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Sample records for synophyrs curly eyelashes

  1. Filtration by eyelashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistarakula, Krishna; Bergin, Mike; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    Nearly every mammalian and avian eye is rimmed with lashes. We investigate experimentally the ability of lashes to reduce airborne particle deposition in the eye. We hypothesize that there is an optimum eyelash length that maximizes both filtration ability and extent of peripheral vision. This hypothesis is tested using a dual approach. Using preserved heads from 36 species of animals at the American Museum of Natural History, we determine the relationship between eye size and eyelash geometry (length and spacing). We test the filtration efficacy of these geometries by deploying outdoor manikins and measuring particle deposition rate as a function of eyelash length.

  2. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

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    Sanusi Umar, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks. Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair.

  3. Internal structure changes of eyelash induced by eye makeup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Ken-Ichi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kawai, Tomomitsu; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how eye makeup affects eyelash structure, internal structure of eyelashes were observed with a scanning X-ray microscopic tomography system using synchrotron radiation light source. Eyelash samples were obtained from 36 Japanese women aged 20-70 years and whose use of eye makeup differed. Reconstructed cross-sectional images showed that the structure of the eyelash closely resembled that of scalp hair. The eyelash structure is changed by use of eye makeup. There was a positive correlation between the frequency of mascara use and the degree of cracking in cuticle. The positive correlation was also found between the frequency of mascara use and the porosity of the cortex. By contrast, the use of eyelash curler did not affect the eyelash structure with statistical significance.

  4. rCUR: an R package for CUR matrix decomposition

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    Bodor András

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods for dimensionality reduction of large data sets such as those generated in microarray studies boil down to the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD. Although singular vectors associated with the largest singular values have strong optimality properties and can often be quite useful as a tool to summarize the data, they are linear combinations of up to all of the data points, and thus it is typically quite hard to interpret those vectors in terms of the application domain from which the data are drawn. Recently, an alternative dimensionality reduction paradigm, CUR matrix decompositions, has been proposed to address this problem and has been applied to genetic and internet data. CUR decompositions are low-rank matrix decompositions that are explicitly expressed in terms of a small number of actual columns and/or actual rows of the data matrix. Since they are constructed from actual data elements, CUR decompositions are interpretable by practitioners of the field from which the data are drawn. Results We present an implementation to perform CUR matrix decompositions, in the form of a freely available, open source R-package called rCUR. This package will help users to perform CUR-based analysis on large-scale data, such as those obtained from different high-throughput technologies, in an interactive and exploratory manner. We show two examples that illustrate how CUR-based techniques make it possible to reduce significantly the number of probes, while at the same time maintaining major trends in data and keeping the same classification accuracy. Conclusions The package rCUR provides functions for the users to perform CUR-based matrix decompositions in the R environment. In gene expression studies, it gives an additional way of analysis of differential expression and discriminant gene selection based on the use of statistical leverage scores. These scores, which have been used historically in diagnostic regression

  5. Eyebrow and Eyelash Hair Transplantation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Kyle D; Fertig, Raymond

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to investigate the etiologies of hair loss of the eyebrow and eyelash that required hair transplantation, the optimal surgical technique, patient outcomes, and common complications. A total of 67 articles including 354 patients from 18 countries were included in this study. Most patients were women with an average age of 29 years. The most common etiology requiring hair transplantation was burns, occurring in 57.6 percent of cases. Both eyebrow and eyelash transplantation use follicular unit transplantation techniques most commonly; however, other techniques involving composite grafts and skin flaps continue to be utilized effectively with minimal complication rates. In summary, many techniques have been developed for use in eyebrow/eyelash transplantation and the selection of technique depends upon the dermatologic surgeon's preferences and the unique presentations of their patients.

  6. Eyelash Extension Use among Female Students in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others were redness, pain, heavy eyelids, loss of lashes, casting of shadow in vision, tearing, burning sensation, foreign body sensation, and boils (stye) on the eyelid. Conclusion: Eyelash extension use is popular among young female students of higher institutions commonly for esthetic reasons (often because they desire ...

  7. Biotecnologia alimentaria. Curs 2007-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Facultat de Farmàcia

    2007-01-01

    Pla docent de l'assignatura Biotecnologia agroalimentaria de l'Ensenyament de Ciència i Tecnologia dels Aliments.Curs acadèmic 2007-2008. Departament de Productes Naturals, Biologia Vegetal i Edafologia.

  8. Treatment for trichiasis through a combination of eyelash trephination and electrocautery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Hyung; Doh, Sang-Hee

    2012-05-01

    This article introduces 3-mm-deep eyelash trephination combined with electrocautery as a way to increase the success rate for treatment for trichiasis. We have modified surgical instruments, ready-made ophthalmic microtrephine and cautery tip for a 3-mm-deep eyelash trephination and electrocautery. After eyelash trephination with microtrephine, electrocautery was added with a bended cautery tip after embedding in the trephination site. The trephined eyelids were photographed biweekly and checked for recurrence until 8 weeks after operation. Eyelash trephination combined with electrocautery was carried out on 20 Korean patients. The number of removed cilia was 109. Of these, the number of successfully removed hair follicles was 89. During 8 weeks, the total recurring rate of eyelash trephination combined with electrocautery was 17%. In the case of hair follicle removal success with electrocautery, the recurring rate was as low as 11%, but in the case of hair follicle removal failure with electrocautery, recurring rate is 45%. We checked the depth of removed eyelash follicles, and the mean depth was 2.03 ± 0.085 mm in this study. No serious complication was found during the period of this study. The eyelash trephination combined with electrocautery for trichiasis is a method with a low recurrence rate and few complications. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  9. Intraocular eyelashes and iris cyst in anterior chamber following penetrating eye injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sabin Sahu,1 Lila Raj Puri,1 Sanjay Kumar Singh2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Sagarmatha Choudhary Eye Hospital, Lahan, Siraha, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Biratnagar Eye Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal Background: The presence of intraocular eyelashes following penetrating eye injury or ocular surgery is relatively uncommon. The response of the eye to intraocular eyelashes is variable. The eyelash may be symptomatic or may remain asymptomatic for long periods. Objective: We report a case with two intraocular eyelashes and an iris cyst after 2 years of asymptomatic period following penetrating eye injury. Case presentation: A 24-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye which he had noticed for the previous 2 weeks. His visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/18 in the left eye, improving to 6/9 with -2.5 DC × 140° correction. The intraocular pressure was 12 mmHg in both eyes. On slit-lamp examination, the left eye showed 8 mm linear peripheral corneal opacity nasally, two eyelashes in the superior anterior chamber, and an iris cyst measuring 4 mm × 4 mm in the superior iris. The right eye was normal. Dilated fundus examination of both eyes was normal. The eyelashes and cyst were removed surgically. There were no complications during the 3-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Intraocular implantation of eyelashes following penetrating eye injury can remain asymptomatic for long periods; however, late development of iris cyst may occur. Keywords: intraocular eyelashes, iris cyst, penetrating eye injury

  10. An evaluation of the safety and efficacy of bimatoprost for eyelash growth in pediatric subjects

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    Borchert M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mark Borchert,1 Suzanne Bruce,2 David Wirta,3 Steven G Yoelin,4 Sungwook Lee,5 Cheri Mao,5 Amanda VanDenburgh5 1Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Suzanne Bruce and Associates, PA, Houston, TX, USA; 3David Wirta and Associates, Newport Beach, CA, USA; 4Medical Associates Inc., Newport Beach, CA, USA; 5Allergan plc, Irvine, CA, USA Purpose: Evaluate the safety and effectiveness of bimatoprost 0.03% for treatment of eyelash hypotrichosis in a pediatric population. Patients and methods: This multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group study was conducted at seven sites in the US and Brazil. Subjects with eyelash hypotrichosis caused by chemotherapy or alopecia areata (aged 5–17 years or healthy adolescents aged 15–17 years were enrolled (N=71. Subjects applied bimatoprost 0.03% or vehicle to upper eyelid margins once nightly for 4 months and were followed for 1 month post-treatment. Eyelash prominence was assessed using the validated 4-grade Global Eyelash Assessment scale with photonumeric guide. Changes in eyelash length, thickness, and darkness were measured by digital image analysis. Safety was assessed by adverse events and ophthalmic observations. Results: Eyelash prominence improved in a significantly greater proportion of subjects treated with bimatoprost compared with vehicle at month 4 (70.8% versus 26.1%; P<0.001. This benefit was sustained at month 5 post-treatment assessment. Digital image analysis measures were significantly improved with bimatoprost. Significant treatment benefits with bimatoprost versus vehicle were evident among the healthy adolescents but not in the postchemotherapy or alopecia areata subgroups. The safety profile of bimatoprost was consistent with previous studies in adults. Conclusion: Bimatoprost was safe and well tolerated in pediatric subjects with eyelash hypotrichosis. In this study with limited sample size, subgroup analyses showed that treatment was effective in

  11. Biotecnologia agroalimentària. Curs 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Facultat de Farmàcia

    2008-01-01

    Pla docent de l'assignatura Biotecnologia agroalimentària de l'Ensenyament de Ciència i Tecnologia dels Aliments. Curs acadèmic 2008-2009. Departament Productes Naturals,Biologia Vegetal i Edafologia.

  12. Adherence of curli producing Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli to baby spinach leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellular appendages, such as curli fibers have been suggested to be involved in STEC persistence in fresh produce as these curli are critical in biofilm formation and adherence to animal cells. We determined the role of curli in attachment of STEC on spinach leaves. The curli expression by wild-ty...

  13. Smartphone-based Video of Demodex folliculorum In Biopsied Human Eyelash Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Mithaq; Davis, Gavin; Coleman, Michael James; Garrett, Brian Steven; Eghrari, Allen Omid

    2015-01-01

    The ability of smartphone technology to document static microscopy images has been well documented and is gaining widespread use in ophthalmology, where slit-lamp biomicroscopy is frequently utilized. However, little has been described regarding the use of smartphone technology to relay video of tissue microscopy results to patients, particularly when a tissue sample integrates motility of organisms as a characteristic feature of the disease. Here, we describe the method to use smartphone video to document motility of Demodex folliculorum in human eyelashes, individual results of which can be shown to patients for education and counseling purposes. The use of smartphone video in documenting the motility of organisms may prove to be beneficial in a variety of medical fields; producers of electronic medical records, therefore, may find it helpful to integrate video drop box tools.

  14. Loss of Eyebrows and Eyelashes During Concomitant Treatment with Sitagliptin and Metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Elena; Palleria, Caterina; Ruffo, Mariafrancesca; Serra, Raffaele; Arturi, Franco; Gallelli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The fixed dose combination of sitagliptin 50 mg and metformin 850 mg (Janumet ®), is indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in addition to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in patients treated with metformin alone. We report a 69-year-old man with type 2 diabetes that developed sudden loss of eyebrows and eyelashes about 4 months after the beginning of Janumet®. Clinical and laboratory findings excluded the presence of systemic or skin diseases able to induce these manifestations, while the Naranjo probability scale documented a possible association between the drug and the adverse drug reaction. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Biotecnologia farmacèutica. Curs 2006-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. Facultat de Farmàcia

    2006-01-01

    Pla docent de l'assignatura Biotecnologia farmacèutica de l'Ensenyament de Farmàcia. Curs acadèmic 2006-2007. Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular/Biologia Cel·lular i Anatomia Patològica/Farmàcia i Tecnologia Farmacèutica/Fisicoquímica/Microbiologia i Parasitología Sanitàries/Productes Naturals, Biologia Vegetal i Edafologia.

  16. Bending energy penalty enhances the adhesive strength of functional amyloid curli to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Wang, Ao; DeBenedictis, Elizabeth P.; Keten, Sinan

    2017-11-01

    The functional amyloid curli fiber, a major proteinaceous component of biofilm extracellular matrices, plays an important role in biofilm formation and enterobacteriaceae adhesion. Curli nanofibers exhibit exceptional underwater adhesion to various surfaces, have high rigidity and strong tensile mechanical properties, and thus hold great promise in biomaterials. The mechanisms of how curli fibers strongly attach to surfaces and detach under force remain elusive. To investigate curli fiber adhesion to surfaces, we developed a coarse-grained curli fiber model, in which the protein subunit CsgA (curli specific gene A) self-assembles into the fiber. The coarse-grained model yields physiologically relevant and tunable bending rigidity and persistence length. The force-induced desorption of a single curli fiber is examined using coarse-grained modeling and theoretical analysis. We find that the bending energy penalty arising from high persistence length enhances the resistance of the curli fiber against desorption and thus strengthens the adhesion of the curli fiber to surfaces. The CsgA-surface adhesion energy and the curli fiber bending rigidity both play crucial roles in the resistance of curli fiber against desorption from surfaces. To enable the desorption process, the applied peeling force must overcome both the interfacial adhesion energy and the energy barrier for bending the curli fiber at the peeling front. We show that the energy barrier to desorption increases with the interfacial adhesion energy, however, the bending induced failure of a single curli fiber limits the work of adhesion if the proportion of the CsgA-surface adhesion energy to the CsgA-CsgA cohesive energy becomes large. These results illustrate that the optimal adhesion performance of nanofibers is dictated by the interplay between bending, surface energy and cohesive energy. Our model provides timely insight into enterobacteriaceae adhesion mechanisms as well as future designs of engineered

  17. Effect of curtovirus species competitiveness in host plants on transmission and incidence of Beet severe curly top virus and Beet mild curly top virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curly top disease, caused by viruses in the genus Curtovirus, causes significant economic losses for sugarbeet and other crops throughout the western United States. Recent studies demonstrated the two most abundant curtovirus species in the US are Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild c...

  18. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study

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    Asuka Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods. Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results. In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions. Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  19. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Asuka; Ide, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Teruki; Miki, Emiko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Toda, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose . Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL) for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods . Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results . In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions . Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  20. An epistatic effect of KRT25 on SP6 is involved in curly coat in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomer, Annika; Gottschalk, Maren; Christmann, Anna; Naccache, Fanny; Jung, Klaus; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Distl, Ottmar; Metzger, Julia

    2018-04-23

    Curly coat represents an extraordinary type of coat in horses, particularly seen in American Bashkir Curly Horses and Missouri Foxtrotters. In some horses with curly coat, a hypotrichosis of variable extent was observed, making the phenotype appear more complex. In our study, we aimed at investigating the genetic background of curly coat with and without hypotrichosis using high density bead chip genotype and next generation sequencing data. Genome-wide association analysis detected significant signals (p = 1.412 × 10 -05 -1.102 × 10 -08 ) on horse chromosome 11 at 22-35 Mb. In this significantly associated region, six missense variants were filtered out from whole-genome sequencing data of three curly coated horses of which two variants within KRT25 and SP6 could explain all hair phenotypes. Horses heterozygous or homozygous only for KRT25 variant showed curly coat and hypotrichosis, whereas horses with SP6 variant only, exhibited curly coat without hypotrichosis. Horses with mutant alleles in both variants developed curly hair and hypotrichosis. Thus, mutant KRT25 allele is masking SP6 allele effect, indicative for epistasis of KRT25 variant over SP6 variant. In summary, genetic variants in two different genes, KRT25 and SP6, are responsible for curly hair. All horses with KRT25 variant are additionally hypotrichotic due to the KRT25 epistatic effect on SP6.

  1. The Production of Curli Amyloid Fibers Is Deeply Integrated into the Biology of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel R.; Price, Janet E.; Burby, Peter E.; Blanco, Luz P.; Chamberlain, Justin; Chapman, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    Curli amyloid fibers are the major protein component of the extracellular matrix produced by Enterobacteriaceae during biofilm formation. Curli are required for proper biofilm development and environmental persistence by Escherichia coli. Here, we present a complete and vetted genetic analysis of functional amyloid fiber biogenesis. The Keio collection of single gene deletions was screened on Congo red indicator plates to identify E. coli mutants that had defective amyloid production. We discovered that more than three hundred gene products modulated curli production. These genes were involved in fundamental cellular processes such as regulation, environmental sensing, respiration, metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, transport, and protein turnover. The alternative sigma factors, σS and σE, had opposing roles in curli production. Mutations that induced the σE or Cpx stress response systems had reduced curli production, while mutant strains with increased σS levels had increased curli production. Mutations in metabolic pathways, including gluconeogenesis and the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), produced less curli. Regulation of the master biofilm regulator, CsgD, was diverse, and the screen revealed several proteins and small RNAs (sRNA) that regulate csgD messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. Using previously published studies, we found minimal overlap between the genes affecting curli biogenesis and genes known to impact swimming or swarming motility, underlying the distinction between motile and sessile lifestyles. Collectively, the diversity and number of elements required suggest curli production is part of a highly regulated and complex developmental pathway in E. coli. PMID:29088115

  2. Impact of curly top host plants on accumulation, competitiveness, and durability of curtovirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curly top disease, caused by viruses in the genus, Curtovirus, has affected sugarbeet production throughout much of the West for over a century; however, over that period the viruses responsible for causing the disease have changed. The two curly top virus species currently affecting production, Bee...

  3. CurlySMILES: a chemical language to customize and annotate encodings of molecular and nanodevice structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drefahl Axel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract CurlySMILES is a chemical line notation which extends SMILES with annotations for storage, retrieval and modeling of interlinked, coordinated, assembled and adsorbed molecules in supramolecular structures and nanodevices. Annotations are enclosed in curly braces and anchored to an atomic node or at the end of the molecular graph depending on the annotation type. CurlySMILES includes predefined annotations for stereogenicity, electron delocalization charges, extra-molecular interactions and connectivity, surface attachment, solutions, and crystal structures and allows extensions for domain-specific annotations. CurlySMILES provides a shorthand format to encode molecules with repetitive substructural parts or motifs such as monomer units in macromolecules and amino acids in peptide chains. CurlySMILES further accommodates special formats for non-molecular materials that are commonly denoted by composition of atoms or substructures rather than complete atom connectivity.

  4. Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Colin; Yalen, Chelsea; Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Rainima-Qaniuci, Mere; Haffenden, Chris; Watson, Conall; Cocks, Naomi; Cikamatana, Luisa; Roberts, Chrissy H; Marks, Michael; Rafai, Eric; Mabey, David C W; Kama, Mike; Solomon, Anthony W

    2017-01-01

    The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys. We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji. We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18%) reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97%) individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7-11.3%). iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation. Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT.

  5. Alterações dos cílios em portadores de cavidade anoftálmica Eyelash alterations in anophthalmic patients

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    Silvia Narikawa

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de alterações dos cílios em portadores de cavidade anoftálmica. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, procurando alterações ciliares em portadores de cavidade anoftálmica, atendidos na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu. RESULTADOS: Alterações dos cílios foram observadas em 70,7% dos portadores de cavidade anoftálmica. As alterações mais encontradas foram a ptose dos cílios (24,4%, diminuição do número (19,5%, tricomegalia (19,5%, triquíase (14,6% e entrópio (17,0%. CONCLUSÃO: Os portadores de cavidade anoftálmica possuem alterações ciliares, sendo as mais observadas: ptose de cílios, redução do número, tricomegalia e triquíase. O fator que leva a estas alterações necessita de maiores investigações.PURPOSE: To evaluate the eyelash alterations in anophthalmic cavity patients. METHODS: An observational study was done looking for eyelash alterations in anophthalmic cavity patients at "Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu". RESULTS: Eyelash alterations were observed in 70.7% of the anophthalmic patients. The most frequently observed eyelash alterations were eyelash ptosis (24.4%, reduction in the quantity (19.5%, trichomegaly (19.5%, trichiasis (14.6% and entropium (17.0%. CONCLUSION: The anophthalmic cavity patients have eyelash alteration and ptosis, reduction in quantity, trichomegaly, trichiasis are the most common observed situations. Further studies are needed to know more about it.

  6. Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Macleod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys.We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji.We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18% reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97% individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7-11.3%. iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation.Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT.

  7. Seed Transmission of Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Curly Top Iran Virus in a Local Cultivar of Petunia in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabestani, Ameneh; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar; Izadpanah, Keramat; Tabein, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) are known as the causal agents of curly top disease in beet and several other dicotyledonous plants in Iran. These viruses are transmitted by Circulifer species, and until now, there has been no confirmed report of their seed transmission. A percentage (38.2–78.0%) of the seedlings developed from the seeds of a petunia local cultivar under insect-free conditions showed stunting, interveinal chlorosis, leaf curling, and vein swelling symptoms, and were infected by BCTV when tested by PCR. Presence of BCTV in seed extracts of petunia local cultivar was confirmed by PCR and IC-PCR, followed by sequencing. Agroinoculation of curly top free petunia plants with a BCTV infectious clone resulted in BCTV infection of plants and their developed seeds. These results show the seed infection and transmission of BCTV in a local cultivar of petunia. Similar experiments performed with BCTIV showed that this virus is also seed transmissible in the same cultivar of petunia, although with a lower rate (8.8–18.5%). Seed transmission of curly top viruses may have significant implications in the epidemiology of these viruses. PMID:29035342

  8. Enhancement of Curcumin Solubility by Phase Change from Crystalline to Amorphous in Cur-TPGS Nanosuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gye Hwa; Li, Jinglei; Cho, Jin Hun; Kim, Jun Tae; Park, Hyun Jin

    2016-02-01

    Nanosuspensions (NSs) were fabricated to enhance water solubility, dissolution rate, and oral adsorption of water insoluble curcumin using sonoprecipitation method. As a good stabilizer, d-α-Tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was used to improve the stability of curcumin-TPGS NSs (Cur-TPGS NSs). Ultrasonic homogenization (UH) could effectively enhance the solubility of curcumin and to produce homogeneous NSs with small particle sizes. Water solubility of curcumin was significantly improved from 0.6 μg/mL in pure water to 260 μg/mL in the mixture of curcumin and TPGS (1:10) with UH treatment. The mean particle size of Cur-TPGS NSs was decreased significantly after UH and maintained between 208 and 246 nm. Lyophilized powder of Cur-TPGS NSs was dissolved about 91.08% whereas the pristine curcumin powder was dissolved only 6.5% at pH 7.4. This study showed a great potential of Cur-TPGS NSs as a good nano-formulation of curcumin with enhanced solubility and improved oral adsorption. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Arabidopsis thaliana Remorins Interact with SnRK1 and Play a Role in Susceptibility to Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmin Son

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Remorins, a family of plant-specific proteins containing a variable N-terminal region and conserved C-terminal domain, play a role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, including host-microbe interactions. However, their functions remain to be completely elucidated, especially for the Arabidopsis thaliana remorin group 4 (AtREM4. To elucidate the role of remorins in Arabidopsis, we first showed that AtREM4s have typical molecular characteristics of the remorins, such as induction by various types of biotic and abiotic stresses, localization in plasma membrane and homo- and hetero-oligomeric interaction. Next, we showed that their loss-of-function mutants displayed reduced susceptibility to geminiviruses, Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus, while overexpressors enhanced susceptibility. Moreover, we found that they interacted with SnRK1, which phosphorylated AtREM4.1, and were degraded by the 26S proteasome pathway. These results suggest that AtREM4s may be involved in the SnRK1-mediated signaling pathway and play a role as positive regulators of the cell cycle during geminivirus infection.

  10. A novel nanofiber Cur-loaded polylactic acid constructed by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trang Mai, Thi Thu; Duong Le, Quang; Binh Nguyen, Hai; Hoa Phan, Thi Bich; Lam Tran, Dai; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Thuy Nguyen, Thi Thu; Seo Park, Jun; Ngoan Nguyen, Thi; Cham Ba, Thi

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (Cur), extracted from the Curcuma longa L. plant, is well known for its anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Nanofiber mats of polylactic acid (PLA) loading Cur (5 wt%) were fabricated by electrospinning (e-spinning). Morphology and structure of the fibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. The diameters of the obtained fibers varied from 200 to 300 nm. The release capacity of curcumin from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers was investigated in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing ethanol. After 24 h, 50% of the curcumin was released from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers. These results of electrospun (e-spun) fibers exhibit the potential for biomedical application

  11. A novel nanofiber Cur-loaded polylactic acid constructed by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu Trang Mai, Thi; Thu Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Duong Le, Quang; Ngoan Nguyen, Thi; Cham Ba, Thi; Binh Nguyen, Hai; Bich Hoa Phan, Thi; Tran, Dai Lam; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan; Park, Jun Seo

    2012-06-01

    Curcumin (Cur), extracted from the Curcuma longa L. plant, is well known for its anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Nanofiber mats of polylactic acid (PLA) loading Cur (5 wt%) were fabricated by electrospinning (e-spinning). Morphology and structure of the fibers were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. The diameters of the obtained fibers varied from 200 to 300 nm. The release capacity of curcumin from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers was investigated in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing ethanol. After 24 h, 50% of the curcumin was released from curcumin-loaded PLA fibers. These results of electrospun (e-spun) fibers exhibit the potential for biomedical application.

  12. Composition of lactic acid bacteria during spontaneous curly kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Magdalena; Gustaw, Klaudia; Waśko, Adam; Polak-Berecka, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The present work is the first report on spontaneous fermentation of curly kale and characteristics of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Our results indicate that curly kale fermentation is the new possibility of the technological use of this vegetable. Bacteria representing ten different species were isolated from three phases of curly kale fermentation and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among them, four species were identified as Lactobacillus spp. (Lb. plantarum 332, Lb. paraplantarum G2114, Lb. brevis R413, Lb. curvatus 154), two as Weissella spp. (W. hellenica 152, W. cibaria G44), two as Pediococcus spp. (P. pentosaceus 45AN, P. acidilactici 2211), one as Leuconostoc mesenteroides 153, and one as Lactococcus lactis 37BN. The functional properties of isolates, i.e. acid, NaCl and bile salt tolerance, enzyme activities, adhesion to hydrocarbons, and antibiotic resistance, were examined. Among the tested strains, Lb. plantarum 332, Lb. paraplantarum G2114, P. pentosaceus 2211, and Lb. brevis R413 exhibited the best hydrophobicity value and high tolerance to bile salts, NaCl, and low pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical and pathological features of hair coat abnormalities in curly coated retrievers from UK and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R; Varjonen, K; Hendricks, A; Chang, Y M; Brooks Brownlie, H

    2016-12-01

    To gain information on hair loss amongst curly coated retrievers by questionnaire and to define the clinical and pathological features of hair coat abnormalities in affected dogs in the United Kingdom and Sweden. Questionnaires were completed by members of the Curly Coated Retriever Clubs. Fourteen dogs (six in the United Kingdom, eight in Sweden) were clinically examined and skin/hair samples collected for microscopy and histopathology. Blood was collected for haematological, biochemical and endocrine assays. Of 90 dogs surveyed, 39 had current or previous episodes of symmetrical, non-pruritic alopecia and or frizzy coat changes, usually affecting caudal thighs, axillae, dorsum and neck before 18 months of age; 23 dogs had a waxing/waning course. Examined dogs generally matched the pattern described in questionnaires. Hair shaft anomalies comprised occasional distorted anagen bulbs (10 dogs) and transverse fractures (8 dogs). Vertical histopathological sections showed infundibular hyperkeratosis (28 of 30 sections) and low-grade pigment clumping (17 of 30). Subtle telogenisation of hair follicles was unequivocally confirmed by transverse histomorphometric analyses. The follicular dysplasia of curly coated retriever reported here is similar to that of Irish water spaniels and Chesapeake Bay retrievers but distinct from that of Portuguese water dogs. The genetic basis requires further assessment. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Curli fimbriae are conditionally required in Escherichia coli O157:H7 for initial attachment and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michelle Qiu; Louie, Jacqueline W; Feng, Doris; Zhong, Wayne; Brandl, Maria T

    2016-08-01

    Several species of enteric pathogens produce curli fimbriae, which may affect their interaction with surfaces and other microbes in nonhost environments. Here we used two Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak strains with distinct genotypes to understand the role of curli in surface attachment and biofilm formation in several systems relevant to fresh produce production and processing. Curli significantly enhanced the initial attachment of E. coli O157:H7 to spinach leaves and stainless steel surfaces by 5-fold. Curli was also required for E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation on stainless steel and enhanced biofilm production on glass by 19-27 fold in LB no-salt broth. However, this contribution was not observed when cells were grown in sterile spinach lysates. Furthermore, both strains of E. coli O157:H7 produced minimal biofilms on polypropylene in LB no-salt broth but considerable amounts in spinach lysates. Under the latter conditions, curli appeared to slightly increase biofilm production. Importantly, curli played an essential role in the formation of mixed biofilm by E. coli O157:H7 and plant-associated microorganisms in spinach leaf washes, as revealed by confocal microscopy. Little or no E. coli O157:H7 biofilms were detected at 4 °C, supporting the importance of temperature control in postharvest and produce processing environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Inverse regulatory coordination of motility and curli-mediated adhesion in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Christina; Becker, Gisela; Sommerfeldt, Nicole; Possling, Alexandra; Tschowri, Natalia; Mehlis, Anika; Hengge, Regine

    2008-09-01

    During the transition from post-exponential to stationary phase, Escherichia coli changes from the motile-planktonic to the adhesive-sedentary "lifestyle." We demonstrate this transition to be controlled by mutual inhibition of the FlhDC/motility and sigma(S)/adhesion control cascades at two distinct hierarchical levels. At the top level, motility gene expression and the general stress response are inversely coordinated by sigma(70)/sigma(FliA)/sigma(S) competition for core RNA polymerase and the FlhDC-controlled FliZ protein acting as a sigma(S) inhibitor. At a lower level, the signaling molecule bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) reduces flagellar activity and stimulates transcription of csgD, which encodes an essential activator of adhesive curli fimbriae expression. This c-di-GMP is antagonistically controlled by sigma(S)-regulated GGDEF proteins (mainly YegE) and YhjH, an EAL protein and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase under FlhDC/FliA control. The switch from motility-based foraging to the general stress response and curli expression requires sigma(S)-modulated down-regulation of expression of the flagellar regulatory cascade as well as proteolysis of the flagellar master regulator FlhDC. Control of YhjH by FlhDC and of YegE by sigma(S) produces a fine-tuned checkpoint system that "unlocks" curli expression only after down-regulation of flagellar gene expression. In summary, these data reveal the logic and sequence of molecular events underlying the motile-to-adhesive "lifestyle" switch in E. coli.

  16. Ciència i pseudociència : un curs obert miniop

    OpenAIRE

    Canet Pladevall, Roser

    2015-01-01

    Les pseudociències estan proliferant extraordinàriament a través de les xarxes. Presentem un curs online (miniop) obert i autoformatiu per desenvolupar l'esperit crític a partir de la interacció entre els participants. Les activitats analitzen tres casos de creences pseudocientífiques: prediccions del futur, chemtrails (esteles químiques dels avions) i corrents antivacunació. Pseudosciences are extraordinarily proliferating across networks. We present an online course (miniop) open and sel...

  17. Curli Fibers Are Highly Conserved between Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli with Respect to Operon Structure and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Bian, Zhao; Hammar, Mårten; Sierralta, Walter D.; Normark, Staffan

    1998-01-01

    Mouse-virulent Salmonella typhimurium strains SR-11 and ATCC 14028-1s express curli fibers, thin aggregative fibers, at ambient temperature on plates as judged by Western blot analysis and electron microscopy. Concomitantly with curli expression, cells develop a rough and dry colony morphology and bind the dye Congo red (called the rdar morphotype). Cloning and characterization of the two divergently transcribed operons required for curli biogenesis, csgBA(C) and csgDEFG, from S. typhimurium SR-11 revealed the same gene order and flanking genes as in Escherichia coli. The divergence of the curli region between S. typhimurium and E. coli at the nucleotide level is above average (22.4%). However, a high level of conservation at the protein level, which ranged from 86% amino acid homology for the fiber subunit CsgA to 99% homology for the lipoprotein CsgG, implies functional constraints on the gene products. Consequently, S. typhimurium genes on low-copy-number plasmids were able to complement respective E. coli mutants, although not always to wild-type levels. rpoS and ompR are required for transcriptional activation of (at least) the csgD promoter. The high degree of conservation at the protein level and the identical regulation patterns in E. coli and S. typhimurium suggest similar roles of curli fibers in the same ecological niche in the two species. PMID:9457880

  18. The Geosciences Division of the Council on Undergraduate Research (GeoCUR): Supporting Faculty that Mentor Undergraduate Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L. K.; Guertin, L. A.; Manley, P. L.; Fortner, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    Undergraduate research is a proven effective pedagogy that has a number of benefits including: enhancing student learning through mentoring relationships with faculty; increasing retention; increasing enrollment in graduate programs; developing critical thinking, creativity, problem solving and intellectual independence; and, developing an understanding of research methodology. Undergraduate research also has been demonstrated in preparing students for careers. In addition to developing disciplinary and technical expertise, participation in undergraduate research helps students improve communication skills (written, oral, and graphical) and time management. Early involvement in undergraduate research improves retention and, for those engaged at the 2YC level, helps students successfully transfers to 4YC. The Geosciences Division of the Council on Undergraduate Research (GeoCUR) supports faculty in their development of undergraduate research programs at all levels. GeoCUR leads workshops for new and future faculty covering all aspects of undergraduate research including incorporating research into coursework, project design, mentoring students, sustaining programs, and funding sources. GeoCUR members support new faculty by providing a range of services including: peer-review of grant proposals; advice on establishing an undergraduate research program; balancing teaching and research demands; and networking with other geoscientist. GeoCUR has also developed web resources that support faculty and departments in development of undergraduate research programs (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/undergraduate_research/index.html). This presentation will describe the services provided by GeoCUR and highlight examples of programs and resources available to geoscientists in all career stages for effective undergraduate research mentoring and development.

  19. Heat transfer nanofluid based on curly ultra-long multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncel, Sławomir; Zniszczoł, Aurelia; Pawlyta, Mirosława; Labisz, Krzysztof; Dzido, Grzegorz

    2018-02-01

    The main challenge in the use of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) as key components of nanofluids is to transfer excellent thermal properties from individual nanotubes into the bulk systems. We present studies on the performance of heat transfer nanofluids based on ultra-long ( 2 mm), curly MWCNTs - in the background of various other nanoC-sp2, i.e. oxidized MWCNTs, commercially available Nanocyl™ MWCNTs and spherical carbon nanoparticles (SCNs). The nanofluids prepared via ultrasonication from water and propylene glycol were studied in terms of heat conductivity and heat transfer in a scaled up thermal circuit containing a copper helical heat exchanger. Ultra-long curly MWCNT (1 wt.%) nanofluids (stabilized with Gum Arabic in water) emerged as the most thermally conducting ones with a 23-30%- and 39%-enhancement as compared to the base-fluids for water and propylene glycol, respectively. For turbulent flows ( Re = 8000-11,000), the increase of heat transfer coefficient for the over-months stable 1 wt.% ultra-long MWCNT nanofluid was found as high as >100%. The findings allow to confirm that longer MWCNTs are promising solid components in nanofluids and hence to predict their broader application in heat transfer media.

  20. The DigCurV Curriculum Framework for Digital Curation in the Cultural Heritage Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Molloy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the DigCurV collaborative network completed development of a Curriculum Framework for digital curation skills in the European cultural heritage sector. DigCurV synthesised a variety of established skills and competence models in the digital curation and LIS sectors with expertise from digital curation professionals, in order to develop a new Curriculum Framework. The resulting Framework provides a common language and helps define the skills, knowledge and abilities that are necessary for the development of digital curation training; for benchmarking existing programmes; and for promoting the continuing production, improvement and refinement of digital curation training programmes. This paper describes the salient points of this work, including how the project team conducted the research necessary to develop the Framework, the structure of the Framework, the processes used to validate the Framework, and three ‘lenses’ onto the Framework. The paper also provides suggestions as to how the Framework might be used, including a description of potential audiences and purposes.

  1. Expression of curli by Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from patients during outbreaks is different from similar strains isolated from leafy green production environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbarao Venkata Ravva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 that survived longer in austere soil environment lacked expression of curli, a fitness trait linked with intestinal colonization. In addition, the proportion of curli-positive variants of EcO157 decreased with repeated soil exposure. Here we evaluated 84 and 176 clinical strains from outbreaks and sporadic infections in the US, plus 211 animal fecal and environmental strains for curli expression. These shiga-toxigenic strains were from 328 different genotypes, as characterized by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. More than half of the fecal strains (human and animal and a significant proportion of environmental isolates (82% were found to lack curli expression. EcO157 strains from several outbreaks linked with the consumption of contaminated apple juice, produce, hamburgers, steak and beef were also found to lack curli expression. Phylogenetic analysis of fecal strains indicates curli expression is distributed throughout the population. However, a significant proportion of animal fecal isolates (84% gave no curli expression compared to human fecal isolates (58%. In addition, analysis of environmental isolates indicated nearly exclusive clustering of curli expression to a single branch of the minimal spanning tree. This indicates that curli expression depends primarily upon the type of environmental exposure and the isolation source, although genotypic differences also contribute to clonal variation in curli. Furthermore, curli-deficient phenotype appears to be a selective trait for survival of EcO157 in agricultural environments.

  2. Stx1 prophage excision in Escherichia coli strain PA20 confers strong curli and biofilm formation by restoring native mlrA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophage insertions in Escherichia coli O157:H7 mlrA contribute to the low expression of curli fimbriae and biofilm observed in many clinical isolates. Varying levels of CsgD-dependent curli/biofilm expression are restored to strains bearing prophage insertions in mlrA by mutation of regulatory gene...

  3. Curly malachite on archaeological bronze : A systematic study of the shape and phenomenological approach of its formation mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, J.; Robbiola, Luc; Giuliani, Roberta; Joosten, Ineke; Huisman, Hans; van Os, Bertil; Sietsma, J.

    2016-01-01

    Curly malachite (CM) is found as a green cupric carbonate hydroxide corrosion product on archaeological bronze, mostly on artefacts retrieved from graves. In this paper, a morphological characterization approach is proposed, enabling the investigation of the formation process of CM. It is suggested

  4. Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli cra mutants is impaired due to down-regulation of curli biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshamwala, Shamlan M S; Noronha, Santosh B

    2011-10-01

    Cra is a pleiotropic regulatory protein that controls carbon and energy flux in enteric bacteria. Recent studies have shown that Cra also regulates other cell processes and influences biofilm formation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of Cra in biofilm formation in Escherichia coli. Congo red-binding studies suggested that curli biosynthesis is impaired in cra mutants. Microarray analysis of wild-type and mutant E. coli cultivated in conditions promoting biofilm formation revealed that the curli biosynthesis genes, csgBAC and csgDEFG, are poorly expressed in the mutant, suggesting that transcription of genes required for curli production is regulated by Cra. Four putative Cra-binding sites were identified in the curli intergenic region, which were experimentally validated by performing electromobility shift assays. Site-directed mutagenesis of three Cra-binding sites in the promoter region of the csgDEFG operon suggests that Cra activates transcription of this operon upon binding to operator regions both downstream and upstream of the transcription start site. Based on the Cra-binding sites identified in this and other studies, the Cra consensus sequence is refined.

  5. Infermeria Médico-Quirúrgica II. Temari corresponent al Professor Francisco Pérez Dolz. Curs 2017-2018

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Dolz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    El document forma part dels materials docents programats mitjançant l'ajut del Servei de Política Lingüística de la Universitat de València Infermeria Médico-Quirúrgica II. Temari corresponent al Professor Francisco Pérez Dolz. Curs 2017-2018.

  6. Molecular Identification of Beet Curly top Iran Virus Associated with Bean in Zanjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Hoseini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plant diseases caused by geminiviruses are one of the main constraints of legume production in the world. They are responsible for a constraint on production of various crops. Geminiviruses are characterized by their twinned icosahedral particles and their single-stranded DNA genome. The family Geminiviridae is grouped into four genera: Begomovirus, Mastrevirus, Curtovirus and Topocuvirus (Brown and Moriones, 2012. Recent reports for geminiviruses show that viruses such as Spinach curly top Arizona virus (SCTAV and Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV (Yazdi et al., 2008 can be grouped in a new genus, Becurtovirus (ICTV 2012;http://www.ictvonline.org/virusTaxonomy.asp. Zanjan Province is one of the main regions for growing bean in Iran. Various geminiviruses have been reported from bean included: Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV, BCTIV, Bean Calico mosaic virus (BCaMV and Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV. In this study in order to determine the type and distribution of geminivirus/es causing bean diseases, samples were collected from Zanjan province and then tested for the presence of geminiviruses using polymerase chain reaction and rolling circle amplification systems. Materials and Methods: Some of the geminiviruses cause disease in the bean. To identify geminiviruses in the bean, sixty samples were collected from Zanjan, Khdabadeh, KhoramDareh and Abhar in summer 2014. These samples were collected according to the symptoms such as golden mosaic, curling, malformation, blistering, yellowing of leaves and plant stunting. After DNA extraction, viral infection was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using degenerate primers, PAL1V 1978/ PAR1C 496 and Primer B/ Primer V181. Based on the disease symptoms and results of PCR, four samples were selected to confirm the presence of geminiviruses and also to amplify the full-length genome using a rolling cycle amplification (RCA kit. The amplified DNA products were digested with EcoRI, Pst

  7. Involvement of C4 protein of beet severe curly top virus (family Geminiviridae in virus movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunling Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV is a leafhopper transmitted geminivirus with a monopartite genome. C4 proteins encoded by geminivirus play an important role in virus/plant interaction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To understand the function of C4 encoded by BSCTV, two BSCTV mutants were constructed by introducing termination codons in ORF C4 without affecting the amino acids encoded by overlapping ORF Rep. BSCTV mutants containing disrupted ORF C4 retained the ability to replicate in Arabidopsis protoplasts and in the agro-inoculated leaf discs of N. benthamiana, suggesting C4 is not required for virus DNA replication. However, both mutants did not accumulate viral DNA in newly emerged leaves of inoculated N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and the inoculated plants were asymptomatic. We also showed that C4 expression in plant could help C4 deficient BSCTV mutants to move systemically. C4 was localized in the cytosol and the nucleus in both Arabidopsis protoplasts and N. benthamiana leaves and the protein appeared to bind viral DNA and ds/ssDNA nonspecifically, displaying novel DNA binding properties. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that C4 protein in BSCTV is involved in symptom production and may facilitate virus movement instead of virus replication.

  8. Managing female urinary incontinence: A regional prospective analysis of cost-utility ratios (curs and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Costantini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the cost-utility of incontinence treatments, particularly anticholinergic therapy, by examining costs and quality-adjusted life years. Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study of women who were consecutively referred by general practitioners (GPs to the Urology Department because of urinary incontinence. The primary outcome was evaluation of the cost-utility of incontinence treatments (surgery, medical therapy and physiotherapy for stress and/or urgency incontinence by examining costs and quality-adjusted life years. Results: 137 consecutive female patients (mean age 60.6 ± 11.6; range 36-81 were enrolled and stratified according to pathologies: SUI and UUI. Group A: SUI grade II-III: 43 patients who underwent mid-urethral sling (MUS; Group B: SUI grade I-II 57 patients who underwent pelvic floor muscle exercise and Group C: UUI: 37 patients who underwent antimuscarinic treatment with 5 mg solifenacin daily. The cost utility ratio (CUR was estimated as saving more than €1200 per QALY for surgery and physiotherapy and as costing under € 100 per QALY for drug therapy. Conclusions: This study shows that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of a patient with incontinence lowers National Health Service costs and improves the benefits of treatment and quality of life.

  9. Correcting Inconsistencies and Errors in Bacterial Genome Metadata Using an Automated Curation Tool in Excel (AutoCurE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Whole-genome data are invaluable for large-scale comparative genomic studies. Current sequencing technologies have made it feasible to sequence entire bacterial genomes with relative ease and time with a substantially reduced cost per nucleotide, hence cost per genome. More than 3,000 bacterial genomes have been sequenced and are available at the finished status. Publically available genomes can be readily downloaded; however, there are challenges to verify the specific supporting data contained within the download and to identify errors and inconsistencies that may be present within the organizational data content and metadata. AutoCurE, an automated tool for bacterial genome database curation in Excel, was developed to facilitate local database curation of supporting data that accompany downloaded genomes from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. AutoCurE provides an automated approach to curate local genomic databases by flagging inconsistencies or errors by comparing the downloaded supporting data to the genome reports to verify genome name, RefSeq accession numbers, the presence of archaea, BioProject/UIDs, and sequence file descriptions. Flags are generated for nine metadata fields if there are inconsistencies between the downloaded genomes and genomes reports and if erroneous or missing data are evident. AutoCurE is an easy-to-use tool for local database curation for large-scale genome data prior to downstream analyses.

  10. AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Involved in Response to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curly Virus in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV, transmitted by the whitefly (, causes leaf curling and yellowing, plant dwarfism, and growth inhibition in tomato ( L.. The APETALA2 (AP2 and ethylene response factor (ERF transcription factor (TF family, the largest plant-specific TF family, was identified to function in plant development and pathogen defense. Our study aimed to analyze the mechanism underlying the function of ERF (SlERF TFs in response to TYLCV infection and improve useful information to increase the resistance to TYLCV in tomato. A total of 22 tomato AP2/ERF TFs in response to TYLCV were identified according to transcriptome database. Five ERF-B3 TFs were identified in cultivars Hongbeibei (highly resistant, Zheza-301, Zhefen-702 (both resistant, Jinpeng-1, and Xianke-6 (both susceptible. Interaction network indicated that SlERF TFs could interact with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Expression profiles of five ERF-B3 genes (, , , , and were detected by quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR after TYLCV infection in five tomato cultivars. expression was upregulated in five tomato cultivars. The expressions of three genes (, , and were upregulated in Zheza-301 and Zhefen-702. and expressions were downregulated in Hongbeibei and Xianke-6, respectively. Yeast one-hybrid showed that the GCC-box binding ability of ERF-B3 TFs differed in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. Expression profiles were related to the GCC-box binding ability of SlERF TFs in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. The defense mechanism underlying the tomato’s response to TYLCV involved a complicated network, which provided important information for us in breeding and genetic analysis.

  11. Short communication. Effect of deficit irrigation on curly lettuce grown under semiarid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuslu, Y.; Dursun, A.; Sahin, U.; Kiziloglu, F. M.; Turan, M.

    2008-07-01

    Field experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of deficit irrigation on curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Crispa cv. Bohemia) evapotranspiration, water use efficiency, marketable yield, yield components and mineral contents. The experiments were performed under semiarid climatic conditions in Erzurum province (east of Turkey) in the summer periods of 2005 and 2006. Irrigation water levels were selected to be 100% of usable soil water in full irrigation treatment (control) (T-100) and 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of usable soil water in deficit irrigation treatments (T-80, T-60, T-40 and T- 20, respectively). Average seasonal evapotranspiration was 232 mm in T-100 and 121 mm in T-20. Average marketable yield was 39.49 Mg ha{sup -}1 in T-100 and 14.57 Mg ha{sup -}1 in T-20. A linear relationship (y=0.23x-13.97; R{sup 2}0.94) was found between seasonal evapotranspiration (x) and marketable plant yield (y). According to the regression equation, the yield response factor (k{sub y}) was found to be 1.39, and the coefficient of determination 0.91. Average water use efficiency was 168.88 kg ha{sup -}1 mm{sup -}1 in T-100 and 117.39 kg ha{sup -}1 mm{sup -}1 in T-20. The lowest plant length, width, steam diameter, leaf number, macro and micro element content values were obtained for T-20 in both years. (Author) 21 refs.

  12. Antiproliferative effects of fresh and thermal processed green and red cultivars of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Helle; Grimmer, Stine; Aaby, Kjersti; Saha, Shikha; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2012-08-01

    Brassica vegetables contain a diverse range of phytochemicals with biological properties such as antioxidant and anticancer activity. However, knowledge about how biological activities are affected by processing is lacking. A green cultivar and a red cultivar of curly kale were evaluated for water/methanol-soluble phytochemicals before and after processing involving blanching, freeze storage, and boil-in-bag heat treatment. In both kale cultivars, processing resulted in a significant decrease of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, and content and distribution of flavonols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, glucosinolates, and vitamin C. Interestingly, the red curly kale cultivar had a higher capacity to withstand thermal loss of phytochemicals. The extracts of both green and red curly kale inhibited the cell proliferation of three human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29, and HCT 116). However, extracts from fresh plant material had a significantly stronger antiproliferative effect than extracts from processed plant material.

  13. Differential expression of CURS gene during various growth stages, climatic condition and soil nutrients in turmeric (Curcuma longa): Towards site specific cultivation for high curcumin yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, I Sriram; Das, Suryasnata; Nasim, Noohi; Mishra, Antaryami; Acharya, Laxmikanta; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Sujata

    2017-09-01

    Curcuma longa L., accumulates substantial amount of curcumin and essential oil. Little is known about the differential expression of curcumin synthase (CURS) gene and consequent curcumin content variations at different agroclimatic zones. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of climate, soil and harvesting phase on expression of CURS gene for curcumin yield in two high yielding turmeric cultivars. Expression of CURS gene at different experimental zones as well as at different harvesting phase was studied through transcriptional analysis by qRT-PCR. Curcumin varied from 1.5 to 5% and 1.4-5% in Surama and Roma respectively. The expression of CURS also varied from 0.402 to 5.584 fold in Surama and 0.856-5.217 fold in Roma. Difference in curcumin content at a particular zone varied among different harvesting period from 3.95 to 4.31% in Surama and 3.57-3.83% in Roma. Expression of CURS gene was also effected by harvesting time of the rhizome which varied from 7.389 to 16.882 fold in Surama and 4.41-8.342 fold in Roma. The CURS gene expression was found regardless of variations in curcumin content at different experimental zones. This may be due to the effects of soil and environmental variables. Expression was positively correlated with curcumin content with different harvesting time at a particular zone. This find indicates effect of soil and environment on molecular and biochemical dynamics of curcumin biosynthesis and could be useful in genetic improvement of turmeric. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization and quantification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. Convar. acephala Var. sabellica) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Helle; Aaby, Kjersti; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2009-04-08

    Kale is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the Brassicaceae family, a group of vegetables including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts, with a high content of health-promoting phytochemicals. The flavonoids and hydroxycinammic acids of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. oleracea convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.), a variety of kale, were characterized and identified primarily through HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analysis. Thirty-two phenolic compounds including glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol and derivatives of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acid were tentatively identified, providing a more complete identification of phenolic compounds in curly kale than previously reported. Moreover, three hydroxycinnamic acids and one flavonoid with an unusual high grade of glycosylation, quercetin-3-disinapoyl-triglucoside-7-diglucoside, have been tentatively identified for the first time. The influence of different extraction conditions (extraction method, solvent type, solvent/solid ratio, and duration of extraction) was investigated. The total flavonol and hydroxycinnamic acid contents in curly kale determined as rutin equivalents (RE) were 646 and 204 mg of RE/100 g of fresh weight (fw), respectively. The contents of individual flavonoids ranged from 2 to 159 mg of RE/100 g of fw, with main compounds kaempferol-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside (18.7%) and quercetin-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside (16.5%). After acidic hydrolysis, two flavonol aglycones were identified in curly kale, quercetin and kaempferol, with total contents of 44 and 58 mg/100 g of fw, respectively.

  15. Interaction between metabolism of atmospheric H2S in the shoot and sulfate uptake by the roots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, S; De Kok, LJ; Stulen, I.; Stuiver, C.Elisabeth E.

    Exposure of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.,) to gaseous H2S resulted in a decreased sulfate uptake by the roots. At 0.2 mu l l(-1) H2S, a level sufficient to meet the sulfur need of plants for growth, the sulfate uptake was maximally decreased by 50% after 3 or 4 days of exposure. Higher levels up

  16. Expression and activity of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in curly kale in response to sulfate deprivation and re-supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koralewska, Aleksandra; Buchner, Peter; Stuiver, C. Elisabeth E.; Posthumus, Freek S.; Kopriva, Stanislav; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; De Kok, Luit J.

    2009-01-01

    Both activity and expression of sulfate transporters and APS reductase in plants are modulated by the sulfur status of the plant. To examine the regulatory mechanisms in curly kale (Brossica olerracea L.), the sulfate supply was manipulated by the transfer of seedlings to sulfate-deprived

  17. SWFSC/MMTD/CCE: Oregon, California, and Washington Line-transect Experiment (ORCAWALE) 1996, 2001, 2008 and CA Current Cetacean and Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS) 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The California Current Cetacean and Ecosystem Assessment Survey (CalCurCEAS) is a marine mammal assessment survey of the U.S. West Coast waters. Similar research in...

  18. Control of the Biofilms Formed by Curli- and Cellulose-Expressing Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Using Treatments with Organic Acids and Commercial Sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2015-05-01

    Biofilms are a mixture of bacteria and extracellular products secreted by bacterial cells and are of great concern to the food industry because they offer physical, mechanical, and biological protection to bacterial cells. This study was conducted to quantify biofilms formed by different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces and to determine the effectiveness of sanitizing treatments in control of these biofilms. STEC producing various amounts of cellulose (n = 6) or curli (n = 6) were allowed to develop biofilms on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces at 28°C for 7 days. The biofilms were treated with 2% acetic or lactic acid and manufacturer-recommended concentrations of acidic or alkaline sanitizers, and residual biofilms were quantified. Treatments with the acidic and alkaline sanitizers were more effective than those with the organic acids for removing the biofilms. Compared with their counterparts, cells expressing a greater amount of cellulose or curli formed more biofilm mass and had greater residual mass after sanitizing treatments on polystyrene than on stainless steel. Research suggests that the organic acids and sanitizers used in the present study differed in their ability to control biofilms. Bacterial surface components and cell contact surfaces can influence both biofilm formation and the efficacy of sanitizing treatments. These results provide additional information on control of biofilms formed by STEC.

  19. Joint environmental assessment 1997--2001 of the California Department of Food and Agriculture Curly Top Virus Control Program for Bureau of Land Management and Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The DOE, Naval Petroleum reserves in California (NPRC), proposes to sign an Amendment to the Cooperative Agreement and Supplement with the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) to extend the term of the Curly Top Virus Control Program (CTVCP) in California. This program involves Malathion spraying on NPRC lands to control the beet leafhopper, over a five year period from 1997 through 2001. It is expected that approximately 330 acres on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 1 (NPR-1) and approximately 9,603 acres on Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 2 (NPR-2) will be treated with Malathion annually by CDFA during the course of this program. The actual acreage subject to treatment can vary from year to year. Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, the potential impacts of the proposed action were analyzed in a Joint Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-1011) with the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) acting as lead agency, in consultation with the CDFA, and the DOE acting as a cooperating agency. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the conduct of the Curly Top Virus Control Program in California is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is consequently issuing a FONSI.

  20. Presencia de Circulifer tenellus Baker y Beet mild curly top virus en maleza durante el invierno en el centro norte de México Circulifer tenellus Baker and Beet mild curly top virus presence in weeds during the winter in north-central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle; Luis Roberto Reveles-Torres; Mario Domingo Amador-Ramírez; María Mercedes Medina-Aguilar; Guillermo Medina-García

    2012-01-01

    Una de las enfermedades más importantes del chile para secado en el norte centro de México es la denominada amarillamientos del chile. Existe poca información acerca de la interacción entre el vector (Circulifer tenellus Baker), el Beet mild curly top virus y la maleza durante el invierno en esta región, consecuentemente el objetivo del trabajo fue identificar maleza de invierno que sirve como refugio para el vector y hospedero del virus en esta región. Entre enero y marzo de 2011 se muestrea...

  1. The Transformative Impact of Undergraduate Research Mentoring on Students and the Role of the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) in Supporting Faculty Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L. K.; Singer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate Research (UR) is broadly accepted as a high impact educational practice. Student participation in UR contributes to measurable gains in content knowledge and skills/methodology, oral and written communication skills, problem solving and critical thinking, self-confidence, autonomy, among others. First-generation college students and students from underrepresented minorities that participate in UR are more likely to remain in STEM majors, persist to graduation, and pursue graduate degrees. While engagement in the research process contributes to these outcomes, the impact of the interaction with the faculty mentor is critical. A number of studies provide evidence that it is the relationship that forms with the faculty mentor that is most valued by students and strongly contributes to their career development. Faculty mentors play an important role in student development and the relationship between mentor and student evolves from teacher to coach to colleague. Effective mentoring is not an inherent skill and is generally not taught in graduate school and generally differs from mentoring of graduate students. Each UR mentoring relationship is unique and there are many effective mentoring models and practices documented in the literature. The Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) has a long history of supporting faculty who engage in research with undergraduates and offers resources for establishing UR programs at individual, departmental, and institutional levels. The Geosciences Division of CUR leads faculty development workshops at professional meetings and provides extensive resources to support geosciences faculty as UR mentors (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/undergraduate_research/index.html). Examples of effective mentoring strategies are highlighted, including a model developed by SUNY- Buffalo State that integrates mentoring directly into the evaluation of UR.

  2. El capital social dels estudiants del darrer curs de Magisteri. Una aproximació a les seves xarxes socials en el marc de la facultat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Civís

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudis recents indiquen la importància del capital social en educació pel que fa a l’èxit educatiu. Així, aquesta recerca pren com a mostra els 321 estudiants de quart curs dels graus d’Educació Infantil i Primària de la Facultat de Psicologia, Ciències de l’Educació i l’Esport Blanquerna (curs 2014-2015 i n’analitza la xarxa de relacions en el context acadèmic. El projecte s’emmarca en el Pràcticum i en la qualitat de les relacions dels estudiants dins el seu grup classe. Així, la recerca indaga la construcció i les característiques de les xarxes socials dels futurs mestres a través d’un qüestionari sobre xarxes socials, en el qual se’ls pregunta per les xarxes que utilitzen a l’hora de demanar consell, compartir idees, pràctiques, materials, de fer amistats i quan tenen necessitat de desfogar-se. Es va obtenir un 80 % de respostes. Els resultats mostren unes xarxes amb unes estructures i uns comportaments força similars, de baixa densitat, en què la xarxa per demanar consell és la que presenta una mitjana més elevada de relacions directes de tots els actors individuals. També constatem que, en general, la xarxa està més activa en termes acadèmics que emocionals. Així, l’article conclou que seria desitjable augmentar la densitat de les xarxes (tant acadèmiques com emocionals i tendir cap a xarxes menys centralitzades.

  3. Disruption of rcsB by a duplicated sequence in a curli-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 results in differential gene expression in relation to biofilm formation, stress responses, and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) strain 86-24, linked to a 1986 disease outbreak, displays biofilm- and curli-negative phenotypes that are correlated with the lack of Congo red (CR) binding and formation of white colonies (CR negative) on a CR negative containing medium. However, on a CR ...

  4. Role of curli and plant cultivation conditions on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into spinach grown on hydroponics and in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarisin, Dumitru; Patel, Jitendra; Sharma, Vijay K

    2014-03-03

    Contamination of fresh produce could represent a public health concern because no terminal kill step is applied during harvest or at the processing facility to kill pathogens. In addition, once contaminated, pathogens may internalize into produce and be protected from disinfectants during the postharvest processing step. The objective of the current study was to determine the potential internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into spinach roots and subsequent transfer to the edible parts. Because curli are involved in biofilm formation, we investigated whether their presence influence the internalization of E. coli O157:H7 into spinach. Further, the effect of the spinach cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was evaluated. Spinach plants were grown in contaminated soil as well as hydroponically to prevent mechanical wounding of the roots and inadvertent transfer of pathogens from the contamination source to the non-exposed plant surfaces. Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 could internalize into hydroponically grown intact spinach plants through the root system and move to the stem and leaf level. The incidence of internalization was significantly higher in hydroponically grown plants when roots were exposed to 7 log CFU/mL compared to those exposed to 5 log CFU/mL. The effect of cultivar on E. coli O157:H7 internalization was not significant (P>0.05) for the analyzed spinach varieties, internalization incidences showing almost equal distribution between Space and Waitiki, 49.06% and 50.94% respectively. Wounding of the root system in hydroponically grown spinach increased the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 internalization and translocation to the edible portions of the plant. Experimental contamination of the plants grown in soil resulted in a greater number of internalization events then in those grown hydroponically, suggesting that E. coli O157:H7 internalization is dependent on root damage, which is more likely to occur when plants are grown in soil

  5. Curly arrows meet electron density transfers in chemical reaction mechanisms: from electron localization function (ELF) analysis to valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) inspired interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Juan; Berski, Sławomir; Silvi, Bernard

    2016-07-07

    Probing the electron density transfers during a chemical reaction can provide important insights, making possible to understand and control chemical reactions. This aim has required extensions of the relationships between the traditional chemical concepts and the quantum mechanical ones. The present work examines the detailed chemical insights that have been generated through 100 years of work worldwide on G. N. Lewis's ground breaking paper on The Atom and the Molecule (Lewis, G. N. The Atom and the Molecule, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1916, 38, 762-785), with a focus on how the determination of reaction mechanisms can be reached applying the bonding evolution theory (BET), emphasizing how curly arrows meet electron density transfers in chemical reaction mechanisms and how the Lewis structure can be recovered. BET that combines the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool providing insight into molecular mechanisms of chemical rearrangements. In agreement with physical laws and quantum theoretical insights, BET can be considered as an appropriate tool to tackle chemical reactivity with a wide range of possible applications. Likewise, the present approach retrieves the classical curly arrows used to describe the rearrangements of chemical bonds for a given reaction mechanism, providing detailed physical grounds for this type of representation. The ideas underlying the valence-shell-electron pair-repulsion (VSEPR) model applied to non-equilibrium geometries provide simple chemical explanations of density transfers. For a given geometry around a central atom, the arrangement of the electronic domain may comply or not with the VSEPR rules according with the valence shell population of the considered atom. A deformation yields arrangements which are either VSEPR defective (at least a domain is missing to match the VSEPR arrangement corresponding to the geometry of the ligands), VSEPR compliant

  6. Characterization, quantification, and yearly variation of the naturally occurring polyphenols in a common red variety of curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala var. sabellica cv. 'Redbor').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Helle; Aaby, Kjersti; Borge, Grethe Iren A

    2010-11-10

    This study focuses on the characterization and quantification of polyphenols in the edible leaves of red curly kale ( Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.), variety 'Redbor F1 hybrid'. The kale was grown at an experimental field (59° 40' N) in the years 2007-2009. The analysis of kale extract by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS has allowed the determination of 47 different acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides and complex hydroxycinnamic acids. Those compounds included mono- to tetraglycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and cyanidin and derivatives of p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, and caffeic acid. Among the compounds characterized, four flavonols, three anthocyanins, and three phenolic acids were identified in the Brassica family for the first time. Aglycones and conjugated polyphenols were quantified by HPLC-DAD using commercially available standards. The main flavonol, anthocyanin, and phenolic acid were kaempferol-3-sinapoyl-diglucoside-7-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-sinapoyl-feruloyl-diglucoside-5-glucoside, and disinapoyl-diglucoside, respectively, each representing 9.8, 10.3, and 4.9% of the total amount of 872 mg polyphenol equivalents per 100 g of fresh kale. Variations between individual plants and growing seasons were of the same order of magnitude for total phenolics and total monomeric anthocyanins.

  7. The Effects on Water Consumption and Some Growth Parameters of Different Level of Leonardite in Curly Leaf Salad (Lactuva sativa var. crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertan Sesveren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the research, effects of Leonardite which is an important source of humic and fulvic acid applied in different levels on the basis of weight to soil on the water consumption and agricultural productivity in curly leaf salad (Lactuva sativa var. crispa were evaluated. The study was carried out under the greenhouse conditions as a pot experiment. The soil used was clayey-loamy and the PE pots with 10 L volume were used in the experiment. The study was designed to test random blocks with 3 replications in 4 different treatments. The subjects were formed as L0: (Control, L5: (5% leonardite + 95% soil, L10: (10% leonardite + 90% soil and L20: (20% leonardite + 80% soil. Plant water depletions were monitored by weighing the pots. The highest water consumption was achieved with 9.74 L for L0 control (non-leonardite applied potting soil, while it was lowest as 7.20 L for the L20. The effect of the Leonardite applied as different levels on the yield and some growth parameters were found statistically significant (P

  8. Phylogeny, diet, and habitat of an extinct ground sloth from Cuchillo Curá, Neuquén Province, southwest Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael; Betancourt, Julio L.; Sbriller, Alicia Pelliza; Markgraf, Vera; McDonald, H. Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Advancements in ancient DNA analyses now permit comparative molecular and morphological studies of extinct animal dung commonly preserved in caves of semiarid regions. These new techniques are showcased using a unique dung deposit preserved in a late glacial vizcacha (Lagidium sp.) midden from a limestone cave in southwestern Argentina (38.5° S). Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial DNA show that the dung originated from a small ground sloth species not yet represented by skeletal material in the region, and not closely related to any of the four previously sequenced extinct and extant sloth species. Analyses of pollen and plant cuticles, as well as analyses of the chloroplast DNA, show that the Cuchillo Curá ground sloth browsed on many of the same herb, grass, and shrub genera common at the site today, and that its habitat was treeless Patagonian scrub-steppe. We envision a day when molecular analyses are used routinely to supplement morphological identifications and possibly to provide a time-lapse view of molecular diversification.

  9. Characterization of phenolics, glucosinolates and antioxidant activity of beverages based on apple juice with addition of frozen and freeze-dried curly kale leaves (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegańska-Marecik, Róża; Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Marecik, Roman

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the polyphenols, glucosinolates and ascorbic acid content as well as antioxidant activity of beverages on the base of apple juice with addition of frozen and freeze-dried curly kale leaves. Upon enrichment with frozen (13%) and freeze-dried curly kale (3%), the naturally cloudy apple juice was characterized by an increase in phenolic compounds by 2.7 and 3.3-times, accordingly. The antioxidant activity of beverages with the addition of curly kale ranged from 6.6 to 9.4μmol Trolox/mL. The obtained beverages were characterized glucosinolates content at 117.6-167.6mg/L and ascorbic acid content at 4,1-31,9mg/L. The results of sensory evaluation of colour, taste and consistency of apple juice and beverages with the addition of kale did not differ significantly prior to pasteurization (P≤0.05), whereas after the pasteurization the evaluated factors decreased significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. cur | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ethical Guidelines and Procedures document. Posted on 17 January 2017. A revised version of the document 'Scientific Values: Ethical Guidelines and Procedures' has been produced by the Academy's Panel on Scientific Values. For more details, see the Academy Committee on Scientific Values page.

  11. Leucemia linfóide aguda: uma doença curável Acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a curable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pedrosa

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Leucemia linfóide Aguda (LLA, é o tipo mais comum de câncer infantil, constituindo cerca de um terço de todas as neoplasias malignas da criança. A incidência de LLA em crianças nos Estados Unidos é aproximadamente de 3,4 casos por 100.000 crianças menores de 15 anos de idade. Até a metade do século passado, as leucemias eram consideras universalmene, uma doença fatal. O desenvolvimento de combinações terapêuticas, utilizando diversas drogas citotóxicas com ou sem transplante de medula óssea, tem aumentado o percentual de cura da criança portadora de Leucemia linfóide Aguda em mais de 80%. Anualmente cerca de 1.500 crianças com LLA, nos Estados Unidos, estão sendo curadas. Contudo, dos 75.000 novos casos de LLA, que são diagnosticados anualmente em todo o mundo, cerca de 60.000 (80% não têm acesso a essas modernas formas de tratamento e são, portanto excluídos desse processo de cura. O desafio de tornar a LLA uma doença curável começa a ser vencido com o relato de taxas de sobrevida maior que 50% para crianças tratadas em países com recursos limitados. Em El salvador, Bonilla, conseguiu aumentar a taxa de sobrevida de crianças com LLA de 5% para 50%. No Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, Pedrosa evoluiu de uma taxa de 29% nos anos 80, para 75% na era atual.ABSTRACT: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common type of cancer in children, accoun-ting for one third of all malignant neoplasias affecting them. ALL incidences in children in the United States are of approximately 3,4 cases per 100.000 children under fifteen years old. Up to the middle of last century leukemia was universally considered a fatal di-sease. The development of therapeutic combinations through the use of various cytotoxic drugs with or without bone marrow transplantation has increased cure percentages of children with ALL in over 80%. Annually around 1.500 children with ALL in the Uni-ted States are being cured. Nevertheless, of the

  12. Signal peptide prediction suggests Mycobacterium tuberculosis curli pilin subunit secretion via the Sec pathway may hinder MTP overexpression in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, N.; Pillay, B.; Bubb, M.; Kumar, A.; Chiliza, T.; Pillay, M.

    2017-07-01

    Introduction Mycobacterium tuberculosis curli pili (MTP) are novel, potential TB diagnostic biomarkers as they are important virulence attributes, unique to the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The production of high quality recombinant transmembrane and secretory proteins that can serve as biomarkers may be challenging due to their secretion attributes. For example, the signal peptide of MTP governed by the classical secretion pathway may hinder the purification of the protein in E. coli systems. In this study, the secretion characteristics of MTP were determined and the cloning, expression and purification of MTP was attempted in E.coli. Materials and methods A fragment of MTP unique to MTBC was cloned into pet101 and pGEX-6P-1 vectors. The clones were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and expression of the protein was attempted at IPTG concentrations ranging from 0.1mM to 1mM and at temperatures between 25 °C to 37 °C. The pGEX-6P-1/mtp clone expressed protein was purified, yielding a MTP-GST fusion protein and a free GST band that were analysed by LC/MS mass spectrometry. Inclusion body preparation attempted from the pet101/mtp clone yielded two bands at 10 kDa and below 10 kDa, both of which were analysed by LC/MS mass spectrometry. Transcription activity of both the clones was interrogated by real time PCR on the cDNA derived from the induced clones at various time points after induction with IPTG. The signal peptide and protein secretion characteristics of the MTP protein were determined by bioinformatics analysis of the amino acid sequence using publically available software. Results The truncated MTP fragments were successfully cloned in both the vectors as confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Expression of the pGEX-6P-1/mtp clone using 0.5 mM IPTG at 27 °C demonstrated the presence of the expected fragment at approximately 35 kDa. This was confirmed by Western Blotting using anti-GST antibodies. However, purification of MTP in adequate quantities as a

  13. Signal peptide prediction suggests Mycobacterium tuberculosis curli pilin subunit secretion via the Sec pathway may hinder MTP overexpression in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, N.; Pillay, B.; Bubb, M.; Kumar, A.; Chiliza, T.; Pillay, M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mycobacterium tuberculosis curli pili (MTP) are novel, potential TB diagnostic biomarkers as they are important virulence attributes, unique to the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The production of high quality recombinant transmembrane and secretory proteins that can serve as biomarkers may be challenging due to their secretion attributes. For example, the signal peptide of MTP governed by the classical secretion pathway may hinder the purification of the protein in E. coli systems. In this study, the secretion characteristics of MTP were determined and the cloning, expression and purification of MTP was attempted in E.coli. Materials and methods A fragment of MTP unique to MTBC was cloned into pet101 and pGEX-6P-1 vectors. The clones were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing and expression of the protein was attempted at IPTG concentrations ranging from 0.1mM to 1mM and at temperatures between 25 °C to 37 °C. The pGEX-6P-1/mtp clone expressed protein was purified, yielding a MTP-GST fusion protein and a free GST band that were analysed by LC/MS mass spectrometry. Inclusion body preparation attempted from the pet101/mtp clone yielded two bands at 10 kDa and below 10 kDa, both of which were analysed by LC/MS mass spectrometry. Transcription activity of both the clones was interrogated by real time PCR on the cDNA derived from the induced clones at various time points after induction with IPTG. The signal peptide and protein secretion characteristics of the MTP protein were determined by bioinformatics analysis of the amino acid sequence using publically available software. Results The truncated MTP fragments were successfully cloned in both the vectors as confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Expression of the pGEX-6P-1/mtp clone using 0.5 mM IPTG at 27 °C demonstrated the presence of the expected fragment at approximately 35 kDa. This was confirmed by Western Blotting using anti-GST antibodies. However, purification of MTP in adequate quantities as a

  14. Construção do conceito de número: uma análise de atividades matemáticas desenvolvidas pelo Subprojeto PIBID / UFMT / CUR nas escolas do Ensino Fundamental de Rondonópolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bomfim Alves de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo origina-se de uma pesquisa fundamentada na teoria de Jean Piaget, realizada no decorrer de atividades do subprojeto Alfabetização Matemática do PIBID / UFMT / CUR / Pedagogia. O objetivo foi investigar e problematizar a importância da construção do conceito de número segundo Piaget no processo de alfabetização matemática. A pesquisa foi qualitativa, com estudo bibliográfico, no qual replicamos 3 provas de conservação numérica, com 2 crianças, sendo 1 de 5 anos e a outra de 6 anos. Os dados foram descritos e analisados utilizando-se o método interpretativo. Consideramos que os resultados nos possibilitou constatar o nível de representação/fase de construção do número que as crianças se encontravam. Palavras-chave: alfabetização matemática; construção do conceito do número; prova de conservação.

  15. Black holes can have curly hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, K. A.; Zaslavskii, O. B.

    2008-01-01

    We study equilibrium conditions between a static, spherically symmetric black hole and classical matter in terms of the radial pressure to density ratio p r /ρ=w(u), where u is the radial coordinate. It is shown that such an equilibrium is possible in two cases: (i) the well-known case w→-1 as u→u h (the horizon), i.e., 'vacuum' matter, for which ρ(u h ) can be nonzero; (ii) w→-1/(1+2k) and ρ∼(u-u h ) k as u→u h , where k>0 is a positive integer (w=-1/3 in the generic case k=1). A noninteracting mixture of these two kinds of matter can also exist. The whole reasoning is local, hence the results do not depend on any global or asymptotic conditions. They mean, in particular, that a static black hole cannot live inside a star with nonnegative pressure and density. As an example, an exact solution for an isotropic fluid with w=-1/3 (that is, a fluid of disordered cosmic strings), with or without vacuum matter, is presented.

  16. Methodology for Project Governence in CURS

    OpenAIRE

    Hribovšek, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Rare are organizations that haven’t met with project way of work yet. This also applies to government bodies. The degree addresses two areas which are very important for organizations that want to maintain control over costs, risk, functionality and complexity of a project. The first area is project management and the second area is system development process. The main purpose of the degree is to execute a complete analysis on both mentioned areas and to prepare or to renovate the met...

  17. Interferon alfa and ribavirin induced hair changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, S.; Taj, A.; Muhamud, T.H.; Iqbal, Z.; Yaqub, F.

    2007-01-01

    Combination therapy of Interferon alfa and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C has well documented cutaneous adverse effects. Most interesting of these has been reported on hair physiology. This study was conducted to determine the frequency and pattern of adverse effects involving hair in patients receiving combination of interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. The study was conducted in Department of Dermatology, Division of Medicine Shaikh Zayed Hospital. Thirty Eight patients who completed treatment with interferon alfa (3 MIU subcutaneously thrice weekly) and 1200 mg ribavirin daily for 24 weeks were enrolled in this single-center study. The patient's response and examination finding particularly regarding involvement of hair was noted on a Proforma. Thirty Two out of thirty eight (84%) patients noted adverse effects involving hair. The most frequent was diffuse hair loss and occurred in 27 patients (71%). Hypertrichosis of eyelashes (trichomegaly) and eyebrows (synophyrs) was observed in 18 (47%) and 16 (42%) patients respectively. Graying of hair was noted in 4 patients (11%), while discoloration of moustache hair was seen in 2 patients (5%). Epilation at the site of subcutaneous injection was noted in 10 patients (26%). Alopecia areata was reported in 2 patients (5%). It is concluded that adverse effects involving hair are frequent and varied (hair loss to excess hair growth) during combination therapy with Interferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. (author)

  18. High-temperature ceramic-curly building insulation ВЫСОКОТЕМПЕРАТУРНАЯ КЕРАМОВОЛОКНИСТАЯ ТЕПЛИЗОЛЯЦИЯ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treskova Nadezhda Vladimirovna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The technology of composite fiber products for high-temperature insulation and the properties research is described. The ceramic-curly materials application for line operating of thermal generating units is justified.ТЕПЛИЗОЛЯЦИЯ Рассмотрена технология композиционных волокнистых изделий для высокотемпературной изоляции и исследованы их свойства. Обосновано применение керамоволокнистых материалов при футеровочных работах тепловых агрегатов.

  19. Mudanças nas características físico-químicas de um latossolo vermelho-amarelo distrófico após a irrigação com água de reúso na cultura da alface-crespa (Lactuca sativa, L. Physical and chemical characteristics changes of a red-yellow latosol after implementation of water reuse in the culture of curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. T. Varallo

    2012-04-01

    where were grown two rounds of curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. with two treatments with three repetitions each: witness (provisioning water and reuse. The results did not show increases in some chemical attributes of fertility as iron, magnesium, zinc, boron, potassium, nitrate, sodium and calcium; decrease in organic matter and manganese, besides increase of hydraulic conductivity and the electrical conductivity of the soil. It was also observed a reduction of the soil pH, besides the increase of SAR and ESP. Thus it must be concluded the application of water reuse for agricultural purposes should be in a rational way, and the elevation of salts in the soil must be monitored.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF CROSS-TRAINING DUE TO SPA TREATMENT IN CURRING FUNCTIONAL NEUROTIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Stefanović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern civilization moves to endless automation and mechanization. This fact, in one hand, has positive effect on increase of life standard, but also carries its own risks and threats of mankind. Axelberg, famous academician, makes an interesting remark that only a hundred years ago man did 96 % of his work by himself, while today most manufacturing processes are 100% automated. Stress, lack of physical activity and bad food regime are canses of organic damages of cardiopulmonary system. Latest research, conducted in many countries, shows that for proper functioning of every organism the minimum of moving is necessary.Term neurosis was introduced in medical literature by Scottish doctor W. Cullen in 1777. By that term were considered different clinical appearances which are believed neurotic todey, but also the phenomena today considered as psychosomatic disorders of character and behavior. Pavlov’s reflexive theory is basic in treatment of some types of neurossis’ during spa treatments in Nerečinska Banja. It usually starts at the beginning of May and ends in October, but sometimes if weather is nice, it can last until the middle of November. The treatment cure last tventy-one day, doesn’t include medicaments, but only spa water, baths and massage.

  1. Web of Science [vídeo]: tutorial. Curs 2016-17

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat de Barcelona. CRAI

    2016-01-01

    El portal Web of Science (WOS), abans conegut com a Web of Knowledge, ofereix un conjunt de recursos bibliogràfics. A través del WOS es poden fer cerques transversals a les bases de dades que l'integren: Biosis Previews, CAB Abstracts, Zoological Record i també Medline.

  2. 78 FR 40149 - Scientific Information Request on Chronic Urinary Retention (CUR) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... information from the list to upload your documents. Email submissions: src.org ">SIPS@epc- src.org . Print... ">SIPS@epc- src.org . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has... in the key questions detailed below. The entire research protocol, including the key questions, is...

  3. Ciència i pseudociència : un curs obert miniop

    OpenAIRE

    Canet, Roser; Costa, Marcel; Manuel, Jordi de

    2015-01-01

    Pseudosciences are extraordinarily proliferating across networks. We present an online course (miniop) open and self-training to develop critical thinking from the interaction between the participants. The activities analyze three cases of pseudoscientific ideas: predictions of the future, chemtrails and antivaccination movement.

  4. Heating device for thermal treatment of curred small diameter tubes and utilization of this device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquier, P.

    1988-01-01

    The heating device is made by a helical winding constituted from a resistance heating wire. The heating wire constituted the central core of a coaxial cable comprising an outer tubular metal envelope and an insulating layer interpolated between the central core and the outer envelope. The coaxial cable is wound in order to form a helical winding that forms the flexible element for introduction to the tube to be treated [fr

  5. NR based curred latex material reclaimed with 2,2'-dibenzamidodiphenyldisulphide in truck tyre tread compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, V.V.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Joseph, R.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2006-01-01

    It is observed that reclamation of natural rubber latex based rubber using 2,2'-dibenzamidodiphenyldisulphide as reclaiming agent is an optional methodology for recycling of waste latex rubber (WLR). For progressive replacement of virgin natural rubber by the reclaim, two alternatives curing system

  6. STUDY ON MOISTURE-CUR ED POLYURETHANE AS UNDERCOATING LAYER FOR METALLIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Mohamad Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work a technique of metallizing substrate via electroless plating using moisture-cured polyurethane (MCPU system as the undercoat is presented. MCPU prepolymer was prepared by mixing polyethylene glycol divinyl ether and diphenylmethane-4, 4’-diisocyanate in 1:1 ratio. The effects of etching time as well as curing period on the surface characteristic of MCPU undercoating were investigated. Contact angle measurements, FTIR and SEM were employed to study the changes on the surface of the treated MCPU undercoatsprior to electroless nickel plating. Electroless plating was performed using nickel bath and visual inspection was performed after completing the electroless plating cycles. Relative increase in wettability of the treated MCPU was observed. The surface became hydrophilic after subjecting to mild etching for 1 minute. SEM analysis revealed different pitted structures on the treated MCPU that were cured at different periods. FTIR analysis of the treated MCPU showed some chemical changes marked by the presence of free hydroxyl group and decrease of CH (methylene, urethane C=O, urethane amide and ether peaks. FTIR also showed the sign of further NCO reaction, which indicates by the decrease of NCO peak and increase of NH and urea C=O peaks. The standard pull-off testing method (ASTM D 4541 was employed to evaluate the adhesion strength of nickel deposits coated on MCPU undercoating layer.The test results revealed that curing period and etching time influence the adhesion performance.The results also show that at a selected curing period, prolong etching time will decrease the adhesion strength. Meanwhile prolong curing period will improve the adhesion strength.

  7. La bombe à retardement du curé d’Étrépigny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cavaillé

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Même si l’effort théorique qu’il déploie pour présenter un système philosophique et politique rigoureusement athée est tout à fait considérable, Jean Meslier n’est certes pas le premier des athées de l’histoire, ni « l’inventeur » de l’athéisme, comme on a pu le dire encore récemment. Cependant, il y a bien un avant et un après Meslier. Car son œuvre est à la fois un aboutissement et une rupture, une conclusion et le commencement d’une ère nouvelle qui est encore la nôtre.D’une part, elle est...

  8. Pràctiques de tècniques instrumentals separatives (Curs 2012/2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Maicas i Prieto, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    El quadernet forma part dels materials docents programats mitjançant l'ajut del Servei de Política Lingüística de la Universitat de València. Cromatografia. La cromatografia en paper és una tècnica analítica que s’utilitza per a la separació i la identificació de mescles que són, o poden ser, de color. Aquest mètode ha estat substituït en gran mesura per la cromatografia de capa fina. Tanmateix, continua sent una poderosa eina per l’ensenyament. En algunes ocasions es realitzen cromatograf...

  9. Materials behaviour in metal curring: strains, strain rates and temperatures in chip formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosijns, S.J.A.G.; Haitjema, H.; Schellekens, P.H.J.; Jaspers, S.P.F.C.; Dautzenberg, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    The non-linearities in a heterodyne laser interferometer system occurring from the phase measurement system of the interferometer andfrom non-ideal polarization effects of the optics are modeled into one analytical expression which includes the initial polarization state ofthe laser source, the

  10. L'entonació del pallarès i les preguntes absolutes dels erasmus: dues investigacions en curs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Font-Rotchés

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hem realitzat dues investigacions d’anàlisi melòdica: una sobre els trets melòdics bàsics del parlar del pallarès, formada per 96 enunciats de parla espontània emesos per 21 informants de diferents zones del Pallars. S’han obtingut contorns dels 6 primers patrons entonatius descrits en el català, i també diversos trets d’èmfasi bàsics. I, una altra, sobre les preguntes absolutes que fan els estudiants Erasmus. Es basa en 31 preguntes emeses per 15 aprenents de català com a l2. Es constata que aquests gairebé mai no segueixen l'estructura pròpia de les preguntes absolutes del català, la qual cosa explica els malentesos que tenen lloc entre un parlant, que fa una pregunta, i un interlocutor, que la percep com una afirmació i, per consegüent, no respon.

  11. Straight or Curly? Hair and Race in Carmen Montañez's "Pelo bueno, pelo malo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Loyola, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Historically, black women's hair has been a site where power and social relations are defined. In Puerto Rico, cultural production has been critical in perpetuating as well as in contesting the prevailing white European ideal of beauty and its impact on women's hairstyling practices. Nevertheless, the link between aesthetic preferences and the…

  12. Effect of H2S exposure on S-35-sulfate uptake, transport and utilization in curly kale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, S; Weidner, W; De Kok, LJ; Stulen, I.

    2000-01-01

    When Brassica oleracea L. was exposed to 0.2 mul l(-1) H2S the sulfate uptake measured during a dark or light period was decreased to the same extent. Both the xylem loading and the net sulfate uptake rate were decreased by 42% after 6 days of exposure to 0.4 mul l(-1) H2S. This suggested that the

  13. Com cooperen els estudiants de primer curs de ADE? Treball en equip: disseny basat en Economia Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penélope Hernández

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos el diseño y los resultados de un experimento económico realizado por estudiantes de primero del grado de administración y dirección de empresas en el transcurso de una clase práctica de la asignatura transversal de incorporación a los estudios universitarios. Los estudiantes tomaron sus decisiones en un marco donde coexisten los conflictos individuales con los colectivos. El efecto del grupo les ilustró el efecto de la coordinación y del trabajo en equipo. El principal objetivo de esta actividad es desarrollar y evaluar la competencia de trabajo en equipo, así como la responsabilidad social, capacidad reflexiva y actitud crítica de los estudiantes.

  14. Infermeria Medicoquirúrgica II. Temari corresponent al Professor Francisco Pérez Dolz. Curs 2017-2018

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Dolz, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    El document forma part dels materials docents programats mitjançant l'ajut del Servei de Política Lingüística de la Universitat de València. Temari corresponent al professor Francisco Pérez Dolz

  15. Why God Became Man: Saint Anselm, Cur Deus Homo, and a Religious Challenge in Anglo-Norman England

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfe, Adam

    2004-01-01

    ... of Canterbury during the Gregorian Reform. Anselm's life was theology in action, and yet no historian has fully explored the possibility that Anselm's policies as head of the Catholic Church in England were the natural outgrowth...

  16. Blowout heroes : while his crew mate risked fire and falling rock to save him, Curly Slater fought right to the last breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, J.

    2008-11-15

    This article discussed a blow-out that resulted in a fatality at a drilling rig near Helmut, British Columbia (BC). The blowout caused a column of fire, drilling mud, and rock to explode from the floor of the rig. As the rig's derrickman was trapped when drilling mud caked onto his easy rider cable and froze the escape sliding mechanism. The derrickman fell and was left dangling by his harness. Crew members spotted him from a distance and returned to the site in order to unhook the easy rider cable from the manifold shack and move the steel line to a location that would allow him to descend more easily. The derrickman was unable to un-jam his fall arrestor. He freed himself using his own strength, seized a cable, but lost his grip while still 75 feet in the air and fell to his death. The tragedy was caused by the presence of a very large gas pocket encountered at an unusually shallow depth. Several of the crew members have been unable to continue working in the oil and gas industry, due to the psychological trauma of witnessing the man's death. The Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors (CAODC) has issued awards of merit for the crew men who attempted to save the derrickman, and the entire crew will receive medals of bravery from the Governor General of Canada. 2 figs.

  17. Role of curli and plant cultivation conditions on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into organic spinach grown on hydroponics and in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of organic fresh produce is an important public health concern because no terminal disinfection treatment is applied during harvest or at the packing facility to kill pathogens. In addition, once contaminated, pathogens may internalize into produce and be protected from disinfectants d...

  18. Role of curli and contamination level on Escherichia coli O157:H7 internalization into organic spinach plants grown on hydroponics and in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: E. coli O157:H7 may be internalized into organic leafy greens via root uptake. Understanding the mechanisms of E. coli O157:H7 internalization into organic leafy greens is important as produce wash treatment may not remove internalized pathogens. Purpose: The internalization potential...

  19. Influence of cultivar and fertilizer approach on curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica). 1. Genetic diversity reflected in agronomic characteristics and phytochemical concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2014-11-26

    The objectives were to investigate if genetic diversity among field-grown traditional and F1 hybrid kale cultivars was reflected in different agronomic characteristics and consequently glucosinolate (GLS) and flavonoid glycoside concentration. This study evaluated how nitrogen and sulfur supply and biomass allocation modified phytochemicals in two experiments with combinations of three cultivars and four N and two S application levels. Results showed less growth, and higher N concentration in the traditional cultivar 'Tiara' was associated with increased indole and total GLSs compared to traditional 'Høj Amager Toftø' and F1 hybrid 'Reflex' cultivars, which exhibited higher yield, lower N concentration, and different biomass allocation. S application increased total GLS concentration, whereas aliphatic GLS percentage decreased when N application increased. Decrease of six 'Reflex' GLSs besides quercetin glycosides and total flavonoid glycosides with increased N indicated higher N responsiveness for 'Reflex'. In conclusion, differences in agronomic characteristics were reflected in diverse phytochemical composition.

  20. Nitrogen split dose fertilization, plant age and frost effects on phytochemical content and sensory properties of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenbaek, Marie; Jensen, Sidsel; Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L

    2016-04-15

    We investigated how concentrations of sensory relevant compounds: glucosinolates (GLSs), flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and sugars in kale responded to split dose and reduced nitrogen (N) fertilization, plant age and controlled frost exposure. In addition, frost effects on sensory properties combined with N supply were assessed. Seventeen week old kale plants showed decreased aliphatic GLSs at split dose N fertilization; whereas reduced N increased aliphatic and total GLSs. Ontogenetic effects were demonstrated for all compounds: sugars, aliphatic and total GLSs increased throughout plant development, whereas kaempferol and total flavonoid glycosides showed higher concentrations in 13 week old plants. Controlled frost exposure altered sugar composition slightly, but not GLSs or flavonoid glycosides. Reduced N supply resulted in less bitterness, astringency and pungent aroma, whereas frost exposure mainly influenced aroma and texture. N treatment explained most of the sensory variation. Producers should not rely on frost only to obtain altered sensory properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distribution and Abundance of Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) and Curly-Leaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.) in Shawano Lake, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owens, Chetta S; James, William F; Skogerboe, John G; Smart, R. M

    2007-01-01

    ... (Potamogeton crispus L.) and Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). In addition to problems associated with invasive plant species, Shawano Lake has been experiencing declining water quality associated with phosphorus (P...

  2. Preparation and in-vitro/in-vivo evaluation of curcumin nanosuspension with solubility enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yuan, Huiling; Zhang, Caiyun; Chen, Weidong; Cheng, Weiye; Chen, Xin; Ye, Xi

    2016-08-01

    We developed Cur nanosuspension (Cur-NS) with PVPK30 and SDS as stabilizers to improve poor water solubility and short biological half-time of Cur. Physicochemical characterization of Cur-NS was characterized systematically. The in-vitro dissolution, cytotoxicity and in-vivo pharmacokinetic experiments of Cur-NS were also evaluated. Scanning electron microscope indicated that the morphologies of Cur-NS were spherical or ellipsoidal in shape. X-ray diffraction verified that Cur was successfully developed as nanoparticles with an amorphous phase in Cur-NS. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested there was no degradation about Cur in the Cur-NS. Furthermore, the in-vitro study showed that the cumulative release of the Cur-NS was 82.16 ± 2.62% within 34 h and the cytotoxicity of the Cur-NS against HepG2 cells was much better than raw Cur. Besides, in-vivo pharmacokinetics in rats by intravenous injection displayed that the in-vivo process of Cur-NS pertained to two-compartment model. Meanwhile, the t1/2 and AUC0-t of Cur-NS were enhanced by 11.0-fold and 4.2-fold comparing to Cur solution. The Cur-NS significantly increased the water solubility and half-time of Cur, suggesting its potential as a nanocarrier in the delivery of Cur for future clinical application. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Metabolic fate of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based curcumin nanoparticles following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Taiki; Inoue, Nao; Kimura, Fumiko; Ikeda, Ikuo; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR), the main polyphenol in turmeric, is poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolized following oral administration, which severely curtails its bioavailability. Poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based CUR nanoparticles (CUR-NP) have recently been suggested to improve CUR bioavailability, but this has not been fully verified. Specifically, no data are available about curcumin glucuronide (CURG), the major metabolite of CUR found in the plasma following oral administration of CUR-NP. Herein, we investigated the absorption and metabolism of CUR-NP and evaluated whether CUR-NP improves CUR bioavailability. Following oral administration of CUR-NP in rats, we analyzed the plasma and organ distribution of CUR and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To elucidate the mechanism of increased intestinal absorption of CUR-NP, we prepared mixed micelles comprised of phosphatidylcholine and bile salts and examined the micellar solubility of CUR-NP. Additionally, we investigated the cellular incorporation of the resultant micelles into differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Following in vivo administration of CUR-NP, CUR was effectively absorbed and present mainly as CURG in the plasma which contained significant amounts of the metabolite compared with other organs. Thus, CUR-NP increased intestinal absorption of CUR rather than decreasing metabolic degradation and conversion to other metabolites. In vitro, CUR encapsulated in CUR-NP was solubilized in mixed micelles; however, whether the micelles contained CUR or CUR-NP had little influence on cellular uptake efficiency. Therefore, we suggest that the high solubilization capacity of CUR-NP in mixed micelles, rather than cellular uptake efficiency, explains the high intestinal absorption of CUR-NP in vivo. These findings provide a better understanding of the bioavailability of CUR and CUR-NP following oral administration. To improve the bioavailability of CUR, future

  4. Metabolic fate of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid-based curcumin nanoparticles following oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harigae T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Harigae,1 Kiyotaka Nakagawa,1 Taiki Miyazawa,2 Nao Inoue,3 Fumiko Kimura,1 Ikuo Ikeda,3 Teruo Miyazawa4,5 1Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan; 2Vascular Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Laboratory of Food and Biomolecular Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, 4Food and Biotechnology Innovation Project, New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, 5Food and Health Science Research Unit, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Purpose: Curcumin (CUR, the main polyphenol in turmeric, is poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolized following oral administration, which severely curtails its bioavailability. Poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid-based CUR nanoparticles (CUR-NP have recently been suggested to improve CUR bioavailability, but this has not been fully verified. Specifically, no data are available about curcumin glucuronide (CURG, the major metabolite of CUR found in the plasma following oral administration of CUR-NP. Herein, we investigated the absorption and metabolism of CUR-NP and evaluated whether CUR-NP improves CUR bioavailability.Methods: Following oral administration of CUR-NP in rats, we analyzed the plasma and organ distribution of CUR and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To elucidate the mechanism of increased intestinal absorption of CUR-NP, we prepared mixed micelles comprised of phosphatidylcholine and bile salts and examined the micellar solubility of CUR-NP. Additionally, we investigated the cellular incorporation of the resultant micelles into differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells.Results: Following in vivo administration of CUR-NP, CUR was effectively absorbed and present mainly as CURG in the plasma which contained significant amounts of the metabolite compared with

  5. High drug payload curcumin nanosuspensions stabilized by mPEG-DSPE and SPC: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingyi; Liu, Yingying; Xiao, Yao; Yang, Xiaofeng; Su, Wenjing; Zhang, Mingzhu; Liao, Yonghong; Kuang, Haixue; Wang, Xiangtao

    2017-11-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a promising drug candidate based on its broad bioactivities and good antitumor effect, but the application of CUR is potentially restricted because of its poor solubility and bioavailability. This study aims at developing a simple and effective drug delivery system for CUR to enhance its solubility and bioavailability thus to improve its antitumor efficacy. Curcumin nanosuspensions (CUR-NSps) were prepared by precipitation-ultrasonication method using mPEG2000-DSPE and soybean lecithin as a combined stabilizer. CUR-NSps with a high drug payload of 67.07% were successfully prepared. The resultant CUR-NSps had a mean particle size of 186.33 ± 2.73 nm with a zeta potential of -19.00 ± 1.31 mV. In vitro cytotoxicity assay showed that CUR-NSps exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity compared to CUR solution. The pharmacokinetics results demonstrated that CUR-NSps exhibited a significantly greater AUC 0-24 and prolonged MRT compared to CUR injections after intravenous administration. In the biodistribution study, CUR-NSps demonstrated enhanced biodistribution compared with CUR injections in liver, spleen, kidney, brain, and tumor. The CUR-NSps also showed improved antitumor therapeutic efficacy over the injections (70.34% versus 40.03%, p < 0.01). These results suggest that CUR-NSps might represent a promising drug formulation for intravenous administration of CUR for the treatment of cancer.

  6. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer functionalized PLGA-lecithin-curcumin-PEG nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Xiang, Dongxi; Shigdar, Sarah; Yang, Wenrong; Li, Qiong; Lin, Jia; Liu, Kexin; Duan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of drug delivery, active targeted nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems are gaining considerable attention as they have the potential to reduce side effects, minimize toxicity, and improve efficacy of anticancer treatment. In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles) were synthesized and functionalized with ribonucleic acid (RNA) Aptamers (Apts) against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. These CUR-encapsulated bioconjugates (Apt-CUR-NPs) were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation, stability, and release. The in vitro specific cell binding, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of Apt-CUR-NPs were also studied. The Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates exhibited increased binding to HT29 colon cancer cells and enhancement in cellular uptake when compared to CUR-NPs functionalized with a control Apt (P<0.01). Furthermore, a substantial improvement in cytotoxicity was achieved toward HT29 cells with Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates. The encapsulation of CUR in Apt-CUR-NPs resulted in the increased bioavailability of delivered CUR over a period of 24 hours compared to that of free CUR in vivo. These results show that the EpCAM Apt-functionalized CUR-NPs enhance the targeting and drug delivery of CUR to colorectal cancer cells. Further development of CUR-encapsulated, nanosized carriers will lead to improved targeted delivery of novel chemotherapeutic agents to colorectal cancer cells. PMID:24591829

  7. Hybridization of polyvinylpyrrolidone to a binary composite of curcumin/α-glucosyl stevia improves both oral absorption and photochemical stability of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Kazunori; Okamoto, Daiki; Sato, Hideyuki; Onoue, Satomi; Otsu, Shigeyuki; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-12-15

    The tri-component system curcumin/α-glucosyl stevia (Stevia-G)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was developed to improve the oral bioavailability and physicochemical properties of curcumin (CUR). The tri-component CUR formulation with Stevia-G and PVP was prepared with freeze-drying. The tri-component CUR system exhibited 13,000-fold higher solubility of CUR than the equilibrium solubility of CUR for 24h, indicating a stable tri-composite structure involving CUR. CUR could be converted into an amorphous form in the presence of Stevia-G and PVP by freeze-drying. The photo-degradation of CUR in the tri-component system was negligible even under an amorphous state of CUR. After oral administration in rats, the oral absorption of the tri-component CUR formulation (20mgCUR/kg) was 6.7-fold higher than that of crystalline CUR. The tri-component CUR formulation would therefore be a promising option to improve physicochemical properties and oral absorption of CUR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of clay minerals on curcumin properties: Stability and singlet oxygen generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Joyce L. S.; Valandro, Silvano R.; Poli, Alessandra L.; Schmitt, Carla C.

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has showed promising photophysical properties regarding to biological and chemical sciences. However, the main barrier for those applications are their low solubility and stability in aqueous solution. The effects of two different clay minerals, the montmorillonite (SWy-2) and the Laponite RD (Lap) nanoclay, on the stabilization of Curcumin were investigated. Their effects were compared with two well-established environments (acidic and neutral aqueous media). CUR/clay hybrids were prepared using a simple and fast method, where CUR solution was added into clay suspensions, to obtain well dispersed hybrids in water. The degradation process of CUR and CUR/clays hybrids was investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopic. For both studied hybrids, the CUR degradation process was suppressed by the presence of the clay particles. Furthermore, the Lap showed a great stabilization effect than SWy-2. This behavior was due to the smaller particle size and higher exfoliation ability of Lap, providing a large surface for CUR adsorption compared to SWy-2. The degradation process of CUR solutions and CUR/clay hybrids was also studied in the presence of light. CUR photodegradation process was faster not only in the aqueous solution but also in the clay suspension compared to those studied in the dark. The presence of clay particles accelerated the photodegradation of CUR due to the products formation in the reactions between CUR and oxygen radicals. Our results showed that the singlet oxygen quantum yield (ΦΔ) of CUR were about 59% higher in the clay suspensions than CUR in aqueous solution. Therefore, the formation of CUR/clay hybrids, in particularly with Lap, suppressed the degradation in absence light of CUR and increased the singlet oxygen generation, which makes this hybrids of CUR/clay a promising material to enlarge the application of CUR in the biological sciences.

  9. Iris and periocular adverse reactions to bimatoprost in Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension

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    Inoue K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1, Minako Shiokawa1, Michitaka Sugahara1, Risako Higa1, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Second Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively investigate adverse reactions to bimatoprost in Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. We also examined patient attitudes to adverse reactions via a questionnaire.Methods: Fifty-two Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension were enrolled. Iridial, eyelid, and eyelash photographs were taken before and at 6 months after bimatoprost treatment. Increase in eyelid pigmentation, iridial pigmentation, eyelash growth and bristle, and vellus hair of the lid was assessed from the photographs. Questionnaires completed by patients provided insight into their subjective judgment of adverse reactions.Results: Increase in eyelash bristle (53.8%, iris pigmentation (50.0%, eyelash growth (46.2%, vellus hair of the lid (40.4%, and eyelid pigmentation (7.7% was evident after bimatoprost treatment. The objective and subjective assessments were in agreement in terms of increase in eyelash bristle, eyelash growth, and increase in vellus hair of the lid.Conclusion: Most patients were conscious of these adverse reactions. Before administering bimatoprost, sufficient explanation of potential adverse reactions should be provided; after initiating treatment, careful observation is required.Keywords: bimatoprost, adverse reaction, eyelid pigmentation, changes in eyelashes, iris pigmentation 

  10. Preparation of Curcumin-Piperazine Coamorphous Phase and Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Density Functional Theory Simulation Studies on the Interaction with Bovine Serum Albumin.

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    Pang, Wenzhe; Lv, Jie; Du, Shuang; Wang, Jiaojiao; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Yanli

    2017-09-05

    In the present study, a new coamorphous phase (CAP) of bioactive herbal ingredient curcumin (CUR) with high solubilitythe was screened with pharmaceutically acceptable coformers. Besides, to provide basic information for the best practice of physiological and pharmaceutical preparations of CUR-based CAP, the interaction between CUR-based CAP and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied at the molecular level in this paper. CAP of CUR and piperazine with molar ratio of 1:2 was prepared by EtOH-assisted grinding. The as-prepared CAP was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared, and solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance. The 1:2 CAP stoichioimetry was sustained by C═O···H hydrogen bonds between the N-H group of the piperazine and the C═O group of CUR; piperazine stabilized the diketo structure of CUR in CAP. The dissolution rate of CUR-piperazine CAP in 30% ethanol-water was faster than that of CUR; the t 50 values were 243.1 min for CUR and 4.378 min for CAP. Furthermore, interactions of CUR and CUR-piperazine CAP with BSA were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The binding constants (K b ) of CUR and CUR-piperazine CAP with BSA were 10.0 and 9.1 × 10 3 L mol -1 at 298 K, respectively. Moreover, DFT simulation indicated that the interaction energy values of hydrogen-bonded interaction in the tryptophan-CUR and tryptophan-CUR-piperazine complex were -26.1 and -17.9 kJ mol -1 , respectively. In a conclusion, after formation of CUR-piperazine CAP, the interaction forces between CUR and BSA became weaker.

  11. Comparison of the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of corn protein hydrolysate and sodium caseinate stabilized curcumin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Yang; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Jin-Mei; Guo, Jian; Lin, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this work were to construct corn protein hydrolysate (CPH)-based curcumin nanoparticles (Cur NPs) and to compare the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of the Cur NPs stabilized CPH and sodium caseinate (NaCas) respectively. The results indicated that Cur solubility could be considerably improved after the Cur NPs fabrication. The spectroscopy results demonstrated that the solubilization of Cur should be attributed to its complexation with CPH or NaCas. The Cur NPs exhibited good colloidal stability after 1 week's storage but showed smaller (40 nm) size in CPH than in NaCas (100 nm). After lyophilization, the Cur NPs powders showed good rehydration properties and chemical stability, and compared with NaCas, the size of Cur NPs stabilized by CPH was still smaller. Additionally, the Cur NPs exhibited higher chemical stability against the temperature compared with free Cur, and the CPH could protect Cur from degradation more efficiently. Comparing with NaCas, the Cur NPs stabilized by CPH exhibited better bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that CPH may be better than NaCas in Cur NPs fabrication and it opens up the possibility of using hydrophobic protein hydrolysate to construct the NPs delivery system.

  12. Blepharitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tear film can result in excess tearing or dry eye. Because tears are necessary to keep the cornea ... redness of the eye, blurred vision, frothy tears, dry eye, or crusting of the eyelashes on awakening. Treatment ...

  13. Keratosis Follicularis Spinulosa Decalvans Is Caused by Mutations in MBTPS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aten, Emmelien; Brasz, Lisa C.; Bornholdt, Dorothea; Hooijkaas, Ingeborg B.; Porteous, Mary E.; Sybert, Virginia P.; Vermeer, Maarten H.; Vossen, Rolf H. A. M.; van der Wielen, Michiel J. R.; Bakker, Egbert; Breuning, Martijn H.; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; den Dunnen, Johan T.

    2010-01-01

    Keratosis Follicularis Spinulosa Decalvans (KFSD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by development of hyperkeratotic follicular papules on the scalp followed by progressive alopecia of the scalp, eyelashes, and eyebrows. Associated eye findings include photophobia in childhood and corneal

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1Department of Pharmacology, 2Department of Clinical & Social Pharmacy, College of Health ... One hundred and twenty (120) females who had had prior experience with eyelash extension ..... It is becoming part of the aesthetic sur-.

  15. Drug: D02724 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ngle glaucoma or ocular hypertension Indication: hypotrichosis of the eyelashes ... ...mical group: DG02572 ... synthetic prostamide analog Lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open a

  16. Curcumin complexation with cyclodextrins by the autoclave process: Method development and characterization of complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbani, Turki Al; Nazzal, Sami

    2017-03-30

    One approach to enhance curcumin (CUR) aqueous solubility is to use cyclodextrins (CDs) to form inclusion complexes where CUR is encapsulated as a guest molecule within the internal cavity of the water-soluble CD. Several methods have been reported for the complexation of CUR with CDs. Limited information, however, is available on the use of the autoclave process (AU) in complex formation. The aims of this work were therefore to (1) investigate and evaluate the AU cycle as a complex formation method to enhance CUR solubility; (2) compare the efficacy of the AU process with the freeze-drying (FD) and evaporation (EV) processes in complex formation; and (3) confirm CUR stability by characterizing CUR:CD complexes by NMR, Raman spectroscopy, DSC, and XRD. Significant differences were found in the saturation solubility of CUR from its complexes with CD when prepared by the three complexation methods. The AU yielded a complex with expected chemical and physical fingerprints for a CUR:CD inclusion complex that maintained the chemical integrity and stability of CUR and provided the highest solubility of CUR in water. Physical and chemical characterizations of the AU complexes confirmed the encapsulated of CUR inside the CD cavity and the transformation of the crystalline CUR:CD inclusion complex to an amorphous form. It was concluded that the autoclave process with its short processing time could be used as an alternate and efficient methods for drug:CD complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of novel curcumin-encapsulated chitosan-bioglass drug on bone and skin repair after gamma radiation: experimental study on a Wistar rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebahi, S; Saoudi, M; Farhat, L; Oudadesse, H; Rebai, T; Kabir, A; El Feki, A; Keskes, H

    2015-04-01

    Radiation therapy contributes to a significant increase in bone osteoporosis and skin loss. Various natural health products might be beneficial to reduce bone and skin alterations. Curcumin (CUR) medicines derived from natural plants have played an important role in health care. This study aims at synthesizing and evaluating the performance therapy of CUR-encapsulated bioglass-chitosan (CUR-BG-CH). In vitro, the antioxidant assay was evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical (DPPH) scavenging and the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction. The CUR-BG-CH antimicrobial effects were tested in liquid media. In vivo, after rat (60) Co γ-radiation, the tissue wound-healing process was studied by grafting CUR and CUR-BG-CH in femoral condyle and dorsal skin rat tissue. The antioxidant studies indicated that CUR-BG-CH quenches free radicals more efficiently than unmodified CUR and had effective DPPH (91%) and superoxide anion (51%) radical scavenging activities. The CUR-BG-CH biomaterial exhibited an important antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The histomorphometric parameters showed amelioration in CUR-BG-CH-treated rats. An improved mechanical property was noticed (33.16 ± 5.0 HV) when compared with that of unmodified CUR group (23.15 ± 4.9 HV). A significant decrease in tumour necrosis factor-α cytokine production was noted in the CUR-BG-CH rats (90 pg/ml) as compared with that of unmodified CUR group (240 pg/ml). The total amount of hydroxyproline was significantly enhanced (33.5%) in CUR-BG-CH group as compared with that of control. Our findings suggested that CUR-BG-CH might have promising potential applications for wound healing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Curcumin-Artemisinin Coamorphous Solid: Xenograft Model Preclinical Study

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    M. K. Chaitanya Mannava

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is a natural compound present in Indian spice turmeric. It has diverse pharmacological action but low oral solubility and bioavailability continue to limit its use as a drug. With the aim of improving the bioavailability of Curcumin (CUR, we evaluated Curcumin-Pyrogallol (CUR-PYR cocrystal and Curcumin-Artemisinin (CUR-ART coamorphous solid. Both of these solid forms exhibited superior dissolution and pharmacokinetic behavior compared to pure CUR, which is practically insoluble in water. CUR-ART coamorphous solid showed two fold higher bioavailability than CUR-PYR cocrystal (at 200 mg/kg oral dose. Moreover, in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, CUR-ART is stable up to 3 and 12 h, respectively. In addition, CUR-PYR and CUR-ART showed no adverse effects in toxicology studies (10 times higher dose at 2000 mg/kg. CUR-ART showed higher therapeutic effect and inhibited approximately 62% of tumor growth at 100 mg/kg oral dosage of CUR in xenograft models, which is equal to the positive control drug, doxorubicin (2 mg/kg by i.v. administration.

  19. Both solubility and chemical stability of curcumin are enhanced by solid dispersion in cellulose derivative matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Konecke, Stephanie; Wegiel, Lindsay A; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J

    2013-10-15

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) of curcumin (Cur) in cellulose derivative matrices, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB), and cellulose acetate adipate propionate (CAAdP) were prepared in order to investigate the structure-property relationship and identify polymer properties necessary to effectively increase Cur aqueous solution concentration. XRD results indicated that all investigated solid dispersions were amorphous, even at a 9:1 Cur:polymer ratio. Both stability against crystallization and Cur solution concentration from these ASDs were significantly higher than those from physical mixtures and crystalline Cur. Remarkably, curcumin was also stabilized against chemical degradation in solution. Chemical stabilization was polymer-dependent, with stabilization in CAAdP>CMCAB>HPMCAS>PVP, while matrices enhanced solution concentration as PVP>HPMCAS>CMCAB≈CAAdP. HPMCAS/Cur dispersions have useful combinations of pH-triggered release profile, chemical stabilization, and strong enhancement of Cur solution concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-Assembled Nanoparticles of Glycyrrhetic Acid-Modified Pullulan as a Novel Carrier of Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roufen Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhetic acid (GA-modified pullulan nanoparticles (GAP NPs were synthesized as a novel carrier of curcumin (CUR with a degree of substitution (DS of GA moieties within the range of 1.2–6.2 groups per hundred glucose units. In the present study, we investigated the physicochemical characteristics, release behavior, in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of the particles. Self-assembled GAP NPs with spherical shapes could readily improve the water solubility and stability of CUR. The CUR release was sustained and pH-dependent. The cellular uptake of CUR-GAP NPs was confirmed by green fluorescence in the cells. An MTT study showed CUR-GAP NPs with higher cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells than free CUR, but GAP NPs had no significant cytotoxicity. GAP is thus an excellent carrier for the solubilization, stabilization, and controlled delivery of CUR.

  1. Enhanced photocytotoxicity of curcumin delivered by solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shan Jiang,1 Rongrong Zhu,1 Xiaolie He,1 Jiao Wang,1 Mei Wang,1 Yechang Qian,2 Shilong Wang1 1Tenth People’s Hospital, School of Life Science and Technology, Tongji University, 2Department of Respiratory Disease, Baoshan District Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Curcumin (Cur is a promising photosensitizer that could be used in photodynamic therapy. However, its poor solubility and hydrolytic instability limit its clinical use. The aim of the present study was to encapsulate Cur into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs in order to improve its therapeutic activity. The Cur-loaded SLNs (Cur-SLNs were prepared using an emulsification and low-temperature solidification method. The functions of Cur and Cur-SLNs were studied on the non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells for photodynamic therapy. The results revealed that Cur-SLNs induced ~2.27-fold toxicity higher than free Cur at a low concentration of 15 µM under light excitation, stocking more cell cycle at G2/M phase. Cur-SLNs could act as an efficient drug delivery system to increase the intracellular concentration of Cur and its accumulation in mitochondria; meanwhile, the hydrolytic stability of free Cur could be improved. Furthermore, Cur-SLNs exposed to 430 nm light could produce more reactive oxygen species to induce the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blot analysis revealed that Cur-SLNs increased the expression of caspase-3, caspase-9 proteins and promoted the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Overall, the results from these studies demonstrated that the SLNs could enhance the phototoxic effects of Cur. Keywords: photodynamic therapy, curcumin, solid lipid nanoparticles, drug delivery, reactive oxygen species

  2. Core-shell nanofibers of curcumin/cyclodextrin inclusion complex and polylactic acid: Enhanced water solubility and slow release of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Zeynep; Uyar, Tamer

    2017-02-25

    Core-shell nanofibers were designed via electrospinning using inclusion complex (IC) of model hydrophobic drug (curcumin, CUR) with cyclodextrin (CD) in the core and polymer (polylactic acid, PLA) in the shell (cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF). CD-IC of CUR and HPβCD was formed at 1:2 molar ratio. The successful formation of core-shell nanofibers was revealed by TEM and CLSM images. cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF released CUR slowly but much more in total than PLA-CUR-NF at pH 1 and pH 7.4 due to the restriction of CUR in the core of nanofibers and solubility improvement shown in phase solubility diagram, respectively. Improved antioxidant activity of cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF in methanol:water (1:1) is related with the solubility enhancement achieved in water based system. The slow reaction of cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF in methanol is associated with the shell inhibiting the quick release of CUR. On the other hand, cCUR/HPβCD-IC-sPLA-NF exhibited slightly higher rate of antioxidant activity than PLA-CUR-NF in methanol:water (1:1) owing to the enhanced solubility. To conclude, slow release of CUR was achieved by core-shell nanofiber structure and inclusion complexation of CUR with HPβCD provides high solubility. Briefly, electrospinning of core-shell nanofibers with CD-IC core could offer slow release of drugs as well as solubility enhancement for hydrophobic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Solid Dispersion of Curcumin as Polymeric Films for Bioenhancement and Improved Therapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mande, Prashant P; Bachhav, Sagar S; Devarajan, Padma V

    2016-08-01

    The aim of our study was development of advanced third generation Curcumin self microemulsifying composition solid dispersion (Cur SMEC-SD) with high drug loading, improved stability, rapid in-vitro dissolution and enhanced bioavailability for improved therapy of rheumatoid arthritis. The Cur SMEC-SD comprising polymers (KollidonVA64[KVA], Eudragits, HPMC and Soluplus) and self microemulsifying composition of surfactant:co-surfactant:oil were coated onto rapidly disintegrating inert tablet core. SDs evaluated for stability, in-vitro release and bioenhancement. Cur SMEC-SDs exhibited high Cur loading of 45% w/w and microemulsion formation with globule size (~100 nm) irrespective of polymers. Among the polymers, SD with KVA revealed exceptionally low contact angle (7°C) and rapid in-vitro release (t50%-6.45 min). No crystallization was evident as confirmed by SEM, DSC and XRD and is attributed to SMEC aided solubilization/amorphisation, and interaction of KVA with Cur seen in the FTIR spectra. Stability was confirmed as per ICH guidelines. Remarkable bioenhancement with Cur SMEC-SD was confirmed by the > four fold and a two fold compared to Cur and Cur-SD without SMEC respectively. High efficacy ~ 80% compared to Indomethacin, seen with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) induced rats coupled with no adverse toxicity. The advanced third generation Cur SMEC-SD presents a practical technological advancement and suggests Cur SMEC-SD as promising alternative for RA therapy.

  4. Encapsulation of curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles for antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffersson Krishan Trigo Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Curcumin (CUR has been used as photosensitizer in antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT. However its poor water solubility, instability, and scarce bioavalibility hinder its in vivo application. The aim of this study was to synthesize curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles (NP and to evaluate their antimicrobial photodynamic effect and cytoxicity. CUR in anionic and cationic NP was synthesized using polylactic acid and dextran sulfate by the nanoprecipitation method. For cationic NP, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was added. CUR-NP were characterized by physicochemical properties, photodegradation, encapsulation efficiency and release of curcumin from nanoparticles. CUR-NP was compared with free CUR in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO as a photosensitizer for aPDT against planktonic and biofilms (mono-, dual- and triple-species cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The cytotoxicity effect of formulations was evaluated on keratinocytes. Data were analysed by parametric (ANOVA and non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = 0.05. CUR-NP showed alteration in the physicochemical properties along time, photodegradation similar to free curcumin, encapsulation efficiency up to 67%, and 96% of release after 48h. After aPDT planktonic cultures showed reductions from 0.78 log10 to complete eradication, while biofilms showed no antimicrobial effect or reductions up to 4.44 log10. Anionic CUR-NP showed reduced photoinactivation of biofilms. Cationic CUR-NP showed microbicidal effect even in absence of light. Anionic formulations showed no cytotoxic effect compared with free CUR and cationic CUR-NP and NP. The synthesized formulations improved the water solubility of CUR, showed higher antimicrobial photodynamic effect for planktonic cultures than for biofilms, and the encapsulation of CUR in anionic NP reduced the cytotoxicity of 10% DMSO used for free CUR.

  5. Comparative Study of Different Nano-Formulations of Curcumin for Reversal of Doxorubicin Resistance in K562R Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Tapan K; Konkimalla, V Badireenath

    2017-02-01

    Curcumin is very well established as a chemo-therapeutic, chemo-preventive and chemo-sensitizing agent in diverse disease conditions. As the isolated pure form has poor solubility and pharmacokinetic problems, therefore it is encapsulated in to several nano-formulations to improve its bioavailability. Here in the current study, we aim to compare different nano-formulations of curcumin for their chemo-sensitizing activity in doxorubicin (DOX) resistant K562 cells. Four different curcumin formulations were prepared namely DMSO assisted curcumin nano-dispersion (CurD, 260 nm), liposomal curcumin (CurL, 165 nm), MPEG-PCL micellar curcumin (CurM, 18 nm) and cyclodextrin encapsulated curcumin (CurN, 37 nm). The formulations were subjected to particle characterizations (size, zeta potential, release studies), followed by biological assays such as cellular uptake, P-gp inhibitory activity and reversal of DOX resistance by co-treatment with DOX. Curcumin uptake in K562N and K562R cells was mildly reduced when treated with CurL and CurM, while for CurD and CurN the uptake remained equivalent. However, CurL retained P-gp inhibitory activity of curcumin and with a considerable chemo-sensitizing effect but CurM showed no P-gp inhibitory activity. CurN retained above biological activities, but requires a secondary carrier under in vivo conditions. From the results, CurM was found to be most suitable for solubilization of curcumin where as CurL can be considered as most suitable nano-formulation for reversal of DOX resistance.

  6. Biodegradable micelles enhance the antiglioma activity of curcumin in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Songping Zheng,1,* Xiang Gao,1,2,* Xiaoxiao Liu,1 Ting Yu,1 Tianying Zheng,1 Yi Wang,1 Chao You1 1Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Curcumin (Cur, a natural polyphenol of Curcuma longa, has been recently reported to possess antitumor activities. However, due to its poor aqueous solubility and low biological availability, the clinical application of Cur is quite limited. The encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs into nanoparticles is an effective way to improve their pharmaceutical activities. In this research, nanomicelles loaded with Cur were formulated by a self-assembly method with biodegradable monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(lactide copolymers (MPEG-PLAs. After encapsulation, the cellular uptake was increased and Cur could be released from MPEG-PLA micelles in a sustained manner. The Cur-loaded MPEG-PLA micelles (Cur/MPEG-PLA micelles exhibited an enhanced toxicity on C6 and U251 glioma cells and induced more apoptosis on C6 glioma cells compared with free Cur. Moreover, the therapy efficiency of Cur/MPEG-PLA micelles was evaluated at length on a nude mouse model bearing glioma. The Cur/MPEG-PLA micelles were more effective on suppressing tumor growth compared with free Cur, which indicated that Cur/MPEG-PLA micelles improved the antiglioma activity of Cur in vivo. The results of immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analysis indicated that the induction of apoptosis, antiangiogenesis, and inhibition of cell proliferation may contribute to the improvement in antiglioma effects. Our data suggested that Cur/MPEG-PLA may have potential clinic applications in glioma therapy. Keywords: curcumin, glioma, cell apoptosis, cell proliferation, angiogenesis 

  7. Curcumin-cyclodextrin encapsulated chitosan nanoconjugates with enhanced solubility and cell cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Amirali; Karmakar, Surajit; Jambhrunkar, Siddharth; Xu, Chun; Yu, Chengzhong

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin (CUR), a naturally derived anti-cancer cocktail is arguably the most widely studied neutraceutical. Despite a lot of promises, it is yet to reach the market as an active anti-cancer formulation. In the present study, we have prepared highly soluble (3 mg/ml) CUR-γ-hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin (CUR-CD) hollow spheres. CUR-CD hollow spheres were prepared by a novel and scalable spray drying method. CUR-CD was then encapsulated into positively charged biodegradable chitosan (CUR-CD-CS) nanoparticles. The CUR-CD-CS nanoparticles were characterised by TEM, SEM, DLS, drug loading and in vitro release. We tested the efficacy of these CUR-CD-CS nanoparticles in SCC25 cell lines using MTT assay and investigated its cellular uptake mechanism. We also studied Oligo DNA loading in CUR-CD-CS nanoparticles and its delivery via confocal imaging and FACS analysis. Our results demonstrated that CUR-CD-CS nanoparticles showed superior in vitro release performance and higher cytotoxicity in SCC25 cell line amongst all tested formulations. The cytotoxicity results were corroborated by cell cycle analysis and apoptosis test, showing nearly 100% apoptotic cell death in the case of CUR-CD-CS nanoparticles. Compared to CS nanoparticles, CS-CD nanoformulation showed higher cellular delivery of Cy3-Oligo DNA which was tested quantitatively using flowcytometry analysis, indicating that CD not only enhanced CUR solubility but also boosted the cellular uptake. Our study shows that rationally designed bio-degradable natural biomaterials have great potential as next generation nano-carriers for hydrophobic drug delivery such as CUR with potential of dual drug-gene delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Encapsulation of curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles for antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo Gutierrez, Jeffersson Krishan; Zanatta, Gabriela Cristina; Ortega, Ana Laura Mira; Balastegui, Maria Isabella Cuba; Sanitá, Paula Volpato; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Barbugli, Paula Aboud

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has been used as photosensitizer in antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT). However its poor water solubility, instability, and scarce bioavalibility hinder its in vivo application. The aim of this study was to synthesize curcumin in polymeric nanoparticles (NP) and to evaluate their antimicrobial photodynamic effect and cytoxicity. CUR in anionic and cationic NP was synthesized using polylactic acid and dextran sulfate by the nanoprecipitation method. For cationic NP, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was added. CUR-NP were characterized by physicochemical properties, photodegradation, encapsulation efficiency and release of curcumin from nanoparticles. CUR-NP was compared with free CUR in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a photosensitizer for aPDT against planktonic and biofilms (mono-, dual- and triple-species) cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The cytotoxicity effect of formulations was evaluated on keratinocytes. Data were analysed by parametric (ANOVA) and non-parametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests (α = 0.05). CUR-NP showed alteration in the physicochemical properties along time, photodegradation similar to free curcumin, encapsulation efficiency up to 67%, and 96% of release after 48h. After aPDT planktonic cultures showed reductions from 0.78 log10 to complete eradication, while biofilms showed no antimicrobial effect or reductions up to 4.44 log10. Anionic CUR-NP showed reduced photoinactivation of biofilms. Cationic CUR-NP showed microbicidal effect even in absence of light. Anionic formulations showed no cytotoxic effect compared with free CUR and cationic CUR-NP and NP. The synthesized formulations improved the water solubility of CUR, showed higher antimicrobial photodynamic effect for planktonic cultures than for biofilms, and the encapsulation of CUR in anionic NP reduced the cytotoxicity of 10% DMSO used for free CUR. PMID:29107978

  9. Oral curcumin has anti-arthritic efficacy through somatostatin generation via cAMP/PKA and Ca(2+)/CaMKII signaling pathways in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Wu, Xin; Wei, Zhifeng; Dou, Yannong; Zhao, Di; Wang, Ting; Bian, Difei; Tong, Bei; Xia, Ying; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has been proven to be clinically effective in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapy, but its low oral bioavailability eclipses existent evidence that attempts to explain the underlying mechanism. Small intestine, the only organ exposed to a relatively high concentration of CUR, is the main site that generates gut hormones which are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. This study aims at addressing the hypothesis that one or more gut hormones serve as an intermediary agent for the anti-arthritic action of CUR. The protein and mRNA levels of gut hormones in CUR-treated rats were analyzed by ELISA and RT-PCR. Somatostatin (SOM) depletor and receptor antagonist were used to verify the key role of SOM in CUR-mediated anti-arthritic effect. The mechanisms underlying CUR-induced upregulation of SOM levels were explored by cellular experiments and immunohistochemical staining. The data showed that oral administration of CUR (100 mg/kg) for consecutive two weeks in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats still exhibited an extremely low plasma exposure despite of a dramatic amelioration of arthritis symptoms. When injected intraperitoneally, CUR lost anti-arthritic effect in rats, suggesting that it functions in an intestine-dependent manner. CUR elevated SOM levels in intestines and sera, and SOM depletor and non-selective SOM receptor antagonist could abolish the inhibitory effect of CUR on arthritis. Immunohistochemical assay demonstrated that CUR markedly increased the number of SOM-positive cells in both duodenum and jejunum. In vitro experiments demonstrated that CUR could augment SOM secretion from intestinal endocrine cells, and this effect could be hampered by either MEK1/2 or Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CAMKII) inhibitor. In summary, oral administration of CUR exhibits anti-arthritic effect through augmenting SOM secretion from the endocrine cells in small intestines via cAMP/PKA and Ca(2+)/CaMKII signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  10. Evaluation of a Solid Dispersion of Curcumin With Polyvinylpyrrolidone and Boric Acid Against Salmonella Enteritidis Infection and Intestinal Permeability in Broiler Chickens: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hernandez-Patlan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, in vitro assays were conducted to evaluate the solubility of curcumin (CUR alone or with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP at different pH, as well as its permeability in Caco-2 cells. Results confirmed that the solid dispersion of CUR with PVP (CUR/PVP at a 1:9 ratio, significantly increased (P < 0.05 solubility and permeability compared to CUR alone. Then, the antimicrobial activity of CUR/PVP, boric acid (BA, and a combination of 0.5% CUR/PVP and 0.5% BA (CUR/PVP-BA against Salmonella Enteritidis (SE was determined using an in vitro digestion model that simulates crop, proventriculus, and intestine. The results revealed that in the proventriculus and intestinal compartments significant reductions of SE were observed in all the experimental treatments, but 1% BA eliminated SE in the intestinal compartment and CUR/PVP-BA showed a synergistic effect on antimicrobial activity against SE. To complement these findings, two independent in vivo trials were conducted to determine the effect of 0.1% CUR/PVP; 0.1% BA; or the combination of 0.05% CUR/PVP (1:9 ratio and 0.05% BA (CUR/PVP-BA on the antimicrobial activity against SE, intestinal permeability and inflammatory responses in broiler chickens. BA at 0.1% had no significant in vivo effects against SE. However, the combination of 0.05% BA and 0.05% CUR/PVP and 0.05% BA was sufficient to reduce crop and intestinal SE colonization in broiler chickens in two independent trials, confirming the synergic effect between them. A similar antimicrobial impact against SE intestinal colonization was observed in chickens treated with 0.1% CUR/PVP at a 1:9 ratio, which could be due to the increase in solubility of CUR by PVP. Furthermore, 0.1% CUR/PVP reduced the intestinal permeability of FITC-d and total intestinal IgA, as well as increase the activity of SOD when compared to control, while, CUR/PVP-BA only decreased SOD activity. Further studies to confirm and expand the in vivo results obtained

  11. Identification and characterization of multiple curcumin synthases from the herb Curcuma longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Yohei; Kita, Tomoko; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2009-09-03

    Curcuminoids are pharmaceutically important compounds isolated from the herb Curcuma longa. Two additional type III polyketide synthases, named CURS2 and CURS3, that are capable of curcuminoid synthesis were identified and characterized. In vitro analysis revealed that CURS2 preferred feruloyl-CoA as a starter substrate and CURS3 preferred both feruloyl-CoA and p-coumaroyl-CoA. These results suggested that CURS2 synthesizes curcumin or demethoxycurcumin and CURS3 synthesizes curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and demethoxycurcumin. The availability of the substrates and the expression levels of the three different enzymes capable of curcuminoid synthesis with different substrate specificities might influence the composition of curcuminoids in the turmeric and in different cultivars.

  12. Modulating bacterial and gut mucosal interactions with engineered biofilm matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraj-Thatte, Anna M; Praveschotinunt, Pichet; Nash, Trevor R; Ward, Frederick R; Joshi, Neel S

    2018-02-22

    Extracellular appendages play a significant role in mediating communication between bacteria and their host. Curli fibers are a class of bacterial fimbria that is highly amenable to engineering. We demonstrate the use of engineered curli fibers to rationally program interactions between bacteria and components of the mucosal epithelium. Commensal E. coli strains were engineered to produce recombinant curli fibers fused to the trefoil family of human cytokines. Biofilms formed from these strains bound more mucins than those producing wild-type curli fibers, and modulated mucin rheology as well. When treated with bacteria producing the curli-trefoil fusions mammalian cells behaved identically in terms of their migration behavior as when they were treated with the corresponding soluble trefoil factors. Overall, this demonstrates the potential utility of curli fibers as a scaffold for the display of bioactive domains and an untapped approach to rationally modulating host-microbe interactions using bacterial matrix proteins.

  13. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area.

  14. Self-assembled nanoparticles based on amphiphilic chitosan derivative and arginine for oral curcumin delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja MA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mazhar Ali Raja, Shah Zeenat, Muhammad Arif, Chenguang Liu College of Marine Life Science, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Curcumin (Cur is a striking anticancer agent, but its low aqueous solubility, poor absorption, hasty metabolism, and elimination limit its oral bioavailability and consequently hinder its development as a drug. To redress these limitations, amphiphilic chitosan (CS conjugate with improved mucoadhesion and solubility over a wider pH range was developed by modification with hydrophobic acrylonitrile (AN and hydrophilic arginine (Arg; the synthesized conjugate (AN–CS–Arg, which was well characterized by Fourier transform infrared and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results of critical aggregation concentration revealed that the AN–CS–Arg conjugate had low critical aggregation concentration and was prone to form self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs in aqueous medium. Cur-encapsulated AN–CS–Arg NPs (AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs were developed by a simple sonication method and characterized for the physicochemical parameters such as zeta potential, particle size, and drug encapsulation. The results showed that zeta potential of the prepared NPs was 40.1±2.81 mV and the average size was ~218 nm. A considerable improvement in the aqueous solubility of Cur was observed after encapsulation into AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs. With the increase in Cur concentration, loading efficiency increased but encapsulation efficiency decreased. The in vitro release profile exhibited sustained release pattern from the AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs in typical biological buffers. The ex vivo mucoadhesion study revealed that AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs had greater mucoadhesion than the control CS NPs. Compared with free Cur solution, AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs showed stronger dose-dependent cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells. In addition, it was observed that cell uptake of AN–CS–Arg/Cur NPs was much higher

  15. Pharmacokinetics and in vivo delivery of curcumin by copolymeric mPEG-PCL micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiri Manjili, Hamidreza; Ghasemi, Parisa; Malvandi, Hojjat; Mousavi, Mir Sajjad; Attari, Elahe; Danafar, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has been associated with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-amyloid, and antitumor effects, but its application is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and poor oral bioavailability. To progress the bioavailability and water solubility of CUR, we synthesized five series of mono methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) diblock copolymers. The structure of the copolymers was characterized by H NMR, FTIR, DSC and GPC techniques. In this study, CUR was encapsulated within micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, leading to formation of CUR-loaded mPEG-PCL (CUR/mPEG-PCL) micelles. The resulting micelles were characterized further by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cytotoxicity of void CUR, mPEG-PCL and CUR/mPEG-PCL micelles was compared to each other by performing MTT assay of the treated MCF-7 and 4T1 cell line. Study of the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the CUR-loaded micelles was also carried out on selected copolymers in comparison with CUR solution formulations. The results showed that the zeta potential of CUR-loaded micelles was about -11.5mV and the average size was 81.0nm. CUR was encapsulated into mPEG-PCL micelles with loading capacity of 20.65±0.015% and entrapment efficiency of 89.32±0.34%. The plasma AUC (0-t), t 1/2 and C max of CUR micelles were increased by 52.8, 4.63 and 7.51-fold compared to the CUR solution, respectively. In vivo results showed that multiple injections of CUR-loaded micelles could prolong the circulation time and increase the therapeutic efficacy of CUR. These results suggested that mPEG-PCL micelles would be a potential carrier for CUR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel star-type methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) copolymeric nanoparticles for controlled release of curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Runliang; Zhu, Wenxia; Song, Zhimei; Zhao, Liyan; Zhai, Guangxi

    2013-06-01

    To improve curcumin's (CURs) water solubility and release property, a novel star methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) copolymer was synthesized through O-alkylation, basic hydrolysis and ring-opening polymerization reaction with MPEG, epichlorohydrin, and ɛ-caprolactone as raw materials. The structure of the novel copolymer was characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR, and GPC. The results of FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter of CUR-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by dialysis method showed that CUR was successfully encapsulated into the SMP12 copolymeric NPs with 98.2 % of entrapment efficiency, 10.91 % of drug loading, and 88.4 ± 11.2 nm of mean particle diameter in amorphous forms. The dissolubility of nanoparticulate CUR was increased by 1.38 × 105 times over CUR in water. The obtained blank copolymer showed no hemolysis. A sustained CUR release to a total of approximately 56.13 % was discovered from CUR-NPs in 40 % of ethanol saline solution within 72 h on the use of dialysis method. The release behavior fitted the ambiexponent and biphasic kinetics equation. In conclusion, the copolymeric NPs loading CUR might serve as a potential nanocarrier to improve the solubility and release property of CUR.

  17. Novel star-type methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)–poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) copolymeric nanoparticles for controlled release of curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Runliang; Zhu Wenxia; Song Zhimei; Zhao Liyan; Zhai Guangxi

    2013-01-01

    To improve curcumin’s (CURs) water solubility and release property, a novel star methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG–PCL) copolymer was synthesized through O-alkylation, basic hydrolysis and ring-opening polymerization reaction with MPEG, epichlorohydrin, and ε-caprolactone as raw materials. The structure of the novel copolymer was characterized by 1 H NMR, FT-IR, and GPC. The results of FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter of CUR-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by dialysis method showed that CUR was successfully encapsulated into the SMP12 copolymeric NPs with 98.2 % of entrapment efficiency, 10.91 % of drug loading, and 88.4 ± 11.2 nm of mean particle diameter in amorphous forms. The dissolubility of nanoparticulate CUR was increased by 1.38 × 10 5 times over CUR in water. The obtained blank copolymer showed no hemolysis. A sustained CUR release to a total of approximately 56.13 % was discovered from CUR-NPs in 40 % of ethanol saline solution within 72 h on the use of dialysis method. The release behavior fitted the ambiexponent and biphasic kinetics equation. In conclusion, the copolymeric NPs loading CUR might serve as a potential nanocarrier to improve the solubility and release property of CUR.

  18. Novel star-type methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) copolymeric nanoparticles for controlled release of curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Runliang; Zhu Wenxia; Song Zhimei, E-mail: zhimei_song@126.com [University of Jinan, Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Medicine and Life Sciences (China); Zhao Liyan [Hebei North University, Department of Pharmacy (China); Zhai Guangxi [Shandong University, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy (China)

    2013-06-15

    To improve curcumin's (CURs) water solubility and release property, a novel star methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) copolymer was synthesized through O-alkylation, basic hydrolysis and ring-opening polymerization reaction with MPEG, epichlorohydrin, and {epsilon}-caprolactone as raw materials. The structure of the novel copolymer was characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR, and GPC. The results of FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter of CUR-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by dialysis method showed that CUR was successfully encapsulated into the SMP12 copolymeric NPs with 98.2 % of entrapment efficiency, 10.91 % of drug loading, and 88.4 {+-} 11.2 nm of mean particle diameter in amorphous forms. The dissolubility of nanoparticulate CUR was increased by 1.38 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} times over CUR in water. The obtained blank copolymer showed no hemolysis. A sustained CUR release to a total of approximately 56.13 % was discovered from CUR-NPs in 40 % of ethanol saline solution within 72 h on the use of dialysis method. The release behavior fitted the ambiexponent and biphasic kinetics equation. In conclusion, the copolymeric NPs loading CUR might serve as a potential nanocarrier to improve the solubility and release property of CUR.

  19. Curcumin-loaded self-nanomicellizing solid dispersion system: part I: development, optimization, characterization, and oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Ankit; Kathawala, Krishna; Song, Yunmei; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Garg, Sanjay

    2018-05-29

    Curcumin (CUR) is considered as one of the most bioactive molecules ever discovered from nature due to its proven anti-inflammatory and antioxidant in both preclinical and clinical studies. Despite its proven safety and efficacy, the clinical translation of CUR into a useful therapeutic agent is still limited due to its poor oral bioavailability. To overcome its limitation and enhance oral bioavailability by improving its aqueous solubility, stability, and intestinal permeability, a novel CUR formulation (NCF) was developed using the self-nanomicellizing solid dispersion strategy. From the initial screening of polymers for their potential to improve the solubility and stability, Soluplus (SOL) was selected. The optimized NCF demonstrated over 20,000-fold improvement in aqueous solubility as a result of amorphization, hydrogen bonding interaction, and micellization determined using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the greater stabilizing effect in alkaline pH and light was observed. Furthermore, significant enhancement of dissolution and permeability of CUR across everted sacs of rat small intestine were noticed. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the oral bioavailability of CUR was increased 117 and 17-fold in case of NCF and physical mixture of CUR and SOL compared to CUR suspension. These results suggest NCF identified as a promising new approach for repositioning of CUR for pharmaceutical application by enhancing the oral bioavailability of CUR. The findings herein stimulate further in vivo evaluations and clinical tests of NCF.

  20. Functionalization of nanodiamond with vitamin E TPGS to facilitate oral absorption of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bingchao; Pan, Hao; Liu, Dandan; Li, Dongyang; Li, Jinyu; Yu, Shihui; Tan, Guoxin; Pan, Weisan

    2018-04-05

    The purpose of this work was to develop a d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) decorated nanodiamond (ND) system loading water-insoluble curcumin (ND/CUR/TPGS) to improve the colloidal dispersity and oral bioavailability of the preparation. CUR was physically loaded into ND clusters, then TPGS was coated to the ND/CUR complex forming amorphous nanostructure on the interparticle nanocage of the ND substrate. The formulation of the nanocomplexes was optimized using response surface methodology, and the optimal ND/CUR/TPGS showed small particle size (196.32 nm), high drug loading efficiency (81.59%) and core-shell structure. In vitro release study demonstrated that the nanocomplexes provided a sustained release behavior. The absorptive concentration of ND/CUR/TPGS was dramatically improved in total intestinal tract compared with CUR suspension, and the absorption was controlled by multiple transcytosis mechanisms. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that ND/CUR/TPGS had significantly higher C max (4.50-fold), larger AUC 0-t (10.67-fold), and longer MRT 0-t (3.07-fold) in contrast with that of CUR suspension. Therefore, ND/CUR/TPGS presented great potential for oral delivery of insoluble and poorly permeable drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Curcumin-loaded mixed micelles: preparation, optimization, physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yuwei; Wang, Juan; Yang, Xiaoye; Du, Hongliang; Xi, Yanwei; Zhai, Guangxi

    2015-01-01

    Although curcumin (CUR) can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumors, the poor water solubility restricted its clinical application. The aim of this study was to improve the aqueous solubility of CUR and make more favorable changes to bioactivity by preparing curcumin-loaded phospholipid-sodium deoxycholate-mixed micelles (CUR-PC-SDC-MMs). CUR-PC-SDC-MMs were prepared by the thin-film dispersion method. Based on the results of single factor exploration, the preparation technology was optimized using the central composite design-response surface methodology with drug loading and entrapment efficiency (EE%) as indicators. The images of transmission electron microscopy showed that the optimized CUR-PC-SDC-MMs were spherical and well dispersed. The average size of the mixed micelles was 66.5 nm, the zeta potential was about -26.96 mV and critical micelle concentration was 0.0087 g/l. CUR was encapsulated in PC-SDC-MMs with loading capacity of 13.12%, EE% of 87.58%, and the solubility of CUR in water was 3.14 mg/ml. The release results in vitro showed that the mixed micelles presented sustained release behavior compared to the propylene glycol solution of CUR. The IC50 values of CUR-loaded micelles and free drug in human breast carcinoma cell lines were 4.10 μg/ml and 6.93 µg/ml, respectively. It could be concluded from the above results that the CUR-PC-SDC-MMs system might serve as a promising nanocarrier to improve the solubility and bioactivity of CUR.

  2. Solubility profiles, hydration and desolvation of curcumin complexed with γ-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shityakov, Sergey; Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Durdagi, Serdar; Roewer, Norbert; Förster, Carola; Broscheit, Jens

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigated curcumin (CUR) solubility profiles and hydration/desolvation effects of this substance formulated with γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) and hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CD) excipients. The CUR/HP-γ-CD complex was found to be more stable in solution with the highest apparent stability constant for CUR/HP-γ-CD (Kc = 1.58*104 M-1) as the more soluble form in distilled water. The in silico calculations, including molecular docking, Monte Carlo (MC), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, indicated that water molecules play an important role in host-guest complexation mediating the CUR binding to cyclodextrins via hydrogen bond formations. The CUR hydration/desolvation effects contributed to the complex formation by elevating the CUR binding affinity to both CDs. The CUR/HP-γ-CD complex after the CUR hydration was determined with a minimal Gibbs free energy of binding (ΔGbind = -9.93 kcal*mol-1) due to the major hydrophobic (vdW) forces. Overall, the results of this study can aid a development of cyclodextrin-based drug delivery vectors, signifying the importance of water molecules during the formulation processes.

  3. Novel Dual Mitochondrial and CD44 Receptor Targeting Nanoparticles for Redox Stimuli-Triggered Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaili; Qi, Mengjiao; Guo, Chunjing; Yu, Yueming; Wang, Bingjie; Fang, Lei; Liu, Mengna; Wang, Zhen; Fan, Xinxin; Chen, Daquan

    2018-02-01

    In this work, novel mitochondrial and CD44 receptor dual-targeting redox-sensitive multifunctional nanoparticles (micelles) based on oligomeric hyaluronic acid (oHA) were proposed. The amphiphilic nanocarrier was prepared by (5-carboxypentyl)triphenylphosphonium bromide (TPP), oligomeric hyaluronic acid (oHA), disulfide bond, and curcumin (Cur), named as TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur. The TPP targeted the mitochondria, the antitumor drug Cur served as a hydrophobic core, the CD44 receptor targeting oHA worked as a hydrophilic shell, and the disulfide bond acted as a connecting arm. The chemical structure of TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur was characterized by 1HNMR technology. Cur was loaded into the TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur micelles by self-assembly. Some properties, including the preparation of micelles, morphology, redox sensitivity, and mitochondrial targeting, were studied. The results showed that TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur micelles had a mean diameter of 122.4 ± 23.4 nm, zeta potential - 26.55 ± 4.99 mV. In vitro release study and cellular uptake test showed that TPP-oHA-S-S-Cur micelles had redox sensibility, dual targeting to mitochondrial and CD44 receptor. This work provided a promising smart multifunctional nanocarrier platform to enhance the solubility, decrease the side effects, and improve the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs.

  4. Evaluation of an oral carrier system in rats: bioavailability and gastrointestinal absorption properties of curcumin encapsulated PBCA nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Min; Zhao Lixia; Guo Chenyu; Cao Fengliang; Chen Huanlei; Zhao Liyan; Tan Qi; Zhu Xiuqing; Zhu Fanping; Ding Tingting; Zhai Yingjie; Zhai Guangxi

    2012-01-01

    A new oral delivery system, polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PBCNs), was introduced to improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin (CUR), a poorly soluble drug. The formulation was optimized by orthogonal design and the optimal PBCNs loading CUR exhibited a spherical shape under transmission electron microscopy with a range of 40–400 nm. Physicochemical state of CUR in PBCN was investigated by X-ray diffraction and the possible structure changes occurring in CUR after conjugating with polybutylcyanoacrylate were studied with FTIR. The results indicated that CUR in PBCN was in a non-crystalline state and CUR was encapsulated in PBCN without chemical reaction. The oral pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats and the relative bioavailability of CUR encapsulated PBCNs to the crude CUR was more than 800%. The in situ absorption experiment in rat intestine indicated the absorption was first order with passive diffusion mechanism. The absorption results in various segments of intestine showed that the main absorption sites were ileum and colon. It can be concluded that PBCNs as an oral carrier can significantly improve the oral absorption of a poorly soluble drug.

  5. Evaluation of an oral carrier system in rats: bioavailability and gastrointestinal absorption properties of curcumin encapsulated PBCA nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Zhao, Lixia; Guo, Chenyu; Cao, Fengliang; Chen, Huanlei; Zhao, Liyan; Tan, Qi; Zhu, Xiuqing; Zhu, Fanping; Ding, Tingting; Zhai, Yingjie; Zhai, Guangxi

    2012-02-01

    A new oral delivery system, polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PBCNs), was introduced to improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin (CUR), a poorly soluble drug. The formulation was optimized by orthogonal design and the optimal PBCNs loading CUR exhibited a spherical shape under transmission electron microscopy with a range of 40-400 nm. Physicochemical state of CUR in PBCN was investigated by X-ray diffraction and the possible structure changes occurring in CUR after conjugating with polybutylcyanoacrylate were studied with FTIR. The results indicated that CUR in PBCN was in a non-crystalline state and CUR was encapsulated in PBCN without chemical reaction. The oral pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats and the relative bioavailability of CUR encapsulated PBCNs to the crude CUR was more than 800%. The in situ absorption experiment in rat intestine indicated the absorption was first order with passive diffusion mechanism. The absorption results in various segments of intestine showed that the main absorption sites were ileum and colon. It can be concluded that PBCNs as an oral carrier can significantly improve the oral absorption of a poorly soluble drug.

  6. Curcumin Generates Oxidative Stress and Induces Apoptosis in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Paula Aguiar

    Full Text Available Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR, a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed. Different apoptotic parameters were determined in an attempt to understand how CUR affected adult S. mansoni worms. CUR induced DNA damage and fragmentation and increased the expression of SmCASP3/7 transcripts and the activity of Caspase 3 in female and male worms. However, CUR did not intensify the activity of Caspase 8 in female or male worms. Evaluation of the superoxide anion and different antioxidant enzymes helped to explore the mechanism of parasite death further. The level of superoxide anion and the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD increased, whereas the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST, Glutathione reductase (GR, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX decreased, which culminated in the oxidation of proteins in adult female and male worms incubated with CUR. In conclusion, CUR generated oxidative stress followed by apoptotic-like-events in both adult female and male S. mansoni worms, ultimately killing them.

  7. Telomerase: a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and a curcumin derivative in Aβ1-42 insult in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijian Xiao

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate whether telomerase was involved in the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and Cur1. Alzheimer's disease is a consequence of an imbalance between the generation and clearance of amyloid-beta peptide in the brain. In this study, we used Aβ1-42 (10 µg/ml to establish a damaged cell model, and curcumin and Cur1 were used in treatment groups. We measured cell survival and cell growth, intracellular oxidative stress and hTERT expression. After RNA interference, the effects of curcumin and Cur1 on cells were verified. Exposure to Aβ1-42 resulted in significant oxidative stress and cell toxicity, and the expression of hTERT was significantly decreased. Curcumin and Cur1 both protected SK-N-SH cells from Aβ1-42 and up-regulated the expression of hTERT. Furthermore, Cur1 demonstrated stronger protective effects than curcumin. However, when telomerase was inhibited by TERT siRNA, the neuroprotection by curcumin and Cur1 were ceased. Our study indicated that the neuroprotective effects of curcumin and Cur1 depend on telomerase, and thus telomerase may be a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and Cur1.

  8. Curcumin and piperine supplementation of obese mice under caloric restriction modulates body fat and interleukin-1beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Dietary bioactive compounds capable of improving metabolic profiles would be of great value, especially for overweight individuals undergoing a caloric restriction (CR) regimen. Curcumin (Cur), a possible anti-obesity compound, and piperine (Pip), a plausible enhancer of Cur's bioavailab...

  9. Evaluation of an oral carrier system in rats: bioavailability and gastrointestinal absorption properties of curcumin encapsulated PBCA nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Min; Zhao Lixia; Guo Chenyu; Cao Fengliang; Chen Huanlei; Zhao Liyan; Tan Qi; Zhu Xiuqing; Zhu Fanping; Ding Tingting; Zhai Yingjie; Zhai Guangxi, E-mail: professorzhai@yeah.net [Shandong University, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy (China)

    2012-02-15

    A new oral delivery system, polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PBCNs), was introduced to improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin (CUR), a poorly soluble drug. The formulation was optimized by orthogonal design and the optimal PBCNs loading CUR exhibited a spherical shape under transmission electron microscopy with a range of 40-400 nm. Physicochemical state of CUR in PBCN was investigated by X-ray diffraction and the possible structure changes occurring in CUR after conjugating with polybutylcyanoacrylate were studied with FTIR. The results indicated that CUR in PBCN was in a non-crystalline state and CUR was encapsulated in PBCN without chemical reaction. The oral pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats and the relative bioavailability of CUR encapsulated PBCNs to the crude CUR was more than 800%. The in situ absorption experiment in rat intestine indicated the absorption was first order with passive diffusion mechanism. The absorption results in various segments of intestine showed that the main absorption sites were ileum and colon. It can be concluded that PBCNs as an oral carrier can significantly improve the oral absorption of a poorly soluble drug.

  10. Tunable pH and redox-responsive drug release from curcumin conjugated γ-polyglutamic acid nanoparticles in cancer microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillarisetti, Shameer; Maya, S; Sathianarayanan, S; Jayakumar, R

    2017-11-01

    Tunable pH and redox responsive polymer was prepared using γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) with linker 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA) (γ-PGA_SH) via oxidation to obtain redox responsive disulfide (γ-PGA_SS) backbone and adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) (γ-PGA_SS_ADH) with hydrazide functional group for pH responsiveness. Further curcumin (Cur) was conjugated through hydrazone bond of the γ-PGA_SS_ADH via Schiff base reaction to obtain (γ-PGA_SS_ADH_Cur). The prepared systems were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Qq-TOF-MS/MS) and Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS NMR) techniques. γ-PGA_SS_ADH_Cur formed self-assembled core shell nanoparticles (NPs) in existence of stabilized aqueous medium. γ-PGA_SS_ADH_Cur NPs maintained its stability in physiological condition. NPs tunable Cur release and cytotoxicity were observed for γ-PGA_SS_ADH_Cur NPs in both acidic and redox conditions mimicking the cancer microenvironment. γ-PGA_SS_ADH_Cur NPs uptake study showed via endocytosis mechanism resulted in the lysosomal entrapment of these NPs within the cell. γ-PGA_SS_ADH_Cur NPs exhibited a dual stimuli responsive drug delivery and can be used as a smart and potential drug delivery system in cancer microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of the csgD promoter by global regulators HN-S, IHF, and RpoS in E. coli O157:H7 isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Curli production is essential for the biofilm formation in E. coli and Salmonella. The control of expression of CsgD, the key regulator of the curli operon, is very complex, and has been shown to be regulated by several global regulators and is influenced by various growth and stress...

  12. Some new developments in the design rules for coastal structures in relation with the new Rock Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In 1991 CUR in the Netherlands and CIRIA in the UK have published the "manual on the use of rock in coastal engineering", usually referred to as the "Rock Manual". This book of 600 pages gave an overview of the state of the art regarding the design of rock structures along coasts. In 1995 CUR

  13. Comparative Neuroprotective Effects of Dietary Curcumin and Solid Lipid Curcumin Particles in Cultured Mouse Neuroblastoma Cells after Exposure to Aβ42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchanan Maiti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregation of amyloid beta protein (Aβ and phosphorylated tau (p-Tau plays critical roles in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. As an antiamyloid natural polyphenol, curcumin (Cur has a potential role in prevention of neurodegeneration in AD. However, due to limited absorption of the dietary Cur, the solid lipid Cur particles (SLCP have been suggested as being more effective for AD therapy. In the present study, we compared the role of dietary Cur and SLCP on oxidative stress, neuronal death, p-Tau level, and certain cell survival markers in vitro, after exposure to Aβ42. Mouse neuroblastoma cells were exposed to Aβ42 for 24 h and incubated with or without dietary Cur and/or SLCP. Reactive oxygen species (ROS, apoptotic cell death, p-Tau, and tau kinase (including GSK-3β and cell survival markers, such as total Akt, phosphorylated Akt, and PSD95 levels were investigated. SLCP showed greater permeability than dietary Cur in vitro, decreased ROS production, and prevented apoptotic death. In addition, SLCP also inhibited p-Tau formation and significantly decreased GSK-3β levels. Further, the cell survival markers, such as total Akt, p-Akt, and PSD95 levels, were more effectively maintained by SLCP than dietary Cur in Aβ42 exposed cells. Therefore, SLCP may provide greater neuroprotection than dietary Cur in Alzheimer’s disease.

  14. Prdx6 Upregulation by Curcumin Attenuates Ischemic Oxidative Damage via SP1 in Rats after Stroke

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    Gongwei Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The role of Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6 in brain ischemia remains unclear. Curcumin (Cur treatment elicits neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic injury, and the associated mechanisms may involve Prdx6. In this study, we investigated whether Prdx6 and the transcription factor specific protein 1 (SP1 were involved in the antioxidant effect of Cur after stoke. Methods. Focal cerebral ischemic injury was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hours in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with or without Prdx6 siRNA. Expression of Prdx6 in the penumbra was assessed by Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunoflourescent staining. In addition, infarct volume, neurological deficit score, and oxidative stress were evaluated. Prdx6 levels were also determined in the presence and absence of SP1 antagonist mithramycin A (MTM-A. Results. Cur treatment upregulated Prdx6 protein expression and the number of Prdx6-positive neuronal cells 24 hours after reperfusion. Cur treatment also attenuated oxidative stress and induced neuroprotective effects against ischemic damage, whereas the beneficial effects of Cur treatment were lost in animals treated with Prdx6-siRNA. Prdx6 upregulation by Cur treatment was abolished by SP1 antagonists MTM. Conclusions. Prdx6 upregulation by Cur treatment attenuates ischemic oxidative damage through SP1 induction in rats after stroke. This represents a novel mechanism of Cur-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia.

  15. Telomerase: A Target for Therapeutic Effects of Curcumin and a Curcumin Derivative in Aβ1-42 Insult In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianwen; Zheng, Zhenyang; Shi, Xiaolei; Di, Wei; Qi, Weiwei; Zhu, Yingting; Zhou, Guijuan; Fang, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether telomerase was involved in the neuroprotective effect of curcumin and Cur1. Alzheimer's disease is a consequence of an imbalance between the generation and clearance of amyloid-beta peptide in the brain. In this study, we used Aβ1-42 (10 µg/ml) to establish a damaged cell model, and curcumin and Cur1 were used in treatment groups. We measured cell survival and cell growth, intracellular oxidative stress and hTERT expression. After RNA interference, the effects of curcumin and Cur1 on cells were verified. Exposure to Aβ1–42 resulted in significant oxidative stress and cell toxicity, and the expression of hTERT was significantly decreased. Curcumin and Cur1 both protected SK-N-SH cells from Aβ1–42 and up-regulated the expression of hTERT. Furthermore, Cur1 demonstrated stronger protective effects than curcumin. However, when telomerase was inhibited by TERT siRNA, the neuroprotection by curcumin and Cur1 were ceased. Our study indicated that the neuroprotective effects of curcumin and Cur1 depend on telomerase, and thus telomerase may be a target for therapeutic effects of curcumin and Cur1. PMID:24983737

  16. Curcumin Protects against Monosodium Glutamate Neurotoxicity and Decreasing NMDA2B and mGluR5 Expression in Rat Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania M. Khalil

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a flavor enhancer used in food industries. MSG is well documented to induce neurotoxicity. Curcumin (CUR reportedly possesses beneficial effects against various neurotoxic insults. Hence, this present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin on MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Methods: Thirty-two male Wister rats were divided into four groups (n=8: Control group, MSG group, CUR group and MSG + CUR group. CUR (Curcumin 150 mg/kg, orally was given day after day for four weeks along with MSG (4 mg/kg, orally. After 4 weeks, rats were sacrificed and brain hippocampus was isolated immediately on ice. Inflammatory marker TNFα and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity (marker for cholinergic function were estimated. Gene expressions of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NMDA2B along with glutamate concentration were assessed. Results: Treatment with CUR significantly attenuated AChE activity and TNFα in MSG-treated animals. The anti-inflammatory properties of CUR may be responsible for this observed neuroprotective action. A possible role of CUR to attenuate both glutamate level and gene expression of NMDA2B and mGLUR5 in brain hippocampus was established when compared to MSG group. Conclusion: We concluded that CUR as flavor enhancer protects against MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

  17. The Potential Protective Effect of Curcumin on Amyloid-β-42 Induced Cytotoxicity in HT-22 Cells

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    Lu Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of curcumin (CUR in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods. Mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line HT-22 was treated with Aβ1–42 and/or CUR, and then cell viability was evaluated by cell counting kit 8, Beclin-l level was detected using western blotting, and the formation of autophagosomes was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing and analysis were performed in cells with Aβ1–42 alone or Aβ1–42 + CUR. Results. Aβ1–42 treatment significantly inhibited cell viability compared with untreated cells (P<0.01. After treatment for 48 h, CUR remarkably promoted cell viability compared with cell treated with Aβ1–42 alone (P<0.01. Compared with cells treated with Aβ1–42 alone, the expression of Beclin-1 was slightly reduced in cells with combined treatment of Aβ1–42 with CUR (P<0.05. Consistently, TEM results showed that CUR inhibited the formation of autophagosomes in cells treated with Aβ1–42. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction network showed five key genes, including MYC, Cdh1, Acaca, Egr1, and CCnd1, likely involved in CUR effects. Conclusions. CUR might have a potential neuroprotective effect by promoting cell viability in AD, which might be associated with cell autophagy. Furthermore, MYC, Cdh1, and Acaca might be involved in the progression of AD.

  18. Intraperitoneal curcumin decreased lung, renal and heart injury in abdominal aorta ischemia/reperfusion model in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Salih; Caliskan, Ahmet; Kocarslan, Aydemir; Kocarslan, Sezen; Yildiz, Ali; Günay, Samil; Savik, Emin; Hazar, Abdussemet; Yalcin, Funda

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that curcumin (CUR) has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs. We aimed to determine whether CUR has favorable effects on tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham, control and treatment (CUR) group. Control and CUR groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 60 min followed by a 120 min period of reperfusion. In the CUR group, CUR was given 5 min before reperfusion at a dose of 200 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured, and lung, renal and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. TOS and OSI activity in blood samples were statistically decreased in sham and CUR groups compared to the control group (p OSI). Renal, lung, heart injury scores of sham and CUR groups were statistically decreased compared to control group (p model. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliability of quay walls using finite element analysiscalibration of partial safety factors in quay wall design by probabilistic plaxis calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, H.J.; Bakker, K.J.; De Gijt, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    During the last two years, CUR committee 183 has worked on the upgrade of the Dutch Quay Walls handbook (CUR 211), which is to be published in 2013. Two of the main elements that are considered in this new edition are the addition of Finite Element analysis (FEM) as a method for design, comparable

  20. Characteristics and cytotoxicity of folate-modified curcumin-loaded PLA-PEG micellar nano systems with various PLA:PEG ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc Thong; Le, Mai Huong; Le, Thi Thu Huong; Tran, Thi Hong Ha; Xuan, Phuc Nguyen; Ha, Phuong Thu

    2016-06-30

    Targeting delivery system use natural drugs for tumor cells is an appealing platform help to reduce the side effects and enhance the therapeutic effects of the drug. In this study, we synthesized curcumin (Cur) loaded (D, L Poly lactic - Poly ethylenglycol) micelle (Cur/PLA-PEG) with the ratio of PLA/PEG of 3:1 2:1 1:1 1:2 and 1:3 (w/w) and another micelle modified by folate (Cur/PLA-PEG-Fol) for targeting cancer therapy. The PLA-PEG copolymer was synthesized by ring opening polymerization method. After loading onto the micelle, solubility of Cur increased from 0.38 to 0.73mgml(-1). The average size of prepared Cur/PLA-PEG micelles was from 60 to 69nm (corresponding to the ratio difference of PLA/PEG) and the drug encapsulating efficiency was from 48.8 to 91.3%. Compared with the Cur/PLA-PEG micelles, the size of Cur/PLA-PEG-Fol micelles were from 80 to 86nm and showed better in vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards HepG2 cells. The cytotoxicity of the NPs however depends much on the PEG component. The results demonstrated that Folate-modified micelles could serve as a potential nano carrier to improve solubility, anti-cancer activity of Cur and targeting ability of the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer functionalized PLGA-lecithin-curcumin-PEG nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lei Li,1,* Dongxi Xiang,2,* Sarah Shigdar,2 Wenrong Yang,3 Qiong Li,2 Jia Lin,4 Kexin Liu,1 Wei Duan2 1College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, People's Republic of China; 2School of Medicine, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC, Australia; 3School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Built Environment, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, VIC, Australia; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, West China School of Preclinical and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: To improve the efficacy of drug delivery, active targeted nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems are gaining considerable attention as they have the potential to reduce side effects, minimize toxicity, and improve efficacy of anticancer treatment. In this work CUR-NPs (curcumin-loaded lipid-polymer-lecithin hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with ribonucleic acid (RNA Aptamers (Apts against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM for targeted delivery to colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. These CUR-encapsulated bioconjugates (Apt-CUR-NPs were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation, stability, and release. The in vitro specific cell binding, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of Apt-CUR-NPs were also studied. The Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates exhibited increased binding to HT29 colon cancer cells and enhancement in cellular uptake when compared to CUR-NPs functionalized with a control Apt (P<0.01. Furthermore, a substantial improvement in cytotoxicity was achieved toward HT29 cells with Apt-CUR-NP bioconjugates. The encapsulation of CUR in Apt-CUR-NPs resulted in the increased bioavailability of delivered CUR over a period of 24 hours compared to that of free CUR in vivo. These results show that the EpCAM Apt-functionalized CUR-NPs enhance the targeting and drug

  2. Comparison of two surgical treatments for pediatric lower eyelid trichiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Xia Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the clinical results of suture method and partial eyelash resection treating for pediatric eyelid trichiasis, and screen an effective method for the treatment of pediatric lower eyelid trichiasis. METHODS: Fifty-six cases of pediatric patients with lower eyelid trichiasis were randomly divided into a control group and an observation group in accordance with the method of drawing lots, and each group was 28 cases. The control group was treated with suture method, and the observation group was treated with partial eyelash resection. The clinical efficacy, patient satisfaction before and after treatment, and the incidence of complications were compared. RESULTS:(1The clinically total effective rate was 74% of the control group, which was 89% of the observation group, and there were statistical differences of the clinical efficacy between the two groups(PPPPCONCLUSION: The treatment of children with lower eyelid trichiasis, suture method is simple and can be performed under local anesthesia in collaboration with children, but with a higher relapse rate, some patients required reoperation; partial resection of eyelashes can be more thoroughly solve the problem of pediatric eyelid trichiasis with low recurrence rate, but children need to be under general anesthesia with some of big risk. So partial resection of eyelashes is unsuitable for using in clinical practice widely and can be used in special cases.

  3. In silico modeling of lipase H | Jabeen | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAH 2 is a type of autosomal recessive hypotrichosis that affect hairs, eyebrows, scalp and eyelashes. Mutations in Lipase H gene result in LAH 2. Changes that result from mutation on physiochemical properties, post-translational modifications, functional sites, secondary structure and tertiary structure lipase H gene (LIPH) ...

  4. Autosomal recessive Oliver-McFarlane syndrome: retinitis pigmentosa, short stature (GH deficiency), trichomegaly, and hair anomalies or CPD syndrome (chorioretinopathy-pituitary dysfunction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimi, Motti; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth

    2005-10-15

    We describe a brother and sister with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), growth failure, long eyelashes, and sparse hair. They were born to young healthy consanguineous parents and presented at birth with IUGR. Evolving pigmentary retinopathy was diagnosed at the age of 5 years. A similar condition (Oliver-McFarlane) syndrome was reported previously. Our two sibs confirm the existence of this autosomal recessive syndrome.

  5. Disease: H01906 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H01906 Poikiloderma, hereditary fibrosing, with tendon contractures, myopathy, and... pulmonary fibrosis Poikiloderma, hereditary fibrosing, with tendon contractures, myopathy, and pulmonary fi...ies especially on the face and sun-exposed areas. Scalp hair, eyelashes, and eyebrows are typically sparse. Tendon contract

  6. KERATOSIS FOLLICULARIS SPINULOSA DECALVANS: REPORT OF A CASE AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mansouri.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD represents a rare, probably X-linked recessive genodermatosis, characterized by keratosis pilaris of face, trunk and extremities, followed by atrophy, cicatricial alopecia of the scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes, photophobia and corneal abnormalities. We report a rare case of KFSD and review the literature.

  7. Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome with cleft palate, absent nipples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 6 year old child, second in order of birth of non consanguineous Egyptian parents with typical characteristics of Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome. The patient had sparse light hair over the scalp, scanty eyebrows and eyelashes, a high arched cleft palate, decayed oligodontic teeth, hyperpigmentation all over ...

  8. Disease: H01932 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H01932 Ablepharon-macrostomia syndrome Ablepharon-macrostomia syndrome (AMS) is a ...rare autosomal dominant condition characterized by absent eyelids, absent eyebrows and eyelashes, macrostomia...: 200110 PMID:15103726 (gene) ... AUTHORS ... Brancati F, Mingarelli R, Sarkozy A, Dallapiccola B ... TITLE ... Ablepharon-macrostomia

  9. Use of Novel Polyurethane Microspheres in a Curcumin Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having a wide range of beneficial pharmacological effects, curcumin is characterized by poor water solubility and absorption. In this study, novel polyurethane microspheres containing curcumin (Cur-PUMs were prepared using carboxymethyl cellulose sodium to improve the bioavailability and prolong the retention time of curcumin. The prepared Cur-PUMs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The sustained-release effects of Cur-PUMs were demonstrated using stability tests in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration. We found that the stability of Cur-PUMs was strongly affected by pH variation. Further, compared with free curcumin, Cur-PUMs showed significantly improved maximum concentration and half-life.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of novel reduction-sensitive hybrid nano-echinus-like nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaili; Guo, Chunjing; Zou, Shaohua; Yu, Yueming; Fan, Xinxin; Wang, Bingjie; Liu, Mengna; Fang, Lei; Chen, Daquan

    2018-04-27

    To remedy the problems resulting from the usage of anti-cancer drugs in cancer chemotherapy, such as deficient drug concentration in tumour cells, low water-solubility and non-specific distribution of antitumour drugs, a kind of reduction-sensitive polymer prodrug of curcumin (Cur) containing in the nano-echinus was synthesized and designed. The nano-echinus-like nanomedicine presented synergistic effect with glycyrrhetic acid (GA) and oligomeric hyaluronic (HA) for targeting and combating HepG2 human liver cancer cell. Firstly, a kind of small molecular prodrug of Cur, dithiodipropionic acid-Cur (-SS-Cur), was chemically conjugated onto the side chain of the conjugated glycyrrhetic acid- oligomeric hyaluronic (GA-HA) to generate an amphiphilic polymeric prodrug of Cur, GA-HA-SS-Cur. The obtained GA-HA-SS-Cur prodrug and subsidiary material mPEG-DSPE could self-assemble into a sea urchin-like micelles in aqueous media and release Cur rapidly in response to glutathion (GSH). Then, Cur was loaded into the nano-echinus with a particle size of (118.1 ± 0.2 nm) and drug-loading efficiency of (8.03 ± 2.1%). The structure of GA-HA-SS-Cur was characterized by 1 H-NMR in this report. The morphology of micelles was observed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Subsequently, the reduction-sensitivity of the nano-echinus was confirmed by the changes in in-vitro drug release after different concentrations of GSH treatment. Besides, the cellular uptake behaviour and MTT assays of the nano-echinus were investigated, suggesting that the nano-echinus was of desirable safety and could be taken into HepG2 cells in a time-dependent manner. Later, anti-tumour efficacy in vivo revealed the effective inhibition of tumour growth.

  11. The comprehensive electrophysiological study of curcuminoids on delayed-rectifier K+ currents in insulin-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Yang, Chia-Jung; Lee, Yu-Chi; Chen, Pei-Chun; Liu, Yen-Chin; Wu, Sheng-Nan

    2018-01-15

    Curcumin (CUR) has been demonstrated to induce insulin release from pancreatic β-cells; however, how curcuminoids (including demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC)) exert any possible effects on membrane ion currents inherently in insulin-secreting cells remains largely unclear. The effects of CUR and other structurally similar curcuminoids on ion currents in rat insulin-secreting (INS-1) insulinoma cells were therefore investigated in this study. The effects of these compounds on ionic currents and membrane potential were studied by patch-clamp technique. CUR suppressed the amplitude of delayed-rectifier K + current (I K(DR) ) in a time-, state- and concentration-dependent manner in these cells and the inhibition was not reversed by diazoxide, nicorandil or chlorotoxin. The value of dissociation constant for CUR-induced suppression of I K(DR) in INS-1 cells was 1.26μM. Despite the inability of CUR to alter the activation rate of I K(DR) , it accelerated current inactivation elicited by membrane depolarization. Increasing CUR concentrations shifted the inactivation curve of I K(DR) to hyperpolarized potential and slowed the recovery of I K(DR) inactivation. CUR, DMC, and BDMC all exerted depressant actions on I K(DR) amplitude to a similar magnitude, although DMC and BDMC did not increase current inactivation clearly. CUR slightly suppressed the peak amplitude of voltage-gated Na + current. CUR, DMC and BDMC depolarized the resting potential and increased firing frequency of action potentials. The CUR-mediated decrease of I K(DR) and the increase of current inactivation also occurred in βTC-6 INS-1 cells. Taken these results together, these effects may be one of the possible mechanisms contributing their insulin-releasing effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and anti-cancer activity of polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu Ha, Phuong; Huong Le, Mai; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Thu Huong Le, Thi; Quang Duong, Tuan; Tran, Thi Hong Ha; Tran, Dai Lam; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2012-09-01

    Curcumin (Cur) is a yellow compound isolated from rhizome of the herb curcuma longa. Curcumin possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antimicrobial properties, and suppresses proliferation of many tumor cells. However, the clinical application of curcumin in cancer treatment is considerably limited due to its serious poor delivery characteristics. In order to increase the hydrophilicity and drug delivery capability, we encapsulated curcumin into copolymer PLA-TPGS, 1,3-beta-glucan (Glu), O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCs) and folate-conjugated OCMCs (OCMCs-Fol). These polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-PLA-TPGS, Cur-Glu, Cur-OCMCs and Cur-OCMCs-Fol) were characterized by infrared (IR), fluorescence (FL), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and found to be spherical particles with an average size of 50-100 nm, being suitable for drug delivery applications. They were much more soluble in water than not only free curcumin but also other biodegradable polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles. The anti-tumor promoting assay was carried out, showing the positive effects of Cur-Glu and Cur-PLA-TPGS on tumor promotion of Hep-G2 cell line in vitro. Confocal microscopy revealed that the nano-sized curcumin encapsulated by polymers OCMCs and OCMCs-Fol significantly enhanced the cellular uptake (cancer cell HT29 and HeLa).

  13. Construction and characterization of curcumin nanoparticles system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weitong; Zou, Yu; Guo, Yaping; Wang, Lu; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Rui; Zhao, Kun

    2014-03-01

    This study was aimed at developing a nanoparticles system for curcumin, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, but with the disadvantage of poor aqueous solubility. The objective was intended to improve in vitro release characteristics, enhance blood and gastrointestinal stability, increase bioavailability and pharmacological activities. Curcumin nanoparticles system (Cur-NS) was prepared by ionotropic gelation technique. Cur-NS was characterized by particle size, zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading, and physical stability, respectively. Cur-NS presented controlled release properties, and the release properties of Cur from NS were fit non-Fickian mechanism, controlled by the expected diffusional release and the erosion or solubilization from the crosslink layer of polymer carrier. In addition, the pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed a notable improved oral bioavailability of Cur, and the anti-tumor activity in vivo of Cur-NS on tumor growth was investigated. Cur-NS significantly inhibited tumor effect compared with non-vehicle group, thus making it a potential candidate for cancer therapy.

  14. Curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with Brij78 and TPGS improved in vivo oral bioavailability and in situ intestinal absorption of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongyu; Tang, Jingling; Li, Mengting; Ren, Jinmei; Zheng, Nannan; Wu, Linhua

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to formulate curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles (Cur-SLNs) with P-gp modulator excipients, TPGS and Brij78, to enhance the solubility and bioavailability of curcumin. The formulation was optimized by Plackett-Burman screening design and Box-Behnken experiment design. Then physiochemical properties, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release of Cur-SLNs were characterized. In vivo pharmacokinetics study and in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion were performed to investigate the effects of Cur-SLNs on the bioavailability and intestinal absorption of curcumin. The optimized formulations showed an average size of 135.3 ± 1.5 nm with a zeta potential value of -24.7 ± 2.1 mV and 91.09% ± 1.23% drug entrapment efficiency, meanwhile displayed a sustained release profile. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed AUC0→t for Cur-SLNs was 12.27-folds greater than curcumin suspension and the relative bioavailability of Cur-SLNs was 942.53%. Meanwhile, Tmax and t(1/2) of curcumin for Cur-SLNs were both delayed comparing to the suspensions (p curcumin for SLNs was significantly improved (p curcumin solution. Cur-SLNs with TPGS and Brij78 could improve the oral bioavailability and intestinal absorption of curcumin effectively.

  15. A Glycyrrhetinic Acid-Modified Curcumin Supramolecular Hydrogel for liver tumor targeting therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqin; Li, Jinliang; Cai, Yanbin; Zhan, Jie; Gao, Jie; Song, Mingcai; Shi, Yang; Yang, Zhimou

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin (Cur), a phenolic anti-oxidant compound obtained from Curcuma longa plant, possesses a variety of therapeutic properties. However, it is suffered from its low water solubility and low bioavailability property, which seriously restricts its clinical application. In this study, we developed a glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) modified curcumin supramolecular pro-gelator (GA-Cur) and a control compound Nap-Cur by replacing GA with the naphthylacetic acid (Nap). Both compounds showed good water solubility and could form supramolecular gels by disulfide bond reduction triggered by glutathione (GSH) in vitro. Both formed gels could sustainedly release Cur in buffer solutions. We also investigated the cytotoxicity of pro-gelators to HepG2 cells by a MTT assay and determined the cellular uptake behaviours of them by fluorescence microscopy and LC-MS. Due to the over expression of GA receptor in liver cancer cells, our pro-gelator of GA-Cur showed an enhanced cellular uptake and better inhibition capacity to liver tumor cells than Nap-Cur. Therefore, the GA-Cur could significantly inhibit HepG2 cell growth. Our study provides a novel nanomaterial for liver tumor chemotherapy.

  16. Development of Food-Grade Curcumin Nanoemulsion and its Potential Application to Food Beverage System: Antioxidant Property and In Vitro Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Hee Joung; Choi, Mi-Jung; Kim, Jun Tae; Park, Seok Hoon; Park, Hyun Jin; Shin, Gye Hwa

    2016-03-01

    Curcumin nanoemulsions (Cur-NEs) were developed with various surfactant concentrations by using high pressure homogenization and finally applied to the commercial milk system. Characterization of Cur-NEs was performed by measuring the droplet size and polydispersity index value at different Tween 20 concentrations. The morphology of the Cur-NEs was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Antioxidant activity and in vitro digestion ability were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, pH-stat method, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays. Cur-NEs were found to be physically stable for 1 mo at room temperature. The surfactant concentration affects particle formation and droplet size. The mean droplet size decreased from 122 to 90 nm when surfactant concentration increased 3 times. Cur-NEs had shown an effective oxygen scavenging activity. Cur-NEs-fortified milk showed significantly lower lipid oxidation than control (unfortified) milk and milk containing curcumin-free nanoemulsions. These properties make Cur-NEs suitable systems for the beverage industry. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Preparation and anti-cancer activity of polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Phuong Thu; Tran, Dai Lam; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Le, Mai Huong; Ha Tran, Thi Hong; Hoang, Thi My Nhung; Huong Le, Thi Thu; Duong, Tuan Quang

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin (Cur) is a yellow compound isolated from rhizome of the herb curcuma longa. Curcumin possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and antimicrobial properties, and suppresses proliferation of many tumor cells. However, the clinical application of curcumin in cancer treatment is considerably limited due to its serious poor delivery characteristics. In order to increase the hydrophilicity and drug delivery capability, we encapsulated curcumin into copolymer PLA-TPGS, 1,3-beta-glucan (Glu), O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCs) and folate-conjugated OCMCs (OCMCs-Fol). These polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-PLA-TPGS, Cur-Glu, Cur-OCMCs and Cur-OCMCs-Fol) were characterized by infrared (IR), fluorescence (FL), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and found to be spherical particles with an average size of 50–100 nm, being suitable for drug delivery applications. They were much more soluble in water than not only free curcumin but also other biodegradable polymer-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles. The anti-tumor promoting assay was carried out, showing the positive effects of Cur-Glu and Cur-PLA-TPGS on tumor promotion of Hep-G2 cell line in vitro. Confocal microscopy revealed that the nano-sized curcumin encapsulated by polymers OCMCs and OCMCs-Fol significantly enhanced the cellular uptake (cancer cell HT29 and HeLa). (paper)

  18. Molecularly imprinted poly (methacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite membranes for recognition of curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ping; Hu Wenming; Su Weike

    2008-01-01

    In this study, molecularly imprinted poly (methacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) composite membranes with different ratio of methacrylamide (MAM) versus methacrylic acid (MAA) were prepared via UV initiated photo-copolymerization on the commercial filter paper. Curcumin was chosen as the template molecule. Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy was used to study the binding mechanism between the imprinted sites and the templates. The morphology of the resultant membranes was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Static equilibrium binding and recognition properties of the imprinted composite membranes to curcumin (cur-I) and its analogues demethoxycurcumin (cur-II) or bisdemethoxycurcumin (cur-III) were tested. The results showed that curcumin-imprinted membranes had the best recognition ability to curcumin compared to its analogues. From the results, the biggest selectivity factor of α cur-I/cur-II and α cur-I/cur-III were 1.50 and 5.94, and they were obtained from the composite membranes in which MAM/MAA were 1:4 and 0:1, respectively. The results of this study implied that the molecularly imprinted composite membranes could be used as separation membranes for curcumin enrichment

  19. "Curcumin-loaded Poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanovesicles induce antinociceptive effects and reduce pronociceptive cytokine and BDNF release in spinal cord after acute administration in mice".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieretti, Stefano; Ranjan, Amalendu P; Di Giannuario, Amalia; Mukerjee, Anindita; Marzoli, Francesca; Di Giovannandrea, Rita; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2017-10-01

    Given the poor bioavailability of curcumin, its antinociceptive effects are produced after chronic intravenous administration of high doses, while poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-loaded vesicles (PLGA) can improve drug delivery. This paper investigates the antinociceptive effects of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanovesicles (PLGA-CUR) administered via intravenous (i.v.) or intrathecal (i.t.) routes at low and high doses. The following models of pain were used: formalin test, zymosan-induced hyperalgesia and sciatic nerve ligation inducing neuropathic allodynia and hyperalgesia. PLGA-CUR administered intravenously was able to reduce the response to nociceptive stimuli in the formalin test and hyperalgesia induced by zymosan. Curcumin, instead, was inactive. Low-dose i.t. administration of PLGA-CUR significantly reduced allodynia produced by sciatic nerve ligation, whereas low doses of curcumin did not change the response to nociceptive stimuli. Long-lasting antinociceptive effects were observed when high doses of PLGA-CUR were administered intrathecally. At high doses, i.t. administration of curcumin only exerted rapid and transient antinociceptive effects. Measurement of cytokine and BDNF in the spinal cord of neuropathic mice demonstrate that the antinociceptive effects of PLGA-CUR depend on the reduction in cytokine release and BDNF in the spinal cord. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of PLGA-CUR and suggest that PLGA-CUR nanoformulation might be a new potential drug in the treatment of pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stability and loading properties of curcumin encapsulated in Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Yaser; Sabahi, Hossein; Rahaie, Mahdi

    2016-11-15

    Curcumin (Cur), a polyphenols with pharmacological function, was successfully encapsulated in algae (Alg) cell (Chlorella vulgaris) as confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Fluorescence micrographs, TGA, DSC and FTIR spectra suggested the hypothesis inclusion Cur in Nano-empty spaces inside cell wall of Alg. The TGA analysis showed that the thermal stability of Alg and Cur at algae/curcumin complex was 3.8% and 33% higher than their free forms at 0-300°C and 300-600°C ranges, respectively. After encapsulation in Alg cells, the photostability of Cur was enhanced by about 2.5-fold. Adsorption isotherm of Cur into Alg was fitted with the Freundlich isotherm. The microcapsules were loaded with Cur up to about 55% w/w which is much higher than other reported bio-carriers. In conclusion, the data proved that Chlorella vulgaris cell can be used as a new stable carrier for Cur. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Curcumin-loaded embryonic stem cell exosomes restored neurovascular unit following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Anuradha; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Kamat, Pradip K; Maldonado, Claudio; Bauer, Philip; Joshua, Irving G; Tyagi, Suresh C; Tyagi, Neetu

    2016-10-01

    We tested whether the combined nano-formulation, prepared with curcumin (anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective molecule) and embryonic stem cell exosomes (MESC-exo cur ), restored neurovascular loss following an ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury in mice. IR-injury was created in 8-10 weeks old mice and divided into two groups. Out of two IR-injured groups, one group received intranasal administration of MESC-exo cur for 7days. Similarly, two sham groups were made and one group received MESC-exo cur treatment. The study determined that MESC-exo cur treatment reduced neurological score, infarct volume and edema following IR-injury. As compared to untreated IR group, MESC-exo cur treated-IR group showed reduced inflammation and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor expression. Treatment of MESC-exo cur also reduced astrocytic GFAP expression and alleviated the expression of NeuN positive neurons in IR-injured mice. In addition, MESC-exo cur treatment restored vascular endothelial tight (claudin-5 and occludin) and adherent (VE-cadherin) junction proteins in IR-injured mice as compared to untreated IR-injured mice. These results suggest that combining the potentials of embryonic stem cell exosomes and curcumin can help neurovascular restoration following ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced Therapeutic Potential of Nano-Curcumin Against Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Through Inhibition of Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zong-Yong; Jiang, Ming; Fang, Jie; Yang, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Shuai; Yin, Yan-Xin; Li, Da-Wei; Mao, Lei-Lei; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Hou, Ya-Jun; Fu, Xiao-Ting; Fan, Cun-Dong; Sun, Bao-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin and nano-curcumin both exhibit neuroprotective effects in early brain injury (EBI) after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the mechanism that whether curcumin and its nanoparticles affect the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following SAH remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of curcumin and the poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-encapsulated curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-NPs) on BBB disruption and evaluated the possible mechanism underlying BBB dysfunction in EBI using the endovascular perforation rat SAH model. The results indicated that Cur-NPs showed enhanced therapeutic effects than that of curcumin in improving neurological function, reducing brain water content, and Evans blue dye extravasation after SAH. Mechanically, Cur-NPs attenuated BBB dysfunction after SAH by preventing the disruption of tight junction protein (ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-5). Cur-NPs also up-regulated glutamate transporter-1 and attenuated glutamate concentration of cerebrospinal fluid following SAH. Moreover, inhibition of inflammatory response and microglia activation both contributed to Cur-NPs' protective effects. Additionally, Cur-NPs markedly suppressed SAH-mediated oxidative stress and eventually reversed SAH-induced cell apoptosis in rats. Our findings revealed that the strategy of using Cur-NPs could be a promising way in improving neurological function in EBI after experimental rat SAH.

  3. Electrospun curcumin loaded poly(ε-caprolactone)/gum tragacanth nanofibers for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Marziyeh; Bahrami, S Hajir

    2016-03-01

    In this work curcumin (Cur)-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/gum tragacanth (GT) scaffold membranes which provided the controlled release of curcumin for over 20 days were fabricated by electrospinning. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied to characterize the produced nanofibers. These nanofibers were evaluated for water absorption capacity, in vitro drug release, biodegradation test, cell culture and MTT analysis. The water contact angle measurements indicated that addition of GT and curcumin in composition resulted in increase in the hydrophilicity of the nanofibers. Biodegradation test for the fabricated nanofibers exhibited that PCL/GT, PCL/Cur-3% and PCL/GT/Cur-3% nanofibers preserved their structure after 15 days. The in vitro release profile of curcumin showed 6.86, 14 and 30.09% burst release for PCL/GT/Cur-1%, PCL/GT/Cur-3% and PCL/Cur-3% nanofibers respectively. The effect of curcumin concentration in the nanofibers composition on the cell viability was assessed by the MTS assay. The cytotoxic effect of released curcumin on the fibroblast cells was examined. The PCL/GT/Cur-3% with suitable mechanical properties, excellent biological characteristics, and maintaining their original structure in degradation media may have potential application as a wound dressing patch for healing slow rate wounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential therapeutic and protective effect of curcumin against stroke in the male albino stroke-induced model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yan, Yi; Cao, Yi; Yang, Yongtao; Zhao, Qing; Jing, Rui; Hu, Jiayi; Bao, Juan

    2017-08-15

    The present study was carried out to understand the therapeutic effect of curcumin (CUR) against stroke in the experimental animal model. The study investigates the healing effect of CUR on mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Male albino, Wistar strain rats were used for the induction of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and reperfusion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain region. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, and Sirt1. The water level was determined in brain region by using standard method. Experimental results indicated that the use of CUR significantly reduced brain edema and water content. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly reduced in the brain region following use of CUR. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) also reduced significantly after CUR treatment. Protein expression of p53 and Bax were significantly reduced, whereas Bcl-2 and Sirt1 were increased following CUR treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that the use of CUR may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental investigation and oral bioavailability enhancement of nano-sized curcumin by using supercritical anti-solvent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Mohammed; Ahmad, Iqbal; Warsi, Musarrat H; Mohapatra, Sharmistha; Ahmad, Niyaz; Akhter, Sohail; Ali, Asgar; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2015-10-01

    The biomedical applications of curcumin (CUR) are limited due to its poor oral bioavailability. In this work, CUR nanoparticles were successfully prepared by combining the supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process with Tween 80 as a solubilizing agent and permeation enhancer. Different processing parameters that can govern the mean particle size and size distribution of nanoparticles were well investigated by manipulating the types of solvents, mixing vessel pressure, mixing vessel temperature, CO2 flow rate, solution flow rate and solution concentration. Solid state characterization was done by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction study. Solubility and dissolution profile of SAS-processed CUR were found to be significantly increased in comparison with native CUR. Further, a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic parameters after a single oral dose (100mg/kg) administration of CUR (before/after SAS-processed) in male Wistar rats. From the plasma concentration vs. time profile graph, oral bioavailability of SAS-processed CUR was found to be increased approximately 11.6-fold (p<0.001) as compared to native CUR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. One-step formation of lipid-polyacrylic acid-calcium carbonate nanoparticles for co-delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianqing; Fumoto, Shintaro; Miyamoto, Hirotaka; Chen, Yi; Kuroda, Naotaka; Nishida, Koyo

    2017-09-01

    A doxorubicin (Dox) and curcumin (Cur) combination treatment regimen has been widely studied in pre-clinical research. However, the nanoparticles developed for this combination therapy require a consecutive drug loading process because of the different water-solubility of these drugs. This study provides a strategy for the "one-step" formation of nanoparticles encapsulating both Dox and Cur. We took advantage of polyacrylic acid (PAA) and calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) to realise a high drug entrapment efficiency (EE) and pH-sensitive drug release using a simplified preparation method. Optimisation of lipid ratios and concentrations of CaCO 3 was conducted. Under optimal conditions, the mean diameter of PEGylated lipid/PAA/CaCO 3 nanoparticles with encapsulated Cur and Dox (LPCCD) was less than 100 nm. An obvious pH-sensitive release of both drugs was observed, with different Dox and Cur release rates. Successful co-delivery of Cur and Dox was achieved via LPCCD on HepG2 cells. LPCCD altered the bio-distribution of Dox and Cur in vivo and decreased Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. The current investigation has developed an efficient ternary system for co-delivery of Dox and Cur to tumours, using a "one-step" formation resulting in nanoparticles possessing remarkable pH-sensitive drug release behaviour, which may be valuable for further clinical studies and eventual clinical application.

  7. Silica-coated flexible liposomes as a nanohybrid delivery system for enhanced oral bioavailability of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chong Li, Yan Zhang, Tingting Su, Lianlian Feng, Yingying Long, Zhangbao ChenKey Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, ChinaAbstract: We investigated flexible liposomes as a potential oral drug delivery system. However, enhanced membrane fluidity and structural deformability may necessitate liposomal surface modification when facing the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, silica-coated flexible liposomes loaded with curcumin (CUR-SLs having poor water solubility as a model drug were prepared by a thin-film method with homogenization, followed by the formation of a silica shell by the sol-gel process. We systematically investigated the physical properties, drug release behavior, pharmacodynamics, and bioavailability of CUR-SLs. CUR-SLs had a mean diameter of 157 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.14, while the apparent entrapment efficiency was 90.62%. Compared with curcumin-loaded flexible liposomes (CUR-FLs without silica-coatings, CUR-SLs had significantly higher stability against artificial gastric fluid and showed more sustained drug release in artificial intestinal fluid as determined by in vitro release assays. The bioavailability of CUR-SLs and CUR-FLs was 7.76- and 2.35-fold higher, respectively, than that of curcumin suspensions. Silica coating markedly improved the stability of flexible liposomes, and CUR-SLs exhibited a 3.31-fold increase in bioavailability compared with CUR-FLs, indicating that silica-coated flexible liposomes may be employed as a potential carrier to deliver drugs with poor water solubility via the oral route with improved bioavailability.Keywords: silica, flexible liposome, oral bioavailability, curcumin

  8. Developing and Evaluating In Vitro Effect of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Conjugated Curcumin on Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Bui Thanh; Hai, Nguyen Thanh; Son, Phan Ke

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin has been shown to possess strong cytotoxic effect against various cancer cell lines. However, curcumin has not applied as a drug for treatment of cancer yet due to low solubility in water and low bioavailability. The aims of this study were to prepare a new polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated curcumin and to evaluate its antitumor activity in vitro. PEG-CUR was prepared by the reaction between curcumin and PEG. PEG-CUR which was characterized by SEM, TEM, FTIR, DSC and 1H NMR analysis. The physicochemical parameters of PEG-CUR such as zeta potential, size distribution, solubility and percentage of curcumin were also investigated. Our results showed that the percentage of curcumin in PEG-CUR was 13.26 ± 1.25 %. PEG-CUR has nanosize values of 96.3 nm and the zeta potential values of - 48.4 mV. The PEG-CUR showed significantly increasing curcumin's solubility in water and another medium such as in 0,1 N HCl, phosphate buffer pH 4.5 and pH 6.8 solution and n-octanol. Our data also have shown cytotoxicity effect of PEG-CUR was much greater than curcumin-free in two different HepG2 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. It could be concluded from our results that the PEG-CUR may be a potential candidate for cancer treatment. Further studies are needed to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of PEG-CUR in vivo.

  9. Discovery and in Vivo Evaluation of Novel RGD-Modified Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinbo Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the lipid-shell and polymer-core hybrid nanoparticles (lpNPs modified by Arg–Gly–Asp(RGD peptide, loaded with curcumin (Cur, were developed by emulsification-solvent volatilization method. The RGD-modified hybrid nanoparticles (RGD–lpNPs could overcome the poor water solubility of Cur to meet the requirement of intravenous administration and tumor active targeting. The obtained optimal RGD-lpNPs, composed of PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid–mPEG (methoxyl poly(ethylene- glycol, RGD–polyethylene glycol (PEG–cholesterol (Chol copolymers and lipids, had good entrapment efficiency, submicron size and negatively neutral surface charge. The core-shell structure of RGD–lpNPs was verified by TEM. Cytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that the RGD–lpNPs encapsulated Cur retained potent anti-tumor effects. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the cellular uptake of Cur encapsulated in the RGD–lpNPs was increased for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Furthermore, Cur loaded RGD–lpNPs were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in a subcutaneous B16 melanoma tumor model. The results of immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical studies by Cur loaded RGD–lpNPs therapies indicated that more apoptotic cells, fewer microvessels, and fewer proliferation-positive cells were observed. In conclusion, RGD–lpNPs encapsulating Cur were developed with enhanced anti-tumor activity in melanoma, and Cur loaded RGD–lpNPs represent an excellent tumor targeted formulation of Cur which might be an attractive candidate for cancer therapy.

  10. Discovery and in vivo evaluation of novel RGD-modified lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinbo; Lin, Dayong; Wu, Fengbo; Guo, Li; He, Gu; Ouyang, Liang; Song, Xiangrong; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiang

    2014-09-29

    In the current study, the lipid-shell and polymer-core hybrid nanoparticles (lpNPs) modified by Arg-Gly-Asp(RGD) peptide, loaded with curcumin (Cur), were developed by emulsification-solvent volatilization method. The RGD-modified hybrid nanoparticles (RGD-lpNPs) could overcome the poor water solubility of Cur to meet the requirement of intravenous administration and tumor active targeting. The obtained optimal RGD-lpNPs, composed of PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid))-mPEG (methoxyl poly(ethylene- glycol)), RGD-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-cholesterol (Chol) copolymers and lipids, had good entrapment efficiency, submicron size and negatively neutral surface charge. The core-shell structure of RGD-lpNPs was verified by TEM. Cytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that the RGD-lpNPs encapsulated Cur retained potent anti-tumor effects. Flow cytometry analysis revealed the cellular uptake of Cur encapsulated in the RGD-lpNPs was increased for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Furthermore, Cur loaded RGD-lpNPs were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in a subcutaneous B16 melanoma tumor model. The results of immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical studies by Cur loaded RGD-lpNPs therapies indicated that more apoptotic cells, fewer microvessels, and fewer proliferation-positive cells were observed. In conclusion, RGD-lpNPs encapsulating Cur were developed with enhanced anti-tumor activity in melanoma, and Cur loaded RGD-lpNPs represent an excellent tumor targeted formulation of Cur which might be an attractive candidate for cancer therapy.

  11. Development of curcumin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles utilizing glyceryl monostearate as single lipid using QbD approach: Characterization and Evaluation of anticancer activity against human breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Himanshu; Rompicharla, Sri Vishnu Kiran; Komanduri, Neeraja; Shah, Aashma; Paradkar, Sateja; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2018-05-03

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) represent an affordable, easily scalable, stable and biocompatible drug delivery system with a high drug to lipid ratio which also improves solubility of poorly soluble drugs. SLNs were developed by using glyceryl monostearate as the single lipid in presence of surfactant Poloxamer 188 and evaluated the efficiency of the SLNs to load the therapeutic cargo, curcumin (CUR). The nano-formulation was optimized by Quality by Design approach to understand the effect of various process parameters on various quality attributes, including drug loadability, particle size and polydispersity. The nanoparticles were characterized using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. These novel SLNs were evaluated for in-vitro anticancer activity using breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231). The optimized formulation had particle size of 226.802±3.92 nm with low polydispersity index of 0.244±0.018. The % encapsulation of CUR into SLNs was found to be 67.88±2.08 %. DSC, FT-IR and XRD confirmed that the CUR was encapsulated stably into the lipid matrix, thereby improving the solubility of the drug. CUR-SLN showed sustained drug release in comparison to the free CUR solution. CUR-SLNs exhibited higher cellular uptake in human breast adenocarcinoma cells compared to free CUR at both 1 and 4 h time points. CUR-SLNs demonstrated decreased cell viability (43.97±1.53%) compared to free CUR (59.33±0.95%) at a concentration of 50 μg/mL after 24 h treatment. Further, treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with CUR-SLNs for 24 h induced significantly higher apoptosis (37.28±5.3%) in cells compared to the free CUR (21.06±0.97%). The results provide strong rationale for further exploration of the newly developed CUR-SLN to be utilized as a potent chemotherapeutic agent in cancer therapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Reliability of quay walls using finite element analysiscalibration of partial safety factors in quay wall design by probabilistic plaxis calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Wolters, H.J.; Bakker, K.J.; De Gijt, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    During the last two years, CUR committee 183 has worked on the upgrade of the Dutch Quay Walls handbook (CUR 211), which is to be published in 2013. Two of the main elements that are considered in this new edition are the addition of Finite Element analysis (FEM) as a method for design, comparable to the description in the Handbook Sheet-Pile Structures (CUR 166), and the calibration of partial safety factors design with FEM.With respect to the actuality of this update it must be remembered t...

  13. Protective Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin and Curcumin against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curcumin (CUR) is a phenolic compound from. Curcuma longa. .... captured on a Nikon fluorescence microscope. The fluorescence data were ... The images shown were representative of experiments with similar results. Each bar represents ...

  14. Estándares internacionales del trabajo infantil: el caso de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Ferrer, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Treballs finals del Màster "Estudios Internacionales: organizaciones internacionales y cooperación – Colección Memorias MEI", Facultat de Dret, Universitat de Barcelona, Curs:2013-2014 , Tutor: Jordi Bonet Pérez

  15. Modified gum Arabic hydrogels as matrices for controlled release of curcumin supramolecular complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerola, Adriana P.; Silva, Danielle C.; Rubira, Adley F.; Muniz, Edvani C.

    2015-01-01

    Modified gum Arabic (GA) hydrogels show a pH-responsive behavior making them excellent matrices to be used for oral administration of drugs. Our goal is to study the behavior of those matrices in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. In this work we will present how the methacrylation degree of GA, by using glycidyl methacrylate, can affect the properties of these hydrogels for controlled release. The drug used in this work is the curcumin (Cur). Cur is associated with numerous pharmacological activities, but their application is limited by the low water solubility. We will present some studies involving the formation of host-guest complexes between Cur and natural cyclodextrins. Both modified GA and hydrogels were characterized by different techniques. The kinetics release of Cur complex-containing modified GA hydrogels was studied to have an insight on the release mechanism and rate constants. Toxicity studies on undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 were also carried out. (author)

  16. Amine functionalized cubic mesoporous silica nanoparticles as an oral delivery system for curcumin bioavailability enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Hartono, Sandy; Hadisoewignyo, Lannie; Yang, Yanan; Meka, Anand Kumar; Antaresti; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, a simple method was used to develop composite curcumin-amine functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). The nanoparticles were used to improve the bioavailability of curcumin in mice through oral administration. We investigated the effect of particle size on the release profile, solubility and oral bioavailability of curcumin in mice, including amine functionalized mesoporous silica micron-sized-particles (MSM) and MSN (100-200 nm). Curcumin loaded within amine functionalized MSN (MSN-A-Cur) had a better release profile and a higher solubility compared to amine MSM (MSM-A-Cur). The bioavailability of MSN-A-Cur and MSM-A-Cur was considerably higher than that of ‘free curcumin’. These results indicate promising features of amine functionalized MSN as a carrier to deliver low solubility drugs with improved bioavailability via the oral route.

  17. fluoride iontophoresis versus topical fluoride application

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of influencing ionic motion by electrical cur- rent has been termed ..... fects of brushing desensitizing toothpastes, their solid and liquid phases, and detergents on ... dentine hypersensitivity - a review. Journal of the Western Soci-.

  18. Modified gum Arabic hydrogels as matrices for controlled release of curcumin supramolecular complexes; Hidrogeis de goma arabica modificada como matrizes para libertacao controlada de complexos supramoleculares de curcumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerola, Adriana P.; Silva, Danielle C., E-mail: avalente@ci.uc.pt [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Rubira, Adley F.; Muniz, Edvani C. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (GMPC/UEM), PR (Brazil). Grupo de Materiais Polimericos e Compositos; Jesus, Sandra; Borges, Olga [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    Modified gum Arabic (GA) hydrogels show a pH-responsive behavior making them excellent matrices to be used for oral administration of drugs. Our goal is to study the behavior of those matrices in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. In this work we will present how the methacrylation degree of GA, by using glycidyl methacrylate, can affect the properties of these hydrogels for controlled release. The drug used in this work is the curcumin (Cur). Cur is associated with numerous pharmacological activities, but their application is limited by the low water solubility. We will present some studies involving the formation of host-guest complexes between Cur and natural cyclodextrins. Both modified GA and hydrogels were characterized by different techniques. The kinetics release of Cur complex-containing modified GA hydrogels was studied to have an insight on the release mechanism and rate constants. Toxicity studies on undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 were also carried out. (author)

  19. Grade 7 teachers' and prospective teachers' content knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    and media with which instruction and assessment are carried out (cur- ricular knowledge). .... school mathematics teachers and prospective elementary school ma- thematics ..... behavioural and social sciences and education. Washington, DC ...

  20. El Derecho a la Salud en Latinoamérica y la Unión Europea. Accesibilidad en contextos de crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Quercetti, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    Treballs finals del Màster "Estudios Internacionales: organizaciones internacionales y cooperación – Colección Memorias MEI", Facultat de Dret, Universitat de Barcelona, Curs:2013-2014 , Directora: Marta Ortega Gomez

  1. Neonatal mortality in a referral hospital in Cameroon over a seven ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neonatal mortality rate followed a downward trend dropping from12.4% in 2004 to 7.2% in 2010. ... Neonatal sepsis, prematurity, birth asphyxia and congenital malformations were ... cur in developing countries where access to health care.

  2. La seguridad alimentaria en el África Subsahariana y la cooperación Sur-Sur brasileña en materia agrícola: potencialidades y límites

    OpenAIRE

    De Andrade e Sousa, Maria Eduarda

    2014-01-01

    Treballs finals del Màster "Estudios Internacionales: organizaciones internacionales y cooperación – Colección Memorias MEI", Facultat de Dret, Universitat de Barcelona, Curs:2013-2014 , Director: Xavier Fernández Pons

  3. Tribal Decisions-Makers Guide to Solid Waste Management: Chapter 2 - Developing Solid Waste Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid waste management plans offer a host of benefits for tribes and Alaskan Native villages. Through the preparation of these plans, you can assess your cur-rent and future waste management needs, set priorities, and allocate resources accordingly.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Surgical practice in a maximum security prison

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prison Clinic, Mangaung Maximum Security Prison, Bloemfontein. F Kleinhans, BA (Cur) .... HIV positivity rate and the use of the rectum to store foreign objects. ... fruit in sunlight. Other positive health-promoting factors may also play a role,.

  5. Violencia extrema contra las mujeres. Feminicidios, violencia física y violencia sexual. Estudio comparativo en cuatro países

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Pastor, Maria Mercè

    2017-01-01

    Treballs finals del Màster "Estudios Internacionales: organizaciones internacionales y cooperación – Colección Memorias MEI", Facultat de Dret, Universitat de Barcelona, Curs:2016-2017. Tutora: Marta Ortega Gómez

  6. Payasos con esperanzah

    OpenAIRE

    Coca Lozano, Marta; Hernández Cruz, Lídia

    2016-01-01

    Treballs de l'alumnat del Grau de Comunicació Audiovisual, Facultat de Biblioteconomia i Documentació, Universitat de Barcelona, [De la idea a la pantalla]. Curs: 2016-2017, Tutor: Josep Rovira Cuadrench.

  7. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The classification of the single travelling wave solutions ... positron–ion plasmas: Effect of superthermal ... box and possible application in short pulse ... per oxide superconducting tape's critical cur- ... iron tartrate crystals grown in silica gel 177.

  8. A multi-site approach towards integrating environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    and delivering products/services of a high quality standard. Cur- rent South ... ment of an effective Environmental Management Strategy/System. (EMS), i.e. ISO .... clearly indicated other uses of water such as houses/restaurants/ gardens.

  9. Influence of awareness on the usage of motor third party insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    second in road fatality rates after Ethiopia; and Uganda. Police statistics ... associated health care costs. They are ... ist; and logistic regression analysis to determine factors .... strategies are: incorporating MTPI into the National cur- riculum ...

  10. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    into heat via dielectric, electric, magnetic, and/or eddy cur- rent loss mechanisms. ... particles cannot efficiently absorb microwave at room tem- perature. ... hardness testing machine is fitted with a diamond pyrami- dal indenter and attached to ...

  11. Las sombras de la Sagrada Familia

    OpenAIRE

    Castaño Ramos, Anaïs Tania; Coca Lozano, Marta; Ensenyat Rubí, Àlex; Sabariego Aguilar, Adriana; Villaverde Ruiz, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Treballs de l'alumnat del Grau de Comunicació Audiovisual, Facultat de Biblioteconomia i Documentació, Universitat de Barcelona, [Projectes I - Grup II]. Curs: 2015-2016, Tutor: Jaume Vilaseca Corderroure.

  12. La calificación del secuestro de menores durante el Franquismo como crimen contra la humanidad y la lucha contra su impunidad en el Estado Español

    OpenAIRE

    Millaret Lores, Eulàlia

    2013-01-01

    Treballs finals del Màster "Estudios Internacionales: organizaciones internacionales y cooperación – Colección Memorias MEI", Facultat de Dret, Universitat de Barcelona, Curs:2012-2013 , Directora: Rosa Ana Alija Fernández

  13. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 4′,5,7-trihydroxy-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    curring polyphenolic compounds that are widely found in the ... fee and beer. 2 ... have been reported to be potential antioxidant ... vitro for their antibacterial activity against four human ..... defined as the lowest concentration of samples that.

  14. Collagen–curcumin interaction – A physico-chemical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    years due to its wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological ... pancreatitis and arthritis. Curcumin is capable of ... inflammation, in heart diseases and in cancer. Cur- .... tion between adjacent molecules, expressed in force per unit width ...

  15. Maksuameti eksjuht ostis 66000kroonise Picasso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Modernistliku kunsti klassikute näituselt galeriis "Vaal" osteti kaks Picasso keraamilist teost: "Curly Hair Face" omandas 66000 krooni eest Kalev Järvelill ja "Man's Face" 33000 krooni eest ERA-Panga pankrotihaldur Veli Kraavi.

  16. The ichthyofauna associated with Zostera capensis Setchell ill the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quency distribution of the adult, juvenile and larval fish oc- curring in the main ...... Estuarine fishes. In: Estuarine Ecology with particular reference to southern Africa (ed.) ... Structural and functional aspects of the surf- zone fish community in ...

  17. Trastuzumab- and Fab′ fragment-modified curcumin PEG-PLGA nanoparticles: preparation and evaluation in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ling; Zhang, Liping; Yan, Xiuju; Jiang, Ying; Mu, Hongjie; Wu, Zimei; Sun, Kaoxiang; Li, Youxin

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Nanoparticles (NPs) modified with bio-ligands represent a promising strategy for active targeted drug delivery to tumour. However, many targeted ligands, such as trastuzumab (TMAB), have high molecular weight, limiting their application for targeting. In this study, we prepared Fab’ (antigen-binding fragments cut from TMAB)-modified NPs (Fab′-NPs) with curcumin (Cur) as a model drug for more effective targeting of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/ErbB2/Neu), which is overexpressed on breast cancer cells. Material and methods The release kinetics was conducted by dialysis bags. The ability to kill HER2-overexpressing BT-474 cells of Fab′-Cur-NPs compared with TMAB-Cur-NPs was conducted by cytotoxicity experiments. Qualitative and quantitative cell uptake studies using coumarin-6 (fluorescent probe)-loaded NPs were performed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution experiments in vivo were assessed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results The release kinetics showed that both Fab′-Cur-NPs and TMAB-Cur-NPs provided continuous, slow release of curcumin for 72 h, with no significant difference. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments showed that Fab′-Cur-NPs manifested prominent ability to kill HER2-overexpressing BT-474 cells compared with TMAB-Cur-NPs. Qualitative and quantitative cell uptake studies indicated that the accumulation of Fab′-NPs was greater than that of TMAB-NPs in BT-474 (HER2+) cells; However, there was no significant difference in MDA-MB-231 (HER2−) cells. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution experiments in vivo demonstrated that the half-life (t1/2) and area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) of Fab′-Cur-NPs increased 5.30-fold and 1.76-fold relative to those of TMAB-Cur-NPs, respectively. Furthermore, the tumor accumulation of Fab′-Cur-NPs was higher than that of TMAB-Cur-NPs. Conclusion Fab′ fragment has greater

  18. Trastuzumab- and Fab' fragment-modified curcumin PEG-PLGA nanoparticles: preparation and evaluation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dongyu; Wang, Aiping; Ni, Ling; Zhang, Liping; Yan, Xiuju; Jiang, Ying; Mu, Hongjie; Wu, Zimei; Sun, Kaoxiang; Li, Youxin

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) modified with bio-ligands represent a promising strategy for active targeted drug delivery to tumour. However, many targeted ligands, such as trastuzumab (TMAB), have high molecular weight, limiting their application for targeting. In this study, we prepared Fab' (antigen-binding fragments cut from TMAB)-modified NPs (Fab'-NPs) with curcumin (Cur) as a model drug for more effective targeting of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/ErbB2/Neu), which is overexpressed on breast cancer cells. The release kinetics was conducted by dialysis bags. The ability to kill HER2-overexpressing BT-474 cells of Fab'-Cur-NPs compared with TMAB-Cur-NPs was conducted by cytotoxicity experiments. Qualitative and quantitative cell uptake studies using coumarin-6 (fluorescent probe)-loaded NPs were performed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution experiments in vivo were assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The release kinetics showed that both Fab'-Cur-NPs and TMAB-Cur-NPs provided continuous, slow release of curcumin for 72 h, with no significant difference. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments showed that Fab'-Cur-NPs manifested prominent ability to kill HER2-overexpressing BT-474 cells compared with TMAB-Cur-NPs. Qualitative and quantitative cell uptake studies indicated that the accumulation of Fab'-NPs was greater than that of TMAB-NPs in BT-474 (HER2+) cells; However, there was no significant difference in MDA-MB-231 (HER2-) cells. Pharmacokinetics and biodistribution experiments in vivo demonstrated that the half-life (t1/2) and area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) of Fab'-Cur-NPs increased 5.30-fold and 1.76-fold relative to those of TMAB-Cur-NPs, respectively. Furthermore, the tumor accumulation of Fab'-Cur-NPs was higher than that of TMAB-Cur-NPs. Fab' fragment has greater capacity than the intact antibody to achieve tumor targeting through NP

  19. Preparation and in vivo pharmacokinetics of curcumin-loaded PCL-PEG-PCL triblock copolymeric nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Runliang Feng,1,* Zhimei Song,1,* Guangxi Zhai2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan, Jinan, Shandong Province, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Curcumin (CUR has been linked with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti amyloid, and antitumor effects, but its application is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and poor oral bioavailability.Methods: To improve its bioavailability and water solubility, we synthesized two series of poly (ε-Caprolactone-poly (ethylene glycol-poly (ε-Caprolactone triblock copolymers by ring-opening polymerization of poly (ethylene glycol and ε-Caprolactone, with stannous 2-ethylhexanoate as the catalyst. Structure of the copolymers was characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography. The nanoparticles (NPs were prepared using a probe-type ultrasonic emulsion and solvent evaporation method. To obtain an optimal delivery system, we explored the effect of the length of the copolymers' hydrophilic and hydrophobic chains on the encapsulation of hydrophobic CUR, performing entrapment efficiency and drug loading evaluations, as well as studying the particle distribution and in vitro release using the direct dispersion method. Finally, study of the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the CUR-loaded NPs was also carried out on selected copolymers in comparison with CUR solution formulations.Results: CUR was encapsulated with 94.3% and 95.5% efficiency in biodegradable nanoparticulate formulations based on NP43 and NP63, respectively. Dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy indicated a particle diameter of 55.6 nm and 62.4 nm for NP43 and NP63, respectively. Fourier transform

  20. A pH-responsive carboxylic β-1,3-glucan polysaccharide for complexation with polymeric guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Le Thi Ngoc; Shiraki, Tomohiro; Dawn, Arnab; Tsuchiya, Youichi; Tokunaga, Daisuke; Tamaru, Shun-ichi; Enomoto, Naoya; Hojo, Junichi; Shinkai, Seiji

    2011-06-07

    The helix-forming nature of β-1,3-glucan polysaccharides is a characteristic that has potential for producing gene carriers, bio-nanomaterials and other chiral nanowires. Herein, carboxylic curdlan (CurCOOH) bearing the β-1,3-polyglucuronic acid structure was successfully prepared from β-1,3-glucan polysaccharide curdlan (Cur) by one-step oxidation using a 4-acetamido-TEMPO/NaClO/NaClO(2) system as the oxidant. The resulting high-molecular-weight CurCOOH was proved to bear the 6-COOH group in 100% purity. The optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) spectra indicated that the obtained CurCOOH behaves as a water-soluble single-strand in various pH aqueous media. This advantage has allowed us to use CurCOOH as a polymeric host to form various macromolecular complexes. For example, complexation of CurCOOH with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) resulted in a water-soluble one-dimensional architecture, which formed a dispersion in aqueous solution that was stable for several months, and much more stable than SWNTs complexes of the similar negatively-charged polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polymethacrylic acid (PMAA). It was shown that in the complex, SWNTs are effectively wrapped by a small amount of CurCOOH, enabling them to avoid electrostatic repulsion. This pH-responsive CurCOOH formed a very stable complex with cationic water-soluble polythiophenes (PT-1), which was stabilized not only by the hydrophobic interaction but also by the electrostatic attraction between trimethylammonium cations in PT-1 and dissociated anionic COO(-) groups in CurCOOH. The included PT-1 became CD-active only in the neutral to basic pH region, and the positive Cotton effect suggested that the conjugated main chain is twisted in the right-handed direction. We also found that CurCOOH can interact with polycytidylic acid (poly(C)) only under high NaCl concentrations, the binding and release of which could be controlled by a change in the salt concentration. We believe, therefore, that Cur

  1. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  2. Facile Synthesis of Curcumin-Loaded Starch-Maleate Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Suh Cem Pang; Soon Hiang Tay; Suk Fun Chin

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated the loading of curcumin onto starch maleate (SM) under mild conditions by mixing dissolved curcumin and SM nanoparticles separately in absolute ethanol and ethanol/aqueous (40 : 60 v/v), respectively. Curcumin-loaded starch-maleate (CurSM) nanoparticles were subsequently precipitated from a homogeneous mixture of these solutions in absolute ethanol based on the solvent exchange method. TEM analysis indicated that the diameters of CurSM nanoparticles were ranged between 30...

  3. Cell Permeating Nano-Complexes of Amphiphilic Polyelectrolytes Enhance Solubility, Stability, and Anti-Cancer Efficacy of Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Munazza T; Chanchal, Abhishek; Yavvari, Prabhu S; Bhagat, Somnath D; Gujrati, Mansi; Mishra, Ram K; Srivastava, Aasheesh

    2016-07-11

    Many hydrophobic drugs encounter severe bioavailability issues owing to their low aqueous solubility and limited cellular uptake. We have designed a series of amphiphilic polyaspartamide polyelectrolytes (PEs) that solubilize such hydrophobic drugs in aqueous medium and enhance their cellular uptake. These PEs were synthesized through controlled (∼20 mol %) derivatization of polysuccinimide (PSI) precursor polymer with hydrophobic amines (of varying alkyl chain lengths, viz. hexyl, octyl, dodecyl, and oleyl), while the remaining succinimide residues of PSI were opened using a protonable and hydrophilic amine, 2-(2-amino-ethyl amino) ethanol (AE). Curcumin (Cur) was employed as a representative hydrophobic drug to explore the drug-delivery potential of the resulting PEs. Unprecedented enhancement in the aqueous solubility of Cur was achieved by employing these PEs through a rather simple protocol. In the case of PEs containing oleyl/dodecyl residues, up to >65000× increment in the solubility of Cur in aqueous medium could be achieved without requiring any organic solvent at all. The resulting suspensions were physically and chemically stable for at least 2 weeks. Stable nanosized polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) with average hydrodynamic diameters (DH) of 150-170 nm (without Cur) and 220-270 nm (after Cur loading) were obtained by using submolar sodium polyaspartate (SPA) counter polyelectrolyte. The zeta potential of these PECs ranged from +36 to +43 mV. The PEC-formation significantly improved the cytocompatibility of the PEs while affording reconstitutable nanoformulations having up to 40 wt % drug-loading. The Cur-loaded PECs were readily internalized by mammalian cells (HEK-293T, MDA-MB-231, and U2OS), majorly through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Cellular uptake of Cur was directly correlated with the length of the alkyl chain present in the PECs. Further, the PECs significantly improved nuclear transport of Cur in cancer cells, resulting in their

  4. Curcumin-functionalized silk biomaterials for anti-aging utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zheng, Zhaozhu; Qian, Cheng; Wu, Jianbing; Liu, Yawen; Guo, Shaozhe; Li, Gang; Liu, Meng; Wang, Xiaoqin; Kaplan, David L

    2017-06-15

    Curcumin is a natural antioxidant that is isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa) and exhibits strong free radical scavenging activity, thus functional for anti-aging. However, poor stability and low solubility of curcumin in aqueous conditions limit its biomedical applications. Previous studies have shown that the anti-oxidation activity of curcumin embedded in silk fibroin films could be well preserved, resulting in the promoted adipogenesis from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on the surface of the films. In the present study, curcumin was encapsulated in both silk fibroin films (silk/cur films) and nanoparticles (silk/cur NPs), and their anti-aging effects were compared with free curcumin in solution, with an aim to elucidate the mechanism of anti-aging of silk-associated curcumin and to better serve biomedical applications in the future. The morphology and structure of silk/cur film and silk/cur NP were characterized using SEM, FTIR and DSC, indicating characteristic stable beta-sheet structure formation in the materials. Strong binding of curcumin molecules to the beta-sheet domains of silk fibroin resulted in the slow release of curcumin with well-preserved activity from the materials. For cell aging studies, rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) were cultured in the presence of free curcumin (FC), silk/cur film and silk/cur NP, and cell proliferation and markers of aging (P53, P16, HSP70 gene expression and β-Galactosidase activity) were examined. The results indicated that cell aging was retarded in all FC, silk/cur NP and silk/cur film samples, with the silk-associated curcumin superior to the FC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transepithelial Transport of Curcumin in Caco-2 Cells Is significantly Enhanced by Micellar Solubilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jan; Schiborr, Christina; Kocher, Alexa; Meins, Jürgen; Behnam, Dariush; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin, the active constituent of Curcuma longa L. (family Zingiberaceae), has gained increasing interest because of its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-rheumatic properties associated with good tolerability and safety up to very high doses of 12 g. Nanoscaled micellar formulations on the base of Tween 80 represent a promising strategy to overcome its low oral bioavailability. We therefore aimed to investigate the uptake and transepithelial transport of native curcumin (CUR) vs. a nanoscaled micellar formulation (Sol-CUR) in a Caco-2 cell model. Sol-CUR afforded a higher flux than CUR (39.23 vs. 4.98 μg min -1  cm -2 , respectively). This resulted in a higher P app value of 2.11 × 10 -6  cm/s for Sol-CUR compared to a P app value of 0.56 × 10 -6  cm/s for CUR. Accordingly a nearly 9.5 fold higher amount of curcumin was detected on the basolateral side at the end of the transport experiments after 180 min with Sol-CUR compared to CUR. The determined 3.8-fold improvement in the permeability of curcumin is in agreement with an up to 185-fold increase in the AUC of curcumin observed in humans following the oral administration of the nanoscaled micellar formulation compared to native curcumin. The present study demonstrates that the enhanced oral bioavailability of micellar curcumin formulations is likely a result of enhanced absorption into and increased transport through small intestinal epithelial cells.

  6. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.P.; Zakharov, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    45 of radiosensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated by Curly/Lobe technique after EMS treatment of Livadia population males. The lethality of non-Curly late larvae after gamma-irradiation (4000r) characterized radiosensitivity strains. Most of them exhibited higher frequency of the spontaneous dominant lethals (up to 69%). The males of 6 strains were semi-sterile. 5 of these strains exhibited higher frequency of X-chromosome non-disjunction

  7. The role of the vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptors axis mediated angiogenesis in curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers induced human HepG2 cells apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengling Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curcumin (diferuloylmethane, the active constituent of turmeric extract has potent anti-cancer properties have been demonstrated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, its underlying molecular mechanism of therapeutic effects remains unclear. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its receptors (VEGFRs have crucial roles in tumor angiogenesis. Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the role of the VEGF/VEGFRs mediated angiogenesis during the proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 hepatoma cell line and the effect of curcumin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Cur-NLC. Materials and Methods: The proliferation of HepG2 cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium after exposure to Cur-NLC and native curcumin. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining. Cellular internalization of Cur-NLC was observed by fluorescent microscope. The level of VEGF was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The expression of VEGFRs was quantified by Western blotting. Results: Cur-NLC was more effective in inhibiting the proliferation and enhancing the apoptosis of HepG2 cells than native curcumin. Fluorescent microscope analysis showed that HepG2 cells internalized Cur-NLC more effectively than native curcumin. Furthermore, Cur-NLC down-regulated the level of VEGF and the expression of VEGFR-2, but had a slight effect on VEGFR-1. Conclusion: These results clearly demonstrated that Cur-NLC was more effective in anti-cancer activity than the free form of curcumin. These studies demonstrate for the 1 st time that Cur-NLC exerts an antitumor effect on HepG2 cells by modulating VEGF/VEGFRs signaling pathway.

  8. Synergistic effects of thymoquinone and curcumin on immune response and anti-viral activity against avian influenza virus (H9N2) in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, S; Shah, M A A; Munir, M T; Yaqoob, M; Fiaz, M; Anjum, S; Kaboudi, K; Bouzouaia, M; Younus, M; Nisa, Q; Iqbal, M; Umar, W

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the possible effects of thymoquinone (TQ) and curcumin (Cur) on immune-response and pathogenesis of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in turkeys. The experiment was performed on 75 non-vaccinated mixed-sex turkey poults, divided into 5 experimental groups (A, B, C, D, and E) of 15 birds each. Group A was kept as non-infected and a non-treated negative control (ctrl group) while group B was kept as infected and non-treated positive control (H9N2 group). Turkeys in groups A and B received normal commercial feed while turkeys in groups C and D received TQ, and Cur respectively, and group E concurrently received TQ and Cur from d one through the entire experiment period. All groups were challenged intra-nasally with H9N2 AIV (A/chicken/Pakistan/10RS3039-284-48/2010) at the fourth wk of age except group A. Infected turkeys showed clinical signs of different severity, showing the most prominent disease signs in turkeys in group B. All infected turkeys showed positive results for virus shedding; however, the pattern of virus shedding was different, and with turkeys in group B showing more pronounced virus secretion than the turkeys in the other groups receiving different levels of TQ and Cur. Moreover, significantly higher antibody titer against H9N2 AIV in turkeys shows the immunomodulatory nature of TQ and Cur. Similarly, increased cytokine gene expression suggests antiviral behavior of TQ and Cur especially in combination, leading to suppressed pathogenesis of H9N2 viruses. However, reduced virus shedding and enhanced immune responses were more pronounced in those turkeys receiving TQ and Cur concurrently. This study showed that supplements of TQ and Cur in combination would significantly enhance immune responsiveness and suppress pathogenicity of influenza viruses in turkeys. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. The Effectiveness of Natural Diarylheptanoids against Trypanosoma cruzi: Cytotoxicity, Ultrastructural Alterations and Molecular Modeling Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Sueth-Santiago

    Full Text Available Curcumin (CUR is the major constituent of the rhizomes of Curcuma longa and has been widely investigated for its chemotherapeutic properties. The well-known activity of CUR against Leishmania sp., Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum led us to investigate its activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. In this work, we tested the cytotoxic effects of CUR and other natural curcuminoids on different forms of T. cruzi, as well as the ultrastructural changes induced in epimastigote form of the parasite. CUR was verified as the curcuminoid with more significant trypanocidal properties (IC50 10.13 μM on epimastigotes. Demethoxycurcumin (DMC was equipotent to CUR (IC50 11.07 μM, but bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC was less active (IC50 45.33 μM and cyclocurcumin (CC was inactive. In the experiment with infected murine peritoneal macrophages all diarylheptanoids were more active than the control in the inhibition of the trypomastigotes release. The electron microscopy images showed ultrastructural changes associated with the cytoskeleton of the parasite, indicating tubulin as possible target of CUR in T. cruzi. The results obtained by flow cytometry analysis of DNA content of the parasites treated with natural curcuminoids suggested a mechanism of action on microtubules related to the paclitaxel`s mode of action. To better understand the mechanism of action highlighted by electron microscopy and flow cytometry experiments we performed the molecular docking of natural curcuminoids on tubulin of T. cruzi in a homology model and the results obtained showed that the observed interactions are in accordance with the IC50 values found, since there CUR and DMC perform similar interactions at the binding site on tubulin while BDMC do not realize a hydrogen bond with Lys163 residue due to the absence of methoxyl groups. These results indicate that trypanocidal properties of CUR may be related to the cytoskeletal alterations.

  10. Curcumin improves regulatory T cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of colitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Xu, Rong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Shao-Min; Huang, Min-Fang; Yue, Hai-Yang; Wang, Xin; Zou, Yong; Lu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2016-06-21

    To explore the probable pathway by which curcumin (Cur) regulates the function of Treg cells by observing the expression of costimulatory molecules of dendritic cells (DCs). Experimental colitis was induced by administering 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol solution. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal, TNBS + Cur, TNBS + mesalazine (Mes) and TNBS groups. The mice in the TNBS + Cur and TNBS +Mes groups were treated with Cur and Mes, respectively, while those in the TNBS group were treated with physiological saline for 7 d. After treatment, the curative effect of Cur was evaluated by colonic weight, colonic length, weight index of the colon, and histological observation and score. The levels of CD4(+)CD25+Foxp3(+) T cells (Treg cells) and costimulatory molecules of DCs were measured by flow cytometry. Also, related cytokines were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cur alleviated inflammatory injury of the colonic mucosa, decreased colonic weigh and histological score, and restored colonic length. The number of Treg cells was increased, while the secretion of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12 p40, IL-17 and IL-21 and the expression of costimulatory molecules (CD205, CD54 [ICAM-1], TLR4, CD252[OX40 L], CD256 [RANK] and CD254 [RANK L]) of DCs were notably inhibited in colitis mice treated with Cur. Cur potentially modulates activation of DCs to enhance the suppressive functions of Treg cells and promote the recovery of damaged colonic mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Sammenlimning af begge øjne skal ikke behandles konservativt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgard, Carsten; Kjaerbo, Hadi; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2010-01-01

    We describe a case of a 4-year-old boy who accidentally had both eyes glued together. The eyelashes were cut and the boy's eyelids were separated in general anaesthesia. When both eyes are glued together, we do not recommend expectancy, especially not in paediatric cases. For psychological reason......, the lids should be separated surgically. Furthermore, we suggest that similarities between ophthalmic bottles and superglue bottles are avoided so that future incidences may be avoided....

  12. Bimatoprost (0.03%)-induced accommodative spasm and pseudomyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Padhy, Debananda; Rao, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    Bimatoprost is a prostaglandin analogue used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Commonly known side effects include eyelash growth, iris pigmentation and conjunctival hyperemia. While pseudomyopia is reported to be caused by parasympathomimetics, such an effect precipitated by bimatoprost has not yet been reported. We report a case demonstrating pseudomyopia and accommodative spasm caused after starting bimatoprost 0.03% in a young patient with glaucoma.

  13. Bimatoprost (0.03%)-induced accommodative spasm and pseudomyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Debananda; Rao, Aparna

    2015-11-23

    Bimatoprost is a prostaglandin analogue used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Commonly known side effects include eyelash growth, iris pigmentation and conjunctival hyperemia. While pseudomyopia is reported to be caused by parasympathomimetics, such an effect precipitated by bimatoprost has not yet been reported. We report a case demonstrating pseudomyopia and accommodative spasm caused after starting bimatoprost 0.03% in a young patient with glaucoma. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Disease: H00535 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00535 Lymphedemas, including: Lymphedema, hereditary I; Lymphedema-distichiasis s...yndrome; Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia syndrome (HLTS); Hennekam syndrome Lymphoedemas are develop... The dilated lymphatic channels that are not connected to the lymphatic vessels cause these edema...s. LD patients develop extra eyelashes, Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia syndrome (HL...TS) is associated with sparse hair and cutaneous telangiectasias, and Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema s

  15. A novel missense mutation (G43S) in the switch I region of Rab27A causing Griscelli syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westbroek, W.; Tuchman, M.; Tinloy, B.

    2008-01-01

    The autosomal recessive Griscelli syndrome type II (GSII) is caused by mutations in the RAB27A gene. Typical clinical features include immunological impairment, silver-gray scalp hair, eyelashes and eyebrows and hypomelanosis of the skin. Rabs help determine the specificity of membrane trafficking......-immunoprecipitation studies showed that Rab27A(G43S) fails to interact with its effector Melanophilin, indicating that the switch I region functions in the recruitment of Rab effector proteins Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6...

  16. Nickel ferrule applicators: a source of nickel exposure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Rizk, Christopher; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Eye makeup has been investigated for nickel content and found to have no direct association with nickel allergy and cosmetic dermatitis. However, the tools used (e.g., eyelash curlers, hairdressing scissors, hair curlers, and eye shadow and makeup applicators) may be sources. Nickel is ubiquitous and a wide range of sources have been reported, and makeup applicators (ferrules) now join the list. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Ichthyosis follicularis with alopecia and photophobia (IFAP syndrome

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    Rai Vandana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old boy born of a nonconsanguineous marriage presented with dry rough skin and photophobia since birth. His growth and developmental milestones were normal and there was no history of any neurological problem, hearing deficit or scarring around the hair follicles. Cutaneous examination revealed diffuse thinning of scalp hair with loss of eyebrows and eyelashes and a sandpapery texture of the skin all over the body, suggestive of ichthyosis follicularis with alopecia and photophobia syndrome.

  18. A comparative study of the spectral, fluorometric properties and photostability of natural curcumin, iron- and boron- complexed curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Fatima; Rashid-Doubell, Fiza; Cassidy, Seamas; Henari, Fryad

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin is a yellow phenolic compound with a wide range of reported biological effects. However, two main obstacles hinder the use of curcumin therapeutically, namely its poor bioavailability and photostability. We have synthesized two curcumin complexes, the first a boron curcumin complex (B-Cur2) and the second an iron (Fe-Cur3) complex of curcumin. Both derivatives showed high fluorescence efficiency (quantum yield) and greater photostability in solution. The improved photostability could be attributed to the coordination structures and the removal of β-diketone group from curcumin. The fluorescence and ultra violet/visible absorption spectra of curcumin, B-Cur2 and Fe-Cur3 all have a similar spectral pattern when dissolved in the same organic solvent. However, a shift towards a lower wavelength was observed when moving from polar to non-polar solvents, possibly due to differences in solvent polarity. A plot of Stokes' shift vs the orientation polarity parameter (Δf) or vs the solvent polarity parameter (ET 30) showed an improved correlation between the solvent polarity parameter than with the orientation polarity parameter and indicating that the red shift observed could be due to hydrogen-bonding between the solvent molecules. A similar association was obtained when Stokes' shift was replaced by maximum synchronous fluorescence. Both B-Cur2 and Fe-Cur3 had larger quantum yields than curcumin, suggesting they may be good candidates for medical imaging and in vitro studies.

  19. Effects of curcumin on growth of human cervical cancer xenograft in nude mice and underlying mechanism

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    Aixue LIU

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the effects of curcumin (Cur on growth of human cervical cancer xenograft in nude mice and underlying mechanism. The nude mice modeled with human cervical cancer HeLa cell xenograft were treated with normal saline (control, 3 mg/kg Cisplatin, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur, respectively. The animal body weight and growth of tumor were measured. The expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, p21, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue were determined. Results showed that, after treatment for 20 days, the tumor mass and tumor volume in 100 and 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05. The expressions of Bax, p53 and p21 protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05, and the expressions of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein in tumor tissue in 200 mg/kg Cur group were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05. Cur can inhibit the growth of HeLa cell xenograft in nude mice. The possible mechanism may be related to its up-regulation of Bax, p53 and p21 protein expression in tumor tissue, and down-regulation of Bcl-2, HIF-1α, VEGF and MIF protein expression.

  20. Structural characterization, formation mechanism and stability of curcumin in zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation.

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    Dai, Lei; Sun, Cuixia; Li, Ruirui; Mao, Like; Liu, Fuguo; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-12-15

    Curcumin (Cur) exhibits a range of bioactive properties, but its application is restrained due to its poor water solubility and sensitivity to environmental stresses. In this study, zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles were fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation technique for delivery of Cur. The result showed that the encapsulation efficiency of Cur was significantly enhanced from 42.03% in zein nanoparticles to 99.83% in zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles. The Cur entrapped in the nanoparticles was in an amorphous state confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic attraction were the main interactions among zein, lecithin, and Cur. Compared with single zein and lecithin nanoparticles, zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles significantly improved the stability of Cur against thermal treatment, UV irradiation and high ionic strength. Therefore, zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles could be a potential delivery system for water-insoluble bioactive compounds with enhanced encapsulation efficiency and chemical stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Curcumin Protects against UVB-Induced Skin Cancers in SKH-1 Hairless Mouse: Analysis of Early Molecular Markers in Carcinogenesis

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    Kuen-Daw Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin (CUR has been shown to possess a preventive effect against various cancers and interfere with multiple-cell signaling pathways. We evaluated the protective effects of CUR in regression of UVB-induced skin tumor formation in SKH-1 hairless mice and its underlying early molecular biomarkers associated with carcinogenesis. Mice irradiated with UVB at 180 mJ/cm2 twice per week elicited 100% tumor incidence at 20 weeks. Topical application of CUR prior to UVB irradiation caused delay in tumor appearance, multiplicity, and size. Topical application of CUR prior to and immediately after a single UVB irradiation (180 mJ/cm2 resulted in a significant decrease in UVB-induced thymine dimer-positive cells, expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, and apoptotic sunburn cells together with an increase in p53 and p21/Cip1-positive cell population in epidermis. Simultaneously, CUR also significantly inhibited NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and nitric oxide (NO levels. The results suggest that the protective effect of CUR against photocarcinogenesis is accompanied by downregulation of cell proliferative controls, involving thymine dimer, PCNA, apoptosis, transcription factors NF-κB, and of inflammatory responses involving COX-2, PGE2, and NO, while upregulation of p53 and p21/Cip1 to prevent DNA damage and facilitate DNA repair.

  2. Nanocarrier with self-antioxidative property for stabilizing and delivering ascorbyl palmitate into skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesirisakule, Sirinapa; Sinthusake, Tarit; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason

    2013-08-01

    The concept of a nanocarrier with a self-antioxidative property to deliver and stabilize a labile drug while at the same time providing a free radical scavenging activity is demonstrated. Curcumin was grafted onto a poly(vinyl alcohol) [PV(OH)] chain, and the nanocarriers fabricated from the obtained curcumin-grafted PV(OH) polymer [CUR-PV(OH)] showed a good free radical scavenging activity. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) could be effectively loaded into the CUR-PV(OH) at 29% by weight. The CUR-PV(OH)-encapsulated AP was 77% more stable than the free (unencapsulated) AP, and 47% more stable than AP encapsulated in the control nanocarrier with no antioxidative property [cinnamoyl-grafted PV(OH); CIN-PV(OH)]. Although coencapsulation of curcumin and AP into CIN-PV(OH) showed some improvement on the AP stability, AP was more stable when encapsulated in CUR-PV(OH). Compared with the free AP, encapsulated AP within the CUR-PV(OH) nanocarriers showed not only a better penetration into pig skin dermis via hair follicle pathway followed by the release and diffusion of the AP, but also a greater AP stability after skin application. Although a proof of principle is shown for CUR-PV(OH) and AP, it is likely that other carriers of the same principal could be designed and applied to different oxidation-sensitive drugs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Use of Curcumin, a Natural Polyphenol for Targeting Molecular Pathways in Treating Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases

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    Panchanan Maiti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Progressive accumulation of misfolded amyloid proteins in intracellular and extracellular spaces is one of the principal reasons for synaptic damage and impairment of neuronal communication in several neurodegenerative diseases. Effective treatments for these diseases are still lacking but remain the focus of much active investigation. Despite testing several synthesized compounds, small molecules, and drugs over the past few decades, very few of them can inhibit aggregation of amyloid proteins and lessen their neurotoxic effects. Recently, the natural polyphenol curcumin (Cur has been shown to be a promising anti-amyloid, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent for several neurodegenerative diseases. Because of its pleotropic actions on the central nervous system, including preferential binding to amyloid proteins, Cur is being touted as a promising treatment for age-related brain diseases. Here, we focus on molecular targeting of Cur to reduce amyloid burden, rescue neuronal damage, and restore normal cognitive and sensory motor functions in different animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. We specifically highlight Cur as a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s, and prion diseases. In addition, we discuss the major issues and limitations of using Cur for treating these diseases, along with ways of circumventing those shortcomings. Finally, we provide specific recommendations for optimal dosing with Cur for treating neurological diseases.

  4. An Intestinal "Transformers"-like Nanocarrier System for Enhancing the Oral Bioavailability of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Er-Yuan; Lin, Kun-Ju; Huang, Tring-Yo; Chen, Hsin-Lung; Miao, Yang-Bao; Lin, Po-Yen; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2018-06-06

    Increasing the intestinal dissolution of orally administered poorly water-soluble drugs that have poor oral bioavailability to a therapeutically effective level has long been an elusive goal. In this work, an approach that can greatly enhance the oral bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug such as curcumin (CUR) is developed, using a "Transformers"-like nanocarrier system (TLNS) that can self-emulsify the drug molecules in the intestinal lumen to form nanoemulsions. Owing to its known anti-inflammation activity, the use of CUR in treating pancreatitis is evaluated herein. Structural changes of the TLNS in the intestinal environment to form the CUR-laden nanoemulsions are confirmed in vitro. The therapeutic efficacy of this TLNS is evaluated in rats with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis (AP). Notably, the CUR-laden nanoemulsions that are obtained using the proposed TLNS can passively target intestinal M cells, in which they are transcytosed and then transported into the pancreatic tissues via the intestinal lymphatic system. The pancreases in rats that are treated with the TLNS yield approximately 12 times stronger CUR signals than their counterparts receiving free CUR, potentially improving the recovery of AP. These findings demonstrate that the proposed TLNS can markedly increase the intestinal drug dissolution, making oral delivery a favorable noninvasive means of administering poorly water-soluble drugs.

  5. Photoprotective efficiency of PLGA-curcumin nanoparticles versus curcumin through the involvement of ERK/AKT pathway under ambient UV-R exposure in HaCaT cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Deepti; Ray, Lipika; Dwivedi, Ashish; Tiwari, Shashi Kant; Singh, Jyoti; Singh, Krishna P; Kushwaha, Hari Narayan; Jahan, Sadaf; Pandey, Ankita; Gupta, Shailendra K; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Pant, Aditya Bhushan; Ray, Ratan Singh; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin (Cur) has been demonstrated to have wide pharmacological window including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, phototoxicity under sunlight exposure and poor biological availability limits its applicability. We have synthesized biodegradable and non-toxic polymer-poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) encapsulated formulation of curcumin (PLGA-Cur-NPs) of 150 nm size range. Photochemically free curcumin generates ROS, lipid peroxidation and induces significant UVA and UVB mediated impaired mitochondrial functions leading to apoptosis/necrosis and cell injury in two different origin cell lines viz., mouse fibroblasts-NIH-3T3 and human keratinocytes-HaCaT as compared to PLGA-Cur-NPs. Molecular docking studies suggested that intact curcumin from nanoparticles, bind with BAX in BIM SAHB site and attenuate it to undergo apoptosis while upregulating anti-apoptotic genes like BCL2. Real time studies and western blot analysis with specific phosphorylation inhibitor of ERK1 and AKT1/2/3 confirm the involvement of ERK/AKT signaling molecules to trigger the survival cascade in case of PLGA-Cur-NPs. Our finding demonstrates that low level sustained release of curcumin from PLGA-Cur-NPs could be a promising way to protect the adverse biological interactions of photo-degradation products of curcumin upon the exposure of UVA and UVB. Hence, the applicability of PLGA-Cur-NPs could be suggested as prolonged radical scavenging ingredient in curcumin containing products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cyclic hexapeptide-conjugated nanoparticles enhance curcumin delivery to glioma tumor cells and tissue

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    Zhang X

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Xuemei Zhang,1–3 Xuejuan Li,1,4 Hongchen Hua,1 Aiping Wang,1 Wanhui Liu,1–3 Youxin Li,1–3 Fenghua Fu,1–3 Yanan Shi,5 Kaoxiang Sun1 1School of Pharmacy, Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Long-acting and Targeting Drug Delivery System, Yantai, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Luye Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 4National Engineering and Technology Research Center of Chirality Pharmaceutical, Lunan Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China; 5School of Pharmacy, Binzhou Medical University, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Glioma has one of the highest mortality rates among primary brain tumors. The clinical treatment for glioma is very difficult due to its infiltration and specific growth locations. To achieve improved drug delivery to a brain tumor, we report the preparation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of curcumin nanoparticles (Cur-NPs. The cyclic hexapeptide c(RGDf(N-meVK-C (cHP has increased affinity for cells that overexpress integrins and was designed to target Cur-NPs to tumors. Functional polyethyleneglycol-modified poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PEG-PLGA conjugated to cHP was synthesized, and targeted Cur-NPs were prepared using a self-assembly nanoprecipitation process. The physicochemical properties and the in vitro cytotoxicity, accuracy, and penetration capabilities of Cur-NPs targeting cells with high levels of integrin expression were investigated. The in vivo targeting and penetration capabilities of the NPs were also evaluated against glioma in rats using in vivo imaging equipment. The results showed that the in vitro cytotoxicity of the targeted cHP-modified curcumin nanoparticles (cHP/Cur-NPs was higher than that of either free curcumin or non-targeted Cur-NPs due to the superior ability of the cHP/Cur-NPs to target tumor cells

  7. Formulation of curcumin delivery with functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes: characteristics and anticancer effects in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Zhang, Nan; Hao, Yongwei; Wang, Yali; Jia, Shasha; Zhang, Hongling; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2014-08-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), an important class of artificial nanomaterials with unique physicochemical properties, were used as novel carriers of curcumin. Formulation and evaluation of curcumin-loaded SWCNTs systems for utilizing the curcumin's anticancer potential by circumventing conventional limitations of extremely low aqueous solubility and instability under physiological conditions, and combining SWCNTs photothermal therapy enabled by the strong optical absorbance of SWCNTs in the 0.8-1.4 μm resulting in excessive local heating. After functionalized SWCNTs were confirmed, they were conjugated with curcumin (SWCNT-Cur). Subsequently, the formulation was analyzed for size, zeta-potential and morphology. And the solubility, stability and release of curcumin were assessed using spectrofluorometer, and the solid state of the curcumin was determined using X-ray diffraction and UV spectroscopy. Furthermore, in PC-3 cells, photothermal response was further determined by irradiating laser after the antitumor effect of SWCNT-Cur was evaluated. SWCNTs were functionalized, and subsequent SWCNT-Cur conjugates were found to possess an average size of 170.4 nm, a zeta potential of -12.5 mV and to significantly enhance the solubility and stability of curcumin, overcoming the barriers to adequate curcumin delivery. Moreover, curcumin in SWCNT-Cur was in an amorphous form and could be rapidly released. In PC-3 cells, improved inhibition efficacy was achieved by SWCNT-Cur compared with native curcumin. Meanwhile, the SWCNTs in SWCNT-Cur served not only as scaffolds but also as thermal ablation agents, further inhibiting PC-3 cell growth. SWCNT-Cur assemblies may provide a promising delivery system for curcumin for use in cancer therapy.

  8. Increased chemopreventive effect by combining arctigenin, green tea polyphenol and curcumin in prostate and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Piwen; Wang, Bin; Chung, Seyung; Wu, Yanyuan; Henning, Susanne M.; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2014-01-01

    The low bioavailability of most flavonoids limits their application as anti-carcinogenic agents in humans. A novel approach of treatment with a mixture of bioactive compounds that share molecular anti-carcinogenic targets may enhance the effect on these targets at low concentrations of individual compound, thereby overcoming the limitations of reduced bioavailability. We therefore investigated whether a combination of three natural products arctigenin (Arc), a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa, green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and curcumin (Cur) increases the chemopreventive potency of individual compounds. LNCaP prostate cancer and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with 2–4 mg/L (about 5–10μM) Cur, 1μM Arc and 40μM EGCG alone or in combination for 48h. In both cell lines treatment with the mixture of Cur, Arc and EGCG synergistically increased the antiproliferative effect. In LNCaP cells both Arc and EGCG increased the pro-apoptotic effect of Cur. Whereas in MCF-7 cells Arc increased the cell apoptosis of Cur while EGCG enhanced cell cycle arrest of Cur at G0/G1 phase. The strongest effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were achieved by combining all three compounds in both cell lines. The combination treatment significantly increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 proteins, decreased the activation of NFκB, PI3K/Akt and Stat3 pathways and cell migration compared to individual treatment. These results warrant in vivo studies to confirm the efficacy of this novel regimen by combining Arc and EGCG with Cur to enhance chemoprevention in both prostate and breast cancer. PMID:25243063

  9. Aluminium-Induced Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and Alterations in Testicular Tissue and Sperm Quality in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Effects of Curcumin

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    Ebrahim Cheraghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Reproductive toxicity is a major challenge associated with aluminum (Al exposure. No studies have evaluated the possible effects of curcumin (CUR on Al-induced reproductive dysfunction. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of CUR treatment on Al-induced reproductive damage. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were allocated to the five groups (n=8 based on the treatment they received: no treatment (control, solvent [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO or distilled water], CUR 10 mg/kg body weight (BW, Al chloride 10 mg/kg BW, and CUR+Al chloride (10 mg/kg BW/each alone. Treatments were performed by intraperitoneal (IP injections for 28 days. The left testis was assessed for histopathological analysis as well as the incidence of germ cell apoptosis. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey’s test was used. P<0.05 was considered significant. A value of P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Significant reductions in body and testis weight; plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels; sperm count, motility, morphology, and viability; germinal epithelium thickness; seminiferous tubules diameter; as well as, superoxide dismutase activity were observed in rats treated with Al. Moreover, Al exposure caused significant increments in the lumen diameter of tubules, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL-positive cells and malondialdehyde (MDA levels compared to the control group. However, in rats receiving CUR+Al, CUR significantly reversed the adverse effects of Al on testis and sperm quality. No significant differences in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH levels and nuclear diameter of spermatogonia were detected among all groups. Conclusion It can be concluded that Al causes reproductive dysfunction by creating oxidative damage. CUR, on the other hand, reduces the toxic effects of Al and improves the antioxidant status and sperm quality in male rats.

  10. Protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin on podophyllotoxin toxicity in vitro and in vivo

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    Li, Juan; Dai, Cai-Xia; Sun, Hua [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jin, Lu [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); State Key Laboratory of New Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Guo, Chong-Yi; Cao, Wei; Wu, Jie; Tian, Hai-Yan [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Luo, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of New Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Ye, Wen-Cai [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jiang, Ren-Wang, E-mail: trwjiang@jnu.edu.cn [Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Podophyllotoxin (POD) is a naturally occurring lignan with pronounced antineoplastic and antiviral properties. POD binds to tubulin and prevents the formation of mitotic spindle. Although cases of overdose or accidental ingestion are quite often, no specific therapy is currently available to treat the POD intoxication. In the current investigation, the protective effects and mechanisms of curcumin (CUR) on podophyllotoxin toxicity were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that CUR could protect POD-induced cytotoxicity by recovering the G2/M arrest and decrease the changes of membrane potential and microtubule structure in Vero cells. A significant decrease of mortality rates was observed in Swiss mice treated by intragastrical administration of POD + CUR as compared with POD alone. The POD + CUR group also exhibited decreases in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde level but elevated superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels as compared to the POD group. Histological examination of the liver and kidney demonstrated less morphological changes in the treatment of POD + CUR as compared with POD alone. The mechanism of the protective effects might be due to the competitive binding of CUR with POD in the same colchicines binding site as revealed by the tubulin polymerization assay and the molecular docking analysis, and the antioxidant activity against the oxidative stress induced by POD. In summary, both in vitro and in vivo data indicated the promising role of CUR as a protective agent against the POD poisoning. Highlights: ► A potential antidote to treat the podophyllotoxin (POD) intoxication is found. ► Curcumin showed promising effects against POD poisoning in vitro and in vivo. ► The mechanisms lie in the antioxidant activity and competitive binding with tubulin.

  11. Curcumin attenuates morphine antinociceptive tolerance through suppressing up-regulation of spinal Toll-like receptor 4 in rats

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    Fei GAO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of curcumin (Cur on activation of spinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and on the chronic antinociceptive tolerance of morphine. Methods Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats with successful intrathecal catheterization were randomly divided into four groups (n=15: saline (NS group; morphine (MOR group; curcumin (Cur group and morphine plus curcumin (MOR+Cur group. A morphine tolerance model of rats was induced by intrathecal injection of morphine 15μg, once a day for 7 consecutive days in MOR and MOR+Cur group; 100μg curcumin was administered intrathecally once a day for 7 consecutive days in Cur and MOR+Cur group, 10μl saline was administered intrathecally once a day for 7 consecutive days in NS group. The effect of curcumin intrathecal catheterization on morphine antinociceptive tolerance was explored by the tail flick latency (TFL method and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT, and then the maximum possible potential effect (MPE was calculated. The immunofluorescence staining method was applied to detect the effect of curcumin on the activation of lumbar spinal microglia. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to evaluate the effect of curcumin on the expression of mRNA and protein of spinal TLR4. Results The %MPE TFL and %MPE MWT increased significantly in MOR+Cur group than in MOR group (P0.05. The lumbar spinal microglia increased markedly and the expressions of polyclonal antibody IBA-1 and TLR4 were significantly up-regulated in MOR group than in NS group (P0.05. Conclusion Curcumin may attenuate chronic morphine antinociceptive tolerance through inhibiting spinal TLR4 up-regulation. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.12.06

  12. Sequel of MgO nanoparticles in PLACL nanofibers for anti-cancer therapy in synergy with curcumin/β-cyclodextrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakaran, Shruthi Vathaluru; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Vijayakumar, Gnaneshwar Puvala; Abisegapriyan, Sivasubramanian; Grace, Andrews Nirmala; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industries spend more money in developing new and efficient methods for delivering successful drugs for anticancer therapy. Electrospun nanofibers and nanoparticles loaded with drugs have versatile biomedical applications ranging from wound healing to anticancer therapy. We aimed to attempt for fabricating elastomeric poly (L-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLACL) with Aloe Vera (AV), magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles, curcumin (CUR) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) composite nanofibers to control the growth of MCF-7 cells for breast cancer therapy. The study focused on the interaction of MgO nanoparticle with CUR and β-CD inhibiting the proliferation of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells. FESEM micrographs of fabricated electrospun PLACL, PLACL/AV, PLACL/AV/MgO, PLACL/AV/MgO/CUR and PLACL/AV/MgO/β-CD nanofibrous scaffolds achieved bead free, random and uniform nanofibers with fiber diameter in the range of 786 ± 286, 507 ± 171, 334 ± 95, 360 ± 94 and 326 ± 80 nm respectively. Proliferation of MCF-7 cells was decreased by 65.92% in PLACL/AV/MgO/CUR with respect to PLACL/AV/MgO nanofibrous scaffolds on day 9. The obtained results proved that 1% CUR interacting with MgO nanoparticles showed higher inhibition of MCF-7 cells among all other nanofibrous scaffolds thus serving as a promising biocomposite material system for the breast cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds fabricated bead free, uniform and possess rough fiber surface • Aloe Vera and MgO nanoparticles initiates cell adhesion and proliferation • CUR (1%)/MgO nanoparticle showed higher level of cell inhibition of MCF-7 cells compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds • PLACL/AV/MgO/CUR nanofibrous scaffolds proved to be a potential material system for cancer therapy

  13. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Acid Sensitivity Correlates with Flocculation Phenotype during Nutrient Limitation

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    Kathryn L. Kay

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains vary in acid resistance; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that result in strain specific differences. Among 25 STEC O157:H7 strains tested, 7 strains flocculated when grown statically for 18 h in minimal salts medium at 37°C, while 18 strains did not. Interestingly, the flocculation phenotype (cells came out of suspension was found to correlate with degree of acid sensitivity in an assay with 400 mM acetic acid solution at pH 3.3 targeting acidified foods. Strains exhibiting flocculation were more acid sensitive and were designated FAS, for flocculation acid sensitive, while the acid resistant strain designated PAR for planktonic acid resistant. Flocculation was not observed for any strains during growth in complex medium (Luria Bertani broth. STEC strains B201 and B241 were chosen as representative FAS (2.4 log reduction and PAR (0.15 log reduction strains, respectively, due to differences in acid resistance and flocculation phenotype. Results from electron microscopy showed evidence of fimbriae production in B201, whereas fimbriae were not observed in B241.Curli fimbriae production was identified through plating on Congo red differential medium, and all FAS strains showed curli fimbriae production. Surprisingly, 5 PAR strains also had evidence of curli production. Transcriptomic and targeted gene expression data for B201 and B241indicated that csg and hde (curli and acid induced chaperone genes, respectively expression positively correlated with the phenotypic differences observed for these strains. These data suggest that FAS strains grown in minimal medium express curli, resulting in a flocculation phenotype. This may be regulated by GcvB, which positively regulates curli fimbriae production and represses acid chaperone proteins. RpoS and other regulatory mechanisms may impact curli fimbriae production, as well. These findings may help elucidate mechanisms

  14. Photo-induced green synthesis and antimicrobial efficacy of poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/curcumin/grape leaf extract-silver hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M; El-Shibiny, Ayman; Salih, Ehab

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the photo-induced green synthesis and antimicrobial assessment of poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/curcumin/grape leaf extract-Ag hybrid nanoparticles (PCL/Cur/GLE-Ag NPs). PCL/Cur/GLE NPs were synthesized via emulsion-solvent evaporation in the presence of PVA as a capping agent, then used as active nano-supports for the green synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs on their surfaces. Both Cur and GLE were selected and incorporated into the PCL nano-supports due to their reported promising antimicrobial activity that would further enhance that of the synthesized AgNPs. The developed PCL/Cur/GLE NPs and PCL/Cur/GLE-Ag hybrid NPs were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). HRTEM images showed that the PCL/Cur/GLE NPs are monodispersed and spherical with size of about 270nm, and the AgNPs were formed mainly on their surfaces with average size in the range 10-30nm. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be crystalline as shown by XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. The antimicrobial characteristics of the newly developed NPs were investigated against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in addition to two fungal strains. The results demonstrated that the PCL/Cur/GLE-Ag hybrid NPs have a potential antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacterial species and could be considered as an alternative antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequel of MgO nanoparticles in PLACL nanofibers for anti-cancer therapy in synergy with curcumin/β-cyclodextrin

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    Sudakaran, Shruthi Vathaluru [Centre for Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); The Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore (India); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy, E-mail: mpejrv@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Vijayakumar, Gnaneshwar Puvala [Centre for Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Abisegapriyan, Sivasubramanian [Centre for Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); The Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore (India); Grace, Andrews Nirmala [The Centre for Nanotechnology Research, VIT University, Vellore (India); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Centre for Nanofibers & Nanotechnology, Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2017-02-01

    Pharmaceutical industries spend more money in developing new and efficient methods for delivering successful drugs for anticancer therapy. Electrospun nanofibers and nanoparticles loaded with drugs have versatile biomedical applications ranging from wound healing to anticancer therapy. We aimed to attempt for fabricating elastomeric poly (L-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLACL) with Aloe Vera (AV), magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles, curcumin (CUR) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) composite nanofibers to control the growth of MCF-7 cells for breast cancer therapy. The study focused on the interaction of MgO nanoparticle with CUR and β-CD inhibiting the proliferation of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells. FESEM micrographs of fabricated electrospun PLACL, PLACL/AV, PLACL/AV/MgO, PLACL/AV/MgO/CUR and PLACL/AV/MgO/β-CD nanofibrous scaffolds achieved bead free, random and uniform nanofibers with fiber diameter in the range of 786 ± 286, 507 ± 171, 334 ± 95, 360 ± 94 and 326 ± 80 nm respectively. Proliferation of MCF-7 cells was decreased by 65.92% in PLACL/AV/MgO/CUR with respect to PLACL/AV/MgO nanofibrous scaffolds on day 9. The obtained results proved that 1% CUR interacting with MgO nanoparticles showed higher inhibition of MCF-7 cells among all other nanofibrous scaffolds thus serving as a promising biocomposite material system for the breast cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds fabricated bead free, uniform and possess rough fiber surface • Aloe Vera and MgO nanoparticles initiates cell adhesion and proliferation • CUR (1%)/MgO nanoparticle showed higher level of cell inhibition of MCF-7 cells compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds • PLACL/AV/MgO/CUR nanofibrous scaffolds proved to be a potential material system for cancer therapy.

  16. The association between a low cerebro-umbilical ratio at 30-34 weeks gestation, increased intrapartum operative intervention and adverse perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Sarah; Flatley, Christopher; Kumar, Sailesh

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the cerebro-umbilical ratio (CUR), measured at 30-34 weeks, and adverse intrapartum and perinatal outcomes. This was a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study of women delivering at the Mater Mothers' Hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Fetal Doppler indices for 1224 singleton pregnancies were correlated with maternal demographics and intrapartum and perinatal outcomes. Only women who attempted vaginal delivery were included in the study. Infants delivered by emergency cesarean section for fetal compromise had the lowest median CUR, 1.65 (IQR 1.17-2.12), compared to any other delivery group. The proportion of infants with a CUR ≤1 who required emergency cesarean section for fetal compromise was 33.3% compared to 9.3% of infants with a CUR >1 (adjusted OR 6.92 (95% CI 2.04-25.75), p<0.001). However, the detection rate of CUR ≤1 as a predictor for emergency cesarean delivery for fetal compromise was poor (18.9%). Detection rates increased in cohorts of infants born within two weeks of the scan or with birth weights <10th centile or <5th centile. Additionally, a CUR ≤1 was associated with lower median birth weight, higher rates of admission to the neonatal critical care unit and increased neonatal mortality. This study suggests that a CUR ≤1, measured at 30-34 weeks, is associated with a greater risk of emergency cesarean delivery for fetal compromise and a number of other adverse perinatal outcomes. The association was strongest in low birth weight babies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Transport of curcumin derivatives in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

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    Zeng, Zhen; Shen, Zhe L; Zhai, Shuo; Xu, Jia L; Liang, Hui; Shen, Qin; Li, Qing Y

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin (Cur) is a strong natural antioxidant, who can prevent multiple diseases such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, have a resistance to alzheimer's disease and various malignant diseases. But it has poor oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility, as well as instability. While its novel derivatives (CB and FE), showed better anti-tumor activity, better anti-oxidant activity and better stability than the original drug (Cur). The aim of this study was to study the intestinal transport of Cur, CB and FE using an in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The results showed that Cur had a lower permeability coefficient (1.13×10 -6 ±0.11×10 -6 cm/s) for apical-to-basolated (AP-BL) transport at 25μM, while the transport rate for AP to BL flux of CB (3.18×10 -6 ±0.31×10 -6 cm/s) and FE (5.28×10 -6 ±0.83×10 -6 cm/s) were significantly greater than that of Cur. The efflux ratio (ER) value at the concentration of 25μM was 1.31 for Cur, 1.26 for CB and 1.33 for FE, suggesting there was no active efflux involved in the translocation across the Caco-2 cell monolayers for the three compounds. Furthermore, the transport flux of CB and FE was in a concentration dependent manner, suggesting the intestinal transport mechanism in them was passive transport. In summary, the results demonstrated that both the intestinal permeability of CB and FE across Caco-2 cell monolayers was significantly improved compare to Cur. Thus they might show a higher oral bioavailability in vivo, and show the potential application in clinic or nutraceutical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Neuronal Uptake and Neuroprotective Properties of Curcumin-Loaded Nanoparticles on SK-N-SH Cell Line: Role of Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Polymeric Matrix Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiokeng Paka, Ghislain; Doggui, Sihem; Zaghmi, Ahlem; Safar, Ramia; Dao, Lé; Reisch, Andreas; Klymchenko, Andrey; Roullin, V Gaëlle; Joubert, Olivier; Ramassamy, Charles

    2016-02-01

    Curcumin, a neuroprotective agent with promising therapeutic approach has poor brain bioavailability. Herein, we demonstrate that curcumin-encapsulated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) 50:50 nanoparticles (NPs-Cur 50:50) are able to prevent the phosphorylation of Akt and Tau proteins in SK-N-SH cells induced by H2O2 and display higher anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities than free curcumin. PLGA can display various physicochemical and degradation characteristics for controlled drug release applications according to the matrix used. We demonstrate that the release of curcumin entrapped into a PLGA 50:50 matrix (NPs-Cur 50:50) is faster than into PLGA 65:35. We have studied the effects of the PLGA matrix on the expression of some key antioxidant- and neuroprotective-related genes such as APOE, APOJ, TRX, GLRX, and REST. NPs-Cur induced the elevation of GLRX and TRX while decreasing APOJ mRNA levels and had no effect on APOE and REST expressions. In the presence of H2O2, both NPs-Cur matrices are more efficient than free curcumin to prevent the induction of these genes. Higher uptake was found with NPs-Cur 50:50 than NPs-Cur 65:35 or free curcumin. By using PLGA nanoparticles loaded with the fluorescent dye Lumogen Red, we demonstrated that PLGA nanoparticles are indeed taken up by neuronal cells. These data highlight the importance of polymer composition in the therapeutic properties of the nanodrug delivery systems. Our study demonstrated that NPs-Cur enhance the action of curcumin on several pathways implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Overall, these results suggest that PLGA nanoparticles are a promising strategy for the brain delivery of drugs for the treatment of AD.

  19. Neuronal uptake and neuroprotective effect of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles on the human SK-N-SH cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggui, Sihem; Sahni, Jasjeet Kaur; Arseneault, Madeleine; Dao, Lé; Ramassamy, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), is known to possess a pleiotropic activity such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-amyloid-β activities. However, these benefits of curcumin are limited by its poor aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability. In the present study, a polymer-based nanoparticle approach has been utilized to deliver drugs to neuronal cells. Curcumin was encapsulated in biodegradable poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based-nanoparticulate formulation (Nps-Cur). Dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electronic microscopy analysis indicated a particle diameter ranging from 80 to 120 nm. The entrapment efficiency was 31% with 15% drug-loading. In vitro release kinetics of curcumin from Nps-Cur revealed a biphasic pattern with an initial exponential phase followed by a slow release phase. Cellular internalization of Nps-Cur was confirmed by fluorescence and confocal microscopy with a wide distribution of the fluorescence in the cytoplasm and within the nucleus. The prepared nanoformulation was characterized for cellular toxicity and biological activity. Cytotoxicity assays showed that void PLGA-nanoparticles (Nps) and curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (Nps-Cur) were nontoxic to human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, Nps-Cur was able to protect SK-N-SH cells against H2O2 and prevent the elevation of reactive oxygen species and the consumption of glutathione induced by H2O2. Interestingly, Nps-Cur was also able to prevent the induction of the redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 in the presence of H2O2. Taken together, these results suggest that Nps-Cur could be a promising drug delivery strategy to protect neurons against oxidative damage as observed in Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Diversification of gene expression during formation of static submerged biofilms by Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Besharova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria primarily exist in nature as structured multicellular communities, so called biofilms. Biofilm formation is a highly regulated process that includes the transition from the motile planktonic to sessile biofilm lifestyle. Cellular differentiation within a biofilm is a commonly accepted concept but it remains largely unclear when, where and how exactly such differentiation arises. Here we used fluorescent transcriptional reporters to quantitatively analyze spatio-temporal expression patterns of several groups of genes during the formation of submerged Escherichia coli biofilms in an open static system. We first confirm that formation of such submerged biofilms as well as pellicles at the liquid-air interface requires the major matrix component, curli, and flagella-mediated motility. We further demonstrate that in this system, diversification of gene expression leads to emergence of at least three distinct subpopulations of E. coli, which differ in their levels of curli and flagella expression, and in the activity of the stationary phase sigma factor σS. Our study reveals mutually exclusive expression of curli fibers and flagella at the single cell level, with high curli levels being confined to dense cell aggregates/microcolonies and flagella expression showing an opposite expression pattern. Interestingly, despite the known σS-dependence of curli induction, there was only a partial correlation between the σS activity and curli expression, with subpopulations of cells having high σS activity but low curli expression and vice versa. Finally, consistent with different physiology of the observed subpopulations, we show striking differences between the growth rates of cells within and outside of aggregates.

  1. Delivery of curcumin by directed self-assembled micelles enhances therapeutic treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer

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    Zhu WT

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Ting Zhu,1,2,* Sheng-Yao Liu,3,* Lei Wu,1,2 Hua-Li Xu,4 Jun Wang,1,2 Guo-Xin Ni,3,5 Qing-Bing Zeng1,2 1Biomaterial Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; 2Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; 3Department of Orthopeadics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; 4Department of Anesthesiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; 5Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: It has been widely reported that curcumin (CUR exhibits anticancer activity and triggers the apoptosis of human A549 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. However, its application is limited owing to its poor solubility and bioavailability. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a new CUR formulation with higher water solubility and better biocompatibility for clinical application in the future. Materials and methods: In this study, CUR-loaded methoxy polyethylene glycol–polylactide (CUR/mPEG–PLA polymeric micelles were prepared by a thin-film hydration method. Their characteristics and antitumor effects were evaluated subsequently. Results: The average size of CUR/mPEG–PLA micelles was 34.9±2.1 nm with its polydispersity index (PDI in the range of 0.067–0.168. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 90.2%±0.78% and 9.1%±0.07%, respectively. CUR was constantly released from the CUR/mPEG–PLA micelles, and its cellular uptake in A549 cells was significantly increased. It was also found that CUR/mPEG–PLA micelles inhibited A549 cell proliferation, increased the cell cytotoxicity, induced G2/M stage arrest and promoted cell apoptosis. Moreover, the CUR/mPEG–PLA micelles suppressed the

  2. Metabolomics reveals metabolic targets and biphasic responses in breast cancer cells treated by curcumin alone and in association with docetaxel.

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    Mathilde Bayet-Robert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin (CUR has deserved extensive research due to its anti-inflammatory properties, of interest in human diseases including cancer. However, pleiotropic even paradoxical responses of tumor cells have been reported, and the mechanisms of action of CUR remain uncompletely elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1H-NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics was applied to get novel insight into responses of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to CUR alone, and MCF7 cells to CUR in cotreatment with docetaxel (DTX. In both cell types, a major target of CUR was glutathione metabolism. Total glutathione (GSx increased at low dose CUR (≤ 10 mg.l(-1-28 µM- (up to +121% in MCF7 cells, P<0.01, and +138% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.01, but decreased at high dose (≥ 25 mg.l(-1 -70 µM- (-49%, in MCF7 cells, P<0.02, and -56% in MDA-MB-231 cells, P<0.025. At high dose, in both cell types, GSx-related metabolites decreased, including homocystein, creatine and taurine (-60 to -80%, all, P<0.05. Together with glutathione-S-transferase actvity, data established that GSx biosynthesis was upregulated at low dose, and GSx consumption activated at high dose. Another major target, in both cell types, was lipid metabolism involving, at high doses, accumulation of polyunsaturated and total free fatty acids (between ×4.5 and ×11, P<0.025, and decrease of glycerophospho-ethanolamine and -choline (about -60%, P<0.025. Multivariate statistical analyses showed a metabolic transition, even a biphasic behavior of some metabolites including GSx, between low and high doses. In addition, CUR at 10 mg.l(-1 in cotreatment with DTX induced modifications in glutathione metabolism, lipid metabolism, and glucose utilization. Some of these changes were biphasic depending on the duration of exposure to CUR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Metabolomics reveals major metabolic targets of CUR in breast cancer cells, and biphasic responses that challenge the widely accepted

  3. Curcumin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Rats

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    Layasadat Khorsandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NZnO are increasingly used in modern life. Most metal nanoparticles have adverse effects on the liver. Aims: To explore the protective action of curcumin (Cur against hepatotoxicity induced by NZnO in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Control group animals received normal saline, while the Cur group animals were treated with 200 mg/kg of Cur orally for 21 days. NZnO-intoxicated rats received 50 mg/kg of NZnO for 14 days by gavage method. In the NZnO+Cur group, rats were pretreated with Cur for 7 days before NZnO administration. Plasma activities of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were measured as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities were measured for detection of oxidative stress in liver tissue. Histological changes and apoptosis in liver tissue were studied by using Hematoxylin-eosin staining and the transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL method. Results: NZnO induced a significant increase in plasma AST (2.8-fold, ALT (2.7-fold and ALP (1.97-fold activity in comparison to the control group (p<0.01. NZnO increased MDA content and reduced SOD and GPx activities. NZnO caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis. The percentage of apoptosis in hepatocytes was increased in NZnO-treated rats (p<0.01. Pre-treatment of Cur significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (39%, increased SOD (156% and GPx (26% activities, and attenuated ALT (47%, AST (41% and ALP (30% activities. Pre-treatment with Cur also decreased the histology changes and apoptotic index of hepatocytes (p<0.05. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Cur effectively protects against NZnO-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. However, future studies are required to propose Cur as a potential protective agent against hepatotoxicity

  4. Folic acid-targeted disulfide-based cross-linking micelle for enhanced drug encapsulation stability and site-specific drug delivery against tumors

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    Zhang Y

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yumin Zhang,1,* Junhui Zhou,2,* Cuihong Yang,1 Weiwei Wang,3 Liping Chu,1 Fan Huang,1 Qiang Liu,1 Liandong Deng,2 Deling Kong,3 Jianfeng Liu,1 Jinjian Liu1 1Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, 2Department of Polymer Science and Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, 3Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biomaterial Research, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally in this work Abstract: Although the shortcomings of small molecular antitumor drugs were efficiently improved by being entrapped into nanosized vehicles, premature drug release and insufficient tumor targeting demand innovative approaches that boost the stability and tumor responsiveness of drug-loaded nanocarriers. Here, we show the use of the core cross-linking method to generate a micelle with enhanced drug encapsulation ability and sensitivity of drug release in tumor. This kind of micelle could increase curcumin (Cur delivery to HeLa cells in vitro and improve tumor accumulation in vivo. We designed and synthesized the core cross-linked micelle (CCM with polyethylene glycol and folic acid-polyethylene glycol as the hydrophilic units, pyridyldisulfide as the cross-linkable and hydrophobic unit, and disulfide bond as the cross-linker. CCM showed spherical shape with a diameter of 91.2 nm by the characterization of dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. Attributed to the core cross-linking, drug-loaded CCM displayed higher Nile Red or Cur-encapsulated stability and better sensitivity to glutathione than noncross-linked micelle (NCM. Cellular uptake and in vitro antitumor studies proved the enhanced endocytosis and better cytotoxicity of CCM-Cur against

  5. Protective effect of curcumin against ultraviolet A irradiation-induced photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Ruizhi; Shi, Haixia; Li, Xiaobo; Li, Yanhong; Taha, Ahmad; Xu, Chunxing

    2018-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes in skin, resulting in photoaging. Natural botanicals have gained considerable attention due to their beneficial protection against the harmful effects of UV irradiation. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of curcumin (Cur) to protect human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) against ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced photoaging. HDFs were treated with 0–10 µM Cur for 2 h and subsequently exposed to various intensities of UVA irradiation. The cell viability and apoptotic rate of HDFs were investigated by MTT and flow cytometry assays, respectively. The effect of UVA and Cur on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde levels, which are an indicator of ROS, and the levels/activity of antioxidative defense proteins, including glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were evaluated using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and commercial assay kits. Furthermore, western blotting was performed to determine the levels of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the apoptotic pathway, inflammation and the collagen synthesis pathway. The results demonstrated that Cur reduced the accumulation of ROS and restored the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes, indicating that Cur minimized the damage induced by UVA irradiation in HDFs. Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that Cur may attenuate UVA-induced ER stress, inflammation and apoptotic signaling by downregulating the protein expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP-homologous protein, nuclear factor-κB and cleaved caspase-3, while upregulating the expression of Bcl-2. Additionally, it was demonstrated that Cur may regulate collagen metabolism by decreasing the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3, and may promote the repair of cells damaged as a result of UVA irradiation through increasing the protein expression of transforming

  6. Direct chemical grafted curcumin on halloysite nanotubes as dual-responsive prodrug for pharmacological applications.

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    Massaro, M; Amorati, R; Cavallaro, G; Guernelli, S; Lazzara, G; Milioto, S; Noto, R; Poma, P; Riela, S

    2016-04-01

    Covalently functionalized halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were successfully employed as dual-responsive nanocarriers for curcumin (Cur). Particularly, we synthesized HNT-Cur prodrug with a controlled curcumin release on dependence of both intracellular glutathione (GSH) and pH conditions. In order to obtain HNT-Cur produgs, halloysite was firstly functionalized with cysteamine through disulphide linkage. Afterwards, curcumin molecules were chemically conjugated to the amino end groups of halloysite via Schiff's base formation. The successful functionalization of halloysite was proved by thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental data confirmed the presence of curcumin on HNT external surface. Moreover, we investigated the kinetics of curcumin release by UV-vis spectroscopy, which highlighted that HNT-Cur prodrug possesses dual stimuli-responsive ability upon exposure to GSH-rich or acidic environment. In vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of HNT-Cur prodrug were studied with the aim to explore their potential applications in pharmaceutics. This work puts forward an efficient strategy to prepare halloysite based nanocarriers with controlled drug delivery capacity through direct chemical grafting with stimuli-responsive linkage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rescuing apoptotic neurons in Alzheimer’s disease using wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated and cardiolipin-conjugated liposomes with encapsulated nerve growth factor and curcumin

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    Kuo YC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yung-Chih Kuo, Ching-Chun Lin Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Liposomes with cardiolipin (CL and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA were developed to permeate the blood–brain barrier and treat Alzheimer’s disease. WGA-conjugated and CL-incorporated liposomes (WGA-CL-liposomes were used to transport nerve growth factor (NGF and curcumin (CUR across a monolayer of human brain-microvascular endothelial cells regulated by human astrocytes and to protect SK-N-MC cells against apoptosis induced by ß-amyloid1–42 (Aß1–42 fibrils. An increase in the CL mole percentage in lipids increased the liposomal diameter, absolute zeta potential value, entrapment efficiency of NGF and CUR, release of NGF, biocompatibility, and viability of SK-N-MC cells with Aß1–42, but decreased the atomic ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus and release of CUR. In addition, an increase in the WGA concentration for grafting enhanced the liposomal diameter, atomic ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus, and permeability of NGF and CUR across the blood–brain barrier, but reduced the absolute zeta potential value and biocompatibility. WGA-CL-liposomes carrying NGF and CUR could be promising colloidal delivery carriers for future clinical application in targeting the blood–brain barrier and inhibiting neurotoxicity. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, nerve growth factor, curcumin, wheat germ agglutinin, cardiolipin, liposome

  8. Pengaruh Jenis Kemasan dan Penyimpanan Suhu Rendah Terhadap Perubahan Kualitas Cabai Merah Keriting Segar

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    Asmeri Lamona

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available During postharvest handling of red curly chili, transportation and temporary storage are critical step due to high losses. The objcctives of this study were to analyze the effect of packaging material and low temperature storage on the quality changes of fresh red curly chili and to determine the optimum combination of packaging material and temperature storage. After being harvested, samples of red curly chili were sorted and packed in differents packaging material of 3 kg and transported to the laboratory within 5 hours at ambient temperature condition. During storage period, the visual appearance, change in respiration rate, weight loss, firmness and color were measured. Waring, plastic sack and polipropilene plastic were selected as packaging materials, temperature of 10, 15OC and ambient temperature were set as storage temperature. The results show that packaging material and temperature storage influenced the respiration rate, weight loss and firmness of red curly chili. Lightness (L* correlated only with packaging material. The interaction between packaging material and temperature storage has only correlation with weight loss. The highest losses of 21.06±0.4 was resulted for the combination of waring packaging at room temperature. The lowest losses of 0.12%±0.1 was found for the combination of polipropoline plastic packaging at 10OC. The longest storage period up to 29 days was found for those red curly chili stored at combination of polipropilene plastic packaging at 10OC.

  9. Development of antibacterial paper coated with sodium hyaluronate stabilized curcumin-Ag nanohybrid and chitosan via polyelectrolyte complexation for medical applications

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    Rao Kummara, Madhusudana; Kumar, Anuj; Soo, Han Sung

    2017-11-01

    Sodium hyaluronate (HA) stabilized curcumin-Ag (Cur-Ag) hybrid nanoparticles were prepared in the water-ethanol mixture under constant mechanical stirring condition. The obtained HA stabilized Cur-Ag hybrid nanoparticles were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction to confirm the formation and structural interactions. The obtained Cur-Ag hybrid nanoparticles showed spherical shape with their size range 5-12 nm that was increased with the increasing a amount of silver ions as confirmed by transmission electron microscopic analysis. Further, a fibrous cellulose filter paper was impregnated with these hybrid nanoparticles and chitosan (CS) as biopolymer via polyelectrolyte complexation. The morphological analysis confirmed the uniform distribution of hybrid nanoparticle system onto the cellulose fibers of the fibrous filter paper. As per disc diffusion method, the Cur-Ag hybrid nanoparticles impregnated CS-coated filter paper exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against gram-negative Escherichia coli (E.coli) bacteria compared to HA stabilized Cur only. Moreover, as prepared hybrid nanoparticles impregnated biocomposite system is eco-friendly with efficient antibacterial property and have good potential to be used in medical applications.

  10. PEGylated Lipid bilayer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for co-delivery of paclitaxel and curcumin: Design, characterization and its cytotoxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiahao; Cai, Qiang; Tang, Yinian; Xu, Yanjun; Wang, Qian; Li, Tingting; Xu, Huihao; Wang, Shuaiyu; Fan, Kai; Liu, Zhongjie; Jin, Yipeng; Lin, Degui

    2018-01-30

    Highly ordered mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with pore diameter of 2.754nm and particle size of 115±15nm were prepared with etching method. Homogeneous PEGylated lipid bilayer with 10-15nm thickness was coated around the surface of MSNs using film hydration method. Systematic optimization and characterization of co-encapsulation process of paclitaxel (Tax) and curcumin (Cur) into PEGylated lipid bilayer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (PLMSNs) were performed carrying out single factor test, associated with Box-Behnken Design. The concentration of encapsulated drugs was measured by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. Optimal factor settings were as follows: 50mg MSNs, ratio of MSNs to lipid (w/w)=1:1.11, and ratio of lipid to CHO (w/w)=3.93:1. The average experimental EE Tax , EE Cur and stability score value were (77.48±2.73) %, (30.70±3.56) % and 4 point respectively based on the conditions mentioned above. Morphology determination of Tax-Cur-PLMSNs revealed that the composite nanoparticles were spherical particals with uniform dispersion. In vitro release experiment indicated that PLMSNs improved dissolution of Tax compared to Tax powder suspension and exhibited sustained release property. Tax-Cur-PLMSNs manifested definite and persistently promoted cytotoxic effect against canine breast cancer cells. This prolonged and enhanced activity of Tax-Cur-PLMSNs might contribute to its sustained release effect. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Curcumin Reverses the Diazepam-Induced Cognitive Impairment by Modulation of Oxidative Stress and ERK 1/2/NF-κB Pathway in Brain

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    Alexandra C. Sevastre-Berghian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammation can be involved in cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Diazepam (DZP administration has been chosen to simulate the memory impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of curcumin (CUR on spatial cognition, ambulatory activity, and blood and brain oxidative stress levels. The ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway and the histopathological changes in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, in diazepam-treated rats, were also analyzed. The animals were divided into 4 groups: control, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC + CUR, CMC + DZP, and CUR + CMC + DZP. CUR (150 mg/kg b.w. was orally administered for 28 days. DZP (2 mg/kg b.w. was intraperitoneally administered 20 minutes before the behavioral tests (open field test, Y-maze, and elevated plus maze. CUR improved the spontaneous alternation behavior, decreased the oxidative stress levels, both in the blood and in the hippocampus, and downregulated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2/nuclear transcription factor- (NF- κB/pNF-κB pathway in the hippocampus and the iNOS expression in the hippocampus and frontal lobe of the DZP-treated rats. Histopathologically, no microscopic changes were found. The immunohistochemical signal of iNOS decreased in the DZP and CUR-treated group. Thus, our findings suggest that curcumin administration may improve the cognitive performance and may also have an antioxidant effect.

  12. Targeting the Endocannabinoid/CB1 Receptor System For Treating Major Depression Through Antidepressant Activities of Curcumin and Dexanabinol-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

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    Xiaolie He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study investigated the underlying mechanisms of the antidepressant effects of curcumin and dexanabinol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in corticosterone-induced cell and mice depression models. Methods: Curcumin and dexanabinol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (Cur/SLNs-HU-211 were synthesized via an emulsifcation and low-temperature solidification method. Antidepressant activities of nanoparticles in a corticosterone-induced major depression model were investigated by MTT assay, cellular uptake by flow cytometry, behaviour by Forced Swimming Test and rotarod test, neurotransmitters by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Western blotting, qPCR and immunofluorescence. Results: Treatment with Cur/SLNs-HU-211 induced greater dopamine (DA/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT release with reduced corticosterone-induced apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells. Additionally, in vivo Cur/SLNs-HU-211 significantly induced recovery from depressive behaviour with increased DA/5-HT levels, CB1 mRNA levels and CB1, p-MEK1 and p-ERK1/2 protein expression levels in the hippocampus and striatum. Cur/SLNs-HU-211 improved CB1 expression and inspired the proliferation of astrocytes in the hippocampus and striatum, exerted neuroprotective effects by preventing corticosterone -induced BDNF/NeuN expression reduction. Conclusion: Our study implies that Cur/SLNs-HU-211 may be a useful approach for treatment of major depression.

  13. Curcumin decreases astrocytic reaction after gliotoxic injury in the rat brainstem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bondan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent studies have demonstrated that curcumin (Cur has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. Ethidium bromide (EB injections into the central nervous system (CNS are known to induce local oligodendroglial and astrocytic loss, resulting in primary demyelination and neuroinflammation. Peripheral astrogliosis is seen around the injury site with increased immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. This investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of Cur administration on astrocytic response following gliotoxic injury. Wistar rats were injected with EB into the cisterna pontis and treated, or not, with Cur (100 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal route during the experimental period. Brainstem sections were collected at 15, 21 and 31 days after EB injection and processed for GFAP immunohistochemical staining. Astrocytic reactivity was measured in a computerized system for image analysis. In Cur-treated rats, the GFAP-stained area around the lesion was significantly smaller in all periods after EB injection compared to untreated animals, showing that Cur reduces glial scar development following injury.

  14. Acupuncture for Chronic Urinary Retention due to Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No systematic review has been published on the use of acupuncture for the treatment of chronic urinary retention (CUR due to spinal cord injury (SCI. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for CUR due to SCI. Three randomized controlled trials (RCTs including 334 patients with CUR due to SCI were included. Meta-analysis showed that acupuncture plus rehabilitation training was much better than rehabilitation training alone in decreasing postvoid residual (PVR urine volume (MD −109.44, 95% CI −156.53 to −62.35. Likewise, a combination of acupuncture and aseptic intermittent catheterization was better than aseptic intermittent catheterization alone in improving response rates (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.38. No severe adverse events were reported. In conclusion, acupuncture as a complementary therapy may have a potential effect in CUR due to SCI in decreasing PVR and improving bladder voiding. Additionally, acupuncture may be safe in treating CUR caused by SCI. However, due to the lack of high quality RCTs, we could not draw any definitive conclusions. More well-designed RCTs are needed to provide strong evidence.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of curcumin loaded PLA-Hyperbranched polyglycerol electrospun blend for wound dressing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Govindaraj; Pappuru, Sreenath; Chakraborty, Debashis; Maya Nandkumar, A; Chand, Dillip Kumar; Doble, Mukesh

    2017-07-01

    This study is aimed to develop curcumin (Cur) incorporated electrospun nanofibers of a blend of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) for wound healing applications. Both the polymers are synthesized and fabricated by electrospinning technique. The produced nanofibers were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Colorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Electrospun scaffolds (PLA/HPG/Cur) exhibits very high hydrophilicity, high swelling and drug uptake and promotes better cell viability, adhesion and proliferation when compared to PLA/Cur electrospun nanofibers. Biodegradation study revealed that the morphology of the nanofibers were unaffected even after 14days immersion in Phosphate Buffered Saline. In vitro scratch assay indicates that migration of the cells in the scratch treated with PLA/HPG/Cur is complete within 36h. These results suggest that PLA/HPG/Cur nanofibers can be a potential wound patch dressing for acute and chronic wound applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Liposomal curcumin and its application in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ting; Wei, Yumeng; Lee, Robert J; Zhao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a yellow polyphenolic compound derived from the plant turmeric. It is widely used to treat many types of diseases, including cancers such as those of lung, cervices, prostate, breast, bone and liver. However, its effectiveness has been limited due to poor aqueous solubility, low bioavailability and rapid metabolism and systemic elimination. To solve these problems, researchers have tried to explore novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, solid dispersion, microemulsion, micelles, nanogels and dendrimers. Among these, liposomes have been the most extensively studied. Liposomal CUR formulation has greater growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on cancer cells. This review mainly focuses on the preparation of liposomes containing CUR and its use in cancer therapy.

  17. Curcumin ameliorates diclofenac sodium-induced nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmady Y; Gad, Amany M; El-Raouf, Ola M Abd

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to drugs often results in toxicity in the kidney which represents the major control system maintaining homeostasis of the body and thus is especially susceptible to xenobiotics. Nephrotoxicity is a life-threatening side-effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Diclofenac is one of the most frequently prescribed NSAIDs and have been reported to cause multiple organs damage. Curcumin (CUR) exhibits nephroprotective properties. Therefore, rats were divided into four groups; rats of groups 3 and 4 received diclofenac (100 mg/kg, i.m.), whereas rats of groups 2 and 4 received CUR (100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 3 days. Diclofenac revealed a significant increase in urea and creatinine levels and malondialdehyde concentration and marked reduction in catalase activity and reduced glutathione concentration. Histopathologically, diclofenac produced fatty changes and eosinophilic casts were detected in the renal tubules, those were attenuated by administration of CUR prior diclofenac. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Què ha de tenir en compte l'usuari d'ordinador?

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Oriol, Maria Mercè

    2014-01-01

    El treball que aquí es presenta és la creació d'un curs online pilot amb la plataforma online i gratuïta Chamilo per realitzar formació en l'empresa Consorci Sanitari (que no té plataforma virtual d'aprenentatge implantada). La temàtica del curs es basa en tot el que fa referència a l'ergonomia relacionada amb la utilització dels ordinadors. La creació del curs s'ha realitzat amb la metodologia ADDIE obtenint resultats positius, fet que conclou que la implementació d'una plataforma virtual d'...

  19. Effect of concentration of Curcuma longa L. on chitosan-starch based edible coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N. M.; Jai, J.; Hamzah, F.; Yahya, A.; Pinijsuwan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The ability of chitosan-starch based coating to extend shelf life of strawberry were studied. The main objectives of this paper is to study the effects of different concentrations (20, 15, 10 and 5 µL) of Curcuma longa L. (CUR) essential oil into chitosan-based edible coating on surface tension in order to increase the effectiveness of the coating. CUR or turmeric is one of the commercially planted herbs in Malaysia for its phytochemical benefits. Application of edible coating using dipping technique has been analysed and evaluated for their effectiveness in extending shelf life of fruits. Surface tension was analysed to investigate the adhesion properties. The best CUR concentration was 15 µL with the optimum surface tension was found to be 31.92 dynes/cm.

  20. Oral Delivery of Curcumin Polymeric Nanoparticles Ameliorates CCl4-Induced Subacute Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Marslin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is the major bioactive compound of Curcuma longa, an important medicinal plant used in traditional herbal formulations since ancient times. In the present study, we report that curcumin nanoparticles (ηCur protects Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced subacute hepatotoxicity. Nanoparticles of sizes less than 220 nm with spherical shape were prepared using PLGA and PVA respectively as polymer and stabilizer. Test animals were injected via intraperitoneal route with 1 mL/kg CCl4 (8% in olive oil twice a week over a period of 8 weeks to induce hepatotoxicity. On the days following the CCl4 injection, test animals were orally administered with either curcumin or its equivalent dose of ηCur. Behavioural observation, biochemical analysis of serum and histopathological examination of liver of the experimental animals indicated that ηCur offer significantly higher hepatoprotection compared to curcumin.

  1. Accelerated Recovery of Endothelium Function after Stent Implantation with the Use of a Novel Systemic Nanoparticle Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin was reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities and significantly prevent smooth muscle cells migration. In the present study, a novel kind of curcumin loaded nanoparticles (Cur-NP has been prepared and characterized with the aim of inhibiting inflammation formation and accelerating the healing process of the stented arteries. Cur-NP was administrated intravenously after stent implantation twice a week and detailed tissue responses were evaluated. The results demonstrated that intravenous administration of Cur-NP after stent implantation accelerated endothelial cells restoration and endothelium function recovery and may potentially be an effective therapeutic alternative to reduce adverse events for currently available drug eluting stents.

  2. Small regulatory RNAs control the multi-cellular adhesive lifestyle of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke; Nielsen, Jesper Sejrup; Boysen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Small regulatory RNA molecules have recently been recognized as important regulatory elements of developmental processes in both eukaryotes and bacteria. We here describe a striking example in Escherichia coli that can switch between a single-cell motile lifestyle and a multi-cellular, sessile....... Our demonstration that basal expression of each of the three RNA species is sufficient to downregulate CsgD synthesis and prevent curli formation indicates that all play a prominent role in the curli regulatory network. Our findings provide the first clue as to how the Rcs signalling pathway...... negatively regulates curli synthesis and increase the number of small regulatory RNAs that act directly on the csgD mRNA to five....

  3. Enhanced oral bioavailability and anticancer activity of novel curcumin loaded mixed micelles in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharvil; Choudhary, Bhavana; Rathore, Atul; Roy, Krishtey; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2015-11-15

    Curcumin has a wide range of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, wound healing, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective and anti-carcinogenic. However, its clinical applications are limited owing to its poor aqueous solubility, multidrug pump P-gp efflux, extensive in vivo metabolism and rapid elimination due to glucuronidation/sulfation. The objective of the current work was to prepare novel curcumin loaded mixed micelles (CUR-MM) of Pluronic F-127 (PF127) and Gelucire® 44/14 (GL44) in order to enhance its oral bioavailability and cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cell line A549. 3(2) Factorial design was used to assess the effect of formulation variables for optimization of mixed micelle batch. CUR-MM was prepared by a solvent evaporation method. The optimized CUR-MM was evaluated for size, entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro curcumin release, cytotoxicity and oral bioavailability in rats. The average size of CUR-MM was found to be around 188 ± 3 nm with an EE of about 76.45 ± 1.18% w/w. In vitro dissolution profile of CUR-MM revealed controlled release of curcumin. Additionally, CUR-MM showed significant improvement in cytotoxic activity (3-folds) and oral bioavailability (around 55-folds) of curcumin as compared to curcumin alone. Such significant improvement in cytotoxic activity and oral bioavailability of curcumin when formulated into mixed micelles could be attributed to solubilization of hydrophobic curcumin into micelle core along with P-gp inhibition effect of both, PF127 and GL44. Thus the present work propose the formulation of mixed micelles of PF127 and GL44 which can act as promising carrier systems for hydrophobic drugs such as curcumin with significant improvement in their oral bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Crystalline Ethylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide Triblock Copolymer Solid Dispersion Enhance Solubility, Stability and Promoting Time- Controllable Release of Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais F R; das Neves Lopes, Franciely C C; Rebelo, Marcia A; Souza, Juliana F; da Silva Pontes, Katiusca; Santos, Carolina; Severino, Patricia; Junior, Jose M O; Komatsu, Daniel; Chaud, Marco V

    2018-01-01

    The design and development of an effective medicine are, however, often faced with a number of challenges. One of them is the close relationship of drug's bioavailability with solubility, dissolution rate and permeability. The use of curcumin's (CUR) therapeutic potential is limited by its poor water solubility and low chemical stability. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of polymer and solid dispersion (SD) preparation techniques to enhance the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate and stability of the CUR. The recent patents on curcumin SD were reported as (i) curcumin with polyvinylpyrrolidone (CN20071 32500 20071214, WO2006022012 and CN20151414227 20150715), (ii) curcumin-zinc/polyvinylpyrrolidone (CN20151414227 20150715), (iii) curcumin-poloxamer 188 (CN2008171177 20080605), (iv) curcumin SD prepared by melting method (CN20161626746-20160801). SD obtained by co-preciptation or microwave fusion and the physical mixture of CUR with Poloxamer-407 (P-407), Hydroxypropylmetylcellulose-K4M (HPMC K4M) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 (PVP-K30) were prepared at the ratios of 1:2; 1:1 and 2:1. The samples were evaluated by solubility, stability, dissolution rate and characterized by SEM, PXRD, DSC and FTIR. The solubility, stability (pH 7.0) and dissolution rate were significantly greater for SD (CUR:P-407 1:2). The PXRD,SEM and DSC indicated a change in the crystalline state of CUR. The enhancement of solubility was dependent on a combination of factors including the weight ratio, preparation techniques and carrier properties. The drug release data fitted well with the Weibull equation, indicating that the drug release was controlled by diffusion, polymer relaxation and erosion occurring simultaneously. Thus, these SDs, specifically CUR:P-407 1:2 w/w, can overcome the barriers of poor bioavailability to reap many beneficial properties. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Enhancement of curcumin wound healing ability by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin in sacran hydrogel film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathoni, Nasrul; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Okajima, Maiko; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2017-05-01

    Curcumin is one of promising agents to accelerate the wound-healing process. However, the efficacy of curcumin is limited due to its poor water solubility and stability. To enhance the properties of curcumin, 2-hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CyD) can be used through complexation. Recently, we revealed that sacran has the potential to form a hydrogel film (HGF) as a wound dressing material. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the wound healing ability of curcumin/HP-γ-CyD (Cur/HP-γ-CyD) complex in sacran-based HGF (Sac-HGF). We prepared the Cur/HP-γ-CyD complex in Sac-HGF without surface roughness. Additionally, the amorphous form in the Cur/HP-γ-CyD complex in Sac-HGF were observed. In contrast, the curcumin in Sac-HGF and curcumin/HP-γ-CyD physical mixture in Sac-HGF formed inhomogeneous films due to crystallization of curcumin. Furthermore, HP-γ-CyD played an important role to increase the elastic modulus of the Sac-HGF with high re-swelling ability. The Cur/HP-γ-CyD complex in Sac-HGF maintained antioxidant properties of curcumin. Curcumin was gradually released from the HP-γ-CyD complex in Sac-HGF. Notably, the Cur/HP-γ-CyD complex in Sac-HGF provided the highest wound healing ability in hairless mice. These results suggest that the Cur/HP-γ-CyD complex in Sac-HGF has the potential for use as a new transdermal therapeutic system to promote the wound-healing process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation, characterization and drug delivery study of a novel nanobiopolymeric multidrug delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadkhah Tehrani, Abbas, E-mail: A_dadkhahtehrani@yahoo.com; Parsamanesh, Masoumeh

    2017-04-01

    New nanocarrier for codelivery of curcumin and doxorubicin as the anticancer drugs was synthesized using biocompatible and biodegradable materials. Firstly, an inclusion complex of amylose (Am) and curcumin (CUR) was formed through entrapment of curcumin into the amylose helices. Then the surface of amylose-curcumin (Am-CUR) complex was modified by polycaprolactone (PCL) via esterification reaction between hydroxyl functional groups of amylose and carbonyl groups of PCL. Finally, poly citric acid (PCA) reacted with terminal hydroxyl groups of PCL by esterification reaction. Then, doxorubicin (DOX) reacted with the surface carboxylic acid functional groups of Am-CUR-PCL-PCA through noncovalent interactions to form Am-CUR-PCL-PCA-DOX as a multidrug delivery system. These new synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by spectroscopic measurement methods such as IR spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. FE-SEM analyses and DLS measurements showed that the hydrodynamic dimensions of Am-Cur-PCL-PCA were about 50 nm. Due to the presence of ester bonds, the synthesized nanomaterials are pH sensitive. Furthermore, the resulting copolymer was completely water soluble because of the hydrophilic nature of poly citric acid part of copolymer and therefore successfully can be utilized in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • A drug delivery system based on amylose-graft-PCL-PCA developed for codelivery of curcumin and DOX. • The IR and NMR spectra confirmed successful preparation of the copolymer. • The drugs release were more favorable at acidic pH for both drugs. • DLS measurements showed that the hydrodynamic dimensions of Am-Cur-PCL-PCA was about 50 nm.

  7. Injectable Nanocurcumin-Formulated Chitosan-g-Pluronic Hydrogel Exhibiting a Great Potential for Burn Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Hang Dang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Burn wound healing is a complex multifactorial process that relies on coordinated signaling molecules to succeed. Curcumin is believed to be a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent; therefore, it can prevent the prolonged presence of oxygen free radicals which is a significant factor causing inhabitation of optimum healing process. This study describes an extension of study about the biofunctional nanocomposite hydrogel platform that was prepared by using curcumin and an amphiphilic chitosan-g-pluronic copolymer specialized in burn wound healing application. This formular (nCur-CP, nanocomposite hydrogel was a free-flowing sol at ambient temperature and instantly converted into a nonflowing gel at body temperature. In addition, the storage study determined the great stability level of nCur-CP in long time using UV-Vis and DLS. Morphology and distribution of nCur in its nanocomposite hydrogels were observed by SEM and TEM, respectively. In vitro studies suggested that nCur-CP exhibited well fibroblast proliferation and ability in antimicrobacteria. Furthermore, second- and third-degree burn wound models were employed to evaluate the in vivo wound healing activity of the nCur-CP. In the second-degree wound model, the nanocomposite hydrogel group showed a higher regenerated collagen density and thicker epidermis layer formation. In third degree, the nCur-CP group also exhibited enhancement of wound closure. Besides, in both models, the nanocomposite material-treated groups showed higher collagen content, better granulation, and higher wound maturity. Histopathologic examination also implied that the nanocomposite hydrogel based on nanocurcumin and chitosan could enhance burn wound repair. In conclusion, the biocompatible and injectable nanocomposite scaffold might have great potential to apply for wound healing.

  8. A curcumin-loaded liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmazi, Rafael; Calixto, Giovana; Bernegossi, Jéssica; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; Bauab, Taís Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2015-01-01

    Women often develop vaginal infections that are caused primarily by organisms of the genus Candida. The current treatments of vaginal candidiasis usually involve azole-based antifungals, though fungal resistance to these compounds has become prevalent. Therefore, much attention has been given to molecules with antifungal properties from natural sources, such as curcumin (CUR). However, CUR has poor solubility in aqueous solvents and poor oral bioavailability. This study attempted to overcome this problem by developing, characterizing, and evaluating the in vitro antifungal action of a CUR-loaded liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system (LCPM) for vaginal administration. A low-viscosity LCPM (F) consisting of 40% wt/wt polyoxpropylene-(5)-polyoxyethylene-(20)-cetyl alcohol, 50% wt/wt oleic acid, and 10% wt/wt chitosan dispersion at 0.5% with the addition of 16% poloxamer 407 was developed to take advantage of the lyotropic phase behavior of this formulation. Notably, F could transform into liquid crystal systems when diluted with artificial vaginal mucus at ratios of 1:3 and 1:1 (wt/wt), resulting in the formation of F30 and F100, respectively. Polarized light microscopy and rheological studies revealed that F behaved like an isotropic formulation, whereas F30 and F100 behaved like an anisotropic liquid crystalline system (LCS). Moreover, F30 and F100 presented higher mucoadhesion to porcine vaginal mucosa than F. The analysis of the in vitro activity against Candida albicans revealed that CUR-loaded F was more potent against standard and clinical strains compared with a CUR solution. Therefore, the vaginal administration of CUR-loaded LCPMs represents a promising platform for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  9. Heterocyclic cyclohexanone monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin can inhibit the activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters in cancer multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revalde, Jezrael L; Li, Yan; Hawkins, Bill C; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Paxton, James W

    2015-02-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is a phytochemical that inhibits the xenobiotic ABC efflux transporters implicated in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR), such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins 1 and 5 (MRP1 and MRP5). The use of CUR in the clinic however, is complicated by its instability and poor pharmacokinetic profile. Monocarbonyl analogs of CUR (MACs) are compounds without CUR's unstable β-diketone moiety and were reported to have improved stability and in vivo disposition. Whether the MACs can be used as MDR reversal agents is less clear, as the absence of a β-diketone may negatively impact transporter inhibition. In this study, we investigated 23 heterocyclic cyclohexanone MACs for inhibitory effects against P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP5. Using flow cytometry and resistance reversal assays, we found that many of these compounds inhibited the transport activity of the ABC transporters investigated, often with much greater potency than CUR. Overall the analogs were most effective at inhibiting BCRP and we identified three compounds, A12 (2,6-bis((E)-2,5-dimethoxy-benzylidene)cyclohexanone), A13 (2,6-bis((E)-4-hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone) and B11 (3,5-bis((E)-2-fluoro-4,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)-1-methylpiperidin-4-one), as the most promising BCRP inhibitors. These compounds inhibited BCRP activity in a non-cell line, non-substrate-specific manner. Their inhibition occurred by direct transporter interaction rather than modulating protein or cell surface expression. From these results, we concluded that MACs, such as the heterocyclic cyclohexanone analogs in this study, also have potential as MDR reversal agents and may be superior alternatives to the unstable parent compound, CUR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Noonan′s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesudian P Devakar

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Noonan’s syndrome is characterized by hypertelorism, webbed neck, curly or wooly hair, congenital heart defects, micrognathia and low set ears. A 15 year old male presented with features of Noonan’s syndrome with hypertelorism, cryptorchidism, low hairline, large and low set ears, curly hair, pulmonary stenosis and lentigenes. This case is presented to alert the physicians towards the occurrence of lentigenes, characteristic facies and pulmonary stenosis in the syndrome. A few hitherto unreported associations like macrothelia and high arched palate were also seen.

  11. [Dynamic accumulation regulation of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxyeurcumin in three strains of curcuma longae rhizome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Miao; Yang, Wen-Yu; Tang, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Xian-Jian; Shu, Guang-Ming; Zhao, Jun-Ning; Fang, Qing-Mao

    2014-06-01

    The paper is aimed to study the dynamic accumulation regulation of curcumin (Cur), demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxyeurcumin (BDMC) in three strains of Curcuma longa, and provide scientific references for formalized cultivation, timely harvesting, quality control and breeding cultivation of C. longa. The accumulation regulation of the three curcumin derivatives was basically the same in rhizome of three strains. The relative contents decreased along with plant development growing, while the accumulation per hectare increased with plant development growing. The accumulation of curcuminoids per hectare could be taken as the assessment standard for the best harvest time of C. longa. A3 was the best strain in terms of Cur and BDMC content.

  12. Pacientes fora de possibilidade terapêutica: percepções de cuidadores, estudantes e profissionais de saúde diante da finitude e de cuidados paliativos

    OpenAIRE

    Bushatsky, Magaly

    2010-01-01

    A assistência aos enfermos no passado consistiu em tratar e curar, de onde se originou a classificação em curáveis e não curáveis, deixando estes últimos sem possibilidade de assistência. Recentemente, estes pacientes são considerados cuidáveis, porque estão fora de possibilidade terapêutica e vivenciam a proximidade e a certeza da morte iminente. A percepção de cuidadores, estudantes e profissionais de saúde sobre cuidados paliativos foi o tema central do presente estudo, subdividida em três...

  13. Shaping the manufacturing industry performance: MIDAS approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, Ibrahim M.; Sensoy, Ahmet; Hacihasanoglu, Erk

    2015-01-01

    We aim to find out whether the exchange rate (against US dollar) or the interest rate (in local currency) is a better variable in predicting the capacity utilization rate of manufacturing industry (CUR) of Turkey after the 2008 global financial crisis. In that manner, we implement dynamic mixed data sampling (MIDAS) regression model to forecast monthly changes in CUR by using daily changes in the exchange rate and the interest rate separately. The results show that exchange rate has a better forecast performance suggesting that it is a stronger determinant in shaping the manufacturing industry

  14. Some new developments in the design rules for coastal structures in relation with the new Rock Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In 1991 CUR in the Netherlands and CIRIA in the UK have published the "manual on the use of rock in coastal engineering", usually referred to as the "Rock Manual". This book of 600 pages gave an overview of the state of the art regarding the design of rock structures along coasts. In 1995 CUR published a adapted version of this book, also containing information on closure works and rock structures along rivers. Although the information in these books is not outdated, there was a general feeli...

  15. Mange udfører dagligt et meget vigtig velfærdsarbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer

    2011-01-01

    Det er på tide, at vi, der har nydt og nyder godt af velfærdsstaten og dens engagerede medarbejdere og borgere, fortæller de gode historier om den vigtige menneskelige livsverdens-dimension. Det mener sygeplejerske og cand.cur. Janne Brammer Damsgaard......Det er på tide, at vi, der har nydt og nyder godt af velfærdsstaten og dens engagerede medarbejdere og borgere, fortæller de gode historier om den vigtige menneskelige livsverdens-dimension. Det mener sygeplejerske og cand.cur. Janne Brammer Damsgaard...

  16. Unusual manifestations of ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome type I in two Yemeni siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Alshami

    2015-01-15

    Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) are a group of genodermatoses characterized by malformations of tissues derived from the ectoderm, including the skin, its appendages (hair, nails, sweat glands), teeth, and the breasts. Ectodermal dysplasia syndactyly syndrome (EDSS) is a rare, newly described type of ED involving syndactyly. We report 2 Yemeni siblings with typical EDSS manifestations, including bilateral, partial cutaneous syndactyly of the fingers and toes; sparse, coarse, brittle scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes; and conical, widely spaced teeth with enamel notches. In addition, the siblings presented with other features hitherto not described for this syndrome, such as adermatoglyphia, onychogryphosis, hypoplastic widely spaced nipples, hypoplastic thumbs, and red scalp hair.

  17. Ichthyosis Follicularis with Atrichia and Photophobia Syndrome: First Case Report in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanavalai Nitiyarom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe the first reported case of Ichthyosis Follicularis with Atrichia and Photophobia (IFAP syndrome in Thailand. A 6-year-old boy presented with a history of photophobia since 1 month of age. Then he developed widespread follicular hyperkeratotic papules and subtotal non-scarring alopecia by the age of 10 months and 5 years, respectively. Sparse eyelashes and nail dystrophy were also noted. No neurological abnormalities, systemic involvement, and hearing impairment were observed. The clinical manifestations were consistent with IFAP syndrome, although genetic testing did not confirm the diagnosis of this rare disorder.

  18. The starry room naked eye astronomy in the intimate universe

    CERN Document Server

    Schaaf, Fred

    2002-01-01

    This inspiring and enriching book, a collection of essays that evokes the beauty and wonder of the night sky, explains to beginning skywatchers how to find and where to look for specific celestial objects. Author Fred Schaaf, once described as a naturalist in the tradition of Henry David Thoreau and John Burroughs, reveals an intense love of his subject and a keen knowledge of the optimum ways of viewing astronomical phenomena with the naked eye. Schaaf not only describes such special sights as an eyelash-thin moon, a shooting star, streaking comets, and a lunar eclipse, but he also explains w

  19. Single Assignment C (SAC): High Productivity meets High Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Zsók, V.; Horváth, Z.; Plasmeijer, R.

    2012-01-01

    We present the ins and outs of the purely functional, data parallel programming language SaC (Single Assignment C). SaC defines state- and side-effect-free semantics on top of a syntax resembling that of imperative languages like C/C++/C# or Java: functional programming with curly brackets. In

  20. Preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation of curcumin self-nano phospholipid dispersion as an approach to enhance oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed N; Komeil, Ibrahim A; Fouda, Mohamed A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of self-nano phospholipid dispersions (SNPDs) based on Phosal(®) to improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin (CUR). SNPDs were prepared with Phosal(®) 53 and Miglyol 812 at different surfactant ratio. Formulations were evaluated for particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and robustness toward dilution, TEM as well as in vitro drug release. The in vivo oral absorption of selected formulations in comparison to drug suspension was evaluated in rats. Moreover, formulations were assessed for in vitro characteristic changes before and after storage. The SNPDs were miscible with water in any ratio and did not show any phase separation or drug precipitation. All the formulas were monodisperse with nano range size from 158±2.6 nm to 610±6.24 nm. They passed the pharmacopeial tolerance for CUR dissolution. No change in dissolution profile and physicochemical characteristics was detected after storage. CUR-SNPDs are found to be more bioavailable compared with suspension during an in vivo study in rats and in vitro release studies failed to imitate the in vivo conditions. These formulations might be new alternative carriers that enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble molecules, such as CUR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Software for noise measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyryanov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    The CURS program library comprising 38 fortran-programs, designed for processing descrete experimental data in the form of random or determined periodic processes is described. The library is based on the modular construction principle which allows one to create on its base any sets of programs to solve tasks related to NPP operation, and to develop special software

  2. Final Environmental Assessment, Construct Antenna Parts Storage Facility, Upgrade Perimeter Security Fence and Demolish Camera Shed, Red River Air Force Space Surveillance Station (AFSSS), Lewisville, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    root plowed for construction of the Installation. Now the Installation consists mostly of short grasses which are routinely mowed. Woods border...aristata* bracted plantain Rumex crispus* curly dock Setaria parviflora yellow bristlegrass Solanum carolinense* Carolina horse nettle Sorghum...the land was covered with a hardwood forest. The land was cleared and root plowed dur- ing construction of the Installation. Earthen platforms were

  3. Solution combustion synthesis of (La, K) FeO3 orthoferrite ceramics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and magnetic and optical property ... Among many perovskite ceramics, LaFeO3 is of cur- ... example, in anode-supported SOFCs, doped LaFeO3 used ... doped with K+, synthesized by a simple combustion ... single phase formation was limited to ... magnetic field of 1000 Oe.

  4. Effects of resveratrol, curcumin, berberine and other nutraceuticals on aging, cancer development, cancer stem cells and microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubrey, James A; Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Steelman, Linda S; Abrams, Steve L; Yang, Li V; Murata, Ramiro M; Rosalen, Pedro L; Scalisi, Aurora; Neri, Luca M; Cocco, Lucio; Ratti, Stefano; Martelli, Alberto M; Laidler, Piotr; Dulińska-Litewka, Joanna; Rakus, Dariusz; Gizak, Agnieszka; Lombardi, Paolo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Candido, Saverio; Libra, Massimo; Montalto, Giuseppe; Cervello, Melchiorre

    2017-06-12

    Natural products or nutraceuticals have been shown to elicit anti-aging, anti-cancer and other health-enhancing effects. A key target of the effects of natural products may be the regulation of microRNA (miR) expression which results in cell death or prevents aging, diabetes, cardiovascular and other diseases. This review will focus on a few natural products, especially on resveratrol (RES), curcumin (CUR) and berberine (BBR). RES is obtained from the skins of grapes and other fruits and berries. RES may extend human lifespan by activating the sirtuins and SIRT1 molecules. CUR is isolated from the root of turmeric ( Curcuma longa ). CUR is currently used in the treatment of many disorders, especially in those involving an inflammatory process. CUR and modified derivatives have been shown to have potent anti-cancer effects, especially on cancer stem cells (CSC). BBR is also isolated from various plants ( e.g., Coptis chinensis ) and has been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat diseases such as adult- onset diabetes. Understanding the benefits of these and other nutraceuticals may result in approaches to improve human health.

  5. Gene duplication and promoter mutation expand the range csgD-dependent biofilm responses in a STEC population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expression of Escherichia coli major biofilm components, curli fimbriae and cellulose, require the CsgD transcription factor. A complex regulatory network allows environmental control of csgD transcription and biofilm formation. However, most clinical serotype O157:H7 strains contain prophage inser...

  6. Reachability analysis to design zero-wait entry guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Puerta, Alejandro; Mooij, E.; Valles, Celia Yabar

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel reentry guidance architecture that aims to improve cur- rent mission safety by enabling zero-wait orbital aborts. To do so, an on-board trajectory planner based on Adaptive Multivariate Pseudospectral Interpolation (AMPI) is devel- oped. This planner generates

  7. The Dutch wind tunnel guideline for wind loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, van C.A.; Willemsen, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses questions that arose during development and application of the Dutch guideline for wind tunnel testing to determine wind loads on buildings. This guideline (CUR 103) is being used since 2005, and a first revision is foreseen. Within this revision, the relation with Eurocode EN

  8. Recent advances in nanoformulations for co-delivery of curcumin and chemotherapeutic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of chemotherapy in cancer treatment has been limited due to cause side effects such as toxicity against normal cells and drug resistance. In recent years, numerous studies have been focused on using natural products with chemotherapeutic drugs to enhance therapeutic efficiency and reduce cytotoxicity. On the other hand, encapsulation of drugs into nanoparticles (NPs can improve solubility of hydrophobic drug; circulation time in blood and the residence at the pathological site by enhance permeation and retention (EPR effect. It has been shown that curcumin (CUR has  wide range of pharmacological activities against many diseases such as cancer. CUR has been demonstrated to be a potent chemosensitizer that can induce additive or synergistic effects with chemotherapeutic drugs against different cancer cell lines.  Recently, various types of nanocarriers have been investigated for CUR.  In this review, different co-formulations containing Cur and chemotherapeutic drugs used in cancer therapy are discussed with emphasis on their pharmaceutical properties.

  9. Facile Synthesis of Curcumin-Loaded Starch-Maleate Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Cem Pang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated the loading of curcumin onto starch maleate (SM under mild conditions by mixing dissolved curcumin and SM nanoparticles separately in absolute ethanol and ethanol/aqueous (40 : 60 v/v, respectively. Curcumin-loaded starch-maleate (CurSM nanoparticles were subsequently precipitated from a homogeneous mixture of these solutions in absolute ethanol based on the solvent exchange method. TEM analysis indicated that the diameters of CurSM nanoparticles were ranged between 30 nm and 110 nm with a mean diameter of 50 nm. The curcumin loading capacity of SM as a function of loading duration was investigated using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The loading of curcumin onto SM increased rapidly initially with loading duration, and the curcumin loading capacity of 15 mg/g was reached within 12 hours. CurSM nanoparticles exhibited substantially higher water solubility of 6.0 × 10−2 mg/mL which is about 300 times higher than that of pure curcumin. With enhanced water solubility and bioaccessibility of curcumin, the potential utility of CurSM nanoparticles in various biomedical applications is therefore envisaged.

  10. Calibrated user-friendly reverse transcriptase-PCR assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, M V; Sørensen, B S; Rammer, P

    1998-01-01

    We report a competitive reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) assay and a calibrated user-friendly RT-PCR assay (CURT-PCR) for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mRNA. A calibrator was prepared from isolated rat liver RNA, and the amount of EGFR mRNA was determined by competitive RT-PCR. In CUR...

  11. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ergotamine and ergometrine standard curVEs were ~ drawn from stock solutions{ by dilution with distilled water and ... samples was determined using direct plating of 100 grain kernels or flour on PDA (10). The alkaloids ... curve was drawn by taking the absorbance value of. difi'erent dilutions of standard ergotamine and".

  12. Military Review. Volume 83, Number 3, May-June 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    history leads many to consider The Art of War to be a text for the underdog . In light of the cur- rent discussion about asymmetrical warfare, this is...the Taliban had the initial support of the Afghans. Once in power, they knew only fighting and an extremist brand of Deobndi- Wahabi Islam. Not

  13. Curcumin and its demethoxy derivatives possess p300 HAT inhibitory activity and suppress hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Sunagawa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The natural compound, curcumin (CUR, possesses several pharmacological properties, including p300-specific histone acetyltransferase (HAT inhibitory activity. In our previous study, we demonstrated that CUR could prevent the development of cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting p300-HAT activity. Other major curcuminoids isolated from Curcuma longa including demethoxycurcumin (DMC and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC are structural analogs of CUR. In present study, we first confirmed the effect of these three curcuminoid analogs on p300-HAT activity and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.Our results showed that DMC and BDMC inhibited p300-HAT activity and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy to almost the same extent as CUR. As the three compounds have structural differences in methoxy groups at the 3-position of their phenol rings, our results suggest that these methoxy groups are not involved in the inhibitory effects on p300-HAT activity and cardiac hypertrophy. These findings provide useful insights into the structure–activity relationship and biological activity of curcuminoids for p300-HAT activity and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Keywords: Curcumin, Demethoxycurcumin, Bisdemethoxycurcumin, p300, Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

  14. Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Introduced organisms pose the most significant threat to the conservation status of oceanic islands (e.g.. Williamson 1996). Subantarctic Prince Edward Island, the smaller of the two islands in the Prince Edward. Island group, has few introduced organisms; it is cur- rently known to support only three introduced animals.

  15. .Compar~ive Economic Advantage Analysis of Ahernative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Domestic Resource Cosf (DRC) ratio den'vedfrom the. Policy. ... ology was also used to evaluate effects ofpolicy in the production and trade patterns usi1/g Nominal ... Given these results, effective measures toalleviate ... wnereas the major export crops are cotton, cof- ..... curred per unit of foreign exchange earned or.

  16. Dual Drug Loaded Biodegradable Nanofibrous Microsphere for Improving Anti-Colon Cancer Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rangrang; Li, Xiaoling; Deng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Xiang; Zhou, Liangxue; Zheng, Yu; Tong, Aiping; Zhang, Xiaoning; You, Chao; Guo, Gang

    2016-06-01

    One of the approaches being explored to increase antitumor activity of chemotherapeutics is to inject drug-loaded microspheres locally to specific anatomic sites, providing for a slow, long term release of a chemotherapeutic while minimizing systemic exposure. However, the used clinically drug carriers available at present have limitations, such as their low stability, renal clearance and residual surfactant. Here, we report docetaxel (DOC) and curcumin (CUR) loaded nanofibrous microspheres (DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres), self-assembled from biodegradable PLA-PEO-PPO-PEO-PLA polymers as an injectable drug carrier without adding surfactant during the emulsification process. The obtained nanofibrous microspheres are composed entirely of nanofibers and have an open hole on the shell without the assistance of a template. It was shown that these DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres could release curcumin and docetaxel slowly in vitro. The slow, sustained release of curcumin and docetaxel in vivo may help maintain local concentrations of active drug. The mechanism by which DOC + CUR/nanofibrous microspheres inhibit colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis might involve increased induction of apoptosis in tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In vitro and in vivo evaluations demonstrated efficacious synergistic antitumor effects against CT26 of curcumin and docetaxel combined nanofibrous microspheres. In conclusion, the dual drug loaded nanofibrous microspheres were considered potentially useful for treating abdominal metastases of colorectal cancer.

  17. Luminescence quenching of Ru(phen) by some polymer–cobalt(III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    2007-03-20

    Mar 20, 2007 ... static binding between polymer-cobalt(III) complexes and DNA/micelles. Keywords. ... metal centres over long distances in proteins or protein pairs as a ..... curs predominantly at the interface of the dry core and the wet ethoxy ...

  18. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 55, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    terrelationships and conflicts. This makes for slow reading, but the coverage is thorough. With the release of Nelson Mandela and the end of...Lies, and Bureaucratic Bungling Inside the FBI (Nashville, TN: Nelson Cur- rent, 2004); Dan Stober and Ian Hoffman, A Convenient Spy: Wen Ho Lee and the

  19. Antioxidant Potential of ulva rigida c. Agardh Extract: Protection from Oxidative Stress Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAŞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, one of the green algae, on and antioxidative system in the propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Thirty-two rats randomly divided into four groups: control (C, control+U. rigida extract (C+UR, hypothyroid (H and hypothyroid+U. rigida extract (H+UR. U. rigida (2% was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks after the induction of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid rats were under oxidative stress as reflected by icreased plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA levels. U. rigida reduced serum total cholesterol and,- triglyceride levels and plasma and heart skeletal muscle, liver and,- kidney tissue MDA levels in the H+UR group. Serum total cholesterol and tissues MDA levels were reduced in the C+UR group. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were increased in the H+UR and C+UR groups compared with those of te respective control groups. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were lower in the H group and U. rigida increased paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in C+UR and H+UR groups. We conclude that hypothyroidism is associated with oxidative stress and, U. rigida extract might have a potential use as a protective antioxidant agent in hypothroidism.

  20. The effect of anticholinergic drugs on 123I-IMP SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Hitoshi, Seiji; Takeda, Koichi; Sakuta, Manabu

    1992-01-01

    Anticholinergic drugs may be responsible for mental deterioration in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was thus performed to examine effects of anticholinergic drugs on the brain by using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123] iodoamphetamine SPECT. The purpose of the study was twofold: (I) to compare regional cerebral uptake of tracer during treatment with anticholinergic drugs and one month after the discontinuation of the drugs in 7 PD patients given them for 6 months or more; and (II) to compare tracer uptake in 11 PD patients administered anticholinergic drugs and 25 PD patients not administered them. Each 16 regions in the bilateral cerebral cortexes and each one region in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum were assigned as regions of interest (ROI). The count ratio of each ROI in the cerebrum to ROI in the cerebellum was designated as regional cerebral uptake ratio (rCUR). A mean rCUR was lower during administration of anticholinergic drugs in all ROIs, except for two in Group I and one in Group II, than during the period not administered the drugs. The administration of anticholinergic drugs was sigificantly associated with decreased rCUR in 10 ROIs in Group I, and in 15 ROIs in Group II. The rCUR in the occipital, basal ganglia, and thalamus was independent of the administration of anticholinergic drugs. These results suggest that anticholinergic drugs may inhibit the cortical cholinergic system in PD patients. (N.K.)

  1. Unusual Presentation of Maydl's Hernia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nikhil NBA, Natarajan K, Mohanty A, et al. An. Unusual Case of Maydl's Hernia. Int J Cur Res Rev. 2013;5(6):22-5. 11. Ganesaratnam M. Maydl's hernia: Report of a Series of Seven Cases and Review of Literature. Brit J Surg. 1985;72:737-8. 12. Weledji EP, Mokake M, Ngowe MN. A Rare. Presentation of Maydl's Hernia.

  2. Comparison of Resources and Capabilities in two Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Malo Milara, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Administració d'Empreses. Codi: AE1049. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 Our aim in this end-of-grade work, is to know how resources and capabilities are used to get a competitive advantage. For this purpose, we will analyze two important companies in the furniture sector: Albani and Ikea.

  3. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    iitkgp.ernet.in. Keywords. Electromagnetic theory, Max- well's equations, displacement current. A n experim entale®ort has been m ade to validate the existence ofdisplacem ent current w hich pro- duces m agnetic ¯eld like any other form of cur-.

  4. Curcumin and salsalate suppresses colonic inflammation and procarcinogenic signaling in high-fat-fed, azoxymethane-treated mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-fat diets (HFDs) and excess adiposity increase proinflammatory cytokines in the colon, altering gene expression in a manner that promotes the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, compounds that reduce this biochemical inflammation are potential chemopreventive agents. Curcumin (CUR), a...

  5. Future of European Financial Supervision, Towards a European System of Financial Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arons, T.M.C.

    The 2008 financial crisis made clear the shortcomings in the European structure of financial supervision. In the cur­rent system of financial supervision the financial supervi­sor of the home Member State is in principle the only autho­rity entitled to supervise financial institutions even in case

  6. mics in Modern Day Ghana 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in Gender and Development in Afiica, I (200 7): September. THE WOMBAS TARGET: .... countries. The purpose of this historical contextualization of HIV/AIDS policy cur- rently in Ghana is to ..... product development from a distance. ..... environmental disintegration and poverty in Nordiem Ghana.” In response to the.

  7. Evaluation of Intego Solo (ethaboxam) for management of metalaxyl-resistant Pythium spp. in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pythium damping-off and Pythium root rot, caused by numerous species of Pythium, can be a major limiting factor in the emergence and stand establishment of chickpea. Pythium spp. infect the germinating seed and seedling, often resulting in seed rot and subsequent damping-off in northern Idaho. Cur...

  8. Analysis of Liquid Rocket Tankage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    pitting and essencially no attack of’ the base metal. The internal surfacees showed some shallow pitting and discoloration which 28 were less severe than...301 STAINLESS STEEL. spoIclus Cur FROM PARENT KETAL AND W=O JOINTS Oil A2IDE CRYOPORMNT OLTIATZ 0’ .% OFFSET TOS ILE YI AID 5 LOCATION"UNDOU S?1C1M N

  9. Passive Fault Tolerant Control of Piecewise Affine Systems Based on H Infinity Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi; Cocquempot, vincent; Schiøler, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we design a passive fault tolerant controller against actuator faults for discretetime piecewise affine (PWA) systems. By using dissipativity theory and H analysis, fault tolerant state feedback controller design is expressed as a set of Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). In the cur...

  10. Protective Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin and Curcumin against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the cytoprotective effect of tetrahydrocurcumin, (THC) and curcumin (CUR) on cytotoxicity induced by doxorubicin and cadmium in Chang liver cells. Methods: Cytotoxicity was determined by sulforhodamine B assay. The expression of nuclear factorerythroid- 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) Nrf2 regulated ...

  11. Prevention of Post-Radiotherapy Failure in Prostate Cancer by Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    cur- 55. Mitchell MF, Hittelman WN, Hong WK et al. The natural history cumin , a chemo preventive agent, in patients with high-risk or of cervical...chromosomal DNA loops during oxidative stress . Genes & Dev 13:1553-1560. 16 1999 Chen AY, Choy H and Rothenberg ML. DNA topoisomerase I-targeting drugs as

  12. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  13. Preventive measures against concrete damage to ASR in the Netherlands current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: - the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: ≥50% by

  14. Measures to prevent concrete damage due to alkali-silica reaction in the Netherlands: Current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: • the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: 50 % by

  15. La lucha contra el Acoso y el Hostigamiento Sexual: Apuntes para una propuesta de trabajo desde la práctica política de la Diferencia Sexual

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda López, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Diploma de Postgrau "La pràctica de la diferència", dins del Màster en Estudis de la Diferència Sexual, Universitat de Barcelona. DUODA, Centre de recerca de dones, curs: 2012-2013, Tutora: Dra. Asun López Carretero

  16. Scanning the Human Genome for Novel Therapeutic Targets for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    971-974. 3. Maeda, I., Kohara , Y., Yamamoto, M. & Sugimoto, A. (2001) Cur,. Biol. 11, 19. Goshima, G. & Vale, R. D. (2003) Cell Biot. 162, 1003-1016...Tijsterman, M. (2003) Genes Dev. 17, 443-448. 22. Maeda, L., Kohara , Y., Yamamoto, M. & Sugimoto, A. (2001) Curt. Biol. 11, 6. Somma, M. P., Fasulo, B., Cenci

  17. Effects of Chronic Alcohol Exposure on Kainate Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    12917-12922, 1999. Frerking M, and Nicoll RA. Synaptic kainate receptors. Cur Opin Neurobio 10:342-351, 2000. Harvey J and Lacey MG. A postsynaptic...electrophysiological research. Ironically, this preparation was originally developed for use in biochemical studies characterizing energy metabolism in neuronal

  18. Carrier Dynamics Analysis in Metal-SemiconductorMetal Device for mid-IR Silicon Photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hui, Alvin Tak Lok; Ding, Yunhong; Hu, Hao

    A modelling platform for active carrier removal based on metal-semiconductor-metal structure is reported on analysis of carrier dynamics. The analysis reveals electric current hot spots exist in geometric singularities and curly trajectory of carriers should be considered when accurately estimati...

  19. Carrier dynamics analysis in metal-semiconductor-metal device for mid-IR silicon photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hui, Alvin Tak Lok; Ding, Yunhong; Hu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    A modelling platform for active carrier removal based on metal-semiconductor-metal structure is reported on analysis of carrier dynamics. The analysis reveals electric current hot spots exist in geometric singularities and curly trajectory of carriers should be considered when accurately estimati...

  20. The effect of anticholinergic drugs on [sup 123]I-IMP SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Hitoshi, Seiji; Takeda, Koichi; Sakuta, Manabu [Japan Red Cross Central Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-04-01

    Anticholinergic drugs may be responsible for mental deterioration in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study was thus performed to examine effects of anticholinergic drugs on the brain by using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123] iodoamphetamine SPECT. The purpose of the study was twofold: (I) to compare regional cerebral uptake of tracer during treatment with anticholinergic drugs and one month after the discontinuation of the drugs in 7 PD patients given them for 6 months or more; and (II) to compare tracer uptake in 11 PD patients administered anticholinergic drugs and 25 PD patients not administered them. Each 16 regions in the bilateral cerebral cortexes and each one region in the bilateral basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum were assigned as regions of interest (ROI). The count ratio of each ROI in the cerebrum to ROI in the cerebellum was designated as regional cerebral uptake ratio (rCUR). A mean rCUR was lower during administration of anticholinergic drugs in all ROIs, except for two in Group I and one in Group II, than during the period not administered the drugs. The administration of anticholinergic drugs was sigificantly associated with decreased rCUR in 10 ROIs in Group I, and in 15 ROIs in Group II. The rCUR in the occipital, basal ganglia, and thalamus was independent of the administration of anticholinergic drugs. These results suggest that anticholinergic drugs may inhibit the cortical cholinergic system in PD patients. (N.K.).

  1. Improved performance of porous bio-anodes in microbial electrolysis cells by enhancing mass and charge transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Lodder, R.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    To create an efficient MEC high current densities and high coulombic efficiencies are required. The aim of this study was to increase cur-rent densities and coulombic efficiencies by influencing mass and charge transport in porous electrodes by: (i) introduction of a forced flow through the anode to

  2. AFGL Fiscal Year 1984 Air Force Technical Objectives Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    magnetic fields and environmental ions and electrons. High latitude cur- rents, particle precipitation , wave-plasma instabilities, and ionization ir...These Drograms are directed toward meeting the goals of the geodetic and gravimetri contributions to future missile error budgets established by the...turbulence, lightning, wind shear, tornadoes and heavy precipitation ; and (2) the development of techniques to predict the atmospheric transport and

  3. From a disenchantment with public schooling to alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Teachers, learners, parents and the employers in the workplace are asking questions about ... rated a strong grass roots base of alternative schooling practices (He- .... Empowerment with responsibility refers to who makes the educational decisions ... every school day encompasses the best things known about cur- riculum ...

  4. Antimicrobial synergy of apple skin polyphenol and thyme essential oil in Açaí edible films and their effects on film properties (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Diseases caused by food borne pathogens are of great concern to the food industry. The consumption of foods with chemical preservatives has led to increased consumer concern and demand for natural and minimally processed foods. In addition, environmental concerns are generated from cur...

  5. A flexible low-voltage ride-through operation for the distributed generation converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Hsin-Chih; Lee, Chia-Tse; Cheng, Po-Tai

    2013-01-01

    With more and more distributed energy resources (DERs) are installed in the utility grid, the utility requires the DER generation system to remain grid-connected and injects reactive and active power to support grid voltage during voltage sags. In this paper, a positive- and negative-sequence cur...

  6. Woolly hair, premature loss of teeth, nail dystrophy, acral hyperkeratosis and facial abnormalities: possible new syndrome in a Dutch kindred.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, M.A.M. van; Koedam, M.I.; Swinkels, O.Q.J.; Rietveld, F.J.R.; Steijlen, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a Dutch kindred with a possibly novel dominant syndrome of premature loss of curly, brittle hair, premature loss of teeth due to caries, nail dystrophy and acral keratoderma. We discuss the possibility that this ectodermal dysplasia of group 1-2-3-4 is a variant of known disorders such

  7. The effect of curcumin in the ectonucleotidases and acetylcholinesterase activities in synaptosomes from the cerebral cortex of cigarette smoke-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Jeandre Augusto Dos Santos; Rezer, João Felipe Peres; Gonçalves, Jamile Fabbrin; Spanevello, Rosélia Maria; Gutierres, Jessié Martins; Pimentel, Victor Câmera; Thomé, Gustavo Roberto; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Leal, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa

    2011-12-01

    With the evidence that curcumin may be a potent neuroprotective agent and that cigarette smoke is associated with a decline in the cognitive performance as our bases, we investigated the activities of Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), 5'-nucleotidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in cerebral cortex synaptosomes from cigarette smoke-exposed rats treated with curcumin (Cur). The experimental procedures entailed two sets of experiments. In the first set, the groups were vehicle, Cur 12·5, 25 and 50 mg·kg(-1) ; those in the second set were vehicle, smoke, smoke and Cur 12·5, 25 and 50 mg·kg(-1) . Curcumin prevented the increased NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and AChE activities caused by smoke exposure. We suggest that treatment with Cur was protective because the decrease of ATP and acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations is responsible for cognitive impairment, and both ATP and ACh have key roles in neurotransmission. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Potential effects of curcumin on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonists are found in food and may be important for health through their anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin (Cur) is a bright yellow spice, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. It has been shown to have many biologi...

  9. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edge of the ulcer was done using cutting cur- rent. Resection was started from outside the edge of the ulcer (in healthy tissue) towards the centre of the ulcer in a semi-filled bladder. In cases with multiple ulcers, the lower ones were resected before the upper ones. Care was taken to ensure a rapid resection with low.

  10. Proceedings of the Workshop on Unsteady Separated Flow Held at the United States Air Force Academy on August 10-11, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    file for further analysis. The procedure abcve is then repeated for each probe position. In this runner , the complete time...Calculation Methods Cur e’s original nethod has been modified to ..j" .. Kite trie jnsteady bpunddry layer dev.e1oprnent. rnis is

  11. Curcumin Induces Nrf2 Nuclear Translocation and Prevents Glomerular Hypertension, Hyperfiltration, Oxidant Stress, and the Decrease in Antioxidant Enzymes in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilia Tapia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal injury resulting from renal ablation induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6NX is associated with oxidant stress, glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, and impaired Nrf2-Keap1 pathway. The purpose of this work was to know if the bifunctional antioxidant curcumin may induce nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and prevents 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress, renal injury, decrease in antioxidant enzymes, and glomerular hypertension and hyperfiltration. Four groups of rats were studied: (1 control, (2 5/6NX, (3 5/6NX +CUR, and (4 CUR (n=8–10. Curcumin was given by gavage to NX5/6 +CUR and CUR groups (60 mg/kg/day starting seven days before surgery. Rats were studied 30 days after NX5/6 or sham surgery. Curcumin attenuated 5/6NX-induced proteinuria, systemic and glomerular hypertension, hyperfiltration, glomerular sclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, interstitial inflammation, and increase in plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. This protective effect was associated with enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and with prevention of 5/6NX-induced oxidant stress and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that the protective effect of curcumin against 5/6NX-induced glomerular and systemic hypertension, hyperfiltration, renal dysfunction, and renal injury was associated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and the prevention of both oxidant stress and the decrease of antioxidant enzymes.

  12. Is the current theory of construction a hindrance to innovation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koskela, L.; Vrijhoef, R.

    2001-01-01

    An explanation for the low innovation activity in const¡uction is put forward. The central argument is that the cur¡ent theory of construction is one root cause for low innovation activity. Instead, an explicit and more powerful theory of construction is needed for further imovation, which is 'to

  13. Gehalten van dioxinen in boerenkool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem AKD; Theelen RMC; Hoogerbrugge R; de Jong APJM; LOC; TOX

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study on dioxin levels in samples of curly kale, collected in deposition areas of municipal waste incinerators and a metal reclamation plant as well as in background locations in the Netherlands. From earlier reports on environmental contamination with dioxins

  14. Evolution of Trace Gases and Particles Emitted by a Chaparral Fire in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    measurements in BB plumes and concluded that O3 formation is ubiquitous in tropical BB plumes, but O3 formation or destruction can oc- cur in extratropical BB...the Aventech AIMMS20AQ air- borne probe for turbulence measurements during the Convective Storm Initiation Project, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5449–5463

  15. Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates III:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Øjvind; Hansen, Gert; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    . dodgei may form brown, never truly red blooms as in the case of T. sanguinea. The transverse flagellum of Borghiella carries, in addition to thin hairs found also in other dinoflagellates, a row of shorter, thicker hairs resembling the curly hairs on the homologous, anterior flagellum of the perkinsid...

  16. Zur Logik des Christentums : eine philosophische Grundlegung ökumenischen Denkens im Ausgang von Anselm von Canterbury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Highlighting the (often ignored) link between "Cur Deus homo" and "Proslogion", the thesis examines the ‘logic of Christianity’ Anselm of Canterbury seeks to demonstrate in an inter-religious context; his atonement theory is not necessarily a result of an ill-conceived religious image of God but

  17. U.S. EPA, Pesticide Product Label, SECURITY INDOOR INSECT FOGGER, 09/19/1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... ri Dc! (' .. t .r t .. --. 1 • ;"":t· i. t .. ," }1I t ~- !; I . .. jill • ~-, t} t , , (. ~ u I ", ;-cCur I' !. - ll.'J71pr't f1rlfr'n(:f inc ~ r~· r ".tf' 'I, rune! t." ! ,( I ; C):: • I •• ' : ' ...

  18. Energy and exergy utilizations of the Chinese urban residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanfeng; Li, Yang; Wang, Dengjia; Liu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy and exergy use in China’s urban residential sector between 2002 and 2011 are analyzed. • The primary locations and causes of energy and exergy losses in the CURS are identified. • The large gap between the energy and exergy efficiencies implies great potential for energy saving. • The exergy utilization can be improved by using appropriate technology, management and policy. - Abstract: In this paper, the energy and exergy utilizations in the Chinese urban residential sector (CURS) are analyzed by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years between 2002 and 2011. The energy and exergy efficiencies of this sector are calculated to examine the potential for advancing the ‘true’ energy efficiency and determine the real energy losses. The results demonstrate large differences between the overall energy efficiencies (62.8–70.2%) and the exergy efficiencies (11.0–12.2%) for the years analyzed. The sizable gap between the energy and exergy efficiencies implies a high potential for energy savings in the CURS. Future energy saving strategies should pay more attention to the improvement in exergy efficiencies. Moreover, it is found that direct fuel use constituted the primary exergy losses of the CURS; coal-fired boiler heating systems cause approximately 35% of the total exergy losses. Gas stoves, cogeneration systems, coal stoves and gas water heaters constitute 15.3%, 15%, 5.5% and 4.9% of the total exergy losses, respectively

  19. Understanding Selective Downregulation of c-Myc Expression through Inhibition of General Transcription Regulators in Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We next tested whether BET bromodomain inhibition mitigated the acti- vation of proadhesion pathways in aortic endothelium, which oc- curs during the...tinuum of activity as Myc flickers on and off of weakly bound, weakly expressed promoters, but stays longer or more frequently at high output promoters

  20. State-of-the-art inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Van Gerven, K.A.J.; Akkerman, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    The present report provides a state-of-the-art inventory of relevant information and technical concepts for the ComCoast project, being the first phase of the research stages of Work Package 3 (WP3). This project was assigned to Royal Haskoning by CUR. The information scan was set-up in a systematic

  1. 2IrrigatioIi)Division

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The..results shdw'thafthere was an equit{lb.le'irrigation water distribution along Goa-I r 4-,. ~.-;.. -q n~. r'~ -. ... -irngiltion:sjstems in'Tanzania q.n'd other 'parts of Africa q.s.they. are s!"!ple (0 ..... problem '00' o~cur")when water flow through ble 1.

  2. Codelivery of curcumin and doxorubicin by MPEG-PCL results in improved efficacy of systemically administered chemotherapy in mice with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang BL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bi-Lan Wang,1,* Yong-mei Shen,1,3,* Qiong-wen Zhang,1,* Yu-li Li,1 Min Luo,1 Ze Liu,1,2 Yan Li,1 Zhi-yong Qian,1 Xiang Gao,1 Hua-shan Shi1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medicine School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Department of Head and Neck Oncology, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 3Sichuang Haoyisheng Pharmacy, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Systemic administration of chemotherapy for cancer often has toxic side effects, limiting the doses that can be used in its treatment. In this study, we developed methoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(caprolactone (MPEG-PCL micelles loaded with curcumin and doxorubicin (Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL that were tolerated by recipient mice and had enhanced antitumor effects and fewer side effects. It was shown that these Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles could release curcumin and doxorubicin slowly in vitro. The long circulation time of MPEG-PCL micelles and the slow rate of release of curcumin and doxorubicin in vivo may help to maintain plasma concentrations of active drug. We also demonstrated that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL had improved antitumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism by which Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles inhibit lung cancer might involve increased apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. We found advantages using Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles in the treatment of cancer, with Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL achieving better inhibition of LL/2 lung cancer growth in vivo and in vitro. Our study indicates that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles may be an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future. Keywords: methoxy poly(ethylene glycol, poly(caprolactone, curcumin, doxorubicin, micelles, cancer, treatment

  3. Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leding, Juliana K

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants are presented at study with parent words (e.g., eyeglasses, whiplash). At test, in addition to being presented with targets and foils, participants are presented with lures that are composed of previously studied features (e.g., eyelash). It was found that high-WMC individuals had lower levels of false recognition than low-WMC individuals. Furthermore, recall-to-reject responses were analysed (e.g., "I know I didn't see eyelash because I remember seeing eyeglasses") and it was found that high-WMC individuals were more likely to utilise this memory editing strategy, providing direct evidence that one reason that high-WMC individuals are not as prone to false memories is because they are better able to engage in source monitoring.

  4. The biodisposition and hypertrichotic effects of bimatoprost in mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, David F; Tang, Elaine S-H; Attar, Mayssa; Wang, Jenny W

    2013-01-01

    Studies on bimatoprost were performed with two objectives: (i) to determine whether bimatoprost possesses hair growth-stimulating properties beyond eyelash hypertrichosis and (ii) to investigate the biodisposition of bimatoprost in skin for the first time. Bimatoprost, at the dose used clinically for eyelash growth (0.03%) and given once daily for 14 days, increased pelage hair growth in C57/black 6 mice. This occurred as a much earlier onset of new hair growth in shaved mice and the time taken to achieve complete hair regrowth, according to photographic documentation and visual assessment. Bimatoprost biodisposition in the skin was determined at three concentrations: 0.01%, 0.03% and 0.06%. Dose-dependent Cmax values were obtained (3.41, 6.74, 12.3 μg/g tissue), and cutaneous bimatoprost was well maintained for 24 h following a single dose. Bimatoprost was recovered from the skin only as the intact molecule, with no detectable levels of metabolites. Thus, bimatoprost produces hypertrichosis as the intact molecule. PMID:23278986

  5. THE ROLE OF LABORATORY EXAMINATION IN RED EYE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Chernakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze etiological structure of inflammatory diseases of ocular surface. Materials and methods: The study included outpatients (n = 49 who referred to Ophthalmological office at the Herpetic center during the period 2012 to 2014. Complaints duration was 60.65 ± 12.28 days. All patients underwent routine ophthalmologic examination; tear and/or conjunctival scraping PCR for type 1 and 2 herpes simplex viruses, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, type 6 human herpesvirus, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, ureaplasma, chlamydia; conjunctival swab microbiology; eyelash microscopy for eyelash mites. Results: After the examination, all patients were divided into three groups: 1 with herpesvirus infections of the eye (n = 24, 2 with non-herpetic infection of the eye (enterovirus, adenovirus, bacteria, fungi, n = 18, 3 with ocular surface lesions due to non-infectious causes (n = 7. In three cases U. urealyticum was detected, doxycycline was administrated. Identification of pathogens in the groups 1 and 2 resulted in effective causal treatment with subsequent clinical recovery. Exclusion of infection in the third group allowed to avoid inappropriate antibacterial or antiviral therapy. Conclusion: In patients with chronic red eye syndrome of unknown etiology, laboratory examination of tear and/or conjunctival scraping is essential for differentiating between infectious and non-infectious disease.

  6. Alopecia areata universalis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginel, Pedro J; Blanco, Beatriz; Pérez-Aranda, María; Zafra, Rafael; Mozos, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Alopecia areata is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease that occurs in humans and various other mammalian species. When the disease progresses to total alopecia it is defined as alopecia areata universalis (AAU), although this outcome has only been described in humans. To describe a case of canine alopecia areata universalis and its clinical outcome after 22 months of follow-up. A 9-year-old intact male cross-breed hunting dog was presented with generalized and complete noninflammatory alopecia of 12-14 months duration. Clinical examination; histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of skin biopsies. There was loss of all body hair including eyelashes and vibrissae. The histopathological and immunohistochemical findings supported a diagnosis of long-standing alopecia areata. Treatment with oral ciclosporin was associated with hair regrowth but muzzle hair, most eyelashes and whiskers were still lacking after 17 months of therapy. To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first documented case of canine AAU. The clinical and histopathological features were consistent with a diagnosis of AAU as defined in humans. Treatment with oral ciclosporin resulted in near complete resolution of the alopecia, but after 5 months without treatment the alopecia did not relapse and spontaneous resolution cannot be ruled out. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome: A 13-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Antonio Guerrero-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder presenting with poikiloderma and other clinical features, affecting the bones and eyes and, in type II RTS, presenting an increased risk for malignancy. With about 300 cases reported so far, we present a 13-year follow-up including clinical images, X-rays and genetic analysis. A 13-month-old female started with a facial rash with blisters on her cheeks and limbs at the age of 3 months along with congenital hypoplastic thumbs, frontal bossing and fine hair, eyebrows and eyelashes. The patient was lost to follow-up and returned 12 years later with palmoplantar hyperkeratotic lesions, short stature, disseminated poikiloderma and sparse scalp hair, with absence of eyelashes and eyebrows. Radiographic analysis showed radial ray defect, absence of the thumb and three wrist carpal bones, and reduced bone density. Gene sequencing for the RECQL4 helicase gene revealed a mutation on each allele. RTS is a rare disease, and in this patient we observed the evolution of her skin lesions and other clinical features, which were important for the classification of type II RTS. The next years will provide even more information on this rare disease.

  8. Clinical observation of modified frontalis tendon flap suspension in the treatment of severe congenital blepharoptosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the long-term clinical effect of modified frontalis tendon flap suspension in the treatment of severe blepharoptosis in children. METHODS: A total of 83 cases(114 eyesof modified frontalis tendon flap suspension for children severe blepharoptosis correction were analyzed between January 2009 to December 2011 for the efficacy and complications of this surgery. Follow-up observation for 5a.RESULTS: In the fifth year after operation, there were 84 eyes(73.7%with correction and satisfactory correction, 30 eyes(26.3%were corrected, and the operation was satisfactory. Postoperative complications included 4 eyes(3.5%of inverted eyelashes, of which 3 eyes were given suture traction at 1/3 interior of the gray line, 1wk later inverted eyelashes disappeared, 1 eye of secondary surgery. Conjunctival prolapse was in 2 eyes(1.8%, the application of corticosteroids eye drops, pressure bandage were used for 1wk and conjunctival prolapse disappeared. There was no recurrence of keratitis, eyelid ectropion, septum separation, eyelid angular deformity, hematoma formation, infection and other complications. Postoperative retrograde retrogression and lateral eyelid folds disappear were the most common problems of long-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: The study shows that this surgical technique is a satisfied method to treat severe blepharoptosis and predictable with few complications.

  9. Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaofeng; Tan, Tieniu; Sun, Zhenan; Qiu, Xianchao

    2009-09-01

    Iris segmentation is an essential module in iris recognition because it defines the effective image region used for subsequent processing such as feature extraction. Traditional iris segmentation methods often involve an exhaustive search of a large parameter space, which is time consuming and sensitive to noise. To address these problems, this paper presents a novel algorithm for accurate and fast iris segmentation. After efficient reflection removal, an Adaboost-cascade iris detector is first built to extract a rough position of the iris center. Edge points of iris boundaries are then detected, and an elastic model named pulling and pushing is established. Under this model, the center and radius of the circular iris boundaries are iteratively refined in a way driven by the restoring forces of Hooke's law. Furthermore, a smoothing spline-based edge fitting scheme is presented to deal with noncircular iris boundaries. After that, eyelids are localized via edge detection followed by curve fitting. The novelty here is the adoption of a rank filter for noise elimination and a histogram filter for tackling the shape irregularity of eyelids. Finally, eyelashes and shadows are detected via a learned prediction model. This model provides an adaptive threshold for eyelash and shadow detection by analyzing the intensity distributions of different iris regions. Experimental results on three challenging iris image databases demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods in both accuracy and speed.

  10. Unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum infestation in a child during occlusion therapy for amblyopia: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biler, Elif Demirkilinc; Selver, Ozlem Barut; Palamar, Melis; Uner, Ahmet; Uretmen, Onder

    2016-01-01

    An 8-year-old mentally retarded boy is brought to the hospital because of itching and burning at his right eye for 10 days. He was on full time right eye occlusion therapy for left amblyopia. Slit lamp examination revealed nits and adult lice anchored to the eyelashes in his occluded eye. Eyelashes and all detected lice and nits were mechanically trimmed, and sent for parasitological examination, which confirmed the diagnosis. Upon familial evaluation for additional infestation, the father was also found to have genital phthiriasis pubis and received appropriate treatment. While phthiriasis palpebrarum in children may signify sexual abuse, a detailed investigation by a child psychiatrist was performed and revealed no sign of abuse. Since the infestation was at only on occluded eye, the most possible explanation for the transmission was evaluated as the misusage of the adhesive patch in our case. In conclusion, sexual abuse should be excluded in children with phthiriasis palpebrarum and parents of amblyopic children on occlusion therapy should be warned about the importance of the hygiene of the patching in order to avoid any kind of infection and infestation.

  11. Novel tumor-targeting, self-assembling peptide nanofiber as a carrier for effective curcumin delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jianfeng Liu, Jinjian Liu, Hongyan Xu, Yumin Zhang, Liping Chu, Qingfen Liu, Naling Song, Cuihong YangTianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability of curcumin restrict its clinical application for cancer treatment. In this study, a novel tumor-targeting nanofiber carrier was developed to improve the solubility and tumor-targeting ability of curcumin using a self-assembled Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide. The morphologies of the peptide nanofiber and the curcumin-encapsulated nanofiber were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The tumor-targeting activity of the curcumin-encapsulated Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide nanofiber (f-RGD-Cur was studied in vitro and in vivo, using Nap-GFFYG-RGE peptide nanofiber (f-RGE-Cur as the control. Curcumin was encapsulated into the peptide nanofiber, which had a diameter of approximately 10–20 nm. Curcumin showed sustained-release behavior from the nanofibers in vitro. f-RGD-Cur showed much higher cellular uptake in αvβ3 integrin-positive HepG2 liver carcinoma cells than did non-targeted f-RGE-Cur, thereby leading to significantly higher cytotoxicity. Ex vivo studies further demonstrated that curcumin could accumulate markedly in mouse tumors after administration of f-RGD-Cur via the tail vein. These results indicate that Nap-GFFYG-RGD peptide self-assembled nanofibers are a promising hydrophobic drug delivery system for targeted treatment of cancer.Keywords: nanofiber, tumor-targeting, self-assembling, curcumin, drug delivery

  12. Curcumin-loaded biodegradable polymeric micelles for colon cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Maling; Men, Ke; Shi, Huashan; Xiang, Mingli; Zhang, Juan; Song, Jia; Long, Jianlin; Wan, Yang; Luo, Feng; Zhao, Xia; Qian, Zhiyong

    2011-04-01

    Curcumin is an effective and safe anticancer agent, but its hydrophobicity inhibits its clinical application. Nanotechnology provides an effective method to improve the water solubility of hydrophobic drug. In this work, curcumin was encapsulated into monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, creating curcumin-loaded MPEG-PCL (Cur/MPEG-PCL) micelles. These Cur/MPEG-PCL micelles were monodisperse (PDI = 0.097 +/- 0.011) with a mean particle size of 27.3 +/- 1.3 nm, good re-solubility after freeze-drying, an encapsulation efficiency of 99.16 +/- 1.02%, and drug loading of 12.95 +/- 0.15%. Moreover, these micelles were prepared by a simple and reproducible procedure, making them potentially suitable for scale-up. Curcumin was molecularly dispersed in the PCL core of MPEG-PCL micelles, and could be slow-released in vitro. Encapsulation of curcumin in MPEG-PCL micelles improved the t1/2 and AUC of curcuminin vivo. As well as free curcumin, Cur/MPEG-PCL micelles efficiently inhibited the angiogenesis on transgenic zebrafish model. In an alginate-encapsulated cancer cell assay, intravenous application of Cur/MPEG-PCL micelles more efficiently inhibited the tumor cell-induced angiogenesisin vivo than that of free curcumin. MPEG-PCL micelle-encapsulated curcumin maintained the cytotoxicity of curcumin on C-26 colon carcinoma cellsin vitro. Intravenous application of Cur/MPEG-PCL micelle (25 mg kg-1curcumin) inhibited the growth of subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma in vivo (p curcumin (p curcumin; this formulation can inhibit the growth of colon carcinoma through inhibiting angiogenesis and directly killing cancer cells.

  13. A two-step synthetic strategy to obtain a water-soluble derivative of curcumin with improved antioxidant capacity and in vitro cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeros, José M; Belmont-Bernal, Fernando; Pérez-González, Alma Teresa; Pérez-Padrón, Mario Israel; Guevara-Salazar, Patricia; González-Herrera, Irma Gabriela; Guadarrama, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    A novel water-soluble derivative of curcumin (Cur-[G-2]-OH) was designed and synthesized from accessible raw materials in only two steps with an overall yield of 80%. The modification of curcumin phenol groups with second-generation polyester dendrons (dendronization) as a strategy to achieve an optimal hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance allows the complete water solubilization of the new curcumin derivative (5mg/ml) at room temperature. The therapeutic potential of Cur-[G-2]-OH was investigated in terms of antioxidant capacity, intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity in both rat glioblastoma cells and normal human dermal fibroblasts. Although the phenolic groups of curcumin were locked by dendronization, Cur-[G-2]-OH exhibited antioxidant capacity in water that was even higher than curcumin in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). This compound showed a steady cellular uptake contrasted with curcumin, which has a saturation capture at high concentrations. Combined with improved stability, this property seems to allow the intracellular accumulation of Cur-[G-2]-OH. Furthermore, the new compound exhibited increased cytotoxicity in rat C6 glioma cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas in normal human fibroblasts, its IC 50 value was >600μM versus the IC 50 of curcumin found between 100 and 200μM. Surprisingly, Cur-[G-2]-OH drives cell death of C6 cells by a different mechanism of apoptosis triggered by curcumin. Together, these results suggest that curcumin dendronization could promote molecular and cellular mechanisms that are different from those induced by curcumin, presumably due to structural factors and not only for improved water solubility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Smart Drug Delivery System-Inspired Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer and Allochroic Effect Induced Dual-Modal Colorimetric and Fluorescent Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Luyang; Zhu, Chengzhou; Jiao, Lei; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe; Wei, Qin

    2018-02-06

    Numerous analytical techniques have been undertaken for the detection of protein biomarkers because of their extensive and significant applications in clinical diagnosis, whereas there are few strategies to develop dual-readout immunosensors to achieve more accurate results. To the best of our knowledge, inspired by smart drug delivery system (DDS), a novel pH-responsive modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was innovatively developed for the first time, realizing dual-modal colorimetric and fluorescent detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Curcumin (CUR) was elaborately selected as a reporter molecule, which played the same role of drugs in DDS based on the following considerations: (1) CUR can be used as a kind of pH indicator by the inherited allochroic effect induced by basic pH value; (2) the fluorescence of CUR can be quenched by certain nanocarriers as the acceptor because of the occurrence of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), while recovered by the stimuli of basic pH value, which can produce "signal-on" fluorescence detection. Three-dimensional MoS 2 nanoflowers (3D-MoS 2 NFs) were employed in immobilizing CUR to constitute a nanoprobe for the determination of cTnI by virtue of good biocompatibility, high absorption capacity, and fluorescence quench efficiency toward CUR. The proposed DDS-inspired ELISA offered dual-modal colorimetric and fluorescent detection of cTnI, thereby meeting the reliable and precise analysis requirements. We believe that the developed dual-readout ELISA will create a new avenue and bring innovative inspirations for biological detections.

  15. Lyophilized sponges loaded with curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles for buccal delivery: Development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive sponges as dosage forms for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles. For this purpose curcumin (Cur) was formulated as solid nanoparticles (SLN) using Gelucire 50/13, and polaxomer 407. The prepared CurSLN dispersion was thickened with different mucoadhesive polymers. Different concentrations of glycerol, and mannitol of range (0.25-20%), and (0-1%), respectively were also examined. The formed gel was poured into oblong molds and freeze dried to form mucoadhesive sponge to be applied to the buccal mucosa. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their, in-vivo residence time, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, and hydration capacity. Surface morphology for the different sponges were examined using SEM. TEM was also carried out for sponge fragments previously dispersed into water. Infrared spectroscopy was conducted to investigate interaction between used ingredients. The results showed that the CurSLN loaded HPMC, and Polycarbophil sponges showed 4, and 15 h in-vivo residence time, respectively, providing a considerable amount of curcumin into saliva. The incorporation of glycerol and mannitol at concentration of 1% provided elegant and flexible sponges. The SEM showed that the deposition of CurSLN differed according to the type of polymer used. TEM confirmed the integrity of liberated CurSLN from sponges. IR spectra showed an interaction between HPMC and poloxamer 407, which affected its behavior as a gelling agent. The obtained results provide an efficient approach for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles in a solid dosage form keeping the nanoparticle characters and integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Codelivery of SH-aspirin and curcumin by mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles enhanced antitumor activity by inducing mitochondrial apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lin Zhou,1,2,* Xingmei Duan,1,2,* Shi Zeng,1 Ke Men,1 Xueyan Zhang,1 Li Yang,1 Xiang Li1 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Cancer Center and Department of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Sichuan Food and Drug Safety Monitoring and Review of Certification, Adverse Reaction Monitoring Center, Drug Abuse Monitoring Center, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Natural product curcumin (Cur and H2S-releasing prodrug SH-aspirin (SH-ASA are potential anticancer agents with diverse mechanisms, but their clinical application prospects are restricted by hydrophobicity and limited efficiency. In this work, we coencapsulated SH-ASA and Cur into methoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly (lactide-coglycolide (mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles through a modified oil-in-water single-emulsion solvent evaporation process. The prepared SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles had a mean particle size of 122.3±6.8 nm and were monodispersed (polydispersity index =0.179±0.016 in water, with high drug-loading capacity and stability. Intriguingly, by treating with SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles, obvious synergistic anticancer effects on ES-2 and SKOV3 human ovarian carcinoma cells were observed in vitro, and activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was indicated. Our results demonstrated that SH-ASA/Cur-coloaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles could have potential clinical advantages for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Keywords: drug delivery, cancer therapy, ovarian cancer, synergistic effect

  17. Valproic acid potentiates curcumin-mediated neuroprotection in Lipopolysaccharide induced rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira eZaky

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of neuroinflammation is complex and comprises multifactorial, involving both genetic and environmental factors during which diverse genetic and epigenetic modulations are implicated. Curcumin (Cur, and valproic acid (VPA, histone deacetylase 1 inhibitor, have neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed with an aim to investigate the ability of co-treatment of both compounds (Cur or VPA (200mg/kg for four weeks to augment neuroprotection and enhance brain recovery from intra-peritoneal (IP injection of (250 µg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated neuroinflammatory condition on rat brain cortex. Cortex activation and the effects of combined treatment and production of proinflammatory mediators, COX-2, APE1 and nitric oxide/iNOS were investigated. Neuroinflammation development was assessed by histological analyses and by investigating associated indices (BACE1, APP, PSEN-1 and PSEN-2. Furthermore we measured the expression profile of let-7 miRNAs members a, b, c, e and f in all groups, a highly abundant regulator of gene expression in the CNS. Protein and mRNA levels of neuroinflammation markers COX-2, BACE1, APP and iNOS were also attenuated by combined therapy. On the other hand, assessment of the indicated five let-7 members, showed distinct expression profile pattern in the different groups. Let-7 a, b and c disappeared in the induced group, an effect that was partially suppressed by co-addition of either Cur or VPA. These data suggest that the combined treatment induced significantly the expression of the five members when compared to rats treated with Cur or VPA only as well as to self-recovery group, which indicates a possible benefit from the synergistic effect of Cur-VPA combination as therapeutic agents for neuroinflammation and its associated disorders. The mechanism elucidated here highlights the particular drug-induced expression profile of let-7 family as new targets for future pharmacological development.

  18. Value-based medicine, comparative effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness analysis of topical cyclosporine for the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa M; Brown, Gary C; Brown, Heidi C; Peet, Jonathan; Roth, Zachary

    2009-02-01

    To assess the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (cost-utility) of a 0.05% emulsion of topical cyclosporine (Restasis; Allergan Inc, Irvine, California) for the treatment of moderate to severe dry eye syndrome that is unresponsive to conventional therapy. Data from 2 multicenter, randomized, clinical trials and Food and Drug Administration files for topical cyclosporine, 0.05%, emulsion were used in Center for Value-Based Medicine analyses. Analyses included value-based medicine as a comparative effectiveness analysis and average cost-utility analysis using societal and third-party insurer cost perspectives. Outcome measures of comparative effectiveness were quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gain and percentage of improvement in quality of life, and for cost-effectiveness were cost-utility ratio (CUR) using dollars per QALY. Topical cyclosporine, 0.05%, confers a value gain (comparative effectiveness) of 0.0319 QALY per year compared with topical lubricant therapy, a 4.3% improvement in quality of life for the average patient with moderate to severe dry eye syndrome that is unresponsive to conventional lubricant therapy. The societal perspective incremental CUR for cyclosporine over vehicle therapy is $34,953 per QALY and the societal perspective average CUR is $11,199 per QALY. The third-party-insurer incremental CUR is $37,179 per QALY, while the third-party-insurer perspective average CUR is $34,343 per QALY. Topical cyclosporine emulsion, 0.05%, confers considerable patient value and is a cost-effective therapy for moderate to severe dry eye syndrome that is unresponsive to conventional therapy.

  19. Cypermethrin-induced histopathological, ultrastructural and biochemical changes in liver of albino rats: The protective role of propolis and curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdul-Hamid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cypermethrin (CYP, an insecticide belongs to a synthetic pyrethroid, is used for agriculture and household applications. The present study aimed to examine the toxic effects of CYP on rat liver and to clarify the hepatoprotective effects of propolis (PRO and curcumin (CUR against CYP. This study was assessed in male albino rats, each weighting (120–150 g. The rats were equally divided into six groups as follow; the 1st control group, 2nd PRO group (100 mg/kg/day and 3rd CUR group (100 mg/kg/day. While 4th, 5th and 6th groups were orally treated with CYP (30 mg/kg/day, CYP plus PRO and CYP plus CUR, respectively for 28 days. The present study revealed that CYP-induced significant increase in hepatic markers enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP and elevation in MDA concomitant with significant decrease of SOD and GPx levels. Histological and histochemical results revealed extensive vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, fatty change, blood vessel congestion and fibrosis in the liver of CYP- treated group and depletion of glycogen, protein and DNA. Moreover, ultrastructural observations showed vacuolation, damage of mitochondria and nuclear changes. On the other hand, treatment with PRO and CUR led to an obvious improvement of the injured liver tissues and ameliorating the damaging effects of CYP. In conclusion, PRO is markedly effective than CUR in protecting rats against CYP-induced histopathological, ultrastructural and biochemical changes. This protection may be due to its antioxidant properties and scavenging abilities against active free radicals.

  20. A curcumin-loaded liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmazi R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Salmazi, Giovana Calixto, Jéssica Bernegossi, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos Ramos, Taís Maria Bauab, Marlus Chorilli School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP – Sao Paulo State University, Campus Araraquara, Department of Drugs and Medicines, Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Women often develop vaginal infections that are caused primarily by organisms of the genus Candida. The current treatments of vaginal candidiasis usually involve azole-based antifungals, though fungal resistance to these compounds has become prevalent. Therefore, much attention has been given to molecules with antifungal properties from natural sources, such as curcumin (CUR. However, CUR has poor solubility in aqueous solvents and poor oral bioavailability. This study attempted to overcome this problem by developing, characterizing, and evaluating the in vitro antifungal action of a CUR-loaded liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system (LCPM for vaginal administration. A low-viscosity LCPM (F consisting of 40% wt/wt polyoxpropylene-(5-polyoxyethylene-(20-cetyl alcohol, 50% wt/wt oleic acid, and 10% wt/wt chitosan dispersion at 0.5% with the addition of 16% poloxamer 407 was developed to take advantage of the lyotropic phase behavior of this formulation. Notably, F could transform into liquid crystal systems when diluted with artificial vaginal mucus at ratios of 1:3 and 1:1 (wt/wt, resulting in the formation of F30 and F100, respectively. Polarized light microscopy and rheological studies revealed that F behaved like an isotropic formulation, whereas F30 and F100 behaved like an anisotropic liquid crystalline system (LCS. Moreover, F30 and F100 presented higher mucoadhesion to porcine vaginal mucosa than F. The analysis of the in vitro activity against Candida albicans revealed that CUR-loaded F was more potent against standard and clinical strains compared with a CUR solution. Therefore, the vaginal administration of CUR-loaded LCPMs represents a

  1. Glyphosate-Resistant Parthenium hysterophorus in the Caribbean Islands: Non Target Site Resistance and Target Site Resistance in Relation to Resistance Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Bracamonte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate has been the most intensely herbicide used worldwide for decades, and continues to be a single tool for controlling weeds in woody crops. However, the adoption of this herbicide in a wide range of culture systems has led to the emergence of resistant weeds. Glyphosate has been widely used primarily on citrus in the Caribbean area, but a study of resistance in the Caribbean islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic has never been carried out. Unfortunately, Parthenium hysterophorus has developed glyphosate-resistance in both islands, independently. The resistance level and mechanisms of different P. hysterophorus accessions (three collected in Cuba (Cu-R and four collected in the Dominican Republic (Do-R have been studied under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. In in vivo assays (glyphosate dose causing 50% reduction in above-ground vegetative biomass and survival, the resistance factor levels showed susceptible accessions (Cu-S≥Do-S, low-resistance accessions (Cu-R3Do-R2>Cu-R2>Do-R3>Do-R4>Cu-R3>>Cu-S≥Do-S. Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid, glyoxylate and sarcosine by >88% in resistant accessions except in Cu-R3 and Do-R4 resistant accessions (51.12 and 44.21, respectively, whereas a little glyphosate (<9.32% was degraded in both susceptible accessions at 96 h after treatment. There were significant differences between P. hysterophorus accessions in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS activity enzyme with and without different glyphosate rates. The R accessions showed values of between 0.026 and 0.21 µmol µg-1 TSP protein min-1 basal EPSPS activity values with respect to the S (0.024 and 0.025 accessions. The same trend was found in the EPSPS enzyme activity treated with glyphosate, where a higher enzyme activity inhibition (glyphosate µM corresponded to greater resistance levels in P. hysterophorus accessions. One amino acid substitution was found at position 106 in EPSPS, consisting

  2. Curcumin protects against tartrazine-mediated oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Desoky, G E; Abdel-Ghaffar, A; Al-Othman, Z A; Habila, M A; Al-Sheikh, Y A; Ghneim, H K; Giesy, J P; Aboul-Soud, M A M

    2017-02-01

    Synthetic dyes have been reported to exert detrimental effects on the health of humans. This study evaluated the effects of a diet containing tartrazine (Tz) on rats which included: i) biochemical parameters including hepatic enzymes, kidney functions and profiles of lipids; ii) markers of oxidative stress in cells by measuring concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH); iii) activities of selected, key hepatic antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx); iv) pathologies of liver. Also, protective effects of three doses of curcumin (CUR), a natural food coloring agent, on these parameters in rats that had been co-exposed to Tz. Fifty Wistar male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group I, control, where rats were fed a normal diet; Group II, rats were fed normal diets containing 7.5 mg Tz/kg diet, dry mass (dm); In Groups III, IV and V, rats were fed diets containing Tz plus 1.0, 2.0 or 4.0 g CUR/kg diet, dm, respectively. Whole blood was collected after 90 d of exposure, homogenates of liver were prepared and the above analyses were conducted. Exposure to Tz in the diet caused statistically significant (peffects on functions of liver and kidney and the profile of relative concentrations of lipids. CUR significantly (peffects on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant and indicators of oxidative stress about rats fed Tz (Group II) to values in control rats. However, co-administration of 1.0 g CUR with Tz (Group III) exhibited a negligible effect on those parameters. The results of this study suggest benefits of the use of CUR, as a promising natural food additive to counteract oxidative stress caused by dietary exposure to the synthetic dye Tz due to potent protective antioxidant activity. Blending some natural food additives, such as CUR with diets containing synthetic dyes, could moderate potential effects of these artificial dyes. Decreasing or removing toxins in

  3. The international biological program/human adaptability studies among the Skolt Sami in Finland (1966–1970

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    Henrik Forsius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population is increasingly lighter pigmented moving in a northward direction in Europe until reaching the Arctic Circle, where the Samis (Lapps are clearly more pigmented. Methods: In 1966–1970, we investigated a total of 689 subjects in the villages of Sevettijärvi and Nellim, including persons with mixed Sami and Finnish heritage; of these, 487 (242 males, 245 females had both parents classified as Skolt Sami. For estimation of the colour of the iris and hair, international scales were used. For translucency of the iris, pigmentation of the fundus was estimated in 3 different shades. The length and type of eyelashes were classified into 3 categories. To our knowledge, a simultaneous study of the pigmentation of eyebrows, eyelashes and eye fundus at different ages has not previously been published. Results: The age differences of iris colour were highly significant. Iris colour in children varied markedly, and they generally had lighter colours than later in life. Age and sex effects on the translucency of irises were found. Male irises were more translucent. Fundus pigmentation was scanty in the youngest age groups, with full pigmentation being reached at 20 years. Among young individuals hair colour darkens with increasing age. Eyebrow colour was slightly lighter for both sexes in the youngest age groups that in older cohorts. Women had longer eyelashes than males. Conclusions: The main factor of the lighter skin is a higher ability to synthesize vitamin D, providing superior protection against rickets. The Skolt Samis are more pigmented than other Nordic people. In earlier times they had problems with rickets but our studies did not show any essential symptoms of rickets today. Visual acuity among Skolt Samis was good. They had lower prevalence of myopia compared to Finns. The stronger pigmentation of Skolt Samis is probably due to their origin from darker Eastern populations. Since our investigations were made, the Skolt

  4. Unilateral corneal leukoplakia without limbal involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Koji Hirano,1 Mihoko Koide,2 Yoshikazu Mizoguchi,3 Yasuhiro Osakabe,4 Kaoru-Araki Sasaki5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ban Buntane Hotokukai Hospital, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan; 2Koide Internal Medicine and Eye Clinic, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Pathology, Ban Buntane Hotokukai Hospital, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Molecular Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Japan Health Care Organization, Hoshigaoka Medical Center, Hirakata, Japan Purpose: Leukoplakia is the term given to a white patch or plaque that is found mainly on the oral mucus membrane. It can occasionally be seen on the corneal surface. We report our clinical and histopathological findings in a case of unilateral corneal leukoplakia. Methods: A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a white patch on her right cornea that continued to expand. She first noticed the white patch when she was 20 years old, and the white patch had expanded to cover the pupillary area affecting her vision. After plastic surgery on both eyelids for bilateral entropion to alleviate the pain caused by the eyelashes rubbing the cornea, the white corneal patch decreased in size. Because of this reduction, we performed surgery to remove the patch with microforceps under topical anesthesia. The plaque was removed easily and completely, and submitted for histopathological examination. Results: Histopathological examination showed that the specimen had characteristics of epidermis with a basal cell layer, spinous cell layer, granular cell layer, and horny layer with hyperkeratosis. She was diagnosed with leukoplakia of the corneal surface. The basic structure of the squamous cell layer was preserved, and there were no signs of metaplasia. Six months after the removal of the leukoplakia, no recurrence was seen and her corrected decimal visual acuity recovered to 1

  5. The international biological program/human adaptability studies among the Skolt Sami in Finland (1966-1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsius, Henrik; Eriksson, Aldur W; Fellman, Johan

    2012-04-16

    The population is increasingly lighter pigmented moving in a northward direction in Europe until reaching the Arctic Circle, where the Samis (Lapps) are clearly more pigmented. In 1966-1970, we investigated a total of 689 subjects in the villages of Sevettijärvi and Nellim, including persons with mixed Sami and Finnish heritage; of these, 487 (242 males, 245 females) had both parents classified as Skolt Sami. For estimation of the colour of the iris and hair, international scales were used. For translucency of the iris, pigmentation of the fundus was estimated in 3 different shades. The length and type of eyelashes were classified into 3 categories. To our knowledge, a simultaneous study of the pigmentation of eyebrows, eyelashes and eye fundus at different ages has not previously been published. The age differences of iris colour were highly significant. Iris colour in children varied markedly, and they generally had lighter colours than later in life. Age and sex effects on the translucency of irises were found. Male irises were more translucent. Fundus pigmentation was scanty in the youngest age groups, with full pigmentation being reached at 20 years. Among young individuals hair colour darkens with increasing age. Eyebrow colour was slightly lighter for both sexes in the youngest age groups that in older cohorts. Women had longer eyelashes than males. The main factor of the lighter skin is a higher ability to synthesize vitamin D, providing superior protection against rickets. The Skolt Samis are more pigmented than other Nordic people. In earlier times they had problems with rickets but our studies did not show any essential symptoms of rickets today. Visual acuity among Skolt Samis was good. They had lower prevalence of myopia compared to Finns. The stronger pigmentation of Skolt Samis is probably due to their origin from darker Eastern populations. Since our investigations were made, the Skolt Samis have been to a great part mixed with neighbouring

  6. Trichotillomania: Bizzare Patern of Hair Loss at 11-Year-old Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zímová, Jana; Zímová, Pavlína

    2016-06-01

    negative along the edges of the alopecia. Mycological examination from the skin capillitium was negative. The trichoscopy and skin biopsy of the parietotemporal region of the capillitium (Figure 3) confirmed trichotillomania. Laboratory tests (blood count, iron, ferritin, transferrin, selenium, zinc, vitamin B12, folic acid, serology and hormones of thyroid gland) were negative. We referred the girl for ophthalmologic and psychological examination. Ophthalmologic examination proved that there was no need to add any more diopters. The psychological examination provided us with a picture in which she drew her family (Figure 4). The strongest authority in the family was the mother because she looked after the girls for most of the day. She was in the first place in the picture. The father had longer working hours and spent more time outside the home. He worked as a long vehicle driver. He was in the second place in the picture. There was sibling rivalry between the girls, but the parents did not notice this problem and preferred the older daughter. She was successful at school and was prettier (slim, higher, curly brown hair, without spectacles). Our 11-years-old patient noticed all these differences between them, but at her level of mental development was not able to cope with this problem. She wanted to be her sister's equal. The sister is drawn in the picture in the third place next to father, while the patient's own figure was drawn larger and slim even though she was obese. Notably, all three female figures had very nice long brown hair. It seemed that the mother and our patient had better quality of hair and more intense color than the sister in the drawing. The only hairless person in the picture was the father. The girl did not want to talk about her problems and feelings at home. Then it was confirmed that our patient was very sensitive, anxious, willful, and withdrawn. She was interested in her body and very perceptive of her physical appearance. From the

  7. New Solutions to Line-Driven Winds of Hot Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormaz-Matamala, Alex C.; Curé, Michel; Cidale, Lydia; Venero, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of radiation driven wind theory (Castor et al.1975), we present self-consistent hydrodynamical solutions to the line-force parameters (k, α, δ) under LTE conditions. Hydrodynamic models are provided by HydWind (Curé 2004). We evaluate these results with those ones previously found in literature, focusing in different regions of the optical depth to be used to perform the calculations. The values for mass-loss rate and terminal velocity obtained from our calculations are also presented. We also examine the line-force parameters for the case when large changes in ionization throughout the wind occurs (δ-slow solutions, Curé et al.2011).

  8. Andrographolide: A Novel Antimalarial Diterpene Lactone Compound from Andrographis paniculata and Its Interaction with Curcumin and Artesunate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AND, the diterpene lactone compound, was purified by HPLC from the methanolic fraction of the plant Andrographis paniculata. The compound was found to have potent antiplasmodial activity when tested in isolation and in combination with curcumin and artesunate against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei ANKA in vivo. IC50s for artesunate (AS, andrographolide (AND, and curcumin (CUR were found to be 0.05, 9.1 and 17.4 μM, respectively. The compound (AND was found synergistic with curcumin (CUR and addictively interactive with artesunate (AS. In vivo, andrographolide-curcumin exhibited better antimalarial activity, not only by reducing parasitemia (29%, compared to the control (81%, but also by extending the life span by 2-3 folds. Being nontoxic to the in vivo system this agent can be used as template molecule for designing new derivatives with improved antimalarial properties.

  9. Sequence‑dependent effect of sorafenib in combination with natural phenolic compounds on hepatic cancer cells and the possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahman, Abdulmajeed A; Abaza, Mohamed Salah I; Khoushiash, Sarah I; Al-Attiyah, Rajaa J

    2018-06-08

    Sorafenib (Nexavar, BAY43‑9006 or Sora) is the first molecular targeted agent that has exhibited significant therapeutic benefits in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, not all HCC patients respond well to Sora and novel therapeutic strategies to optimize the efficacy of Sora are urgently required. Plant‑based drugs have received increasing attention owing to their excellent chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive activities; they are also well tolerated, non‑toxic, easily available and inexpensive. It is well known that certain biologically active natural products act synergistically with synthetic drugs used in clinical applications. The present study aimed to investigate whether a combination therapy with natural phenolic compounds (NPCs), including curcumin (Cur), quercetin (Que), kaempherol (Kmf) and resveratrol (Rsv), would allow a dose reduction of Sora without concomitant loss of its effectiveness. Furthermore, the possible molecular mechanisms of this synergy were assessed. The hepatic cancer cell lines Hep3b and HepG2 were treated with Sora alone or in combination with NPCs in concomitant, sequential, and inverted sequential regimens. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and expression of proteins associated with the cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated. NPCs markedly potentiated the therapeutic efficacy of Sora in a sequence‑, type‑, NPC dose‑ and cell line‑dependent manner. Concomitant treatment with Sora and Cur [sensitization ratio (SR)=28], Kmf (SR=18) or Que (SR=8) was associated with the highest SRs in Hep3b cells. Rsv markedly potentiated the effect of Sora (SR=17) on Hep3b cells when administered in a reverse sequential manner. By contrast, Rsv and Que did not improve the efficacy of Sora against HepG2 cells, while concomitant treatment with Cur (SR=10) or Kmf (SR=4.01) potentiated the cytotoxicity of Sora. Concomitant treatment with Sora and Cur or Kmf caused S‑phase and G2/M phase arrest of liver cancer

  10. Neuromuscular blockade of slow twitch muscle fibres elevates muscle oxygen uptake and energy turnover during submaximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Secher, Niels; Relu, Mihai U.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a greater activation of fast-twitch (FT) fibres during dynamic exercise leads to a higher muscle oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and energy turnover as well as a slower muscle on-kinetics. Subjects performed one-legged knee-extensor exercise for 10 min at an intensity of 30 W...... without (CON) and with (CUR) arterial injections of the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium. In CUR, creatine phosphate (CP) was unaltered in slow twitch (ST) fibres and decreased (P fibres, whereas in CON, CP decreased (P ... at a contraction frequency of 1 Hz, and that the muscle VO2 kinetics is slowed by FT fibre activation....

  11. Iris Segmentation using Gradient Magnitude and Fourier Descriptor for Multimodal Biometric Authentication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defiana Sulaeman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perfectly segmenting the area of the iris is one of the most important steps in iris recognition. There are several problematic areas that affect the accuracy of the iris segmentation step, such as eyelids, eyelashes, glasses, pupil (due to less accurate iris segmentation, motion blur, and lighting and specular reflections. To solve these problems, gradient magnitude and Fourier descriptor are employed to do iris segmentation in the proposed Multimodal Biometric Authentication System (MBAS. This approach showed quite promising results, i.e. an accuracy rate of 97%. The result of the iris recognition system was combined with the result of an open-source fingerprint recognition system to develop a multimodal biometrics authentication system. The results of the fusion between iris and fingerprint authentication were 99% accurate. Data from Multimedia Malaysia University (MMUI and our own prepared database, the SGU-MB-1 dataset, were used to test the accuracy of the proposed system.

  12. Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia: Report of 11 patients from a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Vaidya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary Ectodermal Dysplasia is an inherited disorder commonly involving skin, teeth, hair, and nails. We have observed ectodermal dysplasia (EDs in 11 individuals over two generations in one family. Smooth, dry, thin skin was seen in most affected individuals. All had fine, slow-growing scalp hair and body hair and some had sparse eyebrows and short eyelashes. Nearly all showed decrease in sweating. Severe teeth abnormalities were seen in all patients and fingernail abnormalities were not so severe but toenail abnormalities were seen in all patients. No other abnormalities were seen in affected individuals in this family. It is very rare to find such a large family having ectodermal dysplasia.

  13. A review of scalp camouflaging agents and prostheses for individuals with hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Jeff C H; Shapiro, Ron L; Shapiro, Paul; Zupan, Matt; Pierre-Louis, Margareth; Hordinsky, Maria K

    2012-08-15

    Hair loss is a common problem for both men and women and may impact negatively on self-esteem. A variety of medical and surgical treatment options are available depending on the type of alopecia. Many patients also seek the advice of their physicians about options to hide or reduce the appearance of hair loss with hair prostheses (wigs, hairpieces, and extensions) or hair camouflaging agents (hair fibers, powder cakes, lotions, sprays, hair crayons, and scalp tattooing). Herein, we review current methods to hide or reduce the appearance of hair loss and discuss their associated costs, advantages, and disadvantages. Knowledge of products available to cover scalp, eyebrow, and eyelash hair loss may not only better equip clinicians to respond to questions from concerned patients, but may provide additional options to help these patients best cope with their hair loss.

  14. Eyelid Localization for Iris Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new eyelid localization algorithm based on a parabolic curve fitting. To deal with eyelashes, low contrast or false detection due to iris texture, we propose a two steps algorithm. First, possible edge candidates are selected by applying edge detection on a restricted area inside the iris. Then, a gradient maximization is applied along every parabola, on a larger area, to refine parameters and select the best one. Experiments have been conducted on a database of 151 iris that have been manually segmented. The performance evaluation is carried out by comparing the segmented images obtained by the proposed method with the manual segmentation. The results are satisfactory in more than 90% of the cases.

  15. Development of a novel disposable lid speculum with a drape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Toru; Kasaoka, Masataka; Yamakawa, Ryoji; Yukihikotamai; Nakamura, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical use of a newly-developed disposable lid speculum with a drape. LiDrape® is a cylindrical device that consists of two flexible rings of polyacetal resin with a transparent elastic silicone sheet attached to the rings. The novel device holds the eyelids between the rings, and a hole in the center of the device provides a surgical field. We used the novel device in cataract surgery (75 eyes), glaucoma surgery (eleven eyes), vitrectomy (ten eyes), and intravitreal injection (six eyes) and evaluated its clinical efficacy. The LiDrape was easy to attach and detach. The novel device was not detached from the eye during surgery. No eyelashes or secretions from the meibomian glands were seen in the surgical field, and the drape provided a sufficient surgical field. The LiDrape functions as a lid speculum as well as a drape. Our results showed that the novel device is useful for ocular surgeries.

  16. Innovative Application of a Microlaryngeal Surgery Tube for difficult Airway Management in a Case of Down's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabani, Michell; Gupta, Akhilesh; Bannerjee, Neerja Gaur; Sood, Rajesh; Dass, Prashant

    2016-04-01

    An 11-year-old male child, known case of down's syndrome with congenital oesophageal stricture was posted for oesophageal dilatation. Preoperative airway assessment revealed a high arched palate, receding mandible and Mallampati Score of 2. During surgery, after loss of consciousness which was described as loss of eyelash reflex and adequate jaw relaxation, direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation was attempted with a cuffed endotracheal tube number 5.0mm ID (internal diameter). The endotracheal tube could not be negotiated smoothly, so 5.0mm ID uncuffed endotracheal tube was used which passed through easily, but on auscultation revealed a significant leak. Later, intubation via a Micro Laryngeal Surgery (MLS) cuffed tube 4.0mm ID was attempted. The MLS tube advanced smoothly and there was no associated leak on positive pressure ventilation. Thus by innovative thinking and avant-garde reasoning, a definitive airway device could be positioned with no other suitable alternative at hand.

  17. Analisis Intensitas Pencahayaan Dan Reflektan Di Lingkungan Kerja Terhadap Kelelahan Mata Pada Tenaga Kerja Industri Bulu Mata Palsu Di PT. Sung Shim International Purbalingga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriyandi Feriyandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : There are approximately 15,000 workers in several spurious eyelash industries in Purbalingga Regency. Since objects being observed are very fine and the tasks need high accuracy, good lighting is therefore highly required. Poor lighting can lead to visual and mental fatigue, stiffness around the eyes, eye damage and the increasing of work accidents. Sufficient intensity and good management of lighting will result a comfort environment in accordance  to achieve a safe  work environment. Method : This research was conducted as  observational study with a cross sectional approach  for 45 samples of workers. Sampling was carried out by using of systematic random sampling. Data of light intensity and reflectance were collected by measurement of light using Lux Meter and assessment of visual fatigue by using Retention Timer. Other data were collected by interviewing workers with age limitation up to 33 years old. Chi Square Test was used to analyze the data of light intensity and reflectance, work years, age, work period, distance of light to object, distance of eyes to object, relative humidity and temperature, and the correlation with the rise of visual fatigue. Result : Light intensity in the knitting section was between 301.5 – 576.7 lux with reflectance of 43.1%-89.6%. Thirty wokers (66.7% suffered from mild visual fatigue and fifteen wokers, suffered (33.3% from moderate visual fatigue. Light intensity had  an influence and significant relationship  to the occurring of visual fatigue among workers in the industry of spurious eyelash of  PT. Sung Shim International  (p < 0,05 with  Odd ratio = 10.246 (95% CI : 1.147 - 91.498.  Probability of light intensity factor to cause visual fatigue measured by a regression logistic model  was  82.9% . It was caused by  poor lighting (light intensities were measured  below 500 lux while 17.1%  was caused by  other factors. Conclusion : Most of the spurious eyelash

  18. [Chronic blepharitis: which role for Demodex folliculorum? A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinaud, C; Gaillard, T; Pons, S; Fournier, B; Brisou, P

    2009-01-01

    We present a 73-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a 2 years history of eyes itching. The ophthalmological testing was normal. Physical examination revealed blepharitis and lesions acnea-like on mouth, nose and chest. Biological testing revealed no abnormalities. Histologic study and direct immunofluorescence on a cutaneous biopsy were no contributive. The research of an allergic origine was practised by cutaneous and serological tests and negative. An examination of eyelashes was performed and yielded Demodex. Demodex folliculorum is a mite that is the most common permanent ectoparasite of humans, which is thought to be linked to blepharitis and allergic blepharoconjunctivis with rosacea, although much controversy persists. Recent studies demonstrate a high frequence of chronic blepharitis when Demodex are abundant. Several molecules can be used to treat this infestation. Parasiticide as oral ivermectine may be useful when the infestation is important.

  19. Ocular manifestations in the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivcharan L Chandravanshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hutchinson-Gilford progeria (HGP syndrome is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by an appearance of accelerated aging in children. The word progeria is derived from the Greek word progeros meaning ′prematurely old′. It is caused by de novo dominant mutation in the LMNA gene (gene map locus 1q21.2 and characterized by growth retardation and accelerated degenerative changes of the skin, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. The most common ocular manifestations are prominent eyes, loss of eyebrows and eyelashes, and lagophthalmos. In the present case some additional ocular features such as horizontal narrowing of palpebral fissure, superior sulcus deformity, upper lid retraction, upper lid lag in down gaze, poor pupillary dilatation, were noted. In this case report, a 15-year-old Indian boy with some additional ocular manifestations of the HGP syndrome is described.

  20. Overlap Between Ulerythema Ophryogenes and Keratosis Follicularis Spinulosa Decalvans: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Slobodan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulerythema ophryogenes and keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans are rare folliculocentric keratotic disorders, from the group of follicular genokeratoses, characterized by keratosis pilaris atrophicans: follicular keratotic papules, sometimes with surrounding erythema, which eventually result in fibrosis, atrophy, progressive scarring and permanent hair loss. Ulerythema ophryogenes begins at birth or soon thereafter; it involves the lateral eyebrows, spreads medially and eventually affects the entire eyebrows, cheeks, and less frequently, forehead and asjecebt scalp. Involvement of the scalp has apparently not been reported in cases in which the eyebrows were predominantly involved. In addition to sporadic cases, ulerythema ophryogenes has been reported among relatives. Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans is also a genetically heterogeneous syndrome which begins in infancy or childhood by involving hair bearing skin, especially the scalp; rarely it is confined to the face involving only eyebrows and eyelashes, but affects predominantly the scalp, leading to severe progressive cicatricial alopecia. Both conditions tend to progress until puberty.

  1. Poliosis circumscripta unmasking a scalp melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, L; Husain, E; Rajpara, S

    2015-12-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of a localized patch of grey hair and an underlying darkly pigmented lesion on his right occipital area. Clinical appearance revealed poliosis overlying an asymmetrical plaque with variable degrees of brown pigmentation and white discolouration. Owing to the suspicious nature of the lesion, excision with a 2 mm margin was performed. Histology revealed an invasive melanoma with extensive regression and prominent involvement of multiple hair follicles. Scalp melanoma with associated poliosis is extremely rare, and has only been reported once in the literature to date. There have been two reports in the opthalmology literature regarding eyelash poliosis associated with orbital melanoma. The pathogenesis of poliosis still remains unclear. This is the second reported case of poliosis circmscripta unmasking a scalp melanoma, and highlights the importance of being vigilant when examining patients with poliosis of the scalp. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. The Coffin-Siris syndrome: five new cases including two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J C; Hall, B D

    1978-07-01

    Five new cases and one previously reported case of the Coffin-Siris syndrome are described. These cases plus the remaining four already published bring to ten the number of cases available for scrutiny. Constant features (100% frequency) include variable degrees of mental retardation, nail hypoplasia or absence with predominantly fifth digit involvement, hypotonia, infancy feeding problems, and retarded bone age. Frequent features (75% to 90%) include postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, wide nasal tip and mouth, prominent lips, eyebrow/eyelash hypertrichosis, and scalp hair hypotrichosis. Significant but less frequent findings include short philtrum (50%, scoliosis (40%), decreased fetal activity (40%), smallness for gestational age (30%), and congenital heart defects (30%). We found the craniofacial phenotype to be mild in the young infant, but progressively more characteristic with age. Autosomal recessive inheritance is suspected on the basis of our brother-and-sister pair.

  3. Complex chromosome rearrangement in a child with microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features and mosaicism for a terminal deletion del(18(q21.32-qter investigated by FISH and array-CGH: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokotas Haris

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on a 7 years and 4 months old Greek boy with mild microcephaly and dysmorphic facial features. He was a sociable child with maxillary hypoplasia, epicanthal folds, upslanting palpebral fissures with long eyelashes, and hypertelorism. His ears were prominent and dysmorphic, he had a long philtrum and a high arched palate. His weight was 17 kg (25th percentile and his height 120 cm (50th percentile. High resolution chromosome analysis identified in 50% of the cells a normal male karyotype, and in 50% of the cells one chromosome 18 showed a terminal deletion from 18q21.32. Molecular cytogenetic investigation confirmed a del(18(q21.32-qter in the one chromosome 18, but furthermore revealed the presence of a duplication in q21.2 in the other chromosome 18. The case is discussed concerning comparable previously reported cases and the possible mechanisms of formation.

  4. Retrospective Evaluation of Topical Bimatoprost and Iris Pigmentation Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Larsen, Lisa A; Ruth, Nadine H; Fabi, Sabrina G

    2017-12-01

    Topical bimatoprost is a topical prostaglandin analog originally used to treat glaucoma and more recently used to cosmetically induce hypertrichosis of the eyelashes. Iris pigmentation change has been noted in the treatment of glaucoma but has not been assessed with the cosmetic periorbital application of bimatoprost. To evaluate for iris pigmentation change with the long-term cosmetic use of topical bimatoprost. A retrospective chart review in a cosmetic dermatology practice of women (N = 50) who consistently purchased topical bimatoprost over an average of 4.59 years was compared with that of age-matched non-bimatoprost patients (N = 50). A blinded evaluator assessed each patient for iris pigmentary change. No iris pigmentation change was noted with the cutaneous application of bimatoprost. The cutaneous application of bimatoprost appears to be safe with minimal risk for iris pigmentation change.

  5. New methods in iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the following four advances in iris recognition: 1) more disciplined methods for detecting and faithfully modeling the iris inner and outer boundaries with active contours, leading to more flexible embedded coordinate systems; 2) Fourier-based methods for solving problems in iris trigonometry and projective geometry, allowing off-axis gaze to be handled by detecting it and "rotating" the eye into orthographic perspective; 3) statistical inference methods for detecting and excluding eyelashes; and 4) exploration of score normalizations, depending on the amount of iris data that is available in images and the required scale of database search. Statistical results are presented based on 200 billion iris cross-comparisons that were generated from 632500 irises in the United Arab Emirates database to analyze the normalization issues raised in different regions of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  6. Iris recognition based on robust principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Pradeep; He, Xiao Hai; Yang, Shuai; Wu, Xiao Hong

    2014-11-01

    Iris images acquired under different conditions often suffer from blur, occlusion due to eyelids and eyelashes, specular reflection, and other artifacts. Existing iris recognition systems do not perform well on these types of images. To overcome these problems, we propose an iris recognition method based on robust principal component analysis. The proposed method decomposes all training images into a low-rank matrix and a sparse error matrix, where the low-rank matrix is used for feature extraction. The sparsity concentration index approach is then applied to validate the recognition result. Experimental results using CASIA V4 and IIT Delhi V1iris image databases showed that the proposed method achieved competitive performances in both recognition accuracy and computational efficiency.

  7. Kabuki make-up syndrome with genitourinary anomalies, ophthalmologic features and hyperpigmentation in an Egyptian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 3.5 year old male child, first in order of birth of healthy consanguineous Egyptian parents with typical characteristics of Kabuki make-up syndrome. The patient had microcephaly, high arched sparse eyebrows, hypertelorism, long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelids, bilateral ptosis, long eyelashes, blue sclera, depressed nasal bridge, broad nose with everted nares, and low set small deformed ears, thin lips, low post hair line, short neck, persistent fingertip pads, dysplastic nails, hypermobile joints, pigmented nevus on the back, lateral side of right foot and right leg and mild hypertrichosis over the lower back. Our patient had also a non-functioning left kidney, multiple chalazions in upper eyelids, enlargement of the glans penis, which were not reported previously, and moderate mental retardation.

  8. Fair value versus historical cost valuation for non financial fixed assets : how is financial information affected?

    OpenAIRE

    Nebot Sanahuja, Adrián Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs: 2013/2014 This final degree project is devoted to non-financial fixed assets valuation, which can basically be done following the revaluation and the historical cost models. The topic is analyzed from both a theoretical and practical perspective. I first revise the differences between the two models, as included in the IASB standards. Then, I review the main arguments that different authorized voices put...

  9. Construction control of cable-stayed bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Galant, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2012-2013, àmbit d’Enginyeria Civil This work presents a study of the simulation of cable-stayed bridges built on temporary supports focused on their response during construction and in service. To simulate the behavior during construction, a set of four different algorithms has been developed to deal with initial design (Backward Algorithm), updating the tensioning process when deviations on site are measured (Forward Algorithm), optimization processes (D...

  10. Reasons of tutoring Phenomena among Secondary Stage Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ayroutt; Heba hammad

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons of tutoring phenomena among secondary stage students in Amman City as perceived by School Principals. Approach: The sample of the study consisted of (117 male principals and 57 female principals). Results: The evaluations of principals regarding tutoring reasons were high, factors related to students came first, followed by the factors related to the family while the factors related to the cur...

  11. Current Issues in Maritime Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2008-01-01

     In the early part of 2008, Maria Anne Wagtmann had the opportunity to interview the former president of the International Maritime Health Association, Dr. Tim Carter, in London about a number of current maritime health issues. In this interview, Dr. Tim Carter, who is cur­rently employed...... as the Chief Medical Advisor for the British government's Department for Transport, gives his personal - and thus non-official - opinions on these issues....

  12. Crowning: a novel Escherichia coli colonizing behaviour generating a self-organized corona

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Gómez, José María; Amils, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Encased in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) composed of flagella, adhesins, amyloid fibers (curli), and exopolysaccharides (cellulose, β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer-PGA-, colanic acid), the bacteria Escherichia coli is able to attach to and colonize different types of biotic and abiotic surfaces forming biofilms and colonies of intricate morphological architectures. Many of the biological aspects that underlie the generation and development o...

  13. The (R) evolution and future of banking system and commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Neusa Pinto, Daniel Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau. Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2016-2017 The aim of this paper is providing information giving an overview about a new age in the financial field. Financial Technology (Fintech) industry is growing faster than other industries and it is changing the way we know the financial markets, customer’s behavior, banking system, payments and, in general, the interaction between financial clients and the financial system. Banks are on...

  14. La representación de los personajes monstruosos en el cine de David Lynch: Cabeza Borradora y El Hombre Elefante

    OpenAIRE

    Suñer Royo, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Comunicació Audiovisual. Codi: CA0932. Curs acadèmic 2014-2015 El universo creado por David Lynch es prácticamente inabarcable, sin embargo, con cada producto que realiza incorpora nuevas estrategias expresivas y formales que podemos desglosar y analizar para entender cada vez mejor como su mente y creatividad se desarrollan. Para ello hemos empezado desde el principio, por sus dos primeros largometrajes, los cuales son los únicos filmados en blanco ...

  15. Present and future of crowdfunding as source of entrepreneurial financing

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarroya Romero, Iván

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic: 2016/2017 New financing techniques have emerged due to the recently experienced deep crisis. In a changing technological environment any individual with an innovative business idea and an achievable entrepreneurial project can easily undertake it without resorting to traditional banking. As a result of the new Fintech technology, a word stemming from a contraction of the words “finance” and “technology”, it may...

  16. A Smart Assistant for Shooting Virtual Cinematography with Motion-Tracked Cameras

    OpenAIRE

    Lino , Christophe; Christie , Marc; Ranon , Roberto; Bares , William

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This demonstration shows how an automated assistant encoded with knowledge of cinematography practice can off er suggested viewpoints to a fi lmmaker operating a hand-held motion-tracked virtual camera device. Our system, called Director's Lens, uses an intelligent cinematography engine to compute, at the request of the lmmaker, a set of suitable camera placements for starting a shot that represent semantically and cinematically distinct choices for visualizing the cur...

  17. Coca-Cola’s case

    OpenAIRE

    Fabregat García, Noelia

    2015-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2014-2015 Coca-Cola’s case is a research paper based on cocacola bottling companies in Spain. Its aim is to analyse its financial statements and the conclusions about its corresponding profitability and liquidity indicators to finally reach the conclusion that this large reorganizations and the labour force adjustment plan suffered were not really argued and the alleged causes were not certa...

  18. Gamification Quest: Rhythm. Music as a game mechanic

    OpenAIRE

    Granell Díaz, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Disseny i Desenvolupament de Videojocs. Codi: VJ1241. Curs acadèmic: 2016/2017 This document constitutes the Technical Report for the project Gamification Quest: Rhythm, music as a game mechanic for the Videogame Design and Development bachelor degree. The project consists on the design and implementation of rhythm game mechanics integrated in a gamification environment applied to education. The video game will be implemented on the game engine Unity (10), ...

  19. Study of nanocomposites prepared from polyamides and biodegradable polyesters and poly(ester amide)s

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Gámez, Laura Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit d’Enginyeria Industrial Polymer clay nanocomposites of polyamides and biodegradable polymers with three kinds of organomodified clays were prepared by different techniques (in situ polymerization, solution casting, and melt mixing). The polymers used in this research were nylons 56, 65 and 47 and the biodegradable polymers: poly (glycolic acid-alt-6-hydrohexanoic acid) and poly(glycolic acid-alt-6-aminohexanoic acid). The developmen...

  20. Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0480 TITLE: Curcumin Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ashok K. Shetty, Ph.D...Nanoparticle Therapy for Gulf War Illness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0480 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ashok K...biodegradable polymer nanosystems (nCUR) for alleviating cognitive, memory and mood impairments in a rat model of gulf war illness (GWI). Specific

  1. Electrochemical Study about Microorganisms Induced Corrosion in Inconel

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez-Sánchez, G.; Tiburcio, C. Gaona; Almeraya-Calderón, F.M.; Martínez-Villafañe, A.

    2005-01-01

    Inconel 600 has been designed to heat resistance. It is used in the chemistry industry, food industry and, of course, in the production of electric energy, among others. The goal of this project was to decrease the costs in the equipments and pipes deterioration by prolonging their lifetime, controlling and preventing their deterioration by means of appropriated and programmed maintenance, but above all knowing the mechanism and kinetic of corrosion that affects them. We used polarization cur...

  2. An Analytical Evaluation of Contingency Contracting Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan: Capturing Critical Corporate Knowledge for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    8217 [)epmtruents. comoocnm cornmmds. find Dere:n~ ~C~~Cies. • PI’O\\’i.dr: OCS !illbim mnuer c:tpeniac- w force:-rnJ:oc .ana1) osis .. .a.Lt1ooflfltioo. snd... lan include s: fidelity fur contracted !:.Upput .and CEW equzocl. t:o trul.t d cur Milinuy force:!O. e:) Lead: J-4. Su.ppo·.rt: J-3. J-5, J-7 Su

  3. Antiplasmodial Activity and Toxicological Assessment of Curcumin PLGA-Encapsulated Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busari, Zulaikha A.; Dauda, Kabiru A.; Morenikeji, Olajumoke A.; Afolayan, Funmilayo; Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T.; Meena, Jairam; Sahu, Debasis; Panda, Amulya K.

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic pigment isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric), a medicinal plant widely used in the ancient Indian and Chinese medicine. The antiplasmodial activity of curcumin is often hampered by its fast metabolism and poor water solubility, thus its incorporation into a delivery system could circumvent this problem. This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity and the toxicity assessment of curcumin incorporated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. Curcumin was loaded with poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) using solvent evaporation from oil-in-water single emulsion method. The nanoparticles were characterized and evaluated in vivo for antimalarial activities using Peter’s 4-day suppressive protocol in mice model. Hematological and hepatic toxicity assays were performed on whole blood and plasma, respectively. In vivo anti-parasitic test and toxicity assays for free and encapsulated drug were performed at 5 and 10 mg/kg. In vitro cytotoxicity of free and PLGA encapsulated curcumin (Cur-PLGA) to RAW 264.7 cell line was also determined at varying concentrations (1000–7.8 μg/mL). The size and entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticulate drug formulated was 291.2 ± 82.1 nm and 21.8 ± 0.4 respectively. The percentage parasite suppression (56.8%) at 5 mg/kg was significantly higher than in free drug (40.5%) of similar concentration (p 0.05) except in lymphocytes which were significantly higher in Cur-PLGA compared to the free drug (p 0.05). At higher concentrations (1000 and 500 μg/mL), Cur-PLGA entrapped nanoparticle showed higher toxicity compared with the free drug (p 0.05). The antiplasmodial activity and safety of Cur-PLGA was better at lower concentration. PMID:28932197

  4. Ambidexterity in drafting of architectural projects

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchis Madrid, María José

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Administració d'Empreses. Codi: AE1049. Curs acadèmic: 2016/2017 The approach of this project focuses on analizing the specific contributions of matching explotation and exploration in architectural project drafting, as well as stating the application of ambidexterity in architectural projects as a source of competitive advantage, starting from knowledge theory and organizational learning, by means of a case study.

  5. The teaching of the delivery procedure by the simulation method

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Cur. (Advanced Midwifery and Neonatal Nursing) With the introduction of the four year comprehensive course, the students at a particular college of nursing receive instruction on normal labour at the beginning of their second year. They are then allocated to the maternity wards of a particular hospital for their midwifery nursing science practica. The practical placement of these students to the midwifery clinical area is variable as a few may be allocated to the practice immediately aft...

  6. [Two cases of Costello syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Tatsuo; Matsuo, Muneaki; Kuno, Tateo; Kitsuki, Kyoko; Kan, Yuka; Ishii, Kiyohisa; Ohtani, Yoshinobu

    2003-01-01

    We report two unrelated cases of Costello syndrome, presenting with poor postnatal growth, mild mental retardation, poor feeding, curly hair, coarse characteristic face, loose skin, hypotonia, and cardiac involvement. Nasal papilloma and acanthosis nigricans were the most characteristic features of this syndrome. Both cases had atrial fibrilation from infancy to early childhood. One patient had hypertonia in the lower extremities and pes equinovarus, while the other had hypotonia and pes planovalgus.

  7. High Frontier, The Journal for Space & Missile Professionals. Volume 5, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Institute of Space Law. He also taught management theory for Cerro Coso Com- munity College and Golden Gate University. Mr. Rendleman has been awarded the...nation must not place its sovereignty at risk or forfeit its cur- rent warfighting advantages. To present an effective deterrence, the portrait of...bombers on alert, the preponderance of reliance and risk then moves to the submarine force, essentially requiring the US to rely upon a single nuclear

  8. Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles from Chitosan and Acylated Rapeseed Cruciferin Protein for Curcumin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengzhang; Yang, Yijie; Ju, Xingrong; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; He, Rong

    2018-03-21

    Curcumin is a polyphenol that exhibits several biological activities, but its low aqueous solubility results in low bioavailability. To improve curcumin bioavailability, this study has focused on developing a polyelectrolyte complexation method to form layer-by-layer assembled nanoparticles, for curcumin delivery, with positively charged chitosan (CS) and negatively charged acylated cruciferin (ACRU), a rapeseed globulin. Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from ACRU and CS (2:1) at pH 5.7. Three samples with weight of 5%, 10%, and 15% of curcumin, respectively, in ACRU/CS carrier were prepared. To verify the stability of the NPs, encapsulation efficiency and size of the 5% Cur-ACRU/CS NPs were determined at intervals of 5 days in a one month period. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry confirmed the electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bond formation between the carrier and core. The result showed that hollow ACRU/CS nanocapsules (ACRU/CS NPs) and curcumin-loaded ACRU/CS nanoparticles (Cur-ACRU/CS NPs) were homogenized spherical with average sizes of 200-450 nm and zeta potential of +15 mV. Encapsulation and loading efficiencies were 72% and 5.4%, respectively. In vitro release study using simulated gastro (SGF) and intestinal fluids (SIF) showed controlled release of curcumin in 6 h of exposure. Additionally, the Cur-ACRU/CS NPs are nontoxic to cultured Caco-2 cells, and the permeability assay indicated that Cur-ACRU/CS NPs had improved permeability efficiency of free curcumin through the Caco-2 cell monolayer. The findings suggest that ACRU/CS NPs can be used for encapsulation and delivery of curcumin in functional foods.

  9. CMS delegation for MTB55 held at Tata Institute in Mumbai (Bombay) during CMS week 14 December 2000.

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Payn

    2000-01-01

    CMS delegation at MTB55 in Tata Institue Mumbai on 14 December 2000. From left to right Bertrand Blau/ETHZ, Stefania Farinon/INFN-Genova, Alain Hervé/CERN, Lucien Veillet/CERN, Jean-Paul Grillet/CERN, Yves Pabot/Saclay, Bruno Levesy/Saclay, Alain Payn/Saclay, François Kircher/Saclay, Benoît Curé/CERN.

  10. Additive Manufacturing (AM) in Expeditionary Operations: Current Needs, Technical Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 06-30-2014 to 06-17-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM) IN EXPEDITIONARY OPERATIONS: CUR...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is poised to change the world of military expeditionary operations...unlimited ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM) IN EXPEDITIONARY OPERATIONS: CURRENT NEEDS, TECHNICAL CHALLENGES, AND OPPORTUNITIES Matthew Daniel Friedell Captain

  11. Definición y análisis de indicadores estratégicos para redes sociales : un caso de estudio en el sector automovilístico

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza Cruz, Indira Lázara

    2016-01-01

    Treball Final de Màster Universitari en Sistemes Intel·ligents. Codi: SIU043. Curs: 2015/2016 La disciplina Inteligencia de Negocios se dedica a definir indicadores estratégicos a partir de medidas de interés definidas sobre un conjunto de datos temporales recolectados desde diferentes fuentes, e integrados bajo un mismo esquema multidimensional. Tradicionalmente, los datos recolectados tienen un carácter corporativo (ventas, promociones, etc.) y son generados dentro de la mis...

  12. Method for Localizing and Differentiating Bacteria within Biofilms Grown on Indium Tin Oxide: Spatial Distribution of Exoelectrogenic Bacteria within Intact ITO Biofilms via FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    There is a finite amount of fossil fuel remaining in the world, and at cur- rently predicted rates of consumption , it is estimated that strategic re...into electricity via biologi- cal catalysts. However, electrical current generation in these microbial driven systems is typically low making these...of en- ergy per fiscal year (Resilience 2007). This large consumption is concern- ing, because the Department of Defense (DoD) obtains a significant

  13. La sociedad del futuro: las tecnologías ubicuas y su impacto en la sociedad

    OpenAIRE

    Feliz González, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Publicitat i Relacions Públiques. Codi: PU0932. Curs acadèmic: 2016/2017 Pervasive advertisement is presented as a new way of making advertisement that ultimately will shake the world of communication. The latest technological knowledge in computing, the artificial intelligence studies that are being developed and the large amount of devices and sensors will make the future easier to reach a real pervasive daily life. Through the right procedures and all the develo...

  14. Development, optimization and evaluation of curcumin loaded biodegradable crosslinked gelatin film for the effective treatment of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Sheetal; Bansal, Monika; Khan, Gayasuddin; Yadav, Sarita K; Singh, Ashish K; Prakash, Pradyot; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2018-07-01

    Aim of the present study was to prepare curcumin (CUR) loaded biodegradable crosslinked gelatin (GE) film to alleviate the existing shortcomings in the treatment of periodontitis. Gelatin film was optimized to provide anticipated mucoadhesive strength, mechanical properties, folding endurance, and prolonged drug release over treatment duration, for successful application in the periodontitis. The film was developed by using solvent casting technique and "Design of Experiments" approach was employed for evaluating the influence of independent variables on dependent response variables. Solid-state characterization of the film was performed by FTIR, XRD, and SEM. Further, prepared formulations were evaluated for drug content uniformity, surface pH, folding endurance, swelling index, mechanical strength, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro biodegradation, and in vitro drug release behavior. Solid state characterization of the formulation showed that CUR is physico-chemically compatible with other excipients and CUR was entrapped in an amorphous form inside the smooth and uniform film. The optimized film showed degree of crosslinking 51.04 ± 2.4, swelling index 138.10 ± 1.25, and folding endurance 270 ± 3 with surface pH around 7.0. Crosslinker concentrations positively affected swelling index and biodegradation of film due to altered matrix density of the polymer. Results of in vitro drug release demonstrated the capability of the developed film for efficiently delivering CUR in a sustained manner up to 7 days. The developed optimized film could be considered as a promising delivery strategy to administer medicament locally into the periodontal pockets for the safe and efficient management of periodontitis.

  15. 'n Bemarkingstrategie vir 'n verplegingskollege

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Cur. This study addressed the shortage of qualified nursing staff by means of an empirical research questionnaire according to the principles of the Delphi method. The study has as its objective the design of a marketing strategy for a nursing college, and also determines the contribution of marketing staff and formulates guidelines for a marketing programme and the implementation of a marketing strategy. The research consisted of three phases, being a literature survey and analysis of e...

  16. Gender aspects of women visualization in Ukrainian Soviet posters of the 1940-1980s (based on the 20th ct. Ukrainian printed posters collection of the Fine Arts Department of the Institute of Book Studies of VNLU)

    OpenAIRE

    Donets O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the critical review of representation of visual women’s images in Ukrainian printed posters of the period of the 1940-1980s, when a woman’s social role in the Soviet society was conditioned by specific ideological requirements. Ukrainian printed posters distinctively and immediately created a legitimate example of a perfect “socially beneficial” Soviet woman. Although in different social political moments of the country’s history meaningful accents shifted toward cur...

  17. Introducing Defects in 3D Photonic Crystals: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Foundation (NSF) graduate fellow in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the UIUC. Her Ph.D. thesis work in Prof. Braun’s group focused on...large incident angle, such that self-shadowing oc- curs during nucleation . Through shadowing and the limited ada- tom surface diffusion, nucleation ...microfabrication process which combines X-ray lithography, electrodeposition , and/or molding to circumvent the layer-to-layer registration and multistep processing

  18. Publicidad nativa em Instangram: el fenómeno de los influencers y la moda

    OpenAIRE

    García Mestre, Aitana

    2017-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Publicitat i Relacions Públiques. Codi: PU0932. Curs acadèmic: 2016/2017 Traditional advertising has led companies to search for a market niche inside the digital environment and, in particular, inside social networks, where they can develop their activity. The new environment involves the appearance of a more demanding consumer that would like to take part on the content production, so it is required a figure that acts as an opinion leader; this is the...

  19. Factoring variations in natural images with deep Gaussian mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    van den Oord, Aäron; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Generative models can be seen as the swiss army knives of machine learning, as many problems can be written probabilistically in terms of the distribution of the data, including prediction, reconstruction, imputation and simulation. One of the most promising directions for unsupervised learning may lie in Deep Learning methods, given their success in supervised learning. However, one of the cur- rent problems with deep unsupervised learning methods, is that they often are harder to scale. As ...

  20. Procurement Contracting Officer’s Guide to Cost Accounting Standards,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    ACCESSION MO r P.R0CUR2K2NT CONTRACTING ^FFICDR’S %UID2 TO COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS. .-IB’ i 4fiSj irPBVPWra ONOANIZATION NAME MB AOONESS...discussing the history and development of Cost Accounting Standards, the functions of the Cost Accounting Standards Board, and the methodology...20. Abstract (continued) the tasks that Cost Accounting Standards have placed on the procurement officer. 3y understanding these tasks the

  1. Fixed assets revaluation in Spain: Theoretical and practical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilella Ribes, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 This final degree project focuses on the valuation of non financial fixed assets by Spanish listed firms, which must prepare their individual and consolidated financial statements following different sets of standards: the Spanish PGC for the individual statements and the IASs-IFRSs adopted by the EU for the consolidated accounts. Therefore, these companies have two choices as regards the revaluation o...

  2. Video Analytics Evaluation: Survey of Datasets, Performance Metrics and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    people with different ethnicity and gender . Cur- rently we have four subjects, but more can be added in the future. • Lighting Variations. We consider...is however not a proper distance as the triangular inequality condition is not met. For this reason, the next metric should be preferred. • the...and Alan F. Smeaton and Georges Quenot, An Overview of the Goals, Tasks, Data, Evaluation Mechanisms and Metrics, Proceedings of TRECVID 2011, NIST, USA

  3. Microstructure of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    diffraction (XRD) and rocking curve measurements of the films were performed using a Rigaku Smartlab XRD system with a Cu anode. Beam divergence was...minimized using a 1 mm divergence slit and a 0.5° parallel slit analyzer. Rocking curve measurements were col- lectedwith the detector angle corresponding...to a steady state value as rarefaction [33] of the process gas adjacent to the target oc- curred and the flux of available gas ions near the target

  4. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN LIMBAH KULIT KOPI (Coffea robusta L. TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN CABAI KERITING (Capsicum annum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Berlian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Curly chili (Capsicum annum L. is a kind of vegetable commodities which very demand among the Indonesian because of its spicy taste that can be used as a flavoring dishes and has a high economic value. The goal of this study is to determine the effect of bark compost coffee (Coffea robusta in growing media on the growth and development of plants curly chili (Capsicum annum L. and severe skin compost coffee (Coffea robusta which gives the maximum growth of the plant curly chili (Capsicum annum L.. This research is conducted in the Laboratory Science UIN Raden Fatah Palembang by using experimental methods and completely randomized design (CRD consisting of 4 treatments and 6 replications treatment namely: P0 = Without the addition of compost the coffee (Coffea robusta (control, P1= Adding compost the coffee (Coffea robusta 30 grams, P2= Adding compost the coffee (Coffea robusta 60 grams , P3 = Addition of compost skin (Coffea robusta coffee 90 grams. Data are analyzed by F test followed by a test BJND (Difference Distance Real Duncan. The parameters of this study are plant height, number of leaves (pieces, the amount of fruit, and fruit weight. The results show that the addition of compost the coffee (Coffea robusta 90 grams (treatment P3 gives a very real effect on the growth of plant height, number of leaves, number of fruits, and also fruit weight. The conclusion is compost the coffee (Coffea robusta gives effect to the addition of compost and bark coffee (Coffea robusta 90 grams provides maximum growth and development of the plant curly chili (Capsicum annum L..

  5. Budget transparency in local governments

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Perona, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 This work will study the socio-demographic determinants, political, budgetary and economic, that affect the transparency of local entities. To perform the study, we have chosen the transparency index data for the 110 largest municipalities of Spain, in 2012 has been chosen from the information offered by the website of the organization Transparency International Spain. The results indica...

  6. Acoustic and turbulent agglomeration of sodium aerosols. Progress report, January 1, 1977--December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, W.C.

    1977-09-01

    Freshly formed and aged sodium aerosols generated by burning metallic sodium in air were decontaminated in wet cell washers of experimental design. Two wetted cells in series packed with curly glass fibers 35 μm in diameter gave removal efficiencies in excess of 90%. More efficient cell packings and a larger number of cells in series can be used to raise collection efficiency above 99%

  7. Analyze of the Measuring Performance for Artificially Business Intelligent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vatuiu, Teodora

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the measuring performance of artificially business intelligent systems. Thousands of persons-years have been devoted to the research and development in the vari¬ous aspects of artificially intelligent systems. Much progress has been attained. However, there has been no means of evaluating the progress of the field. How can we assess the cur¬rent state of the science? Most of business intelligent systems are beginning to be deployed commercially. How can a commercial buyer ...

  8. Figured grain in aspen is heritable and not affected by graft-transmissible signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youran Fan; Kendal Rupert; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Keith Woeste; Christian Lexer; Richard. Meilan

    2013-01-01

    Figure can add value to wood products, but its occurrence is unpredictable. A first step in reliably producing figured wood is determining whether it is faithfully transmitted to progeny via sexual and asexual reproduction. We describe a 26-year-old male aspen genotype, designated ‘Curly Poplar’, which was shown to be a Populus × canescens hybrid using microsatellite...

  9. Critical appraisal of belatacept for prophylaxis of rejection in kidney transplant patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chandraker, Anil; Gabardi,Steven; Martin,Spencer; Tsapepas,

    2011-01-01

    Spencer T Martin1, Demetra Tsapepas1, Steven Gabardi2–5, Anil Chandraker2,31Department of Pharmacy, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York City, NY, USA; 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 3Renal Division, 4Department of Pharmacy Services, 5Department of Transplant Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Belatacept (LEA29Y) is an intravenous biologic for long-term maintenance immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients. It is cur...

  10. Swarm intelligence techniques for optimization and management tasks insensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Pibernat, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Premi extraordinari doctorat curs 2011-2012, àmbit Enginyeria de les TIC The main contributions of this thesis are located in the domain of wireless sensor netorks. More in detail, we introduce energyaware algorithms and protocols in the context of the following topics: self-synchronized duty-cycling in networks with energy harvesting capabilities, distributed graph coloring and minimum energy broadcasting with realistic antennas. In the following, we review the research conducted...

  11. Military Handbook: Management and Design Guidance Electromagnetic Radiation Hardness for Air Launched Ordnance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-15

    system is attacted to the delivery aircraft until it Impacto a target, it is exposed to electromagnetic radiation from emitters aboard the delivery...homogeneous, isotropic, ambient medium may be a lossy dielectric. Antenna computations include cur- rent distribution, input impedance, radiation...permissible ambient interference level in the system, and when determining the expected signal-to-inter- ference ratio of the signal transmission circuits

  12. Die herkonstruksie van kultuur deur die personeel van 'n privaat psigiatriese kliniek : 'n gevallestudie

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M.Cur. In a changing South-Africa new challenges regarding multiculturality emerge. In psychiatric nursing the psychiatric nurse also faces new challenges. During a cultural discussion, the personnel of a private psychiatric clinic realised that culture has numerous different meanings. (that numerous different meanings may be attached to culture). Culture has an interesting nature and certain expectations exist around culture. I have described this discussion in order to present a qualitat...

  13. Speech freedom and press freedom in human security in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Niyonzima, Oswald

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Màster Universitari Internacional en Estudis de Pau, Conflictes i Desenvolupament. Codi: SAA074. Curs: 2013/2014 Freedom of speech and press freedom are key foundations of all human rights as stipulated in human rights declaration of 1948. Denying people the right to free speech is keeping them away from what is happening in this world, thus, hindering them from participating in decision making. While speech freedom and press freedom are key tools to measure if a country ...

  14. Sustainability of midwifery practice within the South African healthcare system

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Cur. The study on ‘Sustainability of midwifery practice within the South African healthcare system’ is stimulated by the lack of research that influences policy to support midwifery practice in South Africa. The poor database and health information systems for midwives result in the poor performance of maternal healthcare in the public sector (Parkhurst, Penn- Kekana, Blaauw, Balabanova, Danishevski, Rahman, Onama, & Ssengooba 2005) in spite of meeting the Safe Motherhood Initiative of t...

  15. Historia clínica y examen radiográfico a propósito de un caso de "mielomas multiples"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo de Angulo

    1939-12-01

    Antecedentes patológicos: Además de las enfermedades de la infancia: sarampión, tos ferina y varicela, padeció de una pulmonía a los 23 años que, le curó después de ocho días sin dejarle secuelas. A los 32 años tuvo varios accidentes disentéricos.

  16. Química general II

    OpenAIRE

    Olba Torrent, Amparo

    2018-01-01

    El document forma part dels materials docents programats mitjançant l'ajut del Servei de Política Lingüística de la Universitat de València Temes de l'assignatura: Química general II del primer curs del Grau de Química Topics of the course: General Chemistry II in the first year of the Degree in Chemistry

  17. Simulating Photons and Plasmons in a Three-dimensional Lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Shvets, G.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional metallic photonic structures are studied using a newly developed mixed finite element-finite difference (FE-FD) code, Curly3d. The code solves the vector Helmholtz equation as an eigenvalue problem in the unit cell of a triply periodic lattice composed of conductors and/or dielectrics. The mixed FE-FD discretization scheme ensures rapid numerical convergence of the eigenvalue and allows the code to run at low resolution. Plasmon and photonic band structure calculations are presented

  18. Die funksies van die distrikgemeenskapsverpleegkundige

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Cur. A single comprehensive, equitable and integrated National Health System must be created for South Afiica (ANC, 1994:19). This will be achieved by the ANC's commitment too promotion ofhealth through prevention and education. The Primary Health Care approach is the tenet for the restructuring ofthe health system. To be able to create a Health System which is single, comprehensive, equitable and integrated the system should be accessible, effective, acceptable, affordable and just. Com...

  19. Sentiment Analysis in Geo Social Streams by using Machine Learning Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Twanabasu, Bikesh

    2018-01-01

    Treball de Final de Màster Universitari Erasmus Mundus en Tecnologia Geoespacial (Pla de 2013). Codi: SIW013. Curs acadèmic 2017-2018 Massive amounts of sentiment rich data are generated on social media in the form of Tweets, status updates, blog post, reviews, etc. Different people and organizations are using these user generated content for decision making. Symbolic techniques or Knowledge base approaches and Machine learning techniques are two main techniques used for analysis sentiment...

  20. Currency wars?

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Treball final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs academic 2015-2016 A currency war (also known as the competitive depreciation or a policy of impoverish the neighbor) occurs when a country wants to obtain a competitive advantage which improve its trade balancethrough a series of changes in its currency. With these currency movements exports become cheaper for foreigners while imports become more expensive for residents in the own nation. These advantages produce strong...

  1. The influence of leadership in the working environment, teamwork and organisational learning : a theoretical review

    OpenAIRE

    Lacedón Montemayor, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Administració d'Empreses. Codi: AE1049. Curs: 2015/2016 The objective of this paper is to examine the influence that leadership has on creating a good working environment, on work teams and on organisational learning, through a theoretical revision. For this, concepts are addressed related to leadership such as the leader's profile, the role he represents within an organisation, his functions and skills, which will help us understand the importance of ...

  2. Transformation of nursing services in selected Gauteng hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Cur. It is explicit that the change in the South African government since 1994 accompanied by the transformation of nursing services with its new policies and practices is inevitable, and poses challenges for the nursing service managers in Gauteng hospitals. The transformation of nursing services can be a difficult process creating a period of fear, uncertainty, stress and role ambiguity for the nursing service managers. The transformation has been so extensive that the nursing service ...

  3. Devenir De l'azote de L'engrais enrichi au n applique au tournesol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'utilisation de I' azote de I' engrais par la culture de toumesol a ete appreciee par Ia determination du coefficient d'utilisation apparent (CUA) estime par Ia methode de difference et du coefficient d'utilisation reel (CUR) estime par Ia methode isotopique. 80 kg N ha-1 a 4.87% d'atomes en exces de 15N ont ete appliques au ...

  4. Curcumin-carboxymethyl chitosan (CNC) conjugate and CNC/LHR mixed polymeric micelles as new approaches to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiang; Tian, Fengchun; Dahmani, Fatima Zohra; Yang, Hui; Yue, Deren; He, Shuwang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The low oral bioavailability of numerous drugs has been mostly attributed to the significant effect of P-gp-mediated efflux on intestinal drug transport. Herein, we developed mixed polymeric micelles (MPMs) comprised of curcumin-carboxymethyl chitosan (CNC) conjugate, as a potential inhibitor of P-gp-mediated efflux and gastrointestinal absorption enhancer, and low-molecular-weight heparin-all-trans-retinoid acid (LHR) conjugate, as loading material, with the aim to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs. CNC conjugate was synthesized by chemical bonding of curcumin (Cur) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) taking advantage of the inhibition of intestinal P-gp-mediated secretion by Cur and the intestinal absorption enhancement by CMCS. The chemical structure of CNC conjugate was characterized by 1 H NMR with a degree of substitution of Cur of 4.52-10.20%. More importantly, CNC conjugate markedly improved the stability of Cur in physiological pH. Cyclosporine A-loaded CNC/LHR MPMs (CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs) were prepared by dialysis method, with high drug loading 25.45% and nanoscaled particle size (∼200 nm). In situ single-pass perfusion studies in rats showed that both CsA + CNC mixture and CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs achieved significantly higher K a and P eff than CsA suspension in the duodenum and jejunum segments (p CNC mixture and CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs significantly increased the oral bioavailability of CsA as compared to CsA suspension. These results suggest that CNC conjugate might be considered as a promising gastrointestinal absorption enhancer, while CNC/LHR MPMs had the potential to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs.

  5. Formate supplementation enhances folate-dependent nucleotide biosynthesis and prevents spina bifida in a mouse model of folic acid-resistant neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiwala, Sonia; De Castro, Sandra C P; Leung, Kit-Yi; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E; Mills, Kevin; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2016-07-01

    The curly tail mouse provides a model for neural tube defects (spina bifida and exencephaly) that are resistant to prevention by folic acid. The major ct gene, responsible for spina bifida, corresponds to a hypomorphic allele of grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) but the frequency of NTDs is strongly influenced by modifiers in the genetic background. Moreover, exencephaly in the curly tail strain is not prevented by reinstatement of Grhl3 expression. In the current study we found that expression of Mthfd1L, encoding a key component of mitochondrial folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM), is significantly reduced in ct/ct embryos compared to a partially congenic wild-type strain. This expression change is not attributable to regulation by Grhl3 or the genetic background at the Mthfd1L locus. Mitochondrial FOCM provides one-carbon units as formate for FOCM reactions in the cytosol. We found that maternal supplementation with formate prevented NTDs in curly tail embryos and also resulted in increased litter size. Analysis of the folate profile of neurulation-stage embryos showed that formate supplementation resulted in an increased proportion of formyl-THF and THF but a reduction in proportion of 5-methyl THF. In contrast, THF decreased and 5-methyl THF was relatively more abundant in the liver of supplemented dams than in controls. In embryos cultured through the period of spinal neurulation, incorporation of labelled thymidine and adenine into genomic DNA was suppressed by supplemental formate, suggesting that de novo folate-dependent biosynthesis of nucleotides (thymidylate and purines) was enhanced. We hypothesise that reduced Mthfd1L expression may contribute to susceptibility to NTDs in the curly tail strain and that formate acts as a one-carbon donor to prevent NTDs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reincarnation in America: A Brief Historical Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Irwin

    2017-01-01

    American theories of reincarnation have a long and complex history, dating from 1680s to the present. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight the main currents of reincarnation theory in the American context, giving a brief historical survey. Sources surveyed begin with Native American traditions, and then move to immigrant traditions based in Western Esotericism, Christianity, Judaism, missionary Hinduism and Buddhism, Spiritualism, Theosophy, Rosicrucianism, and concludes with more cur...

  7. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  8. L’estudi de casos aplicat a la tutoria universitària

    OpenAIRE

    Recasens i Guitart, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Es tracta de la presentació i d'una proposta d'estudi de cas per a treballar en el marc de la tutoria universitària. Va dirigit a l'alumnat de primer curs de Grau de la Facultat de Formació del Professorat de la Universitat de Barcelona, però amb lleugeres modificacions pot ser adpatable a qualsevol programa de tutoria per a alumnat que inicia estudis universitaris.

  9. Endocrine sensitivity of the receptor-positive T61 human breast carcinoma serially grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M; Skovgaard Poulsen, H

    1985-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of ovariectomy, 17 beta-oestradiol, and tamoxifen on the oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive T61 human breast carcinoma grown in nude mice. The effect of the treatment was evaluated by the specific growth delay calculated on the basis of Gompertz growth cur...... but is not a sufficiently clear marker to allow prediction of the endocrine sensitivity of individual breast tumours....

  10. Considering Sustainable Degrowth from a Feminist, Transrational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, Marisol C.

    2015-01-01

    Treball final de Màster Universitari en Estudis internacionals de Pau, Conflictes i Desenvolupament. Codi: SBG119. Curs acadèmic 2014-2015 Today's global interlocking crises in the economic, ecological and social realms point to the need for profound change. Sustainable degrowth supporters propose multiple alternatives to move away from the dominant economic growth model, which they consider as the underlying problem. In this thesis, I investigate the intersection of degrowth and ...

  11. COMPARATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF QUERCETIN AND RUTIN IN TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L. FRUITS FROM DIFFERENT SEASONAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL POPULATIONS OF SOUTH INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh Reddy Yanala* and D. Sathyanarayana

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present research work was comparative and quantitative determination of quercetin and rutin in Tribulus terrestirs fruits from different geographical regions and seasons by using HPLC. The Tribulus terrestris fruit samples collected from three different geographical regions of south India in June and December months. In the current HPLC analysis flavonoids in Tribulus terrestris Linn fruits were quantified at 360 nm with help of peak area by comparing to a calibration cur...

  12. An analysis of adolescent sexuality education programmes presented in secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Cur. (Community Nursing) The aim of the study Is to evaluate sexuality education programmes used In secondary schools. A descriptive, non-experimental approach Is used. Institutions and/or organisations doing sexuality education programmes in these schools were Identified through a questionnaire sent to the principals of the schools. A checklist to analyse the curricula content of each Identified Institution was developed, based on a literature survey. Guidelines for a holistic curriculu...

  13. A Strategy for Federal Science and Technology to Support Water Availability and Quality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    delivery systems, and crop management. Advances in biotechnology and nanotechnology and creative uses of low-quality water increase water management...transport; remote sensing of quantity and quality (cur- rently effective at regional or continental scales); and nanotechnology for use in a variety of...nologies include desalination , water treatment and reuse, and more efficient methods of water use in the agriculture, energy, buildings, and

  14. Cellulose as an Architectural Element in Spatially Structured Escherichia coli Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Diego O.; Richter, Anja M.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological form in multicellular aggregates emerges from the interplay of genetic constitution and environmental signals. Bacterial macrocolony biofilms, which form intricate three-dimensional structures, such as large and often radially oriented ridges, concentric rings, and elaborate wrinkles, provide a unique opportunity to understand this interplay of “nature and nurture” in morphogenesis at the molecular level. Macrocolony morphology depends on self-produced extracellular matrix components. In Escherichia coli, these are stationary phase-induced amyloid curli fibers and cellulose. While the widely used “domesticated” E. coli K-12 laboratory strains are unable to generate cellulose, we could restore cellulose production and macrocolony morphology of E. coli K-12 strain W3110 by “repairing” a single chromosomal SNP in the bcs operon. Using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy, cellulose filaments, sheets and nanocomposites with curli fibers were localized in situ at cellular resolution within the physiologically two-layered macrocolony biofilms of this “de-domesticated” strain. As an architectural element, cellulose confers cohesion and elasticity, i.e., tissue-like properties that—together with the cell-encasing curli fiber network and geometrical constraints in a growing colony—explain the formation of long and high ridges and elaborate wrinkles of wild-type macrocolonies. In contrast, a biofilm matrix consisting of the curli fiber network only is brittle and breaks into a pattern of concentric dome-shaped rings separated by deep crevices. These studies now set the stage for clarifying how regulatory networks and in particular c-di-GMP signaling operate in the three-dimensional space of highly structured and “tissue-like” bacterial biofilms. PMID:24097954

  15. Ecological Investigation of a Greentree Reservoir in the Delta National Forest, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    elm (Ulmus americana) and slippery elm (U. rubra) oc- curred in the study area, with American elm the more abundant species. No distinction was made...spectively, on both areas (see Appendix C for nomenclature). American elm * and water hickory ranked fifth and sixth in importance on the ref- erence area...between these two species; the label "American elm " includes data for both. 18 boundaries, water hickory increment cores were not analyzed. Table 4

  16. Psychologické aspekty přeměny genderové role u trans-lidí v českém kontextu

    OpenAIRE

    Čechová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis presents the processes of gender role transition and sex reassignment from the perspectives of psychology, medicine, and sociology. Its main focus is on the various aspects influencing the psyche of a person undertaking transition. The thesis investigates why trans identity is commonly viewed as a pathology and the impact of pathologization on the self-perception of trans people. Furthemore, the traditional outline of the transition process in Czech sexology is compared to some cur...

  17. Core Data of Yeast Interacting Proteins Database (Annotation Updated Version) - Yeast Interacting Proteins Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hod As the indicator of reliability of the interactions obtained by the experiment, the literature informati...ic Acids Res. 28, 73-76.) are used for literature collection. Number of data entries 841 interactions Data i...d from the YPD. Literature sharing score The score concerning co-occurrence of Prey and Bait in the litera...ture, calculated by the calculation formula. Calculation formula for the score: Cur

  18. Financial globalisation and crisis, institutional transformation and equity

    OpenAIRE

    Arestis, Philip; Singh, Ajit

    2010-01-01

    This paper comprises the long introduction to the symposium of five papers on financial globalisation published in the Cambridge Journal of Economics, volume 34, no 2. The paper discusses the impact of financial globalisation in a variety of spheres and shows how the five papers link together to provide a coherent view of the current economic and financial crisis. In this paper we also examine the globalisation of finance more broadly both in historical terms as well as in relation to the cur...

  19. Fintech: the next step in banking and finance

    OpenAIRE

    Fuster Espí, Adrià

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic: 2016/2017 Throughout this dissertation, we will analyse the major changes that digital revolution has meant to the financial world, and how this technological improvements have created new financial platforms which operate separately from the banking sector. We will detailedly examine the segment of financial Startups and how do they work by examining one of the most important Spanish Fintech in the crowdlen...

  20. Diferencias en la predicción afectiva entre población general y clínica : un estudio prelimina

    OpenAIRE

    Nebot Garcia, Juan Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Treball Final de Màster Universitari en Psicopatologia, Salut i Neuropsicologia. Codi: SAL132. Curs: 2014/2015 Introducción: Los pronósticos que hacemos sobre cómo nos sentiremos ante eventos futuros son conocidos como "predicciones afectivas" (Wilson y Gilbert, 2003). Diversos estudios han identificado que tendemos a sobreestimar la intensidad de nuestras emociones (p. ej., Loewenstein, 2011; Wilson y Gilbert, 2003); esto es definido como "sesgo de intensidad" (Buehler y McFar...

  1. Effects of various debonding and adhesive clearance methods on enamel surface: an in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xiao-Chuan; Chen, Li; Huang, Xiao-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate orthodontic debonding methods by comparing the surface roughness and enamel morphology of teeth after applying two different debonding methods and three different polishing techniques. Methods Forty eight human maxillary premolars, extracted for orthodontic reasons, were randomly divided into three groups. Brackets were bonded to teeth with RMGIC (Fuji Ortho LC, GC, Tokyo, Japan) (two groups, n?=?18 each) after acid etching (30s), light cur...

  2. La representación del trastorno de personalidad múltiple en "Shutter Island" y "El Club de la Lucha"

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Alcántara, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Treball Final del Grau en Comunicació Audiovisual. Codi: CA0932. Curs: 2014/2015 Todo director de cine busca una historia única, una trama espectacular y, si puede ser, un giro inesperado de los acontecimientos para desestabilizar al espectador. El trastorno de identidad disociativo o trastorno de personalidad múltiple, como era conocido antes, permite crear una historia profunda para luego ser destruida y presentar la realidad de la trama, esto sorprende al espectador y le ...

  3. Aplikace moderních prvků v klasickém projektovém řízení

    OpenAIRE

    Országh, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with project management and with different ways in which can be cur-rently approached. Beside the conventional, classical approach based on processes, modern approaches based on the theory of constraints and agile principles are discussed. Based on analysis, the main objective of the thesis is firstly to find weaknesses in the classical project management and strong key elements of modern approaches and after that to make suggestions to enhance the classical approach with th...

  4. The Limitations of Diazepam as a Treatment for Nerve Agent-Induced Seizures and Neuropathology in Rats: Comparison with UBP302

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    to nerve agents induces prolonged status epilepticus (SE), causing brain damage or death. Diazepam (DZP) is the cur- rent US Food and Drug... status epilepticus (SE), which are initiated by the excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors. If immediate death is prevented by adequate...5-yl)ethyl] decahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; SE, status epilepticus ; UBP302, (S)-3-(2-carboxybenzyl

  5. Discovery of a Lensed Ultrabright Submillimeter Galaxy at z = 2.0439

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, A.; Iglesias-Groth, S.; Rebolo, R.; Dannerbauer, H.

    2017-07-01

    We report an ultrabright lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.0439, WISE J132934.18+224327.3, identified as a result of a full-sky cross-correlation of the AllWISE and Planck compact source catalogs aimed to search for bright analogs of the SMG SMM J2135, the Cosmic Eyelash. Inspection of archival SCUBA-2 observations of the candidates revealed a source with fluxes ({S}850μ {{m}}=130 mJy) consistent with the Planck measurements. The centroid of the SCUBA-2 source coincides within 1 arcsec with the position of the AllWISE mid-IR source, and, remarkably, with an arc-shaped lensed galaxy in HST images at visible wavelengths. Low-resolution rest-frame UV-optical spectroscopy of this lensed galaxy obtained with 10.4 m GTC reveals the typical absorption lines of a starburst galaxy. Gemini-N near-IR spectroscopy provided a clear detection of {{{H}}}α emission. The lensed source appears to be gravitationally magnified by a massive foreground galaxy cluster lens at z = 0.44 modeling with Lenstool indicates a lensing amplification factor of 11 ± 2. We determine an intrinsic rest-frame 8-1000 μm luminosity, {L}{IR}, of (1.3+/- 0.1)× {10}13 {L}⊙ , and a likely star formation rate (SFR) of ˜ 500{--}2000 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. The SED shows a remarkable similarity with the Cosmic Eyelash from optical-mid/IR to submillimeter/radio, albeit at higher fluxes.

  6. Optimum time for intravenous cannulation after induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide in children without any premedication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Abm Kamrul; Sivasankar, Raman; Nair, Salil G; Hasan, Wamia U; Latif, Zulaidi

    2018-02-01

    Intravenous cannulation is usually done in children after inhalational induction with volatile anesthetic agents. The optimum time for safe intravenous cannulation after induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide has been studied in premedicated children, but there is no information for the optimum time for cannulation with inhalational induction in children without premedication. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum time for intravenous cannulation after the induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide in children without any premedication. This is a prospective, observer-blinded, up-and-down sequential allocation study in unpremedicated ASA grade 1 children aged 2-6 years undergoing elective dental surgery. Intravenous cannulation was attempted after inhalational induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide. The timing of cannulation was considered adequate if there was no movement, coughing, or laryngospasm. The cannulation attempt for the first child was set at 4 minutes after the loss of eyelash reflex and the time for intravenous cannulation was determined by the up-and-down method using 15 seconds as step size. Probit test was used to analyze the up-down sequences for the study. The adequate time for effective cannulation after induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide in 50% and 95% of patients was 53.02 seconds (95% confidence limits, 20.23-67.76 seconds) and 87.21 seconds (95% confidence limits, 70.77-248.03 seconds), respectively. We recommend waiting for 1 minute 45 seconds (105 seconds) after the loss of eyelash reflex before attempting intravenous cannulation in pediatric patients induced with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide without any premedication. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Curcumin-Mediated Therapeutic Effects in Type 2 Diabetes and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Wojcik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of age-related diseases, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and cancer, has become global health and economic problems. Due to multifactorial nature of both diseases, their pathophysiology is not completely understood so far. Compelling evidence indicates that increased oxidative stress, resulting from an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and their clearance by antioxidant defense mechanisms, as well as the proinflammatory state contributes to the development and progression of the diseases. Curcumin (CUR; diferuloylmethane, a well-known polyphenol derived from the rhizomes of turmeric Curcuma longa, has attracted a great deal of attention as a natural compound with beneficial antidiabetic and anticancer properties, partly due to its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions. Although this polyphenolic compound is increasingly being recognized for its growing number of protective health effects, the precise molecular mechanisms through which it reduces diabetes- and cancer-related pathological events have not been fully unraveled. Hence, CUR is the subject of intensive research in the fields Diabetology and Oncology as a potential candidate in the treatment of both T2DM and cancer, particularly since current therapeutic options for their treatment are not satisfactory in clinics. In this review, we summarize the recent progress made on the molecular targets and pathways involved in antidiabetic and anticancer activities of CUR that are responsible for its beneficial health effects.

  8. Smart nanocomposite hydrogels based on azo crosslinked graphene oxide for oral colon-specific drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lin; Shi, Yuyang; Jiang, Guixiang; Liu, Wei; Han, Huili; Feng, Qianhua; Ren, Junxiao; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Yongchao; Shi, Jinjin; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-08-01

    A safe and efficient nanocomposite hydrogel for colon cancer drug delivery was synthesized using pH-sensitive and biocompatible graphene oxide (GO) containing azoaromatic crosslinks as well as poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels). Curcumin (CUR), an anti-cancer drug, was encapsulated successfully into the hydrogel through a freezing and thawing process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were performed to confirm the formation and morphological properties of the nanocomposite hydrogel. The hydrogels exhibited good swelling properties in a pH-sensitive manner. Drug release studies under conditions mimicking stomach to colon transit have shown that the drug was protected from being released completely into the physiological environment of the stomach and small intestine. In vivo imaging analysis, pharmacokinetics and a distribution of the gastrointestinal tract experiment were systematically studied and evaluated as colon-specific drug delivery systems. All the results demonstrated that GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels could protect CUR well while passing through the stomach and small intestine to the proximal colon, and enhance the colon-targeting ability and residence time in the colon site. Therefore, CUR loaded GO-N=N-GO/PVA composite hydrogels might potentially provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of colon cancer with high efficiency and low toxicity.

  9. Curcumin-carrying nanoparticles prevent ischemia-reperfusion injury in human renal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Hu, Ning; Jiang, Wei; Yuan, Hong-Fang; Zheng, Dong-Hui

    2016-12-27

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major complication in clinical practice. However, despite its frequency, effective preventive/treatment strategies for this condition are scarce. Curcumin possesses antioxidant properties and is a promising potential protective agent against renal IRI, but its poor water solubility restricts its application. In this study, we constructed curcumin-carrying distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles (Cur-NPs), and their effect on HK-2 cells exposed to IRI was examined in vitro. Curcumin encapsulated in NPs demonstrated improved water solubility and slowed release. Compared with the IRI and Curcumin groups, Cur-NP groups displayed significantly improved cell viability, downregulated protein expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax, upregulated expression of Bcl-2 protein, increased antioxidant superoxide dismutase level, and reduced apoptotic rate, reactive oxygen species level, and malondialdehyde content. Results clearly showed that Cur-NPs demonstrated good water solubility and slow release, as well as exerted protective effects against oxidative stress in cultured HK-2 cells exposed to IRI.

  10. Potential Eye Drop Based on a Calix[4]arene Nanoassembly for Curcumin Delivery: Enhanced Drug Solubility, Stability, and Anti-Inflammatory Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Giuseppe; Paterniti, Irene; Geraci, Corrada; Cunsolo, Francesca; Esposito, Emanuela; Cordaro, Marika; Blanco, Anna Rita; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Consoli, Grazia M L

    2017-05-01

    Curcumin is an Indian spice with a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities but poor aqueous solubility, rapid degradation, and low bioavailability that affect medical benefits. To overcome these limits in ophthalmic application, curcumin was entrapped in a polycationic calix[4]arene-based nanoaggregate by a simple and reproducible method. The calix[4]arene-curcumin supramolecular assembly (Calix-Cur) appeared as a clear colloidal solution consisting in micellar nanoaggregates with size, polydispersity index, surface potential, and drug loading percentage meeting the requirements for an ocular drug delivery system. The encapsulation in the calix[4]arene nanoassembly markedly enhanced the solubility, reduced the degradation, and improved the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin compared to free curcumin in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Calix-Cur did not compromise the viability of J774A.1 macrophages and suppressed pro-inflammatory marker expression in J774A.1 macrophages subjected to LPS-induced oxidative stress. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses showed that Calix-Cur reduced signs of inflammation in a rat model of LPS-induced uveitis when topically administrated in the eyes. Overall, the results supported the calix[4]arene nanoassembly as a promising nanocarrier for delivering curcumin to anterior ocular tissues.

  11. Liposomal curcumin and its application in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng T

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ting Feng,1,* Yumeng Wei,1,* Robert J Lee,2 Ling Zhao1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China; 2Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Curcumin (CUR is a yellow polyphenolic compound derived from the plant turmeric. It is widely used to treat many types of diseases, including cancers such as those of lung, cervices, prostate, breast, bone and liver. However, its effectiveness has been limited due to poor aqueous solubility, low bioavailability and rapid metabolism and systemic elimination. To solve these problems, researchers have tried to explore novel drug delivery systems such as liposomes, solid dispersion, microemulsion, micelles, nanogels and dendrimers. Among these, liposomes have been the most extensively studied. Liposomal CUR formulation has greater growth inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on cancer cells. This review mainly focuses on the preparation of liposomes containing CUR and its use in cancer therapy. Keywords: curcumin, liposomes, drug delivery, bioavailability, cancer 

  12. Imprinted-like biopolymeric micelles as efficient nanovehicles for curcumin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Qi, Zeyou; Huang, Qiyu; Zeng, Ke; Sun, Xiaoyi; Li, Juan; Liu, You-Nian

    2014-11-01

    To enhance the solubility and improve the bioavailability of hydrophobic curcumin, a new kind of imprinted-like biopolymeric micelles (IBMs) was designed. The IBMs were prepared via co-assembly of gelatin-dextran conjugates with hydrophilic tea polyphenol, then crosslinking the assembled micelles and finally removing the template tea polyphenol by dialysis. The obtained IBMs show selective binding for polyphenol analogous drugs over other drugs. Furthermore, curcumin can be effectively encapsulated into the IBMs with 5×10(4)-fold enhancement of aqueous solubility. We observed the sustained drug release behavior from the curcumin-loaded IBMs (CUR@IBMs) in typical biological buffers. In addition, we found the cell uptake of CUR@IBMs is much higher than that of free curcumin. The cell cytotoxicity results illustrated that CUR@IBMs can improve the growth inhibition of HeLa cells compared with free curcumin, while the blank IBMs have little cytotoxicity. The in vivo animal study demonstrated that the IBMs could significantly improve the oral bioavailability of curcumin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Solubility-Enhanced Rubusoside-Based Micelles for Increased Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiying; Dai, Tongcheng; Feng, Nianping

    2017-04-01

    Many anti-cancer drugs have a common problem of poor solubility. Increasing the solubility of the drugs is very important for its clinical applications. In the present study, we revealed that the solubility of insoluble drugs was significantly enhanced by adding rubusoside (RUB). Further, it was demonstrated that RUB could form micelles, which was well characterized by Langmuir monolayer investigation, transmission electron microscopy, atomic-force microscopy, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. The RUB micelles were ellipsoid with the horizontal distance of 25 nm and vertical distance of 1.2 nm. Insoluble synergistic anti-cancer drugs including curcumin and resveratrol were loaded in RUB to form anti-cancer micelles RUB/CUR + RES. MTT assay showed that RUB/CUR + RES micelles had more significant toxicity on MCF-7 cells compared to RUB/CUR micelles + RUB/RES micelles. More importantly, it was confirmed that RUB could load other two insoluble drugs together for remarkably enhanced anti-cancer effect compared to that of RUB/one drug + RUB/another drug. Overall, we concluded that RUB-based micelles could efficiently load insoluble drugs for enhanced anti-cancer effect.

  14. Curcumin-Eudragit® E PO solid dispersion: A simple and potent method to solve the problems of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinglei; Lee, Il Woo; Shin, Gye Hwa; Chen, Xiguang; Park, Hyun Jin

    2015-08-01

    Using a simple solution mixing method, curcumin was dispersed in the matrix of Eudragit® E PO polymer. Water solubility of curcumin in curcumin-Eudragit® E PO solid dispersion (Cur@EPO) was greatly increased. Based on the results of several tests, curcumin was demonstrated to exist in the polymer matrix in amorphous state. The interaction between curcumin and the polymer was investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and (1)H NMR which implied that OH group of curcumin and carbonyl group of the polymer involved in the H bonding formation. Cur@EPO also provided protection function for curcumin as verified by the pH challenge and UV irradiation test. The pH value influenced curcumin release profile in which sustained release pattern was revealed. Additionally, in vitro transdermal test was conducted to assess the potential of Cur@EPO as a vehicle to deliver curcumin through this alternative administration route. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement in in vitro anti-angiogenesis activity and cytotoxicity in lung cancer cell by pectin-PVP based curcumin particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Dinanath; Shewale, Rajnita; Patil, Vinit; Mali, Dipak; Gaikwad, Uday; Jadhav, Namdeo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare pectin-poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) [PVP] based curcumin particulates to enhance the anticancer potential of curcumin, solubility and allow its localized controlled release. Pectin-PVP based curcumin particulates (PECTIN-PVP CUR) were prepared by spray drying technique in different ratios and were evaluated for surface morphology, micromeritics, flowability, particle size, drug content, in vitro dissolution, inhalable fraction, anti-angiogenesis/angiolysis and cytotoxicity. Results of micromeritic properties, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose were satisfactory. The batch CP3 was considered as optimum, due to excellent flowability, acceptable aggregation and enhanced solubility. The particle size and size distribution data of selected batch CP3 showed 90% of curcumin particulates having size less than 2.74μm, which may deposit to lungs. Twin Impinger studies showed that 29% of respirable fraction was generated, which could be directly delivered to lungs. The in vitro dissolution data showed many fold increase in dissolution rate. Angiolytic activity and MTT assay of PECTIN-PVP CUR have demonstrated enhancement in the anti-tumor potential, compared to curcumin alone. Altogether, PECTIN-PVP CUR were found suitable for local delivery and enhance its anticancer potential of curcumin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Curcumin/poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline-b-tetrahydrofuran-b-2-methyl-2-oxazoline) formulation: An improved penetration and biological effect of curcumin in F508del-CFTR cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cristine; Gomez, Jean-Pierre; Même, William; Rasolonjatovo, Bazoly; Gosset, David; Nedellec, Steven; Hulin, Philippe; Huin, Cécile; Le Gall, Tony; Montier, Tristan; Lehn, Pierre; Pichon, Chantal; Guégan, Philippe; Cheradame, Hervé; Midoux, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Neutral amphiphilic triblock ABA copolymers are of great interest to solubilize hydrophobic drugs. We reported that a triblock ABA copolymer consisting of methyl-2-oxazoline (MeOx) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) (MeOx 6 -THF 19 -MeOx 6 ) (TBCP2) can solubilize curcumin (Cur) a very hydrophobic molecule exhibiting multiple therapeutic effects but whose insolubility and low stability in water is a major drawback for clinical applications. Here, we provide evidences by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy that Cur penetration in normal and ΔF508-CFTR human airway epithelial cell lines is facilitated by TBCP2. When used on ΔF508-CFTR cell lines, the Cur/TBCP2 formulation promotes the restoration of the expression of the CFTR protein in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, patch-clamp and MQAE fluorescence experiments show that this effect is associated with a correction of a Cl - selective current at the membrane surface of F508del-CFTR cells. The results show the great potential of the neutral amphiphilic triblock copolymer MeOx 6 -THF 19 -MeOx 6 as carrier for curcumin in a Cystic Fibrosis context. We anticipate that other MeOx n -THF m -MeOx n copolymers could have similar behaviours for other highly insoluble therapeutic drugs or cosmetic active ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of curcumin-functionalized gold nanoparticles and cytotoxicity studies in human prostate cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Shruti; Osei, Ernest; Fleck, Andre; Darko, Johnson; Mutsaers, Anthony J.; Wettig, Shawn

    2018-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles synthesized using plant extracts with medicinal properties have gained traction in recent years, especially for their use in various biomedical applications. Colloidal stability of these nanoparticles in different environments is critical to retain the expected therapeutic/diagnostic efficacy and toxicological outcome. Any change in the colloidal stability leads to dramatic changes in the physico-chemical properties of the nanoparticles such as size and surface charge, which in turn may alter the biological activity of the particles. Such changes are imminent in physiologically-relevant environment wherein interactions with different biomolecules, such as serum proteins, may modify the overall properties of the nanoparticles. In this regard, we synthesized 15 nm sized gold nanoparticles using curcumin, a plant extract from turmeric root, to evaluate cytotoxicity, uptake, and localization in human prostate cancer cells using cell-culture medium supplemented with or without fetal bovine serum (FBS). The results indicate a dramatic difference in the cytotoxicity and uptake between cells treated with curcumin-functionalized gold nanoparticles (cur-AuNPs) in cell-culture medium with and without serum. The addition of FBS to the medium not only increased the stability of the nanoparticles but also enhanced the biocompatibility (i.e. minimal cytotoxicity for a wide range of cur-AuNP concentrations). We conclude that the presence of serum proteins significantly impact the therapeutic potential of cur-AuNPs.

  18. Printing of Patterned, Engineered E. coli Biofilms with a Low-Cost 3D Printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieden, Dominik T; Basalo Vázquez, Samantha J; Sangüesa, Héctor; van der Does, Marit; Idema, Timon; Meyer, Anne S

    2018-05-18

    Biofilms can grow on virtually any surface available, with impacts ranging from endangering the lives of patients to degrading unwanted water contaminants. Biofilm research is challenging due to the high degree of biofilm heterogeneity. A method for the production of standardized, reproducible, and patterned biofilm-inspired materials could be a boon for biofilm research and allow for completely new engineering applications. Here, we present such a method, combining 3D printing with genetic engineering. We prototyped a low-cost 3D printer that prints bioink, a suspension of bacteria in a solution of alginate that solidifies on a calcium-containing substrate. We 3D-printed Escherichia coli in different shapes and in discrete layers, after which the cells survived in the printing matrix for at least 1 week. When printed bacteria were induced to form curli fibers, the major proteinaceous extracellular component of E. coli biofilms, they remained adherent to the printing substrate and stably spatially patterned even after treatment with a matrix-dissolving agent, indicating that a biofilm-mimicking structure had formed. This work is the first demonstration of patterned, biofilm-inspired living materials that are produced by genetic control over curli formation in combination with spatial control by 3D printing. These materials could be used as living, functional materials in applications such as water filtration, metal ion sequestration, or civil engineering, and potentially as standardizable models for certain curli-containing biofilms.

  19. Urinary excretion of uric acid is negatively associated with albuminuria in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqin; Guo, Hui; Zou, Jianan; Chen, Weijun; Lu, Yijun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Fu, Chensheng; Xiao, Jing; Ye, Zhibin

    2018-04-24

    Increasing evidence has shown that albuminuria is related to serum uric acid. Little is known about whether this association may be interrelated via renal handling of uric acid. Therefore, we aim to study urinary uric acid excretion and its association with albuminuria in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A cross-sectional study of 200 Chinese CKD patients recruited from department of nephrology of Huadong hospital was conducted. Levels of 24 h urinary excretion of uric acid (24-h Uur), fractional excretion of uric acid (FEur) and uric acid clearance rate (Cur) according to gender, CKD stages, hypertension and albuminuria status were compared by a multivariate analysis. Pearson and Spearman correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to study the correlation of 24-h Uur, FEur and Cur with urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). The multivariate analysis showed that 24-h Uur and Cur were lower and FEur was higher in the hypertension group, stage 3-5 CKD and macro-albuminuria group (UACR> 30 mg/mmol) than those in the normotensive group, stage 1 CKD group and the normo-albuminuria group (UACRuric acid is negatively associated with albuminuria in patients with CKD. This phenomenon may help to explain the association between albuminuria and serum uric acid.

  20. Structure-Activity Relationship of Curcumin: Role of the Methoxy Group in Anti-inflammatory and Anticolitis Effects of Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haixia; Du, Zheyuan; Wang, Weicang; Song, Mingyue; Sanidad, Katherine; Sukamtoh, Elvira; Zheng, Jennifer; Tian, Li; Xiao, Hang; Liu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Guodong

    2017-06-07

    Curcumin, a dietary compound from turmeric, has beneficial effects on inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. Most previous studies have focused on the structure-activity relationship of the thiol-reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyl groups of curcumin, so little is known about the roles of methoxy groups in biological activities of curcumin. Here we synthesized a series of curcumin analogues with different substitution groups (R = H-, Br-, Cl-, F-, NO 2 -, CH 3 -, and OH-) to replace the methoxy group and evaluated their biological effects in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin, Cur-OH, and Cur-Br (25 μM) suppressed 74.91 ± 0.88, 77.75 ± 0.89, and 71.75 ± 0.90% of LPS-induced NO production, respectively (P 0.05). In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model, the Cur-Br analogue also showed a beneficial effect the same as curcumin (P 0.05). Together, the analogues have dramatically different effects on inflammation, supporting that the substitution group on the methoxy position plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin. The methoxy group is a potential structural candidate for modification to design curcumin-based drugs for inflammatory diseases.