CENTURY (BASED ON THE TRANSBAIKALIAN WRITTEN RECORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr P. Mayorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines syntactic constructions in the written business language of the 18th century which are analogous in structure to modern colloquial constructions. They are various constructions with distant word order, nominative forms as a function of oblique cases, separately arranged syntactic constructions, asyndetic polypredicative constructions, etc. The paper attempts to trace the dependence of the use of these structures on those genres of written business language in which the most favorable conditions for implementation of conversational speech are found. 

  17. Sentence Processing as a Function of Syntax, Short Term Memory Capacity, the Meaningfulness of the Stimulus and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlin, Peter J.

    1971-01-01

    Examines the effects of short term memory (STM) capacity, meaningfulness of stimuli, and age upon listeners' structuring of sentences. Results show that the interaction between STM capacity and meaningfulness (1) approached significance when data were collapsed over both age levels, and (2) was significant for one age level. Tables and references.…

  18. Matching syntax and semantics in argument structure: construction grammar and the theory of sintactico-semantic sentence patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González García

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Este artículo tiene por objeto exponer las principales analogías y divergencias de corte tanto teórico como descriptivo en el análisis de la sintaxis y semántica de lo que tradicionalmente se ha denominado esquemas oracionales, tal y como éstos son objeto de estudio en dos modelos lingüísticos de orientación no transforrnacionalista: la Teoría de los Esquemas Sintáctico-Semánticos (Báez San José 1984, 1987, 1994, 1996 y la Gramática de Construcciones (Fillmore, Kay & O'Connor 1988[2003], Goldberg 1995, 1999, en prensa; Kay & FíJlmore 1999, en prensa. Más concretamente, nuestra discusión se centrará en las siguientes cuestiones: (i la definición y status teórico de sus respectivas unidades de descripción y/o explicación: el esquema sintáctico-semántico y la construcción; (ii el objeto y desarrollo de sus investigaciones; (iii la metodología de análisis, y, finalmente, (iv sus implicaciones e implementaciones en los ámbitos de procesamiento de lenguas naturales o la adquisición y/o aprendizaje de lenguas.

  19. The Development of Anaphora Resolution at the Syntax-Discourse Interface: Pronominal Subjects in Greek Learners of Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Cristóbal

    2018-04-01

    This study explores the development of anaphora resolution (AR) in late sequential bilinguals, namely, adult Greek learners of Spanish at three proficiency levels (intermediate, lower advanced, upper advanced). The use of an overt/null pronominal subject anaphor is investigated in three discourse contexts: topic-continuity (a single antecedent requiring a null pronoun), contrastive-focus (two same-gender potential antecedents requiring an overt pronoun to avoid ambiguity) and emphatic (three same-gender potential antecedents showing unclear preference for either overt or null pronoun). Crucially, AR behaves similarly in Greek and Spanish. Results from an offline contextualised acceptability judgement task show that similarity between the learner's first (L1) and second (L2) languages does not necessarily facilitate the learning task. Even very advanced learners show deficits, which are selective since not all discursive contexts are equally affected. The results are better accounted for by general pragmatic economy principles: Learners prefer being redundant (overuse of overt pronouns in topic-continuity contexts) to ambiguous (acceptance of null pronouns in contrastive-focus contexts). Such tolerance for redundancy may reflect a more general pragmatic tendency, as also reported in child L1 development, adult L2 development and also in native grammars.

  20. Longitudinal Profiles of Expressive Vocabulary, Syntax and Pragmatic Language in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome or Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly; Estigarribia, Bruno; Sideris, John; Roberts, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Down syndrome (DS) are the two leading genetic causes of intellectual disability, and FXS is the most common known genetic condition associated with autism. Both FXS and DS are associated with significant language impairment, but little is known about expressive language across domains over time or the role…

  1. Late Bilinguals Share Syntax Unsparingly between L1 and L2: Evidence from Crosslinguistically Similar and Different Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heeju; Shin, Jeong-Ah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    Languages often use different constructions to convey the same meaning. For example, the meaning of a causative construction in English ("Jen had her computer fixed") is conveyed using an active structure in Korean ("Jen-NOM her computer-ACC fixed"), and yet little is known about how bilinguals represent and process such…

  2. Event-related brain potentials suggest a late interaction of meter and syntax in the P600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kotz, Sonja A

    2009-09-01

    Many studies refer to the relevance of metric cues in speech segmentation during language acquisition and adult language processing. However, the on-line use (i.e., time-locking the unfolding of a sentence to EEG) of metric stress patterns that are manifested by the succession of stressed and unstressed syllables during auditory syntactic processing has not been investigated. This is surprising as both processes rely on abstract rules that allow the building up of expectancies of which element will occur next and at which point in time. Participants listened to metrically regular sentences that could either be correct, syntactically incorrect, metrically incorrect, or doubly incorrect. They either judged syntactic correctness or metric homogeneity in two different sessions. We provide first event-related potential evidence that the metric structure of a given language is processed in two stages as evidenced in a biphasic pattern of an early frontal negativity and a late posterior positivity. This pattern is comparable to the biphasic pattern reported in syntactic processing. However, metric cues are processed earlier than syntactic cues during the first stage (LAN), whereas both processes seem to interact at a later integrational stage (P600). The present results substantiate the important impact of metric cues during auditory syntactic language processing.

  3. A Linguistic Perspective on Communication with Parents Who Speak English as a Second Language: Phonology, Morphology and Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Ro, Yeonsun Ellie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we take a linguistic perspective to support effective communication between early educators and parents who speak English as a second language and may have limited English proficiency. Positive communication and partnerships are recognised as important for the education of young children. Because early educators may be unaware of…

  4. From data to analysis: linking NWChem and Avogadro with the syntax and semantics of Chemical Markup Language

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Wibe A.; Walker, Andrew M.; Hanwell, Marcus D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multidisciplinary integrated research requires the ability to couple the diverse sets of data obtained from a range of complex experiments and computer simulations. Integrating data requires semantically rich information. In this paper an end-to-end use of semantically rich data in computational chemistry is demonstrated utilizing the Chemical Markup Language (CML) framework. Semantically rich data is generated by the NWChem computational chemistry software with the FoX library an...

  5. From data to analysis: linking NWChem and Avogadro with the syntax and semantics of Chemical Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Wibe A; Walker, Andrew M; Hanwell, Marcus D

    2013-05-24

    Multidisciplinary integrated research requires the ability to couple the diverse sets of data obtained from a range of complex experiments and computer simulations. Integrating data requires semantically rich information. In this paper an end-to-end use of semantically rich data in computational chemistry is demonstrated utilizing the Chemical Markup Language (CML) framework. Semantically rich data is generated by the NWChem computational chemistry software with the FoX library and utilized by the Avogadro molecular editor for analysis and visualization. The NWChem computational chemistry software has been modified and coupled to the FoX library to write CML compliant XML data files. The FoX library was expanded to represent the lexical input files and molecular orbitals used by the computational chemistry software. Draft dictionary entries and a format for molecular orbitals within CML CompChem were developed. The Avogadro application was extended to read in CML data, and display molecular geometry and electronic structure in the GUI allowing for an end-to-end solution where Avogadro can create input structures, generate input files, NWChem can run the calculation and Avogadro can then read in and analyse the CML output produced. The developments outlined in this paper will be made available in future releases of NWChem, FoX, and Avogadro. The production of CML compliant XML files for computational chemistry software such as NWChem can be accomplished relatively easily using the FoX library. The CML data can be read in by a newly developed reader in Avogadro and analysed or visualized in various ways. A community-based effort is needed to further develop the CML CompChem convention and dictionary. This will enable the long-term goal of allowing a researcher to run simple "Google-style" searches of chemistry and physics and have the results of computational calculations returned in a comprehensible form alongside articles from the published literature.

  6. From data to analysis: linking NWChem and Avogadro with the syntax and semantics of Chemical Markup Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jong, Wibe A.; Walker, Andrew M.; Hanwell, Marcus D.

    2013-05-24

    Background Multidisciplinary integrated research requires the ability to couple the diverse sets of data obtained from a range of complex experiments and computer simulations. Integrating data requires semantically rich information. In this paper the generation of semantically rich data from the NWChem computational chemistry software is discussed within the Chemical Markup Language (CML) framework. Results The NWChem computational chemistry software has been modified and coupled to the FoX library to write CML compliant XML data files. The FoX library was expanded to represent the lexical input files used by the computational chemistry software. Conclusions The production of CML compliant XML files for the computational chemistry software NWChem can be relatively easily accomplished using the FoX library. A unified computational chemistry or CompChem convention and dictionary needs to be developed through a community-based effort. The long-term goal is to enable a researcher to do Google-style chemistry and physics searches.

  7. A View of the Neural Representation of Second Language Syntax through Artificial Language Learning under Implicit Contexts of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Deng, ZhiZhou; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Faretta- Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Wong, Francis C. K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to make an initial neuroimaging contribution to central implicit-explicit issues in second language (L2) acquisition by considering how implicit and explicit contexts mediate the neural representation of L2. Focusing on implicit contexts, the study employs a longitudinal design to examine the neural representation of L2…

  8. How verbs and non-verbal categories navigate the syntax/semantics interface: insights from cognitive neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miozzo, Michele; Rawlins, Kyle; Rapp, Brenda

    2014-12-01

    We report on two individuals with acquired language impairment who made thematic role confusion errors in both comprehension and production. Their confusions were remarkably specific, affecting the roles associated with spatial prepositions ("The box is in the bag" confused with The bag is in the box) and adjectival comparatives ("The glove is darker than the hat" confused with The hat is darker than the glove) but not the roles associated with verbs (e.g., in The woman helps the man). Additional results showed that the confusions did not arise from spatial deficits, deficits affecting the semantics of spatial terms and adjectives, or difficulties with spatial and comparative relationships. Interestingly, the selective deficits are well-explained by linguistic theories that propose that non-verbal lexical categories, when used as predicates, depend on special mechanisms and structures for linking their thematic roles to syntactic argument structures. These are the first neuropsychological results to show that thematic role assignment is supported by distinct brain mechanisms for verbal and non-verbal lexical categories. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the linguistic knowledge associated with verbal vs. non-verbal word classes and of the conditions under which these forms of knowledge support sentence processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic sy...

  10. The role of corpus size and syntax in deriving lexico-semantic representations for a wide range of concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyne, Simon; Verheyen, Steven; Storms, Gert

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant recent advances in the study of semantic processing is the advent of models based on text and other corpora. In this study, we address what impact both the quantitative and qualitative properties of corpora have on mental representations derived from them. More precisely, we evaluate models with different linguistic and mental constraints on their ability to predict semantic relatedness between items from a vast range of domains and categories. We find that a model based on syntactic dependency relations captures significantly less of the variability for all kinds of words, regardless of the semantic relation between them or their abstractness. The largest difference was found for concrete nouns, which are commonly used to assess semantic processing. For both models we find that limited amounts of data suffice in order to obtain reliable predictions. Together, these findings suggest new constraints for the construction of mental models from corpora, both in terms of the corpus size and in terms of the linguistic properties that contribute to mental representations.

  11. Going Deeper with New Testament Greek: An Intermediate Study of the Grammar and Syntax of the New Testament

    OpenAIRE

    LAVRUSHKO, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    Going Deeper with New Testament Greek is an intermediate NT Greek grammar,written by well-known NT professors Andreas J. Köstenberger (Southeastern BaptistTheological Seminary), Benjamin L. Merkle (Southeastern Baptist TheologicalSeminary), and Robert L. Plummer (The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary).The book is aimed at the needs of both intermediate Greek students and teachers.

  12. Commentary on "How Can Syntax Support Number Word Acquisition?" By Kristen Syrett, Julien Musolino, and Rochel Gelman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Brian

    2012-01-01

    What role does language play in developing the concept of number? This question is at the center of an important current debate. To try to answer it, one must first consider what is needed to learn number words and their meaning. First, the learner has to be able to identify number words as such, that is, to distinguish them from other sorts of…

  13. La syntaxe comparative des connecteurs argumentatifs – l’exemple du couple français-tchèque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Pešek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the syntactic features of textual connectives in the contemporary French and Czech language. The study is a comparative one. The argumentative connectives are lexical units that participate on the text structuration and mark the argumentative orientation of the constituents they connect. Being defined on the basis of textual criteria, the units we include to the category issue from different morphosyntactic classes – conjunctions of subordination, conjunctions of coordination, adverbials. Although these classes present in French and in Czech some different distributional features, their accumulation in one clause is ruled by the same principles that operate on the level of the logical form.

  14. 'MetaTaal' : Enhancing complex syntax in children with specific language impairment-a metalinguistic and multimodal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, R.L.M.; Wijnen, F.N.K.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundCurrently, most research on the effective treatment of morphosyntax in children with specific language impairment (SLI) pertains to younger children. In the last two decades, several studies have provided evidence that intervention for older school-age children with SLI can be effective.

  15. Syntax-to-morphology alignment and constituent reordering in factored phrase-based statistical machine translation from English to Turkish

    OpenAIRE

    Yeniterzi, Reyyan

    2009-01-01

    English is a moderately analytic language in which the meaning is conveyed with function words and the order of constituents. On the other hand, Turkish is an agglutinative language with free constituent order. These differences together with the lack of large scale English-Turkish parallel corpora turn Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) between these languages into a challenging problem. SMT between these two languages, especially from English to Turkish has been worked on for several yea...

  16. Making sense of syntax – Innate or acquired? Contrasting universal grammar with other approaches to language acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kliesch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of a Universal Grammar argue that humans are born with a dedicated language system that shapes and restricts the number of grammars found in human languages (Chomsky, 2005. It is essentially innate and has a genetic manifestation. Such an innate system is necessary because human grammars are too complex to be passed on through social interactions and probabilistic learning alone. However, this view is contested by a combination of emergentist approaches and a number of studies suggest that many of the core assumptions of Universal Grammar are either unnecessary or do not hold. Furthermore, this review will explore theoretical criticism of the Universal Grammar research programme.

  17. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devauchelle, Anne-Dominique; Oppenheim, Catherine; Rizzi, Luigi; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pallier, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycholinguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a…

  18. 'MetaTaal': enhancing complex syntax in children with specific language impairment--a metalinguistic and multimodal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; Wijnen, Frank; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Currently, most research on the effective treatment of morphosyntax in children with specific language impairment (SLI) pertains to younger children. In the last two decades, several studies have provided evidence that intervention for older school-age children with SLI can be effective. These metalinguistic intervention approaches teach grammatical rules explicitly and use shapes and colours as two-dimensional visual support. Reading or writing activities form a substantial part of these interventions. However, some children with SLI are poor readers and might benefit more from an approach that is less dependent on literacy skills. To examine the effectiveness of a combined metalinguistic and multimodal approach in older school-age children with SLI. The intervention was adapted to suit poor readers and targeted the improvement of relative clause production, because relative clauses still pose difficulties for older children with SLI. Participants were 12 monolingual Dutch children with SLI (mean age 11;2). All children visited a special school for children with speech and language disorders in the Netherlands. A quasi-experimental multiple-baseline design was chosen to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. A set of tasks was constructed to test relative clause production and comprehension. Two balanced versions were alternated in order to suppress a possible learning effect from multiple presentations of the tasks. After 3 monthly baseline measurements, the children received individual treatment with a protocolled intervention programme twice a week during 5 weeks. The tests were repeated directly post-therapy and at a retention measurement 3 months later. During the intervention programme, the speech therapist delivering the treatment remained blind to the test results. No significant changes were found during the baseline measurements. However, measurement directly post-therapy showed that 5 h of intervention produced significant improvement on the relative clause production tasks, but not on the relative clause comprehension task. The gains were also maintained 3 months later. The motor and tactile/kinesthetic dimensions of the 'MetaTaal' metalinguistic intervention approach are a valuable addition to the existing metalinguistic approaches. This study supports the evidence that grammatical skills in older school-age children with SLI can be remediated with direct intervention using a metalinguistic approach. The current tendency to diminish direct intervention for older children with SLI should be reconsidered. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  19. Temporal and co-varying clause combining in Austronesian languages : Semantics, morpho-syntax and distributional patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates combined clause constructions for ten distinct semantic relations in a cross-section of Austronesian languages. The relations are of a temporal or co-varying nature, the former commonly expressed in English by such markers as when, then, until, etc. and the latter by if, so, because, etc. The research falls into three main sections. First, the study provides an overview of the semantic domain covered by the relevant relations in the Austronesian languages. Several subd...

  20. Making psycholinguistics musical: self-paced reading time evidence for shared processing of linguistic and musical syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Rosenberg, Jason C; Patel, Aniruddh D

    2009-04-01

    Linguistic processing, especially syntactic processing, is often considered a hallmark of human cognition; thus, the domain specificity or domain generality of syntactic processing has attracted considerable debate. The present experiments address this issue by simultaneously manipulating syntactic processing demands in language and music. Participants performed self-paced reading of garden path sentences, in which structurally unexpected words cause temporary syntactic processing difficulty. A musical chord accompanied each sentence segment, with the resulting sequence forming a coherent chord progression. When structurally unexpected words were paired with harmonically unexpected chords, participants showed substantially enhanced garden path effects. No such interaction was observed when the critical words violated semantic expectancy or when the critical chords violated timbral expectancy. These results support a prediction of the shared syntactic integration resource hypothesis (Patel, 2003), which suggests that music and language draw on a common pool of limited processing resources for integrating incoming elements into syntactic structures. Notations of the stimuli from this study may be downloaded from pbr.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  1. The development of the Spanish verb ir into auxiliary of voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Thora

    2005-01-01

    spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development......spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development...

  2. Outcomes of Treatment Targeting Syntax Production in People with Broca's-Type Aphasia: Evidence from Psycholinguistic Assessment Tasks and Everyday Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragher, Marcella; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Capturing evidence of the effects of therapy within everyday communication is the holy grail of aphasia treatment design and evaluation. Whilst impaired sentence production is a predominant symptom of Broca's-type aphasia, the effects of sentence production therapy on everyday conversation have not been investigated. Given the…

  3. A interação sincronia/diacronia no estudo da sintaxe The interaction synchrony/diachrony in the study of syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica FURTADO DA CUNHA

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Nas pesquisas funcionalistas mais recentes nota-se uma orientação cada vez mais acentuada para a investigação histórica dos fatos lingüísticos, associada à descrição sincrônica. A interação/interdependência sincronia/diacronia é fundamental na compreensão do processo de gramaticalização. Além do exame sincrônico das formas gramaticais como um fenômeno discursivo-pragmático, primariamente sintático, cabe também investigar a origem dessas formas no discurso e as trajetórias de mudança por que passam. Estudos sobre a trajetória e configuração atual de itens como `onde' e `ir', ou de processos como integração sintática por encaixamento, ou de processos como repetição e negação, atestam as vantagens dessa interação, que resulta na abordagem pancrônica.In the more recent functionalist researches one can notice a strong tendency toward the historical investigation of linguistic facts, together with synchronic descriptions. The interaction and interdependence synchrony/ diachrony is central to the understanding of the process of grammaticalization since, besides the synchronic analysis of grammatical forms as a discourse-pragmatic phenomenon, primarily syntactic, one should also investigate the origin of these forms in discourse and the paths of change along which they proceed. Studies on the trajectory and current configuration of items such as `onde' and `ir', of processes such as syntactic integration by embedding or of processes such as repetition and negation, give evidence of this interaction, which results in the panchronic approach.

  4. ‘They All Sound Like David Foster Wallace’: Syntax and Narrative in Infinite Jest, Brief Interviews with Hideous Men, Oblivion and The Pale King

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Bourcier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available What kind of syntactic arrangement produces the distinctive feel of a Wallace sentence, and how does sentence structure relate to Wallace’s wider themes, the larger narrative structures of his fiction, and the construction of his fictional worlds? The length and complexity of Wallace’s sentences has often been remarked on, and sometimes satirised, but this essay breaks new ground by looking in detail at the syntactic structure of Wallace’s sentences to understand the work done by that structure in the creation both of character and of ontologically complex fictional worlds. The essay is structured around close readings of individual sentences from 'Infinite Jest, Brief Interviews with Hideous Men, Oblivion' and 'The Pale King'. I show that in 'Infinite Jest' syntactic complexity is associated with addiction and with intractable psychological binds. Moving forward from 'Infinite Jest', I argue, Wallace pushes his fiction in two distinct directions. 'Brief Interviews with Hideous Men' focuses on voice, the format of the ‘Brief Interviews’ in particular allowing Wallace to represent character mimetically through speech. 'Oblivion', on the other hand, indulges Wallace’s characteristic authorial voice in all its oppressive maximalism, in order to explore its unique narrative possibilities. In particular, Wallace uses complex, hypotactically structured sentences to create fictional worlds in which the relationship between the actual and the conditional or hypothetical is often unstable. In 'The Pale King,' despite its incompleteness, Wallace shows signs of achieving, I argue, a synthesis of the two, fusing the narrative and ontological complexity of 'Oblivion' with the mimetic polyphony of 'Brief Interviews'.

  5. Sintassi e tassonomia: Teoria della valenza e lessico-grammatica in tedesco e in italiano (Syntax and Taxonomy: Theory of Valence and Lexical Grammar in German and Italian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Maria Teresa

    1986-01-01

    Briefly discusses the concepts of "subject,""complement,""transitivity," and "intransitivity," contrasts the classes of complements in German and Italian based on identical criteria of classification, justifies such a classification for complements, and suggests didactic implications for the theory of…

  6. English and Mauritian Creole: A Reflection on How the Vocabulary, Grammar and Syntax of the Two Languages Create Difficulties for Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobita Kumari Jugnauth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the various linguistic reasons that cause Mauritian students to experience difficulties while learning English. As Mauritius is a former British and French colony, most Mauritians are bilinguals. Both English and French are compulsory subjects up to Cambridge O’Level. English is the official language and also the language of instruction but French is much more widely used and spoken. Also Mauritian Creole is the mothertongue of the majority of Mauritians. This linguistic situation impacts heavily on the teaching and learning of English both at primary and secondary level.  Often, students encounter a number of problems at the vocabulary and grammatical level ; these are due to the linguistic specificities of both English and Mauritian Creole. Today, the different types of ‘ Englishes’ emerging around the world, are making it increasingly confusing for teachers to teach this language and for learners to learn it.

  7. Space and panic : The application of space syntax to understand the relationship between mortality rates and spatial configuration in Banda Aceh during the tsunami 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakhrurrazi, F.; Van Nes, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reveal the correlation between mortality rates from the tsunami of 2004 and the spatial structure of Banda Aceh’s street net. Structurally, the city is divided up in several small villages, which consists of a couple of urban blocks. The mortality rates for each of these

  8. O bodegón e a mescla: uma sintaxe transatlântica The bodegón and the mixture: a transatlantic syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Ortega

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende demonstrar que o gênero pictórico dos bodegones, característico do Barroco transatlântico, tem uma de suas origens na pobreza, nos restos da mesa espanhola do século XVII, sendo a outra origem a abundância americana, plena de frutas e lendas exóticas de fecundidade. Zurbarán foi o grande pintor de temas americanos, mas uma de suas obras mais famosas foi interpretada como representação alegórica da epifania da Virgem Maria. Este artículo pretende problematizar essa leitura a partir de um dado revelado por raios X: Zurbarán incluiu no quadro um prato de batata-doce, um tubérculo americano, que depois apagou e reproduziu em um quadro independente. O bodegón, portanto, é um gênero mais americano, menos místico e mais barroco.Este estudio busca demostrar que el género pictórico de los bodegones, característico del Barroco trasatlántico, tiene uno de sus orígenes en la pobreza, en los restos de la mesa española de siglo XVII, siendo el otro origen la abundancia americana, plena de frutas y leyendas exóticas de fecundidad. Zurbarán fue el gran pintor de bodegones y usó temas americanos, pero una de sus obras más famosas ha sido interpretada como representación alegórica de la epifanía de la Virgen María. Este artículo busca problematizar esa lectura a partir de un dato revelado por los rayos X: Zurbarán incluyó en el cuadro un platillo de batatas, un tubérculo americano, que luego quitó y pasó a un cuadro independiente. El bodegón, por lo tanto, es un género más americano, menos místico y más barroco.This article argues that the pictoric genre still life, associated with the transatlantic Baroque, has one of its origins in Spanish poverty along the XVII Century and, on the other hand, in the abundance of the Indies. Francisco de Zurbarán was one of the best still life painters, and he used some themes from the New World. One of his most famous pieces, the still life with lemons and a cup of chocolate has been read lately as dedicated to the epiphany of Virgin Mary, transforming the cup of chocolate in a glass of water. This article discusses the dish of sweet potatoes that the painter took out of his painting, proving that still life is more from the Indies than from the mystic representation. It is, thus, mostly Baroque.

  9. Phonology competes with syntax: experimental evidence for the interaction of word order and accent placement in the realization of Information Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, F; Alexopoulou, T

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the interaction of phonological and syntactic constraints on the realization of Information Structure in Greek, a free word order language. We use magnitude estimation as our experimental paradigm, which allows us to quantify the influence of a given linguistic constraint on the acceptability of a sentence. We present results from two experiments. In the first experiment, we focus on the interaction of word order and context. In the second experiment, we investigate the additional effect of accent placement and clitic doubling. The results show that word order, in contrast to standard assumptions in the theoretical literature, plays only a secondary role in marking the Information Structure of a sentence. Order preferences are relatively weak and can be overridden by constraints on accent placement and clitic doubling. Our experiments also demonstrate that a null context shows the same preference pattern as an all focus context, indicating that 'default' word order and accent placement (in the absence of context) can be explained in terms of Information Structure. In the theoretical part of this paper, we formalize the interaction of syntactic and phonological constraints on Information Structure. We argue that this interaction is best captured using a notion of grammatical competition, such as the one developed by Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993, Optimality theory: constraint interaction in generative grammar (Technical Report No. 2). Center for Cognitive Science, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ; Science 275 (1997) 1604). In particular, we exploit the optimality theoretic concept of constraint ranking to account for the fact that some constraint violations are more serious than others. We extend standard Optimality Theory to obtain a grammar model that predicts not only the optimal (i.e. grammatical) realization of a given input, but also makes predictions about the relative grammaticality of suboptimal structures. This allows us to derive a constraint hierarchy that accounts for the interaction of phonological and syntactic constraints on Information Structure and models the acceptability patterns found in the experimental data.

  10. Strategies for integrated densification with urban qualities : Combining Space Syntax with building density, land usage, public transport and property rights in Bergen city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Koning, R.E.; van Nes, A.; Ye, Y.; Roald, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Bergen city in Norway is presently undergoing an enormous population growth. In this respect, Bergen municipality wanted to identify all the possibilities for densification in the current situation. Therefore, the following issues were evaluated: street network and public transport accessibility,

  11. American Sign Language Syntax and Analogical Reasoning Skills Are Influenced by Early Acquisition and Age of Entry to Signing Schools for the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Jon; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L; Novogrodsky, Rama; Hoffmeister, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Failing to acquire language in early childhood because of language deprivation is a rare and exceptional event, except in one population. Deaf children who grow up without access to indirect language through listening, speech-reading, or sign language experience language deprivation. Studies of Deaf adults have revealed that late acquisition of sign language is associated with lasting deficits. However, much remains unknown about language deprivation in Deaf children, allowing myths and misunderstandings regarding sign language to flourish. To fill this gap, we examined signing ability in a large naturalistic sample of Deaf children attending schools for the Deaf where American Sign Language (ASL) is used by peers and teachers. Ability in ASL was measured using a syntactic judgment test and language-based analogical reasoning test, which are two sub-tests of the ASL Assessment Inventory. The influence of two age-related variables were examined: whether or not ASL was acquired from birth in the home from one or more Deaf parents, and the age of entry to the school for the Deaf. Note that for non-native signers, this latter variable is often the age of first systematic exposure to ASL. Both of these types of age-dependent language experiences influenced subsequent signing ability. Scores on the two tasks declined with increasing age of school entry. The influence of age of starting school was not linear. Test scores were generally lower for Deaf children who entered the school of assessment after the age of 12. The positive influence of signing from birth was found for students at all ages tested (7;6-18;5 years old) and for children of all age-of-entry groupings. Our results reflect a continuum of outcomes which show that experience with language is a continuous variable that is sensitive to maturational age.

  12. Teaching the Grammar and Syntax of Business German: Problems and Practical Suggestions. Innovative Strategies and Exercises for Computer-Aided Instruction: Word Order Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsell, Patricia R.

    A computer program is described that is a substack of the "Business German" HyperCard program previously developed by Paulsell and designed as a tutorial to be used with materials for a business German course on the third year college level. The program consists of six stacks, a central one providing graphics-based information on Germany…

  13. Projectivity is the mathematical code of syntax. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, Anat

    2017-07-01

    The thought-provoking proposal by Liu, Xu and Liang [1] to integrate cognitive considerations involved in Dependency distance minimization (DDM) in syntactic theory will, I am sure, be much discussed in the literature. The authors are to be congratulated for a most serious, thorough and mature presentation. I am sure that DDM will find its rightful place alongside other cognitive factors that are considered to significantly affect the structure and evolution of language such as frequency with its serious impact on grammaticalization [2].

  14. American Sign Language Syntax and Analogical Reasoning Skills Are Influenced by Early Acquisition and Age of Entry to Signing Schools for the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Jon; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Novogrodsky, Rama; Hoffmeister, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Failing to acquire language in early childhood because of language deprivation is a rare and exceptional event, except in one population. Deaf children who grow up without access to indirect language through listening, speech-reading, or sign language experience language deprivation. Studies of Deaf adults have revealed that late acquisition of sign language is associated with lasting deficits. However, much remains unknown about language deprivation in Deaf children, allowing myths and misunderstandings regarding sign language to flourish. To fill this gap, we examined signing ability in a large naturalistic sample of Deaf children attending schools for the Deaf where American Sign Language (ASL) is used by peers and teachers. Ability in ASL was measured using a syntactic judgment test and language-based analogical reasoning test, which are two sub-tests of the ASL Assessment Inventory. The influence of two age-related variables were examined: whether or not ASL was acquired from birth in the home from one or more Deaf parents, and the age of entry to the school for the Deaf. Note that for non-native signers, this latter variable is often the age of first systematic exposure to ASL. Both of these types of age-dependent language experiences influenced subsequent signing ability. Scores on the two tasks declined with increasing age of school entry. The influence of age of starting school was not linear. Test scores were generally lower for Deaf children who entered the school of assessment after the age of 12. The positive influence of signing from birth was found for students at all ages tested (7;6–18;5 years old) and for children of all age-of-entry groupings. Our results reflect a continuum of outcomes which show that experience with language is a continuous variable that is sensitive to maturational age. PMID:28082932

  15. The MI SYNTAX score for risk stratification in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for treatment of acute myocardial infarction: A substudy of the COMFORTABLE AMI trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magro, Michael; Räber, Lorenz; Heg, Dik; Taniwaki, Masanori; Kelbaek, Henning; Ostojic, Miodrag C.; Baumbach, Andreas; Tüller, David; von Birgelen, Clemens; Roffi, Marco; Pedrazzini, Giovanni; Kornowski, Ran; Weber, Klaus; Meier, Bernard; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Serruys, Patrick W.; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the performance of the MI Sxscore in a multicentre randomised trial of patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Methods and results The MI Sxscore was prospectively determined among 1132 STEMI patients enrolled into the COMFORTABLE AMI trial,

  16. Privacy at home: Analysis of behavioral patterns in the spatial configuration of traditional and modern houses in the city of Hamedan based on the notion of space syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Alitajer

    2016-09-01

    The findings indicate that the spatial configurations of houses have changed in the course of time. In terms of the indices of spatial configurations, however, the striking difference between traditional and modern houses in Hamedan revolves around the integration and equivalence of all spaces in a house. In other words, the hierarchy of access to spaces and the recognition of territories are limited in modern houses. Hence, privacy in modern houses fades.

  17. Remarques sur le Passif (Remarks on the Passive Voice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchon, Jacqueline

    1977-01-01

    A short study of definitions of the passive voice in French. Definitions are based on meaning; morphology; syntax; meaning and morphology; and morphology and syntax. The latter is the most widely accepted today. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  18. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measurements designs via SPSS: correction and extension of D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W

    2006-05-01

    D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001) published SPSS syntax to perform power analyses for three complex procedures: ANCOVA, MANOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA. Unfortunately, the published SPSS syntax for performing the repeated measures analysis needed some minor revision in order to perform the analysis correctly. This article presents the corrected syntax that will successfully perform the repeated measures analysis and provides some guidance on modifying the syntax to customize the analysis.

  19. Semantic Analysis in Machine Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorokhodko, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    In many cases machine-translation does not produce satisfactory results within the framework of purely formal (morphological and syntaxic) analysis, particularly, in the case of syntaxic and lexical homonomy. An algorithm for syntaxic-semantic analysis is proposed, and its principles of operation are described. The syntaxico-semantic structure is…

  20. Parsing statistical machine translation output

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.; Vetulani, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Despite increasing research into the use of syntax during statistical machine translation, the incorporation of syntax into language models has seen limited success. We present a study of the discriminative abilities of generative syntax-based language models, over and above standard n-gram models,

  1. Sintassi e Tassonomia: Teoria della valenza e lessico-grammatica in tedesco e in italiano (III) (Syntax and Taxonomy: Theory of Valence and Lexical Grammar in German and Italian, Part 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Maria Teresa

    1987-01-01

    In this article, the author concludes a three-part series in which she analyzes verb complements in German and Italian. Parts 1 and 2 of the series appear in volume 18, numbers 2 and 3, respectively. (CFM)

  2. Modalisation et actualisation de l’infinitif dans les énoncés avec les formules « faire + infinitif » et « donner de + infinitif » : analyse du rapport syntaxe et discours

    OpenAIRE

    Koffi Konan

    2013-01-01

    Cet article veut étudier la valeur communicative des expressions « faire + infinitif » et « donner de + infinitif » à travers des énoncés. En effet, il veut montrer que l’organisation syntaxico-sémantique et sémantico-référentiel des énoncés contenant ces expressions dénote d’une certaine attitude du locuteur face à son discours, mais aussi face à son interlocuteur. Ainsi, dans des contextes d’emplois particuliers de ces formules, l’occasion nous est donnée de mettre en évidence un rapport pa...

  3. Příklad výzkumu žákovských představ v české syntaxi / Example of research into pupil conceptions in Czech syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Štěpáník

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to describe research into secondary-schoolstudent’s conceptions of the selected content matter – the relations in compound sentences – and to reflect the current approach to teaching it. The model of educational reconstruction as described by Jelemenská, Sander and Kattmann (2003 has been chosen as the research framework. First, the research problem is described on the general level, and then it is put into school context. Next, methodology and outcomes of the research are described. Last, the outcomes are summarized and discussed and the author gives recommendations for teaching. The outcomes of the research show that the contemporary process of teaching the matter does not satisfactorily reflect the students´ communication experience and their prior knowledge, and does not match the demands of modern Czech language teaching as it ignores the communication aim. Moreover, the controversies seen among linguists, which are simplified for school purposes, have also appeared in thinking of the research subject. The research suggests that work with authentic language material as a living organism is essential in language teaching. This material behaves according to certain rules which can be grasped more easily if teaching works with the students’ prior language knowledge as mother-tongue speakers, and supports their genuine understanding of the content on the basis of intensive cognitive work.

  4. Le dysfonctionnement socio-spatial des grands ensembles en Algérie: technique de l’analyse wayfinding par méthode “movement traces” et l’analyse morphologique (syntaxe spatiale par logiciel “depthmap”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Hima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Résumé La technique de l’analyse syntaxique de la visibilité (Visibility Graph Analysis – VGA et de l’accessibilité (All Line Analysis – ALA par logiciel “DepthMap©(UCL, Londres” et l’analyse du dysfonctionnement wayfinding par méthode “movement traces”, sont utilisées dans ce papier afin de développer un modèle d’analyse et d’investigation de l’impact des changements spatiaux sur le dysfonctionnement socio-spatial du wayfinding, ainsi sur la reproduction urbaine, notamment les transformations des façades et l’appropriation des espaces extérieurs dans les grands ensembles en Algérie. Nous donnons ici le cas d’étude de la cité 1000 logt-Biskra et la cité 500 logt-M’sila. Afin de vérifier cette hypothèse, un modèle d’analyse hybride a été développé par croisement des résultats d’analyses des deux techniques. Par conséquent, le schéma de l’interférence montre que la majorité des piétons préfèrent parcourir les axes courts et droits — caractérisés par une forte propriété syntaxique de visibilité et d’accessibilité (l’intégration, la connectivité et l’intelligibilité — en directions des équipements adjacents et aux milieux des deux cités. Ces itinéraires ont un impact sur les transformations des façades et l’appropriation des espaces extérieurs. Le modèle développé promet de futures recherches sur le plan de la quantification, la modélisation et la simulation du processus de la reproduction urbaine, notamment par les automates cellulaires.

  5. Keith E. Karlsson, Syntax and Affixation, The Evolution of MENTE in Latin and Romance, Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für roma­ nische Philologie, Band 182, M. Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 1981,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavao Tekavčić

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available La linguistica romanza, "scienza-pilota" delle discipline sorelle, vanta ormai una tradizione tanto lunga e ricca che i singoli studi non  si contano più; eppure ci sono ancora domi­ ni che consentono ricerche ulteriori e conclusioni nuove (si pensi ad esempio alla monografia di H. J. Izzo sulla gorgia toscana o agli studi di P. A. Gaeng sulle iscrizioni latine cristiane - per citare solo due recenti autori fra i tanti che si possono elencare. Alla folta serie delle monografie romanze si è venuta ad aggiungere recentemente quella che qui intendia­mo recensire. L'autore, docente all'Università di Knoxville (Tennessee, USA, dedica la sua monografia ad un dominic che e da tempo nato e studiato, che dunque potrebbe parere risolto, mentre e invece ben lantana dall'essere Chiaro in tutti i Suoi aspetti. Si tratta della genesi (in latina e dell'evoluzione (negli idiomi romanzi degli avverbi formati con il morfema MENTE. L'opera di K. E. Karlsson rappresenta un contribute di notevole importanza allo studio del problema, cosa visibile anche dalla sua pubblicazione nella collana dei Beihefte alla ZrPh.

  6. Degrees of sustainable location of railway stations : Integrating space syntax and node place value model on railway sations in the province of North Holland's strategic plan for 2010-2040

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.; Stolk, E.

    2012-01-01

    Mobility on rails is acknowledged to be one of the most sustainable means of transportation between cities and towns. Therefore, a railway station’s location in a built environment and its degree of accessibility is essential to reach as many travellers as possible. Even though there exist several

  7. PENERAPAN USHUL AN-NAHW DALAM PENYUSUNAN MATERI PEMBELAJARAN NAHW PEDAGOGIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabibi Muhammad Luthfi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of Arabic syntax and the foundation is essentially in the Arab world there is a group that reconstruct the foundation in order to prepare syntactic and group developing pedagogical syntax essentially Arab and foundation combined with Western linguistics, but do not link it with language learning. This article would describe the concept of syntax as a basic foundation of Arabic linguistics epistemology that could be the basis of linguistic pedagogical education in Arabic. Furthermore, this article would identify its application in the preparation of teaching materials for students of pedagogical syntax Indonesia. While the study of Arabic syntax and essentially foundation in Indonesia, many educational institutions Arabic ignore their correlation. Based on linguistic approach to educational and library data analyzed by the text of discourse found that the basic foundation of Arabic syntax is the sama', qiyas, ijma', ta'lil, ta'wil, istihsan 'amil and istishhab. The application of the basic foundation of syntax as the basis for the preparation of learning materials is a pedagogical syntactic analysis of the basic foundations of syntax in generating syntax, allowance rules of syntax, classification of syntactic descriptive elements, comparing element with Indonesian and Arabic syntax and arrrange the teaching materials.

  8. NEAMS-IPL MOOSE Midyear Framework Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permann, Cody; Alger, Brian; Peterson, John; Slaughter, Andrew; Andrš, David; Martineau, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The MOOSE Framework is a modular pluggable framework for building complex simulations. The ability to add new objects with custom syntax is a core capability that makes MOOSE a powerful platform for coupling multiple applications together within a single environment. The creation of a new, more standardized JSON syntax output improves the external interfaces for generating graphical components or for validating input file syntax. The design of this interface and the requirements it satisfies are covered in this short report.

  9. NEAMS-IPL MOOSE Midyear Framework Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permann, Cody [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alger, Brian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Peterson, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Slaughter, Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Andrš, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-05-09

    The MOOSE Framework is a modular pluggable framework for building complex simulations. The ability to add new objects with custom syntax is a core capability that makes MOOSE a powerful platform for coupling multiple applications together within a single environment. The creation of a new, more standardized JSON syntax output improves the external interfaces for generating graphical components or for validating input file syntax. The design of this interface and the requirements it satisfies are covered in this short report.

  10. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    problem in search and advertising. The question that this thesis asks is if the patterns studied in syntax , morphology , and semantics are influenced by the...draw upon formalisms developed in multiple subfields of linguistics: syntax , semantics, and cross-language investigations of semantics and morphology . We...11 1.2 Sources for Capturing More Nuanced Patterns from Text . . . . . . . 12 1.2.1 Syntax

  11. TENTACLE: Multi-Camera Immersive Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Control Center software which is installed at Camp Ripley BQS Boolean Query Syntax C2 Command and control CCIRM Collection Coordination and...thresholding and morphology (dilation and erosion) to clean up noise and strengthen the area of interest in the foreground mask. (6.) Find the...knowledge of the IPL parameters “discovered” during the login process. The syntax of the query is the Boolean Query Syntax (BQS) as defined in Annex F

  12. Resolution Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Casares, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    The value of syntax is controversial: some see syntax as defining us as species, while for others it just facilitates communication. To assess syntax we investigate its relation to problem resolving. First we define a problem theory from first principles, and then we translate the theory concepts to mathematics, obtaining the requirements that every resolution machine has to implement. Such a resolution machine will be able to execute any possible resolution, tha...

  13. Time use and movement behaviour of young people in cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; van Nes, Akkelies; Jensen, Anders Sorgenfri

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how well the space syntax methodology is capable of predicting the actual movement of people in a city. The space syntax methodology has been surrounded by a debate in recent years about its applicability, see for example the debate between (Ratti 2004a;Ratti 2004b) and (Hillier...... & Penn 2004), as well as guest editorial by (Steadman 2004) on developments in space syntax. To evaluate the usefulness of the space syntax methodology this paper explores one case, mobility in Aalborg, a city in Northern Jutland Denmark . The spatial centrality potential of each road in the centre...

  14. Reasoning about Use Cases using Logic Grammars and Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Have, Christian Theil; Tveitane, Knut

    2007-01-01

    We consider automated transition from Use Cases in a restricted natural language syntax into UML models, by trying to capture the semantics of the natural language and map it into building blocks of the object oriented programming paradigm. Syntax and semantic analysis is done in a framework...

  15. Spatial tools for diagnosing the degree of safety and liveability, and to regenerate urban areas in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, A.; López, Manuel; de Bonth, L.F.J.M.; Verhagen, D.J.; Waayer, Simone; Nijhuis, Steffen; Zlatanova, Sisi; Dias, Eduardo; van der Hoeven, Frank; van der Spek, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This contribution describes the tool Social Safe Urban Design (SSUD), seen
    together with socio-spatial and linguistic challenges when applying space syntax in the regenerating of problem urban areas. The Space Syntax jargon is technical and needs to be translated into a language understandable

  16. Preschoolers' Preference for Syntactic Complexity Varies by Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Kurkul, Katelyn; Arunachalam, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether 4- and 5-year-old children choose to learn from informants who use more complex syntax (passive voice) over informants using more simple syntax (active voice). In Experiment 1 (N = 30), children viewed one informant who consistently used the passive voice and another who used active voice. When learning novel…

  17. The Varieties of Programming Language Semantics (and Their Uses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosses, Peter David

    2001-01-01

    Formal descriptions of syntax are quite popular: regular and context-free grammars have become accepted as useful for documenting the syntax of programming languages, as well as for generating efficient parsers; attribute grammars allow parsing to be linked with typechecking and code generation...

  18. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two rhetorical structural types, characterised as WH-ASK and NP-. WH-LET constructions, derived from the Yoruba praise and incantatory poetic tradition, are identified in Niyi Osundare's poetry. The syntax, though distinct and unique, does not violate the combinatory possibilities of English. Breaking no rules of the syntax ...

  19. A Spoken Dialogue System for Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    10 2.4.2.2 The Syntax ...comprised of three core components: lexicon, syntax , and declarations. Each module is briefly discussed below. 2.4.2.1 The Lexicon The lexicon consists...wh- word, etc. Each lexical entry is specified for its word-(sub-)class, and relevant semantic, grammatical, morphological and graphemic properties

  20. From Number Agreement to the Subjunctive: Evidence for Processability Theory in L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to typological plausibility of Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998, 2005) by providing empirical data that show that the stages predicted by PT are followed in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish syntax and morphology. In the present article, the PT stages for L2 Spanish morphology and syntax are first…

  1. Reliable Electronic Text: The Elusive Prerequisite for a Host of Human Language Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    syntax -constrained plain text file format. The syntax of an HTML file provides no reliable sequence of bytes for differentiating the HTML file type...handle word morphology , stem words, select stop words, and select words for indexing (Baeza-Yates & Ribeiro-Neto, 1999, p. 165).8 The reader should

  2. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , India. (Email, vasantad@vsnl.net). The study of language knowledge guided by a purely biological perspective prioritizes the study of syntax. The essential process of syntax is recursion – the ability to generate an infinite array of expressions ...

  3. Modeling and 3D Visualization for Evaluation of Anti-Terrorism/Force Protection Alternatives: Phase II Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-21

    124 Figure 27. Example ATON X3D Code ( VRML Syntax) with One Range Light and Two Lights...129 Figure 29. Example Compass Rose X3D Code ( VRML ...PSB X3D Code ( VRML Syntax)....................................................132 Figure 32. X3D Example PSB Scene First with One Section, then Three

  4. A free software package for a human online conditioned suppression preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, M.; Clarysse, J.; Beckers, T.; van Vooren, P.R.; Baeyens, F.

    2010-01-01

    Martians V2 is both a language syntax in which experiments can be written and an implementation of this syntax in a runtime application that, when fed a valid experiment text file, will execute the given experiment. It is based on the original Martians preparation, which has proven a valuable tool

  5. Decorated proofs for computational effects: States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Guillaume Dumas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The syntax of an imperative language does not mention explicitly the state, while its denotational semantics has to mention it. In this paper we show that the equational proofs about an imperative language may hide the state, in the same way as the syntax does.

  6. Structural Packaging in the Input to Language Learning: Contributions of Prosodic and Morphological Marking of Phrases to the Acquisition of Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, James L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The role of cues in language acquisition was examined in three experiments. When the cue marked the phrase structure of sentences, adult subjects successfully learned syntax. When input was identical but lacked that cue, subjects failed to learn significant portions of syntax. (Author/GDC)

  7. Disambiguation filters for scannerless generalized LR parsers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, M.G.J. van den; Scheerder, J.; Vinju, J.J.; Visser, Eelco

    In this paper we present the fusion of generalized LR parsing and scannerless parsing. This combination supports syntax definitions in which all aspects (lexical and contextfree) of the syntax of a language are defined explicitly in one formalism. Furthermore, there are no restrictions on the

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... The study of language knowledge guided by a purely biological perspective prioritizes the study of syntax. The essential process of syntax is recursion – the ability to generate an infinite array of expressions from a limited set of elements. Researchers working within the biological perspective argue that this ...

  9. On the Nature of Syntactic Variation: Evidence from Complex Predicates and Complex Word-Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, William

    2001-01-01

    Provides evidence from child language acquisition and comparative syntax for existence of a syntactic parameter in the classical sense of Chomsky (1981), with simultaneous effects on syntactic argument structure. Implications are that syntax is subject to points of substantive parametric variation as envisioned in Chomsky, and the time course of…

  10. Processing of Tense Morphology and Filler-Gap Dependencies by Chinese Second Language Speakers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiyin Renee

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the field of Second Language Acquisition concerning whether a fundamental difference exists between the native language (L1) and adult second language (L2) online processing of syntax and morpho-syntax. The Shallow Structure Hypothesis (SSH) (Clahsen and Felser, 2006a, b) states that L2 online parsing is qualitatively…

  11. Linguistic Interdependence between Spanish Language and English Language and Reading: A Longitudinal Exploration from Second through Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Silverman, Rebecca D.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored effects of Spanish oral language skills (vocabulary and syntax) on the development of English oral language skills (vocabulary, morphology, semantics, syntax) and reading comprehension among 156 bilingual Latino children in second through fifth grade whose first language was Spanish and whose second language was English. Using…

  12. Headhood in Yorùbá nominal compounds | Abíódún | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... while some are headless. As Yorùbá nominal compounds cannot be said to exhibit uniformity in their headedness, they cannot be explained using a monolithic approach of either syntax or morphology. The phenomenon of word headedness in the language can best be explained along the interface axis of morpho-syntax ...

  13. The Interaction of Animacy and Morphosyntax in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melebari, Alaa

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation concerns the ways that (IN)ANIMACY distinctions interact with various sub-systems of the human language faculty, in particular, morpho-syntax. In Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), morpho-syntax and ANIMACY can be pit against each other directly on the same set of target words, allowing a close inspection of the…

  14. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  15. The contribution of Qumran to historical Hebrew linguistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... Evidence from the syntax of participial negation at. Qumran as opposed to Biblical Hebrew provides evidence for this claim. The contribution of Qumran to historical Hebrew linguistics: Evidence from the syntax of participial negation. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or mobile device.

  16. Recursividade e coordenação em português a partir de sintagmas preposicionais: da prosódia à sintaxe em estudos psicolinguísticos = Recursion and coordination in Portuguese from prepositional phrases: from prosody to syntax in psycholinguistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, Nathacia Lucena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de pistas prosódicas, verificadas com experimentos psicolinguísticos de leitura, tem-se aqui o propósito original, por meio dos postulados da Gramática Gerativa, de se mostrar se a prosódia marca a estrutura sintática relativa à Recursividade ou à Coordenação, presente em sintagmas preposicionais (PPs seguintes a um sintagma verbal no português do Brasil. A curva de pitch, detectada pelo uso da plataforma Praat, permite a análise de sintagmas intonacionais, que possuem características acústicas, como fronteiras, e características linguísticas, como pistas sintáticas (cf. LADD, 1986, 1988. As hipóteses são as de que em frases intonacionais em construções com PPs-adjunto coordenados haja o reset, e em construções com PPs-adjunto recursivos não haja o reset. A ausência do reset corresponde a uma pista prosódica do mecanismo de Recursividade

  17. Sintaxe greco-romana : Prisciano de Cesareia e Apolônio Díscolo na história do pensamento gramatical antigo = Graeco-roman syntax : Priscian of Cesarea and Apollonius Dyscolus in the history of ancient grammatical thought

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio da Silva Fortes

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Em nossa tese, examinamos os dois livros finais (XVII e XVIII) das Institutiones grammaticae de Prisciano (séc. VI), intitulados De constructione, a partir de dois eixos fundamentais: (1) a maneira pela qual os temas gramaticais desenvolvidos por Prisciano na constituição de sua "sintaxe" se relacionam com os temas das artes grammaticae dos séculos III, IV e V; 2) as relações textuais e teóricas entre o De constructione e o seu modelo...Observação: O resumo, na íntegra, poderá ser v...

  18. Obtaining correct compile results by absorbing mismatches between data types representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, Michihiro; Horii, Hiroshi H.; Kawachiya, Kiyokuni; Takeuchi, Mikio

    2017-11-21

    Methods and a system are provided. A method includes implementing a function, which a compiler for a first language does not have, using a compiler for a second language. The implementing step includes generating, by the compiler for the first language, a first abstract syntax tree. The implementing step further includes converting, by a converter, the first abstract syntax tree to a second abstract syntax tree of the compiler for the second language using a conversion table from data representation types in the first language to data representation types in the second language. When a compilation error occurs, the implementing step also includes generating a special node for error processing in the second abstract syntax tree and storing an error token in the special node. When unparsing, the implementing step additionally includes outputting the error token, in the form of source code written in the first language.

  19. Epic 1.0 (unconditional) : an equational programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Walters (Pum); J.F.T. Kamperman

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe present EPIC, an equational programming language: its abstract syntax, static and operational semantics, and one of many possible concrete grammars of unconditional EPIC.

  20. UPC Language Specifications V1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UPC Consortium

    2005-05-31

    UPC is an explicitly parallel extension to the ISO C 99Standard. UPC follows the partitioned global address space programming model. This document is the formal specification for the UPC language syntax and semantics.

  1. The DCR Workbench: Declarative Choreographies for Collaborative Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The DCR Workbench is an online tool for simulation and analysis of collaborative distributed processes specified as DCR graphs. The Workbench is a robust and comprehensive implementation of DCR graphs, providing concrete syntax, specification by refinement, visualisation, simulation, static analy...

  2. EXPRESSÃO REGULAR NUMÉRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vier Hoffmeister

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article defines the formal definition of the computer program language Numeric Regular Expression. A language concept inspired by Regular Expression syntax, applying your power and flexibility to numeric chains are describe.

  3. Plaadid / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2002-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Mike Oldfield "Collection", Compay Segundo "Duets", Sandra "Wheel Of Time", "Spirit Of Africa", Paddy's "Irish Folk", Edwin Collins "Doctor Syntax", Doors "Live in Hollywood", Sonic Youth "Murray Street"

  4. Toward Managing & Automating CyberCIEGE Scenario Definition File Creation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johns, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    .... These scenarios are written CyberCIEGE Scenarios Definition Language. Unfortunately, the trade-off for flexibility, extendibility and fully customizable Scenarios is syntax complexity in the Scenarios definition language...

  5. Ke kořenům makedonského písemnictví

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ribarova, Zdenka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 1 (2017), s. 65-77 ISSN 0080-3588 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Macedonian Church Slavonic * Ohrid literary center * orthography * phonology * morpho-syntax Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  6. Comment on Hoffman and Rovine (2007): SPSS MIXED can estimate models with heterogeneous variances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Bruce; Black, Ryan A

    2015-06-01

    Hoffman and Rovine (Behavior Research Methods, 39:101-117, 2007) have provided a very nice overview of how multilevel models can be useful to experimental psychologists. They included two illustrative examples and provided both SAS and SPSS commands for estimating the models they reported. However, upon examining the SPSS syntax for the models reported in their Table 3, we found no syntax for models 2B and 3B, both of which have heterogeneous error variances. Instead, there is syntax that estimates similar models with homogeneous error variances and a comment stating that SPSS does not allow heterogeneous errors. But that is not correct. We provide SPSS MIXED commands to estimate models 2B and 3B with heterogeneous error variances and obtain results nearly identical to those reported by Hoffman and Rovine in their Table 3. Therefore, contrary to the comment in Hoffman and Rovine's syntax file, SPSS MIXED can estimate models with heterogeneous error variances.

  7. Translation specification of OSPFv2 LSAs to NDL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ham, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this report we specify how we translate all the topology information from Open Shortest Path First protocol version 2 (OSPF) Link State Announcements (LSAs) to the syntax of the Network Description Language (NDL).

  8. The lexicographical handling of grammatical equivalence: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... utilise the format of the microstructure as a means to convey grammatical facts of the target language to the learner. Keywords: afrikaans, grammatical equivalence, learners' dictionaries, lexicography, macrostructure, microstructure, morphology, syntax, translating dictionaries, translation theory, trilingual dictionaries, zulu ...

  9. Inter-Rater Agreement Measures and the Refinement of Metrics in the PLATO MT Evaluation Paradigm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Keith J; Vanni, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    ...), namely, clarity, coherence, morphology, syntax, general and domain-specific lexical robustness, and named-entity translation, as well as a DARPA-inspired measure of adequacy are at the core of the program...

  10. THE NORMALIZATION OF FINANCIAL DATA EXCHANGE OVER THE INTERNET: ADOPTING INTERNATIONAL STANDARD XBRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Georgel Tudor

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of a common syntax for EDI (Electronic Data Interchange, XML (eXtensible Markup Language, opened new formalization perspectives for interorganizational data exchanges over the Internet. Many of the organizations involved in the normaliza

  11. Obtaining correct compile results by absorbing mismatches between data types representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, Michihiro; Horii, Hiroshi H.; Kawachiya, Kiyokuni; Takeuchi, Mikio

    2017-03-21

    Methods and a system are provided. A method includes implementing a function, which a compiler for a first language does not have, using a compiler for a second language. The implementing step includes generating, by the compiler for the first language, a first abstract syntax tree. The implementing step further includes converting, by a converter, the first abstract syntax tree to a second abstract syntax tree of the compiler for the second language using a conversion table from data representation types in the first language to data representation types in the second language. When a compilation error occurs, the implementing step also includes generating a special node for error processing in the second abstract syntax tree and storing an error token in the special node. When unparsing, the implementing step additionally includes outputting the error token, in the form of source code written in the first language.

  12. Obtaining correct compile results by absorbing mismatches between data types representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, Michihiro; Horii, Hiroshi H.; Kawachiya, Kiyokuni; Takeuchi, Mikio

    2016-10-04

    Methods and a system are provided. A method includes implementing a function, which a compiler for a first language does not have, using a compiler for a second language. The implementing step includes generating, by the compiler for the first language, a first abstract syntax tree. The implementing step further includes converting, by a converter, the first abstract syntax tree to a second abstract syntax tree of the compiler for the second language using a conversion table from data representation types in the first language to data representation types in the second language. When a compilation error occurs, the implementing step also includes generating a special node for error processing in the second abstract syntax tree and storing an error token in the special node. When unparsing, the implementing step additionally includes outputting the error token, in the form of source code written in the first language.

  13. Relation of ABO blood groups to coronary lesion complexity in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ahmet; Tanboğa, İbrahim Halil; Kurt, Mustafa; Işık, Turgay; Kaya, Yasemin; Günaydın, Zeki Yüksel; Aksakal, Enbiya

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between ABO blood groups and complexity of coronary lesions assessed by SYNTAX score (SS) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Our cross-sectional and observational study population consisted of 559 stable CAD patients. From all patients, ABO blood group was determined and the SS was calculated as low SYNTAX score (0-22), intermediate SYNTAX (23-32) score and high SYNTAX score (>32). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis test and chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of high SS. The analysis between the SS tertiles revealed that the frequency of non-O blood group was significantly higher in the upper SS tertiles (56.2% vs. 75.9 vs. 80.2%, pABO blood groups and complexity of angiographic CAD.

  14. NEFTool: System Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrall, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The text processing team from the Intelligence Analysis discipline has experimented with the viability of using machine-learning models to automatically tag English words with syntax and functional...

  15. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: shelxl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC REFEREE. No syntax errors found. CIF dictionary Interpreting this report. Datablock: shelxl. Bond precision:.

  16. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: mnd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC REFEREE. No syntax errors found. CIF dictionary Interpreting this report. Datablock: mnd. Bond precision:.

  17. checkCIF/PLATON report Datablock: shelx

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE. FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC REFEREE. No syntax errors found. CIF dictionary Interpreting this report. Datablock: shelx. Bond precision:.

  18. supp10a.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    THIS REPORT IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. IF USED AS PART OF A REVIEW PROCEDURE FOR PUBLICATION, IT SHOULD NOT REPLACE THE EXPERTISE OF AN EXPERIENCED CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC REFEREE. No syntax errors found. CIF dictionary. Please wait while processing .... Interpreting this report.

  19. Entries for "International Dictionary of Music Therapy"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2013-01-01

    Lars Ole Bondehar skrevet eller bidraget til følgende opslag: analogy, graphic notation, health musicking, intensity profile, metaphor, musical pragmatics, musical semantics, musical syntax, narrative, Even Ruud, self-inquiry, vitality affects (dynamics), Tony Wigram...

  20. Jazykovědec a pedagog Jan Balhar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čižmárová, Libuše

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 2 (2011), s. 101-103 ISSN 0027-8203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : Jan Balhar * dialectology * syntax * the Czech Linguistic Atlas * pedagogy Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics