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Sample records for syntactic ambiguity resolution

  1. Speech rhythm facilitates syntactic ambiguity resolution: ERP evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Roncaglia-Denissen

    Full Text Available In the current event-related potential (ERP study, we investigated how speech rhythm impacts speech segmentation and facilitates the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in auditory sentence processing. Participants listened to syntactically ambiguous German subject- and object-first sentences that were spoken with either regular or irregular speech rhythm. Rhythmicity was established by a constant metric pattern of three unstressed syllables between two stressed ones that created rhythmic groups of constant size. Accuracy rates in a comprehension task revealed that participants understood rhythmically regular sentences better than rhythmically irregular ones. Furthermore, the mean amplitude of the P600 component was reduced in response to object-first sentences only when embedded in rhythmically regular but not rhythmically irregular context. This P600 reduction indicates facilitated processing of sentence structure possibly due to a decrease in processing costs for the less-preferred structure (object-first. Our data suggest an early and continuous use of rhythm by the syntactic parser and support language processing models assuming an interactive and incremental use of linguistic information during language processing.

  2. Lexical and prosodic effects on syntactic ambiguity resolution in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as "While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song." Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of the ambiguous noun phrase (the child). Thus, there were two congruous conditions (in which both lexical cues and prosodic cues were consistent) and two incongruous conditions (in which lexical and prosodic cues conflicted). The results showed that the people with aphasia had longer listening times for the ambiguous noun phrase (the child) when the cues were conflicting, rather than consistent. The controls showed effects earlier in the sentence, at the subordinate verb (watched or danced). Both groups showed evidence of reanalysis at the main verb (sang). These effects demonstrate that the aphasic group was sensitive to the lexical and prosodic cues, but used them on a delayed time course relative to the control group.

  3. Executive function and intelligence in the resolution of temporary syntactic ambiguity: an individual differences investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E; Nigg, Joel T; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of intelligence and executive functions in the resolution of temporary syntactic ambiguity using an individual differences approach. Data were collected from 174 adolescents and adults who completed a battery of cognitive tests as well as a sentence comprehension task. The critical items for the comprehension task consisted of object/subject garden paths (e.g., While Anna dressed the baby that was small and cute played in the crib), and participants answered a comprehension question (e.g., Did Anna dress the baby?) following each one. Previous studies have shown that garden-path misinterpretations tend to persist into final interpretations. Results showed that both intelligence and processing speed interacted with ambiguity. Individuals with higher intelligence and faster processing were more likely to answer the comprehension questions correctly and, specifically, following ambiguous as opposed to unambiguous sentences. Inhibition produced a marginal effect, but the variance in inhibition was largely shared with intelligence. Conclusions focus on the role of individual differences in cognitive ability and their impact on syntactic ambiguity resolution.

  4. "Pinch the Giraffe with the Glove" - Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Previous research in language development focusing on the comprehension of ambiguous sentences has found that children are unable to use top-down information, such as referential context, to resolve the ambiguity. The present study aimed to discover whether children were also insensitive to a different form of top-down processing (the prior question). To do so, we conducted an experiment with 5- and 7-year-olds which involved playing with toys on a stage whilst listening to sound files which ...

  5. Stimulating the Brain's Language Network: Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution after TMS to the Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Middle Temporal Gyrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acheson, D.J.; Hagoort, P.

    2013-01-01

    The posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) are two critical nodes of the brain's language network. Previous neuroimaging evidence has supported a dissociation in language comprehension in which parts of the MTG are involved in the retrieval of lexical syntactic

  6. Lexical ambiguity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

  7. Lexical ambiguity resolution for Turkish in direct transfer machine translation models

    OpenAIRE

    Tantuğ, A. Cüneyd; Tantug, A. Cuneyd; Oflazer, Kemal; Adalı, Eşref; Adali, Esref

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical lexical ambiguity resolution method in direct transfer machine translation models in which the target language is Turkish. Since direct transfer MT models do not have full syntactic information, most of the lexical ambiguity resolution methods are not very helpful. Our disambiguation model is based on statistical language models. We have investigated the performances of some statistical language model types and parameters in lexical ambiguity resolution for o...

  8. Children’s and Adolescents’ Processing of Temporary Syntactic Ambiguity: An Eye Movement Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the eye movements of 24 children and adolescents as they read sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities. Prior research suggested that children primarily use grammatical information when making initial parsing decisions, and they tend to disregard semantic and contextual information. On each trial, participants read a garden path sentence (e.g., While the storm blew the boat sat in the shed, and, afterwards, they answered a comprehension question (e.g., Did the storm blow the boat?. The design was 2 × 2 (verb type × ambiguity repeated measures. Verb type was optionally transitive or reflexive, and sentences were ambiguous or unambiguous. Results showed no differences in first pass reading times at the disambiguating verb (e.g., sat. However, regressions did show a significant interaction. The unambiguous-reflexive condition had approximately half the number of regressions, suggesting less processing difficulty in this condition. Developmentally, we found that adolescents had significantly better comprehension, which seemed to be linked to the increased tendency to regress from the disambiguating word. Findings are consistent with the assumption that the processing architecture is more restricted in children compared to adolescents. In addition, results indicated that variance in ambiguity resolution was associated with interference control but not working memory.

  9. GNSS ambiguity resolution : Which subset to fix?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, A.A.; Teunissen, P.J.G.; Van der Marel, H.; Li, B.

    2011-01-01

    A key issue with GNSS carrier phase ambiguity resolution is that often the full set of ambiguities cannot be fixed fast and reliably. A possible strategy is then to resolve only a subset of ambiguities, one for which the probability of correct fixing, the so-called success rate, is sufficiently

  10. Differential age effects on lexical ambiguity resolution mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chia-lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple neurocognitive subsystems are involved in resolving lexical ambiguity under different circumstances. We examined how processing in these subsystems changes with normal aging by comparing ERP responses to homographs and unambiguous words completing congruent sentences (with both semantic and syntactic contextual information) or syntactic prose (syntactic information only). Like young adults in prior work, older adults elicited more negative N400s to homographs in congruent sentences, ...

  11. Logic without unique readability - a study of semantic and syntactic ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    ). Unique readability implies meaning uniqueness, exactly one valuation of a sentence given an interpretation of basic formulas and recursive truth conditions. Obviously, in natural language this one-to-one correspondence between syntax and semantics is absent, the unique readability assumption does...... to formally distinguish between syntactic and semantic ambiguity. A valuation then amounts to a semantic disambiguation, and rather than a unique valuation (truth value), there is a set of valuations corresponding to ways a formula could have been constructed. We show what happens to familiar concepts...... of logic such as definability, satisfiability and validity. Here follows two simple examples illustrating the relation between syntactic and semantic ambiguity. In some cases unique readability can be regained through careful construction of formulas. E.g., although an attempt to define p → q as ¬p ∨ q...

  12. [Eye movement parameters in reading the sentences with syntactic ambiguity in Russian language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, V A; Fedorova, O V; Latanov, A V

    2014-01-01

    We studied the eye movement parameters during reading of syntactically ambiguous sentences with feminine relative clause in Russian language. A priori difficulties of sentence structural analysis results in increase of time spent on reading as opposed to reading control sentences (unambiguous). Such a delay is caused by an increase of frequency of regressions (backward saccades) which are executed for rereading an ambiguous fragment ofsentence. This fact in turn leads to an increase in number of fixations and their duration. The total reading time for particular words composing the ambiguous fragment of sentence depended on disambiguation result (relative clause attachment, early/late closure). In case of early closure (when the subject attached relative clause to first noun) the total reading time for this noun exceeded one for second noun. In case of late closure (when the subject attached relative clause to second noun) the total reading time for both nouns didn't differ. Our results indicate that early closure domination in Russian language determines the greater total reading time for first noun of nominal group associated with relative clause.

  13. Is children's reading "good enough"? Links between online processing and comprehension as children read syntactically ambiguous sentences.

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    Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Joseph, Holly S S L; Adelman, James S; Nation, Kate

    2016-01-01

    We monitored 8- and 10-year-old children's eye movements as they read sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity to obtain a detailed record of their online processing. Children showed the classic garden-path effect in online processing. Their reading was disrupted following disambiguation, relative to control sentences containing a comma to block the ambiguity, although the disruption occurred somewhat later than would be expected for mature readers. We also asked children questions to probe their comprehension of the syntactic ambiguity offline. They made more errors following ambiguous sentences than following control sentences, demonstrating that the initial incorrect parse of the garden-path sentence influenced offline comprehension. These findings are consistent with "good enough" processing effects seen in adults. While faster reading times and more regressions were generally associated with better comprehension, spending longer reading the question predicted comprehension success specifically in the ambiguous condition. This suggests that reading the question prompted children to reconstruct the sentence and engage in some form of processing, which in turn increased the likelihood of comprehension success. Older children were more sensitive to the syntactic function of commas, and, overall, they were faster and more accurate than younger children.

  14. Lexical and Prosodic Effects on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in Aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when individuals with aphasia and healthy controls use lexical and prosodic information during on-line sentence comprehension. Individuals with aphasia and controls (n = 12 per group) participated in a self-paced listening experiment. The stimuli were early closure sentences, such as “While the parents watched(,) the child sang a song.” Both lexical and prosodic cues were manipulated. The cues were biased toward the subject- or object- of...

  15. Length Matters: Informational Load in Ambiguity Resolution

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    Barbara Hemforth

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will compare prosodic and pragmatic approaches to the role of constituent length in attachment ambiguities. Lengthening a constituent affects its informativity: longer constituents are usually less predictable (Levy & Florian, 2007 and demand a higher processing load than shorter ones (Almor, 1999. Following neo-Gricean accounts (Levinson, 1987 and 1991, increased informational load needs to be justified. This justification is achieved more easily when the long constituent conveys new information and when it relates to central elements of the utterance. Informational load is, however, not a simple question of length in numbers of characters or syllables but more likely a question of amount of information. In three off-line experiments using a cloze task, we will compare the effect of lengthening ambiguous prepositional phrases as in [1a/b/c] either by lengthening a city name or by adding information about the city. We will show that only lengthening by adding information increases attachment to a more central element of the utterance. These results will be discussed based on prosodic and pragmatic factors explaining the role of constituent length for attachment ambiguities.[1] Peter met the doctor of the lawyer from a. Apt. / b. Aix-en-Provence / c. the beautiful city of Apt.Dans cet article, nous comparons une approche prosodique avec une approche pragmatique pour rendre compte des effets de la longueur des constituants dans les ambigüités d’attachement. Augmenter la longueur d’un constituant a des conséquences sur l’information qu’il véhicule : plus un constituant est long et moins il est prédictible (Levy et Florian, 2007 et plus son coût de traitement augmente (Almor, 1999. Suivant les principes néo-gricéens (Levinson, 1987 et 1991, augmenter le poids informationnel doit être justifié. Cette justification est plus facilement satisfaite lorsqu’un constituant long véhicule une information

  16. Medium-distance GPS ambiguity resolution with controlled failure rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, D.; Verhagen, S.; Teunissen, P.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Network RTK is to provide users with precise ionospheric corrections in order to conduct fast GPS ambiguity resolution and to get cm-level positioning results over medium-distance baselines. In this paper it is shown that a Network RTK user should apply the ratio test with fixed failure

  17. Ambiguity resolution in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for sentence structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank; de Kamps, Marc; Besold, Tarek R.; Kühnberger, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    We simulate two examples of ambiguity resolution found in human language processing in a neural blackboard architecture for sentence representation and processing. The architecture also accounts for a related garden path effect. The architecture represents and processes sentences in terms of

  18. Improving integer ambiguity resolution for GLONASS precise orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang; Lou, Yidong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2016-08-01

    The frequency division multiple access adopted in present GLONASS introduces inter-frequency bias (IFB) at the receiver-end both in code and phase observables, which makes GLONASS ambiguity resolution rather difficult or even not available, especially for long baselines up to several thousand kilometers. This is one of the major reasons that GLONASS could hardly reach the orbit precision of GPS, both in terms of consistency among individual International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers and discontinuity at the overlapping day boundaries. Based on the fact that the GLONASS phase IFB is similar on L1 and L2 bands in unit of length and is a linear function of the frequency number, several approaches have been developed to estimate and calibrate the IFB for integer ambiguity resolution. However, they are only for short and medium baselines. In this study, a new ambiguity resolution approach is developed for GLONASS global networks. In the approach, the phase ambiguities in the ionosphere-free linear combination are directly transformed with a wavelength of about 5.3 cm, according to the special frequency relationship of GLONASS L1 and L2 signals. After such transformation, the phase IFB rate can be estimated and corrected precisely and then the corresponding double-differenced ambiguities can be directly fixed to integers even for baselines up to several thousand kilometers. To evaluate this approach, experimental validations using one-month data of a global network with 140 IGS stations was carried out for GLONASS precise orbit determination. The results show that the GLONASS double-difference ambiguity resolution for long baselines could be achieved with an average fixing-rate of 91.4 %. Applying the fixed ambiguities as constraints, the GLONASS orbit overlapping RMS at the day boundaries could be reduced by 37.2 % in ideal cases and with an averaged reduction of about 21.4 %, which is comparable with that by the GPS ambiguity resolution. The orbit improvement is

  19. Effects of Verb Bias and Syntactic Ambiguity on Reading in People with Aphasia.

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    Dede, Gayle

    2013-10-01

    The Lexical Bias Hypothesis (Gahl, 2002) claims that people with aphasia have difficulty understanding sentences when the verb's argument structure bias conflicts with the sentence structure. This hypothesis can account for comprehension deficits that affect simple sentences, but the role of verb bias has not been clearly demonstrated in temporarily ambiguous sentences. This study examined how verb bias affects comprehension of temporarily ambiguous and unambiguous sentences using self-paced reading. People with aphasia and controls read sentences that contained sentential complements (e.g., The talented photographer accepted (that) the fire could not have been prevented.). The main verb was biased to take a direct object (e.g., accepted) or a sentential complement (e.g., admitted). In addition, the sentential complement was either introduced by the complementizer that (i.e., unambiguous) or unmarked (i.e., ambiguous). The people with aphasia's reading times were affected more by verb bias than by the presence of the complementizer, whereas the control group's reading times were more affected by the presence or absence of the complementizer. The results were generally consistent with the Lexical Bias Hypothesis, and showed that a mismatch between verb bias and sentence structure affected processing of unambiguous and temporarily ambiguous sentences in people with aphasia.

  20. Improved PPP ambiguity resolution by COES FCB estimation

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    Li, Yihe; Gao, Yang; Shi, Junbo

    2016-05-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) integer ambiguity resolution is able to significantly improve the positioning accuracy with the correction of fractional cycle biases (FCBs) by shortening the time to first fix (TTFF) of ambiguities. When satellite orbit products are adopted to estimate the satellite FCB corrections, the narrow-lane (NL) FCB corrections will be contaminated by the orbit's line-of-sight (LOS) errors which subsequently affect ambiguity resolution (AR) performance, as well as positioning accuracy. To effectively separate orbit errors from satellite FCBs, we propose a cascaded orbit error separation (COES) method for the PPP implementation. Instead of using only one direction-independent component in previous studies, the satellite NL improved FCB corrections are modeled by one direction-independent component and three directional-dependent components per satellite in this study. More specifically, the direction-independent component assimilates actual FCBs, whereas the directional-dependent components are used to assimilate the orbit errors. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, GPS measurements from a regional and a global network are processed with the IGSReal-time service (RTS), IGS rapid (IGR) products and predicted orbits with >10 cm 3D root mean square (RMS) error. The improvements by the proposed FCB estimation method are validated in terms of ambiguity fractions after applying FCB corrections and positioning accuracy. The numerical results confirm that the obtained FCBs using the proposed method outperform those by conventional method. The RMS of ambiguity fractions after applying FCB corrections is reduced by 13.2 %. The position RMSs in north, east and up directions are reduced by 30.0, 32.0 and 22.0 % on average.

  1. Discrete ambiguity resolution and baryon-resonance parameter determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, D.M; Urban, M.

    1978-04-01

    A partial-wave analysis was performed on elastic π + p data between 1400 and 2200 MeV, using principles of analyticity (to select and amalgamate data), causality and unitarity together with Barrelet zeros are the resonating waves between 1500 and 1800 MeV examined in detail, and it is shown how a new resolution of the discrete ambiguity gives, for the S31 and D33 resonances, different parameters than found in an earlier resolution using less accurate information. In either case, mass degeneracy of these resonances is observed in agreement with general considerations regarding smooth zero trajectories. 18 references

  2. Rapid PPP ambiguity resolution using GPS+GLONASS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Ye, Shirong; Song, Weiwei; Lou, Yidong; Gu, Shengfeng

    2017-04-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) in precise point positioning (PPP) using GPS observations has been well studied. The main challenge remaining is that the first ambiguity fixing takes about 30 min. This paper presents improvements made using GPS+GLONASS observations, especially improvements in the initial fixing time and correct fixing rate compared with GPS-only solutions. As a result of the frequency division multiple access strategy of GLONASS, there are two obstacles to GLONASS PPP-IAR: first and most importantly, there is distinct code inter-frequency bias (IFB) between satellites, and second, simultaneously observed satellites have different wavelengths. To overcome the problem resulting from GLONASS code IFB, we used a network of homogeneous receivers for GLONASS wide-lane fractional cycle bias (FCB) estimation and wide-lane ambiguity resolution. The integer satellite clock of the GPS and GLONASS was then estimated with the wide-lane FCB products. The effect of the different wavelengths on FCB estimation and PPP-IAR is discussed in detail. We used a 21-day data set of 67 stations, where data from 26 stations were processed to generate satellite wide-lane FCBs and integer clocks and the other 41 stations were selected as users to perform PPP-IAR. We found that GLONASS FCB estimates are qualitatively similar to GPS FCB estimates. Generally, 98.8% of a posteriori residuals of wide-lane ambiguities are within ± 0.25 cycles for GPS, and 96.6% for GLONASS. Meanwhile, 94.5 and 94.4% of narrow-lane residuals are within 0.1 cycles for GPS and GLONASS, respectively. For a critical value of 2.0, the correct fixing rate for kinematic PPP is only 75.2% for GPS alone and as large as 98.8% for GPS+GLONASS. The fixing percentage for GPS alone is only 11.70 and 46.80% within 5 and 10 min, respectively, and improves to 73.71 and 95.83% when adding GLONASS. Adding GLONASS thus improves the fixing percentage significantly for a short time span. We also used global ionosphere

  3. Dependency distance minimization in understanding of ambiguous structure. Comment on "Dependency distance: A new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiyi

    2017-07-01

    Dependency Distance, proposed by Hudson [1], calculated by Liu [2,3], is an important concept in Dependency Theory. It can be used as a measure of the syntactic difficulty, and lots of research [2,4] have testified the universal of Dependency Distance in various languages. Human languages seem to present a preference for short dependency distance, which may be explained in terms of general cognitive constraint of limited working memory [5]. Psychological experiments in English, German, Russian and Chinese support the hypothesis that Dependency Distance minimization (DDM) make languages to evolve into some syntactic patterns to reduce memory burden [6-9]. The study of psychology focuses on the process and mechanism of syntactic structure selection in speech comprehension. In many speech comprehension experiments [10], ambiguous structure is an important experimental material.

  4. AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION IN PRECISE POINT POSITIONING TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistor S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the dynamics of the GPS technique used in different domains like geodesy, near real-time GPS meteorology, geodynamics, the precise point positioning (PPP becomes more than a powerful method for determining the position, or the delay caused by the atmosphere. The main idea of this method is that we need only one receiver – preferably that have dual frequencies pseudorange and carrier-phase capabilities – to obtain the position. Because we are using only one receiver the majority of the residuals that are eliminated in double differencing method, we have to estimate them in PPP. The development of the PPP method allows us, to use precise satellite clock estimates, and precise orbits, resulting in a much more efficient way to deal with the disadvantages of this technique, like slow convergence time, or ambiguity resolution. Because this two problem are correlated, to achieve fast convergence we need to resolve the problem of ambiguity resolution. But the accuracy of the PPP results are directly influenced by presence of the uncalibrated phase delays (UPD originating in the receivers and satellites. In this article we present the GPS errors and biases, the zenith wet delay and the necessary time for obtaining the convergence. The necessary correction are downloaded by using the IGS service.

  5. Ambiguity Resolution for Author Names of Bibliographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ha Chen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Users or researchers have been confronted with serious problems in ambiguities of author names, while a great deal of scholar information quickly accumulated in Internet. Therefore researches on ambiguity resolution for author name are indispensable. With comparison to previous work, this study attempts to address the problem using information contained in bibliographic data only. Five features, co-author (C, article title (T, journal title (J, year (Y, and number of pages (P, are used to disambiguate author names in this study. Note that feature Y and feature P are not ever used before. Both supervised learning methods (Naïve Bayes and Support Vector Machine and unsupervised learning method (K-means are employed to explore 28 different feature combinations. The findings show that the performance of feature journal title (J and co-author (C is very effective. Feature J plays an important role in three different approaches, and feature C is effective in SVM. In addition, feature Y and feature P obviously enhance accuracy and the average improvement rate of inclusion with feature Y is more significant than that of feature P (+2.5% in average. It is also shown that the performance of feature combination CTJ used traditionally is not superior to JYP, and the performance of feature combinations CJY, JY and J are also very effective in the three methods. Finally, it is found that the accuracy of disambiguation on larger datasets is 10% inferior to that of the smaller ones, which indicated the limitation of using bibliographic data only in this “numerous and jumbled” real world. Consequently, the effective approach to disambiguating author name has to not only fully use bibliographic data but also introduce appropriate outer resources.

  6. Lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in Parkinson's disease: An event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Angwin

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded to investigate lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in 16 people with Parkinson's disease (PD and 16 healthy controls. Sentences were presented word-by-word on computer screen, and participants were required to decide if a subsequent target word was related to the meaning of the sentence. The task consisted of related, unrelated and ambiguous trials. For the ambiguous trials, the sentence ended with an ambiguous word and the target was related to one of the meanings of that word, but not the one captured by the sentence context (e.g., 'He dug with the spade', Target 'ACE'. Both groups demonstrated slower reaction times and lower accuracy for the ambiguous condition relative to the unrelated condition, however accuracy was impacted by the ambiguous condition to a larger extent in the PD group. These results suggested that PD patients experience increased difficulties with contextual ambiguity resolution. The ERP results did not reflect increased ambiguity resolution difficulties in PD, as a similar N400 effect was evident for the unrelated and ambiguous condition in both groups. However, the magnitude of the N400 for these conditions was correlated with a measure of inhibition in the PD group, but not the control group. The ERP results suggest that semantic processing may be more compromised in PD patients with increased response inhibition deficits.

  7. Impact of Decorrelation on Search Efficiency of Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Liguo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The decorrelation performance of LAMBDA algorithm, LLL algorithm and Seysen algorithm are analyzed with evaluation indexes, i.e., condition number, orthogonal defect and S(A. Moreover, relationships between decorrelation performance of the above algorithms and ambiguity search efficiency are evaluated using theoretical and practical validation, respectively. The results validate that there is no inevitable relation between decorrelation performance of variance-covariance matrix of original ambiguity and search efficiency, whereas, traditional views consider that search efficiency can be enhanced just by improving decorrelation performance. Further analysis shows that the essence to improving search efficiency major depends on the permutation of basis vectors according to a certain direction.

  8. A New Block Processing Algorithm of LLL for Fast High-dimension Ambiguity Resolution

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    LIU Wanke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to high dimension and precision for the ambiguity vector under GNSS observations of multi-frequency and multi-system, a major problem to limit computational efficiency of ambiguity resolution is the longer reduction time when using conventional LLL algorithm. To address this problem, it is proposed a new block processing algorithm of LLL by analyzing the relationship between the reduction time and the dimensions and precision of ambiguity. The new algorithm reduces the reduction time to improve computational efficiency of ambiguity resolution, which is based on block processing ambiguity variance-covariance matrix that decreased the dimensions of single reduction matrix. It is validated that the new algorithm with two groups of measured data. The results show that the computing efficiency of the new algorithm increased by 65.2% and 60.2% respectively compared with that of LLL algorithm when choosing a reasonable number of blocks.

  9. Triple-frequency GPS precise point positioning with rapid ambiguity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jianghui; Bock, Yehuda

    2013-05-01

    At present, reliable ambiguity resolution in real-time GPS precise point positioning (PPP) can only be achieved after an initial observation period of a few tens of minutes. In this study, we propose a method where the incoming triple-frequency GPS signals are exploited to enable rapid convergences to ambiguity-fixed solutions in real-time PPP. Specifically, extra-wide-lane ambiguity resolution can be first achieved almost instantaneously with the Melbourne-Wübbena combination observable on L2 and L5. Then the resultant unambiguous extra-wide-lane carrier-phase is combined with the wide-lane carrier-phase on L1 and L2 to form an ionosphere-free observable with a wavelength of about 3.4 m. Although the noise of this observable is around 100 times the raw carrier-phase noise, its wide-lane ambiguity can still be resolved very efficiently, and the resultant ambiguity-fixed observable can assist much better than pseudorange in speeding up succeeding narrow-lane ambiguity resolution. To validate this method, we use an advanced hardware simulator to generate triple-frequency signals and a high-grade receiver to collect 1-Hz data. When the carrier-phase precisions on L1, L2 and L5 are as poor as 1.5, 6.3 and 1.5 mm, respectively, wide-lane ambiguity resolution can still reach a correctness rate of over 99 % within 20 s. As a result, the correctness rate of narrow-lane ambiguity resolution achieves 99 % within 65 s, in contrast to only 64 % within 150 s in dual-frequency PPP. In addition, we also simulate a multipath-contaminated data set and introduce new ambiguities for all satellites every 120 s. We find that when multipath effects are strong, ambiguity-fixed solutions are achieved at 78 % of all epochs in triple-frequency PPP whilst almost no ambiguities are resolved in dual-frequency PPP. Therefore, we demonstrate that triple-frequency PPP has the potential to achieve ambiguity-fixed solutions within a few minutes, or even shorter if raw carrier-phase precisions are

  10. The inertial attitude augmentation for ambiguity resolution in SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Wu, Meiping

    2014-06-26

    The Unaided Single Frequency/Single Epoch Global Navigation Satellite System (SF/SE GNSS) model is the most challenging scenario for ambiguity resolution in the GNSS attitude determination application. To improve the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution without excessive cost, the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS-IMU) is a proper choice for the auxiliary sensor that carries out the inertial attitude augmentation. Firstly, based on the SF/SE-GNSS compass model, the Inertial Derived Baseline Vector (IDBV) is defined to connect the MEMS-IMU attitude measurement with the SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity search space, and the mechanism of inertial attitude augmentation is revealed from the perspective of geometry. Then, through the quantitative description of model strength by Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP), two ADOPs are specified for the unaided SF/SE-GNSS compass model and its inertial attitude augmentation counterparts, respectively, and a sufficient condition is proposed for augmenting the SF/SE-GNSS model strength with inertial attitude measurement. Finally, in the framework of an integer aperture estimator with fixed failure rate, the performance of SF/SE-GNSS ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation is analyzed when the model strength is varying from strong to weak. The simulation results show that, in the SF/SE-GNSS attitude determination application, MEMS-IMU can satisfy the requirements of ambiguity resolution with inertial attitude augmentation.

  11. Ionosphere influence on success rate of GPS ambiguity resolution in a satellite formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Leandro

    2015-10-01

    Satellite formation flying is one of the most promising technologies for future space missions. The distribution of sensors and payloads among different satellites provides more redundancy, flexibility, improved communication coverage, among other advantages. One of the fundamental issues in spacecraft formation flying is precise position and velocity determination between satellites. For missions in low Earth orbits, GPS system can meet the precision requirement in relative positioning, since the satellite dynamics is modeled properly. The key for high accuracy GPS relative positioning is to resolve the ambiguities to their integer values. Ambiguities resolved successfully can improve the positioning accuracy to decimetre or even millimetre-level. So, integer carrier phase ambiguity resolution is often a prerequisite for high precision GPS positioning. The determination of relative position was made using an extended Kalman filter. The filter must take into account imperfections in dynamic modeling of perturbations affecting the orbital flight, and changes in solar activity that affects the GPS signal propagation, for mitigating these effects on relative positioning accuracy. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the impact of ionosphere variation, caused by changes in solar activity, in success rate of ambiguity resolution. Using the Ambiguity Dilution of Precision (ADOP) concept, the ambiguity success rate is analyzed and the expected precision of the ambiguity-fixed solution is calculated. Evaluations were performed using actual data from GRACE mission and analyzed for their performance in real scenarios. Analyses were conducted in different configurations of relative position and during different levels of solar activity. Results bring the impact of various disturbances and modeling of solar activity level on the success rate of ambiguity resolution.

  12. Ambiguous pronoun resolution: contrasting the first-mention and subject-preference accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvikivi, Juhani; van Gompel, Roger P G; Hyönä, Jukka; Bertram, Raymond

    2005-04-01

    A visual-world eye-tracking experiment investigated the influence of order of mention and grammatical role on resolution of ambiguous pronouns in Finnish. According to the first-mention account, general cognitive structure-building processes make the first-mentioned noun phrase the preferred antecedent of an ambiguous pronoun. According to the subject-preference account, the preferred antecedent is the grammatical subject of the preceding clause or sentence. Participants listened to sentences in either subject-verb-object or object-verb-subject order; each was followed by a sentence containing an ambiguous pronoun that referred to either the subject or the object. Participants' eye movements were monitored while they looked at pictures representing the two possible antecedents of each pronoun. Analyses of the fixations on the pictures showed that listeners used both order-of-mention and grammatical-role information to resolve ambiguous pronouns.

  13. Rate-gyro-integral constraint for ambiguity resolution in GNSS attitude determination applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiancheng; Li, Tao; Wang, Jinling; Hu, Xiaoping; Wu, Meiping

    2013-06-21

    In the field of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination, the constraints usually play a critical role in resolving the unknown ambiguities quickly and correctly. Many constraints such as the baseline length, the geometry of multi-baselines and the horizontal attitude angles have been used extensively to improve the performance of ambiguity resolution. In the GNSS/Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated attitude determination systems using low grade Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), the initial heading parameters of the vehicle are usually worked out by the GNSS subsystem instead of by the IMU sensors independently. However, when a rotation occurs, the angle at which vehicle has turned within a short time span can be measured accurately by the IMU. This measurement will be treated as a constraint, namely the rate-gyro-integral constraint, which can aid the GNSS ambiguity resolution. We will use this constraint to filter the candidates in the ambiguity search stage. The ambiguity search space shrinks significantly with this constraint imposed during the rotation, thus it is helpful to speeding up the initialization of attitude parameters under dynamic circumstances. This paper will only study the applications of this new constraint to land vehicles. The impacts of measurement errors on the effect of this new constraint will be assessed for different grades of IMU and current average precision level of GNSS receivers. Simulations and experiments in urban areas have demonstrated the validity and efficacy of the new constraint in aiding GNSS attitude determinations.

  14. Improving Ambiguity Resolution for Medium Baselines Using Combined GPS and BDS Dual/Triple-Frequency Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wang; Gao, Chengfa; Pan, Shuguo; Wang, Denghui; Deng, Jiadong

    2015-10-30

    The regional constellation of the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) has been providing continuous positioning, navigation and timing services since 27 December 2012, covering China and the surrounding area. Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning with combined BDS and GPS observations is feasible. Besides, all satellites of BDS can transmit triple-frequency signals. Using the advantages of multi-pseudorange and carrier observations from multi-systems and multi-frequencies is expected to be of much benefit for ambiguity resolution (AR). We propose an integrated AR strategy for medium baselines by using the combined GPS and BDS dual/triple-frequency observations. In the method, firstly the extra-wide-lane (EWL) ambiguities of triple-frequency system, i.e., BDS, are determined first. Then the dual-frequency WL ambiguities of BDS and GPS were resolved with the geometry-based model by using the BDS ambiguity-fixed EWL observations. After that, basic (i.e., L1/L2 or B1/B2) ambiguities of BDS and GPS are estimated together with the so-called ionosphere-constrained model, where the ambiguity-fixed WL observations are added to enhance the model strength. During both of the WL and basic AR, a partial ambiguity fixing (PAF) strategy is adopted to weaken the negative influence of new-rising or low-elevation satellites. Experiments were conducted and presented, in which the GPS/BDS dual/triple-frequency data were collected in Nanjing and Zhengzhou of China, with the baseline distance varying from about 28.6 to 51.9 km. The results indicate that, compared to the single triple-frequency BDS system, the combined system can significantly enhance the AR model strength, and thus improve AR performance for medium baselines with a 75.7% reduction of initialization time on average. Besides, more accurate and stable positioning results can also be derived by using the combined GPS/BDS system.

  15. Zero-difference GPS ambiguity resolution at CNES-CLS IGS Analysis Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyer, Sylvain; Perosanz, Félix; Mercier, Flavien; Capdeville, Hugues; Marty, Jean-Charles

    2012-11-01

    CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellites) became an International GNSS Service (IGS) Analysis Center (AC) the 20th of May 2010. Since 2009, we are using the integer ambiguity fixing at the zero-difference level strategy in our software package (GINS/Dynamo) as an alternative to classical differential approaches. This method played a key role among all the improvements in the GPS processing we made during this period. This paper provides to the users the theoretical background, the strategies and the models used to compute the products (GPS orbits and clocks, weekly station coordinate estimates and Earth orientation parameters) that are submitted weekly to the IGS. The practical realization of the two-step, ambiguity-fixing scheme (wide-lane and narrow-lane) is described in detail. The ambiguity fixing improved our orbit overlaps from 6 to 3 cm WRMS in the tangential and normal directions. Since 2008, our products have been also regularly compared to the IGS final solutions by the IGS Analysis Center Coordinator. The joint effects of ambiguity fixing and dynamical model changes (satellite solar radiation pressure and albedo force) improved the consistency with IGS orbits from 35 to 18 mm 3D-WRMS. Our innovative strategy also gives additional powerful properties to the GPS satellite phase clock solutions. Single receiver (zero-difference) ambiguity resolution becomes possible. An overview of the applications is given.

  16. Ambiguity Resolution for GPS/GNSS Network Solution Implemented in SPODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUAN Rengui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity resolution plays an essential role in global GPS/GNSS network solution. In order to fix as many double-difference(DD ambiguities to the nearest integers as possible, a set of "most-easy-to-fix" independent DD-ambiguities has to be defined. The most usable state-of-art method (the "traditional" methodat present is to make the independency checking on two levels firstly on the baseline level and then the network level, in which the DD-ambiguity candidates are sorted by their fixing probabilities on both levels. Considering the fact that, in general global network solution, the number of stations involved is usual times larger than that of satellites, a new approach for independent DD-ambiguities selection was presented, which makes the independency checking in an analogous two-level way firstly on the constellation level and then the network level. Together with a new procedure for sequential ambiguity fixing base on updating the upper triangular square root of covariance matrix, the new approach is implemented in the satellite positioning and orbit determination system (SPODS software which is designed and developed at Xi'an Research Institute of Surveying & Mapping. Validation experiment with GPS observation data collected from about 64 IGS stations was carried out, which demonstrate that 1D RMSs for daily orbit solution, compared with IGS final combined solution, are about 0.012 m, and about 92% of DD-ambiguities were fixed, with only neglectable tiny difference for both the new and traditional method. Another experiment with varied number of stations indicates that the ratio of the number of DD-ambiguities candidates to be checked for independency on the network level between the new and the traditional approach is nearly equal to the ratio of satellites to stations involved. For the cases that more stations are involved than satellites, which are common in actual GPS/GNSS network solution, the computation time for independent DD-ambiguities

  17. Three-frequency BDS precise point positioning ambiguity resolution based on raw observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ge, Maorong; Schuh, Harald

    2018-02-01

    All BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) satellites are transmitting signals on three frequencies, which brings new opportunity and challenges for high-accuracy precise point positioning (PPP) with ambiguity resolution (AR). This paper proposes an effective uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation and AR strategy which is based on a raw PPP model. First, triple-frequency raw PPP models are developed. The observation model and stochastic model are designed and extended to accommodate the third frequency. Then, the UPD is parameterized in raw frequency form while estimating with the high-precision and low-noise integer linear combination of float ambiguity which are derived by ambiguity decorrelation. Third, with UPD corrected, the LAMBDA method is used for resolving full or partial ambiguities which can be fixed. This method can be easily and flexibly extended for dual-, triple- or even more frequency. To verify the effectiveness and performance of triple-frequency PPP AR, tests with real BDS data from 90 stations lasting for 21 days were performed in static mode. Data were processed with three strategies: BDS triple-frequency ambiguity-float PPP, BDS triple-frequency PPP with dual-frequency (B1/B2) and three-frequency AR, respectively. Numerous experiment results showed that compared with the ambiguity-float solution, the performance in terms of convergence time and positioning biases can be significantly improved by AR. Among three groups of solutions, the triple-frequency PPP AR achieved the best performance. Compared with dual-frequency AR, additional the third frequency could apparently improve the position estimations during the initialization phase and under constraint environments when the dual-frequency PPP AR is limited by few satellite numbers.

  18. An Efficient Implementation of Fixed Failure-Rate Ratio Test for GNSS Ambiguity Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanqing; Verhagen, Sandra; Wu, Jie

    2016-06-23

    Ambiguity Resolution (AR) plays a vital role in precise GNSS positioning. Correctly-fixed integer ambiguities can significantly improve the positioning solution, while incorrectly-fixed integer ambiguities can bring large positioning errors and, therefore, should be avoided. The ratio test is an extensively used test to validate the fixed integer ambiguities. To choose proper critical values of the ratio test, the Fixed Failure-rate Ratio Test (FFRT) has been proposed, which generates critical values according to user-defined tolerable failure rates. This contribution provides easy-to-implement fitting functions to calculate the critical values. With a massive Monte Carlo simulation, the functions for many different tolerable failure rates are provided, which enriches the choices of critical values for users. Moreover, the fitting functions for the fix rate are also provided, which for the first time allows users to evaluate the conditional success rate, i.e., the success rate once the integer candidates are accepted by FFRT. The superiority of FFRT over the traditional ratio test regarding controlling the failure rate and preventing unnecessary false alarms is shown by a simulation and a real data experiment. In the real data experiment with a baseline of 182.7 km, FFRT achieved much higher fix rates (up to 30% higher) and the same level of positioning accuracy from fixed solutions as compared to the traditional critical value.

  19. Improving Ambiguity Resolution for Medium Baselines Using Combined GPS and BDS Dual/Triple-Frequency Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Gao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The regional constellation of the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS has been providing continuous positioning, navigation and timing services since 27 December 2012, covering China and the surrounding area. Real-time kinematic (RTK positioning with combined BDS and GPS observations is feasible. Besides, all satellites of BDS can transmit triple-frequency signals. Using the advantages of multi-pseudorange and carrier observations from multi-systems and multi-frequencies is expected to be of much benefit for ambiguity resolution (AR. We propose an integrated AR strategy for medium baselines by using the combined GPS and BDS dual/triple-frequency observations. In the method, firstly the extra-wide-lane (EWL ambiguities of triple-frequency system, i.e., BDS, are determined first. Then the dual-frequency WL ambiguities of BDS and GPS were resolved with the geometry-based model by using the BDS ambiguity-fixed EWL observations. After that, basic (i.e., L1/L2 or B1/B2 ambiguities of BDS and GPS are estimated together with the so-called ionosphere-constrained model, where the ambiguity-fixed WL observations are added to enhance the model strength. During both of the WL and basic AR, a partial ambiguity fixing (PAF strategy is adopted to weaken the negative influence of new-rising or low-elevation satellites. Experiments were conducted and presented, in which the GPS/BDS dual/triple-frequency data were collected in Nanjing and Zhengzhou of China, with the baseline distance varying from about 28.6 to 51.9 km. The results indicate that, compared to the single triple-frequency BDS system, the combined system can significantly enhance the AR model strength, and thus improve AR performance for medium baselines with a 75.7% reduction of initialization time on average. Besides, more accurate and stable positioning results can also be derived by using the combined GPS/BDS system.

  20. Verbal Short-term Memory Capacities and Executive Function in Semantic and Syntactic Interference Resolution during Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yingying; Martin, Randi C

    2018-03-07

    This study examined the role of verbal short-term memory (STM) and executive function (EF) underlying semantic and syntactic interference resolution during sentence comprehension for persons with aphasia (PWA) with varying degrees of STM and EF deficits. Semantic interference was manipulated by varying the semantic plausibility of the intervening NP as subject of the verb and syntactic interference was manipulated by varying whether the NP was another subject or an object. Nine PWA were assessed on sentence reading times and on comprehension question performance. PWA showed exaggerated semantic and syntactic interference effects relative to healthy age-matched control subjects. Importantly, correlational analyses showed that while answering comprehension questions, PWA' semantic STM capacity related to their ability to resolve semantic but not syntactic interference. In contrast, PWA' EF abilities related to their ability to resolve syntactic but not semantic interference. Phonological STM deficits were not related to the ability to resolve either type of interference. The results for semantic STM are consistent with prior findings indicating a role for semantic but not phonological STM in sentence comprehension, specifically with regard to maintaining semantic information prior to integration. The results for syntactic interference are consistent with the recent findings suggesting that EF is critical for syntactic processing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Efficient high-rate satellite clock estimation for PPP ambiguity resolution using carrier-ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Jiang, Weiping; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2014-11-25

    In order to catch up the short-term clock variation of GNSS satellites, clock corrections must be estimated and updated at a high-rate for Precise Point Positioning (PPP). This estimation is already very time-consuming for the GPS constellation only as a great number of ambiguities need to be simultaneously estimated. However, on the one hand better estimates are expected by including more stations, and on the other hand satellites from different GNSS systems must be processed integratively for a reliable multi-GNSS positioning service. To alleviate the heavy computational burden, epoch-differenced observations are always employed where ambiguities are eliminated. As the epoch-differenced method can only derive temporal clock changes which have to be aligned to the absolute clocks but always in a rather complicated way, in this paper, an efficient method for high-rate clock estimation is proposed using the concept of "carrier-range" realized by means of PPP with integer ambiguity resolution. Processing procedures for both post- and real-time processing are developed, respectively. The experimental validation shows that the computation time could be reduced to about one sixth of that of the existing methods for post-processing and less than 1 s for processing a single epoch of a network with about 200 stations in real-time mode after all ambiguities are fixed. This confirms that the proposed processing strategy will enable the high-rate clock estimation for future multi-GNSS networks in post-processing and possibly also in real-time mode.

  2. Real-time Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution for Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Meng, X.; Teferle, F. N.; Dodson, A. H.; Ge, M.; Shi, C.; Liu, J.

    2009-04-01

    Real-time provision of information on large scale crustal deformation during an earthquake can be crucial in assessing property damage and managing relief operations. Moreover, such a real-time monitoring system may even lead to the accurate prediction of earthquakes in future and help the subsequent studies on the mechanism involved. During the past two decades, Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements have been extensively applied to investigate such processes in the geosciences. Precise point positioning (PPP) using GPS based on single stations can achieve comparable accuracies to conventional relative positioning, when precise satellite orbits and clocks, and Earth rotation products are used. Thus, PPP does not need any reference stations to achieve high positioning accuracy, e.g. at the millimetre level in static and centimetre level in kinematic applications. This has both technical and economic advantages and may be the only feasible option in some specific applications such as Tsunami early warning systems. However, unlike relative positioning, PPP suffers from unresolved integer ambiguities, which prevented further accuracy improvements within short observation periods or in real-time. On account of the great potential of PPP, we developed a prototype real-time PPP system which also employs ambiguity resolution at a single station. This development is based on the PANDA (Positioning And Navigation Data Analyst) software, which was originally developed at Wuhan University in China, and has been significantly refined by the authors. To assess this system, about 30 stations from the EUREF Permanent Network Internet Protocol (EUREF-IP) pilot project are used to produce the real-time satellite clocks, with satellite orbits and Earth rotation parameters (ERP) fixed to the predicted part of the IGS (International GNSS Service) ultra-rapid products. This is followed by the estimation of the uncalibrated hardware delays (UHD), which are crucial in resolving the

  3. FAST INTEGER AMBIGUITY RESOLUTION IN GPS KINEMATIC POSITIONING USING LEFT NULL SPACE AND MULTI-TIME (INVERSE PAIRED CHOLESKY DECORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Duan

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems that huge amount of computation in ambiguity resolution with multiple epochs and high-order matrix inversion occurred in the GPS kinematic relative positioning, a modified algorithm for fast integer ambiguity resolution is proposed. Firstly, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is applied to construct the left null space matrix in order to eliminate the baselines components, which is able to separate ambiguity parameters from the position parameters efficiently. Kalman filter is applied only to estimate the ambiguity parameters so that the real-time ambiguity float solution is obtained. Then, sorting and multi-time (inverse paired Cholesky decomposition are adopted for decorrelation of ambiguity. After diagonal elements preprocessing and diagonal elements sorting according to the results of Cholesky decomposition, the efficiency of decomposition and decorrelation is improved. Lastly, the integer search algorithm implemented in LAMBDA method is used for searching the integer ambiguity. To verify the validity and efficacy of the proposed algorithm, static and kinematic tests are carried out. Experimental results show that this algorithm has good performance of decorrelation and precision of float solution, with computation speed also increased effectively. The final positioning accuracy result with static baseline error less than 1 cm and kinematic error less than 2 cm, which indicates that it can be used for fast kinematic positioning of high precision carrier.

  4. Ambiguity resolution in precise point positioning with hourly data for global single receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Pan; Guo, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) can improve precise point positioning (PPP) performance significantly. IAR for PPP became a highlight topic in global positioning system (GPS) community in recent years. More and more researchers focus on this issue. Progress has been made in the latest years. In this paper, we aim at investigating and demonstrating the performance of a global zero-differenced (ZD) PPP IAR service for GPS users by providing routine ZD uncalibrated fractional offsets (UFOs) for wide-lane and narrow-lane. Data sets from all IGS stations collected on DOY 1, 100, 200 and 300 of 2010 are used to validate and demonstrate this global service. Static experiment results show that an accuracy better than 1 cm in horizontal and 1-2 cm in vertical could be achieved in ambiguity-fixed PPP solution with only hourly data. Compared with PPP float solution, an average improvement reaches 58.2% in east, 28.3% in north and 23.8% in vertical for all tested stations. Results of kinematic experiments show that the RMS of kinematic PPP solutions can be improved from 21.6, 16.6 and 37.7 mm to 12.2, 13.3 and 34.3 mm for the fixed solutions in the east, north and vertical components, respectively. Both static and kinematic experiments show that wide-lane and narrow-lane UFO products of all satellites can be generated and provided in a routine way accompanying satellite orbit and clock products for the PPP user anywhere around the world, to obtain accurate and reliable ambiguity-fixed PPP solutions.

  5. Multi-GNSS phase delay estimation and PPP ambiguity resolution: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Keke; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wickert, Jens

    2017-10-01

    This paper focuses on the precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution (AR) using the observations acquired from four systems: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo (GCRE). A GCRE four-system uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation model and multi-GNSS undifferenced PPP AR method were developed in order to utilize the observations from all systems. For UPD estimation, the GCRE-combined PPP solutions of the globally distributed MGEX and IGS stations are performed to obtain four-system float ambiguities and then UPDs of GCRE satellites can be precisely estimated from these ambiguities. The quality of UPD products in terms of temporal stability and residual distributions is investigated for GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo satellites, respectively. The BDS satellite-induced code biases were corrected for GEO, IGSO, and MEO satellites before the UPD estimation. The UPD results of global and regional networks were also evaluated for Galileo and BDS, respectively. As a result of the frequency-division multiple-access strategy of GLONASS, the UPD estimation was performed using a network of homogeneous receivers including three commonly used GNSS receivers (TRIMBLE NETR9, JAVAD TRE_G3TH DELTA, and LEICA). Data recorded from 140 MGEX and IGS stations for a 30-day period in January in 2017 were used to validate the proposed GCRE UPD estimation and multi-GNSS dual-frequency PPP AR. Our results show that GCRE four-system PPP AR enables the fastest time to first fix (TTFF) solutions and the highest accuracy for all three coordinate components compared to the single and dual system. An average TTFF of 9.21 min with 7{°} cutoff elevation angle can be achieved for GCRE PPP AR, which is much shorter than that of GPS (18.07 min), GR (12.10 min), GE (15.36 min) and GC (13.21 min). With observations length of 10 min, the positioning accuracy of the GCRE fixed solution is 1.84, 1.11, and 1.53 cm, while the GPS-only result is 2.25, 1.29, and 9.73 cm for the east, north, and vertical

  6. Performance analysis of PPP ambiguity resolution with UPD products estimated from different scales of reference station networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyao; Li, Bofeng; Li, Xingxing; Zang, Nan

    2018-01-01

    Integer ambiguity fixing with uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) products can significantly shorten the initialization time and improve the accuracy of precise point positioning (PPP). Since the tracking arcs of satellites and the behavior of atmospheric biases can be very different for the reference networks with different scales, the qualities of corresponding UPD products may be also various. The purpose of this paper is to comparatively investigate the influence of different scales of reference station networks on UPD estimation and user ambiguity resolution. Three reference station networks with global, wide-area and local scales are used to compute the UPD products and analyze their impact on the PPP-AR. The time-to-first-fix, the unfix rate and the incorrect fix rate of PPP-AR are analyzed. Moreover, in order to further shorten the convergence time for obtaining precise positioning, a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) and corresponding validation strategy are presented. In this PAR method, the ambiguity subset is determined by removing the ambiguity one by one in the order of ascending elevations. Besides, for static positioning mode, a coordinate validation strategy is employed to enhance the reliability of the fixed coordinate. The experiment results show that UPD products computed by smaller station network are more accurate and lead to a better coordinate solution; the PAR method used in this paper can shorten the convergence time and the coordinate validation strategy can improve the availability of high precision positioning.

  7. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihe Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network.

  8. Improved PPP Ambiguity Resolution Considering the Stochastic Characteristics of Atmospheric Corrections from Regional Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-11-30

    With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network.

  9. Effect of visual cues on the resolution of perceptual ambiguity in Parkinson's disease and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Santos, Mirella; Cao, Bo; Mauro, Samantha A; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Neargarder, Sandy; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and normal aging have been associated with changes in visual perception, including reliance on external cues to guide behavior. This raises the question of the extent to which these groups use visual cues when disambiguating information. Twenty-seven individuals with PD, 23 normal control adults (NC), and 20 younger adults (YA) were presented a Necker cube in which one face was highlighted by thickening the lines defining the face. The hypothesis was that the visual cues would help PD and NC to exert better control over bistable perception. There were three conditions, including passive viewing and two volitional-control conditions (hold one percept in front; and switch: speed up the alternation between the two). In the Hold condition, the cue was either consistent or inconsistent with task instructions. Mean dominance durations (time spent on each percept) under passive viewing were comparable in PD and NC, and shorter in YA. PD and YA increased dominance durations in the Hold cue-consistent condition relative to NC, meaning that appropriate cues helped PD but not NC hold one perceptual interpretation. By contrast, in the Switch condition, NC and YA decreased dominance durations relative to PD, meaning that the use of cues helped NC but not PD in expediting the switch between percepts. Provision of low-level cues has effects on volitional control in PD that are different from in normal aging, and only under task-specific conditions does the use of such cues facilitate the resolution of perceptual ambiguity.

  10. Particle filter-based estimation of inter-frequency phase bias for real-time GLONASS integer ambiguity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yumiao; Ge, Maorong; Neitzel, Frank

    2015-11-01

    GLONASS could hardly reach the positioning performance of GPS, especially for fast and real-time precise positioning. One of the reasons is the phase inter-frequency bias (IFB) at the receiver end prevents its integer ambiguity resolution. A number of studies were carried out to achieve the integer ambiguity resolution for GLONASS. Based on some of the revealed IFB characteristics, for instance IFB is a linear function of the received carrier frequency and L1 and L2 have the same IFB in unit of length, most of recent methods recommend estimating the IFB rate together with ambiguities. However, since the two sets of parameters are highly correlated, as demonstrated in previous studies, observations over several hours up to 1 day are needed even with simultaneous GPS observations to obtain a reasonable solution. Obviously, these approaches cannot be applied for real-time positioning. Actually, it can be demonstrated that GLONASS ambiguity resolution should also be available even for a single epoch if the IFB rate is precisely known. In addition, the closer the IFB rate value is to its true value, the larger the fixing RATIO will be. Based on this fact, in this paper, a new approach is developed to estimate the IFB rate by means of particle filtering with the likelihood function derived from RATIO. This approach is evaluated with several sets of experimental data. For both static and kinematic cases, the results show that IFB rates could be estimated precisely just with GLONASS data of a few epochs depending on the baseline length. The time cost with a normal PC can be controlled around 1 s and can be further reduced. With the estimated IFB rate, integer ambiguity resolution is available immediately and as a consequence, the positioning accuracy is improved significantly to the level of GPS fixed solution. Thus the new approach enables real-time precise applications of GLONASS.

  11. Identification of ambiguities in the 1994 chronic fatigue syndrome research case definition and recommendations for resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stouten Bart

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent article by Reeves et al. on the identification and resolution of ambiguities in the 1994 chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS research case definition recommended the Checklist Individual Strength, the Chalder Fatigue Scale, and the Krupp Fatigue Severity Scale for evaluating fatigue in CFS studies. To be able to discriminate between various levels of severe fatigue, extreme scoring on the individual items of these questionnaires must not occur too often. Methods We derived an expression that allows us to compute a lower bound for the number of items with the maximum item score for a given study from the reported mean scale score, the number of reported subjects, and the properties of the fatigue rating scale. Several CFS studies that used the recommended fatigue rating scales were selected from literature and analyzed to verify whether abundant extreme scoring had occurred. Results Extreme scoring occurred on a large number of the items for all three recommended fatigue rating scales across several studies. The percentage of items with the maximum score exceeded 40% in several cases. The amount of extreme scoring for a certain scale varied from one study to another, which suggests heterogeneity in the selected subjects across studies. Conclusion Because all three instruments easily reach the extreme ends of their scales on a large number of the individual items, they do not accurately represent the severe fatigue that is characteristic for CFS. This should lead to serious questions about the validity and suitability of the Checklist Individual Strength, the Chalder Fatigue Scale, and the Krupp Fatigue Severity Scale for evaluating fatigue in CFS research.

  12. Lexical ambiguity resolution in good and poor comprehenders: An eye fixation and self-paced reading study in primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, M.; Vasbinder, A.L.; Horsley, T.M.; Reijntjes, A.H.A.; van Lieshout, E.C.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the use of context and monitoring of comprehension in lexical ambiguity resolution in children, the authors asked 10- to 12-year-old good and poor comprehenders to read sentences consisting of 2 clauses, 1 containing the ambiguous word and the other the disambiguating information. The

  13. Processing coordinated structures in context: The effect of topic-structure on ambiguity resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, J.C.J.; Vonk, W.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    When a sentence such as The model embraced the designer and the photographer laughed is read, the noun phrase the photographer is temporarily ambiguous: It can be either one of the objects of embraced (NP-coordination) or the subject of a new, conjoined sentence (S-coordination). It has been shown

  14. Impact of ambiguity resolution and application of transformation parameters obtained by regional GNSS network in Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, S.; Poluzzi, L.; Tavasci, L.

    2012-12-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is one of the possible approaches for GNSS data processing. As known this technique is faster and more flexible compared to the others which are based on a differenced approach and constitute a reliable methods for accurate positioning of remote GNSS stations, even in some remote area such as Antarctica. Until few years ago one of the major limits of the method was the impossibility to resolve the ambiguity as integer but nowadays many methods are available to resolve this aspect. The first software package permitting a PPP solution was the GIPSY OASIS realized, developed and maintained by JPL (NASA). JPL produce also orbits and files ready to be used with GIPSY. Recently, using these products came possible to resolve ambiguities improving the stability of solutions. PPP permit to estimate position into the reference frame of the orbits (IGS) and when coordinate in others reference frames, such al ITRF, are needed is necessary to apply a transformation. Within his products JPL offer, for each day, a global 7 parameter transformation that permit to locate the survey into the ITRF RF. In some cases it's also possible to create a costumed process and obtain analogous parameters using local/regional reference network of stations which coordinates are available also in the desired reference frame. In this work some tests on accuracy has been carried out comparing different PPP solutions obtained using the same software packages (GIPSY) but considering the ambiguity resolution, the global and regional transformation parameters. In particular two test area have been considered, first one located in Antarctica and the second one in Italy. Aim of the work is the evaluation of the impact of ambiguity resolution and the use of local/regional transformation parameter in the final solutions. Tests shown how the ambiguity resolution improve the precision, especially in the EAST component with a scattering reduction about 8%. And the use of global

  15. SEMSIN SEMANTIC AND SYNTACTIC PARSER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Boyarsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the principle of operation for SemSin semantic and syntactic parser creating a dependency tree for the Russian language sentences. The parser consists of 4 blocks: a dictionary, morphological analyzer, production rules and lexical analyzer. An important logical part of the parser is pre-syntactical module, which harmonizes and complements morphological analysis results, separates the text paragraphs into individual sentences, and also carries out predisambiguation. Characteristic feature of the presented parser is an open type of control – it is done by means of a set of production rules. A varied set of commands provides the ability to both morphological and semantic-syntactic analysis of the sentence. The paper presents the sequence of rules usage and examples of their work. Specific feature of the rules is the decision making on establishment of syntactic links with simultaneous removal of the morphological and semantic ambiguity. The lexical analyzer provides the execution of commands and rules, and manages the parser in manual or automatic modes of the text analysis. In the first case, the analysis is performed interactively with the possibility of step-by-step execution of the rules and scanning the resulting parse tree. In the second case, analysis results are filed in an xml-file. Active usage of syntactic and semantic dictionary information gives the possibility to reduce significantly the ambiguity of parsing. In addition to marking the text, the parser is also usable as a tool for information extraction from natural language texts.

  16. Micro-Doppler Ambiguity Resolution Based on Short-Time Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-bo Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When using a long range radar (LRR to track a target with micromotion, the micro-Doppler embodied in the radar echoes may suffer from ambiguity problem. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on compressed sensing (CS to solve micro-Doppler ambiguity. According to the RIP requirement, a sparse probing pulse train with its transmitting time random is designed. After matched filtering, the slow-time echo signals of the micromotion target can be viewed as randomly sparse sampling of Doppler spectrum. Select several successive pulses to form a short-time window and the CS sensing matrix can be built according to the time stamps of these pulses. Then performing Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP, the unambiguous micro-Doppler spectrum can be obtained. The proposed algorithm is verified using the echo signals generated according to the theoretical model and the signals with micro-Doppler signature produced using the commercial electromagnetic simulation software FEKO.

  17. The influence of sense-contingent argument structure frequencies on ambiguity resolution in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Anneline; Thompson, Robin L; Cruice, Madeline; Marshall, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Verbs with multiple senses can show varying argument structure frequencies, depending on the underlying sense. When acknowledge is used to mean 'recognise', it takes a direct object (DO), but when it is used to mean 'admit' it prefers a sentence complement (SC). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether people with aphasia (PWA) can exploit such meaning-structure probabilities during the reading of temporarily ambiguous sentences, as demonstrated for neurologically healthy individuals (NHI) in a self-paced reading study (Hare et al., 2003). Eleven people with mild or moderate aphasia and eleven neurologically healthy control participants read sentences while their eyes were tracked. Using adapted materials from the study by Hare et al. target sentences containing an SC structure (e.g. He acknowledged (that) his friends would probably help him a lot) were presented following a context prime that biased either a direct object (DO-bias) or sentence complement (SC-bias) reading of the verbs. Half of the stimuli sentences did not contain that so made the post verbal noun phrase (his friends) structurally ambiguous. Both groups of participants were influenced by structural ambiguity as well as by the context bias, indicating that PWA can, like NHI, use their knowledge of a verb's sense-based argument structure frequency during online sentence reading. However, the individuals with aphasia showed delayed reading patterns and some individual differences in their sensitivity to context and ambiguity cues. These differences compared to the NHI may contribute to difficulties in sentence comprehension in aphasia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Syntactic autonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.M.

    1998-12-01

    The study of adapting and evolving autonomous agents should be based on a complex systems-theoretic framework which requires both self-organizing and symbolic dimensions. An inclusive framework based on the notions of semiotics and situated action is advanced to build models capable of representing, as well as evolving in their environments.Such undertaking is pursued by discussing the ways in which symbol and self-organization are irreducibly intertwined in evolutionary systems. With this semiotic view of self-organization and symbols, the authors re-think the notion of autonomy of evolving systems, and show that evolutionary systems are characterized by a particular type of syntactic autonomy. Recent developments in emergent computation in cellular automata are discussed as examples of the emergence of syntactic autonomy in computational environments. New experiments emphasizing this syntactic autonomy in cellular automata are presented.

  19. Resolution of sensory ambiguities for gaze stabilization requires a second neural integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrea M.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2003-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously move in the world and maintain stable visual perception depends critically on the contribution of vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) to gaze stabilization. It is traditionally believed that semicircular canal signals drive compensatory responses to rotational head disturbances (rotational VOR), whereas otolith signals compensate for translational movements [translational VOR (TVOR)]. However, a sensory ambiguity exists because otolith afferents are activated similarly during head translations and reorientations relative to gravity (i.e., tilts). Extra-otolith cues are, therefore, necessary to ensure that dynamic head tilts do not elicit a TVOR. To investigate how extra-otolith signals contribute, we characterized the temporal and viewing distance-dependent properties of a TVOR elicited in the absence of a lateral acceleration stimulus to the otoliths during combined translational/rotational motion. We show that, in addition to otolith signals, angular head position signals derived by integrating sensory canal information drive the TVOR. A physiological basis for these results is proposed in a model with two distinct integration steps. Upstream of the well known oculomotor velocity-to-position neural integrator, the model incorporates a separate integration element that could represent the "velocity storage integrator," whose functional role in the oculomotor system has so far remained controversial. We propose that a key functional purpose of the velocity storage network is to temporally integrate semicircular canal signals, so that they may be used to extract translation information from ambiguous otolith afferent signals in the natural and functionally relevant bandwidth of head movements.

  20. Resolution of ambiguities in cartoons as an illustration of the role of pragmatics in natural language understanding by computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazlack, L.J.; Paz, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Newspaper cartoons can graphically display the result of ambiguity in human speech; the result can be unexpected and funny. Likewise, computer analysis of natural language statements also needs to successfully resolve ambiguous situations. Computer techniques already developed use restricted world knowledge in resolving ambiguous language use. This paper illustrates how these techniques can be used in resolving ambiguous situations arising in cartoons. 8 references.

  1. GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution (PPP-AR) and its Integration with GPS for Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Geng, J.; Avallone, A.; Ganas, A.; Melgar, D.; Riquelme, S.

    2015-12-01

    GPS has been recognized as an essential technique to measure static and dynamic displacements for earthquake early warning (EEW), in particular for near-field large earthquake monitoring where broadband seismometers clip, filtering of strong-motion accelerometer data eliminates the static component, and seismic data are affected by magnitude saturation. We have developed a prototype EEW system for the U.S. West Coast using real-time precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR). It includes about 200 GPS stations spanning the areas of greatest seismic risk: Cascadia, the San Francisco Bay Area and southern California, using IGS ultra-rapid orbits and a North-America based GPS network well outside the region of expected deformation to estimate satellite clock and fractional cycle biases. We have analyzed, retrospectively in real time, earthquakes from Mw5.1 to Mw9.0; we can detect dynamic displacements with a precision of about one cm, but we've encountered several issues that could improve our operational system. Reinitialization of the integer-cycle phase ambiguities is problematic when a (not unusual) data gap of more than about 5 minutes is encountered. Also, ambiguity resolution is less reliable when there are only a limited number (six or less) of GPS satellites available. Nowadays, GNSS is evolving to a true multi-constellation environment with GLONASS having been restored to a 24-satellite constellation in 2012. We present a method for GNSS (GPS+GLONASS) PPP-AR to improve on the performance of GPS PPP-AR in EEW. We find that GNSS-AR has higher reliability in achieving ambiguity-fixed solutions, improves vertical accuracy by 20%, reduces initialization time to less than 7 minutes from about 20 minutes, and reduces outlier rates from 1.2% to below 0.2%. We use three earthquakes to demonstrate GNSS-AR, the M7.8 2014 Iquique, Chile aftershock, and Mw 6.9 2014 North Aegean, Greece and Mw 6.3 2009 L'Aquila, Italy earthquakes.

  2. Atmosphere Mitigation in Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution for Earthquake Early Warning in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J.; Bock, Y.; Reuveni, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) is a time-critical system and typically relies on seismic instruments in the area around the source to detect P waves (or S waves) and rapidly issue alerts. Thanks to the rapid development of real-time Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), a good number of sensors have been deployed in seismic zones, such as the western U.S. where over 600 GPS stations are collecting 1-Hz high-rate data along the Cascadia subduction zone, San Francisco Bay area, San Andreas fault, etc. GNSS sensors complement the seismic sensors by recording the static offsets while seismic data provide highly-precise higher frequency motions. An optimal combination of GNSS and accelerometer data (seismogeodesy) has advantages compared to GNSS-only or seismic-only methods and provides seismic velocity and displacement waveforms that are precise enough to detect P wave arrivals, in particular in the near source region. Robust real-time GNSS and seismogeodetic analysis is challenging because it requires a period of initialization and continuous phase ambiguity resolution. One of the limiting factors is unmodeled atmospheric effects, both of tropospheric and ionospheric origin. One mitigation approach is to introduce atmospheric corrections into precise point positioning with ambiguity resolution (PPP-AR) of clients/stations within the monitored regions. NOAA generates hourly predictions of zenith troposphere delays at an accuracy of a few centimeters, and 15-minute slant ionospheric delays of a few TECU (Total Electron Content Unit) accuracy from both geodetic and meteorological data collected at hundreds of stations across the U.S. The Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) is experimenting with a regional ionosphere grid using a few hundred stations in southern California, and the International GNSS Service (IGS) routinely estimates a Global Ionosphere Map using over 100 GNSS stations. With these troposphere and ionosphere data as additional

  3. The Interplay of Implicit Causality, Structural Heuristics, and Anaphor Type in Ambiguous Pronoun Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvikivi, Juhani; van Gompel, Roger P G; Hyönä, Jukka

    2017-06-01

    Two visual-world eye-tracking experiments investigating pronoun resolution in Finnish examined the time course of implicit causality information relative to both grammatical role and order-of-mention information. Experiment 1 showed an effect of implicit causality that appeared at the same time as the first-mention preference. Furthermore, when we counterbalanced the semantic roles of the verbs, we found no effect of grammatical role, suggesting the standard observed subject preference has a large semantic component. Experiment 2 showed that both the personal pronoun hän and the demonstrative tämä preferred the antecedent consistent with the implicit causality bias; tämä was not interpreted as referring to the semantically non-prominent entity. In contrast, structural prominence affected hän and tämä differently: we found a first-mention preference for hän, but a second-mention preference for tämä. The results suggest that semantic implicit causality information has an immediate effect on pronoun resolution and its use is not delayed relative to order-of-mention information. Furthermore, they show that order-of-mention differentially affects different types of anaphoric expressions, but semantic information has the same effect.

  4. A Lexical Analysis Tool with Ambiguity Support

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada, Luis; Berzal, Fernando; Cortijo, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Lexical ambiguities naturally arise in languages. We present Lamb, a lexical analyzer that produces a lexical analysis graph describing all the possible sequences of tokens that can be found within the input string. Parsers can process such lexical analysis graphs and discard any sequence of tokens that does not produce a valid syntactic sentence, therefore performing, together with Lamb, a context-sensitive lexical analysis in lexically-ambiguous language specifications.

  5. Ambiguous chair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2011-01-01

    Bidrag til gør-det-selv bog, hvor det beskrives i udførlige tegninger, hvordan man bygger sin egen 'Ambiguous Chair', en tekstilforskallet stol.......Bidrag til gør-det-selv bog, hvor det beskrives i udførlige tegninger, hvordan man bygger sin egen 'Ambiguous Chair', en tekstilforskallet stol....

  6. Enhanced GPS-based GRACE baseline determination by using a new strategy for ambiguity resolution and relative phase center variation corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Defeng; Ju, Bing; Liu, Junhong; Tu, Jia

    2017-09-01

    Precise relative position determination is a prerequisite for radar interferometry by formation flying satellites. It has been shown that this can be achieved by high-quality, dual-frequency GPS receivers that provide precise carrier-phase observations. The precise baseline determination between satellites flying in formation can significantly improve the accuracy of interferometric products, and has become a research interest. The key technologies of baseline determination using spaceborne dual-frequency GPS for gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) formation are presented, including zero-difference (ZD) reduced dynamic orbit determination, double-difference (DD) reduced dynamic relative orbit determination, integer ambiguity resolution and relative receiver antenna phase center variation (PCV) estimation. We propose an independent baseline determination method based on a new strategy of integer ambiguity resolution and correction of relative receiver antenna PCVs, and implement the method in the NUDTTK software package. The algorithms have been tested using flight data over a period of 120 days from GRACE. With the original strategy of integer ambiguity resolution based on Melbourne-Wübbena (M-W) combinations, the average success rate is 85.6%, and the baseline precision is 1.13 mm. With the new strategy of integer ambiguity resolution based on a priori relative orbit, the average success rate and baseline precision are improved by 5.8% and 0.11 mm respectively. A relative ionosphere-free phase pattern estimation result is given in this study, and with correction of relative receiver antenna PCVs, the baseline precision is further significantly improved by 0.34 mm. For ZD reduced dynamic orbit determination, the orbit precision for each GRACE satellite A or B in three dimensions (3D) is about 2.5 cm compared to Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) post science orbits. For DD reduced dynamic relative orbit determination, the final baseline precision for two

  7. Syntactic computations in the language network: Characterising dynamic network properties using representational similarity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Komisarjevsky Tyler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The core human capacity of syntactic analysis involves a left hemisphere network involving left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LMTG and the anatomical connections between them. Here we use MEG to determine the spatio-temporal properties of syntactic computations in this network. Listeners heard spoken sentences containing a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g. …landing planes…, at the offset of which they heard a disambiguating verb and decided whether it was an acceptable/unacceptable continuation of the sentence. We charted the time-course of processing and resolving syntactic ambiguity by measuring MEG responses from the onset of each word in the ambiguous phrase and the disambiguating word. We used representational similarity analysis (RSA to characterize syntactic information represented in the LIFG and LpMTG over time and to investigate their relationship to each other. Testing a variety of lexico-syntactic and ambiguity models against the MEG data, our results suggest early lexico-syntactic responses in the LpMTG and later effects of ambiguity in the LIFG, pointing to a clear differentiation in the functional roles of these two regions. Our results suggest the LpMTG represents and transmits lexical information to the LIFG, which responds to and resolves the ambiguity.

  8. On the ambiguity of the reaction rate constants in multivariate curve resolution for reversible first-order reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Henning; Sawall, Mathias; Kubis, Christoph; Selent, Detlef; Hess, Dieter; Franke, Robert; Börner, Armin; Neymeyr, Klaus

    2016-07-13

    If for a chemical reaction with a known reaction mechanism the concentration profiles are accessible only for certain species, e.g. only for the main product, then often the reaction rate constants cannot uniquely be determined from the concentration data. This is a well-known fact which includes the so-called slow-fast ambiguity. This work combines the question of unique or non-unique reaction rate constants with factor analytic methods of chemometrics. The idea is to reduce the rotational ambiguity of pure component factorizations by considering only those concentration factors which are possible solutions of the kinetic equations for a properly adapted set of reaction rate constants. The resulting set of reaction rate constants corresponds to those solutions of the rate equations which appear as feasible factors in a pure component factorization. The new analysis of the ambiguity of reaction rate constants extends recent research activities on the Area of Feasible Solutions (AFS). The consistency with a given chemical reaction scheme is shown to be a valuable tool in order to reduce the AFS. The new methods are applied to model and experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetics, endocrinology (hormones), pediatric surgery or urology, and psychology. Questions to ask your doctor • What is my ... hyperplasia: www. hormone. org (search for CAH) • Mayo Clinic information about ambiguous genitalia: www. mayoclinic. com/ health/ ...

  10. Ambiguous genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and gonadal steroids. In some cases, laparoscopy , exploratory laparotomy , or biopsy of the gonads may be needed to confirm disorders that can cause ambiguous genitalia. Depending on the cause, surgery, hormone replacement, or other treatments are used to ...

  11. Is Syntactic-Category Processing Obligatory in Visual Word Recognition? Evidence from Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate how syntactic-category and semantic information is processed in visual word recognition. The stimuli were two-character Chinese words in which semantic and syntactic-category ambiguities were factorially manipulated. A lexical decision task was employed in Experiment 1, whereas a semantic relatedness…

  12. Study on desirable ionospheric corrections accuracy for network-RTK positioning and its impact on time-to-fix and probability of successful single-epoch ambiguity resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paziewski, Jacek

    2016-02-01

    The mitigation of ionospheric delay is still of crucial interest in GNSS positioning, especially in precise solutions such as instantaneous RTK positioning. Thus, several effective algorithms and functional models were developed, and also numerous investigations of ionospheric correction properties in RTK positioning have been performed so far. One of the most highly effective approaches in precise relative positioning is the application of the ionosphere-weighted model with network-derived corrections. This contribution investigates the impact of the accuracy of the network ionospheric corrections on time-to-fix in RTK-OTF positioning. Also, an attempt has been made to estimate the desirable accuracy of the network ionospheric corrections, allowing for reliable instantaneous ambiguity resolution. The experiment is based on a multi-baseline GPS RTK positioning supported with network-derived ionospheric corrections for medium length baselines. The results show that in such scenario, the double-differenced ionospheric correction residuals should not exceed ∼1/3 of the L1 wavelength for successful single-epoch ambiguity resolution.

  13. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  14. Ambiguous Genitalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rare condition in which an infant's external genitals don't appear to be clearly either male or female. In a baby with ambiguous genitalia, the genitals may not be well-formed or the baby may have characteristics of both sexes. The external sex organs may not match the internal sex organs or ...

  15. Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Qing; Jiang, Xinyuan

    2017-05-19

    The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD) of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR) are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction.

  16. Preschoolers Use Phrasal Prosody Online to Constrain Syntactic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Alex; Dautriche, Isabelle; Christophe, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether young children are able to take into account phrasal prosody when computing the syntactic structure of a sentence. Pairs of French noun/verb homophones were selected to create locally ambiguous sentences (["la petite 'ferme'"] ["est très jolie"] "the small farm is very…

  17. The Effects of Syntactic Complexity on Processing Sentences in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of stationary (non-fluctuating) noise on processing and understanding of sentences, which vary in their syntactic complexity (with the factors canonicity, embedding, ambiguity). It presents data from two RT-studies with 44 participants testing processing of German sentences in silence and in noise. Results show a…

  18. A behavioural and electrophysiological investigation of the effect of bilingualism on lexical ambiguity resolution in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanna eKousaie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that bilinguals demonstrate superior cognitive control processes than monolinguals. The goal of the current investigation was to examine whether this bilingual advantage is observed in a language processing task that requires inhibition, i.e., lexical ambiguity processing. Monolingual and bilingual participants read sentences that biased the reading of a terminal homonym toward the subordinate or dominant reading (e.g., The doctor asked her to step onto the scale.. A relatedness judgement was made on target words that were related to the contextually appropriate (e.g., balance or inappropriate meaning (e.g., skin, or unrelated to either meaning (e.g., shoe while electrophysiological recording took place. The results revealed subtle processing differences between monolinguals and bilinguals that were evident in electrophysiological measures, but not in behavioural measures. These findings suggest that monolinguals rely on context to access the contextually appropriate meaning of a homonym to a greater extent than bilinguals, while bilinguals demonstrate simultaneous activation of both meanings.

  19. Gesture facilitates the syntactic analysis of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning eHolle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that the brain routinely binds together information from gesture and speech. However, most of this research focused on the integration of representational gestures with the semantic content of speech. Much less is known about how other aspects of gesture, such as emphasis, influence the interpretation of the syntactic relations in a spoken message. Here, we investigated whether beat gestures alter which syntactic structure is assigned to ambiguous spoken German sentences. The P600 component of the Event Related Brain Potential indicated that the more complex syntactic structure is easier to process when the speaker emphasizes the subject of a sentence with a beat. Thus, a simple flick of the hand can change our interpretation of who has been doing what to whom in a spoken sentence. We conclude that gestures and speech are an integrated system. Unlike previous studies, which have shown that the brain effortlessly integrates semantic information from gesture and speech, our study is the first to demonstrate that this integration also occurs for syntactic information. Moreover, the effect appears to be gesture-specific and was not found for other stimuli that draw attention to certain parts of speech, including prosodic emphasis, or a moving visual stimulus with the same trajectory as the gesture. This suggests that only visual emphasis produced with a communicative intention in mind (that is, beat gestures influences language comprehension, but not a simple visual movement lacking such an intention.

  20. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  1. Ambiguous Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible...... and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  2. A Lexico-Grammatical Interpretation of Ambiguity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses semantic ambiguous headlines stating their communicative effectiveness with regards to print media. The concentration of this paper is on the multiple meaning of headlines. Hence, we have realized that multiple meanings of a word or sentence can be analysed semantically based on the syntactic ...

  3. AMBIGUITY, NEGATION, AND C-COMMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson Cavalcante de Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze negative scope ambiguity in sentences with cause, temporal and purpose adjuncts, in which negation can take scope either over the predicate or over the adjunct. I discuss Huang (1982, Takubo (1985 and Johnston’s (1994 analyses, which propose that the ambiguity is derived from different c-command relations between negation and adjunct, due to an optionality of adjunction to VP or IP. Against this view, I show a set of facts which are problematic for any analysis based only in c-command, i.e., several syntactic contexts where negation should c-command the adjunct, but where the ambiguity surprisingly still holds. Based on this, I argue that c-command is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to establish negative scope. And I suggest that the availability of predicate negation and adjunct negation results from an optionality of the operation of Labeling in adjunction, according Hornstein and Nunes (2008.

  4. Context-dependent lexical ambiguity resolution: MEG evidence for the time-course of activity in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Giovanna; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Cornelissen, Piers; Gennari, Silvia P

    An MEG study investigated the role of context in semantic interpretation by examining the comprehension of ambiguous words in contexts leading to different interpretations. We compared high-ambiguity words in minimally different contexts (to bowl, the bowl) to low-ambiguity counterparts (the tray, to flog). Whole brain beamforming revealed the engagement of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMTG). Points of interest analyses showed that both these sites showed a stronger response to verb-contexts by 200 ms post-stimulus and displayed overlapping ambiguity effects that were sustained from 300 ms onwards. The effect of context was stronger for high-ambiguity words than for low-ambiguity words at several different time points, including within the first 100 ms post-stimulus. Unlike LIFG, LPMTG also showed stronger responses to verb than noun contexts in low-ambiguity trials. We argue that different functional roles previously attributed to LIFG and LPMTG are in fact played out at different periods during processing. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Give and take: syntactic priming during spoken language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-07-01

    Syntactic priming during language production is pervasive and well-studied. Hearing, reading, speaking or writing a sentence with a given structure increases the probability of subsequently producing the same structure, regardless of whether the prime and target share lexical content. In contrast, syntactic priming during comprehension has proven more elusive, fueling claims that comprehension is less dependent on general syntactic representations and more dependent on lexical knowledge. In three experiments we explored syntactic priming during spoken language comprehension. Participants acted out double-object (DO) or prepositional-object (PO) dative sentences while their eye movements were recorded. Prime sentences used different verbs and nouns than the target sentences. In target sentences, the onset of the direct-object noun was consistent with both an animate recipient and an inanimate theme, creating a temporary ambiguity in the argument structure of the verb (DO e.g., Show the horse the book; PO e.g., Show the horn to the dog). We measured the difference in looks to the potential recipient and the potential theme during the ambiguous interval. In all experiments, participants who heard DO primes showed a greater preference for the recipient over the theme than those who heard PO primes, demonstrating across-verb priming during online language comprehension. These results accord with priming found in production studies, indicating a role for abstract structural information during comprehension as well as production.

  6. Risk, ambiguity, and diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Sautua, Santiago-Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward risk influence the decision to diversify among uncertain options. Yet, because in most situations the options are ambiguous, attitudes toward ambiguity may also play an important role. I conduct a laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of ambiguity on the decision to diversify. I find that diversification is more prevalent and more persistent under ambiguity than under risk. Moreover, excess diversification under ambiguity is driven by participants who stick with a s...

  7. Discourse before gender: An event-related brain potential study on the interplay of semantic and syntactic information during spoken language understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, C.M.; Berkum, J.J.A. van; Hagoort, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study is presented on the effects of discourse-semantic and lexical-syntactic information during spoken sentence processing. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were registered while subjects listened to discourses that ended in a sentence with a temporary syntactic ambiguity. The prior

  8. Image ambiguity and fluency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Jakesch

    Full Text Available Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the "processing fluency account", suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10 ms, 50 ms, 100 ms, 500 ms, 1000 ms and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest. As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a, but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b. Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500 ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50 ms to 1000 ms and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500 ms and 1000 ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3. Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process.

  9. Determinants of translation ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Tamar; Prior, Anat; Eddington, Chelsea M.; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity in translation is highly prevalent, and has consequences for second-language learning and for bilingual lexical processing. To better understand this phenomenon, the current study compared the determinants of translation ambiguity across four sets of translation norms from English to Spanish, Dutch, German and Hebrew. The number of translations an English word received was correlated across these different languages, and was also correlated with the number of senses the word has in English, demonstrating that translation ambiguity is partially determined by within-language semantic ambiguity. For semantically-ambiguous English words, the probability of the different translations in Spanish and Hebrew was predicted by the meaning-dominance structure in English, beyond the influence of other lexical and semantic factors, for bilinguals translating from their L1, and translating from their L2. These findings are consistent with models postulating direct access to meaning from L2 words for moderately-proficient bilinguals. PMID:27882188

  10. Examining the Contributions of Syntactic Awareness and Syntactic Knowledge to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimo, Danielle; Apel, Kenn; Fountain, Treeva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect(s) of syntactic knowledge and syntactic awareness on adolescents' reading comprehension. Method: One hundred and seventy-nine, 9th and 10th grade students' syntactic awareness, syntactic knowledge and reading comprehension skills were assessed. In addition, other known contributors to…

  11. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jen

    Long fibers are generally preferred for reinforcing foams for performance reasons. However, uniform dispersion is difficult to achieve because they must be mixed with liquid resin prior to foam expansion. New approaches aiming to overcome such problem have been developed at USC's Composites Center. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams with long fibers (over 6 mm in length) manufactured at USC's Composites Center have achieved promising mechanical properties and demonstrated lower density relative to conventional composite foams. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were synthesized from thermosetting polymeric microspheres (amino and phenolic microspheres), as well as thermoplastic PVC heat expandable microspheres (HEMs). Carbon and/or aramid fibers were used to reinforce the syntactic foams. Basic mechanical properties, including shear, tensile, and compression, were measured in syntactic foams and fiber-reinforced syntactic foams. Microstructure and crack propagation behavior were investigated by scanning electron microscope and light microscopy. Failure mechanisms and reinforcing mechanisms of fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were also analyzed. As expected, additions of fiber reinforcements to foams enhanced both tensile and shear properties. However, only limited enhancement in compression properties was observed, and fiber reinforcement was of limited benefit in this regard. Therefore, a hybrid foam design was explored and evaluated in an attempt to enhance compression properties. HEMs were blended with glass microspheres to produce hybrid foams, and hybrid foams were subsequently reinforced with continuous aramid fibers to produce fiber-reinforced hybrid foams. Mechanical properties of these foams were evaluated. Findings indicated that the production of hybrid foams was an effective way to enhance the compressive properties of syntactic foams, while the addition of fiber reinforcements enhanced the shear and tensile performance of syntactic foams. Another approach

  12. Continued Access to Syntactic Information in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Reinold; Sieger, Jasmin

    2012-01-01

    Reliable access to syntactic information beyond its use in first-pass reading was probed using a task labeled "syntactic reading task." This task draws on an orthographic marker for syntactic structure, the capitalization of nouns in German. Subjects read written text strings containing a unit that could be taken as a noun or as a verb. The…

  13. Identifying Dialect Regions from Syntactic Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.; Wieling, Martijn; Kroon, Martin; van Noord, Gertjan; Bouma, Gosse

    2017-01-01

    The Syntactic Atlas of Dutch Dialects (SAND) is a database of syntactic features observed in the language spoken by people from different dialect regions in The Netherlands and Flanders. We would like to know how specific syntactic features are for the different dialects. For this purpose we try to

  14. Exploring ambiguous realms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana

    2016-01-01

    In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities in their intera......In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities...... in their interactions, testing social roles and conventions. This article explores the vigilance and creative agency displayed by Hang'ombe children, in an environment spurring their acquisition of distinct social and discursive skills....

  15. Ontology: ambiguity and accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schiessl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity is a major obstacle to information retrieval. It is source of several researches in Information Science. Ontologies have been studied in order to solve problems related to ambiguities. Paradoxically, “ontology” term is also ambiguous and it is understood according to the use by the community. Philosophy and Computer Science seems to have the most accentuated difference related to the term sense. The former holds undisputed tradition and authority. The latter, in despite of being quite recent, holds an informal sense, but pragmatic. Information Science acts ranging from philosophical to computational approaches so as to get organized collections based on balance between users’ necessities and available information. The semantic web requires informational cycle automation and demands studies related to ontologies. Consequently, revisiting relevant approaches for the study of ontologies plays a relevant role as a way to provide useful ideas to researchers maintaining philosophical rigor, and convenience provided by computers.

  16. Gribov's ambiguities and horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vega, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Gribov's ambiguities prevent a formulation of a gauge theory on the whole space of field configurations. We introduce the concept of horizon around some field A 0 as the nearest field to it exhibiting gauge ambiguities. The constrained equations determining the horizon are explicitly given. These concepts are applied to the gauge problems associated with collective coordinates. For a two-dimensional model, horizon solutions around one soliton are found for a whole family of gauges and its properties are analyzed. By varying the gauge condition we show that the ''optimal horizon,'' the one which surrounds the largest portion of functional space, lies at the threshold of soliton-antisoliton production

  17. Risk, Ambiguity, and Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    ambiguous, insurance firms are reluctant to market coverage. The oae of nulear power provides a graphic example. Neither risk managers of nuclear...Inauiry, 20, 1-9. Alliance of American Insurers, American Insurance Association, National Association of Independent Insurers, Mutual Atomic Energy

  18. Discovery of association rules between syntactic variables. Data mining the Syntactic Atlas of the Dutch dialects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, M.R.; Dirix, P.; Schuurman, I.; Vandeghinste, V.; Van Eynde, F.

    2007-01-01

    This research applies an association rule mining technique to purely syntactic dialect data. The paper answers the research question of how relevant associations between syntactic variables can be discovered. The method calculates the proportional overlap between geographical distributions of

  19. On syntactic action refinement and logic

    OpenAIRE

    Majster-Cederbaum, Mila; Salger, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Action refinement is a useful methodology for the development of concurrent processes in a stepwise manner. We are here interested in establishing a connection between syntactic action refinement and logic. In the syntactic approach to action refinement, reduction functions are used to remove the refinement operators from process-algebraic expressions thereby providing semantics for them. We incorporate a syntactic action refinement operator to the Hennessy-Milner-Logic and define a logical r...

  20. Syntactic Priming in American Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Matthew L.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic primin...

  1. A Semantic Constraint on Syntactic Parsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Coker, Pamela L.

    This research examines how semantic information influences syntactic parsing decisions during sentence processing. In the first experiment, subjects were presented lexical strings having syntactically identical surface structures but with two possible underlying structures: "The children taught by the Berlitz method," and "The…

  2. Automatically Extracting Typical Syntactic Differences from Corpora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Wybo; Nerbonne, John; Lauttamus, Timo

    We develop an aggregate measure of syntactic difference for automatically finding common syntactic differences between collections of text. With the use of this measure, it is possible to mine for differences between, for example, the English of learners and natives, or between related dialects. If

  3. A Syntactic Study of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal-Eldin, Saad M.

    This syntactic analysis of Egyptian colloquial Arabic is based on the author's dialect which he designates as educated Cairene. This study offers a phonological as well as morphological background for the grammar of this particular dialect. The basic syntactic approach used is immediate constituent analysis. String analysis and transformational…

  4. An ambiguous relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Larsen, Lene; Hedegaard Larsen, Birte; Birkelund, Regner

    2013-01-01

    for practice:  Hospitalized patients experienced interaction with fellow patients to be of great significance. We suggest that knowledge of patients’ interaction is to be included in the nursing education and that nurses reflect on how this knowledge may be implemented as a part of caring in nursing....... to qualitative data analysis. Results:  The qualitative meta-synthesis resulted in the heading An Ambiguous Relationship under which three core categories illustrate the hospitalized patients’ different interaction roles. The core categories were as follows: (i) the fellow patient experienced as an enforced...

  5. Language influences music harmony perception: effects of shared syntactic integration resources beyond attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have revealed shared music-language processing resources by finding an influence of music harmony manipulations on concurrent language processing. However, the nature of the shared resources has remained ambiguous. They have been argued to be syntax specific and thus due to shared syntactic integration resources. An alternative view regards them as related to general attention and, thus, not specific to syntax. The present experiments evaluated these accounts by investigating the influence of language on music. Participants were asked to provide closure judgements on harmonic sequences in order to assess the appropriateness of sequence endings. At the same time participants read syntactic garden-path sentences. Closure judgements revealed a change in harmonic processing as the result of reading a syntactically challenging word. We found no influence of an arithmetic control manipulation (experiment 1) or semantic garden-path sentences (experiment 2). Our results provide behavioural evidence for a specific influence of linguistic syntax processing on musical harmony judgements. A closer look reveals that the shared resources appear to be needed to hold a harmonic key online in some form of syntactic working memory or unification workspace related to the integration of chords and words. Overall, our results support the syntax specificity of shared music-language processing resources.

  6. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L; Ferreira, Victor S; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL). Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2) signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect). Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming) operates similarly in sign and speech.

  7. Syntactic Priming in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew L.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL). Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2) signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect). Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming) operates similarly in sign and speech. PMID:25786230

  8. Syntactic priming in American Sign Language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Hall

    Full Text Available Psycholinguistic studies of sign language processing provide valuable opportunities to assess whether language phenomena, which are primarily studied in spoken language, are fundamentally shaped by peripheral biology. For example, we know that when given a choice between two syntactically permissible ways to express the same proposition, speakers tend to choose structures that were recently used, a phenomenon known as syntactic priming. Here, we report two experiments testing syntactic priming of a noun phrase construction in American Sign Language (ASL. Experiment 1 shows that second language (L2 signers with normal hearing exhibit syntactic priming in ASL and that priming is stronger when the head noun is repeated between prime and target (the lexical boost effect. Experiment 2 shows that syntactic priming is equally strong among deaf native L1 signers, deaf late L1 learners, and hearing L2 signers. Experiment 2 also tested for, but did not find evidence of, phonological or semantic boosts to syntactic priming in ASL. These results show that despite the profound differences between spoken and signed languages in terms of how they are produced and perceived, the psychological representation of sentence structure (as assessed by syntactic priming operates similarly in sign and speech.

  9. Syntactic Enhancement and Second Language Literacy: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngmin; Warschauer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study examined how the reading and writing development of sixth-grade L2 students was affected by syntactic enhancement. Visual-syntactic text formatting (VSTF) technology, which visualizes syntactic structures, was used to convert a textbook to the one with syntactic enhancement. The sample (n = 282), which was drawn from a…

  10. Combined GPS/GLONASS Precise Point Positioning with Fixed GPS Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lin; Cai, Changsheng; Santerre, Rock; Zhu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Precise point positioning (PPP) technology is mostly implemented with an ambiguity-float solution. Its performance may be further improved by performing ambiguity-fixed resolution. Currently, the PPP integer ambiguity resolutions (IARs) are mainly based on GPS-only measurements. The integration of GPS and GLONASS can speed up the convergence and increase the accuracy of float ambiguity estimates, which contributes to enhancing the success rate and reliability of fixing ambiguities. This paper presents an approach of combined GPS/GLONASS PPP with fixed GPS ambiguities (GGPPP-FGA) in which GPS ambiguities are fixed into integers, while all GLONASS ambiguities are kept as float values. An improved minimum constellation method (MCM) is proposed to enhance the efficiency of GPS ambiguity fixing. Datasets from 20 globally distributed stations on two consecutive days are employed to investigate the performance of the GGPPP-FGA, including the positioning accuracy, convergence time and the time to first fix (TTFF). All datasets are processed for a time span of three hours in three scenarios, i.e., the GPS ambiguity-float solution, the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolution and the GGPPP-FGA resolution. The results indicate that the performance of the GPS ambiguity-fixed resolutions is significantly better than that of the GPS ambiguity-float solutions. In addition, the GGPPP-FGA improves the positioning accuracy by 38%, 25% and 44% and reduces the convergence time by 36%, 36% and 29% in the east, north and up coordinate components over the GPS-only ambiguity-fixed resolutions, respectively. Moreover, the TTFF is reduced by 27% after adding GLONASS observations. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and chi-square two-sample tests are made to examine the significance of the improvement on the positioning accuracy, convergence time and TTFF. PMID:25237901

  11. Practice makes perfect: Training the interpretation of emotional ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Jessica L; Hedley, Sophie; Mountier, Emily; Tiszai, Boglarka; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2016-01-01

    The interpretation of emotionally ambiguous words, sentences, or scenarios can be altered through training procedures that are collectively called cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I). In three experiments, we systematically manipulated the nature of the training in order to discriminate between emotional priming and ambiguity resolution accounts of training effects. In Experiment 1 participants completed word fragments that were consistently related to either a negative or benign interpretation of an ambiguous sentence. In a subsequent semantic priming task they demonstrated an interpretation bias, in that they were faster to identify relatedness of targets that were associated with the training-congruent meaning of an emotionally ambiguous homograph. We then manipulated the training sentences to show that interpretation bias was eliminated when participants simply completed valenced word fragments following unrelated sentences (Experiment 2), or completed fragments that were related to emotional but unambiguous sentences (Experiment 3). Only when participants were required to actively resolve emotionally ambiguous sentences during training did changes in interpretation emerge at test. Findings suggest that CBM-I achieves its effects by altering a production rule that aids the selection of meaning from emotionally ambiguous alternatives, in line with an ambiguity resolution account.

  12. Measuring ambiguity in HLA typing methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Paunić

    Full Text Available In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor selection is based primarily on matching donor and patient HLA genes. These genes are highly polymorphic and their typing can result in exact allele assignment at each gene (the resolution at which patients and donors are matched, but it can also result in a set of ambiguous assignments, depending on the typing methodology used. To facilitate rapid identification of matched donors, registries employ statistical algorithms to infer HLA alleles from ambiguous genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium information encapsulated in haplotype frequencies is used to facilitate prediction of the most likely haplotype assignment. An HLA typing with less ambiguity produces fewer high-probability haplotypes and a more reliable prediction. We estimated ambiguity for several HLA typing methods across four continental populations using an information theory-based measure, Shannon's entropy. We used allele and haplotype frequencies to calculate entropy for different sets of 1,000 subjects with simulated HLA typing. Using allele frequencies we calculated an average entropy in Caucasians of 1.65 for serology, 1.06 for allele family level, 0.49 for a 2002-era SSO kit, and 0.076 for single-pass SBT. When using haplotype frequencies in entropy calculations, we found average entropies of 0.72 for serology, 0.73 for allele family level, 0.05 for SSO, and 0.002 for single-pass SBT. Application of haplotype frequencies further reduces HLA typing ambiguity. We also estimated expected confirmatory typing mismatch rates for simulated subjects. In a hypothetical registry with all donors typed using the same method, the entropy values based on haplotype frequencies correspond to confirmatory typing mismatch rates of 1.31% for SSO versus only 0.08% for SBT. Intermediate-resolution single-pass SBT contains the least ambiguity of the methods we evaluated and therefore the most certainty in allele prediction. The presented measure

  13. Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria

    2013-04-01

    Efforts to characterize the memory system that supports sentence comprehension have historically drawn extensively on short-term memory as a source of mechanisms that might apply to sentences. The focus of these efforts has changed significantly in the past decade. As a result of changes in models of short-term working memory (ST-WM) and developments in models of sentence comprehension, the effort to relate entire components of an ST-WM system, such as those in the model developed by Baddeley (Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4: 829-839, 2003) to sentence comprehension has largely been replaced by an effort to relate more specific mechanisms found in modern models of ST-WM to memory processes that support one aspect of sentence comprehension--the assignment of syntactic structure (parsing) and its use in determining sentence meaning (interpretation) during sentence comprehension. In this article, we present the historical background to recent studies of the memory mechanisms that support parsing and interpretation and review recent research into this relation. We argue that the results of this research do not converge on a set of mechanisms derived from ST-WM that apply to parsing and interpretation. We argue that the memory mechanisms supporting parsing and interpretation have features that characterize another memory system that has been postulated to account for skilled performance-long-term working memory. We propose a model of the relation of different aspects of parsing and interpretation to ST-WM and long-term working memory.

  14. Thermogravimetry analysis on fused borosilicate syntactic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Zulzamri; Islam, Md Mainul; Epaarachchi, Jayantha Ananda

    2017-12-01

    Fused borosilicate/vinyl ester syntactic foams mostly used for thermal stability in many applications are considered to be characterised for their properties in higher temperature condition. Therefore, higher temperature characteristics need to be explored with respect to physical parameters such as porosity and void content. The filler, also known as glass microballoons, was incorporated in vinyl ester resin matrix in 2wt%, 4wt%, 6wt.%, 8wt.% and 10wt.%. These composites are characterised and degraded to examine the onset temperature, Tonset, peak temperature, Tpeak and end temperature, Tend using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) method. The results for Tonset showed an increment while Tend and Tpeak showed decrement when glass microballoons were added in syntactic foams. Based on TGA data, they exhibited excellent thermal stability, showing 5% weight loss at 380-450 °C. Glass transition temperature (Tg) decreased when more glass microballoons were added, and also related to the effect on the physical properties of syntactic foams. Therefore, understanding of the relationship between thermal properties of syntactic foams and their physical properties such as porosity and void content will help in developing syntactic foams to optimise their thermal characteristics, which will be beneficial for engineering applications.

  15. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  16. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  17. Strategic ambiguity in minority targeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Puntoni (Stefano); J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); R. Visscher (Ruben)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAmbiguous cues in advertising offer companies the chance to reach multiple consumer segments with the one economical campaign. ‘Purposeful polysemy’ can indeed be an effective strategy – but it may not always deliver what it promises.

  18. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  19. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Sta?czak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers...

  20. Three Syntactic Theories for Combinatory Graph Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Zerny, Ian

    2011-01-01

    We present a purely syntactic theory of graph reduction for the canonical combinators S, K, and I, where graph vertices are represented with evaluation contexts and let expressions. We express this syntactic theory as a reduction semantics, which we refocus into the first storeless abstract machine...... for combinatory graph reduction, which we refunctionalize into the first storeless natural semantics for combinatory graph reduction.We then factor out the introduction of let expressions to denote as many graph vertices as possible upfront instead of on demand, resulting in a second syntactic theory, this one...... of term graphs in the sense of Barendregt et al. The corresponding storeless abstract machine and natural semantics follow mutatis mutandis. We then interpret let expressions as operations over a global store (thus shifting, in Strachey's words, from denotable entities to storable entities), resulting...

  1. A syntactic component for Vietnamese language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a syntactic component for the Vietnamese language. We first discuss the construction of a lexicalized tree-adjoining grammar using an automatic extraction approach. We then present the construction and evaluation of a deep syntactic parser based on the extracted grammar. This is a complete system integrating necessary tools to process Vietnamese text, which permits to take as input raw texts and produce syntactic structures. A dependency annotation scheme for Vietnamese and an algorithm for extracting dependency structures from derivation trees are also proposed. At present, this is the first Vietnamese parsing system capable of producing both constituency and dependency analyses with encouraging performances: 69.33% and 73.21% for constituency and dependency analysis accuracy, respectively. The parser also compares favourably to a statistical parser which is trained and tested on the same data sets.

  2. Syntactical Connections in Old English (Composite Sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Shalifova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the evolution of the composite sentence in English. Special attention is given to Old English and different ways of syntactical connection of the clauses within a composite sentence. It is specially stressed that the syntactical structure of Old English was determined by the nature of its morphology on the one hand, and by the relation between the spoken and the written forms of the language, on the other. The authors come to the conclusion that the whole Old English syntax was paratactic and that subordination in it was not developed enough.

  3. Children's Syntactic-Priming Magnitude: Lexical Factors and Participant Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Anouschka; Thiele, Kristina; Kahsnitz, Dunja; Stenneken, Prisca

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether lexical repetition, syntactic skills, and working memory (WM) affect children's syntactic-priming behavior, i.e. their tendency to adopt previously encountered syntactic structures. Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children were primed with prenominal (e.g. "the yellow…

  4. Do Young Children Have Adult Syntactic Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Details findings indicating that most early linguistic competence is item based. Maintains that language development proceeds without evidence of system-wide syntactic categories, schemas, or parameters. Suggests that findings are not easily explained by the development of children's skills of linguistic performance, pragmatics, or other external…

  5. Comparing Syntactic and Semantics Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled configuration structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. The comparison is done by studying a process algebra equipped with

  6. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goltz, Ursula; Gorrieri, Roberto; Rensink, Arend

    1992-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution,which can be used as another notion of action refiment in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  7. On Syntactic and Semantic Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagiya, M.; Goltz, U.; Mitchell, J.C.; Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend

    1994-01-01

    The semantic definition of action refinement on labelled event structures is compared with the notion of syntactic substitution, which can be used as another notion of action refinement in a process algebraic setting. This is done by studying a process algebra equipped with the ACP sequential

  8. Banana Algebra: Compositional Syntactic Language Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means of compositional syntactic language extension. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms). The ...

  9. Discriminative syntactic reranking for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method that successfully exploits simple syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. Our approach uses discriminative language modelling to rerank the n-best translations generated by a statistical machine translation system. The

  10. Three Syntactic Theories for Combinatory Graph Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    here therefore properly account for combinatory graph reduction As We Know It. These three syntactic theories scale to handling the Y combinator. This article therefore illustrates the scientic consensus of theoreticians and implementors about graph reduction: it is the same combinatory elephant....

  11. Banana Algebra: Compositional Syntactic Language Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  12. The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare ePatterson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that anaphor resolution in a non-native language may be more vulnerable to interference from structurally inappropriate antecedents compared to native anaphor resolution. To test whether previous findings on reflexive anaphors generalise to non-reflexive pronouns, we carried out an eye-movement monitoring study investigating the application of binding condition B during native and non-native sentence processing. In two online reading experiments we examined when during processing local and/or non-local antecedents for pronouns were considered in different types of syntactic environment. Our results demonstrate that both native English speakers and native German-speaking learners of English showed online sensitivity to binding condition B in that they did not consider syntactically inappropriate antecedents. For pronouns thought to be exempt from condition B (so-called 'short-distance pronouns', the native readers showed a weak preference for the local antecedent during processing. The non-native readers, on the other hand, showed a preference for the matrix subject even where local coreference was permitted, and despite demonstrating awareness of short-distance pronouns' referential ambiguity in a complementary offline task. This indicates that non-native comprehenders are less sensitive during processing to structural cues that render pronouns exempt from condition B, and prefer to link a pronoun to a salient subject antecedent instead.

  13. Spectral Ambiguity of Allan Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the extent to which knowledge of Allan variance and other finite-difference variances determines the spectrum of a random process. The variance of first differences is known to determine the spectrum. We show that, in general, the Allan variance does not. A complete description of the ambiguity is given.

  14. Differential electrophysiological signatures of semantic and syntactic scene processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Melissa L-H; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2013-09-01

    In sentence processing, semantic and syntactic violations elicit differential brain responses observable in event-related potentials: An N400 signals semantic violations, whereas a P600 marks inconsistent syntactic structure. Does the brain register similar distinctions in scene perception? To address this question, we presented participants with semantic inconsistencies, in which an object was incongruent with a scene's meaning, and syntactic inconsistencies, in which an object violated structural rules. We found a clear dissociation between semantic and syntactic processing: Semantic inconsistencies produced negative deflections in the N300-N400 time window, whereas mild syntactic inconsistencies elicited a late positivity resembling the P600 found for syntactic inconsistencies in sentence processing. Extreme syntactic violations, such as a hovering beer bottle defying gravity, were associated with earlier perceptual processing difficulties reflected in the N300 response, but failed to produce a P600 effect. We therefore conclude that different neural populations are active during semantic and syntactic processing of scenes, and that syntactically impossible object placements are processed in a categorically different manner than are syntactically resolvable object misplacements.

  15. Syntactic Structures as Descriptions of Sensorimotor Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Knott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a hypothesis linking elements of a model of theoretical syntax with neural mechanisms in the domain of sensorimotor processing. The syntactic framework I adopt to express this linking hypothesis is Chomsky’s Minimalism: I propose that the language-independent ’Logical Form’ (LF of a sentence reporting a concrete episode in the world can be interpreted as a detailed description of the sensorimotor processes involved in apprehending that episode. The hypothesis is motivated by a detailed study of one particular episode, in which an agent grasps a target object. There are striking similarities between the LF structure of transitive sentences describing this episode and the structure of the sensorimotor processes through which it is apprehended by an observer. The neural interpretation of Minimalist LF structure allows it to incorporate insights from empiricist accounts of syntax, relating to sentence processing and to the learning of syntactic constructions.

  16. Optical syntactic pattern recognition by fuzzy scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, R.; Kinser, J.; Schamschula, M.; Shamir, J.; Caulfield, H.J. [Center for Applied Optical Sciences, Department of Physics, Alabama A& M University, Normal, Alabama 35762 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    A novel syntactic approach is introduced to treat particular problems in pattern recognition. The procedure is implemented by the use of optical correlation methods for identifying the various primitives that appear in the input pattern, and their importance is determined by fuzzy relational scoring. Robust pattern recognition with tolerance to normal variations is demonstrated, indicating an efficient new approach for optical pattern recognition. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  17. Hierarchical fuzzy optical syntactic pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    1999-07-01

    In previous work, my students and I have shown that optical fuzzy syntactic pattern recognition was far more robust than prior optical pattern recognition methods. Here, I add methods which allow context to influence the decision as to what object is present. The letter is in the context of a word which is in the context of a sentence which... . General optical systems for this are described.

  18. Data characterizing tensile behavior of cenosphere/HDPE syntactic foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B R Bharath; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Zeltmann, Steven E; Gupta, Nikhil; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-03-01

    The data set presented is related to the tensile behavior of cenosphere reinforced high density polyethylene syntactic foam composites "Processing of cenosphere/HDPE syntactic foams using an industrial scale polymer injection molding machine" (Bharath et al., 2016) [1]. The focus of the work is on determining the feasibility of using an industrial scale polymer injection molding (PIM) machine for fabricating syntactic foams. The fabricated syntactic foams are investigated for microstructure and tensile properties. The data presented in this article is related to optimization of the PIM process for syntactic foam manufacture, equations and procedures to develop theoretical estimates for properties of cenospheres, and microstructure of syntactic foams before and after failure. Included dataset contains values obtained from the theoretical model.

  19. Data characterizing tensile behavior of cenosphere/HDPE syntactic foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Bharath Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The data set presented is related to the tensile behavior of cenosphere reinforced high density polyethylene syntactic foam composites “Processing of cenosphere/HDPE syntactic foams using an industrial scale polymer injection molding machine” (Bharath et al., 2016 [1]. The focus of the work is on determining the feasibility of using an industrial scale polymer injection molding (PIM machine for fabricating syntactic foams. The fabricated syntactic foams are investigated for microstructure and tensile properties. The data presented in this article is related to optimization of the PIM process for syntactic foam manufacture, equations and procedures to develop theoretical estimates for properties of cenospheres, and microstructure of syntactic foams before and after failure. Included dataset contains values obtained from the theoretical model.

  20. The ambiguous challenge of intranets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis I shall present the argument that intranets increase the role of ambiguity – confrontation between contradicting frames of interpretation – in organisational communication by encouraging processes across organisational borders. In the first chapter I discuss philosophical aspects...... increases with tendencies to cooperate and communicate across organisational boundaries, mainly as a reaction to developments in markets and industrial knowledge base, but also due to the potential provided by computer network. In the third chapter I identify some characteristics of two fundamental intranet...... media, email and the web, partly in the perspective of media richness theory, partly compared with philosophical discussions of classical media. The fourth chapter presents an intranet in a global company, in which problems and challenges related to ambiguity have proven significant....

  1. Sensory memory for ambiguous vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Joel; Brascamp, Jan

    2008-09-01

    In recent years the overlap between visual perception and memory has shed light on our understanding of both. When ambiguous images that normally cause perception to waver unpredictably are presented briefly with intervening blank periods, perception tends to freeze, locking into one interpretation. This indicates that there is a form of memory storage across the blank interval. This memory trace codes low-level characteristics of the stored stimulus. Although a trace is evident after a single perceptual instance, the trace builds over many separate stimulus presentations, indicating a flexible, variable-length time-course. This memory shares important characteristics with priming by non-ambiguous stimuli. Computational models now provide a framework to interpret many empirical observations.

  2. Doubling left syntactic positions in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the doubling of left syntactic positions in Danish. Such doublings consist of a referential element: a NP or a clause, and an anaphoric element, an unstressed personal pronoun or an unstressed resumptive adverb. In main clauses, the CP-spec position may double in this way, w...... in the analysis of a broadcasted public speech (sect. 5). In earlier versions of Danish, as shown in sect. 4, the construction is both more frequent in writing and also seems almost obligatory....

  3. On the Application of Syntactic Methodologies in Automatic Text Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salton, Gerard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes various linguistic approaches proposed for document analysis in information retrieval environments. Topics discussed include syntactic analysis; use of machine-readable dictionary information; knowledge base construction; the PLNLP English Grammar (PEG) system; phrase normalization; and statistical and syntactic phrase evaluation used…

  4. Compositional Syntactic Placement and Simple Concept Learning in Female Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Russ A.

    A media attribute approach was used in a study which hypothesized that compositional syntactic placement may bridge the processing link between the learner's cognitive capacity and the demands of a simple concept attainment task. Compositional syntactic placement refers to the relative horizontal position of the primary symbol or object within a…

  5. A Linguistic Technique for Marking and Analyzing Syntactic Parallelism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackler, Jessie Brome

    Sentences in rhetoric texts were used in this study to determine a way in which thetorical syntactic parallelism can be analyzed. A tagmemic analysis determined tagmas which were parallel or identical or similar to one another. These were distinguished from tagmas which were identical because of the syntactic constraints of the language…

  6. Syntactic Priming during Sentence Comprehension: Evidence for the Lexical Boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Matthew J.; Tooley, Kristen M.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Syntactic priming occurs when structural information from one sentence influences processing of a subsequently encountered sentence (Bock, 1986; Ledoux et al., 2007). This article reports 2 eye-tracking experiments investigating the effects of a prime sentence on the processing of a target sentence that shared aspects of syntactic form. The…

  7. Syntactic behaviour and semantic kinship of selected Danish verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braasch, Anna Rosita

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses relationships between the syntactic behaviour and meaning of selected verbs, with the focus on exploiting observable syntactic similarities for uncovering of semantic kinship. The investigation is inspired by the demand in language technology for large-scale lexicons that comb...

  8. The Syntactic Structure of the VP in Kihema

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 40, 2011, 1-19 doi: 10.5774/40-0-36. The Syntactic Structure of the VP in Kihema. John Mwesigwa Mugisa ... conceptualizing the class or processes denoted by a given verb. This article provides an account of the syntactic properties of arguments that appear within the VP in Kihema, ...

  9. Aspects of syntactic selections as style in Zaynab Alkali's the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores style at the syntactic level in Zaynab Alkali‟s The Descendants. he systemic grammar is applied as the theoretical framework to analyse aspects of syntactic selections in the text. The basic tenet of systemic grammar is the exploration of the functions of language in the realization of the thematic concerns ...

  10. Syntactic behaviour and semantic kinship of selected Danish verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braasch, Anna Rosita

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses relationships between the syntactic behaviour and meaning of selected verbs, with the focus on exploiting observable syntactic similarities for uncovering of semantic kinship. The investigation is inspired by the demand in language technology for large-scale lexicons...... that combine morphological, syntactic and semantic descriptions of the lemmas. The development of such a lexical resource is rather demanding, therefore, an enhancement of existing resources with additional information types is a worthwhile task. The computational lexicon for Danish SprogTeknologisk Ordbase...... (STO) comprises a comprehensive syntactic layer which is assumed to be suitable for enhancement with semantic information. The theoretical background for the current approach is the consensus on obvious relationships between a syntactic behaviour and a particular sense of lemmas, as a surface...

  11. Theory-Based Evaluation Meets Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    As theory-based evaluation (TBE) engages in situations where multiple stakeholders help develop complex program theory about dynamic phenomena in politically contested settings, it becomes difficult to develop and use program theory without ambiguity. The purpose of this article is to explore...... ambiguity as a fruitful perspective that helps TBE face current challenges. Literatures in organization theory and political theory are consulted in order to cultivate the concept of ambiguity. Janus variables (which work in two ways) and other ambiguous aspects of program theories are classified...

  12. Effective ambiguity checking in biosequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giegerich Robert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambiguity is a problem in biosequence analysis that arises in various analysis tasks solved via dynamic programming, and in particular, in the modeling of families of RNA secondary structures with stochastic context free grammars. Several types of analysis are invalidated by the presence of ambiguity. As this problem inherits undecidability (as we show here from the namely problem for context free languages, there is no complete algorithmic solution to the problem of ambiguity checking. Results We explain frequently observed sources of ambiguity, and show how to avoid them. We suggest four testing procedures that may help to detect ambiguity when present, including a just-in-time test that permits to work safely with a potentially ambiguous grammar. We introduce, for the special case of stochastic context free grammars and RNA structure modeling, an automated partial procedure for proving non-ambiguity. It is used to demonstrate non-ambiguity for several relevant grammars. Conclusion Our mechanical proof procedure and our testing methods provide a powerful arsenal of methods to ensure non-ambiguity.

  13. AMBIGUOUS JANUS OF MODERN DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the research is to analyze ambiguous concept of  democracy as a phenomenon of political and social formation based on political and instrumental approach. As a result, some deep fundamentals of  human social existence and values as social life basis are blurred. Task. The task of  this investigation is to reveal the concept of democracy in its invariative philosophical  meaning and find the consequences of global social transformations towards social entropy. Methods of investigation. To implement the task an activity approach has been used with further possibility to single out two approaches - politological and philosophical. The focus on democracy from philosophic point of view makes possible to anticipate negative entropic processes that lead  to future ambiguity. Subject matter. Chaotic social processes can result in  ruined family, spiritual, legal and moral formations. Regulatory and legal paradigms are becoming less effective and entail disintegration of spiritual and value constituents of worldview causing necessary conditions for social entropy. Originality and Findings. Possible threats for human freedom that hinder the way to targeted  prospects of mankind have been considered in the paper. Thus, taking into account all positive aspects of democracy, it is simultaneously becoming the tool of continuous differentiation of society into tiny autonomous communities similar to nomadic atomization of society. The concept based on moral substantial existence basis as in “axis time” by K. Jaspers that can prevent social entropy resulting in world anthropologic catastrophes has been grounded in the present research.

  14. Syntactic dependency parsers for biomedical-NLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Syntactic parsers have made a leap in accuracy and speed in recent years. The high order structural information provided by dependency parsers is useful for a variety of NLP applications. We present a biomedical model for the EasyFirst parser, a fast and accurate parser for creating Stanford Dependencies. We evaluate the models trained in the biomedical domains of EasyFirst and Clear-Parser in a number of task oriented metrics. Both parsers provide stat of the art speed and accuracy in the Genia of over 89%. We show that Clear-Parser excels at tasks relating to negation identification while EasyFirst excels at tasks relating to Named Entities and is more robust to changes in domain.

  15. Syntactic Reconstruction and Reanalysis, Semantic Dead Ends, and Prefrontal Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2010-01-01

    The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is crucially has been found to be involved in syntactic processing of various kinds. This study investigates the cortical effects of two types of syntactic processes: (i) Reconstruction in ellipsis (recovery of left-out material given by context, More people...... to reanalyze. Reanalysis and reconstruction require additional syntactic processing and were predicted to increase activation in areas otherwise involved in structural computation: LIFG (BA 44, 45), premotor BA 6, and posterior temporal BA 21, 22. This was borne out. The results showed an interaction effect...

  16. Ambiguity Detection for Programming Language Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.S. Basten (Bas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractContext-free grammars are the most suitable and most widely used method for describing the syntax of programming languages. They can be used to generate parsers, which transform a piece of source code into a tree-shaped representation of the code's syntactic structure. These parse

  17. Ambiguity and regularization in parallel MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol, Derya; Potter, Lee C

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate the parallel magnetic resonance imaging(pMRI) as a multichannel blind deconvolution problem with subsampling. First, the model allows formal characterization of image solutions consistent with data obtained by uniform subsampling of k-space. Second, the model allows analysis of the minimum set of required calibration data. Third, the filter bank formulation provides analysis of the sufficient sizes of interpolation kernels in widely used reconstruction techniques. Fourth, the model suggests principled development of regularization terms to fight ambiguity and ill-conditioning; specifically, subspace regularization is adapted from the blind image super-resolution work of Sroubek et al. [11]. Finally, characterization of the consistent set of image solutions leads to a cautionary comment on L1 regularization for the peculiar class of piece-wise constant images. Thus, it is proposed that the analysis of the subsampled blind deconvolution task provides insight into both the multiply determined nature of the pMRI task and possible design strategies for sampling and reconstruction.

  18. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    observe that there is a simple linguistic characterization of the grammar ambiguity problem, and we show how to exploit this by presenting an ambiguity analysis framework based on conservative language approximations. As a concrete example, we propose a technique based on local regular approximations...

  19. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2007-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...

  20. Processing subject-object ambiguities in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith

    1997-01-01

    Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference

  1. Ring chromosome 13 and ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsu, Elif; Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Gül; Ipekçi, Belkıs

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguous genitalia, known to be associated with sex chromosome disorders, may also be seen with autosomal chromosome anomalies. Herein, we report a case with ambiguous genitalia and ring chromosome 13. Ring chromosome 13 is a rare genetic anomaly in which the loss of genetic material determines the clinical spectrum.

  2. Ring Chromosome 13 and Ambiguous Genitalia

    OpenAIRE

    Özsu, Elif; Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Gül; İpekçi, Belkıs

    2014-01-01

    Ambiguous genitalia, known to be associated with sex chromosome disorders, may also be seen with autosomal chromosome anomalies. Herein, we report a case with ambiguous genitalia and ring chromosome 13. Ring chromosome 13 is a rare genetic anomaly in which the loss of genetic material determines the clinical spectrum.

  3. Acute leukemias of ambiguous origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwit, Anna; Béné, Marie C

    2015-09-01

    This session of the Society for Hematopathology/European Association for Haematopathology Workshop focused on acute leukemias of ambiguous origin. We provide an overview of mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) as recognized in the current World Health Organization classification and summarize diagnostic criteria for major categories of MPAL: B/myeloid, T/myeloid, B/T, and B/T/myeloid. Most MPAL cases submitted were B/myeloid and T/myeloid MPAL, the most frequent types, but three cases of B/T MPAL were also submitted, and examples of all categories are illustrated. We emphasize that a comprehensive approach to immunophenotyping is required to accurately establish the diagnosis of MPAL. Flow cytometry immunophenotyping using a large panel of antibodies is needed as well as confirmatory immunohistochemical analysis and cytochemistry studies for myeloperoxidase and nonspecific esterase. We discuss technical issues in determining blast lineage and possible pitfalls in MPAL diagnosis. In particular, rare cases of B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) can express myeloperoxidase but are otherwise consistent with B-ALL and should be treated as such. Last, we review the differential diagnosis between acute undifferentiated leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia with minimal differentiation. There was an agreement that diagnosis of MPAL can be challenging, especially if applied flow cytometry panels are not comprehensive enough. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  4. Properties of Syntactic Foam for Simulation of Mechanical Insults.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Neal Benson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haulenbeek, Kimberly K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spletzer, Matthew A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ortiz, Lyndsy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Syntactic foam encapsulation protects sensitive components. The energy mitigated by the foam is calculated with numerical simulations. The properties of a syntactic foam consisting of a mixture of an epoxy-rubber adduct and glass microballoons are obtained from published literature and test results. The conditions and outcomes of the tests are discussed. The method for converting published properties and test results to input for finite element models is described. Simulations of the test conditions are performed to validate the inputs.

  5. VALENCY AND SYNTACTICAL RELATION IN BIMANESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Sri Satyawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the findings and descriptions of the replies to severalproblems that have not been completely and deeply discussed in the researchespreviously conducted on Bimanese. The problems are related to micro-linguistic factors,namely valency and syntactical relation in Bimanese. Both deductive and inductiveapproaches were applied to obtain satisfactory results. The main theory employed in thisstudy is Role and Reference Grammar Theory (RRG by Van Valin and J. Lapolla. It wasemployed to completely analyze the collected data in accordance with the problemsproposed in this research, and the inductive approach was employed to analyze the datain order to get novelties.In this study, clause structure is given the first priority to discuss, followed by thediscussion on operator, voice markers, nominalizers, and definiteness. Based on thepredicate category, the clause in Bimanese can be constructed with the constituents thatare under the categories of verb, noun, adjective, number, and adverb (prepositionalphrase. Based on the clause analysis, it has been found that in Bimanese there are severaloperators, each of which has different functional boundary in marking the clausemeaning. One operator may only sign nucleus, core (nucleus and argument, or core andperiphery. Bimanese has also been identified to have four linguistic states expressed byverbs that are made to make sense based on state (Aktisontrat, achievement, andaccomplishment. RRG classifies verbs into ten instead of four. However, in this study, tomake the analysis easier, verbs are classified into four. The predicate in Bimanese can beboth serial verbs and secondary verbs. It has also been found that the mechanism ofchange in valency is marked by the attachment of markers to the verbs resulting incausativity, applicativity, and resultivity. From those syntactical constructions, thesyntactical relation in Bimanese can be clearly identified. The discussion on syntacticalrelation

  6. Neural correlates of semantic and syntactic processes in the comprehension of case marked pronouns: Evidence from German and Dutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer Anke

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that both semantic and syntactic information play a role in pronoun resolution in sentences. However, it is unclear what the relative contribution of these sources of information is for the establishment of a coreferential relationship between the pronoun and the antecedent in combination with a local structural case constraint on the pronoun (i.e. case assignment of a pronoun under preposition governing. In a prepositional phrase in German and Dutch, it is the preposition that assigns case to the pronoun. Furthermore, in these languages different overtly case-marked pronouns are used to refer to male and female persons. Thus, one can manipulate biological/syntactic gender features separately from case marking features. The major aim of this study was to determine what the influence of gender information in combination with a local structural case constraint is on the processing of a personal pronoun in a sentence. Event-related brain potential (ERP experiments were performed in German and in Dutch. In a word by word sentence reading study in German and Dutch, gender congruency between the antecedent and the pronoun was manipulated and/or case assignment by the preposition was violated while ERPs of young native speakers were recorded. Results The German and the Dutch ERP data showed an enlarged negativity broadly distributed starting approximately 350 ms after onset of the pronoun followed by a late positivity for gender violations. For syntactic incongruencies without gender violations only a positivity was present. The Dutch data showed an earlier onset of the positivity in comparison to German. Conclusion Finding negativities and positivities for conditions with a gender violation indicates that pronoun resolution with gender incongruency between the pronoun and the antecedent suffers from semantic as well as syntactic integration problems. The presence of a positivity for the syntactically incongruent

  7. Syntactic constraints and individual differences in native and non-native processing of wh-movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne eJohnson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a debate as to whether second language (L2 learners show qualitatively similar processing profiles as native speakers or whether L2 learners are restricted in their ability to use syntactic information during online processing. In the realm of wh-dependency resolution, research has examined whether learners, similar to native speakers, attempt to resolve wh-dependencies in grammatically licensed contexts but avoid positing gaps in illicit contexts such as islands. Also at issue is whether the avoidance of gap filling in islands is due to adherence to syntactic constraints or whether islands simply present processing bottlenecks. One approach has been to examine the relationship between processing abilities and the establishment of wh-dependencies in islands. Grammatical accounts of islands do not predict such a relationship as the parser should simply not predict gaps in illicit contexts. In contrast, a pattern of results showing that individuals with more processing resources are better able to establish wh-dependencies in islands could conceivably be compatible with certain processing accounts. In a self-paced reading experiment which examines the processing of wh- dependencies, we address both questions, examining whether native English speakers and Korean learners of English show qualitatively similar patterns and whether there is a relationship between working memory, as measured by counting span and reading span, and processing in both island and non-island contexts. The results of the self-paced reading experiment suggest that learners can use syntactic information on the same timecourse as native speakers, showing qualitative similarity between the two groups. Results of regression analyses did not reveal a significant relationship between working memory and the establishment of wh-dependencies in islands but we did observe significant relationships between working memory and the processing of licit wh-dependencies. As the

  8. Equity Trading under Heterogeneity in Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, Irasema; Prado, Mauricio

    -relevant, but hard-to-interpret information: a situation like that during the onset of the recent crisis in financial markets. During this episode, market participants appeared unsure of the values of a variety of assets, trading all but stopped. Ambiguity aversion, it appears to us, offers a tractable way......-participation - a drastic form of trading less - in the ambiguity-ridden market by certain agents (here we have in mind those with higher levels of ambiguity). This endogenous limited participation on the market also has implications for the relative wealth of agents in an economy. The dynamics of the wealth distribution...

  9. The future of single-frequency integer ambiguity resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, S.; Teunissen, P.J.G.; Odijk, D.

    2009-01-01

    The coming decade will bring a proliferation of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) that are likely to enable a much wider range of demanding applications compared to the current GPS-only situation. One such important area of application is single-frequency real-time kinematic (RTK)

  10. Automatic Detection and Resolution of Lexical Ambiguity in Process Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittke, F.; Leopold, H.; Mendling, J.

    2015-01-01

    System-related engineering tasks are often conducted using process models. In this context, it is essential that these models do not contain structural or terminological inconsistencies. To this end, several automatic analysis techniques have been proposed to support quality assurance. While formal

  11. Sentence Complexity and Working Memory Effects in Ambiguity Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyon; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    Two self-paced reading experiments using a paraphrase decision task paradigm were performed to investigate how sentence complexity contributed to the relative clause (RC) attachment preferences of speakers of different working memory capacities (WMCs). Experiment 1 (English) showed working memory effects on relative clause processing in both…

  12. VLSI Architectures For Syntactic Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y. P.; Fu, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    Earley's algorithm has been commonly used for the parsing of general context-free languages and error-correcting parsing in syntactic pattern recognition. The time complexity for parsing is 0(n3). In this paper we present a parallel Earley's recognition algorithm in terms of "x*" operation. By restricting the input context-free grammar to be X-free, we are able to implement this parallel algorithm on a triangular shape VLSI array. This system has an efficient way of moving data to the right place at the right time. Simulation results show that this system can recognize a string with length n in 2n+1 system time. We also present an error-correcting recognition algorithm. The parallel error-correcting recognition algorithm has also been im-plemented on a triangular VLSI array. This array recognizes an erroneous string length n in time 2n+1 and gives the correct error count. Applications of the proposed VLSI architectures to image analysis are illus-trated by examples.

  13. SAR antenna design for ambiguity and multipath suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Lintz; Dich, Mikael

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been developed at the Electromagnetics Institute (EMI) for remote sensing applications. The paper considers the radiation of antennas for a SAR system from a systems perspective. The basic specifications of an idealised antenna...... are obtained from the required swath and the azimuth footprint needed for the SAR processing. The radiation from a real antenna causes unwanted signal returns that lead to intensity variations (multipath) and ghost echoes (ambiguity). Additional specifications are deduced by considering these signals...

  14. Comprehension priming as rational expectation for repetition: Evidence from syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myslín, Mark; Levy, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Why do comprehenders process repeated stimuli more rapidly than novel stimuli? We consider an adaptive explanation for why such facilitation may be beneficial: priming is a consequence of expectation for repetition due to rational adaptation to the environment. If occurrences of a stimulus cluster in time, given one occurrence it is rational to expect a second occurrence closely following. Leveraging such knowledge may be particularly useful in online processing of language, where pervasive clustering may help comprehenders negotiate the considerable challenge of continual expectation update at multiple levels of linguistic structure and environmental variability. We test this account in the domain of structural priming in syntax, making use of the sentential complement-direct object (SC-DO) ambiguity. We first show that sentences containing SC continuations cluster in natural language, motivating an expectation for repetition of this structure. Second, we show that comprehenders are indeed sensitive to the syntactic clustering properties of their current environment. In a series of between-groups self-paced reading studies, we find that participants who are exposed to clusters of SC sentences subsequently process repetitions of SC structure more rapidly than participants who are exposed to the same number of SCs spaced in time, and attribute the difference to the learned degree of expectation for repetition. We model this behavior through Bayesian belief update, showing that (the optimal degree of) sensitivity to clustering properties of syntactic structures is indeed learnable through experience. Comprehension priming effects are thus consistent with rational expectation for repetition based on adaptation to the linguistic environment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk Management and Insurance Decisions under Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Correa, Jimmy

    portfolio theory that assumes Subjective Expected Utility theory; however, it provides hints to a possible solution of the under-diversification puzzle of households. I also identify conditions under which more risk or ambiguity aversion decreases the demand for coinsurance. Additionally, I show......I study the impact of ambiguity on insurance decisions and the optimality of insurance contracts. My tractable approach allows me to study the interaction between risk and ambiguity attitudes. When insurance decisions are made independently of other assets, for a given increase in wealth, both risk...... and ambiguity attitudes interact in nontrivial ways to determine the change of coinsurance demand. I derive sufficient conditions to guarantee that the optimal coinsurance demand is decreasing in wealth. When a non-traded asset is introduced, my model predicts behavior that is inconsistent with the classical...

  16. Clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2017-01-01

    how they perceived the writing, reading and enactment of their organization’s new corporate communication strategy. Findings – The analysis reveals the presence of both clarity and ambiguity in the employees’ understanding of the strategy. Both in terms of formulation and implementation. For instance...... as they are decoupled from the strategy itself. Research limitations/implications – As the findings are based on a study of the understanding and practice of corporate communication strategy in one concrete organization, the study points to the need for additional explorations and examinations of ambiguity in strategic...... corporate communication. Originality/value – Despite numerous studies on the presence of ambiguity in strategy making in the neighbouring field of strategic management, the majority of strategic corporate communication literature largely treats ambiguity as something that should be absent. This has caused...

  17. Clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the co-existence of clarity and ambiguity in strategic corporate communication. Design/methodology/approach – An exploratory study using interpretive discourse analysis of interviews with employees at a corporate communication department to examine...... as they are decoupled from the strategy itself. Research limitations/implications – As the findings are based on a study of the understanding and practice of corporate communication strategy in one concrete organization, the study points to the need for additional explorations and examinations of ambiguity in strategic...... corporate communication. Originality/value – Despite numerous studies on the presence of ambiguity in strategy making in the neighbouring field of strategic management, the majority of strategic corporate communication literature largely treats ambiguity as something that should be absent. This has caused...

  18. Ambiguity and violence in adolescent dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna; Stephenson, Pam Shockey

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about dyadic processes that lead to adolescent dating violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity in adolescent dating relationships to better understand how ambiguity contributes to violence and aggression between dating partners. Data were drawn from 88 narratives of young adults who had participated in a study on adolescent dating violence. Interpretive phenomenology was used to produce an in-depth description of the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity. Relationship ambiguity results in differing expectations between partners regarding closeness and intimacy, fidelity, and obligation. These differences lead to conflicts that set the stage for violence and aggression in adolescent dating relationships. A series of recommendations for clinicians working with adolescents are presented. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Syntactic processing is distributed across the language system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Idan; Balewski, Zuzanna; Mahowald, Kyle; Fedorenko, Evelina

    2016-02-15

    Language comprehension recruits an extended set of regions in the human brain. Is syntactic processing localized to a particular region or regions within this system, or is it distributed across the entire ensemble of brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing? Evidence from aphasic patients is more consistent with the latter possibility: damage to many different language regions and to white-matter tracts connecting them has been shown to lead to similar syntactic comprehension deficits. However, brain imaging investigations of syntactic processing continue to focus on particular regions within the language system, often parts of Broca's area and regions in the posterior temporal cortex. We hypothesized that, whereas the entire language system is in fact sensitive to syntactic complexity, the effects in some regions may be difficult to detect because of the overall lower response to language stimuli. Using an individual-subjects approach to localizing the language system, shown in prior work to be more sensitive than traditional group analyses, we indeed find responses to syntactic complexity throughout this system, consistent with the findings from the neuropsychological patient literature. We speculate that such distributed nature of syntactic processing could perhaps imply that syntax is inseparable from other aspects of language comprehension (e.g., lexico-semantic processing), in line with current linguistic and psycholinguistic theories and evidence. Neuroimaging investigations of syntactic processing thus need to expand their scope to include the entire system of high-level language processing regions in order to fully understand how syntax is instantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. On the ambiguity in relativistic tidal deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2018-04-01

    The LIGO collaboration recently reported the first gravitational-wave constraints on the tidal deformability of neutron stars. I discuss an inherent ambiguity in the notion of relativistic tidal deformability that, while too small to affect the present measurement, may become important in the future. I propose a new way to understand the ambiguity and discuss future prospects for reliably linking observed gravitational waveforms to compact object microphysics.

  1. Good luck, bad luck, and ambiguity aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Briony D. Pulford; Poonam Gill

    2014-01-01

    We report a series of experiments investigating the influence of feeling lucky or unlucky on people's choice of known-risk or ambiguous options using the traditional Ellsberg Urns decision-making task. We induced a state of feeling lucky or unlucky in subjects by using a rigged wheel-of-fortune game, which just missed either the bankrupt or the jackpot outcome. In the first experiment a large reversal of the usual ambiguity aversion effect was shown, indicating that feeling ...

  2. Role ambiguity, employee gender, and workplace friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Mao, Hsiao-Yen; Hsieh, An-Tien

    2012-06-01

    The importance of workplace friendship is recognized by researchers and practitioners, but its antecedents with respect to work roles are not well understood. Employees' gender might moderate a relationship between work roles and friendships. Data from a survey of 221 international tourist hotel employees showed that a key aspect of job support, role ambiguity, was negatively related to having workplace friendships. However, employees' gender did not moderate this relationship. Role clarity (the opposite of role ambiguity) may facilitate workplace friendships.

  3. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  4. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Snell

    Full Text Available A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were flanked by parafoveal words. In Experiment 1 we found a syntactic parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading, meaning that fixation durations on target words were decreased when there was a syntactically congruent preview word at the target location (n during the fixation on the pre-target (n-1. In Experiment 2 we used a flanker paradigm in which participants had to classify foveal target words as either noun or verb, when those targets were flanked by syntactically congruent or incongruent words (stimulus on-time 170 ms. Lower response times and error rates in the congruent condition suggested that higher-order (syntactic information can be integrated across foveal and parafoveal words. Although higher-order parafoveal-on-foveal effects have been elusive in sentence reading, results from our flanker paradigm show that the reading system can extract higher-order information from multiple words in a single glance. We propose a model of reading to account for the present findings.

  5. Structure and Compressive Properties of Invar-Cenosphere Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Luong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the mechanical performance of syntactic foams produced by means of the metal powder injection molding process having an Invar (FeNi36 matrix and including cenospheres as hollow particles at weight fractions (wt.% of 5 and 10, respectively, corresponding to approximately 41.6 and 60.0 vol.% in relation to the metal content and at 0.6 g/cm3 hollow particle density. The synthesis process results in survival of cenospheres and provides low density syntactic foams. The microstructure of the materials is investigated as well as the mechanical performance under quasi-static and high strain rate compressive loads. The compressive stress-strain curves of syntactic foams reveal a continuous strain hardening behavior in the plastic region, followed by a densification region. The results reveal a strain rate sensitivity in cenosphere-based Invar matrix syntactic foams. Differences in properties between cenosphere- and glass microsphere-based materials are discussed in relation to the findings of microstructural investigations. Cenospheres present a viable choice as filler material in iron-based syntactic foams due to their higher thermal stability compared to glass microspheres.

  6. Syntactic Variation in Diminutive Suffixes: Russian, Kolyma Yukaghir, and Itelmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Steriopolo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a syntactic analysis and comparison of diminutive suffixes in Russian, Kolyma Yukaghir, and Itelmen, three genetically unrelated languages of the Russian Federation. Kolyma Yukaghir and Itelmen are on the verge of extinction. This article investigates how contact with Russian (specifically the syntax of Russian diminutives has influenced the syntax of diminutives in Kolyma Yukaghir and Itlemen. Adopting the framework of Distributed Morphology, a syntactic analysis of diminutives across the three languages reveals that they share the same manner of syntactic attachment, but differ in regards to the site or place of attachment. Specifically, it is proposed that diminutives in all three languages are syntactic modifiers; however, in relation to the place of attachment, in Russian, diminutives attach below the functional category of Number, while diminutives in Kolyma Yukaghir and Itelmen attach above the Number category. This article contributes to our understanding of variation in universal grammar and linguistic outcomes of the syntactic feature ‘diminutive’ in a multilingual situation where a majority language is in contact with two genetically unrelated endangered languages.

  7. Reduced Syntactic Processing Efficiency in Older Adults During Sentence Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zude Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task. The behavioral results revealed that the older adults had significantly lower accuracy on measures of semantic and syntactic processing compared to younger adults. Event-related potential (ERP results showed that during semantic processing, older adults had a significantly reduced amplitude and delayed peak latency of the N400 compared to the younger adults. During syntactic processing, older adults also showed delayed peak latency of the P600 relative to younger adults. Moreover, while P600 amplitude was comparable between the two age groups, larger P600 amplitude was associated with worse performance only in the older adults. Together, the behavioral and ERP data suggest that there is an age-related decline in both semantic and syntactic processing, with a trend toward lower efficiency in syntactic ability.

  8. Structure and Compressive Properties of Invar-Cenosphere Syntactic Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Dung; Lehmhus, Dirk; Gupta, Nikhil; Weise, Joerg; Bayoumi, Mohamed

    2016-02-18

    The present study investigates the mechanical performance of syntactic foams produced by means of the metal powder injection molding process having an Invar (FeNi36) matrix and including cenospheres as hollow particles at weight fractions (wt.%) of 5 and 10, respectively, corresponding to approximately 41.6 and 60.0 vol.% in relation to the metal content and at 0.6 g/cm³ hollow particle density. The synthesis process results in survival of cenospheres and provides low density syntactic foams. The microstructure of the materials is investigated as well as the mechanical performance under quasi-static and high strain rate compressive loads. The compressive stress-strain curves of syntactic foams reveal a continuous strain hardening behavior in the plastic region, followed by a densification region. The results reveal a strain rate sensitivity in cenosphere-based Invar matrix syntactic foams. Differences in properties between cenosphere- and glass microsphere-based materials are discussed in relation to the findings of microstructural investigations. Cenospheres present a viable choice as filler material in iron-based syntactic foams due to their higher thermal stability compared to glass microspheres.

  9. From language-specific to shared syntactic representations: the influence of second language proficiency on syntactic sharing in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Pickering, Martin J

    2013-06-01

    Studies on cross-linguistic syntactic priming suggest that bilinguals can share syntactic representations across languages (e.g., Hartsuiker, Pickering, & Veltkamp, 2004). But how are these representations established in late learners of a second language? Specifically, are representations of syntactic structures in a second language (L2) immediately collapsed with similar structures of the first language (L1), or are they initially represented separately? In order to investigate this, we primed the use of English genitives with Dutch (Experiment 1) and English (Experiment 2) genitives (e.g., het hemd van de jongen/the shirt of the boy vs. de jongen zijn hemd/the boy's shirt) in late Dutch-English bilinguals with varying levels of proficiency in English (their L2). The head nouns of prime and target constructions either had the same meaning (hemd/shirt - shirt) or a different meaning (duim/thumb - shirt), in order to test whether the use of both genitives was generalized across nouns. Experiment 1 found stronger between-language priming for more than less proficient bilinguals in both conditions, thus suggesting a shift from language-specific to shared syntactic representations. Experiment 2 suggests that these early, language-specific syntactic representations might be item-specific: Less proficient bilinguals showed much weaker priming when the heads of prime and target constructions had different meanings than when they were repeated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An aspect of representing the three basic syntactical units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Dragana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While morphology basically deals with the structure of words using the two basic units, a morpheme and a word syntax deals with different word groups that can be put into three main syntactical units - a phrase, a clause and a sentence. The two structures can be pointed out; a phrase structure based upon a head word and modifiers to qualify and quantify the meaning of a head, and a sentence structure that is based upon a predicator indicating an action or a state being and a subject indicating a doer of the action. These two are obligatory while some optional can be added as well. In order to understand a syntactical description we have to be aware of the differences and the similarities of the two structures and the three basic syntactical units. .

  11. Neural mechanisms of rapid sensitivity to syntactic anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert E. Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent psycholinguistic models hypothesize that anticipatory processing can speed the response to linguistic input during language comprehension by pre-activating representations necessary for word recognition. We investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms of anticipatory processing by recording event-related brain responses (ERPs to syntactically anomalous (The thief was caught by for police and well-formed (e.g., The thief was caught by the police sentences. One group of participants saw anomalies elicited by the same word in every instance (e.g., for; low-variability stimuli, providing high affordances for predictions about the word-form appearing in the critical position. A second group saw anomalies elicited by seven different prepositions (at, of, on, for, from, over, with; high-variability stimuli across the study, creating a more difficult prediction task. Syntactic category anomalies enhanced the occipital-temporal N170 component of the ERP, indicating rapid sensitivity—within 200 ms of word onset—to syntactic anomaly. For low-variability but not the high-variability stimuli, syntactic anomaly also enhanced the earlier occipital-temporal P1 component, around 130 ms after word-onset, indicating that affordances for prediction engendered earlier sensitivity to syntactic anomaly. Independent components analysis revealed three sources within the ERP signal whose functional dynamics were consistent with predictive processing and early responses to syntactic anomaly. Distributed neural source modeling (sLORETA of these early-active sources produced a candidate network for early responses to words during reading in the right posterior-occipital, left occipital-temporal, and medial parietal cortex.

  12. Identifying Reflectors in Seismic Images via Statistic and Syntactic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Perez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In geologic interpretation of seismic reflection data, accurate identification of reflectors is the foremost step to ensure proper subsurface structural definition. Reflector information, along with other data sets, is a key factor to predict the presence of hydrocarbons. In this work, mathematic and pattern recognition theory was adapted to design two statistical and two syntactic algorithms which constitute a tool in semiautomatic reflector identification. The interpretive power of these four schemes was evaluated in terms of prediction accuracy and computational speed. Among these, the semblance method was confirmed to render the greatest accuracy and speed. Syntactic methods offer an interesting alternative due to their inherently structural search method.

  13. Structure and Compressive Properties of Invar-Cenosphere Syntactic Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Dung Luong; Dirk Lehmhus; Nikhil Gupta; Joerg Weise; Mohamed Bayoumi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the mechanical performance of syntactic foams produced by means of the metal powder injection molding process having an Invar (FeNi36) matrix and including cenospheres as hollow particles at weight fractions (wt.%) of 5 and 10, respectively, corresponding to approximately 41.6 and 60.0 vol.% in relation to the metal content and at 0.6 g/cm(3) hollow particle density. The synthesis process results in survival of cenospheres and provides low density syntactic foam...

  14. AMBIGUITY OF LOCI DURING HLA-TYPING ON SSO TECHNOLOGY AND ATTEMPT TO RESOLVE THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Loginova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequence specific oligonucleotides typing was used to identify human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A, B, DRB1 alleles from 705 recruited volunteers with Volga Federal District for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell registry and 155 of their number at locus HLA-C. 48 samples cannot be entered into the database because of ambiguities in the identification of allelic loci on HLA-class I – HLA-A, HLA-B. To resolution of ambiguity use reagents kits AlleleSEQR HLA Sequencing, which allowed to reveal the ambiguity of the locus HLA-A, 44% of cases, the loci HLA-B and HLA-C – 40% of cases. Application software HARPs Finder showed the possibility of resolution of all identified allelic ambiguities (with the exception of types of ambiguity – A*03/A*32 or A*74:13/A*32:04 and A*01/A*11 or A*36:04/A*11 with the addition of basic kits AlleleSEQR HLA Sequencing reagents kit Al- leleSEQR HARPs. 

  15. Tolerance for ambiguity and self-actualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, P

    1976-02-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis, implicit in several areas of previous research, that high tolerance for ambiguity is a cognitive style which reflects high levels of underlying psychological health. Using Self-Actualization scores on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale, 36 adult subjects were defined as relatively high or low in self-actualization with equal numbers of males and females in each group. All subjects then performed individually on the Rorschach test and the Rorschach protocols were rated reliably for degree of tolerance for ambiguity. It was found that regardless of sex the high self-actualization group exhibited a significantly higher level of tolerance for ambiguity than the low self-actualization group. The finding was interpreted as confirmation of the study's hypothesis.

  16. RELATION OF COACHING BEHAVIOR AND ROLE AMBIGUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamousalidis G.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between coaching behavior and role ambiguity in defensive responsibilities using interdependent Greek sport teams. Athlete perceptions of role ambiguity (defense were assessed using a questionnaire developed by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys and Carron (2002 andcoaching behavior was assessed using the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire, (Williams, et. al., 2003. The sample consisted of 409 athletes of basketball, volleyball, handball and soccer. Confirmatory factor analysis provided the construct validity of the questionnaires and correlations among the scales confirmed construct validity. The implications of the results are discussed and future research should continue to investigate the multidimensional models of both coaching behavior and role ambiguity in sport settings.

  17. Creativity and ease of ambiguous figural reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Watt, Caroline; Gilhooly, Kenneth; Georgiou, George

    2011-08-01

    Two studies examined the relationships between self-rated and objectively measured creative ability and ease of perceiving alternative interpretations of the ambiguous Duck-Rabbit figure. The studies found empirical support for what has previously been a largely analogical connection between figural reversal and creativity, using both self-rated trait creativity and objectively scored creative productivity. We discuss the hypothesis that executive functioning is the likely common cognitive factor linking perception of ambiguous figures and creative ability. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Risk Management and Insurance Decisions under Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Correa, Jimmy

    a counterexample to a classical result in insurance economics where an insurance contract with straight deductible is dominated by a coinsurance contract. Finally, I find that a modified Borch rule characterizes the optimal insurance contract with bilateral risk and ambiguity attitudes and heterogeneity in beliefs....... and ambiguity attitudes interact in nontrivial ways to determine the change of coinsurance demand. I derive sufficient conditions to guarantee that the optimal coinsurance demand is decreasing in wealth. When a non-traded asset is introduced, my model predicts behavior that is inconsistent with the classical...

  19. Certain Verbs Are Syntactically Explicit Quantifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szabolcsi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantification over individuals, times, and worlds can in principle be made explicit in the syntax of the object language, or left to the semantics and spelled out in the meta-language. The traditional view is that quantification over individuals is syntactically explicit, whereas quantification over times and worlds is not. But a growing body of literature proposes a uniform treatment. This paper examines the scopal interaction of aspectual raising verbs (begin, modals (can, and intensional raising verbs (threaten with quantificational subjects in Shupamem, Dutch, and English. It appears that aspectual raising verbs and at least modals may undergo the same kind of overt or covert scope-changing operations as nominal quantifiers; the case of intensional raising verbs is less clear. Scope interaction is thus shown to be a new potential diagnostic of object-linguistic quantification, and the similarity in the scope behavior of nominal and verbal quantifiers supports the grammatical plausibility of ontological symmetry, explored in Schlenker (2006.ReferencesBen-Shalom, D. 1996. Semantic Trees. Ph.D. thesis, UCLA.Bittner, M. 1993. Case, Scope, and Binding. Dordrecht: Reidel.Cresswell, M. 1990. Entities and Indices. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Cresti, D. 1995. ‘Extraction and reconstruction’. Natural Language Semantics 3: 79–122.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01252885Curry, B. H. & Feys, R. 1958. Combinatory Logic I. Dordrecht: North-Holland.Dowty, D. R. 1988. ‘Type raising, functional composition, and non-constituent conjunction’. In Richard T. Oehrle, Emmon W. Bach & Deirdre Wheeler (eds. ‘Categorial Grammars and Natural Language Structures’, 153–197. Dordrecht: Reidel.Fox, D. 2002. ‘TOn Logical Form’. In Randall Hendrick (ed. ‘Minimalist Syntax’, 82–124. Oxford: Blackwell.Gallin, D. 1975. Intensional and higher-order modal logic: with applications to Montague semantics. North Holland Pub. Co.; American Elsevier Pub. Co., Amsterdam

  20. Language and Meaning: A Syntactic Study of Wale Okediran's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, which focuses mainly on textual investigation of Strange Encounters, a satirical novel, examines the significant syntactic features in the novel, and explicates how Wale Okediran, a Nigerian novelist, utilizes them to convey the themes of corruption and injustice in the Nigerian society. He also condemns such ...

  1. Some syntactic features of relative constructions in the Greek New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In the Greek New Testament, relative sentences that are introduced by relative pronouns alone, apart from the adverbial uses, are the most frequent subordinate sentence type. The research reported on in this paper aimed to investigate and describe a number of syntactic features of relative constructions in the ...

  2. Syntactic Language Extension via an Algebra of Languages and Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    We propose an algebra of languages and transformations as a means for extending languages syntactically. The algebra provides a layer of high-level abstractions built on top of languages (captured by context-free grammars) and transformations (captured by constructive catamorphisms). The algebra ...

  3. Syntactic discriminative language model rerankers for statistical machine translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, S.; Monz, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method that successfully exploits syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. We motivate the utility of syntax by demonstrating the superior performance of parsers over n-gram language models in differentiating between Statistical

  4. Skipping Syntactically Illegal "the" Previews: The Role of Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Angele, Bernhard; Ahn, Y. Danbi; Rayner, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Readers tend to skip words, particularly when they are short, frequent, or predictable. Angele and Rayner (2013) recently reported that readers are often unable to detect syntactic anomalies in parafoveal vision. In the present study, we manipulated target word predictability to assess whether contextual constraint modulates…

  5. Learning Driving Behavior by Timed Syntactic Pattern Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, S.E.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2011-01-01

    We advocate the use of an explicit time representation in syntactic pattern recognition because it can result in more succinct models and easier learning problems. We apply this approach to the real-world problem of learning models for the driving behavior of truck drivers. We discretize the values

  6. Clitics and Head-Movement as Intra-Syntactic Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGirolamo, Cara Masten

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation approaches the idea of lexical types such as word, clitic and affix from an oblique angle. Starting with Cardinaletti & Starke's (1999) diagnostics for the Weak Pronoun, I deconstruct the category of clitic, breaking it down into two binary qualities: the syntactic primitive of being linked to a head of a different basic…

  7. An investigation of the morpho-syntactic abilities of Afrikaans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lack of standardised assessment instruments for use with Afrikaans-speaking children compels those who need to assess their expressive morpho-syntactic abilities to either devise their own informal assessment tools or make use of spontaneous language samples. However, to interpret the results of these, normative ...

  8. Syntactic Language Extension via an Algebra of Languages and Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously de ned languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds of extensions....

  9. Evidence for simultaneous syntactic processing of multiple words during reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snell, Joshua; Meeter, Martijn; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    A hotly debated issue in reading research concerns the extent to which readers process parafoveal words, and how parafoveal information might influence foveal word recognition. We investigated syntactic word processing both in sentence reading and in reading isolated foveal words when these were

  10. Spoken Language Production in Young Adults: Examining Syntactic Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W; Vigeland, Laura M

    2017-05-24

    In this study, we examined syntactic complexity in the spoken language samples of young adults. Its purpose was to contribute to the expanding knowledge base in later language development and to begin building a normative database of language samples that potentially could be used to evaluate young adults with known or suspected language impairment. Forty adults (mean age = 22 years, 10 months) with typical language development participated in an interview that consisted of 3 speaking tasks: a general conversation about common, everyday topics; a narrative retelling task that involved fables; and a question-and-answer, critical-thinking task about the fables. Each speaker's interview was audio-recorded, transcribed, broken into communication units, coded for main and subordinate clauses, entered into Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (Miller, Iglesias, & Nockerts, 2004), and analyzed for mean length of communication unit and clausal density. Both the narrative and critical-thinking tasks elicited significantly greater syntactic complexity than the conversational task. It was also found that syntactic complexity was significantly greater during the narrative task than the critical-thinking task. Syntactic complexity was best revealed by a narrative task that involved fables. The study offers benchmarks for language development during early adulthood.

  11. ChiShona periphrastic causatives as syntactic complex predicates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ChiShona periphrastic causatives as syntactic complex predicates: An HPSG analysis. ... We utilise analytical insights from the notion of Argument Composition (AC) and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) theory. Since AC is considered as a lexical process, its account of complex predicates satisfies strict ...

  12. Plackett-Burman Analysis of Glass Microballoon Filled Syntactic Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Zachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bello, Mollie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cordes, Nikolaus Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-08-21

    Syntactic foams are an important category of composite materials that have abundant applications in a wide variety of fields. The current study utilized a Plackett-Burman (PB) experimental design to investigate the main effects of six variables on properties of syntactic foams formulated from a silicone elastomer and glass microballoons(MB). Findings from this investigation are meant to identify the most significant variables with respect to foam properties. Eight foam samples were created and tested using thermal, physical and mechanical techniques. The data from these tests was then evaluated using a Plackett-Burman response coefficient calculation (RCC). This calculation was applied to determine the statistical significance of the selected variables by comparison with a dummy variable. The data suggests that thermal properties, such as glass transition temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion, do not rely on any of the studied variables. Physical and mechanical measurements however were found to depend heavily on the matrix composition and the vacuum pressure used during mixing. Some variables were found to have little to no effect on any of the studied properties. Ultimately, this data could be used to formulate a comprehensive catalogue of syntactic foams based on their compositions. This type of database would allow customers in industry to identify which syntactic foam would best fit their application according to one or two properties.

  13. Igbo Preposition: A Syntactic Approach | Udemmadu | AFRREV IJAH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other lexical items that function as preposition in Igbo would be tested and analyzed syntactically using transformational generative grammar analysis. Data for the research piece were gathered through theoretical studies, simple observations, generation of data and verbal discussions with some grammarians and linguists.

  14. The Syntactic Structure of the VP in Kihema | Mugisa | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides an account of the syntactic properties of arguments that appear within the VP in Kihema, a Bantu language spoken in the north-eastern province of Ituri in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The Kihema data show that Kihema is, like English and many Bantu languages, a VO-language in that, on the ...

  15. [AN OVERALL SOUND PROCESS] Syntactic parameters, statistic parameters, and universals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Meeùs

    2016-05-01

    My paper intends to show that comparative musicology, in facts if not in principles, appears inherently linked to the syntactic elements of music – and so also any encyclopedic project aiming at uncovering universals in music. Not that statistic elements cannot be universal, but that they cannot be commented as such, because they remain largely unquantifiable.

  16. some remarks on nouns' participation in Bantu languages syntactic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the predominant syntactic pattern, nevertheless, we will argue, demonstrate and ..... Currently our chief concern has been to reiterate and summarize the main observations about. Bantu because they will form the springboard and major point of ... to-right alignment and accumulation of elements that participate in syntax,.

  17. A syntactic language model based on incremental CCG parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, H.; Sima'an, K.; Way, A.

    2008-01-01

    Syntactically-enriched language models (parsers) constitute a promising component in applications such as machine translation and speech-recognition. To maintain a useful level of accuracy, existing parsers are non-incremental and must span a combinatorially growing space of possible structures as

  18. Segmental phonology and the perception of syntactic structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, D.R.; Cutler, A.

    1984-01-01

    Recent research in speech production has shown that syntactic structure is reflected in segmental phonology—the application of certain phonological rules of English (e.g., palatalization and alveolar flapping) is inhibited across phrase boundaries. We examined whether such segmental effects can be

  19. Exploring lexical and syntactic features for language variety identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, Chris; van den Bosch, Antal

    2017-01-01

    We present a method to discriminate between texts written in either the Netherlandic or the Flemish variant of the Dutch language. The method draws on a feature bundle representing text statistics, syntactic features, and word n-grams. Text statistics include average word length and sentence length,

  20. The Syntactic Positions of Adverbs and the Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-hong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the theory of linguistic universal and Second Language Acquisition (SLA), the paper discusses the acquisition of syntactic positions of adverbs in English. According to the data collected, the paper concludes that what adult learners acquire about adverbs is the distinction of different adverbs and the different scopes they take.…

  1. SPONTANEOUS CP VIOLATION AND QUARK MASS AMBIGUITIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2004-09-21

    I explore the regions of quark masses where CP will be spontaneously broken in the strong interactions. The boundaries of these regions are controlled by the chiral anomaly, which manifests itself in ambiguities in the definition of non-degenerate quark masses. In particular, the concept of a single massless quark is ill defined.

  2. Integration, differentiation and ambiguity in safety cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Anne; Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses safety cultures, drawing on the differentiation, integration and ambiguity-scheme introduced by scholars of organizational culture. An ethnographic approach has been applied in the study of meaning and symbols relating to work, hazards, occupational accidents and prevention...

  3. Teachers' Burnout, Depression, Role Ambiguity and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastylianou, Antonia; Kaila, Maria; Polychronopoulos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates issues associated with teachers' burnout in primary education as related to depression and role conflict-ambiguity. At the time of the study the participants (562 teachers) were working in seventy nine (79) Primary Education State Schools in Greece (Athens and two prefectures in the southern part of the country). The…

  4. The Ambiguous Role of Constraints in Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjær, Michael Mose; Onarheim, Balder; Wiltschnig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    . In this paper, we explore these particular issues in two creative domains: art and engineering design. These domains vary so greatly in terms of number and types of constraints in play that we argue for considering them as opposite extremes of a continuum of levels of creative freedom. By comparing two case......-disciplinary research into the ambiguous role of constraints in creativity....

  5. Ellsberg paradox: ambiguity and complexity aversions compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářík, Jaromír; Levin, D.; Wang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2016), s. 47-64 ISSN 0895-5646 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22044S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : ambiguity * complexity * compound risk Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.298, year: 2016

  6. The Relationship between Syntactic Satiation and Syntactic Priming: A First Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L. Do

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Syntactic satiation is the phenomenon where some sentences that initially seem ungrammatical appear more acceptable after repeated exposures (Snyder, 2000. We investigated satiation by manipulating two factors known to affect syntactic priming, a phenomenon where recent exposure to a grammatical structure facilitates subsequent processing of that structure (Bock, 1986. Specifically, we manipulated (i Proximity of exposure (number of sentences between primes and targets and (ii Lexical repetition (type of phrase repeated across primes and targets. Experiment 1 investigated whether acceptability ratings of Complex-NP Constraint (CNPC and Subject islands improve as consequence of these variables. If so, priming and satiation may be linked. When primes were separated from targets by one sentence, CNPC islands’ acceptability was improved by a preceding island of the same type, but Subject islands’ acceptability was not. When prime-target pairs were separated by five sentences, we found no improvement for either island type. Experiment 2 asked whether improvements in Experiment 1 reflected online processing or offline end-of-sentence effects. We used a self-paced reading paradigm to diagnose online structure-building and processing facilitation (Ivanova et al., 2012a during processing. We found priming for Subject islands when primes and targets were close together, but not when they were further apart. No effects were detected when CNPC islands were close together, but there was a localized effect when sentences were further apart. The disjunction between Experiments 1 and 2 suggests repetition of the structure in Subject islands facilitated online processing but did not ‘spill over’ to acceptability ratings. Meanwhile, results for CNPC islands suggest that acceptability rating improvements in Experiment 1 may be driven by factors distinct from online processing facilitation. Together, our experiments show that satiation may not be a one

  7. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  8. Learning, Teaching and Ambiguity in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Diane; Oliver, Martin; Burn, Andrew

    What might online communities and informal learning practices teach us about virtual world pedagogy? In this chapter we describe a research project in which learning practices in online worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second LifeTM (SL) were investigated. Working within an action research framework, we employed a range of methods to investigate how members of online communities define the worlds they encounter, negotiate the terms of participation, and manage the incremental complexity of game worlds. The implications of such practices for online pedagogy were then explored through teaching in SL. SL eludes simple definitions. Users, or "residents", of SL partake of a range of pleasures and activities - socialising, building, creating and exhibiting art, playing games, exploring, shopping, or running a business, for instance. We argue that the variable nature of SL gives rise to degrees of ambiguity. This ambiguity impacts on inworld social practices, and has significant implications for online teaching and learning.

  9. Gauge and parametrization ambiguity in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Jeferson D.; Netto, Tibério de Paula; Shapiro, Ilya L.

    2018-01-01

    The gauge and parametrization dependence is discussed in quantum gravity in an arbitrary dimension D . Explicit one-loop calculations are performed within the most general parametrization of quantum metric with seven arbitrary parameters. On the other hand, some of the gauge fixing parameters are fixed to make the calculations relatively simple. We confirm the general theorem stating that the on shell local terms in the one-loop effective action are independent of the gauge and parametrization ambiguity.

  10. Ambiguity in the Acquisition of Lexical Information

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderwende, Lucy

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to the automatic identification of lexical information in on-line dictionaries. This approach uses bootstrapping techniques, specifically so that ambiguity in the dictionary text can be treated properly. This approach consists of processing an on-line dictionary multiple times, each time refining the lexical information previously acquired and identifying new lexical information. The strength of this approach is that lexical information can be acquired from de...

  11. Evaluation of ambiguous genitalia with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secaf, E.; Nuruddin, R.; Hricak, H.; Conte, F.A.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the potential of MR imaging in the evaluation of patients with ambiguous genitalia. Twenty-three consecutive patients with ambiguous genitalia at birth or phenotypic anomalies at puberty were included in this study. MR imaging was performed on a 1.5-T unit using T1- (600/30) and T2- (2,500/70) weighted sequences. In patients aged 5 years or less, 3-mm contiguous sagittal and transaxial sections were obtained. The same imaging planes at 5-mm intervals were obtained in older patients. MR findings were compared to those of surgery (n = 14) or biochemical assays (n = 9). Diagnoses included true hermaphroditism (n = 2), pseudohermaphroditism (n = 6), Turner syndrome (n = 2), testicular feminization (n = 2), adrenogenital syndrome (n = 3), vaginal agenesis (n = 3), cloacal abnormality (n = 2), microphallus (n = 2), and double phallus (n = 1. MR imaging correctly identified the presence or absence of the vagina (n = 10) and uterus (n = 9), thus helping in the diagnosis and management of patients with ambiguous genitalia. Demonstration of development of corpora cavernosa, corpora spongiosa, undescended testis, or partial vaginal agenesis assisted in the surgical approach

  12. De morseir syndrome presenting as ambiguous genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Thukral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A 10-year-old boy presented with genital ambiguity, poor linear growth, and delayed milestones. The aim and to highlight that although rare but congenital, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may rarely present as ambiguity. Materials and Methods: The patient was found to have bilateral cryptorchidism with proximal penile hypospadias, microphallus with a proportionate dwarfism with mildly delayed bone age, and karyotype 46XY. Euthyroid with normal steroid axis, growth hormone insufficient as suggested by auxology, low IGF1, and poor response to clonidine stimulation. MRI brain shows hypoplastic corpus callosum, hypoplastic anterior pituitary, and ectopic posterior pituitary bright spot. Results: The patient underwent laparoscopic removal of right intrabdominal testis and orchidoplexy was performed on the left one. Testicular biopsy revealed no malignancy and growth hormone replacement was initiated. The patient awaits definitive repair of hypospadias. Conclusion: As a provisional diagnosis of combined growth hormone and gonadotropin deficiency, most probable diagnosis is septo-optic dysplasia or de moseir syndrome leading to genital ambiguity.

  13. ASD Is Not DLI: Individuals With Autism and Individuals With Syntactic DLI Show Similar Performance Level in Syntactic Tasks, but Different Error Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufar Sukenik

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Do individuals with autism have a developmental syntactic impairment, DLI (formerly known as SLI? In this study we directly compared the performance of 18 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD aged 9;0–18;0 years with that of 93 individuals with Syntactic-Developmental Language Impairment (SyDLI aged 8;8–14;6 (and with 166 typically-developing children aged 5;2–18;1. We tested them using three syntactic tests assessing the comprehension and production of syntactic structures that are known to be sensitive to syntactic impairment: elicitation of subject and object relative clauses, reading and paraphrasing of object relatives, and repetition of complex syntactic structures including Wh questions, relative clauses, topicalized sentences, sentences with verb movement, sentences with A-movement, and embedded sentences. The results were consistent across the three tasks: the overall rate of correct performance on the syntactic tasks is similar for the children with ASD and those with SyDLI. However, once we look closer, they are very different. The types of errors of the ASD group differ from those of the SyDLI group—the children with ASD provide various types of pragmatically infelicitous responses that are not evinced in the SyDLI or in the age equivalent typically-developing groups. The two groups (ASD and SyDLI also differ in the pattern of performance—the children with SyDLI show a syntactically-principled pattern of impairment, with selective difficulty in specific sentence types (such as sentences derived by movement of the object across the subject, and normal performance on other structures (such as simple sentences. In contrast, the ASD participants showed generalized low performance on the various sentence structures. Syntactic performance was far from consistent within the ASD group. Whereas all ASD participants had errors that can originate in pragmatic/discourse difficulties, seven of them had completely normal syntax

  14. A Semantic and Syntactic Journey Through the Dylan Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Charles Khalifa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a corpus-based exploration of Bob Dylan’s lexicon and syntactic structures based on an examination of the 400-plus songs published to date. By means of a simple concordance program, this article analyzes vocabulary frequencies for each main word class (nouns, verbs, and adjectives. A look at modal auxiliaries illustrate a definite mismatch between large corpora and our corpus, which the author interprets as a deliberate will of Dylan’s to avoid being viewed as a “prophet.” A short exploration of complex noun phrases (the 3 patterns N Ø N, N’s N, and N of N sheds new light on the specific vehicles used by Dylan to convey his flamboyant imagery. Last but not least, a look at some syntactic idiosyncrasies (especially the use of “do” and the “a-Ving” form shows a peculiar use of archaic syntax.

  15. Calculation of Sentence Semantic Similarity Based on Syntactic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the problem of single direction of the solution of the existing sentence similarity algorithms, an algorithm for sentence semantic similarity based on syntactic structure was proposed. Firstly, analyze the sentence constituent, then through analysis convert sentence similarity into words similarity on the basis of syntactic structure, then convert words similarity into concept similarity through words disambiguation, and, finally, realize the semantic similarity comparison. It also gives the comparison rules in more detail for the modifier words in the sentence which also have certain contributions to the sentence. Under the same test condition, the experiments show that the proposed algorithm is more intuitive understanding of people and has higher accuracy.

  16. Multidimensional design for urban space based on the syntactical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Wang, Jingwen

    2005-10-01

    The design of urban space is the process of making better places for people. As the graphical and computational language of space, space syntax focuses specially on making physical connection to integrate people and places. In this paper, the potential important role of space syntax for urban space design is presented. After briefly introducing the basic theory of space syntax model, its advantage comparing with other computational space modeling within GIS and its future development such as the extension to third dimension are discussed. Then the basic syntactical modeling for the corresponding process of spatial design is proposed. The multidimensional design for urban space based on syntactical modeling including morphological, functional, social, perceptual, temporal dimension is separately discussed in detail. Finally, a case study for Kanmen town of Zhejiang province of P.R.China is illustrated by using Axwoman tool.

  17. Syntactic Aspects in Text Messages of University of Zimbabwe Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslei Kahari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is a syntactic analysis of text messages in English language used by University of Zimbabwe students. The study specifically focuses on sentences where there are omissions of pronouns, auxiliary verbs and where contractions occur. The study also analyzes the impact of sociolinguistic variables on the sentence structure of English language in text messages. The fifty respondents’ forwarded two messages each from their sent items on their cell phones to the researcher and to understand the factors triggering the syntactic structures the researcher carried out unstructured interviews. The data collected showed that cell phone texting has indeed been affected by the socio-economic factors and these factors trigger omissions of important elements of English language sentence structure such as ,pronouns, auxiliary verbs and contraction of phrases.

  18. Syntactic matching of trajectories for ambient intelligence applications

    OpenAIRE

    Piotto, N.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F.G.B.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel approach for syntactic description and maching of object trajectories in digital video, suitable for classification and recognition purposes. Trajectories are first segmented by detecting the meaningful discontinuities in time and space, and are successively expressed through an adhoc syntax. A suitable metric is then proposed, which allows determining the similarity among trajectories, based on the so-called inexact or approximate matching. The metric mimics ...

  19. On a syntactic-semantic model with the locative case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is a syntactic-semantic model whose distinctive element is the locative case with the preposition U (IN and the relevant feature (+ human being. This model is realized in three different variants - with the intransitive (A or transitive verb (B, where the nominative in the function of subject and the locative indicate different (B1 or the same (B2 referents. Furthermore, the verb belongs to a semantic class which denotes emerging, stimulation, duration, fading away, diminishing or change in the intensity, in principle, of any phenomenon, and concretely in this model such verbs appear in the collocational link with the nouns implying man's psychological, physiological or mental states, feelings or mood. With an adequate analytic procedure, all the three variants of this model are approached from the syntactic-semantic and pragmatic perspective. The paper points to the causative semantics of these structures, reduced to the metalinguistic formula 'make that X V', which confirms that the semantics of these verb-noun collocational links, syntactically speaking, condenses a complex two-member sentential structure represented by the semantically deficient verb (= causative component in the basic, matrix structure, and the complement clause with the conjunction DA (THAT and the basic verb. And precisely from this semantic feature there follows that the notion in the locative case semantically, actually, represents the BEARER of a physiological, physiological or mental state, feeling, mood, so that it represents the GRAMMATICAL SUBJECT of the corresponding basic subordinated predication whose exponent, actually, is the grammatical subject in the structure with the intransitive verb (or with the syntactically-semantically intransitive verb structure, that is the object in the structure with the transitive verb. Two possible semantic interpretations of this model are presented: the one related to the referential pointing to the

  20. [Syntactic Processing in Broca's Area: Brodmann Areas 44 and 45].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Atora; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2017-04-01

    Brodmann areas 44 and 45 are known as Broca's area; however, their true functional roles are still unknown. Recent developments in neuroimaging techniques revealed the structures and functions of Broca's area in detail. More specifically regarding language functions, sufficient evidence has been accumulated that this region subserves the center of syntactic processing, not necessarily motor functions. Here, we review a role of Broca's area as the grammar center, including other roles in nonlinguistic functions.

  1. THE SYNTACTICAL ABILITY OF A YOUNG GIRL WITH WILLIAMS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana ARAPOVIKJ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out on a young girl with Williams syndrome, whose syntactical ability was tested longitudinally over a period of 22 months, from age 9 years and 3 months to 11 years and 1 month. The assumption was that the girl with Wil­liams syndrome would have poorer syntactical ability than children with regular development, but similar to children with specific language impair­ment (SLI and that in all tasks she would achieve better results in the final testing. Syntax was ana­lyzed on the basis of the fundamental variable of repeating sentences, which consisted of five sub-variables: literal repetition of sentences, sentences repeated with omissions, ungrammatical repetition of sentences, sentences with altered content, sen­tences not repeated. A statistical difference was found between the syntactical ability of the girl with Williams’ syndrome and children with normal development in all tested sub-variables, and her results were the same as in children with specific language impairment. Moreover, in the final test­ing the girl achieved better results than in the ini­tial test.

  2. Controlled Shrinkage of Expanded Glass Particles in Metal Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Al-Sahlani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix syntactic foams have been fabricated via counter-gravity infiltration of a packed bed of recycled expanded glass particles (EG with A356 aluminum alloy. Particle shrinkage was studied and has been utilized to increase the particles’ strength and tailor the mechanical properties of the expanded glass/metal syntactic foam (EG-MSF. The crushing strength of particles could be doubled by shrinking them for 20 min at 700 °C. Owing to the low density of EG (0.20–0.26 g/cm3, the resulting foam exhibits a low density (1.03–1.19 g/cm3 that increases slightly due to particle shrinkage. Chemical and physical analyses of EG particles and the resulting foams were conducted. Furthermore, metal syntactic foam samples were tested in uni-axial compression tests. The stress-strain curves obtained exhibit three distinct regions: elastic deformation followed by a stress plateau and densification commencing at 70–80% macroscopic strain. Particle shrinkage increased the mechanical strength of the foam samples and their average plateau stress increased from 15.5 MPa to 26.7 MPa.

  3. The effects of syntactic complexity on the human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechile, R. A.; Fleischman, R. N.; Sadoski, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    Three divided-attention experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a syntactic analysis of the primary task of editing flight route-way-point information. For all editing conditions, a formal syntactic expression was developed for the operator's interaction with the computer. In terms of the syntactic expression, four measures of syntactic were examined. Increased syntactic complexity did increase the time to train operators, but once the operators were trained, syntactic complexity did not influence the divided-attention performance. However, the number of memory retrievals required of the operator significantly accounted for the variation in the accuracy, workload, and task completion time found on the different editing tasks under attention-sharing conditions.

  4. Anaphora resolution without world knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffa Vilson J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical problem in the resolution of pronominal anaphora is the presence of more than one candidate for the antecedent of the pronoun. Considering two English sentences like (1 "People buy expensive cars because they offer more status" and (2 "People buy expensive cars because they want more status" we can see that the two NPs "people" and "expensive cars", from a purely syntactic perspective, are both legitimate candidates as antecedents for the pronoun "they". This problem has been traditionally solved by using world knowledge (e.g. schema theory, where, through an internal representation of the world, we "know" that cars "offer" status and people "want" status. The assumption in this paper is that the use of world knowledge does not explain how the disambiguation process works and alternative explanations should be explored. Using a knowledge poor approach (explicit information from the text rather than implicit world knowledge the study investigates to what extent syntactic and semantic constraints can be used to resolve anaphora. For this purpose, 1,400 examples of the word "they" were randomly selected from a corpus of 10,000,000 words of expository text in English. Antecedent candidates for each case were then analyzed and classified in terms of their syntactic functions in the sentence (subject, object, etc. and semantic features (+ human, + animate, etc.. It was found that syntactic constraints resolved 85% of the cases. When combined with semantic constraints the resolution rate rose to 98%. The implications of the findings for Natural Language Processing are discussed.

  5. Ambiguities and conventions in the perception of visual art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamassian, Pascal

    2008-09-01

    Vision perception is ambiguous and visual arts play with these ambiguities. While perceptual ambiguities are resolved with prior constraints, artistic ambiguities are resolved by conventions. Is there a relationship between priors and conventions? This review surveys recent work related to these ambiguities in composition, spatial scale, illumination and color, three-dimensional layout, shape, and movement. While most conventions seem to have their roots in perceptual constraints, those conventions that differ from priors may help us appreciate how visual arts differ from everyday perception.

  6. Neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful syntactic processing in primary progressive aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen M Wilson; Stephen M Wilson; Maya L Henry; Miranda Babiak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Syntax is one of the defining features of human language, yet the functional neuroanatomy of syntactic processing is not well understood. Lesion studies have not revealed robust relationships between damage to specific regions and syntactic deficits (Caplan et al., 2007), while functional imaging studies have faced a major challenge in that attempts to manipulate syntactic processing invariably also vary demands on processing resources such as working memory, attention, and ex...

  7. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. P.; Bouwer, Fleur L.; Honing, Henkjan

    2018-01-01

    Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more general attentional resources. To investigate this matter we tested musicians and non-musicians using visually presented sentences and aurally presented melodies containing syntactic local and long-dis...

  8. Neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful syntactic processing in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Wilson

    2015-04-01

    Our findings suggest that some of the regions modulated by a syntactic processing task reflect task-related functions such as working memory, attention, and executive function, specifically the anterior insula bilaterally, the supplementary motor cortex bilaterally, and left dorsal premotor cortex. In contrast, other regions were modulated only in individuals with relatively intact syntactic processing, namely the left inferior frontal junction, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and left intraparietal sulcus, suggesting that these regions are important for syntactic processing.

  9. Portfolio Management with Stochastic Interest Rates and Inflation Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Claus; Rubtsov, Alexey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We solve, in closed form, a stock-bond-cash portfolio problem of a risk- and ambiguity-averse investor when interest rates and the inflation rate are stochastic. The expected inflation rate is unobservable, but the investor can learn about it from observing realized inflation and stock and bond...... prices. The investor is ambiguous about the inflation model and prefers a portfolio strategy which is robust to model misspecification. Ambiguity about the inflation dynamics is shown to affect the optimal portfolio fundamentally different than ambiguity about the price dynamics of traded assets......, for example the optimal portfolio weights can be increasing in the degree of ambiguity aversion. In a numerical example, the optimal portfolio is significantly affected by the learning about expected inflation and somewhat affected by ambiguity aversion. The welfare loss from ignoring learning or ambiguity...

  10. SYNTACTIC ERRORS ANALYSIS IN THE CASUAL CONVERSATION 60 COMMITED BY TWO SENIOR HIGH STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjar Setiawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Syntactic structures are the base of English grammar. This study was aimed to analyze the syntactic errors in the casual conversation commited by two senior high students of MAN 2 Semarang. The researcher used qualitative approach to analyze and interpret the meaning of casual conversation. Furthermore, the data collection had been transcribed and analyzed based on the areas of syntactic errors analysis. The findings of the study showed that all areas of syntactic errors happened during the conversation, included auxiliaries, tenses, article, preposition, and conjunction. Both speakers also had a relatively weak vocabulary and their sentences which were sometimes incomprehensible by the interlocutor.

  11. Temporal characteristics of online syntactic sentence planning: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Inge; Gentile, Francesco; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2013-01-01

    During sentence production, linguistic information (semantics, syntax, phonology) of words is retrieved and assembled into a meaningful utterance. There is still debate on how we assemble single words into more complex syntactic structures such as noun phrases or sentences. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the time course of syntactic planning. Thirty-three volunteers described visually animated scenes using naming formats varying in syntactic complexity: from simple words ('W', e.g., "triangle", "red", "square", "green", "to fly towards"), to noun phrases ('NP', e.g., "the red triangle", "the green square", "to fly towards"), to a sentence ('S', e.g., "The red triangle flies towards the green square."). Behaviourally, we observed an increase in errors and corrections with increasing syntactic complexity, indicating a successful experimental manipulation. In the ERPs following scene onset, syntactic complexity variations were found in a P300-like component ('S'/'NP'>'W') and a fronto-central negativity (linear increase with syntactic complexity). In addition, the scene could display two actions - unpredictable for the participant, as the disambiguation occurred only later in the animation. Time-locked to the moment of visual disambiguation of the action and thus the verb, we observed another P300 component ('S'>'NP'/'W'). The data show for the first time evidence of sensitivity to syntactic planning within the P300 time window, time-locked to visual events critical of syntactic planning. We discuss the findings in the light of current syntactic planning views.

  12. In situ observation of syntactic foams under hydrostatic pressure using X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachambre, J.; Maire, E.; Adrien, J.; Choqueuse, D.

    2013-01-01

    Syntactic foams (hollow glass microspheres embedded in a polymeric matrix) are being used increasingly for the purpose of thermal insulation in ultradeep water. A better understanding of the damage mechanisms of these materials at the microsphere scale under such a hydrostatic loading condition is of prior importance in determining actual material limits, improving phenomenological modelling and developing novel formulations in the future. To achieve this goal, a study based on X-ray microtomography was performed on two syntactic foam materials (polypropylene and polyurethane matrix) and a standard foamed PP. A special set up has been designed in order to allow the X-ray microtomographic observation of the material during hydrostatic pressure loading using ethanol as the pressure fluid. Spatial resolution of (3.5 μm) 3 and in situ non-destructive scanning allowed a unique qualitative and quantitative analysis of the composite microstructure during stepwise isotropic compression by hydrostatic pressure up to 50 MPa. The collapse of weaker microspheres were observed during pressure increase and the damage parameters could be estimated. It is shown that the microspheres which are broken or the porosities which are close to the surface in the foamed PP are filled by a fluid (either the ethanol or the polymeric matrix itself). The hydrostatic pressure decreases the volume of the foam only slightly. In the PU matrix, ethanol diffusion is seen to induce swelling of the matrix, which is an unexpected phenomenon but reveals the high potential of X-ray microtomographic observation to improve diffusion analysis in complex media

  13. Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

  14. Quadri-stability of a spatially ambiguous auditory illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance May Bainbridge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to vision, audition plays an important role in sound localization in our world. One way we estimate the motion of an auditory object moving towards or away from us is from changes in volume intensity. However, the human auditory system has unequally distributed spatial resolution, including difficulty distinguishing sounds in front versus behind the listener. Here, we introduce a novel quadri-stable illusion, the Transverse-and-Bounce Auditory Illusion, which combines front-back confusion with changes in volume levels of a nonspatial sound to create ambiguous percepts of an object approaching and withdrawing from the listener. The sound can be perceived as traveling transversely from front to back or back to front, or bouncing to remain exclusively in front of or behind the observer. Here we demonstrate how human listeners experience this illusory phenomenon by comparing ambiguous and unambiguous stimuli for each of the four possible motion percepts. When asked to rate their confidence in perceiving each sound’s motion, participants reported equal confidence for the illusory and unambiguous stimuli. Participants perceived all four illusory motion percepts, and could not distinguish the illusion from the unambiguous stimuli. These results show that this illusion is effectively quadri-stable. In a second experiment, the illusory stimulus was looped continuously in headphones while participants identified its perceived path of motion to test properties of perceptual switching, locking, and biases. Participants were biased towards perceiving transverse compared to bouncing paths, and they became perceptually locked into alternating between front-to-back and back-to-front percepts, perhaps reflecting how auditory objects commonly move in the real world. This multi-stable auditory illusion opens opportunities for studying the perceptual, cognitive, and neural representation of objects in motion, as well as exploring multimodal perceptual

  15. Breaking the indexing ambiguity in serial crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Wolfgang; Diederichs, Kay

    2014-01-01

    In serial crystallography, a very incomplete partial data set is obtained from each diffraction experiment (a `snapshot'). In some space groups, an indexing ambiguity exists which requires that the indexing mode of each snapshot needs to be established with respect to a reference data set. In the absence of such re-indexing information, crystallographers have thus far resorted to a straight merging of all snapshots, yielding a perfectly twinned data set of higher symmetry which is poorly suited for structure solution and refinement. Here, two algorithms have been designed for assembling complete data sets by clustering those snapshots that are indexed in the same way, and they have been tested using 15,445 snapshots from photosystem I [Chapman et al. (2011), Nature (London), 470, 73-77] and with noisy model data. The results of the clustering are unambiguous and enabled the construction of complete data sets in the correct space group P63 instead of (twinned) P6322 that researchers have been forced to use previously in such cases of indexing ambiguity. The algorithms thus extend the applicability and reach of serial crystallography.

  16. On different approaches to syntactic analysis into bi-lexical dependencies: An empirical comparison of direct, PCFG-based, and HPSG-based parsers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Ivanova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We compare three different approaches to parsing into syntactic, bi- lexical dependencies for English: a ‘direct’ data-driven dependency parser, a statistical phrase structure parser, and a hybrid, ‘deep’ grammar-driven parser. The analyses from the latter two are post- converted to bi-lexical dependencies. Through this ‘reduction’ of all three approaches to syntactic dependency parsers, we determine empirically what performance can be obtained for a common set of de- pendency types for English, across a broad variety of domains. In doing so, we observe what trade-offs apply along three dimensions, accuracy, efficiency, and resilience to domain variation. Our results suggest that the hand-built grammar in one of our parsers helps in both accuracy and cross-domain parsing performance, but these accuracy gains do not necessarily translate to improvements in the downstream task of negation resolution.

  17. A Novel Approach For Syntactic Similarity Between Two Short Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anterpreet Kaur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Syntactic similarity is an important activity in the area of high field of text documents data mining natural language processing information retrieval. Natural language processing NLP is the intelligent machine where its ability is to translate the text into natural language such as English and other computer language such as c. Web mining used for task such as document clustering community mining etc to performed on web. However to find the similarity between the two documents is the difficult task. So with increasing scope in NLP require technique for dealing with many aspects of language in particular syntax semantics and paradigms.

  18. Lexical and syntactic development in Italian children with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Laura; D'Odorico, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Although children with Down's syndrome show some delays in each area of language development, their morphosyntactic competence appears to be more severely compromised than their lexical skills and, therefore, they are frequently mentioned as an example of dissociation between grammar and lexicon. The principal aim of the present study was to compare the lexical and syntactic development of Italian children with Down's syndrome with that of typically developing children, considering their spontaneous production. Particular attention was given to the relationships between these linguistic areas and the transition from single-word utterances to multiword combinations (that is, transitional forms). Twenty-four children participated in the study: twelve with Down's syndrome and twelve typically developing children. On average, the children with Down's syndrome participating in the study had a vocabulary size of about 450 words; and their mean chronological age was 54 months, whereas their mean developmental age was 30 months. The criteria for inclusion in the typically developing children group were a mean vocabulary size similar to that of the participants with Down's syndrome and a mean chronological age equivalent to the mean developmental age of the children with Down's syndrome. Each child's spontaneous verbal production was assessed during a parent-child play session. Data analyses focused on both lexical variables (type and tokens, vocabulary composition) and syntactic variables (frequency and types of transitional forms, frequency of utterances with different degree of complexity, and argument structure of verbs). The vocabulary composition of the children with Down's syndrome appeared to be simpler than that of the typically developing children at the same lexical size. Children with Down's syndrome used a higher number of transitional forms, but their production of multi-word utterances was less frequent; they were able to use word combinations, but they

  19. An application of syntactic pattern recognition to seismic discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. H.; Fu, K. S.

    1981-08-01

    Two syntactic methods for the recognition of seismic waveforms are presented in this paper. The seismic waveforms are represented by sentences (strings of primitives). Primitive extraction is based on a cluster analysis. Finite-state grammars are inferred from the training samples. The nearest-neighbor decision rule and error-correcting finite-state parsers are used for pattern classification. While both show equal recognition performance, the nearest-neighbor rule is much faster in computation speed. The classification of real earthquake/explosion data is presented as an application example.

  20. Finding Home: Landmark Ambiguity in Human Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jetzschke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Memories of places often include landmark cues, i.e., information provided by the spatial arrangement of distinct objects with respect to the target location. To study how humans combine landmark information for navigation, we conducted two experiments: To this end, participants were either provided with auditory landmarks while walking in a large sports hall or with visual landmarks while walking on a virtual-reality treadmill setup. We found that participants cannot reliably locate their home position due to ambiguities in the spatial arrangement when only one or two uniform landmarks provide cues with respect to the target. With three visual landmarks that look alike, the task is solved without ambiguity, while audio landmarks need to play three unique sounds for a similar performance. This reduction in ambiguity through integration of landmark information from 1, 2, and 3 landmarks is well modeled using a probabilistic approach based on maximum likelihood estimation. Unlike any deterministic model of human navigation (based e.g., on distance or angle information, this probabilistic model predicted both the precision and accuracy of the human homing performance. To further examine how landmark cues are integrated we introduced systematic conflicts in the visual landmark configuration between training of the home position and tests of the homing performance. The participants integrated the spatial information from each landmark near-optimally to reduce spatial variability. When the conflict becomes big, this integration breaks down and precision is sacrificed for accuracy. That is, participants return again closer to the home position, because they start ignoring the deviant third landmark. Relying on two instead of three landmarks, however, goes along with responses that are scattered over a larger area, thus leading to higher variability. To model the breakdown of integration with increasing conflict, the probabilistic model based on a

  1. Comparing the effect of syntactic vs. statistical phrase indexing strategies for Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Pohlmann, R.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we describe the results of experiments contrasting syntactic phrase indexing with statistical phrase indexing for Dutch texts. Our results showed that we at least need a compound split- ting algorithm for good quality retrieval for Dutch texts. If we then add either syntactic or

  2. Syntactic Comprehension in Reading and Listening: A Study with French Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, Severine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Comprehension syntaxico-semantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level…

  3. Stuttering Frequency in Relation to Lexical Diversity, Syntactic Complexity, and Utterance Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Hall, Nancy E.

    2018-01-01

    Children's frequency of stuttering can be affected by utterance length, syntactic complexity, and lexical content of language. Using a unique small-scale within-subjects design, this study explored whether language samples that contain more stuttering have (a) longer, (b) syntactically more complex, and (c) lexically more diverse utterances than…

  4. Syntactic processing in left prefrontal cortex is independent of lexical meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indefrey, P.; Hagoort, P.; Herzog, H.; Seitz, R.J.; Brown, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    In language comprehension a syntactic representation is built up even when the input is semantically uninterpretable. We report data on brain activation during syntactic processing, from an experiment on the detection of grammatical errors in meaningless sentences. The experimental paradigm was such

  5. An Antisymmetry Account of the Syntactic Positions of Nominal Arguments in Turkish: Implications for Clausal Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Miho

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the syntactic positions of nominal arguments in Turkish, looking at Turkish clausal structure based on Aktionsart (aspectual) properties (e.g. Vendler 1967) of (dynamic) predicates from the perspective of Antisymmetry (Kayne 1994). It has been argued that indefinite/non-specific arguments appear syntactically in lower…

  6. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M.P.; Bouwer, F.L.; Honing, H.

    2018-01-01

    Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more

  7. Collaborative Syntactic Priming Activities and EFL Learners' Production of Wh-questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; Chaikitmongkol, Wanpen

    2010-01-01

    Syntactic priming is the tendency for a speaker to produce a structure that was encountered in recent discourse and is measured by calculating how frequently speakers use the modelled structures as opposed to alternatives. Recent lab-based studies have shown that carrying out syntactic priming activities with trained interlocutors positively…

  8. Syntactic Priming Effects between Modalities: A Study of Indirect Questions/Requests among Persian English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biria, Reza; Ameri-Golestan, Ahmad; Antón-Méndez, Inés

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of syntactic priming on production of indirect questions/requests by Persian learners of English as a foreign language. Eighty learners participated in two experiments investigating the impact of syntactic priming on oral production and the possibility of transfer of the priming effects to a different modality.…

  9. Vocabulary and Syntactic Knowledge Factors in 5th Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined 5th grade students' levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary…

  10. Ellipsis as a Diagnostic Tool of Feature Strength and the Syntactic Structure of Ilocano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael Don

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation examines Ilocano, an Austronesian Filipino language, within the Minimalist Framework, in an effort to tease apart the general syntactic properties of the language. I show that Ilocano underlying structure can easily be captured within the standard syntactic structures proposed for languages generally (Universal Grammar). In my…

  11. On the Nature of Syntactic Variation: Evidence from Complex Predicates and Complex Word-Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, William

    2001-01-01

    Provides evidence from child language acquisition and comparative syntax for existence of a syntactic parameter in the classical sense of Chomsky (1981), with simultaneous effects on syntactic argument structure. Implications are that syntax is subject to points of substantive parametric variation as envisioned in Chomsky, and the time course of…

  12. Influences of Sentence Length and Syntactic Complexity on the Speech Motor Control of Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential effects of increased sentence length and syntactic complexity on the speech motor control of children who stutter (CWS). Method: Participants repeated sentences of varied length and syntactic complexity. Kinematic measures of articulatory coordination variability and movement duration during perceptually…

  13. Ambiguity, Ambivalence and Extravagance in The Hunger Games

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.

  14. Ambiguity, Ambivalence and Extravagance in The Hunger Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliver

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue that Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games is an emblem of what Julia Kristeva calls the “extravagant girl” who wants to have it all and to be the best at everything. Katniss has an ambiguous gender identity, both masculine and feminine, paternal and maternal. And she has ambivalent desires. I conclude that this ambiguity and ambivalence open up new possibilities for girls and initiate an aesthetics of ambiguity.

  15. VALUING AMBIGUITY: THE CASE OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED GROWTH ENHANCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Buhr, Brian L.; Hayes, Dermot J.; Shogren, Jason F.; Kliebenstein, James B.

    1993-01-01

    A split-valuation method is developed and implemented to elicit the willingness to pay to consume- or avoid consuming- a product of ambiguous quality. The split-valuation method uses experimental auction markets to separate and value the positive and negative attributes of the ambiguous good. The results show that the method can be used to successfully value a good ambiguous quality. Our application reveals that for a sample of students at a midwestern land-grant institution, the average resp...

  16. A paradox of syntactic priming: Why response tendencies show priming for passives, and response latencies show priming for actives

    OpenAIRE

    Segaert, K.; Menenti, L.; Weber, K.; Hagoort, P.

    2011-01-01

    Speakers tend to repeat syntactic structures across sentences, a phenomenon called syntactic priming. Although it has been suggested that repeating syntactic structures should result in speeded responses, previous research has focused on effects in response tendencies. We investigated syntactic priming effects simultaneously in response tendencies and response latencies for active and passive transitive sentences in a picture description task. In Experiment 1, there were priming effects in re...

  17. Gribov ambiguity, perturbation theory, and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The generating functional proposed for gauge theories by Bender, Eguchi, and Pagels (BEP) is shown to be equivalent to a truncated form of the functional integral, in which only one field configuration from each gauge-equivalent Gribov set contributes to the functional integration. The standard perturbation technique provides a method of realizing this truncation condition. It is shown that any gauge-covariant quantity (such as the quark N-point functions), evaluated by perturbating around a field configuration gauge-equivalent to A = 0, is related by a gauge transformation to the same quantity evaluated perturbatively around the trivial vacuum. It follows that, contrary to the conclusion of BEP, the existence of degeneracies in the Coulomb gauge-fixing condition (the Gribov ambiguity) is not directly related to the physics of confinement

  18. Decreasing Ambiguity of the Safety Culture Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shiichiro; Hosoda, Satoshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Monta, Kazuo; Kameda, Akiyuki

    2001-01-01

    The status of the concept of ''safety culture'' is reviewed. It has not sufficiently taken root. One cause for this is the abstract nature of the concept. Organizations must become aware of the necessity of improving safety and have sufficient power to promote this. The culture of safety must be instilled in each employee, so that each of them will feel responsible for identifying weak points in plant safety. The authors devised a tool for a self-assessment of the safety culture. The tool will bring to light information divides, communication gaps, etc. Recognizing the vulnerabilities of the organization by themselves and discussing these weak points among them is the first step to decrease the ambiguity of the safety culture. The next step is to make these gaps known along with agreed-upon countermeasures. The concept of safety culture will be greatly clarified in this way and lead to safer nuclear power plants

  19. Ambiguous Loss Experienced by Transnational Mexican Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Catherine; Zaid, Samantha; Ballard, Jaime

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an ambiguous loss framework as described by Boss (1999, Ambiguous loss: Learning to live with unresolved grief, First Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA) was used to examine and understand the family experiences of Mexican immigrant agricultural workers in Minnesota. Transcripts from interviews with 17 workers in Minnesota and 17 family members in Mexico were analyzed using qualitative methodology to identify experiences of ambiguous loss in the participants' narratives. Key dimensions of ambiguous loss identified in the transcripts include: psychological family, feelings of chronic/recurring loss, finding support, and meaning making. In the category of psychological family, participants in both Mexico and the United States mourned the physical absence of their family members and experienced ambiguity regarding family responsibilities, but worked to maintain their psychological roles within the family. In the category of chronic/recurring loss, participants in both countries experienced chronic worry from not knowing if family members were safe, ambiguity regarding when the immigrant would return, and chronic stressors that compounded these feelings of loss. Participants in both countries coped with both real and ambiguous losses by accessing family support and by using ambiguous communication to minimize worry. Participants in Mexico also accessed work and community-based support. Participants in both countries made meaning of the ambiguous loss by identifying ways their lives were improved and goals were met as a result of the immigration for agricultural work in Minnesota. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  20. Robust portfolio choice with ambiguity and learning about return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Linda Sandris; Branger, Nicole; Munk, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the optimal stock-bond portfolio under both learning and ambiguity aversion. Stock returns are predictable by an observable and an unobservable predictor, and the investor has to learn about the latter. Furthermore, the investor is ambiguity-averse and has a preference for investment...... strategies that are robust to model misspecifications. We derive a closed-form solution for the optimal robust investment strategy. We find that both learning and ambiguity aversion impact the level and structure of the optimal stock investment. Suboptimal strategies resulting either from not learning...... or from not considering ambiguity can lead to economically significant losses....

  1. Resolving deconvolution ambiguity in gene alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbell Earl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many gene structures it is impossible to resolve intensity data uniquely to establish abundances of splice variants. This was empirically noted by Wang et al. in which it was called a "degeneracy problem". The ambiguity results from an ill-posed problem where additional information is needed in order to obtain an unique answer in splice variant deconvolution. Results In this paper, we analyze the situations under which the problem occurs and perform a rigorous mathematical study which gives necessary and sufficient conditions on how many and what type of constraints are needed to resolve all ambiguity. This analysis is generally applicable to matrix models of splice variants. We explore the proposal that probe sequence information may provide sufficient additional constraints to resolve real-world instances. However, probe behavior cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy by any existing probe sequence model, and so we present a Bayesian framework for estimating variant abundances by incorporating the prediction uncertainty from the micro-model of probe responsiveness into the macro-model of probe intensities. Conclusion The matrix analysis of constraints provides a tool for detecting real-world instances in which additional constraints may be necessary to resolve splice variants. While purely mathematical constraints can be stated without error, real-world constraints may themselves be poorly resolved. Our Bayesian framework provides a generic solution to the problem of uniquely estimating transcript abundances given additional constraints that themselves may be uncertain, such as regression fit to probe sequence models. We demonstrate the efficacy of it by extensive simulations as well as various biological data.

  2. The (nontree-representability of syntactic objects.a graft-theoretical approach to nominal coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tănase-Dogaru

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with nominal coordination and the way Graft Theory can be applied to this domain. As introduced and defined by van Riemsdijk (1998, 2000 and 2001, Graft Theory was initially applied to the domain of syntactic amalgams (Lakoff 1974 and transparent free relative clauses. The paper claims that Graft Theory can equally apply to the domain of coordination and a range of syntactic phenomena that are associated with coordination. The main idea that this paper advances is that Graft Theory could solve the problem of syntactic representability with coordinate structures, which are known to pose serious difficulties for binary branching. By endorsing the main tenets of Graft Theory, the paper also touches upon an issue with far-reaching implications: the (impossibility of representing certain syntactic objects as syntactic trees.

  3. Syntactic Priming and the Lexical Boost Effect during Sentence Production and Sentence Comprehension: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral syntactic priming effects during sentence comprehension are typically observed only if both the syntactic structure and lexical head are repeated. In contrast, during production syntactic priming occurs with structure repetition alone, but the effect is boosted by repetition of the lexical head. We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal…

  4. Ejercitar arquitecturas sintácticas / Drilling syntactic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassany, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo rescata la importancia de los conocimientos sintácticos y ofrece sugerencias prácticas de ejercicios que rompen con la gramática prescriptiva tradicional y favorecen el dominio de la sintaxis del español. El objetivo es adecuar los procedimientos de enseñanza y aprendizaje al contexto del enfoque comunicativo. El estudio realizado combina la búsqueda bibliográfica con la sistematización de la práctica escolar a partir de la contextualización de la experiencia adquirida a las potencialidades del mundo digital. El resultado esencial es la caracterización y propuestas de ejercicios que armonizan la perspectiva lingüista y la comunicativa. The paper gives arguments on the importance of syntactic knowledge offering hints of drills that break with the prescriptive traditional grammar and at the same time favor the command of Spanish syntactic structures. The aim is to tailor teaching and learning procedures to the context of the communicative approach. The study combines bibliographic search with the systematization of school practice by contextualizing prior experiences to the potentials of the digital world. The findings offer a characterization of drilling and a proposal of exercises that give harmony to linguistic and communicative perspective.

  5. Towards a syntactic analysis of European Portuguese cognate objects

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    Celda Morgado Choupina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at discussing selected syntactic aspects of cognate objects in European Portuguese, along the lines of Distributed Morphology (Haugen, 2009. Cognate objects may be readily discovered in numerous human languages, including European Portuguese (Chovia uma chuva miudinha. It is assumed in papers devoted to their English counterparts that they belong to various subclasses. Indeed, some of them are genuine cognates (to sleep a sleep... or hyponyms (to dance a jig; Hale & Keyser, 2002. It turns out that in European Portuguese, they can be split into four different categories: (i genuine cognate objects (chorar um choro..., (ii similar cognate objects (dançar uma dança (iii objects hyponyms (dançar um tango and (iv prepositional cognate objects (morrer de uma morte .... There are, then, significant differences between various classes of cognate objects: whereas the genuine ones call imperatively for a restrictive modifier and a definite article, the remaining ones admit it only optionally. It might be concluded, then, that a lexicalist theory set up along the lines of Hale and Keyser is unable to deal successfully with distributional facts proper to various classes of cognate constructions in European Portuguese. That is why the present study is conducted more in accordance with syntactic principles of Distributed Morphology, with a strong impact of hypotheses put forward by Haugen (2009.

  6. Computational Modeling for Language Acquisition: A Tutorial With Syntactic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa S; Sprouse, Jon

    2015-06-01

    Given the growing prominence of computational modeling in the acquisition research community, we present a tutorial on how to use computational modeling to investigate learning strategies that underlie the acquisition process. This is useful for understanding both typical and atypical linguistic development. We provide a general overview of why modeling can be a particularly informative tool and some general considerations when creating a computational acquisition model. We then review a concrete example of a computational acquisition model for complex structural knowledge referred to as syntactic islands. This includes an overview of syntactic islands knowledge, a precise definition of the acquisition task being modeled, the modeling results, and how to meaningfully interpret those results in a way that is relevant for questions about knowledge representation and the learning process. Computational modeling is a powerful tool that can be used to understand linguistic development. The general approach presented here can be used to investigate any acquisition task and any learning strategy, provided both are precisely defined.

  7. Syntax at hand: common syntactic structures for actions and language.

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    Alice C Roy

    Full Text Available Evidence that the motor and the linguistic systems share common syntactic representations would open new perspectives on language evolution. Here, crossing disciplinary boundaries, we explore potential parallels between the structure of simple actions and that of sentences. First, examining Typically Developing (TD children displacing a bottle with or without knowledge of its weight prior to movement onset, we provide kinematic evidence that the sub-phases of this displacing action (reaching + moving the bottle manifest a structure akin to linguistic embedded dependencies. Then, using the same motor task, we reveal that children suffering from specific language impairment (SLI, whose core deficit affects syntactic embedding and dependencies, manifest specific structural motor anomalies parallel to their linguistic deficits. In contrast to TD children, SLI children performed the displacing-action as if its sub-phases were juxtaposed rather than embedded. The specificity of SLI's structural motor deficit was confirmed by testing an additional control group: Fragile-X Syndrome patients, whose language capacity, though delayed, comparatively spares embedded dependencies, displayed slower but structurally normal motor performances. By identifying the presence of structural representations and dependency computations in the motor system and by showing their selective deficit in SLI patients, these findings point to a potential motor origin for language syntax.

  8. Syntax at hand: common syntactic structures for actions and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alice C; Curie, Aurore; Nazir, Tatjana; Paulignan, Yves; des Portes, Vincent; Fourneret, Pierre; Deprez, Viviane

    2013-01-01

    Evidence that the motor and the linguistic systems share common syntactic representations would open new perspectives on language evolution. Here, crossing disciplinary boundaries, we explore potential parallels between the structure of simple actions and that of sentences. First, examining Typically Developing (TD) children displacing a bottle with or without knowledge of its weight prior to movement onset, we provide kinematic evidence that the sub-phases of this displacing action (reaching + moving the bottle) manifest a structure akin to linguistic embedded dependencies. Then, using the same motor task, we reveal that children suffering from specific language impairment (SLI), whose core deficit affects syntactic embedding and dependencies, manifest specific structural motor anomalies parallel to their linguistic deficits. In contrast to TD children, SLI children performed the displacing-action as if its sub-phases were juxtaposed rather than embedded. The specificity of SLI's structural motor deficit was confirmed by testing an additional control group: Fragile-X Syndrome patients, whose language capacity, though delayed, comparatively spares embedded dependencies, displayed slower but structurally normal motor performances. By identifying the presence of structural representations and dependency computations in the motor system and by showing their selective deficit in SLI patients, these findings point to a potential motor origin for language syntax.

  9. Is conversion a syntactic or a lexical process of word formation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Soares Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion is sometimes described as a syntactic phenomenon by which a lexical item changes its lexical category according to the syntactic environment where it is inserted. This syntactic-ordered approach comes from theoretical fields that conceive the lexicon as the domain of irregularity, whilst regular patterns are treated in syntax (Chomsky 1995. However, Portuguese converted deverbal nouns (remendo ‘event of mending’, curte ‘event of having fun’, trinca ‘event of biting’ manifest a structural behaviour that permits us to situate their formation in the lexicon instead of in the syntax. According to the theoretical allusion we made above, this would characterise converted deverbal nouns as lacking a regular pattern. However, what we mean is that the lexicon is not the field of irregularity. Apart from the irregular material that must be stored in long term memory as to be used by speakers, such as inherited lexemes (e.g. rato ‘mouse’, cão ‘dog’, rir ‘to laugh’, verde ‘green’, etc., the lexicon is the domain of word formation, which is constraint-based (Rodrigues 2008, 2009. This means the word formation part of the lexicon is constrained by regular patterns that are neither directional in principle, nor syntactic in nature. We follow Jackendoff (2002 conception on the lexicon, conceiving it an interface of syntax, phonology and semantics. Converted deverbal nouns formation seems to agree with this conception, since it depends on phonological, semantic and syntactical constraints (Rodrigues 2004, 2009. Portuguese verb-into-noun conversion is not a simple case of syntactic environment. This is specially visible when we confront this lexical conversion with a purely syntactic type of nominalisation (Kerleroux 1996, such as the one that occurs in O estudar matemática traz-me vantagens. ‘Studying maths brings me advantages’ or O remendar roupa é um recurso nesta época. ‘Mending cloths is a good resource

  10. GPS Based Reduced-Dynamic Orbit Determination for Low Earth Orbiters with Ambiguity Fixing

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    Yang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing number of satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO for scientific missions, the precise determination of the position and velocity of the satellite is a necessity. GPS (Global Positioning System based reduced-dynamic orbit determination (RPOD method is commonly used in the post processing with high precision. This paper presents a sequential RPOD strategy for LEO satellite in the framework of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF. Precise Point Positioning (PPP technique is used to process the GPS observations, with carrier phase ambiguity resolution using Integer Phase Clocks (IPCs products. A set of GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment mission data is used to test and validate the RPOD performance. Results indicate that orbit determination accuracy could be improved by 15% in terms of 3D RMS error in comparison with traditional RPOD method with float ambiguity solutions.

  11. Avoiding Attachment Ambiguities: The Role of Constituent Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jennifer E.; Wasow, Thomas; Asudeh, Ash; Alrenga, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether speakers use constituent ordering as a mechanism for avoiding ambiguities. In utterances like ''Jane showed the letter to Mary to her mother,'' alternate orders would avoid the temporary PP-attachment ambiguity (''Jane showed her mother the letter to Mary,'' or ''Jane showed to her mother the letter to…

  12. Cognitive Flexibility Supports Preschoolers' Detection of Communicative Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Randall; Nilsen, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    To become successful communicators, children must be sensitive to the clarity/ambiguity of language. Significant gains in children's ability to detect communicative ambiguity occur during the early school-age years. However, little is known about the cognitive abilities that support this development. Relations between cognitive flexibility and…

  13. Degenerate gauge conditions, generalized Gribov's ambiguity and BRST symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbrichesi, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The BFS-BRST approach to gauge theories is considered. It is argued that the BRST-invariant boundary conditions ordinarily used do not maintain the necessary degeneracy in the gauge fixing. As a by-product of this discussion, the existence of a generalized Gribov-like ambiguity is suggested. This ambiguity is however shown to be just a particular BRST transformation

  14. Examining English-German Translation Ambiguity Using Primed Translation Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Chelsea M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Many words have more than one translation across languages. Such "translation-ambiguous" words are translated more slowly and less accurately than their unambiguous counterparts. We examine the extent to which word context and translation dominance influence the processing of translation-ambiguous words. We further examine how these factors…

  15. Examining ambiguities in film titles: the Nigerian situation | Nwala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated ambiguous film titles with specific reference to films in Nigeria. It observed that film titles which are meant to serve as initial appraisal and forerunners of films that light up the interest of the consumers and promote patronage are usually scripted in mind-boggling ambiguous expressions, which make ...

  16. Computational Humour: Utilizing Cross-Reference Ambiguity for Conversational Jokes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinholt, H.W.; Nijholt, Antinus; Masulli, F.; Mitra, S.; Pasi, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a computer implementation that utilizes cross-reference ambiguity in utterances for simple conversational jokes. The approach is based on the SSTH. Using a simple script representation, it is shown that cross-reference ambiguities always satisfy the SSTH requirement for script

  17. Ambiguity in Speaking Chemistry and Other STEM Content: Educational Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Mick D.; Michaels, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity in speech is a possible barrier to the acquisition of knowledge for students who have print disabilities (such as blindness, visual impairments, and some specific learning disabilities) and rely on auditory input for learning. Chemistry appears to have considerable potential for being spoken ambiguously and may be a barrier to accessing…

  18. Surgical aspects of ambiguous genitalia associated with congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim The aim of the study was to review the current approach to manage ambiguous genitalia caused by CAH. Methods This was a retrospective study of 30 patientswith CAH and ambiguous genitalia treated over 10 years. Age at presentation, degree of verilization, preoperative diagnostic studies, operative technique, ...

  19. The Effect of Role Ambiguity on Competitive State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R.; Bray, Steven R.; Eys, Mark A.; Carron, Albert V.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between role ambiguity and precompetition state anxiety among high school athletes playing field hockey. Surveys of male and female field hockey players in the United Kingdom indicated that ambiguity concerning the scope of one's offensive responsibilities was predictive cognitive state anxiety, while ambiguity…

  20. Ambiguity and Nominal Group Multiple Post modification in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    to ambiguity which the contexts may not disambiguate, hence this study of nominal group postmodification in the continuous writing of the selected students. Data Analysis and Discussion. The ambiguous expressions to be analysed here are those resulting from complex nominal group post-modification discovered in the ...

  1. Role ambiguity, role conflict and work overload and their influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bivarate correlations and regression analysis were used to test the nature of the relationships between the measures of job stressors (role ambiguity, role conflict, work overload) and job satisfaction. Significant negative relationships were found between the measures of role ambiguity, role conflict, work overload and job ...

  2. Ambiguity Tolerance and Perceptual Learning Styles of Chinese EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haishan; He, Qingshun

    2016-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance and perceptual learning styles are the two influential elements showing individual differences in EFL learning. This research is intended to explore the relationship between Chinese EFL learners' ambiguity tolerance and their preferred perceptual learning styles. The findings include (1) the learners are sensitive to English…

  3. Absence of the Gribov ambiguity in a quadratic gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raval, Haresh [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Department of Physics, Mumbai (India)

    2016-05-15

    The Gribov ambiguity exists in various gauges. Algebraic gauges are likely to be ambiguity free. However, algebraic gauges are not Lorentz invariant, which is their fundamental flaw. In addition, they are not generally compatible with the boundary conditions on the gauge fields, which are needed to compactify the space i.e., the ambiguity continues to exist on a compact manifold. Here we discuss a quadratic gauge fixing, which is Lorentz invariant. We consider an example of a spherically symmetric gauge field configuration in which we prove that this Lorentz invariant gauge removes the ambiguity on a compact manifold S{sup 3}, when a proper boundary condition on the gauge configuration is taken into account. Thus, we provide one example where the ambiguity is absent on a compact manifold in the algebraic gauge. We also show that the BRST invariance is preserved in this gauge. (orig.)

  4. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2016-03-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks.

  5. Ambiguity aversion and household portfolio choice puzzles: Empirical evidence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G.; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    We test the relation between ambiguity aversion and five household portfolio choice puzzles: nonparticipation in equities, low allocations to equity, home-bias, own-company stock ownership, and portfolio under-diversification. In a representative US household survey, we measure ambiguity preferences using custom-designed questions based on Ellsberg urns. As theory predicts, ambiguity aversion is negatively associated with stock market participation, the fraction of financial assets in stocks, and foreign stock ownership, but it is positively related to own-company stock ownership. Conditional on stock ownership, ambiguity aversion is related to portfolio under-diversification, and during the financial crisis, ambiguity-averse respondents were more likely to sell stocks. PMID:28458446

  6. THE SYNTACTIC ORGANIZATION OF THE 16th CENTURY HANDWRITTEN PROLOGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimova Elvira Nikolaevna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the 16th century handwriting (the Prologue into the scientific use. So, the Prologue is a collection of brief lives, teachings, edifying stories and episodes put in the calendar order. And this article is the first study of its syntactic organization. Micro texts forming the Prologue's macro text are divided into narrative and didactic. For example, hagiographic narrative texts as the type of speech – narration – make about two-thirds of the total number of micro texts. Edifying texts are heterogeneous; they can be persuasive, rhetorical and mixed. Different types of discourse led to a variety of syntactical construction of micro texts. Moreover, narrative ones agree with a strict model, they contain persistent verbal formulas of beginning and end. They include chains of active action verbs; participle constructions of deliberative and modal verbs; turn "dative independent case" ("datelny samostoyatelny"; stringing design constructions – relevant phenomena for syntactical narrations. The basis of narrative micro texts coherence is chronological. And instructive texts can be placed in arbitrary order, which is typical for enfilade-type collections. Consequently, the structure of edifying texts is much more diverse than that of narrative ones. Persuasive micro texts present narration persuasion which is common for ancient Russian manuscripts. Directive nature of similar micro texts implies timelessness, transcendence of statements and is expressed primarily by various forms of the verb imperative which are not estimated from the viewpoint of speech moment. The edifying discourse, the predominance of arguments, the truth statements, intention indication contribute to the semantics of explication conditionality of micro texts. So, the rhetorical parts of the Prologue can be organized in the question-answer unity form, or detailed antithesis, contain rhetorical questions, exclamations, appeals, addresses in different

  7. Ambiguous allele combinations in HLA Class I and Class II sequence-based typing: when precise nucleotide sequencing leads to imprecise allele identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Paula

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sequence-based typing (SBT is one of the most comprehensive methods utilized for HLA typing. However, one of the inherent problems with this typing method is the interpretation of ambiguous allele combinations which occur when two or more different allele combinations produce identical sequences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the probability of this occurrence. We performed HLA-A,-B SBT for Exons 2 and 3 on 676 donors. Samples were analyzed with a capillary sequencer. The racial distribution of the donors was as follows: 615-Caucasian, 13-Asian, 23-African American, 17-Hispanic and 8-Unknown. 672 donors were analyzed for HLA-A locus ambiguities and 666 donors were analyzed for HLA-B locus ambiguities. At the HLA-A locus a total of 548 total ambiguous allele combinations were identified (548/1344 = 41%. Most (278/548 = 51% of these ambiguities were due to the fact that Exon 4 analysis was not performed. At the HLA-B locus 322 total ambiguous allele combinations were found (322/1332 = 24%. The HLA-B*07/08/15/27/35/44 antigens, common in Caucasians, produced a large portion of the ambiguities (279/322 = 87%. A large portion of HLA-A and B ambiguous allele combinations can be addressed by utilizing a group-specific primary amplification approach to produce an unambiguous homozygous sequence. Therefore, although the prevalence of ambiguous allele combinations is high, if the resolution of these ambiguities is clinically warranted, methods exist to compensate for this problem.

  8. Resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer using visibility measurements of a noncollimated laser beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Ge, Jian

    2009-09-10

    An actively stabilized interferometer with a constant optical path difference is a key element in long-term astronomical observation, and resolving interference fringe ambiguities is important to produce high-precision results for the long term. We report a simple and reliable method of resolving fringe ambiguities of a wide-field Michelson interferometer by measuring the interference visibility of a noncollimated single-frequency laser beam. Theoretical analysis shows that the interference visibility is sensitive to a subfringe phase shift, and a wide range of beam arrangements is suitable for real implementation. In an experimental demonstration, a Michelson interferometer has an optical path difference of 7 mm and a converging monitoring beam has a numerical aperture of 0.045 with an incidental angle of 17 degrees. The resolution of visibility measurements corresponds to approximately 1/16 fringe in the interferometer phase shift. The fringe ambiguity-free region is extended over a range of approximately 100 fringes.

  9. Precise orbit determination of the Sentinel-3A altimetry satellite using ambiguity-fixed GPS carrier phase observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenbruck, Oliver; Hackel, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    The Sentinel-3 mission takes routine measurements of sea surface heights and depends crucially on accurate and precise knowledge of the spacecraft. Orbit determination with a targeted uncertainty of less than 2 cm in radial direction is supported through an onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, a Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite instrument, and a complementary laser retroreflector for satellite laser ranging. Within this study, the potential of ambiguity fixing for GPS-only precise orbit determination (POD) of the Sentinel-3 spacecraft is assessed. A refined strategy for carrier phase generation out of low-level measurements is employed to cope with half-cycle ambiguities in the tracking of the Sentinel-3 GPS receiver that have so far inhibited ambiguity-fixed POD solutions. Rather than explicitly fixing double-difference phase ambiguities with respect to a network of terrestrial reference stations, a single-receiver ambiguity resolution concept is employed that builds on dedicated GPS orbit, clock, and wide-lane bias products provided by the CNES/CLS (Centre National d'Études Spatiales/Collecte Localisation Satellites) analysis center of the International GNSS Service. Compared to float ambiguity solutions, a notably improved precision can be inferred from laser ranging residuals. These decrease from roughly 9 mm down to 5 mm standard deviation for high-grade stations on average over low and high elevations. Furthermore, the ambiguity-fixed orbits offer a substantially improved cross-track accuracy and help to identify lateral offsets in the GPS antenna or center-of-mass (CoM) location. With respect to altimetry, the improved orbit precision also benefits the global consistency of sea surface measurements. However, modeling of the absolute height continues to rely on proper dynamical models for the spacecraft motion as well as ground calibrations for the relative position of the altimeter reference point and the CoM.

  10. Syntactic Properties Of The English Verbs In The Students' Essays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Muhammad Basri D.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed to explain the epithet of verb performance within the syntactic properties gained by the students in their essays, i.e. (1 tense, (2 aspect, (3 voice, and (4 mood. The data had been gathered from the 50 samples for each graded level by using a proportional random sampling technique. The processes of soft data attempted to search the epithet of verb performance through the equilibriums between accuracy and inaccuracy. As a result, the research findings indicated that epithet of the students' verb performance was 12.06%, including tense (27.83 %, aspect (21.51%, voice (-35.72%, and mood (34.63%.

  11. The Kata Kolok pointing system: morphemization and syntactic integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Signed utterances are densely packed with pointing signs, reaching a frequency of one in six signs in spontaneous conversations (de Vos, 2012; Johnston, 2013a; Morford & MacFarlane, 2003). These pointing signs attain a wide range of functions and are formally highly diversified. Based on corpus analysis of spontaneous pointing signs in Kata Kolok, a rural signing variety of Bali, this paper argues that the full meaning potentials of pointing signs come about through the integration of a varied set of linguistic and extralinguistic cues. Taking this hybrid nature of pointing phenomena into account, it is argued that pointing signs may become an intrinsic aspect of sign language grammars through two mechanisms: morphemization and syntactic integration. Although not entailed in this research, this approach could implicate that some highly systematized pointing systems of speaking communities may to a degree be grammatical as well. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. An ERP study on Chinese natives' second language syntactic grammaticalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jin; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Qi, Zhenhai; Bai, Chen; Qiu, Yinchen

    2013-02-08

    The present study is concerned with how the Chinese learners of English grammaticalize different English syntactic rules. The ERPs (event related potentials) data were collected when participants performed English grammatical judgment. The experimental sentences varied in the degree of the similarity between the first language Chinese (L1) and the second language English (L2): (a) different in the L1 and the L2; (b) similar in the L1 and the L2; (c) unique to the L2. The P600 effect was found in L2 for structures that are similar in the L1 and the L2 and that are unique in L2, but there was no P600 effect of sentence type for the mismatch structures. The results indicate L1-L2 similarity and L2 proficiency interact in a complex way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. POLITICAL DISCOURSE – A SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodarka Tepavcevic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The language of politics is commonly studied within discourse analysis, whereby its linguistic features relating to vocabulary, grammar structures, textual and intertextual aspects are investigated using various methodologies. This paper presents an analysis of political discourse from a syntactic-semantic point of view. The corpus studied has been extracted from five. Montenegrin dailies and the analysis attempts to describe the genre as effectuated in the Montenegrin political discourse. As a result, the functions of political language are extrapolated and illustrated and its style is described in terms of intertextuality and other linguistic strategies commonly employed in political discourse. The paper aims to give a contribution to the understanding and linguistic profiling of political language.

  14. The Ethics of Strategic Ambiguity: Contrasting Teleologically and Deontologically Based Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jim; And Others

    This paper describes ethical considerations in the use of strategic ambiguity in organizational communication. Ambiguity is defined as "experienced ambiguity" and is distinct from uncertainty and equivocality which are properties of a stimulus. Strategic ambiguity is the use of "calculated ambiguity" in organizations to achieve…

  15. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition.

  16. WURCS 2.0 Update To Encapsulate Ambiguous Carbohydrate Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Masaaki; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Aoki, Nobuyuki P; Yamada, Issaku; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2017-04-24

    Accurate representation of structural ambiguity is important for storing carbohydrate structures containing varying levels of ambiguity in the literature and databases. Although many representations for carbohydrates have been developed in the past, a generalized but discrete representation format did not exist. We had previously developed the Web3 Unique Representation of Carbohydrate Structures (WURCS) in an attempt to define a generalizable and unique linear representation for carbohydrate structures. However, it lacked sufficient rules to uniquely describe ambiguous structures. In this work, we updated WURCS to handle such ambiguous monosaccharide structures. In particular, to handle structural ambiguity around (potential) carbonyl groups incidental to the carbohydrate analysis, we defined a representation of backbone carbons containing atomic-level ambiguity. As a result, we show that WURCS 2.0 can represent a wider variety of carbohydrate structures containing ambiguous monosaccharides, such as those whose ring closure is undefined or whose anomeric information is only known. This new format provides a representation of carbohydrates that was not possible before, and it is currently being used by the International Glycan Structure Repository GlyTouCan.

  17. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  18. Total urogenital sinus mobilization for ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Vinicius Menezes; Buriti, Francisco; Lessa, Rodrigo; Toralles, Maria Betânia; Oliveira, Luciana Barros; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2018-04-01

    Genital ambiguity is a very common phenomenon in disorders of sex development (DSD). According to the Chicago Consensus 2006, feminizing genitoplasty, when indicated, should be performed in the most virilized cases (Prader III to V). Advances in the knowledge of genital anatomy in DSD have enabled the development and improvement of various surgical techniques. Mobilization of the urogenital sinus (MUS), first described by Peña, has become incorporated by most surgeons. However, the proximity of the urethral sphincter prompts concern over urinary incontinence, especially for full mobilization of the urogenital sinus. To retrospectively evaluate the short-term surgical results of feminizing genitoplasty with total mobilization of the urogenital sinus in patients with DSD. Review of medical records of all patients undergoing feminizing genitoplasty with mobilization of the urogenital sinus. We evaluated the rates of complications from surgery and of urinary incontinence, as well as cosmetic results, according to the opinion of the surgeon and the family. A total of 8 patients were included in the study. The mean age at surgery was 51months. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was diagnosed in six patients, and gonadal dysgenesis in the other two. The vagina was separated from the urethra, with suitable distance in all cases. No patient had urinary incontinence after surgery. The mean follow-up of patients was. 20months (3-56months). In all cases, surgeons recorded being satisfied with the aesthetic result of post-surgical genitalia. The family was recorded as satisfied with the aesthetic result of the genitalia after surgery. In every case, there was no need for a second surgical procedure. The total mobilization of the urogenital sinus is a feasible and safe technique. The technique permits good cosmetic results, and urinary incontinence is absent. Therapeutic study. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Robust portfolio choice with ambiguity and learning about return predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Linda Sandris; Branger, Nicole; Munk, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the optimal stock-bond portfolio under both learning and ambiguity aversion. Stock returns are predictable by an observable and an unobservable predictor, and the investor has to learn about the latter. Furthermore, the investor is ambiguity-averse and has a preference for investment...... strategies that are robust to model misspecifications. We derive a closed-form solution for the optimal robust investment strategy. We find that both learning and ambiguity aversion impact the level and structure of the optimal stock investment. Suboptimal strategies resulting either from not learning...

  20. A method to reduce ambiguities of qualitative reasoning for conceptual design applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Amelio, V.; Chmarra, M.K.; Tomiyama, T.

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative reasoning can generate ambiguous behaviors due to the lack of quantitative information. Despite many different research results focusing on ambiguities reduction, fundamentally it is impossible to totally remove ambiguities with only qualitative methods and to guarantee the consistency

  1. How executive functions predict development in syntactic complexity of narrative writing in the upper elementary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijbooms, Elise; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of transcription skills, oral language skills, and executive functions to growth in narrative writing between fourth and sixth grade. While text length and story content of narratives did not increase with age, syntactic complexity of narratives showed a clear developmental progression. Results from path analyses revealed that later syntactic complexity of narrative writing was, in addition to initial syntactic complexity, predicted by oral grammar, inhibition, and planning. These results are discussed in light of the changes that characterize writing development in the upper elementary grades. More specifically, this study emphasizes the relevance of syntactic complexity as a developmental marker as well as the importance of executive functions for later writing development.

  2. Low Cost P/M Aluminum Syntactic Foam for Blade Containment in Turbine Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I SBIR proposes a low density (0.75-1.2g/cc)syntactic aluminum foam energy absorber co-manufactured inside a composite fan case for turbine...

  3. Vocabulary and syntactic knowledge factors in 5th grade students’ reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouider Mokhtari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined 5th grade students’ levels of vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness relative to their reading comprehension performance. The aim was to explore the contributions of vocabulary and syntactic awareness as potential sources of reading comprehension difficulty for these readers. Overall, we found that both vocabulary knowledge and syntactic awareness contributed in significant yet unique ways to students’ reading comprehension performance. Students who showed weaknesses in vocabulary and syntax also performed poorly on measures of reading comprehension. Additionally, we found that syntactic awareness explained a small amount of additional variance in reading comprehension beyond what was explained by vocabulary. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of research and practice addressing the relationships among syntax, vocabulary, and reading comprehension for more and less skilled readers.

  4. Ultra-Lightweight MG Syntactic for Insulation in Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG proposes to demonstrate MG Syntactic as an incompressible, block-format, high-temperature insulation material for future Venus landers, Jupiter atmospheric...

  5. Investigating single-word syntactic primes in naming tasks: a recurrent network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, W T

    1998-04-01

    Three experiments compared the qualitative pattern of participants' word-naming performance in a syntactic priming task with the qualitative pattern of performance generated by a recurrent network model. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that when participants had a 600-ms response deadline, the appropriateness of a syntactic prime affected their naming times for high-frequency words but not low-frequency words. However, Experiment 2 also demonstrated that participants made the most pronunciation errors when naming inconsistent low-frequency words (e.g., pint) that were preceded by an inappropriate prime. The results of Experiment 3 suggest that participants' naming times to both high- and low-frequency words are affected by syntactic primes when there is no response deadline. The implication of these findings for the study of syntactic priming in English and other languages is discussed.

  6. The Influence of Syntactic Quality on Pragmatic Quality of Enterprise Process Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merethe Heggset

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As approaches and tools for process and enterprise modelling are maturing, these techniques are being taken into use on a large scale in an increasing number of organizations. In this paper we report on the use of process modelling in connection to the quality system of Statoil, a large Norwegian oil company, in particular, on the aspects found necessary to be emphasized to achieve the appropriate quality of the models in this organization. Based on the investigation of usage statistics and user feedback on models, we have identified that there are problems in comprehending some of the models. Some of these models has poorer syntactic quality than the average syntactic quality of models of the same size. An experiment with improving syntactic quality on some of these models has given mixed results, and it appears that certain syntactic errors hinder comprehension more than others.

  7. Information structure influences depth of syntactic processing: event-related potential evidence for the Chomsky illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Information structure facilitates communication between interlocutors by highlighting relevant information. It has previously been shown that information structure modulates the depth of semantic processing. Here we used event-related potentials to investigate whether information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing. In question-answer pairs, subtle (number agreement) or salient (phrase structure) syntactic violations were placed either in focus or out of focus through information structure marking. P600 effects to these violations reflect the depth of syntactic processing. For subtle violations, a P600 effect was observed in the focus condition, but not in the non-focus condition. For salient violations, comparable P600 effects were found in both conditions. These results indicate that information structure can modulate the depth of syntactic processing, but that this effect depends on the salience of the information. When subtle violations are not in focus, they are processed less elaborately. We label this phenomenon the Chomsky illusion.

  8. Portfolio Management with Stochastic Interest Rates and Inflation Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Claus; Rubtsov, Alexey Vladimirovich

    -Jacobi-Bellman equation in closed form and derive and illustrate a number of interesting properties of the solution. For example, ambiguity aversion affects the optimal portfolio through the correlation of price level with the stock index, a bond, and the expected inflation rate. Furthermore, unlike other settings...... with model ambiguity, the optimal portfolio weights are not always decreasing in the degree of ambiguity aversion.......We solve a stock-bond-cash portfolio choice problem for a risk- and ambiguity-averse investor in a setting where the inflation rate and interest rates are stochastic. The expected inflation rate is unobservable, but the investor may learn about it from realized inflation and observed stock and bond...

  9. Reading Comprehension Mediates the Relationship between Syntactic Awareness and Writing Composition in Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    This research aimed to explore the relation between syntactic awareness and writing composition in 129 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children were from a ten-year longitudinal project. At each year, a number of measures were administered. The 129 children's data of nonverbal reasoning at age 4, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge at age 8, reading comprehension at age 12 and syntactic awareness and writing composition skills at ages 11 and 12 were included in this study. Syntactic awareness was longitudinally and uniquely predictive of Chinese children's writing composition, and children's performance in early writing composition was uniquely associated with their later syntactic skills, even when controlling for the contributions from age, nonverbal and verbal abilities, phonological awareness, and morphological awareness. The relationship between syntactic awareness and writing composition was mediated by children's performance in reading comprehension. These findings may suggest a reciprocal relation between syntactic awareness and writing composition, and this association may vary with ability in reading comprehension in Chinese children.

  10. Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: Different profiles of syntactic impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit eSzterman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9-12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structure of the sentence. An analysis of the reading and paraphrasing of each participant exposed two different patterns of syntactic impairment. Some hearing-impaired children paraphrased the object relatives incorrectly but could still read the homograph, indicating impaired assignment of thematic roles alongside good syntactic structure building; other hearing-impaired children could neither read the homograph nor paraphrase the sentence, indicating a structural deficit in the syntactic tree. Further testing of these children confirmed the different impairments: some are impaired only in Wh-movement, whereas others have CP impairment. The syntactic impairment correlated with whether or not a hearing device was fitted by the age of one year, but not with the type of hearing device or the depth of hearing loss: children who had a hearing device fitted during the first year of life had better syntactic abilities than children whose hearing devices were fitted later.

  11. Challenging prior evidence for a shared syntactic processor for language and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchet, Pierre; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte

    2013-04-01

    A theoretical landmark in the growing literature comparing language and music is the shared syntactic integration resource hypothesis (SSIRH; e.g., Patel, 2008), which posits that the successful processing of linguistic and musical materials relies, at least partially, on the mastery of a common syntactic processor. Supporting the SSIRH, Slevc, Rosenberg, and Patel (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 16(2):374-381, 2009) recently reported data showing enhanced syntactic garden path effects when the sentences were paired with syntactically unexpected chords, whereas the musical manipulation had no reliable effect on the processing of semantic violations. The present experiment replicated Slevc et al.'s (2009) procedure, except that syntactic garden paths were replaced with semantic garden paths. We observed the very same interactive pattern of results. These findings suggest that the element underpinning interactions is the garden path configuration, rather than the implication of an alleged syntactic module. We suggest that a different amount of attentional resources is recruited to process each type of linguistic manipulations, hence modulating the resources left available for the processing of music and, consequently, the effects of musical violations.

  12. Contributions of syntactic awareness to reading in Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and without dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K H; Ho, Connie S-H; Chan, David W; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of syntactic awareness to Chinese reading among Chinese-speaking adolescent readers with and without dyslexia. A total of 78 junior high school students in Hong Kong, 26 dyslexic adolescent readers, 26 average adolescent readers of the same age (chronological age control group) and 26 younger readers matched with the same reading level (reading-level group) participated and were administered measures of IQ, syntactic awareness, morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, working memory, word reading, and reading comprehension. Results showed that dyslexic readers scored significantly lower than chronological age but similarly to reading level control groups in most measures, especially in the areas of syntactic skills. Analyses of individual data also revealed that over half of the dyslexic readers exhibited certain aspects of deficits in syntactic skills. In regression analyses, syntactic skills were the strongest predictors of ability in word reading and reading comprehension measures. This study highlights the uniquely important correlates of syntactic skills in Chinese reading acquisition and impairment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazara I. A. Barry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  14. Process ambiguities in Sino-Danish Business Negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2004-01-01

    The article analyzes the role played by process ambiguities in Sino-Danish business negotiations. Process ambiguities refer to perceived expectational inconsistencies concerning (1) appropriate forms of behavior; (ii) attributional judgments; and (iii) structuring of the negotiation process. Thes...... businesspeople. An inductive model of sino-Danish negotiations is developed that is based on 24 interviews conducted with Danish expatriate managers in China and 4 interviews with Chinese working in Danish companies. Implications for research and practice are discussed......The article analyzes the role played by process ambiguities in Sino-Danish business negotiations. Process ambiguities refer to perceived expectational inconsistencies concerning (1) appropriate forms of behavior; (ii) attributional judgments; and (iii) structuring of the negotiation process....... These ambiguities stem from differences in negotiation scripts across Danish and Chinese cultures. The essential argument being advanced here is that it is the effective and/or the ineffective management of process ambiguities that shapes the evolution of the negotiating dynamic between the Danish and the Chinese...

  15. Referential Ambiguity in the Narrative Productions of African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Angela Bradford; Cannito, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the production of referential ambiguities in two contrasting narrative conditions among age-defined groups of healthy African American women. Twenty middle-aged adults (M = 51 years) and 20 older adults (M = 72 years) produced a complex story retelling and a personal narrative. All narratives were transcribed orthographically, parsed into T-units, and analyzed for surface structure markings of referents and the presence of ambiguities. The results demonstrated that older adults produced more ambiguities than middle-aged adults, were more compromised with task complexity, used more role or relation designations to refer to story characters while underusing proper names, and exhibited significant lexical retrieval deficits during ongoing narrative production. Middle-aged adults produced more proper names, but were also challenged by the complexity of the story-retelling task. Moreover, the results showed that older adults produced more African American English variants than middle-aged adults. This investigation revealed a pattern of age-related ambiguities during narrative production. The results demonstrated that lexical retrieval from long-term semantic memory was an important predictor of ambiguity, whereas African American English contributed negligibly. These results show that referential ambiguities may be a robust characteristic of cognitive-linguistic changes that occur with typical aging.

  16. Fatigue Characterization of Fire Resistant Syntactic Foam Core Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Mynul

    Eco-Core is a fire resistant material for sandwich structural application; it was developed at NC A&T State University. The Eco-Core is made of very small amount of phenolic resin and large volume of flyash by a syntactic process. The process development, static mechanical and fracture, fire and toxicity safety and water absorption properties and the design of sandwich structural panels with Eco-Core material was established and published in the literature. One of the important properties that is needed for application in transportation vehicles is the fatigue performance under different stress states. Fatigue data are not available even for general syntactic foams. The objective of this research is to investigate the fatigue performance of Eco-Core under three types of stress states, namely, cyclic compression, shear and flexure, then document failure modes, and develop empherical equations for predicting fatigue life of Eco-Core under three stress states. Compression-Compression fatigue was performed directly on Eco-Core cylindrical specimen, whereas shear and flexure fatigue tests were performed using sandwich beam made of E glass-Vinyl Ester face sheet and Eco-Core material. Compression-compression fatigue test study was conducted at two values of stress ratios (R=10 and 5), for the maximum compression stress (sigmamin) range of 60% to 90% of compression strength (sigmac = 19.6 +/- 0.25 MPa) for R=10 and 95% to 80% of compression strength for R=5. The failure modes were characterized by the material compliance change: On-set (2% compliance change), propagation (5%) and ultimate failure (7%). The number of load cycles correspond to each of these three damages were characterized as on-set, propagation and total lives. A similar approach was used in shear and flexure fatigue tests with stress ratio of R=0.1. The fatigue stress-number of load cycles data followed the standard power law equation for all three stress states. The constant of the equation were

  17. Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Response of Injection-Molded Cenosphere/HDPE Syntactic Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath Kumar, B. R.; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-07-01

    High strain rate compressive properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix syntactic foams containing cenosphere filler are investigated. Thermoplastic matrix syntactic foams have not been studied extensively for high strain rate deformation response despite interest in them for lightweight underwater vehicle structures and consumer products. Quasi-static compression tests are conducted at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1 and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. Further, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized for characterizing syntactic foams for high strain rate compression. The compressive strength of syntactic foams is higher than that of HDPE resin at the same strain rate. Yield strength shows an increasing trend with strain rate. The average yield strength values at high strain rates are almost twice the values obtained at 10-4 s-1 for HDPE resin and syntactic foams. Theoretical models are used to estimate the effectiveness of cenospheres in reinforcing syntactic foams.

  18. Estimating ambiguity preferences and perceptions in multiple prior models: Evidence from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Stephen G.; Kouwenberg, Roy; Mitchell, Olivia S.; Peijnenburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    We develop a tractable method to estimate multiple prior models of decision-making under ambiguity. In a representative sample of the U.S. population, we measure ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains. We find that ambiguity aversion is common for uncertain events of moderate to high likelihood involving gains, but ambiguity seeking prevails for low likelihoods and for losses. We show that choices made under ambiguity in the gain domain are best explained by the α-MaxMin model, with one parameter measuring ambiguity aversion (ambiguity preferences) and a second parameter quantifying the perceived degree of ambiguity (perceptions about ambiguity). The ambiguity aversion parameter α is constant and prior probability sets are asymmetric for low and high likelihood events. The data reject several other models, such as MaxMin and MaxMax, as well as symmetric probability intervals. Ambiguity aversion and the perceived degree of ambiguity are both higher for men and for the college-educated. Ambiguity aversion (but not perceived ambiguity) is also positively related to risk aversion. In the loss domain, we find evidence of reflection, implying that ambiguity aversion for gains tends to reverse into ambiguity seeking for losses. Our model’s estimates for preferences and perceptions about ambiguity can be used to analyze the economic and financial implications of such preferences. PMID:26924890

  19. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Pirahã

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Richard; Stearns, Laura; Everett, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis. PMID:26934636

  20. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Piraha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Futrell

    Full Text Available The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis.

  1. SERIAL VERB CONSTRUCTION IN BALINESE (SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Mas Indrawati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Serial verb construction (SVC is a construction where more than one verbs occur in a clause without any overt markers of  subordinator or coordinator. SVC is a common fenomenon in isolative languages which lack morphological markers for sintactic processes.  However, in the use of Balinese, which is  rich in morphological markers, SVC are common fenomena.  This research attempts to analyse the typological characteristics of SVC in Balinese, to describe the types of SVC in Balinese viewed from the structure of events which forms the SVC, to analyse the constituent merging strategies in clauses containing SVC. This research applies decriptive-qualitative approach, by combining analitic and introspective methods. The data source of this research was 50 short story texts taken from Sastra slot in “Bali Orti”, weekly newspaper of Bali Post, completed with spoken texts, obtained by applying direct observation technique. The data was descriptively and analitically analysed by using the deductive-inductive-deductive approach. The theories applied in analysing SVC in Balinese were: tipological, semantic cognitive, and sintactic theories. The result shows that typologically, SVCs in Balinese had three characteristics that is: phonetic, morphosyntactic, and semantic characteristics. Viewed from the integration of events in Balinese SVCs, it could be proved that SVCs in Balinese express a single macro-event and could be classified into two  types, they were: component SVC and narative SVC. Syntactically SVCs in Balinese were biclausal constructions, some were monoclausal, and successive clauses.

  2. Expanded tenses in the old English orosius a syntactic strengthening*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The present chapter reports the investigation into certain aspects of the periphrastic construction to be +present participle (e.g. NE: "he is teaching"; OE. "he is laerende" viewed as an example of a syntactic strengthening. The construc­ tion is usually referred to as "continuous tenses/form" or "progressive tenses/form", whereas Nickel (1966 uses "expanded form". Coming closest to this latter term, the "expanded tenses" employed here seems a convenient label for two reasons: a  the use of expanded tenses is not restricted to the expression of verbal aspect (Aspekt or mode of verbal action (Aktionsart, which is implied by the use of either the term "continuous  tenses/form" or the term "progressive tenses/form"; b  the expanded tenses are integrated into the English tense system, in the sense that they can be substituted  with the respective non-expanded tenses without any change in the syntax of the clause, e.g.

  3. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Pirahã.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Richard; Stearns, Laura; Everett, Daniel L; Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis.

  4. Dynamic and Thermal Properties of Aluminum Alloy A356/Silicon Carbide Hollow Particle Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cox

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloy A356 matrix syntactic foams filled with SiC hollow particles (SiCHP are studied in the present work. Two compositions of syntactic foams are studied for quasi-static and high strain rate compression. In addition, dynamic mechanical analysis is conducted to study the temperature dependent energy dissipation and damping capabilities of these materials. The thermal characterization includes study of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE. A356/SiCHP syntactic foams are not strain rate sensitive as the compressive strength displayed little variation between the tested strain rates of 0.001–2100 s−1. Microscopic analysis of the high strain rate compression tested specimens showed that the fracture is initiated by the failure of hollow particles at the onset of the plastic deformation region. This is followed by plastic deformation of the matrix material and further crushing of particles. The syntactic foams showed decrease in storage modulus with increasing temperature and the trend was nearly linear up to 500 °C. The alloy shows a similar behavior at low temperature but the decrease in storage modulus increases sharply over 375 °C. The loss modulus is very small for the tested materials because of lack of viscoelasticity in metallic materials. The trend in the loss modulus is opposite, where the matrix alloy has lower loss modulus than syntactic foams at low temperature. However, over 250 °C the matrix loss modulus starts to increase rapidly and attains a peak around 460 °C. Syntactic foams have higher damping parameter at low temperatures than the matrix alloy. Incorporation of SiCHP helps in decreasing CTE. Compared to the CTE of the matrix alloy, 23.4 × 10−6 °C−1, syntactic foams showed CTE values as low as 11.67 × 10−6 °C−1.

  5. Observations on syntactic landmine detection using impulse ground-penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasif, Ahmed O.; Hintz, Kenneth J.

    2011-06-01

    We discuss some results and observations on applying syntactic pattern recognition (SPR) methodology for landmine detection using impulse ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In the SPR approach, the GPR A-scans are first converted into binary-valued strings by inverse filtering, followed by concavity detection to identify the peaks and valleys representing the locations of impedance discontinuities in the return signal. During the training phase, the characteristic binary strings for a particular landmine are found by looking at all the exemplars of that mine and selecting the collection of strings that yield the best detection results on these exemplars. These characteristic strings can be detected very efficiently using finite state machines (FSMs). Finally, the FSM detections are clustered to assign confidence to each detection, and discard sparse detections. Provided that the impulse GPR provides enough resolution in range, the SPR method can be a robust and high-speed solution for landmine detection and classification, because it aims to exploit the impedance discontinuity profile of the target, which is a description of the internal material structure of the target and little affected by external clutter. To evaluate the proposed methodology, the SPR scheme is applied to a set of impulse GPR data taken at a government test site. We suggest that coherent frequency-agile radar may be a better option for the SPR approach, since it addresses some of the drawbacks of a non-coherent impulse GPR caused by internally non-coherent within-channel signals which necessitate non-coherent integration and its attendant longer integration times, and non-coherent adjacent channels which severely limit the ability to do spatial, or at a minimum, cross-range processing if the GPR is in a linear array antenna.

  6. Resolving distance ambiguities towards 6.7 GHz methanol masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, J. D.; Momjian, E.; Goldsmith, P. F.

    2008-07-01

    Context: Distances to most star forming regions are determined using kinematics, through the assumption that the observed radial velocity arises from the motion of the source with respect to the Sun resulting from the differential rotation of Galaxy. The primary challenge associated with the application of this technique in the inner Galaxy is the kinematic distance ambiguity. Aims: In this work, we aim to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity towards a sample of 6.7 GHz methanol masers, which are signposts of the early stages of massive star formation. Methods: We measured 21 cm H I absorption spectra using the Very Large Array in C and CnB configurations. A comparison of the maximum velocity of H I absorption with the source velocity and tangent point velocity was used to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity. Results: We resolved the distance ambiguity towards 41 sources. Distance determinations that are in conflict with previous measurements are discussed. The NE2001 spiral arm model is broadly consistent with the locations of the star forming complexes. We find that the use of vertical scale height arguments to resolve the distance ambiguity can lead to erroneous classifications for a significant fraction of sources.

  7. Characterization of Shear Properties for APO/MBI Syntactic Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reser, Patrick M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, Matthew W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, Jarod [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ahuja, Nishant [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lenke, Lary R. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-14

    Triaxial compression testing is a means for mechanical characterization of a material. A unique feature of the triaxial compression test is the application of two different magnitudes of compressive pressures on the material simultaneously. The material behavior under these different compressive pressures can be monitored over time. Several important characteristics of the material, such as stress yield values and the shear failure envelope may then be determined. Also mechanical properties such as Poisson’s ratio, Young’s modulus and bulk modulus can be determined from the triaxial compression test. The triaxial compression test was employed in this investigation to characterize the shear behavior, shear failure envelope, and mechanical properties of a syntactic foam. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a total of 36 samples of APO-BMI syntactic foam to the University of New Mexico, Department of Civil Engineering for testing between December 2003 and May 2004. Each sample had a diameter of 1.395±0.005 in. (3.543±0.013cm.) and a length of 2.796±0.004 in. (7.102±0.010 cm.). The samples had an average density of 0.295 g/cm3. Additional information about the material tested in this investigation can be found in the “Specimen Description” section contained in Chapter 1. The nomenclatures used in this study is presented in Chapter 1. In addition to designing and implementing triaxial compression tests capable of up to 2,000 psi. confining pressure (minor principal stress) and roughly 13,000 psi. in axial pressure (major principal stress), a pure tension test was designed and conducted on the foam material. The purpose of this pure tension test was to obtain maximum tensile stress values to enhance the characterization of the shear envelope in the stress space. The sampling procedure and specimen preparation for a standard test can be found in the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) D 5379/ D 5379 – 93. The above tests mentioned and

  8. Stress in Context: Morpho-Syntactic Properties Affect Lexical Stress Assignment in Reading Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Giacomo; Sulpizio, Simone; Primativo, Silvia; Burani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from English and Russian have shown that grammatical category plays a key role in stress assignment. In these languages, some grammatical categories have a typical stress pattern and this information is used by readers. However, whether readers are sensitive to smaller distributional differences and other morpho-syntactic properties (e.g., gender, number, person) remains unclear. We addressed this issue in word and non-word reading in Italian, a language in which: (1) nouns and verbs differ in the proportion of words with a dominant stress pattern; (2) information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties may contrast with other sources of information, such as stress neighborhood. Both aspects were addressed in two experiments in which context words were used to induce the desired morpho-syntactic properties. Experiment 1 showed that the relatively different proportions of stress patterns between grammatical categories do not affect stress processing in word reading. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties outweighs stress neighborhood in non-word reading. Thus, while general information specified by grammatical categories may not be used by Italian readers, stress neighbors with morpho-syntactic properties congruent with those of the target stimulus have a primary role in stress assignment. These results underscore the importance of expanding investigations of stress assignment beyond single words, as current models of single-word reading seem unable to account for our results. PMID:27445910

  9. The influence of task-irrelevant music on language processing: syntactic and semantic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Lisianne; Poulin-Charronnat, Benedicte; Tillmann, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that music and language processing share neural resources, leading to new hypotheses about interference in the simultaneous processing of these two structures. The present study investigated the effect of a musical chord's tonal function on syntactic processing (Experiment 1) and semantic processing (Experiment 2) using a cross-modal paradigm and controlling for acoustic differences. Participants read sentences and performed a lexical decision task on the last word, which was, syntactically or semantically, expected or unexpected. The simultaneously presented (task-irrelevant) musical sequences ended on either an expected tonic or a less-expected subdominant chord. Experiment 1 revealed interactive effects between music-syntactic and linguistic-syntactic processing. Experiment 2 showed only main effects of both music-syntactic and linguistic-semantic expectations. An additional analysis over the two experiments revealed that linguistic violations interacted with musical violations, though not differently as a function of the type of linguistic violations. The present findings were discussed in light of currently available data on the processing of music as well as of syntax and semantics in language, leading to the hypothesis that resources might be shared for structural integration processes and sequencing.

  10. The influence of task-irrelevant music on language processing: Syntactic and semantic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisianne eHoch

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has suggested that music and language processing share neural resources, leading to new hypotheses about interference in the simultaneous processing of these two structures. The present study investigated the effect of a musical chord’s tonal function on syntactic processing (Experiment 1 and semantic processing (Experiment 2 using a cross-modal paradigm and controlling for acoustic differences. Participants read sentences and performed a lexical decision task on the last word, which was, syntactically or semantically, expected or unexpected. The simultaneously presented (task-irrelevant musical sequences ended on either an expected tonic or a less-expected subdominant chord. Experiment 1 revealed interactive effects between music-syntactic and linguistic-syntactic processing. Experiment 2 showed only main effects of both music-syntactic and linguistic-semantic expectations. An additional analysis over the two experiments revealed that linguistic violations interacted with musical violations, though not differently as a function of the type of linguistic violations. The present findings were discussed in light of currently available data on the processing of music as well as of syntax and semantics in language, leading to the hypothesis that resources might be shared for structural integration processes and sequencing.

  11. Subliminal Emotional Words Impact Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Performance and Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that syntactic processing can be affected by emotional information and that subliminal emotional information can also affect cognitive processes. In this study, we explore whether unconscious emotional information may also impact syntactic processing. In an Event-Related brain Potential (ERP study, positive, neutral and negative subliminal adjectives were inserted within neutral sentences, just before the presentation of the supraliminal adjective. They could either be correct (50% or contain a morphosyntactic violation (number or gender disagreements. Larger error rates were observed for incorrect sentences than for correct ones, in contrast to most studies using supraliminal information. Strikingly, emotional adjectives affected the conscious syntactic processing of sentences containing morphosyntactic anomalies. The neutral condition elicited left anterior negativity (LAN followed by a P600 component. However, a lack of anterior negativity and an early P600 onset for the negative condition were found, probably as a result of the negative subliminal correct adjective capturing early syntactic resources. Positive masked adjectives in turn prompted an N400 component in response to morphosyntactic violations, probably reflecting the induction of a heuristic processing mode involving access to lexico-semantic information to solve agreement anomalies. Our results add to recent evidence on the impact of emotional information on syntactic processing, while showing that this can occur even when the reader is unaware of the emotional stimuli.

  12. Finite Element Modeling of Tensile Deformation Behaviors of Iron Syntactic Foam with Hollow Glass Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yi Je; Lee, Wookjin; Park, Yong Ho

    2017-10-19

    The elastoplastic deformation behaviors of hollow glass microspheres/iron syntactic foam under tension were modeled using a representative volume element (RVE) approach. The three-dimensional microstructures of the iron syntactic foam with 5 wt % glass microspheres were reconstructed using the random sequential adsorption algorithm. The constitutive behavior of the elastoplasticity in the iron matrix and the elastic-brittle failure for the glass microsphere were simulated in the models. An appropriate RVE size was statistically determined by evaluating elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield strength in terms of model sizes and boundary conditions. The model was validated by the agreement with experimental findings. The tensile deformation mechanism of the syntactic foam considering the fracture of the microspheres was then investigated. In addition, the feasibility of introducing the interfacial deboning behavior to the proposed model was briefly investigated to improve the accuracy in depicting fracture behaviors of the syntactic foam. It is thought that the modeling techniques and the model itself have major potential for applications not only in the study of hollow glass microspheres/iron syntactic foams, but also for the design of composites with a high modulus matrix and high strength reinforcement.

  13. The effects of supervised learning on event-related potential correlates of music-syntactic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuang; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-11-11

    Humans process music even without conscious effort according to implicit knowledge about syntactic regularities. Whether such automatic and implicit processing is modulated by veridical knowledge has remained unknown in previous neurophysiological studies. This study investigates this issue by testing whether the acquisition of veridical knowledge of a music-syntactic irregularity (acquired through supervised learning) modulates early, partly automatic, music-syntactic processes (as reflected in the early right anterior negativity, ERAN), and/or late controlled processes (as reflected in the late positive component, LPC). Excerpts of piano sonatas with syntactically regular and less regular chords were presented repeatedly (10 times) to non-musicians and amateur musicians. Participants were informed by a cue as to whether the following excerpt contained a regular or less regular chord. Results showed that the repeated exposure to several presentations of regular and less regular excerpts did not influence the ERAN elicited by less regular chords. By contrast, amplitudes of the LPC (as well as of the P3a evoked by less regular chords) decreased systematically across learning trials. These results reveal that late controlled, but not early (partly automatic), neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing are modulated by repeated exposure to a musical piece. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Syntactic and Semantic Errors in the Composition Writing of Jordanian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazan Shaker Almahameed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at investigating the salient syntactic and semantic errors made by Jordanian English foreign language learners as writing in English. Writing poses a great challenge for both native and non-native speakers of English, since writing involves employing most language sub-systems such as grammar, vocabulary, spelling and punctuation. A total of 30 Jordanian English foreign language learners participated in the study. The participants were instructed to write a composition of no more than one hundred and fifty words on a selected topic. Essays were collected and analyzed statistically to obtain the needed results. The results of the study displayed that syntactic errors produced by the participants were varied, in that eleven types of syntactic errors were committed as follows; verb-tense, agreement, auxiliary, conjunctions, word order, resumptive pronouns, null-subject, double-subject, superlative, comparative and possessive pronouns. Amongst syntactic errors, verb tense errors were the most frequent with 33%. The results additionally revealed that two types of semantic errors were made; errors at sentence level and errors at word level. Errors at word level outstripped by far errors at sentence level, scoring respectively 82% and 18%. It can be concluded that the syntactic and semantic knowledge of Jordanian learners of English is still insufficient.

  15. Finite Element Modeling of Tensile Deformation Behaviors of Iron Syntactic Foam with Hollow Glass Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Je Cho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The elastoplastic deformation behaviors of hollow glass microspheres/iron syntactic foam under tension were modeled using a representative volume element (RVE approach. The three-dimensional microstructures of the iron syntactic foam with 5 wt % glass microspheres were reconstructed using the random sequential adsorption algorithm. The constitutive behavior of the elastoplasticity in the iron matrix and the elastic-brittle failure for the glass microsphere were simulated in the models. An appropriate RVE size was statistically determined by evaluating elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and yield strength in terms of model sizes and boundary conditions. The model was validated by the agreement with experimental findings. The tensile deformation mechanism of the syntactic foam considering the fracture of the microspheres was then investigated. In addition, the feasibility of introducing the interfacial deboning behavior to the proposed model was briefly investigated to improve the accuracy in depicting fracture behaviors of the syntactic foam. It is thought that the modeling techniques and the model itself have major potential for applications not only in the study of hollow glass microspheres/iron syntactic foams, but also for the design of composites with a high modulus matrix and high strength reinforcement.

  16. The Benefit of Ambiguity in Understanding Goals in Requirements Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Pedell, Sonja; Sterling, Leon

    2011-01-01

    of their research is to create technologies that support more flexible and meaningful social interactions, by combining best practice in software engineering with ethnographic techniques to model complex social interactions from their socially oriented life for the purposes of building rich socio...... ambiguity in the process of elicitation and analysis through the use of empirically informed quality goals attached to functional goals. The authors demonstrate the benefit of articulating a quality goal without turning it into a functional goal. Their study shows that quality goals kept at a high level...... of abstraction, ambiguous and open for conversations through the modelling process add richness to goal models, and communicate quality attributes of the interaction being modelled to the design phase, where this ambiguity is regarded as a resource for design....

  17. Absence of the Gribov ambiguity in a special algebraic gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raval Haresh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gribov ambiguity exists in various gauges except algebraic gauges. However in general, algebraic gauges are not Lorentz invariant, which is their fundamental flaw. Here we discuss a quadratic gauge fixing, which is Lorentz invariant. We show that nontrivial copies can not occur in this gauge. We then provide an example of spherically symmetric gauge field configuration and prove that with a proper boundary condition on the configuration, this gauge removes the ambiguity on a compact manifold S3${{\\mathbb S}^3}$.

  18. CSR and the Mediated Emergence of Strategic Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guthey, Eric; Morsing, Mette

    2014-01-01

    We develop a framework for understanding how lack of clarity in business press coverage of corporate social responsibility functions as a mediated and emergent form of strategic ambiguity. Many stakeholders expect CSR to exhibit clarity, consistency, and discursive closure. But stakeholders also...... demands. We propose that this very public lack of discursive closure provides strategic advantages to CSR stakeholders by rendering the concept of CSR adaptable, resilient, and meaningful to diverse interests. From this perspective, strategic ambiguity emerges from a relational and mediated process...

  19. On bosonization ambiguities of two dimensional quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, S.A.; Silva Neto, M.B.

    1996-02-01

    We study bosonization ambiguities in two dimensional quantum electrodynamics in the presence and in the absence of topologically charged gauge fields. The computation of fermionic correlation functions gives us a mechanism to fix the ambiguities in nontrivial topologies, provided that we do not allow changes of sector as we evaluate functional integrals. This removes an infinite arbitrariness from the theory. In the case of trivial topologies, we find upper and lower bounds for the Jackiw-Rajaraman parameter, corresponding to the limiting cases of regularizations which preserve gauge or chiral symmetry. (author). 19 refs.

  20. An Investigation of Syntactic Errors in Chinese Undergraduate EFL Learners’ Compositions: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meihua Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of syntactic errors in English essays composed by Chinese university students. Thirty undergraduate non-English majors across disciplines produced 90 essays on three tasks during eight weeks, and answered a self-developed questionnaire at the end of the course. Analyses of the data resulted in the following main findings: (1 Among the ten types of syntactic errors, errors in tense and voice were the most frequently occurring type of errors,  (2 the errors generally tended to decrease across tasks, (3 the syntactic errors of various categories were generally inversely correlated with the students’ writing performance, and (4 the errors were caused by diverse reasons, of which carelessness and the differences between Chinese and English were considered the most crucial.

  1. Syntactic comprehension and working memory in children with specific language impairment, autism or Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato-Tavares, Talita; Andrade, Claudia R F; Befi-Lopes, Debora; Limongi, Suelly O; Fernandes, Fernanda D M; Schwartz, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    This study examined syntactic assignment for predicates and reflexives as well as working memory effects in the sentence comprehension of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), Down syndrome (DS), high functioning Autism (HFA) and Typical Language Development (TLD). Fifty-seven children (35 boys and 22 girls) performed a computerised picture-selection sentence comprehension task. Predicate attachment and reflexive antecedent assignment (with working memory manipulations) were investigated. The results showed that SLI, HFA and DS children exhibited poorer overall performance than TLD children. Children with SLI exhibited similar performance to the DS and HFA children only when working memory demands were higher. We conclude that children with SLI, HFA and DS differ from children with TLD in their comprehension of predicate and reflexive structures where the knowledge of syntactic assignment is required. Working memory manipulation had different effects on syntactic comprehension depending on language disorder. Intelligence was not an explanatory factor for the differences observed in performance.

  2. Motivation Among Pre-intermediate Iranian Language Learners: From Explicit Knowledge Toward Implicit Syntactic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee Fazel, Amirabbas; Latifi, Mehdi; Moini, M Raouf

    2018-02-09

    The variable success in learning a second language (L2) may be best explained by varying degrees of motivation. This study investigated whether individual differences in appraisal dimensions of motivation explained explicit and implicit syntactic knowledge. Participants learned three syntactic structures under implicit and explicit training conditions. They also completed two motivation questionnaires before instruction. Syntactic development was assessed at early and late stages of acquisition. Results indicated superior performance on the tests of explicit knowledge, but a limited effect for the role of motivation in its development. However, with improvement in implicit knowledge at delayed testing, positive relationships emerged with several motivational dimensions. The results support L2 theoretical perspectives that posit different roles for explicit and implicit knowledge at early and late stages of L2 grammar, respectively. The findings also indicate that variation in learners' patterns of stimulus appraisals may contribute to variable success in the development of implicit knowledge.

  3. Normal and language-impaired children's use of reference: syntactic versus pragmatic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelletter, Christina; Leinonen, Eeva

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates children's syntactic and pragmatic processing when specifying referents presented in short video clips. Within Relevance theory, the assumption of 'optimal relevance' implies that utterances are intended to involve the least processing effort on the part of the listener. In the present context, lexically specified NPs are assumed to be more in line with optimal relevance than pronouns. Subjects were 48 normally developing children aged 3;4-8;10 and 30 SLI children aged 5;1-8;9, divided into a low and a normal MLU group. Children's responses were coded according to levels of pragmatic processing and syntactic positions. Normally developing children's referent specifications were found to be increasingly relevant with increasing age. Differences between SLI and normal children were only found for the low MLU group with SLI who used fewer pronouns than the younger children, thereby showing that syntactic limitations alone cannot account for children's specification of referents.

  4. Thai Language Sentence Similarity Computation Based on Syntactic Structure and Semantic Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Feng, Yinhan; Cheng, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Sentence similarity computation plays an increasingly important role in text mining, Web page retrieval, machine translation, speech recognition and question answering systems. Thai language as a kind of resources scarce language, it is not like Chinese language with HowNet and CiLin resources. So the Thai sentence similarity research faces some challenges. In order to solve this problem of the Thai language sentence similarity computation. This paper proposes a novel method to compute the similarity of Thai language sentence based on syntactic structure and semantic vector. This method firstly uses the Part-of-Speech (POS) dependency to calculate two sentences syntactic structure similarity, and then through the word vector to calculate two sentences semantic similarity. Finally, we combine the two methods to calculate two Thai language sentences similarity. The proposed method not only considers semantic, but also considers the sentence syntactic structure. The experiment result shows that this method in Thai language sentence similarity computation is feasible.

  5. Interfaces, syntactic movement, and neural activation: A new perspective on the implementation of language in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2008-01-01

    Studies of language deficits as well as neuroimaging studies indicate that syntactic processing of displaced constituents is implemented in the brain as a distributed cortical network of modules. The data from the present fMRI study on two types of syntactic movement in Danish offers further...

  6. Effect of Students' Term and Educational Institution on the Arising of Indonesian Morphology-Syntactical Interference in ELLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Dwi Astuti Wahyu; Djatmika; Santosa, Riyadi; Wiratno, Tri

    2017-01-01

    This research examines the two factors which effect on the raising of Indonesian morphology-syntactical interference. It aimed at delineating the potential effect of these two factors on the arising of Indonesian morphology-syntactical interference of undergraduate students majoring in English department of State Islamic Institute of Tulungagung…

  7. Cognitive Factors in the Choice of Syntactic Form by Aphasic and Normal Speakers of English and Japanese: The Speaker's Impulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menn, Lise; And Others

    This study examined the role of empathy in the choice of syntactic form and the degree of independence of pragmatic and syntactic abilities in a range of aphasic patients. Study 1 involved 9 English-speaking and 9 Japanese-speaking aphasic subjects with 10 English-speaking and 4 Japanese normal controls. Study 2 involved 14 English- and 6…

  8. Functional Elements in Infants' Speech Processing: The Role of Determiners in the Syntactic Categorization of Lexical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohle, Barbara; Weissenborn, Jurgen; Kiefer, Dorothea; Schulz, Antje; Schmitz, Michaela

    2004-01-01

    How do children determine the syntactic category of novel words? In this article we present the results of 2 experiments that investigated whether German children between 12 and 16 months of age can use distributional knowledge that determiners precede nouns and subject pronouns precede verbs to syntactically categorize adjacent novel words.…

  9. Lexical and Syntactic Representations in the Brain: An fMRI Investigation with Multi-Voxel Pattern Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Nieto-Castanon, Alfonso; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Work in theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics suggests that human linguistic knowledge forms a continuum between individual lexical items and abstract syntactic representations, with most linguistic representations falling between the two extremes and taking the form of lexical items stored together with the syntactic/semantic contexts in…

  10. Verbs and Syntactic Frames in Children's Elicited Actions: A Comparison of Tamil- and English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Nitya; Laakso, Aarre; Smith, Linda B.

    2011-01-01

    We directly compare children learning argument expressing and argument dropping languages on the use of verb meaning and syntactic cues, by examining enactments of transitive and intransitive verbs given in transitive and intransitive syntactic frames. Our results show similarities in the children's knowledge: (1) Children were somewhat less…

  11. Creation Myths of Generative Grammar and the Mathematics of Syntactic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, Geoffrey K.

    Syntactic Structures (Chomsky [6]) is widely believed to have laid the foundations of a cognitive revolution in linguistic science, and to have presented (i) the first use in linguistics of powerful new ideas regarding grammars as generative systems, (ii) a proof that English was not a regular language, (iii) decisive syntactic arguments against context-free phrase structure grammar description, and (iv) a demonstration of how transformational rules could provide a formal solution to those problems. None of these things are true. This paper offers a retrospective analysis and evaluation.

  12. Morality predicts enjoyment but not appreciation of morally ambiguous characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eden, A.; Daalmans, S.; Johnson, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the role of morally ambiguous characters such as anti-heroes in entertainment experiences has become a central concern for media researchers. Some have argued that different character schemas or tropes may vary along specific moral domains, whereas others promote a linear progression

  13. 122 A Lexico-Grammatical Interpretation of Ambiguity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Vanguard (June 17th). The ambiguity is both lexical and structural in the sense that looking at the lexical unit 'land' one could understand the expression in several ways such as: ▫ Surface of the earth that is not a sea. ▫ The area of grounds that somebody owns. ▫ Country or region in an emotional or imaginative way (e.g she.

  14. Ambiguity of the equivalence principle and Hawking's temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1984-01-01

    There are two inequivalent ways in which the laws of physics in a gravitational field can be related to the laws in an inertial frame, when quantum mechanical effects are taken into account. This leads to an ambiguity in the derivation of Hawking's radiation temperature for a black hole: it could be

  15. Is Multilingualism Linked to a Higher Tolerance of Ambiguity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWaele, Jean-Marc; Wei, Li

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the link between multilingualism and the personality trait Tolerance of Ambiguity (TA) among 2158 mono-, bi- and multilinguals. Monolinguals and bilinguals scored significantly lower on TA compared to multilinguals. A high level of global proficiency of various languages was linked to higher TA scores. A stay abroad…

  16. The ambiguity of simplicity in quantum and classical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina, E-mail: caghamohammadi@ucdavis.edu; Mahoney, John R., E-mail: jrmahoney@ucdavis.edu; Crutchfield, James P., E-mail: chaos@ucdavis.edu

    2017-04-11

    Highlights: • Simplicity depends on whether a system is represented classically or quantally. • We demonstrate that simplicity is unavoidably ambiguous. • Relative simplicity changes order moving between classical and quantum descriptions. • Ambiguity of simplicity bears directly on model selection. - Abstract: A system's perceived simplicity depends on whether it is represented classically or quantally. This is not so surprising, as classical and quantum physics are descriptive frameworks built on different assumptions that capture, emphasize, and express different properties and mechanisms. What is surprising is that, as we demonstrate, simplicity is ambiguous: the relative simplicity between two systems can change sign when moving between classical and quantum descriptions. Here, we associate simplicity with small model-memory. We see that the notions of absolute physical simplicity at best form a partial, not a total, order. This suggests that appeals to principles of physical simplicity, via Ockham's Razor or to the “elegance” of competing theories, may be fundamentally subjective. Recent rapid progress in quantum computation and quantum simulation suggest that the ambiguity of simplicity will strongly impact statistical inference and, in particular, model selection.

  17. Translation Ambiguity but Not Word Class Predicts Translation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Kroll, Judith F.; Macwhinney, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of word class and translation ambiguity on cross-linguistic representation and processing. Bilingual speakers of English and Spanish performed translation production and translation recognition tasks on nouns and verbs in both languages. Words either had a single translation or more than one translation. Translation…

  18. Neural Correlates of Semantic Competition during Processing of Ambiguous Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalia Y.; Grindrod, Christopher M.; Myers, Emily B.; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the neural correlates that underlie the processing of ambiguous words and the potential effects of semantic competition on that processing. Participants performed speeded lexical decisions on semantically related and unrelated prime-target pairs presented in the auditory modality. The primes were either ambiguous…

  19. Static vs Dynamic Auctions with Ambiguity Averse Bidders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper presents the outcome of a dynamic price-descending auction when the distribution of the private values is uncertain and bidders exhibit ambiguity aversion. In contrast to sealed-bid auctions, in open auctions the bidders get information about the other bidders' private values

  20. Resolving ambiguities in reconstructed grain maps using discrete tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alpers, A.; Knudsen, E.; Poulsen, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    reconstruct the image from diffraction data, but they are often unable to assign unambiguous values to all pixels. We present an approach that resolves these ambiguous pixels by using a Monte Carlo technique that exploits the discrete nature of the problem and utilizes proven methods of discrete tomography...

  1. Multitarget particle filter addressing ambiguous radar data in TBD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocquel, Melanie; Driessen, H.; Bagchi, Arunabha

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have addressed the problem of multiple target tracking in Track-Before-Detect (TBD) context using ambiguous Radar data. TBD is a method which uses raw measurement data, i.e. reflected target power, to track targets. Tracking can be defined as the estimation of the state of a moving

  2. A Mindfulness Experiential Small Group to Help Students Tolerate Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohecker, Lynn; Vereen, Linwood G.; Wells, Pamela C.; Wathen, Cristen C.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of 20 counselors-in-training (CITs) in a mindfulness experiential small group. Using grounded theory, the authors described a 5-dimensional model for navigating ambiguity. Findings suggest mindfulness training provides CITs self-reflection skills and a greater ability to manage cognitive complexity.

  3. Exploiting Network Topology Information to Mitigate Ambiguities in VMP Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2011-01-01

    We investigate an extension to the probabilistic model of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in the variational message passing localization algorithm. This extension exploits network topology information to mitigate ambiguities in WSN localization schemes. In a simulation case study we show that th...

  4. Sealed bid auctions with ambiguity: theory and experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.; Katuščák, Peter; Ozdenoren, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 1 (2007), s. 513-535 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : sealed bid auctions * ambiguity * experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.353, year: 2007

  5. Sealed bid auctions with ambiguity: an experimental study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.; Katuščák, Peter; Ozdenoren, E.

    -, č. 269 (2005), s. 1-75 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : sealed bid auctions * ambiguity * experiment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp269.pdf

  6. Doctoral Dissertation Defences: Performing Ambiguity between Ceremony and Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Arjen; Rufas, Alix; Supper, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Dissertation defenses are ambiguous affairs, which mark both the end of a long process of doctoral education and the inauguration of a doctoral candidate into a body of experts. At Maastricht University (and other Dutch universities), the decision to award a doctoral degree is made on the basis of

  7. Implicit perceptual memory modulates early visual processing of ambiguous images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maartje C.; Brascamp, Jan W.; Kemner, Chantal; van Ee, Raymond; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2014-01-01

    The way we perceive the present visual environment is influenced by past visual experiences. Here we investigated the neural basis of such experience dependency.Werepeatedly presentedhumanobservers with an ambiguous visual stimulus (structure-from-motion) that can give rise to two distinct

  8. How to Capture and Present Complexity, Ambivalence and Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Bakhtin was a literary theorist and was the widely acknowledged father of dialogism. This working paper shows how Bakhtin and dialogism can be used to capture complexity, ambivalence and ambiguity in the social world. In following the spirit of dialogism, I will refer to my own research experiences...

  9. Event ambiguity fuels the effective spread of rumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Zhang, Yi

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a new rumor spreading model which quantifies a specific rumor spreading feature is proposed. The specific feature focused on is the important role the event ambiguity plays in the rumor spreading process. To study the impact of this event ambiguity on the spread of rumors, the probability p(t) that an individual becomes a rumor spreader from an initially unaware person at time t is built. p(t) reflects the extent of event ambiguity, and a parameter c of p(t) is used to measure the speed at which the event moves from ambiguity to confirmation. At the same time, a principle is given to decide on the correct value for parameter c A rumor spreading model is then developed with this function added as a parameter to the traditional model. Then, several rumor spreading model simulations are conducted with different values for c on both regular networks and ER random networks. The simulation results indicate that a rumor spreads faster and more broadly when c is smaller. This shows that if events are ambiguous over a longer time, rumor spreading appears to be more effective, and is influenced more significantly by parameter c in a random network than in a regular network. We then determine parameters of this model through data fitting of the missing Malaysian plane, and apply this model to an analysis of the missing Malaysian plane. The simulation results demonstrate that the most critical time for authorities to control rumor spreading is in the early stages of a critical event.

  10. Coming to Grips with Ambiguity: Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry for Protein Quaternary Structure Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschweiler, Joseph D.; Frank, Aaron T.; Ruotolo, Brandon T.

    2017-10-01

    Multiprotein complexes are central to our understanding of cellular biology, as they play critical roles in nearly every biological process. Despite many impressive advances associated with structural characterization techniques, large and highly-dynamic protein complexes are too often refractory to analysis by conventional, high-resolution approaches. To fill this gap, ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) methods have emerged as a promising approach for characterizing the structures of challenging assemblies due in large part to the ability of these methods to characterize the composition, connectivity, and topology of large, labile complexes. In this Critical Insight, we present a series of bioinformatics studies aimed at assessing the information content of IM-MS datasets for building models of multiprotein structure. Our computational data highlights the limits of current coarse-graining approaches, and compelled us to develop an improved workflow for multiprotein topology modeling, which we benchmark against a subset of the multiprotein complexes within the PDB. This improved workflow has allowed us to ascertain both the minimal experimental restraint sets required for generation of high-confidence multiprotein topologies, and quantify the ambiguity in models where insufficient IM-MS information is available. We conclude by projecting the future of IM-MS in the context of protein quaternary structure assignment, where we predict that a more complete knowledge of the ultimate information content and ambiguity within such models will undoubtedly lead to applications for a broader array of challenging biomolecular assemblies. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. The Influence of Mood on the Processing of Syntactic Anomalies: Evidence from P600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; Virgillito, Daniele; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Speckens, Anne E. M.; Tendolkar, Indira; van Oostrom, Iris; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2010-01-01

    In several domains of psychology it has been shown that mood influences the way in which we process information. So far, little is known about the relation between mood and processes of language comprehension. In the present study we explore, whether, and if so how, mood affects the processing of syntactic anomalies in real time by recording…

  12. Cognitive Disorders and Syntactical Deficiencies in the Inmate Populations of Federal Penitentiaries in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, P. R. S.

    A study examined cognitive disorders and syntactical deficiencies in the inmate populations of federal penitentiaries in Canada. The focus of the study was on the relationship between language development and cognitive ability. During the study, a total of 240 inmates from prisons throughout Canada were given hour-long interviews in which they…

  13. The Effect of Syntactic Constraints on the Processing of Backwards Anaphora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanina, Nina; Lau, Ellen F.; Lieberman, Moti; Yoshida, Masaya; Phillips, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents three studies that investigate when syntactic constraints become available during the processing of long-distance backwards pronominal dependencies ("backwards anaphora" or "cataphora"). Earlier work demonstrated that in such structures the parser initiates an active search for an antecedent for a pronoun, leading to gender…

  14. How are functionally similar code clones syntactically different? An empirical study and a benchmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wagner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Today, redundancy in source code, so-called “clones” caused by copy&paste can be found reliably using clone detection tools. Redundancy can arise also independently, however, not caused by copy&paste. At present, it is not clear how only functionally similar clones (FSC differ from clones created by copy&paste. Our aim is to understand and categorise the syntactical differences in FSCs that distinguish them from copy&paste clones in a way that helps clone detection research. Methods. We conducted an experiment using known functionally similar programs in Java and C from coding contests. We analysed syntactic similarity with traditional detection tools and explored whether concolic clone detection can go beyond syntax. We ran all tools on 2,800 programs and manually categorised the differences in a random sample of 70 program pairs. Results. We found no FSCs where complete files were syntactically similar. We could detect a syntactic similarity in a part of the files in <16% of the program pairs. Concolic detection found 1 of the FSCs. The differences between program pairs were in the categories algorithm, data structure, OO design, I/O and libraries. We selected 58 pairs for an openly accessible benchmark representing these categories. Discussion. The majority of differences between functionally similar clones are beyond the capabilities of current clone detection approaches. Yet, our benchmark can help to drive further clone detection research.

  15. Syntactic flexibility and planning scope: the effect of verb bias on advance planning during sentence recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, M. van de; Meyer, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    In sentence production, grammatical advance planning scope depends on contextual factors (e.g., time pressure), linguistic factors (e.g., ease of structural processing), and cognitive factors (e.g., production speed). The present study tests the influence of the availability of multiple syntactic

  16. ERP evidence for on-line syntactic computations in 2-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Brusini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Syntax allows human beings to build an infinite number of sentences from a finite number of words. How this unique, productive power of human language unfolds over the course of language development is still hotly debated. When they listen to sentences comprising newly-learned words, do children generalize from their knowledge of the legal combinations of word categories or do they instead rely on strings of words stored in memory to detect syntactic errors? Using novel words taught in the lab, we recorded Evoked Response Potentials (ERPs in two-year-olds and adults listening to grammatical and ungrammatical sentences containing syntactic contexts that had not been used during training. In toddlers, the ungrammatical use of words, even when they have been just learned, induced an early left anterior negativity (surfacing 100–400 ms after target word onset followed by a late posterior positivity (surfacing 700–900 ms after target word onset that was not observed in grammatical sentences. This late effect was remarkably similar to the P600 displayed by adults, suggesting that toddlers and adults perform similar syntactic computations. Our results thus show that toddlers build on-line expectations regarding the syntactic category of upcoming words in a sentence.

  17. How Syntactic Reasoners Can Develop Understanding, Evaluate Conjectures, and Generate Counterexamples in Advanced Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a highly successful student whose exploration of an advanced mathematical concept relies predominantly on syntactic reasoning, such as developing formal representations of mathematical ideas and making logical deductions. This student is observed as he learns a new mathematical concept and then completes…

  18. Syntactic predictability in the recognition of carefully and casually produced speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viebahn, Malte C; Ernestus, Mirjam; McQueen, James M

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated whether the recognition of spoken words is influenced by how predictable they are given their syntactic context and whether listeners assign more weight to syntactic predictability when acoustic-phonetic information is less reliable. Syntactic predictability was manipulated by varying the word order of past participles and auxiliary verbs in Dutch subordinate clauses. Acoustic-phonetic reliability was manipulated by presenting sentences either in a careful or a casual speaking style. In 3 eye-tracking experiments, participants recognized past participles more quickly when they occurred after their associated auxiliary verbs than when they preceded them. Response measures tapping into later stages of processing suggested that this effect was stronger for casually than for carefully produced sentences. These findings provide further evidence that syntactic predictability can influence word recognition and that this type of information is particularly useful for coping with acoustic-phonetic reductions in conversational speech. We conclude that listeners dynamically adapt to the different sources of linguistic information available to them. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. How executive functions predict development in syntactic complexity of narrative writing in the upper elementary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijbooms, E.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of transcription skills, oral language skills, and executive functions to growth in narrative writing between fourth and sixth grade. While text length and story content of narratives did not increase with age, syntactic complexity of narratives

  20. SYNTACTIC DEFICIT IN CIDLDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT IN SLOVENE LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinka GROBLER

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is the research of specificlanguage impairments as manifested inSlovene language. The research focuses on languageprocessing in order to determine syntactic,deficit.It has been predicted, that SLI children will meetwith difficulties in the language of all elements thatmark syntactic dependency.The research has been carried out on a sample of 71children with SLI and of 71 children with normallanguage development, all pupils from first tofourth grade of primary school. The children fromboth groups were matched by sex, socio-economicstatus and school environment.This study presents an analysis of repetitions of tensentences designed in such way that some syntacticelements have been varied.The variables of language processing and those ofmorpho syntactic command were obtained from theelicited repetition task (including different syntacticallycomplex structures.The results show, that SLI children use certainstructure less frequently than age controls and thatthere are not only statistically important differencesin the majority of the sentences with differentsyntactic complexity, but also that the tasks appliedcan differentiate specific language impairments aswell. The research has put up some syntactic deficitof SLI in Slovene language as they can be identifiedby means of targeted sentences.In syntax, children with SLI have problemswith depended relations, with languageprocessing and structuring of coordinate andsubordinate clauses and also in the simplesentences. Furthermore, they have problems withsubject-predicate agreement and, when they repeatsentences, with coordinate elements.

  1. Syntactic Awareness and Arithmetic Word Problem Solving in Children with and without Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Christian; Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Bisschop, Elaine; Villarroel, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Arithmetic word problem (AWP) solving is a highly demanding task for children with learning disabilities (LD) since verbal and mathematical information have to be integrated. This study examines specifically how syntactic awareness (SA), the ability to manage the grammatical structures of language, affects AWP solving. Three groups of children in…

  2. Lexical, morphological, and syntactic aspects of verb production in agrammatic aphasics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.; Hugen, J.; Kos, M; van Zonneveld, R.M.

    Agrammatic aphasics do not exhibit a normal pattern of verb production their spontaneous speech is said to lack verbs, and the verbs that are produced lack inflection. The Current article focuses on the lexical. morphological, and syntactic aspects of verbs in spontaneous speech of a group of Dutch

  3. When one person's mistake is another's standard usage: The effect of foreign accent on syntactic processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanuliková, A.; Alphen, P.M. van; Goch, M.M. van; Weber, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    How do native listeners process grammatical errors that are frequent in non-native speech? We investigated whether the neural correlates of syntactic processing are modulated by speaker identity. ERPs to gender agreement errors in sentences spoken by a native speaker were compared with the same

  4. Syntactic Structure and Information Structure: The Acquisition of Portuguese Clefts and "Be"-Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Maria; Santos, Ana Lúcia; Soares-Jesel, Carla

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of different types of clefts and of "be"-fragments in European Portuguese. We first present the main syntactic and discourse properties of different cleft structures and of "be"-fragments in European Portuguese, and we discuss how data from first language acquisition may contribute to…

  5. THE SYNTACTIC STRUCTURES OF 5-YEAR-OLD CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OSSER, HARRY

    THIS STUDY WAS MADE IN AN ATTEMPT TO DISCOVER HOW MUCH ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULATION IS NECESSARY FOR NORMAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN. THROUGH ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMER, THE SYNTACTIC STRUCTURES OF TWENTY 5-YEAR-OLD CULTURALLY DEPRIVED NEGRO CHILDREN IN BALTIMORE WERE COMPARED TO THOSE OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS WHITE NURSERY SCHOOL…

  6. The efficacy of form-focused instruction on the syntactic accuracy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores whether a short one semester course in form-focused instruction helps improve the syntactic accuracy in the written work of second language students of English at the University of Port Elizabeth (UPE). The article describes research which combines quantitative and qualitative methodology.

  7. Syntactic Functions in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar: An Evaluative Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the treatment of syntactic functions, and more particularly those traditionally labelled as Subject and Object, in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar. Relevant aspects of the overall structure of the two theories are briefly described. The concept of alignment between levels of the…

  8. From high heels to weed attics: a syntactic investigation of chick lit and literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jautze, K.J.; Koolen, C.W.; van Cranenburgh, Andreas; de Jong, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Stylometric analysis of prose is typically limited to classification tasks such as authorship attribution. Since the models used are typically black boxes, they give little insight into the stylistic diff erences they detect. In this paper, we characterize two prose genres syntactically: chick lit

  9. Reading Comprehension Mediates the Relationship between Syntactic Awareness and Writing Composition in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to explore the relation between syntactic awareness and writing composition in 129 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children were from a ten-year longitudinal project. At each year, a number of measures were administered. The 129 children's data of nonverbal reasoning at age 4, phonological awareness, morphological awareness,…

  10. Discourse-Level Reading Comprehension in Chinese Children: What Is the Role of Syntactic Awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; Shu, Hua; Chan, Shingfong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between syntactic awareness and discourse-level reading comprehension in 136 Hong Kong Chinese children. These children, aged 11, from a longitudinal study, were administered a set of cognitive and linguistic measures. Partial correlational analyses showed that children's performances in two…

  11. How the brain solves the binding problem for language: A neurocomputational model of syntactic processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagoort, P.

    2003-01-01

    Syntax is one of the components in the architecture of language processing that allows the listener/reader to bind single-word information into a unified interpretation of multiword utterances. This paper discusses ERP effects that have been observed in relation to syntactic processing. The fact

  12. Novel syntactic foams made of ceramic hollow micro-spheres and starch: theory, structure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M.; Kim, H.S. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Engineering & Built Environments

    2007-08-15

    Novel syntactic foams for potential building material applications were developed using starch as binder and ceramic hollow micro-spheres available as waste from coal-fired power stations. Foams of four different micro-sphere size groups were manufactured with either pre- or post-mould gelatinization process. They were of ternary system including voids with a foam density range of approximately 0.33-0.44 g/cc. Compressive failure behaviour and mechanical properties of the manufactured foams were evaluated. Not much difference in failure behaviour or in mechanical properties between the two different processes (pre- and post-mould gels) was found for a given binder content. Compressive failure of all syntactic foams was of shear on plane inclined 45 degrees to compressive loading direction. Failure surfaces of most syntactic foams were characterized by debonded micro-spheres. Compressive strength and modulus of syntactic foams were found to be dependant mainly on binder content but mostly independent of micro-sphere size. Some conditions of relativity arising from properties of constituents leading to the rule of mixtures relationships for compressive strength and to understanding of compressive/transitional failure behaviour were developed. The developed relationships based on the rule of mixtures were partially verified. Some formation of starch webs on failure surfaces was discussed.

  13. The effects of syntactic and lexical complexity on the comprehension of elementary science texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J. Arya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the effects of syntactic and lexical complexity on third-grade students' comprehension of science texts. A total of 16 expository texts were designed to represent systematic differences in levels of syntactic and lexical complexity across four science-related topics (Tree Frogs, Soil, Jelly Beans and Toothpaste. A Latin-square design was used to counterbalance the order of administration of these 16 texts. After reading each text, students responded to a post-test comprehension measure (without access to the text. External measures of reading achievement and prior vocabulary knowledge were also gathered to serve as control variables. Findings show that lexical complexity had a significant impact on students' comprehension on two of the four topics. Comprehension performance was not influenced by the syntactic complexity of texts, regardless of topic. Further, no additional effects were found for English language learners. Potentially moderating and confounding issues, such as the inference demand of syntactically simple texts and the role of topic familiarity, are discussed in order to explain the inconsistency of the findings across topics.

  14. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  15. Understanding How Syntactic Awareness Contributes to Reading Comprehension: Evidence from Mediation and Longitudinal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Kieffer, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The authors tested theoretically driven predictions as to the ways in which syntactic awareness, or awareness of word order within sentences, might contribute to reading comprehension, the end goal of reading development and instruction. They conducted a longitudinal study of 100 English-speaking children followed from Grade 3 to 4. Children…

  16. Morphological and Syntactic Awareness in Poor Comprehenders: Another Piece of the Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Deacon, S. Hélène; Cain, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Poor comprehenders have intact word-reading skills but struggle specifically with understanding what they read. We investigated whether two metalinguistic skills, morphological and syntactic awareness, are specifically related to poor reading comprehension by including separate and combined measures of each. We identified poor comprehenders…

  17. Literature Review: An Overview of Epoxy Resin Syntactic Foams with Glass Microballoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jennie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-12

    Syntactic foams are an important category of composite materials that have abundant applications in a wide variety of fields. The bulk phase of syntactic foams is a three-part epoxy resin formulation that consists of a base resin, a curative (curing agent) and a modifier (diluent and/or accelerator) [12]. These thermoset materials [12] are used frequently for their thermal stability [9], low moisture absorption and high compressive strength [10]. The characteristic feature of a syntactic foam is a network of beads that forms pores within the epoxy matrix [3]. In this review, hollow glass beads (known as glass microballoons) are considered, however, solid beads or microballoons made from materials such as ceramic, polymer or metal can also be used [3M, Peter]. The network of hollow beads forms a closed-cell foam; the term closed-cell comes from the fact that the microspheres used in the resin matrix are completely closed and filled with gas (termed hollow). In contrast, the microspheres used in open-cell foams are either not completely closed or broken so that matrix material can fill the spheres [11]. Although closed foams have been found to possess higher densities than open cell foams, their rigid structures give them superior mechanical properties [12]. Past research has extensively studied the effects that changing the volume fraction of microballoons to epoxy will have on the resulting syntactic foam [3,4,9]. In addition, published literature also explores how the microballoon wall thickness affects the final product [4,9,10]. Findings detail that indeed both the mechanical and some thermal properties of syntactic foams can be tailored to a specific application by varying either the volume fraction or the wall thickness of the microballoons used [10]. The major trends in syntactic foam research show that microballoon volume fraction has an inversely proportionate relationship to dynamic properties, while microballoon wall thickness is proportional to those

  18. Syntactic features in reanalysis: positive and negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, J D; Inoue, A

    2000-01-01

    Meng and Bader have presented evidence that a Case conflict is a more effective cue for garden-path reanalysis than a number conflict is, for German wh-sentences with subject-object ambiguities. The preferred first-pass analysis has the wh-trace in subject position, although object position is correct. In a speeded grammaticality judgment task, perceivers accepted Case-disambiguated examples more often and more rapidly than number-disambiguated examples, although comprehension questions indicated that both were eventually understood correctly. For ungrammatical sentences, a Case mismatch error resulted in more false positive grammaticality judgments than a number mismatch error. We offer an explanation for why Case and number features differ in these two ways in their effects on sentence processing. We propose, within the Diagnosis Model of garden-path processing, that reanalysis triggered by a Case mismatch guides the parser more effectively toward the correct structure. Case is a positive symptom, which carries information about the new structure that must be built. By contrast, a number mismatch is a negative symptom; it invalidates the incorrect structure without showing how to rebuild it. This difference in the transparency of garden-path repair can also account for the greater overacceptance of Case-disambiguated ungrammatical sentences. The speeded grammaticality judgment task is designed to encourage hasty responses. Usually, these are hasty rejections of garden path sentences that, on calmer reflection, the parser would find acceptable. Conversely, over-hasty acceptance could occur if some initial progress is made in resolving a grammatical problem. Thus, a higher rate of false positives on ungrammaticals is to be expected where reanalysis proceeds successfully for a while before blocking.

  19. 'Syntactic perturbation' during production activates the right IFG, but not Broca’s area or the ATL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eMatchin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the neural organization of syntax – the core structure-building component of language – has focused on Broca’s area and the anterior temporal lobe (ATL as the chief candidates for syntactic processing. However, these proposals have received considerable challenges. In order to better understand the neural basis of syntactic processing, we performed an fMRI experiment using a constrained sentence production task. We examined the BOLD response to sentence production for active and passive sentences, unstructured word lists, and syntactic perturbation. Perturbation involved cued restructuring of the planned syntax of a sentence mid utterance. Perturbation was designed to capture the effects of syntactic violations previously studied in sentence comprehension. Our experiment showed that Broca’s area and the ATL did not exhibit response profiles consistent with syntactic operations – we found no increase of activation in these areas for sentences > lists and perturbation. Syntactic perturbation activated a cortical-subcortical network including robust activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG. This network is similar to one previously shown to be involved in motor response inhibition. We hypothesize that RIFG activation in our study and in previous studies of sentence comprehension is due to an inhibition mechanism that may facilitate efficient syntactic restructuring.

  20. The role of nondeclarative memory in the skill for language: Evidence from syntactic priming in patients with amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyselaar, Evelien; Segaert, Katrien; Walvoort, Serge J W; Kessels, Roy P C; Hagoort, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Syntactic priming, the phenomenon in which participants adopt the linguistic behaviour of their partner, is widely used in psycholinguistics to investigate syntactic operations. Although the phenomenon of syntactic priming is well documented, the memory system that supports the retention of this syntactic information long enough to influence future utterances, is not as widely investigated. We aim to shed light on this issue by assessing patients with Korsakoff's amnesia on an active-passive syntactic priming task and compare their performance to controls matched in age, education, and premorbid intelligence. Patients with Korsakoff's syndrome display deficits in all subdomains of declarative memory, yet their nondeclarative memory remains intact, making them an ideal patient group to determine which memory system supports syntactic priming. In line with the hypothesis that syntactic priming relies on nondeclarative memory, the patient group shows strong priming tendencies (12.6% passive structure repetition). Our healthy control group did not show a priming tendency, presumably due to cognitive interference between declarative and nondeclarative memory. We discuss the results in relation to amnesia, aging, and compensatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. From Ambiguity to Deceptiveness: the Case of Hybrid since- Subordinates in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte GUILLAUME

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lorsqu’il est utilisé en tant que subordonnant, since peut introduire une subordonnée circonstancielle de temps ou bien de cause. Cet article s’intéresse aux cas dans lesquels une telle polysémie au niveau du subordonnant déclenche une ambiguïté quant à la nature temporelle ou causale de l’utilisation de la subordonnée. En plus du recours au contexte endophorique ou exophorique, nous proposons des critères syntaxiques de désambigüisation, mis au jour grâce à l’étude d’un corpus de près de cinq cent exemples pris dans le British National Corpus, un corpus d’anglais contemporain de cent millions de mots. En dépit de tout cela, une petite minorité d’exemples reste inclassable, remplissant ainsi les conditions pour être considérés comme « hybrides » en fonction de la définition que nous en proposons, à savoir des subordonnées permettant de remettre en cause la division traditionnelle entre les catégories de subordonnées en anglais, dans la mesure où ils possèdent au moins une caractéristique déviante par rapport à la catégorie à laquelle ils semblent appartenir en fonction de tous leurs autres traits. De tels phénomènes rendent nécessaires la prise en compte d’un « reste », selon la terminologie de Jean-Jacques Lecercle, dans la grammaire d’une langue donnée.When since is used as a subordinator,it can introduce either a temporal adverbial clause or a causal one. My purpose in this paper is to study cases in which such a polysemy at the level of the subordinator results in the production of subordinates whose meaning proves to be ambiguous between the categories of time and cause. In addition to the taking into account of the context, whether exophoric or endophoric, I put forward a series of syntactic criteria which should help disambiguate between the two possible interpretations. These are based on the study of the characteristics of nearly five-hundred examples of since- clauses taken

  2. Syntactic bootstrapping in children with Down syndrome: the impact of bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Patricia L; Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to add to our knowledge of bilingual learning in children with Down syndrome (DS) using a syntactic bootstrapping task. Four groups of children and youth matched on non-verbal mental age participated. There were 14 bilingual participants with DS (DS-B, mean age 12;5), 12 monolingual participants with DS (DS-M, mean age 10;10), 9 bilingual typically developing children (TD-B; mean age 4;1) and 11 monolingual typically developing children (TD-M; mean age 4;1). The participants completed a computerized syntactic bootstrapping task involving unfamiliar nouns and verbs. The syntactic cues employed were a for the nouns and ing for the verbs. Performance was better on nouns than verbs. There was also a main effect for group. Follow-up t-tests revealed that there were no significant differences between the TD-M and TD-B or between the DS-M and DS-B groups. However, the DS-M group performed more poorly than the TD-M group with a large effect size. Analyses at the individual level revealed a similar pattern of results. There was evidence that Down syndrome impacted performance; there was no evidence that bilingualism negatively affected the syntactic bootstrapping skills of individuals with DS. These results from a dynamic language task are consistent with those of previous studies that used static or product measures. Thus, the results are consistent with the position that parents should be supported in their decision to provide bilingual input to their children with DS. Readers of this article will identify (1) research evidence regarding bilingual development in children with Down syndrome and (2) syntactic bootstrapping skills in monolingual and bilingual children who are typically developing or who have Down syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Generating predictions: lesion evidence on the role of left inferior frontal cortex in rapid syntactic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakuszeit, Maria; Kotz, Sonja A; Hasting, Anna S

    2013-01-01

    A well-documented phenomenon in event-related electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies on language processing is that syntactic violations of different types elicit negativities as early as 100 msec after the violation point. Recently, these responses have been associated with activations in or very close to sensory cortices, suggesting the involvement of basic sensory mechanisms in the detection of syntactic violations. The present study investigated whether intact auditory cortices and adjacent temporal regions are sufficient to generate early syntactic negativities in the auditory event-related potential (ERP). We tested ten clinically non-aphasic patients with left inferior frontal lesions, but intact temporal cortices in a passive auditory ERP paradigm that had reliably elicited early negativities in response to violations of subject-verb agreement and word category in the past. Subject-verb agreement violations failed to elicit early grammaticality effects in these patients, whereas a group of ten age-matched controls showed a reliable early negativity. This finding supports the idea that sensory aspects of syntactic analysis as reflected in early syntactic negativities critically depend on top-down predictions generated by the left inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, word category violations elicited a small, marginally significant early negativity both in controls and patients, suggesting an additional involvement of temporal regions in early phrase structure processing. In an additional auditory oddball experiment patients showed a regular P300, but no N2b component in response to deviant tones, indicating that their deficit in generating sensory predictions extends beyond the language domain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of weight and syntactic priming on the production of cantonese verb-doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Elaine J; Matthews, Stephen; Wong, Reace Wing Yan; Kwan, Stella Wing Man

    2011-02-01

    Verb-doubling, where a copy of the main verb occurs both before and after the direct object, is a structure commonly used in Chinese in sentences containing a frequency or duration phrase. In Cantonese, verb-doubling is highly optional and therefore problematic for existing syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic accounts of its distribution in Mandarin. The current study investigates the role of grammatical weight and syntactic priming in the choice of verb-doubling in Cantonese. Following (Hawkins in Efficiency and complexity in grammars, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004) theory of efficiency and complexity in grammars, we hypothesized that speakers would choose verb-doubling over the canonical structure more often when the object NP was heavy, in order to minimize processing domains. In addition, we expected an effect of syntactic priming whereby the choice of structure is influenced by a previously encountered structure. The results of two elicited production experiments revealed no weight-based preference for verb-doubling, and only minor effects of grammatical weight, but clear effects of syntactic priming: (1) for both canonical primes and verb-doubling primes, speakers tended to repeat previously heard structures; (2) the priming effect was just as strong in the heavy NP condition, where speakers made more errors recalling the semantic content of the sentence, suggesting that semantic information is represented separately from syntactic information; (3) the priming effect was stronger for informationally accurate responses, suggesting that recently activated structures are easier to produce than other structures under conditions of increased cognitive load. We conclude that the choice between verb-doubling and canonical structure in Cantonese is easily influenced by the structure of recently encountered sentences, with weight effects, if any, being more difficult to detect.

  5. Interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes in the perception of ambiguous figures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Intaite, Monika; Noreika, Valdas; Soliunas, Alvydas; Falter, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Ambiguous figures reverse their appearance during prolonged viewing and can be perceived in two (or more) available interpretations. Both physical stimulus manipulations and cognitive control influence the perception of ambiguous figures, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In

  6. United we sense, divided we fail: context-driven perception of ambiguous visual stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, P. C; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; van Ee, R.

    2012-01-01

    Ambiguous visual stimuli provide the brain with sensory information that contains conflicting evidence for multiple mutually exclusive interpretations. Two distinct aspects of the phenomenological experience associated with viewing ambiguous visual stimuli are the apparent stability of perception

  7. Lexical and syntactic representations in the brain: An fMRI investigation with multi-voxel pattern analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Work in theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics suggests that human linguistic knowledge forms a continuum between individual lexical items and abstract syntactic representations, with most linguistic representations falling between the two extremes and taking the form of lexical items stored together with the syntactic/semantic contexts in which they frequently occur. Neuroimaging evidence further suggests that no brain region is selectively sensitive to only lexical information or only syntactic information. Instead, all the key brain regions that support high-level linguistic processing have been implicated in both lexical and syntactic processing, suggesting that our linguistic knowledge is plausibly represented in a distributed fashion in these brain regions. Given this distributed nature of linguistic representations, multi-voxel pattern analyses (MVPAs) can help uncover important functional properties of the language system. In the current study we use MVPAs to ask two questions: 1) Do language brain regions differ in how robustly they represent lexical vs. syntactic information?; and 2) Do any of the language bran regions distinguish between “pure” lexical information (lists of words) and “pure” abstract syntactic information (jabberwocky sentences) in the pattern of activity? We show that lexical information is represented more robustly than syntactic information across many language regions (with no language region showing the opposite pattern), as evidenced by a better discrimination between conditions that differ along the lexical dimension (sentences vs. jabberwocky, and word lists vs. nonword lists) than between conditions that differ along the syntactic dimension (sentences vs. word lists, and jabberwocky vs. nonword lists). This result suggests that lexical information may play a more critical role than syntax in the representation of linguistic meaning. We also show that several language regions reliably discriminate between

  8. Ambiguity of care in the experience of drug consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Araújo, Mitze Lopes; Ribeiro, Bárbara Santos; Santos, Vanessa Thamyris Carvalho Dos; Malhado, Sâmia de Carliris Barbosa; Soares, Carine de Jesus; Carvalho, Patrícia Anjos Lima de

    2017-07-20

    To understand the perception of users of a Psychosocial Care Center about care in the context of drug use. Study based on the Phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, developed in the Center for Psychosocial Care Alcohol and Other Drugs. The data has been submitted to the Analytical Technique of Ambiguity. The drug use sometimes provides the consumer with pleasurable feelings, sometimes contributing to the occurrence of biopsychosocial harm and/or new possibilities for relationship with the drug. The drug use is an ambiguous process, which corresponds to the perception of different care profiles in the relationship between the consumer and the drug. It is up to the health professionals to recognize the diverse possibilities of care and to favor the construction of therapeutic projects based on listening and respecting the needs of drug users.

  9. Ambiguity as an Essential Aesthetic Principle in Musical Listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders

    2006-01-01

    ’, ‘interlocking’, and ‘synthesis’ (Cone, 1962: 19f), to Jonathan Kramer’s accentuation of discontinuity as a ‘profound musical experience’ with the ‘proportional lengths of moments as the one remaining principle of formal coherence’ (Kramer, 1978: 182). Though, the general attempt to reveal the music’s ‘secret...... connections’ in the ‘disguise’ of discontinuity implies an either-or viewpoint, which tends to overlook the fact that the musical progression suggests mutually contradistinctive impressions and, as such, is essentially ambiguous. Thus, in this paper it is not my intention to assert that the Symphonies...... in truth is continuous, if we only expand our musical thought beyond a superficial examination. Rather, I want to emphasize the assumption that the important musical experience is to be found in the ambiguity itself, caused by an aporetic relation between the apparent discontinuous gestures...

  10. Context sensitivity and ambiguity in component-based systems design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bespalko, S.J.; Sindt, A.

    1997-10-01

    Designers of components-based, real-time systems need to guarantee to correctness of soft-ware and its output. Complexity of a system, and thus the propensity for error, is best characterized by the number of states a component can encounter. In many cases, large numbers of states arise where the processing is highly dependent on context. In these cases, states are often missed, leading to errors. The following are proposals for compactly specifying system states which allow the factoring of complex components into a control module and a semantic processing module. Further, the need for methods that allow for the explicit representation of ambiguity and uncertainty in the design of components is discussed. Presented herein are examples of real-world problems which are highly context-sensitive or are inherently ambiguous.

  11. Portfolio Management with Stochastic Interest Rates and Inflation Ambiguity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Claus; Rubtsov, Alexey Vladimirovich

    We solve a stock-bond-cash portfolio choice problem for a risk- and ambiguity-averse investor in a setting where the inflation rate and interest rates are stochastic. The expected inflation rate is unobservable, but the investor may learn about it from realized inflation and observed stock and bond...... prices. The investor is aware that his model for the observed inflation is potentially misspecified, and he seeks an investment strategy that maximizes his expected utility from real terminal wealth and is also robust to inflation model misspecification. We solve the corresponding robust Hamilton......-Jacobi-Bellman equation in closed form and derive and illustrate a number of interesting properties of the solution. For example, ambiguity aversion affects the optimal portfolio through the correlation of price level with the stock index, a bond, and the expected inflation rate. Furthermore, unlike other settings...

  12. Fundamental Limits of Blind Deconvolution Part I: Ambiguity Kernel

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Sunav; Mitra, Urbashi

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is an ubiquitous non-linear inverse problem in applications like wireless communications and image processing. This problem is generally ill-posed, and there have been efforts to use sparse models for regularizing blind deconvolution to promote signal identifiability. Part I of this two-part paper characterizes the ambiguity space of blind deconvolution and shows unidentifiability of this inverse problem for almost every pair of unconstrained input signals. The approach in...

  13. Decision making and ambiguity in auditory stream segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann eDeike

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers of auditory stream segregation have largely taken a bottom-up view on the link between physical stimulus parameters and the perceptual organization of sequences of ABAB sounds. However, in the majority of studies, researchers have relied on the reported decisions of the subjects regarding which of the predefined percepts (e.g., one stream or two streams predominated when subjects listened to more or less ambiguous streaming sequences. When searching for neuronal mechanisms of stream segregation, it should be kept in mind that such decision processes may contribute to brain activation, as also suggested by recent human imaging data. The present study proposes that the uncertainty of a subject in making a decision about the perceptual organization of ambiguous streaming sequences may be reflected in the time required to make an initial decision. To this end, subjects had to decide on their current percept while listening to ABAB auditory streaming sequences. Each sequence had a duration of 30 s and was composed of A and B harmonic tone complexes differing in fundamental frequency (∆F. Sequences with seven different ∆F were tested. We found that the initial decision time varied non-monotonically with ∆F and that it was significantly correlated with the degree of perceptual ambiguity defined from the proportions of time the subjects reported a one-stream or a two-stream percept subsequent to the first decision. This strong relation of the proposed measures of decision uncertainty and perceptual ambiguity should be taken into account when searching for neural correlates of auditory stream segregation.

  14. Dual Multi-Targets Tracking for Ambiguities' Identification and Solving

    OpenAIRE

    MAGNIER, Valentin; GRUYER, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new algorithm for multi-targets tracking for roadway environment is proposed. This new approach is based on two parallel tracking stages. Its objective is to improve associations between targets and tracks by avoiding wrong associations which can cause errors on track's path determination. Another interesting point of the proposed approach lies in the fact that the two trackings stages are operated together only when association ambiguities are detected. Otherwise, only one tr...

  15. Representation and productive ambiguity in mathematics and the sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Grosholz, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    Emily Grosholz offers an original investigation of demonstration in mathematics and science, examining how it works and why it is persuasive. Focusing on geometrical demonstration, she shows the roles that representation and ambiguity play in mathematical discovery. She presents a wide range of case studies in mechanics, topology, algebra, logic, and chemistry, from ancient Greece to the present day, but focusing particularly on the seventeenth and twentieth centuries. Anyone interested in how mathematics works will find this a stimulating read.

  16. Cross-linguistic scope ambiguity: When two systems meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Scontras

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurately recognizing and resolving ambiguity is a hallmark of linguistic ability. English is a language with scope ambiguities in doubly-quantified sentences like 'A shark ate every pirate'; this sentence can either describe a scenario with a single shark eating all of the pirates, or a scenario with many sharks—a potentially-different one eating each pirate. In Mandarin Chinese, the corresponding sentence is unambiguous, as it can only describe the single-shark scenario. We present experimental evidence to this effect, comparing native speakers of English with native speakers of Mandarin in their interpretations of doubly-quantified sentences. Having demonstrated the difference between these two languages in their ability for inverse scope interpretations, we then probe the robustness of the grammar of scope by extending our experiments to English-dominant adult heritage speakers of Mandarin. Like native speakers of Mandarin, heritage Mandarin speakers lack inverse scope in Mandarin. Crucially, these speakers also lack inverse scope in English, their dominant language in adulthood. We interpret these results as evidence for the pressure to simplify the grammar of scope, decreasing ambiguity when possible. In other words, when two systems meet—as in the case of heritage speakers—the simpler system prevails. This article is part of the special collection: Quantifier Scope

  17. Visual working memory contents bias ambiguous structure from motion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Scocchia

    Full Text Available The way we perceive the visual world depends crucially on the state of the observer. In the present study we show that what we are holding in working memory (WM can bias the way we perceive ambiguous structure from motion stimuli. Holding in memory the percept of an unambiguously rotating sphere influenced the perceived direction of motion of an ambiguously rotating sphere presented shortly thereafter. In particular, we found a systematic difference between congruent dominance periods where the perceived direction of the ambiguous stimulus corresponded to the direction of the unambiguous one and incongruent dominance periods. Congruent dominance periods were more frequent when participants memorized the speed of the unambiguous sphere for delayed discrimination than when they performed an immediate judgment on a change in its speed. The analysis of dominance time-course showed that a sustained tendency to perceive the same direction of motion as the prior stimulus emerged only in the WM condition, whereas in the attention condition perceptual dominance dropped to chance levels at the end of the trial. The results are explained in terms of a direct involvement of early visual areas in the active representation of visual motion in WM.

  18. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hung Jung.

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by μ 2 ∼ Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 where Q min 2 Q med 2 /Q max 2 are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed

  19. Teaching weight to explicitly address language ambiguities and conceptual difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibu, Rex; Schuster, David; Rudge, David

    2017-06-01

    Language ambiguities in concept meanings can exacerbate student learning difficulties and conceptual understanding of physics concepts. This is especially true for the concept of "weight," which has multiple meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. The term weight has been defined in several different ways, with nuances, but in textbooks and teaching the term is almost always defined in one of two ways: operationally either as the contact force between an object and a measuring scale or as the gravitational force on an object due to some other body such as Earth. The use of the same name for different concepts leads to much confusion, especially in accelerating situations, and to conflicting notions of "weightlessness" in free fall situations. In the present paper, we share an innovative approach that initially avoids the term weight entirely while teaching the physics of each situation, and then teaches the language ambiguities explicitly. We developed an instructional module with this approach and implemented it over two terms in three sections of an introductory physics course for preservice elementary teachers. Learning gains for content understanding were assessed using pretests and post-tests. Participants achieved remarkably high gains for both static and accelerating situations. Surveys pre- and postinstruction showed substantially improved appreciation of language issues and ambiguities associated with weight, weightlessness, and free fall. Interviews with instructors teaching the module provided additional insight into the advantages and teaching demands of the new approach.

  20. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.

  1. Robustness of climate metrics under climate policy ambiguity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Lindroos, Tomi J.; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the economic impacts of using different climate metrics. • The setting is cost-efficient scenarios for three interpretations of the 2C target. • With each target setting, the optimal metric is different. • Therefore policy ambiguity prevents the selection of an optimal metric. • Robust metric values that perform well with multiple policy targets however exist. -- Abstract: A wide array of alternatives has been proposed as the common metrics with which to compare the climate impacts of different emission types. Different physical and economic metrics and their parameterizations give diverse weights between e.g. CH 4 and CO 2 , and fixing the metric from one perspective makes it sub-optimal from another. As the aims of global climate policy involve some degree of ambiguity, it is not possible to determine a metric that would be optimal and consistent with all policy aims. This paper evaluates the cost implications of using predetermined metrics in cost-efficient mitigation scenarios. Three formulations of the 2 °C target, including both deterministic and stochastic approaches, shared a wide range of metric values for CH 4 with which the mitigation costs are only slightly above the cost-optimal levels. Therefore, although ambiguity in current policy might prevent us from selecting an optimal metric, it can be possible to select robust metric values that perform well with multiple policy targets

  2. Effects of Sentence Context on Lexical Ambiguity Resolution in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Christina; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Bozikas, Vasilis P.; Giannakou, Maria; Karavatos, Athanasios; Nimatoudis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that a failure in processing contextual information may account for the heterogeneous clinical manifestations and cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia. In the domain of language, context processing in schizophrenia has been investigated mostly with single-word semantic priming paradigms; however, natural…

  3. Identification and Definition of Lexically Ambiguous Words in Statistics by Tutors and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Alice M.; Dunn, Peter K.; Hutchins, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Lexical ambiguity arises when a word from everyday English is used differently in a particular discipline, such as statistics. This paper reports on a project that begins by identifying tutors' perceptions of words that are potentially lexically ambiguous to students, in two different ways. Students' definitions of nine lexically ambiguous words…

  4. Estimating Ambiguity Preferences and Perceptions in Multiple Prior Models: Evidence from the Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G. Dimmock (Stephen); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy); O.S. Mitchell (Olivia); K. Peijnenburg (Kim)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractWe develop a tractable method to estimate multiple prior models of decision-making under ambiguity. In a representative sample of the U.S. population, we measure ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains. We find that ambiguity aversion is common for uncertain events of

  5. Listeners Exploit Syntactic Structure On-Line to Restrict Their Lexical Search to a Subclass of Verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusini, Perrine; Brun, Mélanie; Brunet, Isabelle; Christophe, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments have shown that listeners actively build expectations about up-coming words, rather than simply waiting for information to accumulate. The online construction of a syntactic structure is one of the cues that listeners may use to construct strong expectations about the possible words they will be exposed to. For example, speakers of verb-final languages use pre-verbal arguments to predict on-line the kind of arguments that are likely to occur next (e.g., Kamide, 2008, for a review). Although in SVO languages information about a verb's arguments typically follows the verb, some languages use pre-verbal object pronouns, potentially allowing listeners to build on-line expectations about the nature of the upcoming verb. For instance, if a pre-verbal direct object pronoun is heard, then the following verb has to be able to enter a transitive structure, thus excluding intransitive verbs. To test this, we used French, in which object pronouns have to appear pre-verbally, to investigate whether listeners use this cue to predict the occurrence of a transitive verb. In a word detection task, we measured the number of false alarms to sentences that contained a transitive verb whose first syllable was homophonous to the target monosyllabic verb (e.g., target "dort" /dɔʁ/ to sleep and false alarm verb "dorlote" /dɔʁlɔt/ to cuddle). The crucial comparison involved two sentence types, one without a pre-verbal object clitic, for which an intransitive verb was temporarily a plausible option (e.g., "Il dorlote" / He cuddles) and the other with a pre-verbal object clitic, that made the appearance of an intransitive verb impossible ("Il le dorlote" / He cuddles it). Results showed a lower rate of false alarms for sentences with a pre-verbal object pronoun (3%) compared to locally ambiguous sentences (about 20%). Participants rapidly incorporate information about a verb's argument structure to constrain lexical access to verbs that match the expected

  6. High Strain Rate Compressive Behavior of Polyurethane Resin and Polyurethane/Al2O3 Hollow Sphere Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung D. Luong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane resins and foams are finding extensive applications. Seat cushions and covers in automobiles are examples of these materials. In the present work, hollow alumina particles are used as fillers in polyurethane resin to develop closed-cell syntactic foams. The fabricated syntactic foams are tested for compressive properties at quasistatic and high strain rates. Strain rate sensitivity is an important concern for automotive applications due to the possibility of crash at high speeds. Both the polyurethane resin and the syntactic foam show strain rate sensitivity in compressive strength. It is observed that the compressive strength increases with strain rate. The energy absorbed up to 10% strain in the quasistatic regime is 400% higher for the syntactic foam in comparison to that of neat resin at the same strain rate.

  7. Interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes in the perception of ambiguous figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaitė, Monika; Noreika, Valdas; Šoliūnas, Alvydas; Falter, Christine M

    2013-08-30

    Ambiguous figures reverse their appearance during prolonged viewing and can be perceived in two (or more) available interpretations. Both physical stimulus manipulations and cognitive control influence the perception of ambiguous figures, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the current study, the perception of an ambiguous figure was manipulated by adaptation to unambiguous figures and/or placing the ambiguous figure into a context of unambiguous figures. Our results indicate that both adaptation and context can effectively modulate perception of the ambiguous figure. When manipulated together, adaptation and context processes showed additive effects upon the perception of the ambiguous figure implying the independent mechanisms. Thus, top-down and bottom-up processes seem to influence the perception of the ambiguous figures independently and neither seems to be uniquely responsible for the generation of perceptual changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ambiguity and Investment Decisions: An Empirical Analysis on Mutual Fund Investor Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper empirically studies the relationship between ambiguity and mutual fund investor behaviour. Theoretical models for investment decisions incorporating ambiguity motivate our analyses. While the models indicate that investors would less likely to invest in financial markets when ambiguity increases, there is rare empirical evidence in natural occurring financial data to examine this hypothesis. In this paper, we test the hypothesis with equity fund flow data as for investment decisions and ambiguity with the degree of disagreement in equity analysts’ prediction about asset returns. Our results support the hypothesis that increases in ambiguity could lead to less fund flows and this result remains consistently when adding various control variables affecting fund flows. Besides, we find that heterogeneous impacts of ambiguity: equity funds with high yield targets and active management style are affected more than funds investing in stable stocks; funds with larger proportion of institutional investors are more sensitive and affected by the ambiguity.

  9. Mussel-inspired polydopamine coated hollow carbon microspheres, a novel versatile filler for fabrication of high performance syntactic foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Roy, Sunanda; Chen, Ye; Chua, Eng Kee; See, Kye Yak; Hu, Xiao; Liu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Syntactic foams, which can be synthesized by mechanical mixing of hollow microspheres with a matrix material, are a special class of lightweight composite materials. Developing of high-performance syntactic foams remains challenges. In this work, a facile and environmentally friendly surface modification method employing polydopamine (PDA) as a surface treatment agent for hollow carbon microspheres (HCMs) was used, aiming to extend the application of syntactic foams to seldom touched areas. The PDA coating was used as a strategy for interfacial interaction enhancement and also as a platform for further metal coating meant for electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. The stronger interfacial interaction between microspheres and polymer matrix provided effective interfacial stress transfer, as a result of the syntactic foams with high strength to weight ratio. Furthermore, the PDA coating on HCMs served as a versatile platform for the growth of noble metals on the surface of PDA-HCMs. Silver nanoparticles was grown by PDA medium. The silver coated HCMs (Ag-PDA-HCMs) impacted the complex permittivity of the syntactic foams leading to high EMI shielding effectiveness (SE). The specific EMI SE reached up to 46.3 dB·cm(3)/g, demonstrated the Ag-PDA-HCMs/epoxy syntactic foam as a promising candidate for lightweight high-performance EMI shielding material.

  10. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hung Jung.

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by [mu][sup 2] [approximately] Q[sub min][sup 2]Q[sub med][sup 2]/Q[sub max][sup 2] where Q[sub min][sup 2]Q[sub med][sup 2]/Q[sub max][sup 2] are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

  11. Dressed skeleton expansion and the coupling scale ambiguity problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hung Jung

    1992-09-01

    Perturbative expansions in quantum field theories are usually expressed in powers of a coupling constant. In principle, the infinite sum of the expansion series is independent of the renormalization scale of the coupling constant. In practice, there is a remnant dependence of the truncated series on the renormalization scale. This scale ambiguity can severely restrict the predictive power of theoretical calculations. The dressed skeleton expansion is developed as a calculational method which avoids the coupling scale ambiguity problem. In this method, physical quantities are expressed as functional expansions in terms of a coupling vertex function. The arguments of the vertex function are given by the physical momenta of each process. These physical momenta effectively replace the unspecified renormalization scale and eliminate the ambiguity problem. This method is applied to various field theoretical models and its main features and limitations are explored. For quantum chromodynamics, an expression for the running coupling constant of the three-gluon vertex is obtained. The effective coupling scale of this vertex is shown to be essentially given by {mu}{sup 2} {approximately} Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} where Q{sub min}{sup 2}Q{sub med}{sup 2}/Q{sub max}{sup 2} are respectively the smallest, the next-to-smallest and the largest scale among the three gluon virtualities. This functional form suggests that the three-gluon vertex becomes non-perturbative at asymmetric momentum configurations. Implications for four-jet physics is discussed.

  12. Exploring the Role of Syntactic Information on User Behavior in Online Social Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöklint, Mimmi

    2013-01-01

    The proliferation of information technologies, applications and online services has changed the way users access information. In particular, an increasing amount of users engage with online social platforms on a daily basis where they are exposed to a continuous stream of information. A great deal...... of this information is available through numbers and numbers as self-representative visualisations such as likes, views, shares, endorsements and diggs, which sparked an interest in its role in influencing users. This study thus explores the role of syntactic information on user behaviour in online social platforms....... The investigation introduces a taxonomy based on four categories (push, pull, personal, and public) as a possible departure point for discussion. The results suggested that users are particularly interested and motivated by personally attributed syntactical information and claim to dismiss the equivalent of public...

  13. Additive Manufacturing of Syntactic Foams: Part 2: Specimen Printing and Mechanical Property Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish Kumar; Saltonstall, Brooks; Patil, Balu; Hoffmann, Niklas; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gupta, Nikhil

    2018-01-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and its fly ash cenosphere-filled syntactic foam filaments have been recently developed. These filaments are used for three-dimensional (3D) printing using a commercial printer. The developed syntactic foam filament (HDPE40) contains 40 wt.% cenospheres in the HDPE matrix. Printing parameters for HDPE and HDPE40 were optimized for use in widely available commercial printers, and specimens were three-dimensionally (3D) printed for tensile testing at strain rate of 10-3 s-1. Process optimization resulted in smooth operation of the 3D printer without nozzle clogging or cenosphere fracture during the printing process. Characterization results revealed that the tensile modulus values of 3D-printed HDPE and HDPE40 specimens were higher than those of injection-molded specimens, while the tensile strength was comparable, but the fracture strain and density were lower.

  14. A disadvantage in bilingual sentence production modulated by syntactic frequency and similarity across languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnqvist, Elin; Gollan, Tamar H; Costa, Albert; Ferreira, Victor S

    2013-11-01

    Bilingual speakers access individual words less fluently, quickly, and accurately than monolinguals, particularly when accessing low-frequency words. Here we examined whether the bilingual speech production disadvantage would (a) extend to full sentences above and beyond single word retrieval and whether it would be modulated by (b) structural frequency and (c) syntactic properties of the bilingual speakers' other language. English monolinguals, Spanish-English bilinguals and Mandarin-English bilinguals were tested in a sentence production task conducted exclusively in English. Response times were modulated by bilingualism, structural frequency, and structural similarity across the bilingual speakers' two languages. These results refine our knowledge regarding the scope of the bilingual disadvantage, demonstrate that frequency effects apply to syntactic structures, and also suggest that syntax is partially shared across bilinguals' two languages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Syntactic reasoning and pattern recognition for analysis of coronary artery images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiela, Marek R; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the application of structural pattern recognition methods for image understanding, based on content analysis and knowledge discovery performed on medical images. This presents in particular computer analysis and recognition of local stenoses of the coronary arteries lumen. These stenoses are the result of the appearance of arteriosclerosis plaques, which in consequence lead to different forms of ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Such diseases may be seen in the form of stable or unstable disturbances of heart rhythm or infarctions. Analysis of the correct morphology of these arteries lumen is possible with the application of the syntactic analysis and pattern recognition methods, in particular with the attributed grammar of LALR type. In the paper, we shall describe all stages of analysis and understanding of images in the context of obtained features, and we shall also present the proper algorithm of syntactic reasoning based on the acquired knowledge.

  16. Exploring the Role of Syntactic Information on User Behavior in Online Social Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöklint, Mimmi

    2013-01-01

    of this information is available through numbers and numbers as self-representative visualisations such as likes, views, shares, endorsements and diggs, which sparked an interest in its role in influencing users. This study thus explores the role of syntactic information on user behaviour in online social platforms......The proliferation of information technologies, applications and online services has changed the way users access information. In particular, an increasing amount of users engage with online social platforms on a daily basis where they are exposed to a continuous stream of information. A great deal...... information. Nevertheless, it became clear that public syntactic information was still unconsciously processed and applied as a measure or benchmark on the online social content....

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Syntactic Foams: Part 2: Specimen Printing and Mechanical Property Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish Kumar; Saltonstall, Brooks; Patil, Balu; Hoffmann, Niklas; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Gupta, Nikhil

    2018-03-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) and its fly ash cenosphere-filled syntactic foam filaments have been recently developed. These filaments are used for three-dimensional (3D) printing using a commercial printer. The developed syntactic foam filament (HDPE40) contains 40 wt.% cenospheres in the HDPE matrix. Printing parameters for HDPE and HDPE40 were optimized for use in widely available commercial printers, and specimens were three-dimensionally (3D) printed for tensile testing at strain rate of 10-3 s-1. Process optimization resulted in smooth operation of the 3D printer without nozzle clogging or cenosphere fracture during the printing process. Characterization results revealed that the tensile modulus values of 3D-printed HDPE and HDPE40 specimens were higher than those of injection-molded specimens, while the tensile strength was comparable, but the fracture strain and density were lower.

  18. Sibling jealousy and aesthetic ambiguity in Austen's Pride and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Margaret Ann Fitzpatrick

    2009-04-01

    Jane Austen's most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice (1813), illuminates and is illuminated by psychoanalytic aesthetics. When Austen dramatizes unconscious oedipal/sibling rivalries, irony acts as a type of aesthetic ambiguity (E. Kris 1952). A psychoanalytic perspective shows that Austen uses a grammar of negatives (negation, denial, minimization) to achieve the dual meanings of irony, engaging the reader's unconscious instinctual satisfactions, while at the same time protecting the reader from unpleasant affects. Austen's plot, which portrays regressions driven by sibling jealousy, reveals that a new tolerance of remorse and depression in her heroine and hero leads to psychic growth.

  19. Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Rupert, A. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. L.; Guedry, F. E.

    2007-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

  20. Gribov ambiguities at the Landau-maximal Abelian interpolating gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Antonio D.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F. [UFF-Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    In a previous work, we presented a new method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories. The method consists on the introduction of an extra constraint which directly eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies without the usual geometric approach. Such strategy allows one to treat gauges with non-hermitian Faddeev-Popov operator. In this work, we apply this method to a gauge which interpolates among the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The result is a local and power counting renormalizable action, free of infinitesimal Gribov copies. Moreover, the interpolating tree-level gluon propagator is derived. (orig.)

  1. On the Gribov ambiguity in the Polyakov string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskolski, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The global aspects of the gauge fixing in the Polyakov path integral for the bosonic string are considered within the Ebin--Fischer--Mareden approach to the geometry of spaces of Riemannian metrics and conformal structures. It is shown that for surfaces of higher genus, the existence of local conformal gauges is sufficient to derive the globally defined integral over the Teichmueller space. The generalized Faddeev--Popov procedure for incomplete gauges is formulated and used to derive the global expression for the Polyakov path integral in the cases of torus and sphere. The Gribov ambiguity in the functional integral over surfaces without boundary can be successfully overcome for arbitrary genus

  2. Ambiguous symbols: why there were no figurines in Neolithic Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the scarcity of representational art, and particularly of representations of the human body, in Neolithic Britain, in contrast with the Neolithic of south-east Europe. My suggestion is that this contrast can be linked with differing notions of personal identity and bodily integrity. In later Neolithic Britain, a complex mode of non-representational decoration developed, which elaborated the practice of making reference to absent persons and things by using deliberately ambiguous motifs, which connected past and present as well as remote locations.

  3. Obstetricians' choice of cesarean delivery in ambiguous cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglenes, Dorthe; Oian, Pål; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2009-01-01

    survey of Norwegian obstetricians (n = 716; response rate, 71%) using clinical scenarios. The risk attitude was measured by 6 items from the Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised. RESULTS: The proportion of obstetricians consenting to the cesarean request varied both within and across the scenarios....... The perceived risk of complaints and malpractice litigation was a clear determinant of obstetricians' choice of cesarean in all of the clinical scenarios, whereas no impact was observed for risk attitude. CONCLUSION: Obstetricians' judgments about cesarean request in ambiguous clinical cases vary considerably....... Perceived risk of complaints and litigation is associated with compliance with the requested cesarean....

  4. Syntactic and Morphosyntactic Processing in Stroke-Induced and Primary Progressive Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia K. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings derived from three experiments examining syntactic and morphosyntactic processing in individuals with agrammatic and logopenic variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L, respectively and stroke-induced agrammatic and anomic aphasia (StrAg and StrAn, respectively. We examined comprehension and production of canonical and noncanonical sentence structures and production of tensed and nontensed verb forms using constrained tasks in experiments 1 and 2, using the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS [57] and the Northwestern Assessment of Verb Inflection (NAVI, Thompson and Lee, experimental version test batteries, respectively. Experiment 3 examined free narrative samples, focusing on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, i.e. production of grammatical sentences, noun to verb ratio, open-class to closed-class word production ratio, and the production of correctly inflected verbs. Results indicate that the two agrammatic groups (i.e., PPA-G and StrAg pattern alike on syntactic and morphosyntactic measures, showing more impaired noncanonical compared to canonical sentence comprehension and production and greater difficulties producing tensed compared to nontensed verb forms. Their spontaneous speech also contained significantly fewer grammatical sentences and correctly inflected verbs, and they produced a greater proportion of nouns compared to verbs, than healthy speakers. In contrast, PPA-L and StrAn individuals did not display these deficits, and performed significantly better than the agrammatic groups on these measures. The findings suggest that agrammatism, whether induced by degenerative disease or stroke, is associated with characteristic deficits in syntactic and morphosyntactic processing. We therefore recommend that linguistically sophisticated tests and narrative analysis procedures be used to systematically evaluate the linguistic ability of individuals with PPA, contributing to

  5. Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: different profiles of syntactic impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Szterman, Ronit; Friedmann, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9-12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structure ...

  6. Perception Development of Complex Syntactic Construction in Children with Hearing Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Teymouri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Auditory perception or hearing ability is critical for children in acquisition of language and speech hence hearing loss has different effects on individuals’ linguistic perception, and also on their functions. It seems that deaf people suffer from language and speech impairments such as in perception of complex linguistic constructions. This research was aimed to study the perception of complex syntactic constructions in children with hearing-impairment. Methods: The study design was case-control. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, twenty children with severe to profound hearing impairment, aged 8-12 years and twenty normal-hearing children, aged 6-7 years were selected in a simple random sampling from exceptional schools for deaf people and from normal kindergartens and schools for normal cases. The perception of sentences was tested by using a researcher-made task called sentence-picture matching task. At first the content validity was determined and then the reliability was confirmed with Cronbach Alpha Test. Data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Independent Samples T-Test and Mann-Whitney U Test using SPSS. Results: Perception of the group with hearing-impairment was significantly lower than the normal control group. The hearing-impaired children failed to perceive complex syntactic structures. Linguistic function of the group with hearing-impairment on perception of sentences with simple word order was better than on complex sentences. Discussion: If rich linguistic inputs are not available for children during the critical period of the first language acquisition, the syntactic skill, especially in complex syntactic constructions, will not normally develop. In order to establish a foundation for a healthy perfect development of syntax, at the early years of life, children should be exposed to a natural language.

  7. Mechanical Behavior of Syntactic Foams for Deep Sea Thermally Insulated Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Choqueuse, Dominique; Davies, Peter; Perreux, Dominique; Sohier, L; Cognard, Jean Yves

    2010-01-01

    Ultra Deep offshore oil exploitation (down to 3000 meters depth) presents new challenges to offshore engineering and operating companies. Flow assurance and particularly the selection of insulation materials to be applied to pipe lines are of primary importance, and are the focus of much industry interest for deepwater applications. Polymeric and composite materials, particularly syntactic foams, are now widely used for this application, so the understanding of their behavior under extreme co...

  8. Semantic and syntactic reading comprehension strategies used by deaf children with early and late cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Carlos; Martín-Aragoneses, M Teresa; López-Higes, Ramón; Pisón, Guzmán

    2016-01-01

    Deaf students have traditionally exhibited reading comprehension difficulties. In recent years, these comprehension problems have been partially offset through cochlear implantation (CI), and the subsequent improvement in spoken language skills. However, the use of cochlear implants has not managed to fully bridge the gap in language and reading between normally hearing (NH) and deaf children, as its efficacy depends on variables such as the age at implant. This study compared the reading comprehension of sentences in 19 children who received a cochlear implant before 24 months of age (early-CI) and 19 who received it after 24 months (late-CI) with a control group of 19 NH children. The task involved completing sentences in which the last word had been omitted. To complete each sentence children had to choose a word from among several alternatives that included one syntactic and two semantic foils in addition to the target word. The results showed that deaf children with late-CI performed this task significantly worse than NH children, while those with early-CI exhibited no significant differences with NH children, except under more demanding processing conditions (long sentences with infrequent target words). Further, the error analysis revealed a preference of deaf students with early-CI for selecting the syntactic foil over a semantic one, which suggests that they draw upon syntactic cues during sentence processing in the same way as NH children do. In contrast, deaf children with late-CI do not appear to use a syntactic strategy, but neither a semantic strategy based on the use of key words, as the literature suggests. Rather, the numerous errors of both kinds that the late-CI group made seem to indicate an inconsistent and erratic response when faced with a lack of comprehension. These findings are discussed in relation to differences in receptive vocabulary and short-term memory and their implications for sentence reading comprehension. Copyright © 2015

  9. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Roncaglia-Denissen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more general attentional resources. To investigate this matter we tested musicians and non-musicians using visually presented sentences and aurally presented melodies containing syntactic local and long-distance dependencies. Accuracy rates and reaction times of participants’ responses were collected. In both sentences and melodies, unexpected syntactic anomalies were introduced. This is the first study to address the processing of local and long-distance dependencies in language and music combined while reducing the effect of sensory memory. Participants were instructed to focus on language (language session, music (music session, or both (dual session. In the language session, musicians and non-musicians performed comparably in terms of accuracy rates and reaction times. As expected, groups’ differences appeared in the music session, with musicians being more accurate in their responses than non-musicians and only the latter showing an interaction between the accuracy rates for music and language syntax. In the dual session musicians were overall more accurate than non-musicians. However, both groups showed comparable behavior, by displaying an interaction between the accuracy rates for language and music syntax responses. In our study, accuracy rates seem to better capture the interaction between language and music syntax; and this interaction seems to indicate the use of distinct, however, interacting mechanisms as part of decision making strategy. This interaction seems to be subject of an increase of attentional load and domain proficiency. Our study contributes to the long-lasting debate about the commonalities between language and music by

  10. Decision Making Strategy and the Simultaneous Processing of Syntactic Dependencies in Language and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M P; Bouwer, Fleur L; Honing, Henkjan

    2018-01-01

    Despite differences in their function and domain-specific elements, syntactic processing in music and language is believed to share cognitive resources. This study aims to investigate whether the simultaneous processing of language and music share the use of a common syntactic processor or more general attentional resources. To investigate this matter we tested musicians and non-musicians using visually presented sentences and aurally presented melodies containing syntactic local and long-distance dependencies. Accuracy rates and reaction times of participants' responses were collected. In both sentences and melodies, unexpected syntactic anomalies were introduced. This is the first study to address the processing of local and long-distance dependencies in language and music combined while reducing the effect of sensory memory. Participants were instructed to focus on language (language session), music (music session), or both (dual session). In the language session, musicians and non-musicians performed comparably in terms of accuracy rates and reaction times. As expected, groups' differences appeared in the music session, with musicians being more accurate in their responses than non-musicians and only the latter showing an interaction between the accuracy rates for music and language syntax. In the dual session musicians were overall more accurate than non-musicians. However, both groups showed comparable behavior, by displaying an interaction between the accuracy rates for language and music syntax responses. In our study, accuracy rates seem to better capture the interaction between language and music syntax; and this interaction seems to indicate the use of distinct, however, interacting mechanisms as part of decision making strategy. This interaction seems to be subject of an increase of attentional load and domain proficiency. Our study contributes to the long-lasting debate about the commonalities between language and music by providing evidence for their

  11. Automatic extraction of syntactic patterns for dependency parsing in noun phrase chunks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Colhon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a method for automatic extraction of syntactic patterns that are used to develop a dependency parsing method. The patterns have been extracted from a corpus automatically annotated for tokens, sentences’ borders, parts of speech and noun phrases, and manually annotated for dependency relations between words. The evaluation shows promising results in the case of an order-free language.

  12. A CFD Approach for Prediction of Unintended Porosities in Aluminum Syntactic Foam: A Preliminary Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shizhao; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum Syntactic Foam (ASF) is a material with great potential in applications related to lightweight structures and structural damping. However, experimental investigations in literature report that the infiltration process to fabricate ASF often results in incomplete infiltration. Published...... calculates the pressure, velocity and free surface of the aluminum. The results of the numerical model illustrate that this method has great potential of predicting unintended porosities in ASF and thereby optimizing the parameters involved in the infiltration process....

  13. SCEGRAM: An image database for semantic and syntactic inconsistencies in scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlschläger, Sabine; Võ, Melissa Le-Hoa

    2017-10-01

    Our visual environment is not random, but follows compositional rules according to what objects are usually found where. Despite the growing interest in how such semantic and syntactic rules - a scene grammar - enable effective attentional guidance and object perception, no common image database containing highly-controlled object-scene modifications has been publically available. Such a database is essential in minimizing the risk that low-level features drive high-level effects of interest, which is being discussed as possible source of controversial study results. To generate the first database of this kind - SCEGRAM - we took photographs of 62 real-world indoor scenes in six consistency conditions that contain semantic and syntactic (both mild and extreme) violations as well as their combinations. Importantly, always two scenes were paired, so that an object was semantically consistent in one scene (e.g., ketchup in kitchen) and inconsistent in the other (e.g., ketchup in bathroom). Low-level salience did not differ between object-scene conditions and was generally moderate. Additionally, SCEGRAM contains consistency ratings for every object-scene condition, as well as object-absent scenes and object-only images. Finally, a cross-validation using eye-movements replicated previous results of longer dwell times for both semantic and syntactic inconsistencies compared to consistent controls. In sum, the SCEGRAM image database is the first to contain well-controlled semantic and syntactic object-scene inconsistencies that can be used in a broad range of cognitive paradigms (e.g., verbal and pictorial priming, change detection, object identification, etc.) including paradigms addressing developmental aspects of scene grammar. SCEGRAM can be retrieved for research purposes from http://www.scenegrammarlab.com/research/scegram-database/ .

  14. Using Social Media Derived Information to Reduce Ambiguity in Parcel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, K.; Thakur, G.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution spatiotemporal analyses often rely on the integration and harmonization of many unique data sources. Harmonized data can be especially useful in mobility/transportation planning, site selection/development planning, urban resiliency, sustainability, utility planning, and population modeling. However, even the most complete harmonized data sources can still possess gaps in their content, hindering their utility. For example, CoreLogic's ParcelPoint dataset is a nationwide collection of parcel points and polygons from nearly every U.S. county's local authority. While certain local land use parcel descriptions transfer easily to a national dataset, some do not, in part because of data ambiguity or regionality. This research will explore incorporating Points of Interest (POI) data derived from social media in order to reduce land use ambiguity in parcel data. Facebook, specifically, allows owners of businesses and institutions to create personalized pages with attributes like Name, Address, Location Type, Hours of Operation, Check-In counts, and designated latitude and longitude coordinates. These metadata can offer alternative land use descriptions and insights when it is otherwise not available, or when the land use associated with a parcel is not definitive. More importantly, this additional POI layer can allow for better representations of the places around us by providing a popularity and temporal aspect to the usual stagnant land use dataset. Furthermore, those responsible for emergency preparedness and response would benefit immensely from a more dynamic land use mapping opportunity. With that said, there are known limitations of social media data due to its volunteered nature. In order to recognize if the potential exists to overcome these limitations and use social-media-derived data to supplement national land use data, diverse study areas will be selected across the U.S. to yield a varied collection of POIs. Their Location Type will then be

  15. Syntactic Recursion Facilitates and Working Memory Predicts Recursive Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Burcu; Hohenberger, Annette; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we focus on the possible roles of second-order syntactic recursion and working memory in terms of simple and complex span tasks in the development of second-order false belief reasoning. We tested 89 Turkish children in two age groups, one younger (4;6–6;5 years) and one older (6;7–8;10 years). Although second-order syntactic recursion is significantly correlated with the second-order false belief task, results of ordinal logistic regressions revealed that the main predictor of second-order false belief reasoning is complex working memory span. Unlike simple working memory and second-order syntactic recursion tasks, the complex working memory task required processing information serially with additional reasoning demands that require complex working memory strategies. Based on our results, we propose that children’s second-order theory of mind develops when they have efficient reasoning rules to process embedded beliefs serially, thus overcoming a possible serial processing bottleneck. PMID:28072823

  16. Syntactic Parameters and a Coding Theory Perspective on Entropy and Complexity of Language Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Marcolli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple computational approach to assigning a measure of complexity and information/entropy to families of natural languages, based on syntactic parameters and the theory of error correcting codes. We associate to each language a binary string of syntactic parameters and to a language family a binary code, with code words the binary string associated to each language. We then evaluate the code parameters (rate and relative minimum distance and the position of the parameters with respect to the asymptotic bound of error correcting codes and the Gilbert–Varshamov bound. These bounds are, respectively, related to the Kolmogorov complexity and the Shannon entropy of the code and this gives us a computationally simple way to obtain estimates on the complexity and information, not of individual languages but of language families. This notion of complexity is related, from the linguistic point of view to the degree of variability of syntactic parameter across languages belonging to the same (historical family.

  17. (Invariability in the Samoan syntax/prosody interface and consequences for syntactic parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine M. Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While it has long been clear that prosody should be part of the grammar influencing the action of the syntactic parser, how to bring prosody into computational models of syntactic parsing has remained unclear. The challenge is that prosodic information in the speech signal is the result of the interaction of a multitude of conditioning factors. From this output, how can we factor out the contribution of syntax to conditioning prosodic events? And if we are able to do that factorization and define a production model from the syntactic grammar to a prosodified utterance, how can we then define a comprehension model based on that production model? In this case study of the Samoan morphosyntax-prosody interface, we show how to factor out the influence of syntax on prosody in empirical work and confirm there is invariable morphosyntactic conditioning of high edge tones. Then, we show how this invariability can be precisely characterized and used by a parsing model that factors the various influences of morphosyntax on tonal events. We expect that models of these kinds can be extended to more comprehensive perspectives on Samoan and to languages where the syntax/prosody coupling is more complex.

  18. Chesterman’s Syntactic Strategies in Translating English Passive Voice Construction into Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabab Ahmad Mizher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contrastive analysis studies occupy a vital role in the course of translation studies. Similarities and differences between systems of languages facilitate the process of learning a foreign/second language along with translating from one language into another. Thus, this study seeks to shed light on strategies employed by EFL learners in translating English passive voice construction into Arabic. More specifically, it investigated these strategies against the syntactic strategies that are proposed by Andrew Chesterman in his book Memes of Translation. Participants from six Jordanian universities (Public and Private who were studying general translation courses were administered to a translation test of five English sentences that contain both agentive and agentless passive constructions in which participants were asked to translate them into Arabic. The results reveal that participants use the following strategies when translating agentive passive sentences: maintaining passive, topicalization, periphrastic structure and activization. However, when translating agentless passive sentences, participants use the following strategies: maintaining passive, periphrastic structure, lexicalization and activization. These strategies correspond to Chesterman’s syntactic strategies: literal translation strategy, transposition, clause structure change and sentence structure change.  Keywords: Chesterman, Memes of Translation, English-Arabic Translation Strategies, Syntactic Strategies, Passive Voice, Contrastive Analysis (CA

  19. Some Effects of Explicit Grammar Instruction and Syntactic Priming on Students’ Written Language Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Muhammad Asfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural or syntactic priming is a phenomenon in which prior exposure to specific language structures either facilitates or interferes with a learner’s subsequent language production [1]. Exposure to English structures through explicit instruction is reported to have inconclusive results. [2] reported that explicit and implicit grammar instruction ends up with automatization. This study reexamines the effect of syntactic priming and explicit grammar instruction on students’ writing. Specific grammatical features frequently appeared on TOEFL (Written Expression Section test were intensively practiced and then the students took a test whose items were specifically collected from TOEFL practice tests. Finally, the students were assigned to write a short essay. Sentences with similar structures which the students had been exposed to were extracted from the students’ essays. Out of 40 test items, only 59.86% in average could be answered correctly, and all of the grammatical features to which the students were previously exposed were contained in their essays. However, in average only eight out of 18 sentences were grammatically constructed. It can be concluded that although priming method with explicit instruction leads the students to use similar syntactic features in their writing, it seems to have little impact on students’ grammatical knowledge for immediate use in written language production.

  20. Syntactic transfer in the initial stages of adult third language and fourth language acquisition

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    Mahbube Tavakol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper elucidates the articulated proposals for the initial stages of adult third language (L3 syntactic transfer, addressing their application for L3 and the subsequent fourth language (L4 acquisition. The study was set to demonstrate empirical evidence in line with or against the tenets of the models and to indicate if and how syntactic transfer might obtain differently depending on the language being acquired– L3 vs. L4. The models to be tested were Full Transfer/Full Access (FT/FA, L2 Status Factor Hypothesis (LSFH, Cumulative Enhancement Model (CEM and Typological Primacy Model (TPM. Following a principles and parameters framework, six parameters were selected to generate several language pairings and an adult female’s L3 Italian and L4 German’s early spontaneous productions of the selected features were audio-recorded. The accuracy levels with which the features were produced in tandem with the results of error analyses violated the positions of FT/FA as considered for L3/s acquisition and CEM and consistently identified Typological proximity and L2 status as affecting syntactic transfer during the early stages multilingual acquisition.

  1. A syntactic representation of units of genetic information--a syntax of units of genetic information.

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    Collado-Vides, J

    1991-02-07

    The experimental study of the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of operons and other units of genetic information (UGIs) has not been accompanied by a parallel effort in integrative approaches. Following a recently obtained mathematical justification in the search of a grammatical theory of regulation, in this paper it is shown that a syntactic representation of prokaryotic simple UGIs can help the search for general rules governing their organization and regulation. Molecular categories like promoter, operator, structural gene, etc, are the elements for this level of analysis. Based on diverse types of evidence available in the literature, a principle which establishes a strictly successive representation of UGIs regulated at the initiation of transcription is derived. This linear array of categories is not enough for proposing general rules, which can be obtained by identifying groups of these categories as clusters or syntactic categories. It is shown that the notion of syntactic categories is implicitly used in the classical definition of an operon. Based on a hierarchy of biological restrictions for the construction of UGIs, a grammatical principle that defines a hierarchical relation among activator regions, promoters and operators is proposed. These proposals are integrated in a grammar that accounts for simple positively and negatively regulated UGIs.

  2. Syntactic Priming As a Test of Argument Structure: A Self-paced Reading Experiment

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    Isabel Oltra-Massuet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using data from a behavioral structural priming experiment, we test two competing theoretical approaches to argument structure, which attribute different configurations to (intransitive structures. These approaches make different claims about the relationship between unergatives and transitive structures selecting either a DP complement or a small clause complement in structurally unambiguous sentences, thus making different predictions about priming relations between them. Using statistical tools that combine a factorial 6 × 6 within subjects ANOVA, a mixed effects ANCOVA and a linear mixed effects regression model, we report syntactic priming effects in comprehension, which suggest a stronger predictive contribution of a model that supports an interpretive semantics view of syntax, whereby syntactic structures do not necessarily reflect argument/event structure in semantically unambiguous configurations. They also contribute novel experimental evidence that correlate representational complexity with language processing in the mind and brain. Our study further upholds the validity of combining quantitative methods and theoretical approaches to linguistics for advancing our knowledge of syntactic phenomena.

  3. Comparison of the Speech Syntactic Features between Hearing-Impaired and Normal Hearing Children

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    Mohammad Reza PahlavanNezhad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study seeks to describe and analyze the syntactic features of children with severely hearing loss who had access to the hearing aids compared with children with normal hearing, assigning them to the same separate gender classes.   Materials and Methods: In the present study, eight children with severe hearing impairment who used a hearing aid and eight hearing children matched for age and gender were selected using an available sampling method based on the principles of auditory-verbal approach. Hearing children had an average age of 5.45 ±1.9 years and subjects had a mean age of 5.43±2.17 years and their rehabilitation had begun before they were 18 months old. The assessment instrument of the study included the language development test, TOLDP-3. The syntactic skills of these children were analyzed and compared with the hearing children of the same age based on gender.   Results: There was a significant difference between the syntactic scores of the hearing-impaired children and the scores of the hearing children of the same age in the “sentence imitation” (t=−2/90, P

  4. From expert generalists to ambiguity masters: using ambiguity tolerance theory to redefine the practice of rural nurses.

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    Knight, Kaye; Kenny, Amanda; Endacott, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    To redefine the practice of rural nurses and describe a model that conceptualises the capabilities and characteristics required in the rural environment. The way in which the practice of rural nurses has been conceptualised is problematic. Definitions of rural nursing have been identified primarily through the functional context of rural health service delivery. The expert generalist term has provided a foundation theory for rural nurses with understandings informed by the scope of practice needed to meet service delivery requirements. However, authors exploring intrinsic characteristics of rural nurses have challenged this definition, as it does not adequately address the deeper, intangible complexities of practice required in the rural context. Despite this discourse, an alternative way to articulate the distinctive nature of rural nursing practice has eluded authors in Australia and internationally. A theoretical paper based on primary research. The development of the model was informed by the findings of a study that explored the nursing practice of managing telephone presentations in rural health services in Victoria, Australia. The study involved policy review from State and Federal governments, nursing and medical professional bodies, and five rural health services; semi-structured interviews with eight Directors of Nursing, seven registered nurses and focus group interviews with eight registered nurses. An ambiguity tolerance model drawn from corporate global entrepreneurship theory was adapted to explain the findings of the study. The adapted model presents capabilities and characteristics used by nurses to successfully manage the ambiguity of providing care in the rural context. Redefining the practice of rural nurses, through an adapted theory of ambiguity tolerance, highlights nursing characteristics and capabilities required in the rural context. This perspective offers new ways of thinking about the work of rural nurses, rural nurse policy, education

  5. Removing label ambiguity in learning-based visual saliency estimation.

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    Li, Jia; Xu, Dong; Gao, Wen

    2012-04-01

    Visual saliency is a useful clue to depict visually important image/video contents in many multimedia applications. In visual saliency estimation, a feasible solution is to learn a "feature-saliency" mapping model from the user data obtained by manually labeling activities or eye-tracking devices. However, label ambiguities may also arise due to the inaccurate and inadequate user data. To process the noisy training data, we propose a multi-instance learning to rank approach for visual saliency estimation. In our approach, the correlations between various image patches are incorporated into an ordinal regression framework. By iteratively refining a ranking model and relabeling the image patches with respect to their mutual correlations, the label ambiguities can be effectively removed from the training data. Consequently, visual saliency can be effectively estimated by the ranking model, which can pop out real targets and suppress real distractors. Extensive experiments on two public image data sets show that our approach outperforms 11 state-of-the-art methods remarkably in visual saliency estimation.

  6. Radiological Evaluation of Ambiguous Genitalia with Various Imaging Modalities

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    Ravi, N.; Bindushree, Kadakola

    2012-07-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital conditions in which the development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex is atypical. These can be classified broadly into four categories on the basis of gonadal histologic features: female pseudohermaphroditism (46,XX with two ovaries); male pseudohermaphroditism (46,XY with two testes); true hermaphroditism (ovotesticular DSD) (both ovarian and testicular tissues); and gonadal dysgenesis, either mixed (a testis and a streak gonad) or pure (bilateral streak gonads). Imaging plays an important role in demonstrating the anatomy and associated anomalies. Ultrasonography is the primary modality for demonstrating internal organs and magnetic resonance imaging is used as an adjunct modality to assess for internal gonads and genitalia. Early and appropriate gender assignment is necessary for healthy physical and psychologic development of children with ambiguous genitalia. Gender assignment can be facilitated with a team approach that involves a pediatric endocrinologist, geneticist, urologist, psychiatrist, social worker, neonatologist, nurse, and radiologist, allowing timely diagnosis and proper management. We describe case series on ambiguous genitalia presented to our department who were evaluated with multiple imaging modalities.

  7. Psychoanalytic and musical ambiguity: the tritone in gee, officer krupke.

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    Jaffee Nagel, Julie

    2010-02-01

    The poignant and timeless Broadway musical West Side Story is viewed from the standpoint of taking musical forms as psychoanalytic data. The musical configuration of notes called the tritone (or diabolus in musica) is taken as a sonic metaphor expressing ambiguity both in musical vocabulary and in mental life. The tritone, which historically and harmonically represents instability, is heard throughout the score and emphasizes the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and social dramas that unfold within and between the two gangs in West Side Story. Particular emphasis is given to the comic but exceedingly sober song Gee, Officer Krupke. Bernstein's sensitivity to the ambiguity and tension inherent in the tritone in West Side Story is conceptualized as an intersection of music theory and theories of mind; this perspective holds implications for clinical practice and transports psychoanalytic concepts from the couch to the Broadway stage and into the community to address the complexities of love, hate, aggression, prejudice, and violence. Ultimately, West Side Story cross-pollinates music and theater, as well as music and psychoanalytic concepts.

  8. Ambivalence and Ambiguity in The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman

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    Monica Michlin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This close reading of the text highlights how Miss Jane, in her double role as protagonist and narrator, shows considerable ambivalence towards friend and foe alike, with the result that the apparently transparent ideological meaning of entire episodes is blurred by what some critics have merely put down to “conservatism.” I examine Miss Jane’s almost constant suppression of emotion, and frequent displays of ambivalence towards other black people; her ambiguous relationship to oppressive, but familiar whites like Albert Cluveau or Robert Samson; and her conflicted relation to black heroes and heroics. Is the leading character a variation on the “mammy” who has internalized racist figures of speech, and uses contradictory images that undermine black heroics and validate white oppression? Or is Gaines’s point to undo the “retrick” of heroics and of alienation alike, and, against of backdrop of constant, ordinary destruction of black lives, to cast the adult Miss Jane as a Brer Rabbit-like figure, for whom survival and resistance are both dialectically connected and opposed? Is there a contradiction between her “progress” towards resistance shown in the last section, and her metadiscursive comments in the present, and does her literally walking out of her own story give a conclusive meaning to her narrative, or does it point to the author’s not having been able to resolve the ambivalence and ambiguities within the text?

  9. Removal of pedestals and directional ambiguity of optical anemometer signals.

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    Durst, F; Zaré, M

    1974-11-01

    Laser Doppler anemometry permits, in principle, the measurement of both magnitude and direction of components of a particle's velocity vector. Most exiting anemometers, however, permit measurements only with a directional ambiguity of 180 degrees , resulting in errors in certain flow fields. Available methods of eliminating the directional ambiguity of Laser Doppler anemometers are reviewed, covering frequency shifting of the incident and scattered light beams, the use of beams with different polarization properties, and employment of multicolor laser beams. The advantages and disadvantages of existing methods are summarized, and suggestions for alterations are made. Different techniques used to remove the pedestal of laser Doppler anemometer signals are also reviewed. Optical techniques should be employed in any advanced optical anemometer system to avoid dynamic range limitations by electronic bandpass filters. Suggestions are made for advanced optical anemometers employing multielement avalanche photodiodes that can be used for simultaneous measurements of two velocity components. These anemometers incorporate devices to sense the direction of the velocity components and to eliminate optically the pedestal of laser Doppler signals.

  10. Investigating the possibility of a syntactic impairment in the semantic variant of PPA using a constrained production task: Preliminary findings

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    Jennifer Cupit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA, syntactic skills are generally thought to be preserved, while in the non-fluent variant (nfvPPA syntactic impairment is a core diagnostic feature (Gorno-Tempini et al., 2011. There are, however, some indications in the literature that syntactic processing may not be entirely normal in svPPA. Most studies of syntactic production in svPPA have used unconstrained tasks and have found no syntactic impairment (e.g., Bird et al., 2000; Kave et al., 2007. In the two published studies that have found a syntactic impairment in svPPA, one used a constrained task (Benedet et al., 2006, and the other (Meteyard & Patterson, 2009 did not. However, the authors of the latter article suggested that the observed syntactic errors were subtle. They also suggested that a syntactic impairment in svPPA might not be observed in spontaneous language samples due to an overreliance on simpler structures. In the current study, we used a constrained sentence production task to compare the syntactic abilities of individuals with nfvPPA, svPPA and healthy controls longitudinally, to investigate the existence of a syntactic impairment in the different PPA variants. We predicted that by using a constrained task we would observe a syntactic impairment in both variants of PPA. We tested 18 participants with nfvPPA, 13 with svPPA and 23 control participants. They were tested up to three separate times, with approximately one year between sessions. Groups were matched on age and years of education. The patient groups were matched on Mini Mental State Examination score (Folstein, Folstein & McHugh, 1975 and estimated time post onset of initial symptoms, but the nfvPPA group scored higher than the svPPA group on the Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001. We used the sentence production task from Caplan and Hanna (1998 to elicit active, passive, dative and dative-passive sentences. A mixed ANOVA (Group X

  11. The GL service: Web service to exchange GL string encoded HLA & KIR genotypes with complete and accurate allele and genotype ambiguity.

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    Milius, Robert P; Heuer, Michael; George, Mike; Pollack, Jane; Hollenbach, Jill A; Mack, Steven J; Maiers, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Genotype list (GL) Strings use a set of hierarchical character delimiters to represent allele and genotype ambiguity in HLA and KIR genotypes in a complete and accurate fashion. A RESTful web service called genotype list service was created to allow users to register a GL string and receive a unique identifier for that string in the form of a URI. By exchanging URIs and dereferencing them through the GL service, users can easily transmit HLA genotypes in a variety of useful formats. The GL service was developed to be secure, scalable, and persistent. An instance of the GL service is configured with a nomenclature and can be run in strict or non-strict modes. Strict mode requires alleles used in the GL string to be present in the allele database using the fully qualified nomenclature. Non-strict mode allows any GL string to be registered as long as it is syntactically correct. The GL service source code is free and open source software, distributed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 3 or later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A little more conversation – the influence of communicative context on syntactic priming in brain and behavior

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    Schoot, Lotte; Menenti, Laura; Hagoort, Peter; Segaert, Katrien

    2014-01-01

    We report on an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) syntactic priming experiment in which we measure brain activity for participants who communicate with another participant outside the scanner. We investigated whether syntactic processing during overt language production and comprehension is influenced by having a (shared) goal to communicate. Although theory suggests this is true, the nature of this influence remains unclear. Two hypotheses are tested: (i) syntactic priming effects (fMRI and behavioral) are stronger for participants in the communicative context than for participants doing the same experiment in a non-communicative context, and (ii) syntactic priming magnitude (behavioral) is correlated with the syntactic priming magnitude of the speaker’s communicative partner. Results showed that across conditions, participants were faster to produce sentences with repeated syntax, relative to novel syntax. This behavioral result converged with the fMRI data: we found repetition suppression effects in the left insula extending into left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47/45), left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), left inferior parietal cortex (BA 40), left precentral gyrus (BA 6), bilateral precuneus (BA 7), bilateral supplementary motor cortex (BA 32/8), and right insula (BA 47). We did not find support for the first hypothesis: having a communicative intention does not increase the magnitude of syntactic priming effects (either in the brain or in behavior) per se. We did find support for the second hypothesis: if speaker A is strongly/weakly primed by speaker B, then speaker B is primed by speaker A to a similar extent. We conclude that syntactic processing is influenced by being in a communicative context, and that the nature of this influence is bi-directional: speakers are influenced by each other. PMID:24672499

  13. SCOPE AMBIGUITY IN THE JAKARTA POST HEADLINE ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN MAY 2015

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    Hernita Ratna Aulia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an international language, English has an important role in many aspects of human life. The language has been practically utilized in mass media to provide current information for the people. Printed mass media, as one of the examples, is the topic of this study, newspaper in particular. This study has two purposes, i.e. to find out the scope ambiguity which appears in the articles of the headlines and to analyze the cause of the scope ambiguity. The data of this study are 65 articles taken from the online headlines of The Jakarta Post published in May 2015. The result shows that there are 6 scope ambiguities caused by quantification, 4 scope ambiguities caused by coordination, and 7 scope ambiguities caused by quantification and coordination. Overall, there are 17 scope ambiguities found in The Jakarta Post’s headline articles.

  14. AMBIGUITY TOLERANCE LEVELS IN SPANISH ACCOUNTING STUDENTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Concepción Tejero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La ambigüedad es la percepción de la inadecuación de la información que resulta de determinadas características de un escenario. En situaciones de toma de decisiones, la percepción de ambigüedad puede percibirse como una amenaza y supone un reto cognitivo. En esta línea la literatura ha tratado la incidencia de los niveles de tolerancia a la ambigüedad (AT en la toma de decisiones en contextos empresariales y financieros.Este trabajo trata de estudiar los niveles de AT en una muestra de estudiantes de contabilidad comparándolos con los niveles de otros estudiantes de otras carreras de ciencias sociales. El instrumento usado es la versión española del MSTAT-II (McLain, 2008 y la muestra está compuesta por estudiantes de distintas carreras de ciencias sociales de la Universidad de Huelva. Los resultados indican un alto nivel de consistencia interna del instrumento con esta muestra. Los estudiantes de contabilidad presentan niveles de tolerancia a la ambigüedad más bajos que el resto de sus compañeros en otras carreras. Por último, se debaten las implicaciones educativas para las universidades de estos resultados.Ambiguity is the perception of inadequate information arising from certain characteristics of a situation. In a situation that demands evaluation or choice, the perception of ambiguity is threatening and presents a cognitive challenge. Research has examined AT (Ambiguity Tolerance levels and their influence on decision making in business and financial scenarios. Aims –This paper aims to investigate the AT levels of a sample of accounting students and to compare them with the AT levels of students on other social sciences degree courses. Instrument and Sample - The instrument used is the Spanish version of MSTAT-II (McLain, 2008. The sample is composed of students enrolled on various degree courses at a Spanish University (Universidad de Huelva.Results and implications - The results of the questionnaire present high

  15. IAGO AND THE AMBIGUITY OF HIS MOTIVES IN SHAKESPEARE'S OTHELLO

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    Jenny M. Djundjung

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iago's motives for vengeance are problematic as Iago offers different motives throughout the play. Shakespeare scholars have attempted to explain some probable answers for the problem. Yet, none of the answers is definite that Iago's motives remain vague. This paper explores the ambiguity of Iago's motives by negating Iago's explanations, as they do not correspond to his actions. He plays his role skillfully that he can act as a confidante to all of his victims that he masters them and pushes them to helplessness and desperation. His skillful mastery over his victims' lives can be compared to that of a devil who destroys the lives of his victim and that of a skillful artist who decides on the fates of his characters. If an artist creates a work of art, then Iago creates destruction.

  16. Interpretation of emotionally ambiguous faces in older adults.

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    Bucks, Romola S; Garner, Matthew; Tarrant, Louise; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin

    2008-11-01

    Research suggests that there is an age-related decline in the processing of negative emotional information, which may contribute to the reported decline in emotional problems in older people. We used a signal detection approach to investigate the effect of normal aging on the interpretation of ambiguous emotional facial expressions. High-functioning older and younger adults indicated which emotion they perceived when presented with morphed faces containing a 60% to 40% blend of two emotions (mixtures of happy, sad, or angry faces). They also completed measures of mood, perceptual ability, and cognitive functioning. Older and younger adults did not differ significantly in their ability to discriminate between positive and negative emotions. Response-bias measures indicated that older adults were significantly less likely than younger adults to report the presence of anger in angry-happy face blends. Results are discussed in relation to other research into age-related effects on emotion processing.

  17. Sensorimotor Adaptations Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

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    Wood, S. J.; Harm, D. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. We hypothesize that multi-sensory integration will be adaptively optimized in altered gravity environments based on the dynamics of other sensory information available, with greater changes in otolith-mediated responses in the mid-frequency range where there is a crossover of tilt and translation responses. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation.

  18. Ambiguous loss and incomplete abduction narratives in Kosovo.

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    Kajtazi-Testa, Laura; Hewer, Christopher J

    2018-02-01

    Ten mothers of men and boys who were abducted and listed as missing during the war in Kosovo in 1998/1999 were interviewed in Kosovo in the spring of 2012. Although the missing are presumed dead by the authorities, the mothers continue to live in a state of emotional ambiguity where a presumption of death is balanced with the hope of being reunited. In the absence of absolute proof, finding the remains of their loved ones becomes a major preoccupation. Using a social phenomenological approach, this study explored the social and political complexities existing within the life-world of these women. The findings suggest that they live in a continual state of psychological distress, and even when remains are returned, the unknown elements of the narrative of their abduction and murder only add to their distress and force many into self-imposed emotional exile away from community and close family.

  19. L’EXEMPLE AMBIGU OU LA PHRONESIS DU PHRONIMOS

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    Loïc NICOLAS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution studies the concept and the theory of example starting from an analysis of the phronèsis – the intelligence of and in the action. We show that we cannot think the phronèsis without examples, i.e. without incarnating it into the one who puts it in practice. We also prove that – as content of the moral education – the phronimos, key figure of right judgment and eu zèn, appears of an undeniable ambiguity. This reflexion on the phronèsis of the phronimos gives the opportunity to raise several crucial questions on the role of the experiment, the usage of the practical judgment and the acquisition of freedom.

  20. Quantization of Yang–Mills theory without the Gribov ambiguity

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    Gao-Liang Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A gauge fixing condition is presented here for non-Abelian gauge theory on the manifold R⊗S1⊗S1⊗S1. It is proved that the new gauge fixing condition is continuous and free from the Gribov ambiguity. While perturbative calculations based on the new gauge condition behave like those based on the axial gauge in ultraviolet region, infrared behaviours of the perturbative series under the new gauge fixing condition are quite nontrivial. The new gauge condition, which reads n⋅∂n⋅A=0, may not satisfy the boundary condition Aμ(∞=0 as required by conventional perturbative calculations for gauge theories on the manifold S4. However, such contradiction is not harmful for the theory considered here.