WorldWideScience

Sample records for syntans

  1. The effect of mimosa and syntan mixture on the quality of tanned red snapper leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, M.; Sahubawa, L.; Pertiwiningrum, A.; Rahmadian, Y.; Puspita, I. D.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of syntan and mimosa combination on the quality of tanned red snapper leather. The study was designed using complete randomized design (CRD) and the advanced test of Least Significant Difference (LSD) with three replications and three treatments of combined syntan and mimosa, namely: p1 (4 % syntan, 5 % mimosa), p2 (8 % syntan, 5 %mimosa), p3 (12 % syntan, 5 % mimosa). Data were analyzed using SPSS 18. The measured parameters were tensile strength (N·cm-2), elongation (%), tear strength (N·cm-1), enervation (mm), wrinkle temperature (°C), fat/oil content (%) and water content (%). The results indicate that the combined syntan and mimosa tanners gave no significant effect on the physical parameters (tensile strength, elongation, tear strength, enervation and wrinkle temperature) and chemical parameters (moisture and fat/oil). All treatments (p1, p2 and p3) met the Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 06-4586-1998 for chrome tanned freshwater snake leather for the parameters of tensile strength, tear strength, enervation, wrinkle temperature and moisture. The parameter of elongation and fat/oil content did not meet with the SNI 06-4586-1998. Among the three combinations of a tanner, syntan 4 % and mimosa 5 % treatment gave the best leather quality.

  2. 40 CFR 425.30 - Applicability; description of the hair save or pulp, non-chrome tan, retan-wet finish subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND... processes raw or cured cattle or cattle-like hides into finished leather by hair save or pulp unhairing, vegetable tanning or alum, syntans, oils and other agents for tanning, and retan-wet finishing. ...

  3. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The effect of naphthol syntans on the uptake of acid dyes by nylon has been studied as ... have only a minor effect on the rate at which dye is adsorbed by the fibre, they reduce ... into the reaction vessel and the system allowed to.

  4. Penggunaan Zat Warna Alam untuk Kulit Non Konvensional

    OpenAIRE

    Kasmudjiastuti, Emiliana

    2006-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengaplikasikan zat warna alam pada kulit non konvensional dengan mordan yang ramah lingkungan. Bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini meliputi : bahan baku berupa kulit biawak, kulit ular kobra, dan kulit ikan kakap awet kering, bahan pewarna dari ekstrak larutan kayu secang, tegeran, nangka, mahoni dan tingi, bahan penyamak krom dan syntan, alum sebagai mordan serta bahan pembantu untuk penyamakan. Tahapan penelitian meliputi persiapan ekstrak larutan zat w...

  5. Penggunaan zat warna alam untuk kulit non konvensional

    OpenAIRE

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to apply the natural dyes for non conventional leather with mordant environmental friendly. This research used lizard skins, cobra skins and kakap fish skins from dried preservation; woods extract of secang, tegeran, nangka, mahoni and tinggi; chrome and syntan as tanning agent; alum as mordant and material additives for tanning. The methods of this research were preparation of solution extract, tanning and testing. The principles of dyeing with the natura...

  6. Vegetable and synthetic tannins induce hormesis/toxicity in sea urchin early development and in algal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nicola, Elena; Meric, Suereyya; Gallo, Marialuisa; Iaccarino, Mario; Della Rocca, Claudio; Lofrano, Giusy; Russo, Teresa; Pagano, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Mimosa tannin and phenol-based synthetic tannin (syntan) were tested for toxicity to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis) early development and to marine algal growth (Dunaliella tertiolecta). Sea urchin embryogenesis was affected by vegetable tannin and syntan water extracts (VTWE and STWE) at levels ≥1 mg/L. Developmental defects were significantly decreased at VTWE and STWE levels of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L when control cultures displayed suboptimal quality, i.e. <70% 'viable' (normal or retarded) larvae. Fertilization success of sea urchin sperm was increased up to 0.3 mg/L STWE or VTWE, then was inhibited by increasing tannin levels (1-30 mg/L). Offspring abnormalities, following sperm exposure to VTWE or STWE, showed the same shift from hormesis to toxicity. Cell growth bioassays in D. tertiolecta exposed to VTWE or STWE (0.1-30 mg/L) showed non-linear concentration-related toxicity. Novel criteria are suggested in defining control quality that should reveal hormetic effects. - Vegetable tannin and synthetic tannins were moderately toxic or displayed hormetic effects in sea urchins and in algae. Re-defining control quality is needed for evaluating hormetic effects

  7. Vegetable and synthetic tannins induce hormesis/toxicity in sea urchin early development and in algal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, Elena [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Meric, Suereyya [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Gallo, Marialuisa [Campania Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPAC), I-80143 Naples (Italy); Iaccarino, Mario [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Della Rocca, Claudio [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Lofrano, Giusy [Department of Civil Engineering, Salerno University, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Russo, Teresa [Campania Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPAC), I-80143 Naples (Italy); Pagano, Giovanni [Italian National Cancer Institute, G. Pascale Foundation, via M. Semmola, I-80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: gbpagano@tin.it

    2007-03-15

    Mimosa tannin and phenol-based synthetic tannin (syntan) were tested for toxicity to sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis) early development and to marine algal growth (Dunaliella tertiolecta). Sea urchin embryogenesis was affected by vegetable tannin and syntan water extracts (VTWE and STWE) at levels {>=}1 mg/L. Developmental defects were significantly decreased at VTWE and STWE levels of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/L when control cultures displayed suboptimal quality, i.e. <70% 'viable' (normal or retarded) larvae. Fertilization success of sea urchin sperm was increased up to 0.3 mg/L STWE or VTWE, then was inhibited by increasing tannin levels (1-30 mg/L). Offspring abnormalities, following sperm exposure to VTWE or STWE, showed the same shift from hormesis to toxicity. Cell growth bioassays in D. tertiolecta exposed to VTWE or STWE (0.1-30 mg/L) showed non-linear concentration-related toxicity. Novel criteria are suggested in defining control quality that should reveal hormetic effects. - Vegetable tannin and synthetic tannins were moderately toxic or displayed hormetic effects in sea urchins and in algae. Re-defining control quality is needed for evaluating hormetic effects.

  8. Penggunaan zat warna alam untuk kulit non konvensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to apply the natural dyes for non conventional leather with mordant environmental friendly. This research used lizard skins, cobra skins and kakap fish skins from dried preservation; woods extract of secang, tegeran, nangka, mahoni and tinggi; chrome and syntan as tanning agent; alum as mordant and material additives for tanning. The methods of this research were preparation of solution extract, tanning and testing. The principles of dyeing with the natural dyes used natural dyes withoud mixed dyestuffs and mordant environtment friendly. The research results showed that the natural dyes from secang woods, tegeran woods, nangka woods, mahoni woods and tingi bark were acid dyes with pH of 4 – 5 and they could be applied on lizard skins, cobra skins and kakap fish skins. The natural dyes from mahoni woods had superior acid resistance (sulphate acid, formic acid and acetate acid, the value was 4/5 (grey scale and also they had the dry and wet rub fastness which were better than those of natural dyes from secang, tegeran, nangka, and tinggi.

  9. Pengaruh penggunaan bahan pewarna alam dari ekstrak kayu terhadap sifat fisis kulit ikan kakap merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Kasmudjiastuti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to identify the effect of some natural dye of wood extract to the physical properties (tensile strength, elongation and rub fastness resistance of kakap (Lutjanidae fish skin leather. Fifteen pieces of dry preserved kakap fish skin were used in this research, and tanned using syntan and alum. The dyeing process was done using natural dyes of wood extract of Caesalpinia sappan L, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ, Maclura cochinensis, and Ceriops tagal. The result of research indicated that the kind of applied natural dyes were not affect the physical properties of Kakap fish skins. The fish skins dyed using the such natural dyes was able be utilised as material in leather goods manufacturing. One of the five types of natural dye used in this research, Swietenia mahagoni JACQ wood extract produced the best dyed leather having good tensile strength, elongation/flexibility and the colour fastness. The tensile strength was 213,15 kg/cm2, flexibility 56% and colour fastness with wet white cloth 3/4 (grey scale value and with dry white cloth 4/5 (grey scale value, respectively

  10. Immobilization of Bacillus sp. in mesoporous activated carbon for degradation of sulphonated phenolic compound in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekaran, G., E-mail: ganesansekaran@gmail.com [Environmental Technology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Adyar, Chennai-600 020 (India); Karthikeyan, S. [Environmental Technology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Adyar, Chennai-600 020 (India); Gupta, V.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee-247 667 (India); Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Boopathy, R.; Maharaja, P. [Environmental Technology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Adyar, Chennai-600 020 (India)

    2013-03-01

    Xenobiotic compounds are used in considerable quantities in leather industries besides natural organic and inorganic compounds. These compounds resist biological degradation and thus they remain in the treated wastewater in the unaltered molecular configurations. Immobilization of organisms in carrier matrices protects them from shock load application and from the toxicity of chemicals in bulk liquid phase. Mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) has been considered in the present study as the carrier matrix for the immobilization of Bacillus sp. isolated from Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) employed for the treatment of wastewater containing sulphonated phenolic (SP) compounds. Temperature, pH, concentration, particle size and mass of MAC were observed to influence the immobilization behavior of Bacillus sp. The percentage immobilization of Bacillus sp. was the maximum at pH 7.0, temperature 20 Degree-Sign C and at particle size 300 {mu}m. Enthalpy, free energy and entropy of immobilization were - 46.9 kJ mol{sup -1}, - 1.19 kJ mol{sup -1} and - 161.36 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1} respectively at pH 7.0, temperature 20 Degree-Sign C and particle size 300 {mu}m. Higher values of {Delta}H{sup 0} indicate the firm bonding of the Bacillus sp. in MAC. Degradation of aqueous sulphonated phenolic compound by Bacillus sp. immobilized in MAC followed pseudo first order rate kinetics with rate constant 1.12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation on phenolic syntan using immobilized activated carbon as catalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacillus sp. immobilized cell reactor removed all refractory organic loads. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The removal mechanism is due to co-metabolism between carbon and organisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organics are completely metabolized rather than adsorption.

  11. Application of H2O and UV/H2O2 processes for enhancing the biodegradability of reactive black 5 dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, S Divya; Kalyanaraman, Chitra; Gandhi, N Nagendra

    2011-07-01

    Leather processing is a traditional activity in India during which many organic and inorganic chemicals are added while part of it is absorbed by the leather, the remaining chemicals are discharged along with the effluent. The effluent contains both easily biodegradable and not easily biodegradable synthetic organics like dyes, syntans. Easily biodegradable organics are removed in the existing biological treatment units whereas synthetic organics present in the wastewater are mostly adsorbed over the microbes. As the tannery effluent contains complex chemicals, it is difficult to ascertain the degradation of specific pollutants. To determine the increase in the biodegradability, one of the complex and synthetic organic chemical like dye used in the tanning operation was selected for Advanced Oxidation Process (AOPs) treatment for cleaving complex organics and its subsequent treatment in aerobic process. In the present study, Reactive Black 5 Dye used in the tanning operation was selected for Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and UV/H2O2 pre-treatment for different operating conditions like pH, contact time and different volume of H2O2. A comparison was made between the untreated, Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and UV/H2O2 treated effluent in order to ascertain the influence of AOP on the improvement of biodegradability of effluent. An increase in the BOD5/COD ratio from 0.21 to 0.435 was achieved in the UV/H2O2 pre-treatment process. This pre-treated effluent was further subjected to aerobic process. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency of the UV/H2O2 pre-treated dye solution in the aerobic process was found to be 86.39% and 77.82% when compared to 52.43% of BOD5 and 51.55% of COD removal efficiency without any pre-treatment. Hence from these results, to increase the biodegradability of Reactive Black 5 dye pre-treatment methods like H2O2 and UV/H2O2 can be used prior to biological treatment process.