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Sample records for synesthesia reveals evidence

  1. Synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Although synesthesia has been known about for 200 years, it is only in the past decade or so that substantial progress has been made in studying it empirically and in understanding the mechanisms that give rise to it. The first part of the review considers the characteristics of synesthesia: its elicited nature, automaticity, prevalence, and consistency, and its perceptual and spatial phenomenology. The second part considers the causes of synesthesia both in terms of candidate neural mechanisms and the distal influences that shape this: genetic differences in developmental synesthesia and plasticity following sensory loss in acquired synesthesia. The final part considers developmental synesthesia as an individual difference in cognition and summarizes evidence of its influence on perception, imagery, memory, art/creativity, and numeracy.

  2. Priming Letters by Colors: Evidence for the Bidirectionality of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Peter H.; Kalckert, Andreas; Fink, Gereon R.

    2009-01-01

    In synesthesia, stimulation of one sensory modality leads to a percept in another nonstimulated modality, for example, graphemes trigger an additional color percept in grapheme-color synesthesia, which encompasses the variants letter-color and digit-color synesthesia. Until recently, it was assumed that synesthesia occurs strictly unidirectional:…

  3. Top-down signal transmission and global hyperconnectivity in auditory-visual synesthesia: Evidence from a functional EEG resting-state study.

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    Brauchli, Christian; Elmer, Stefan; Rogenmoser, Lars; Burkhard, Anja; Jäncke, Lutz

    2018-01-01

    Auditory-visual (AV) synesthesia is a rare phenomenon in which an auditory stimulus induces a "concurrent" color sensation. Current neurophysiological models of synesthesia mainly hypothesize "hyperconnected" and "hyperactivated" brains, but differ in the directionality of signal transmission. The two-stage model proposes bottom-up signal transmission from inducer- to concurrent- to higher-order brain areas, whereas the disinhibited feedback model postulates top-down signal transmission from inducer- to higher-order- to concurrent brain areas. To test the different models of synesthesia, we estimated local current density, directed and undirected connectivity patterns in the intracranial space during 2 min of resting-state (RS) EEG in 11 AV synesthetes and 11 nonsynesthetes. AV synesthetes demonstrated increased parietal theta, alpha, and lower beta current density compared to nonsynesthetes. Furthermore, AV synesthetes were characterized by increased top-down signal transmission from the superior parietal lobe to the left color processing area V4 in the upper beta frequency band. Analyses of undirected connectivity revealed a global, synesthesia-specific hyperconnectivity in the alpha frequency band. The involvement of the superior parietal lobe even during rest is a strong indicator for its key role in AV synesthesia. By demonstrating top-down signal transmission in AV synesthetes, we provide direct support for the disinhibited feedback model of synesthesia. Finally, we suggest that synesthesia is a consequence of global hyperconnectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 39:522-531, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Magnetoencephalography reveals early activation of V4 in grapheme-color synesthesia.

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    Brang, D; Hubbard, E M; Coulson, S; Huang, M; Ramachandran, V S

    2010-10-15

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which letters and numbers (graphemes) consistently evoke particular colors (e.g. A may be experienced as red). The cross-activation theory proposes that synesthesia arises as a result of cross-activation between posterior temporal grapheme areas (PTGA) and color processing area V4, while the disinhibited feedback theory proposes that synesthesia arises from disinhibition of pre-existing feedback connections. Here we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to test whether V4 and PTGA activate nearly simultaneously, as predicted by the cross-activation theory, or whether V4 activation occurs only after the initial stages of grapheme processing, as predicted by the disinhibited feedback theory. Using our high-resolution MEG source imaging technique (VESTAL), PTGA and V4 regions of interest (ROIs) were separately defined, and activity in response to the presentation of achromatic graphemes was measured. Activation levels in PTGA did not significantly differ between synesthetes and controls (suggesting similar grapheme processing mechanisms), whereas activation in V4 was significantly greater in synesthetes. In synesthetes, PTGA activation exceeded baseline levels beginning 105-109ms, and V4 activation did so 5ms later, suggesting nearly simultaneous activation of these areas. Results are discussed in the context of an updated version of the cross-activation model, the cascaded cross-tuning model of grapheme-color synesthesia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sound symbolism in synesthesia: evidence from a lexical-gustatory synesthete.

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    Bankieris, Kaitlyn; Simner, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a condition in which perceptual or cognitive stimuli (e.g., a written letter) trigger atypical additional percepts (e.g., the color yellow). Although these cross-modal pairings appear idiosyncratic in that they superficially differ from synesthete to synesthete, underlying patterns do exist and these can, in some circumstances, reflect the cross-modal intuitions of nonsynesthetes (e.g., higher pitch sounds tend to be "seen" in lighter colors by synesthetes and are also paired to lighter colors by nonsynesthetes in cross-modal matching tasks). We recently showed that grapheme-color synesthetes are more sensitive to sound symbolism (i.e., cross-modal sound-meaning correspondences) in natural language compared to nonsynesthetes. Accordingly, we hypothesize that sound symbolism may be a guiding force in synesthesia to dictate what types of synesthetic experiences are triggered by words. We tested this hypothesis by examining the cross-modal mappings of lexical-gustatory synesthete, JIW, for whom words trigger flavor experiences. We show that certain phonological features (e.g., front vowels) systematically trigger particular categories of taste (e.g., bitter) in his synesthesia. Some of these associations agree with sound symbolic patterns in natural language. This supports the view that synesthesia may be an exaggeration of cross-modal associations found in the general population and that sound symbolic properties of language may arise from similar mechanisms as those found in synesthesia.

  6. Understanding Synesthesia and Impact for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kateri Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological disorder that has to do with the "union of the senses." The literature reveals that students with synesthesia are affected with various degrees of severity. Students may hear a bell ring. Their brain is wired to take that sound and interpret it differently, through color, texture, taste, sound or temperature among…

  7. Reduced audiovisual integration in synesthesia--evidence from bimodal speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Zedler, Markus; Emrich, Hinderk M; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F; Szycik, Gregor R

    2014-03-01

    Recent research suggests synesthesia as a result of a hypersensitive multimodal binding mechanism. To address the question whether multimodal integration is altered in synesthetes in general, grapheme-colour and auditory-visual synesthetes were investigated using speech-related stimulation in two behavioural experiments. First, we used the McGurk illusion to test the strength and number of illusory perceptions in synesthesia. In a second step, we analysed the gain in speech perception coming from seen articulatory movements under acoustically noisy conditions. We used disyllabic nouns as stimulation and varied signal-to-noise ratio of the auditory stream presented concurrently to a matching video of the speaker. We hypothesized that if synesthesia is due to a general hyperbinding mechanism this group of subjects should be more susceptible to McGurk illusions and profit more from the visual information during audiovisual speech perception. The results indicate that there are differences between synesthetes and controls concerning multisensory integration--but in the opposite direction as hypothesized. Synesthetes showed a reduced number of illusions and had a reduced gain in comprehension by viewing matching articulatory movements in comparison to control subjects. Our results indicate that rather than having a hypersensitive binding mechanism, synesthetes show weaker integration of vision and audition. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Constructing priors in synesthesia.

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    van Leeuwen, Tessa M

    2014-01-01

    A new theoretical framework (PPSMC) applicable to synesthesia has been proposed, in which the discrepancy between the perceptual reality of (some) synesthetic concurrents and their subjective non-veridicality is being explained. The PPSMC framework stresses the relevance of the phenomenology of synesthesia for synesthesia research-and beyond. When describing the emergence and persistence of synesthetic concurrents under PPSMC, it is proposed that precise, high-confidence priors are crucial in synesthesia. I discuss the construction of priors in synesthesia.

  9. Neurophysiology of synesthesia.

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    Hubbard, Edward M

    2007-06-01

    Synesthesia is an experience in which stimulation in one sensory or cognitive stream leads to associated experiences in a second, unstimulated stream. Although synesthesia is often referred to as a "neurological condition," it is not listed in the DSM IV or the ICD classifications, as it generally does not interfere with normal daily functioning. However, its high prevalence rate (one in 23) means that synesthesia may be reported by patients who present with other psychiatric symptoms. In this review, I focus on recent research examining the neural basis of the two most intensively studied forms of synesthesia, grapheme --> color synesthesia and tone --> color synesthesia. These data suggest that these forms of synesthesia are elicited through anomalous activation of color-selective areas, perhaps in concert with hyperbinding mediated by the parietal cortex. I then turn to questions for future research and the implications of these models for other forms of synesthesia.

  10. Implicit interactions between number and space in digit-color synesthesia.

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    Niessen, Eva; Fink, Gereon R; Schweitzer, Lisa; Kluender, Nora; Weiss, Peter H

    2015-03-01

    In digit-color synesthesia, a variant of grapheme-color synesthesia, digits trigger an additional color percept. Recent work on number processing in synesthesia suggests that colors can implicitly elicit numerical representations in digit-color synesthetes implying that synesthesia is bidirectional. Furthermore, morphometric investigations revealed structural differences in the parietal cortex of grapheme-color synesthetes, i.e., in the brain region where interactions between number and space occur in non-synesthetic subjects. Based upon these previous findings, we here examined whether implicitly evoked numerical representations interact with spatial representations in synesthesia in such a way that even a non-numerical, visuo-spatial task (here: line bisection) is modulated, i.e., whether synesthetes exhibit a systematic bisection bias for colored lines. Thirteen digit-color synesthetes were asked to bisect two sets of lines which were colored in their individual synesthetic colors associated with a small or a large digit, respectively. For all colored line stimuli combined, digit-color synesthetes showed--like control subjects (n = 13, matched for age, gender, IQ and handedness)--a pseudo-neglect when bisecting colored lines. Measuring the color-induced change of the bisection bias (i.e., comparing the biases when bisecting lines colored according to a small number vs those lines corresponding to a large number) revealed that only digit-color synesthetes were significantly influenced by line color. The results provide further evidence for the bidirectional nature of synesthesia and support the concept of a mental number line. In addition, they extend previous reports on bidirectionality in synesthesia by showing that even non-numerical, visuo-spatial performance can be modulated by implicit bidirectional processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural Networks of Colored Sequence Synesthesia

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    Narayan, Manjari; Allen, Genevera I.

    2013-01-01

    Synesthesia is a condition in which normal stimuli can trigger anomalous associations. In this study, we exploit synesthesia to understand how the synesthetic experience can be explained by subtle changes in network properties. Of the many forms of synesthesia, we focus on colored sequence synesthesia, a form in which colors are associated with overlearned sequences, such as numbers and letters (graphemes). Previous studies have characterized synesthesia using resting-state connectivity or stimulus-driven analyses, but it remains unclear how network properties change as synesthetes move from one condition to another. To address this gap, we used functional MRI in humans to identify grapheme-specific brain regions, thereby constructing a functional “synesthetic” network. We then explored functional connectivity of color and grapheme regions during a synesthesia-inducing fMRI paradigm involving rest, auditory grapheme stimulation, and audiovisual grapheme stimulation. Using Markov networks to represent direct relationships between regions, we found that synesthetes had more connections during rest and auditory conditions. We then expanded the network space to include 90 anatomical regions, revealing that synesthetes tightly cluster in visual regions, whereas controls cluster in parietal and frontal regions. Together, these results suggest that synesthetes have increased connectivity between grapheme and color regions, and that synesthetes use visual regions to a greater extent than controls when presented with dynamic grapheme stimulation. These data suggest that synesthesia is better characterized by studying global network dynamics than by individual properties of a single brain region. PMID:23986245

  12. Neural networks of colored sequence synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomson, Steffie N; Narayan, Manjari; Allen, Genevera I; Eagleman, David M

    2013-08-28

    Synesthesia is a condition in which normal stimuli can trigger anomalous associations. In this study, we exploit synesthesia to understand how the synesthetic experience can be explained by subtle changes in network properties. Of the many forms of synesthesia, we focus on colored sequence synesthesia, a form in which colors are associated with overlearned sequences, such as numbers and letters (graphemes). Previous studies have characterized synesthesia using resting-state connectivity or stimulus-driven analyses, but it remains unclear how network properties change as synesthetes move from one condition to another. To address this gap, we used functional MRI in humans to identify grapheme-specific brain regions, thereby constructing a functional "synesthetic" network. We then explored functional connectivity of color and grapheme regions during a synesthesia-inducing fMRI paradigm involving rest, auditory grapheme stimulation, and audiovisual grapheme stimulation. Using Markov networks to represent direct relationships between regions, we found that synesthetes had more connections during rest and auditory conditions. We then expanded the network space to include 90 anatomical regions, revealing that synesthetes tightly cluster in visual regions, whereas controls cluster in parietal and frontal regions. Together, these results suggest that synesthetes have increased connectivity between grapheme and color regions, and that synesthetes use visual regions to a greater extent than controls when presented with dynamic grapheme stimulation. These data suggest that synesthesia is better characterized by studying global network dynamics than by individual properties of a single brain region.

  13. The genetics of colored sequence synesthesia: Suggestive evidence of linkage to 16q and genetic heterogeneity for the condition

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    Tomson, Steffie N.; Avidan, Nili; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Sarma, Anand K.; Tushe, Rejnal; Milewicz, Dianna M.; Bray, Molly; Leal, Suzanne M.; Eagleman, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a perceptual condition in which sensory stimulation triggers anomalous sensory experiences. In colored sequence synesthesia (CSS), color experiences are triggered by sequences such as letters or numbers. We performed a family based linkage analysis to identify genetic loci responsible for the increased neural crosstalk underlying CSS. Our results implicate a 23 MB region at 16q12.2-23.1, providing the first step in understanding the molecular basis of CSS. PMID:21504763

  14. The neuroanatomy of grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Beeli, Gian; Eulig, Cornelia; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive particular colors when seeing a letter, word or number (grapheme). Functional neuroimaging studies have provided some evidence in favor of a neural basis for this type of synesthesia. Most of these studies have reported extra activations in the fusiform gyrus, which is known to be involved in color, letter and word processing. The present study examined different neuroanatomical features (i.e. cortical thickness, cortical volume and cortical surface area) in a sample of 48 subjects (24 grapheme-color synesthetes and 24 control subjects), and revealed increased cortical thickness, volume and surface area in the right and left fusiform gyrus and in adjacent regions, such as the lingual gyrus and the calcarine cortex, in grapheme-color synesthetes. In addition, we set out to analyze structural connectivity based on fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in a subsample of 28 subjects (14 synesthetes and 14 control subjects). In contrast to the findings of a recent neuroanatomical study using modern diffusion tensor imaging measurement techniques, we did not detect any statistically significant difference in FA between synesthetes and non-synesthetes in the fusiform gyri. Our study thus supports the hypothesis of local anatomical differences in cortical characteristics in the vicinity of the V4 complex. The observed altered brain anatomy in grapheme-color synesthetes might be the anatomical basis for this particular form of synesthesia but it is also possible that the detected effects are a consequence (rather than the primary cause) of the life-long experience of grapheme-color synesthesia.

  15. Executive functions in synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; van Driel, J.; Knip, K.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were

  16. Learning, Memory, and Synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here we report on 11 color-grapheme synesthetes with startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These data are the first and only to show learned synesthesia of this kind in a group larger than a single case. While some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, these results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, where perceptual contents are brought to mind, akin to mental imagery or the perceptual reinstatement effects found in the memory literature. PMID:23307940

  17. Synesthesia and music perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, Guilherme Francisco F.; Fonseca, João Gabriel Marques; Caramelli, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The present review examined the cross-modal association of sensations and their relationship to musical perception. Initially, the study focuses on synesthesia, its definition, incidence, forms, and genetic and developmental factors. The theories of the neural basis of synesthesia were also addressed by comparing theories emphasizing the anatomical aspect against others reinforcing the importance of physiological processes. Secondly, cross-modal sensory associations, their role in perception, and relationship to synesthesia were analyzed. We propose the existence of a lower, unconscious degree of synesthesia in non-synesthetes. This latent synesthesia (without explicit sensory manifestations) would be functional, aiding the construction of abstract associations between different perceptual fields. Musical meaning might be constructed largely by synesthetic processes, where the sensory associations from sound activate memories, images, and emotions.

  18. Learning, memory, and synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthoft, Nathan; Winawer, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    People with color-grapheme synesthesia experience color when viewing written letters or numerals, usually with a particular color evoked by each grapheme. Here, we report on data from 11 color-grapheme synesthetes who had startlingly similar color-grapheme pairings traceable to childhood toys containing colored letters. These are the first and only data to show learned synesthesia of this kind in more than a single individual. Whereas some researchers have focused on genetic and perceptual aspects of synesthesia, our results indicate that a complete explanation of synesthesia must also incorporate a central role for learning and memory. We argue that these two positions can be reconciled by thinking of synesthesia as the automatic retrieval of highly specific mnemonic associations, in which perceptual contents are brought to mind in a manner akin to mental imagery or the perceptual-reinstatement effects found in memory studies.

  19. Synesthesia and music perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Francisco F. Bragança

    Full Text Available The present review examined the cross-modal association of sensations and their relationship to musical perception. Initially, the study focuses on synesthesia, its definition, incidence, forms, and genetic and developmental factors. The theories of the neural basis of synesthesia were also addressed by comparing theories emphasizing the anatomical aspect against others reinforcing the importance of physiological processes. Secondly, cross-modal sensory associations, their role in perception, and relationship to synesthesia were analyzed. We propose the existence of a lower, unconscious degree of synesthesia in non-synesthetes. This latent synesthesia (without explicit sensory manifestations would be functional, aiding the construction of abstract associations between different perceptual fields. Musical meaning might be constructed largely by synesthetic processes, where the sensory associations from sound activate memories, images, and emotions.

  20. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain).

  1. One-shot Synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Alexandra; Nikolić, Danko

    2017-01-01

    Synesthesia is commonly thought to be a phenomenon of fixed associations between an outside inducer and a vivid concurrent experience. Hence, it has been proposed that synesthesia occurs due to additional connections in the brain with which synesthetes are born. Here we show that synesthesia can be a much richer and more flexible phenomenon with a capability to creatively construct novel synesthetic experiences as events unfold in people's lives. We describe here cases of synesthetes who occasionally generate novel synesthetic experience, called one-shot synesthesias. These synesthetic experiences seem to share all the properties with the classical synesthetic associations except that they occur extremely rarely, people recalling only a few events over the lifetime. It appears that these one-shots are not created at random but are instead responses to specific life events. We contrast the properties of those rare synesthetic events with other, more commonly known forms of synesthesia that also create novel synesthetic experiences, but at a high rate-sometimes creating novel experiences every few seconds. We argue that one-shot synesthesias indicate that synesthetic associations are by their nature not prewired at birth but are dynamically constructed through mental operations and according to the needs of a synesthetic mind. Our conclusions have implications for understanding the biological underpinnings of synesthesia and the role the phenomenon plays in the lives of people endowed with synesthetic capacities.

  2. One-shot synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirschner Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is commonly thought to be a phenomenon of fixed associations between an outside inducer and a vivid concurrent experience. Hence, it has been proposed that synesthesia occurs due to additional connections in the brain with which synesthetes are born. Here we show that synesthesia can be a much richer and more flexible phenomenon with a capability to creatively construct novel synesthetic experiences as events unfold in people’s lives. We describe here cases of synesthetes who occasionally generate novel synesthetic experience, called one-shot synesthesias. These synesthetic experiences seem to share all the properties with the classical synesthetic associations except that they occur extremely rarely, people recalling only a few events over the lifetime. It appears that these one-shots are not created at random but are instead responses to specific life events. We contrast the properties of those rare synesthetic events with other, more commonly known forms of synesthesia that also create novel synesthetic experiences, but at a high rate—sometimes creating novel experiences every few seconds. We argue that one-shot synesthesias indicate that synesthetic associations are by their nature not prewired at birth but are dynamically constructed through mental operations and according to the needs of a synesthetic mind. Our conclusions have implications for understanding the biological underpinnings of synesthesia and the role the phenomenon plays in the lives of people endowed with synesthetic capacities.

  3. Auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia.

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    Jackson, Thomas E; Sandramouli, Soupramanien

    2012-09-01

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality causes an experience in another sensory modality or when a sensation in one sensory modality causes another sensation within the same modality. We describe a previously unreported association of auditory-olfactory synesthesia coexisting with auditory-visual synesthesia. Given that many types of synesthesias involve vision, it is important that the clinician provide these patients with the necessary information and support that is available.

  4. Semantic mechanisms may be responsible for developing synesthesia.

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    Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Danko

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little is known about how synesthesia develops and which aspects of synesthesia can be acquired through a learning process. We review the increasing evidence for the role of semantic representations in the induction of synesthesia, and argue for the thesis that synesthetic abilities are developed and modified by semantic mechanisms. That is, in certain people semantic mechanisms associate concepts with perception-like experiences-and this association occurs in an extraordinary way. This phenomenon can be referred to as "higher" synesthesia or ideasthesia. The present analysis suggests that synesthesia develops during childhood and is being enriched further throughout the synesthetes' lifetime; for example, the already existing concurrents may be adopted by novel inducers or new concurrents may be formed. For a deeper understanding of the origin and nature of synesthesia we propose to focus future research on two aspects: (i) the similarities between synesthesia and ordinary phenomenal experiences based on concepts; and (ii) the tight entanglement of perception, cognition and the conceptualization of the world. Importantly, an explanation of how biological systems get to generate experiences, synesthetic or not, may have to involve an explanation of how semantic networks are formed in general and what their role is in the ability to be aware of the surrounding world.

  5. Semantic mechanisms may be responsible for developing synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra eMroczko-Wąsowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, little is known about how synesthesia develops and which aspects of synesthesia can be acquired through a learning process. We review the increasing evidence for the role of semantic representations in the induction of synesthesia, and argue for the thesis that synesthetic abilities are developed and modified by semantic mechanisms. That is, in certain people semantic mechanisms associate concepts with perception-like experiences—and this association occurs in an extraordinary way. This phenomenon can be referred to as higher synesthesia or ideasthesia. The present analysis suggests that synesthesia develops during childhood and is being enriched further throughout the synesthetes’ lifetime; for example, the already existing concurrents may be adopted by novel inducers or new concurrents may be formed. For a deeper understanding of the origin and nature of synesthesia we propose to focus future research on two aspects: i the similarities between synesthesia and ordinary phenomenal experiences based on concepts, and ii the tight entanglement of perception, cognition and the conceptualization of the world. Most importantly, an explanation of how biological systems get to generate experiences, synesthetic or not, may have to involve an explanation of how we form semantic networks in general and what their role is in our ability to be aware of the surrounding world.

  6. Validating a standardised test battery for synesthesia: Does the Synesthesia Battery reliably detect synesthesia?

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, D.A.; Down, M P; Shillcock, R.C.; Eagleman, D. M.; Simner, J

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., reading letters might trigger the experience of colour). Testing the consistency of these sensations over long time intervals is the behavioural gold standard assessment for detecting synesthesia (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). In 2007 however, Eagleman and colleagues presented an online 'Synesthesia Battery' of tests aimed at identifying synesthesia by assessing consistency but within a sing...

  7. Increased structural connectivity in grapheme-color synesthesia.

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    Rouw, Romke; Scholte, H Steven

    2007-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging allowed us to validate for the first time the hypothesis that hyperconnectivity causes the added sensations in synesthesia. Grapheme-color synesthetes (n = 18), who experience specific colors with particular letters or numbers (for example, 'R is sky blue'), showed greater anisotropic diffusion compared with matched controls. Greater anisotropic diffusion indicates more coherent white matter. Anisotropy furthermore differentiated subtypes of grapheme-color synesthesia. Greater connectivity in the inferior temporal cortex was particularly strong for synesthetes who see synesthetic color in the outside world ('projectors') as compared with synesthetes who see the color in their 'mind's eye' only ('associators'). In contrast, greater connectivity (as compared with non-synesthetes) in the superior parietal or frontal cortex did not differentiate between subtypes of synesthesia. In conclusion, we found evidence that increased structural connectivity is associated with the presence of grapheme-color synesthesia, and has a role in the subjective nature of synesthetic color experience.

  8. Is synesthesia more common in patients with Asperger syndrome?

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    Neufeld, Janina; Roy, Mandy; Zapf, Antonia; Sinke, Christopher; Emrich, Hinderk M; Prox-Vagedes, Vanessa; Dillo, Wolfgang; Zedler, Markus

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence from case reports that synesthesia is more common in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Further, genes related to synesthesia have also been found to be linked to ASC and, similar to synaesthetes, individuals with ASC show altered brain connectivity and unusual brain activation during sensory processing. However, up to now a systematic investigation of whether synesthesia is more common in ASC patients is missing. The aim of the current pilot study was to test this hypothesis by investigating a group of patients diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome (AS) using questionnaires and standard consistency tests in order to classify them as grapheme-color synaesthetes. The results indicate that there are indeed many more grapheme-color synaesthetes among AS patients. This finding is discussed in relation to different theories regarding the development of synesthesia as well as altered sensory processing in autism.

  9. Serotonergic hyperactivity as a potential factor in developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia.

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    Brogaard, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any) among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions.

  10. Representational Account of Memory: Insights from Aging and Synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Gaby; Ward, Jamie; Chan, Dennis; Sigala, Natasha

    2016-12-01

    The representational account of memory envisages perception and memory to be on a continuum rather than in discretely divided brain systems [Bussey, T. J., & Saksida, L. M. Memory, perception, and the ventral visual-perirhinal-hippocampal stream: Thinking outside of the boxes. Hippocampus, 17, 898-908, 2007]. We tested this account using a novel between-group design with young grapheme-color synesthetes, older adults, and young controls. We investigated how the disparate sensory-perceptual abilities between these groups translated into associative memory performance for visual stimuli that do not induce synesthesia. ROI analyses of the entire ventral visual stream showed that associative retrieval (a pair-associate retrieved in the absence of a visual stimulus) yielded enhanced activity in young and older adults' visual regions relative to synesthetes, whereas associative recognition (deciding whether a visual stimulus was the correct pair-associate) was characterized by enhanced activity in synesthetes' visual regions relative to older adults. Whole-brain analyses at associative retrieval revealed an effect of age in early visual cortex, with older adults showing enhanced activity relative to synesthetes and young adults. At associative recognition, the group effect was reversed: Synesthetes showed significantly enhanced activity relative to young and older adults in early visual regions. The inverted group effects observed between retrieval and recognition indicate that reduced sensitivity in visual cortex (as in aging) comes with increased activity during top-down retrieval and decreased activity during bottom-up recognition, whereas enhanced sensitivity (as in synesthesia) shows the opposite pattern. Our results provide novel evidence for the direct contribution of perceptual mechanisms to visual associative memory based on the examples of synesthesia and aging.

  11. Absolute pitch exhibits phenotypic and genetic overlap with synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Peter K; Kowalsky, Elena; Lee, Annette; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Fisher, Simon E; Asher, Julian E; Ballard, David; Freudenberg, Jan; Li, Wentian

    2013-05-15

    Absolute pitch (AP) and synesthesia are two uncommon cognitive traits that reflect increased neuronal connectivity and have been anecdotally reported to occur together in an individual. Here we systematically evaluate the occurrence of synesthesia in a population of 768 subjects with documented AP. Out of these 768 subjects, 151 (20.1%) reported synesthesia, most commonly with color. These self-reports of synesthesia were validated in a subset of 21 study subjects, using an established methodology. We further carried out combined linkage analysis of 53 multiplex families with AP and 36 multiplex families with synesthesia. We observed a peak NPL LOD = 4.68 on chromosome 6q, as well as evidence of linkage on chromosome 2, using a dominant model. These data establish the close phenotypic and genetic relationship between AP and synesthesia. The chromosome 6 linkage region contains 73 genes; several leading candidate genes involved in neurodevelopment were investigated by exon resequencing. However, further studies will be required to definitively establish the identity of the causative gene(s) in the region.

  12. Constructing priors in synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van

    2014-01-01

    A new theoretical framework (PPSMC) applicable to synesthesia has been proposed, in which the discrepancy between the perceptual reality of (some) synesthetic concurrents and their subjective non-veridicality is being explained. The PPSMC framework stresses the relevance of the phenomenology of

  13. Executive functions in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; van Driel, Joram; Knip, Koen; Richard Ridderinkhof, K

    2013-03-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were obtained between synesthetes and non-synesthetes in classic executive control paradigms. Furthermore, classic executive control effects did not interact with synesthetic behavioral effects. Third, we found support for our hypothesis that inhibition of a synesthetic color takes effort and time. Finally, individual differences analyses showed no relationship between the two skills; performance on a 'normal' Stroop task does not predict performance on a synesthetic Stroop task. Across four studies, the current results consistently show no clear relationship between executive control functions and synesthetic behavioral effects. This raises the question of which mechanisms are at play in synesthetic 'management' during the presence of two conflicting (real and synesthetic) sensations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Electroencephalographic detection of synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajos Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the research on a person declaring synesthetic abilities will be presented. According to the current state of knowledge synesthesia activates additional cortical fields in the brain which can be found in the EEG. The research was conducted using an EGI-EEG system (Electrical Geodesic Inc., Eugene, Oregon, USA with the GeoSource software. GeoSource is a tool that implements the algorithms LAURA, LORETA and sLORETA. Using these algorithms for EEG analysis we can determine where in the brain the source of activity is. The authors will try to answer the question whether the use of these tools can prove the occurrence of synesthesia.

  15. Validating a standardised test battery for synesthesia: Does the Synesthesia Battery reliably detect synesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, D A; Down, M P; Shillcock, R C; Eagleman, D M; Simner, J

    2015-05-01

    Synesthesia is a neurological condition that gives rise to unusual secondary sensations (e.g., reading letters might trigger the experience of colour). Testing the consistency of these sensations over long time intervals is the behavioural gold standard assessment for detecting synesthesia (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). In 2007 however, Eagleman and colleagues presented an online 'Synesthesia Battery' of tests aimed at identifying synesthesia by assessing consistency but within a single test session. This battery has been widely used but has never been previously validated against conventional long-term retesting, and with a randomly recruited sample from the general population. We recruited 2847 participants to complete The Synesthesia Battery and found the prevalence of grapheme-colour synesthesia in the general population to be 1.2%. This prevalence was in line with previous conventional prevalence estimates based on conventional long-term testing (e.g., Simner, Mulvenna et al., 2006). This reproduction of similar prevalence rates suggests that the Synesthesia Battery is indeed a valid methodology for assessing synesthesia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced mental rotation ability in time-space synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Miller, Luke E; McQuire, Marguerite; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2013-11-01

    Time-space synesthesia is a variant of sequence-space synesthesia and involves the involuntary association of months of the year with 2D and 3D spatial forms, such as arcs, circles, and ellipses. Previous studies have revealed conflicting results regarding the association between time-space synesthesia and enhanced spatial processing ability. Here, we tested 15 time-space synesthetes, and 15 non-synesthetic controls matched for age, education, and gender on standard tests of mental rotation ability, spatial working memory, and verbal working memory. Synesthetes performed better than controls on our test of mental rotation, but similarly to controls on tests of spatial and verbal working memory. Results support a dissociation between visuo-spatial imagery and spatial working memory capacity, and suggest time-space synesthesia is associated only with enhanced visuo-spatial imagery. These data are consistent with the time-space connectivity thesis that time-space synesthesia results from enhanced connectivity in the parietal lobe between regions supporting the representation of temporal sequences and those underlying visuo-spatial imagery.

  17. Synesthesia and Migraine: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alstadhaug Karl B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synesthesia is, as visual migraine aura, a common and fascinating perceptual phenomenon. Here we present a unique case with synesthesias exclusively during visual migraine auras. Case presentation A 40-year-old woman with a cyclic mood disorder had suffered from migraine with visual aura for several years. On several occasions she had experienced "mixing of senses" during the aura phase. Staring at strong bright light she could experience intense taste of lemon with flow from the salivary glands. Conclusion Acquired synesthesia, exclusively coincident with migraine aura, gives support to the idea of an anomalous cortical processing underlying the phenomenon.

  18. Components of Attention in Synesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Nordfang, Maria; Pedersen, Michael Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common forms of synesthesia is between colors and graphemes (Colizoli, Murre, & Rouw, 2012). Numerous studies have investigated different aspects of attention and synesthesia, e.g. effects of Stroop-like interference by colors that are incongruent with the synesthetic experience....... Here we attempt to isolate how speci¿ c components of attention are affected by grapheme-color synesthesia. Eight carefully screened healthy participants with synesthesia reported the letters in brie¿ y presented, post-masked arrays of letters and digits. On half the trials, the letters and digits were...... presented in colors congruent with the synesthetic experience. On the other half of the trials, the letters and digits were presented in colors that were incongruent with the synesthetic experience. Components of attention were estimated separately for congruent and incongruent trials by ¿ tting the data...

  19. Sensory Perception: Lessons from Synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition’s existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of “normal” sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion ― the binding problem ― as well as how sensory perception develops. PMID:23766741

  20. The most intriguing question in synesthesia research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably

  1. Serotonergic Hyperactivity as a Potential Factor in Developmental, Acquired and Drug-Induced Synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit eBrogaard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions.

  2. Serotonergic Hyperactivity as a Potential Factor in Developmental, Acquired and Drug-Induced Synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any) among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions. PMID:24155703

  3. Synesthesia, pseudo-synesthesia, and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    Synesthesia is a sensory disorder where the stimulation of one sensory modality can lead to a reaction in another which would not usually be expected to respond; for instance, someone might see a color on hearing a word such as a day of the week. Disordered perception of sensory information also appears to contribute to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The purpose of this exploratory study was to ascertain whether these two conditions might be linked in any way. Two hundred consecutive IBS outpatients were screened for synesthesia and compared with 200 matched healthy volunteers (controls). Positive responders were tested for two types of synesthesia (grapheme-color and music-color/shape) using a questionnaire which was repeated after 3 months to test for reproducibility. Of the 200 IBS outpatients screened, 26 (13%) patients and six (3%) controls claimed to be synesthetic (P synesthesia. IBS patients clearly differ from controls in terms of claiming to have synesthetic experiences. These results justify additional studies on the relationship between IBS and synesthesia to further understand the neural mechanisms underpinning these two conditions and to establish whether they may be linked.

  4. The Merit of Synesthesia for Consciousness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Singer, Wolf; Nikolić, Danko

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  5. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Marije Van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  6. When synesthesia and savant abilities are mistaken for hallucinations and delusions: contribution of a cognitive approach for their differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Lucie; Barbier, Jacques-Edouard; Cason, Nia; Bakchine, Serge; Ehrlé, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech and behavior, and other symptoms that cause social or occupational dysfunction. However, some of these symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, can be indicative of other phenomena such as synesthesia and savant abilities. The aim of this paper is to highlight how neurological and psychiatric conditions can be confused and how formal neuropsychological evaluations can be necessary to distinguish them. We report the case of a young woman, VA, who perceived sounds as colors and claimed to have elaborated complex astrophysical reasoning, despite having experienced difficulties at school, especially in mathematics. VA also had difficulties to orient herself, to develop social relationships, and often became confused by daily life situations. These elements were considered as symptoms of schizophrenia. Evaluations revealed that VA exhibited savant abilities in astrophysics and colored-hearing synesthesia. We also found evidence of higher-than-average cognitive functioning. In complex cases, neuropsychological and formal evaluations are necessary to establish a differential diagnosis. Moreover, the case highlights the link between synesthesia and savant abilities.

  7. Grapheme learning and grapheme-color synesthesia: toward a comprehensive model of grapheme-color association

    OpenAIRE

    Asano, Michiko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in grapheme-color synesthesia research has revealed that certain regularities, as well as individual differences, figure into grapheme-color associations. Although several factors are known to regulate grapheme-color associations, the impact of factors, including their interrelationships, on synesthesia remains unclear. We investigated determinants of synesthetic color for graphemes (characters, letters) of Hiragana, a phonetic script in the Japanese language, and the English ...

  8. Grapheme learning and grapheme-color synesthesia: Toward a comprehensive model of grapheme-color association

    OpenAIRE

    Michiko eAsano; Michiko eAsano; Michiko eAsano; Kazuhiko eYokosawa

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in grapheme-color synesthesia research has revealed that certain regularities, as well as individual differences, figure into grapheme-color associations. Although several factors are known to regulate grapheme-color associations, the impact of factors, including their interrelationships, on synesthesia remains unclear. We investigated determinants of synesthetic color for graphemes (characters, letters) of Hiragana, a phonetic script in the Japanese language, and the English ...

  9. Acquired auditory-visual synesthesia: A window to early cross-modal sensory interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afra, Pegah; Funke, Michael; Matsuo, Fumisuke

    2009-01-01

    Synesthesia is experienced when sensory stimulation of one sensory modality elicits an involuntary sensation in another sensory modality. Auditory-visual synesthesia occurs when auditory stimuli elicit visual sensations. It has developmental, induced and acquired varieties. The acquired variety has been reported in association with deafferentation of the visual system as well as temporal lobe pathology with intact visual pathways. The induced variety has been reported in experimental and post-surgical blindfolding, as well as intake of hallucinogenic or psychedelics. Although in humans there is no known anatomical pathway connecting auditory areas to primary and/or early visual association areas, there is imaging and neurophysiologic evidence to the presence of early cross modal interactions between the auditory and visual sensory pathways. Synesthesia may be a window of opportunity to study these cross modal interactions. Here we review the existing literature in the acquired and induced auditory-visual synesthesias and discuss the possible neural mechanisms. PMID:22110319

  10. Pathways to seeing music: enhanced structural connectivity in colored-music synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamm, Anna; Schlaug, Gottfried; Eagleman, David M; Loui, Psyche

    2013-07-01

    Synesthesia, a condition in which a stimulus in one sensory modality consistently and automatically triggers concurrent percepts in another modality, provides a window into the neural correlates of cross-modal associations. While research on grapheme-color synesthesia has provided evidence for both hyperconnectivity-hyperbinding and disinhibited feedback as potential underlying mechanisms, less research has explored the neuroanatomical basis of other forms of synesthesia. In the current study we investigated the white matter correlates of colored-music synesthesia. As these synesthetes report seeing colors upon hearing musical sounds, we hypothesized that they might show unique patterns of connectivity between visual and auditory association areas. We used diffusion tensor imaging to trace the white matter tracts in temporal and occipital lobe regions in 10 synesthetes and 10 matched non-synesthete controls. Results showed that synesthetes possessed hemispheric patterns of fractional anisotropy, an index of white matter integrity, in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), a major white matter pathway that connects visual and auditory association areas to frontal regions. Specifically, white matter integrity within the right IFOF was significantly greater in synesthetes than controls. Furthermore, white matter integrity in synesthetes was correlated with scores on audiovisual tests of the Synesthesia Battery, especially in white matter underlying the right fusiform gyrus. Our findings provide the first evidence of a white matter substrate of colored-music synesthesia, and suggest that enhanced white matter connectivity is involved in enhanced cross-modal associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Sensory Perception, Emotionality and Lifeworld in Auditory Word Processing: Evidence from Congenital Blindness and Synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Judith; Domahs, Frank; Kauschke, Christina

    2017-12-01

    Although it has been established that human beings process concrete and abstract words differently, it is still a matter of debate what factors contribute to this difference. Since concrete concepts are closely tied to sensory perception, perceptual experience seems to play an important role in their processing. The present study investigated the processing of nouns during an auditory lexical decision task. Participants came from three populations differing in their visual-perceptual experience: congenitally blind persons, word-color synesthetes, and sighted non-synesthetes. Specifically, three features with potential relevance to concreteness were manipulated: sensory perception, emotionality, and Husserlian lifeworld, a concept related to the inner versus the outer world of the self. In addition to a classical concreteness effect, our results revealed a significant effect of lifeworld: words that are closely linked to the internal states of humans were processed faster than words referring to the outside world. When lifeworld was introduced as predictor, there was no effect of emotionality. Concerning participants' perceptual experience, an interaction between participant group and item characteristics was found: the effects of both concreteness and lifeworld were more pronounced for blind compared to sighted participants. We will discuss the results in the context of embodied semantics, and we will propose an approach to concreteness based on the individual's bodily experience and the relatedness of a given concept to the self.

  12. Impaired acquisition of novel grapheme-color correspondences in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Ghiam, Michael; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which letters and numbers (graphemes) consistently evoke particular colors (e.g., A may be experienced as red). These sensations are thought to arise through the cross-activation of grapheme processing regions in the fusiform gyrus and color area V4, supported by anatomical and functional imaging. However, the developmental onset of grapheme-color synesthesia remains elusive as research in this area has largely relied on self-report of these experiences in children. One possible account suggests that synesthesia is present at or near birth and initially binds basic shapes and forms to colors, which are later refined to grapheme-color associations through experience. Consistent with this view, studies show that similarly shaped letters and numbers tend to elicit similar colors in synesthesia and that some synesthetes consciously associate basic shapes with colors; research additionally suggests that synesthetic colors can emerge for newly learned characters with repeated presentation. This model further predicts that the initial shape-color correspondences in synesthesia may persist as implicit associations, driving the acquisition of colors for novel characters. To examine the presence of latent color associations for novel characters, synesthetes and controls were trained on pre-defined associations between colors and complex shapes, on the assumption that the prescribed shape-color correspondences would on average differ from implicit synesthetic associations. Results revealed synesthetes were less accurate than controls to learn novel shape-color associations, consistent with our suggestion that implicit form-color associations conflicted with the learned pairings.

  13. Impaired acquisition of novel grapheme-color correspondences in synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eBrang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which letters and numbers (graphemes consistently evoke particular colors (e.g. A may be experienced as red. These sensations are thought to arise through the cross-activation of grapheme processing regions in the fusiform gyrus and color area V4, supported by anatomical and functional imaging. However, the developmental onset of grapheme-color synesthesia remains elusive as research in this area has largely relied on self-report of these experiences in children. One possible account suggests that synesthesia is present at or near birth and initially binds basic shapes and forms to colors, which are later refined to grapheme-color associations through experience. Consistent with this view, studies show that similarly shaped letters and numbers tend to elicit similar colors in synesthesia and that some synesthetes consciously associate basic shapes with colors; research additionally suggests that synesthetic colors can emerge for newly learned characters with repeated presentation. This model further predicts that the initial shape-color correspondences in synesthesia may persist as implicit associations, driving the acquisition of colors for novel characters. To examine the presence of latent color associations for novel characters, synesthetes and controls were trained on pre-defined associations between colors and complex shapes, on the assumption that the prescribed shape-color correspondences would on average differ from implicit synesthetic associations. Results revealed synesthetes were less accurate than controls to learn novel shape-color associations, consistent with our suggestion that implicit form-color associations conflicted with the learned pairings.

  14. Enhanced cortical excitability in grapheme-color synesthesia and its modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Tai, Sarah; Cowey, Alan; Popescu, Tudor; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2011-12-06

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition characterized by the over-binding of two or more features and the concomitant automatic and conscious experience of atypical, ancillary images or perceptions. Previous research suggests that synesthetes display enhanced modality-specific perceptual processing, but it remains unclear whether enhanced processing contributes to conscious awareness of color photisms. In three experiments, we investigated whether grapheme-color synesthesia is characterized by enhanced cortical excitability in primary visual cortex and the role played by this hyperexcitability in the expression of synesthesia. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, we show that synesthetes display 3-fold lower phosphene thresholds than controls during stimulation of the primary visual cortex. We next used transcranial direct current stimulation to discriminate between two competing hypotheses of the role of hyperexcitability in the expression of synesthesia. We demonstrate that synesthesia can be selectively augmented with cathodal stimulation and attenuated with anodal stimulation of primary visual cortex. A control task revealed that the effect of the brain stimulation was specific to the experience of synesthesia. These results indicate that hyperexcitability acts as a source of noise in visual cortex that influences the availability of the neuronal signals underlying conscious awareness of synesthetic photisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Wudarczyk, Olga Anna; Kochuparampil, Priya; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-10-01

    There is emerging evidence that the encoding of visual information and the maintenance of this information in a temporarily accessible state in working memory rely on the same neural mechanisms. A consequence of this overlap is that atypical forms of perception should influence working memory. We examined this by investigating whether having grapheme-color synesthesia, a condition characterized by the involuntary experience of color photisms when reading or representing graphemes, would confer benefits on working memory. Two competing hypotheses propose that superior memory in synesthesia results from information being coded in two information channels (dual-coding) or from superior dimension-specific visual processing (enhanced processing). We discriminated between these hypotheses in three n-back experiments in which controls and synesthetes viewed inducer and non-inducer graphemes and maintained color or grapheme information in working memory. Synesthetes displayed superior color working memory than controls for both grapheme types, whereas the two groups did not differ in grapheme working memory. Further analyses excluded the possibilities of enhanced working memory among synesthetes being due to greater color discrimination, stimulus color familiarity, or bidirectionality. These results reveal enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in this population and supply further evidence for a close relationship between sensory processing and the maintenance of sensory information in working memory. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Creating Colored Letters: Familial Markers of Grapheme-Color Synesthesia in Parietal Lobe Activation and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Scholte, H Steven; Rouw, Romke

    2017-07-01

    Perception is inherently subjective, and individual differences in phenomenology are well illustrated by the phenomenon of synesthesia (highly specific, consistent, and automatic cross-modal experiences, in which the external stimulus corresponding to the additional sensation is absent). It is unknown why some people develop synesthesia and others do not. In the current study, we tested whether neural markers related to having synesthesia in the family were evident in brain function and structure. Relatives of synesthetes (who did not have any type of synesthesia themselves) and matched controls read specially prepared books with colored letters for several weeks and were scanned before and after reading using magnetic resonance imaging. Effects of acquired letter-color associations were evident in brain activation. Training-related activation (while viewing black letters) in the right angular gyrus of the parietal lobe was directly related to the strength of the learned letter-color associations (behavioral Stroop effect). Within this obtained angular gyrus ROI, the familial trait of synesthesia related to brain activation differences while participants viewed both black and colored letters. Finally, we compared brain structure using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to test for group differences and training effects. One cluster in the left superior parietal lobe had significantly more coherent white matter in the relatives compared with controls. No evidence for experience-dependent plasticity was obtained. For the first time, we present evidence suggesting that the (nonsynesthete) relatives of grapheme-color synesthetes show atypical grapheme processing as well as increased brain connectivity.

  17. Synesthesia and Number Cognition in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer A. K.; Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, when achromatic digits evoke an experience of a specific color (photisms), has been shown to be consistent, involuntary, and linked with number concept in adults, yet there have been no comparable investigations with children. We present a systematic study of grapheme-color synesthesia in children aged between 7 and 15…

  18. Synesthesia, sensory-motor contingency and semantic emulation: How swimming style-color synesthesia challenges the traditional view of synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra eMroczko-Wąsowicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which an additional nonstandard perceptual experience occurs consistently in response to ordinary stimulation applied to the same or another modality. Recent studies suggest an important role of semantic representations in the induction of synesthesia. In the present proposal we try to link the empirically grounded theory of sensory-motor contingency and mirror system based embodied simulation to newly discovered cases of swimming-style color synesthesia. In the latter color experiences are evoked only by showing the synesthetes a picture of a swimming person or asking them to think about a given swimming style. Neural mechanisms of mirror systems seem to be involved here. It has been shown that for mirror-sensory synesthesia, such as mirror-touch or mirror-pain synesthesia, concurrent experiences are caused by the overactivity in the mirror neuron system responding to the specific observation. The comparison of different forms of synesthesia has the potential of challenging conventional thinking on this phenomenon and providing a more general, sensory-motor account of synesthesia encompassing cases driven by semantic or emulational rather than pure sensory or motor representations.

  19. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  20. Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term ‘synesthetic’ training program. PMID

  1. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  2. Acquired auditory-visual synesthesia: A window to early cross-modal sensory interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Afra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pegah Afra, Michael Funke, Fumisuke MatsuoDepartment of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Synesthesia is experienced when sensory stimulation of one sensory modality elicits an involuntary sensation in another sensory modality. Auditory-visual synesthesia occurs when auditory stimuli elicit visual sensations. It has developmental, induced and acquired varieties. The acquired variety has been reported in association with deafferentation of the visual system as well as temporal lobe pathology with intact visual pathways. The induced variety has been reported in experimental and post-surgical blindfolding, as well as intake of hallucinogenic or psychedelics. Although in humans there is no known anatomical pathway connecting auditory areas to primary and/or early visual association areas, there is imaging and neurophysiologic evidence to the presence of early cross modal interactions between the auditory and visual sensory pathways. Synesthesia may be a window of opportunity to study these cross modal interactions. Here we review the existing literature in the acquired and induced auditory-visual synesthesias and discuss the possible neural mechanisms.Keywords: synesthesia, auditory-visual, cross modal

  3. Synesthesia, sensory-motor contingency, and semantic emulation: how swimming style-color synesthesia challenges the traditional view of synesthesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Aleksandra; Werning, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Synesthesia is traditionally regarded as a phenomenon in which an additional non-standard phenomenal experience occurs consistently in response to ordinary stimulation applied to the same or another modality...

  4. Synesthesia, sensory-motor contingency, and semantic emulation: how swimming style-color synesthesia challenges the traditional view of synesthesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Aleksandra; Werning, Markus

    2012-01-01

    .... In the present proposal we try to link the empirically grounded theory of sensory-motor contingency and mirror system based embodied simulation/emulation to newly discovered cases of swimming style-color synesthesia...

  5. Synesthesia, sensory-motor contingency, and semantic emulation: how swimming style-color synesthesia challenges the traditional view of synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Aleksandra; Werning, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Synesthesia is traditionally regarded as a phenomenon in which an additional non-standard phenomenal experience occurs consistently in response to ordinary stimulation applied to the same or another modality. Recent studies suggest an important role of semantic representations in the induction of synesthesia. In the present proposal we try to link the empirically grounded theory of sensory-motor contingency and mirror system based embodied simulation/emulation to newly discovered cases of swimming style-color synesthesia. In the latter color experiences are evoked only by showing the synesthetes a picture of a swimming person or asking them to think about a given swimming style. Neural mechanisms of mirror systems seem to be involved here. It has been shown that for mirror-sensory synesthesia, such as mirror-touch or mirror-pain synesthesia (when visually presented tactile or noxious stimulation of others results in the projection of the tactile or pain experience onto oneself), concurrent experiences are caused by overactivity in the mirror neuron system responding to the specific observation. The comparison of different forms of synesthesia has the potential of challenging conventional thinking on this phenomenon and providing a more general, sensory-motor account of synesthesia encompassing cases driven by semantic or emulational rather than pure sensory or motor representations. Such an interpretation could include top-down associations, questioning the explanation in terms of hard-wired structural connectivity. In the paper the hypothesis is developed that the wide-ranging phenomenon of synesthesia might result from a process of hyperbinding between "too many" semantic attribute domains. This hypothesis is supplemented by some suggestions for an underlying neural mechanism.

  6. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Singer, W.; Nikolic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant

  7. The linguistic and cognitive factors associated with lexical-gustatory synesthesia: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra

    2016-07-01

    Past research on lexical-gustatory synesthesia (people who associate words with tastes) has shown that linguistic factors underlie the inducer (word)-concurrent (taste) mappings in these individuals. The developmental cognitive model envisioned by Simner and Haywood (2009), and an extension of it proposed in this paper can be used to understand these linguistic associations. The first aim of the current case study was to test these models by examining the linguistic factors associated with this type of synesthesia. The influence of lexical-gustatory synesthesia on memory was investigated using a paired-associate learning task. Further, the present case study also examined if word-pairs with same or similar tastes and word-pairs with dissimilar tastes enhanced learning relative to word pairs that had no tastes. As predicted, the findings revealed possible phonological, phonological-lexical, and lexical-semantic factors linking the inducer-concurrent pairings. These findings are in line with the developmental cognitive models of LG synesthesia. There were no effects of synesthesia on memory as demonstrated by the lack of any significant difference between the synesthete and non-synesthete controls on a paired-associate learning task. Moreover, no significant differences emerged between the "no taste" and "taste" conditions (although she performed slightly better on the "no taste" condition). Interestingly, a metamemory task (judgment-of-learning) revealed the opposite. That is, the synesthete predicted that her learning would be better in the "taste" condition when compared to the "no taste" condition. This indicates that the word-pairs, which produced tastes, could have created a "foresight bias". This is attributed to the unidirectional nature of this individual's LG synesthesia. This finding should, however, be treated with caution because it is a preliminary finding based on a single subject and needs to be corroborated with future studies on other lexical

  8. The Merit of Synesthesia for Consciousness Research

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M.; Singer, Wolf; Nikolić, Danko

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We ...

  9. Grapheme-color synesthesia subtypes: stable individual differences reflected in posterior alpha-band oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Weidacker, K.S.; Tankink, J.; Scholte, H.S.; Rouw, R.

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition in which seeing letters and numbers produces sensations of colors (e.g., the letter R may elicit a sky-blue percept). Recent evidence implicates posterior parietal areas, in addition to lower-level sensory processing regions, in the neurobiological

  10. Globally altered structural brain network topology in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Jürgen; Wotruba, Diana; Jäncke, Lutz

    2011-04-13

    Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimuli in one particular modality elicit a sensation within the same or another sensory modality (e.g., specific graphemes evoke the perception of particular colors). Grapheme-color synesthesia (GCS) has been proposed to arise from abnormal local cross-activation between grapheme and color areas because of their hyperconnectivity. Recently published studies did not confirm such a hyperconnectivity, although morphometric alterations were found in occipitotemporal, parietal, and frontal regions of synesthetes. We used magnetic resonance imaging surface-based morphometry and graph-theoretical network analyses to investigate the topology of structural brain networks in 24 synesthetes and 24 nonsynesthetes. Connectivity matrices were derived from region-wise cortical thickness correlations of 2366 different cortical parcellations across the whole cortex and from 154 more common brain divisions as well. Compared with nonsynesthetes, synesthetes revealed a globally altered structural network topology as reflected by reduced small-worldness, increased clustering, increased degree, and decreased betweenness centrality. Connectivity of the fusiform gyrus (FuG) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) was changed as well. Hierarchical modularity analysis revealed increased intramodular and intermodular connectivity of the IPS in GCS. However, connectivity differences in the FuG and IPS showed a low specificity because of global changes. We provide first evidence that GCS is rooted in a reduced small-world network organization that is driven by increased clustering suggesting global hyperconnectivity within the synesthetes' brain. Connectivity alterations were widespread and not restricted to the FuG and IPS. Therefore, synesthetic experience might be only one phenotypic manifestation of the globally altered network architecture in GCS.

  11. Genuine and drug-induced synesthesia: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Christopher; Halpern, John H; Zedler, Markus; Neufeld, Janina; Emrich, Hinderk M; Passie, Torsten

    2012-09-01

    Despite some principal similarities, there is no systematic comparison between the different types of synesthesia (genuine, acquired and drug-induced). This comprehensive review compares the three principal types of synesthesia and focuses on their phenomenological features and their relation to different etiological models. Implications of this comparison for the validity of the different etiological models are discussed. Comparison of the three forms of synesthesia show many more differences than similarities. This is in contrast to their representation in the literature, where they are discussed in many respects as being virtually similar. Noteworthy is the much broader spectrum and intensity with the typical drug-induced synesthesias compared to genuine and acquired synesthesias. A major implication of the phenomenological comparison in regard to the etiological models is that genuine and acquired synesthesias point to morphological substrates, while drug-induced synesthesia appears to be based on functional changes of brain activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Colour–Grapheme Synesthesia Affects Binocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; van der Smagt, Maarten J.; Nijboer, Tanja C. W.

    2011-01-01

    In colour–grapheme synesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it is debated whether visual processing of synesthesia-inducing achromatic graphemes is similar to that of chromatic graphemes. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic digits that induce synesthetic colour percepts increase the incidence of binocular rivalry compared to achromatic non-digits that do not evoke such percepts. That is, compared to achromatically perceived non-digits, synesthesia-inducing digits increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for promoting binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision. PMID:22073035

  13. Colour-grapheme synesthesia affects binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L E; van der Smagt, Maarten J; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2011-01-01

    In colour-grapheme synesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it is debated whether visual processing of synesthesia-inducing achromatic graphemes is similar to that of chromatic graphemes. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic digits that induce synesthetic colour percepts increase the incidence of binocular rivalry compared to achromatic non-digits that do not evoke such percepts. That is, compared to achromatically perceived non-digits, synesthesia-inducing digits increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for promoting binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.

  14. Mirror Neurons and Mirror-Touch Synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkovski, Omer; Katzin, Naama; Salti, Moti

    2016-05-30

    Since mirror neurons were introduced to the neuroscientific community more than 20 years ago, they have become an elegant and intuitive account for different cognitive mechanisms (e.g., empathy, goal understanding) and conditions (e.g., autism spectrum disorders). Recently, mirror neurons were suggested to be the mechanism underlying a specific type of synesthesia. Mirror-touch synesthesia is a phenomenon in which individuals experience somatosensory sensations when seeing someone else being touched. Appealing as it is, careful delineation is required when applying this mechanism. Using the mirror-touch synesthesia case, we put forward theoretical and methodological issues that should be addressed before relying on the mirror-neurons account. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Grapheme-color synesthesia can enhance immediate memory without disrupting the encoding of relational cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bradley S; Radvansky, Gabriel A; Johnson, Ann C; McNerney, M Windy

    2012-12-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that grapheme-color synesthesia can enhance memory for words, but little is known about how these photisms cue retrieval. Often, the encoding of specific features of individual words can disrupt the encoding of ordered relations between words, resulting in an overall decrease in recall accuracy. Here we show that the photisms arising from grapheme-color synesthesia do not function like these item-specific cues. The influences of high and low word frequency on the encoding of ordered relations and the accuracy of immediate free recall were compared across a group of 10 synesthetes and 48 nonsynesthetes. The main findings of Experiment 1 showed that the experience of synesthesia had no adverse effect on the encoding of ordered relations (as measured by input-output correspondence); furthermore, it enhanced recall accuracy in a strictly additive fashion across the two word frequency conditions. Experiment 2 corroborated these findings by showing that the synesthetes only outperformed the nonsynesthetes when the materials involved words and letters, not when they involved digits and spatial locations. Altogether, the present findings suggest that synesthesia can boost immediate memory performance without disrupting the encoding of ordered relations.

  16. Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-06-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops.

  17. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2011-04-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the particular colors associated with particular graphemes or how synesthesia occurs developmentally. A recent suggestion of such an interaction has been proposed in the cascaded cross-tuning (CCT) model of synesthesia, which posits that in synesthetes connections between grapheme regions and color area V4 participate in a competitive activation process, with synesthetic colors arising during the component-stage of grapheme processing. This model more directly suggests that graphemes sharing similar component features (lines, curves, etc.) should accordingly activate more similar synesthetic colors. To test this proposal, we created and regressed synesthetic color-similarity matrices for each of 52 synesthetes against a letter-confusability matrix, an unbiased measure of visual similarity among graphemes. Results of synesthetes' grapheme-color correspondences indeed revealed that more similarly shaped graphemes corresponded with more similar synesthetic colors, with stronger effects observed in individuals with more intense synesthetic experiences (projector synesthetes). These results support the CCT model of synesthesia, implicate early perceptual mechanisms as driving factors in the elicitation of synesthetic hues, and further highlight the relationship between conceptual and perceptual factors in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The most intriguing question in synesthesia research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouw, Romke; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably among the most interesting questions: Why do most synesthetes *not* get confused by their additional sensations? This is particularly interesting when phrased in a broader context: What are the mechanisms for deciding which of the sensations we experience reflect something "real" (phenomena in the outside world) and which reflect something that is "not real" (internally generated and private phenomena).

  19. The sound of size: crossmodal binding in pitch-size synesthesia: a combined TMS, EEG and psychophysics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, Nina; ten Oever, Sanne; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-02

    Crossmodal binding usually relies on bottom-up stimulus characteristics such as spatial and temporal correspondence. However, in case of ambiguity the brain has to decide whether to combine or segregate sensory inputs. We hypothesise that widespread, subtle forms of synesthesia provide crossmodal mapping patterns which underlie and influence multisensory perception. Our aim was to investigate if such a mechanism plays a role in the case of pitch-size stimulus combinations. Using a combination of psychophysics and ERPs, we could show that despite violations of spatial correspondence, the brain specifically integrates certain stimulus combinations which are congruent with respect to our hypothesis of pitch-size synesthesia, thereby impairing performance on an auditory spatial localisation task (Ventriloquist effect). Subsequently, we perturbed this process by functionally disrupting a brain area known for its role in multisensory processes, the right intraparietal sulcus, and observed how the Ventriloquist effect was abolished, thereby increasing behavioural performance. Correlating behavioural, TMS and ERP results, we could retrace the origin of the synesthestic pitch-size mappings to a right intraparietal involvement around 250 ms. The results of this combined psychophysics, TMS and ERP study provide evidence for shifting the current viewpoint on synesthesia more towards synesthesia being at the extremity of a spectrum of normal, adaptive perceptual processes, entailing close interplay between the different sensory systems. Our results support this spectrum view of synesthesia by demonstrating that its neural basis crucially depends on normal multisensory processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An extended case study on the phenomenology of sequence-space synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Cassandra; Froese, Tom; Barrett, Adam B; Ward, Jamie; Seth, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of synesthesia phenomenology in adults is needed to constrain accounts of developmental trajectories of this trait. We report an extended phenomenological investigation of sequence-space synesthesia in a single case (AB). We used the Elicitation Interview (EI) method to facilitate repeated exploration of AB's synesthetic experience. During an EI the subject's attention is selectively guided by the interviewer in order to reveal precise details about the experience. Detailed analysis of the resulting 9 h of interview transcripts provided a comprehensive description of AB's synesthetic experience, including several novel observations. For example, we describe a specific spatial reference frame (a "mental room") in which AB's concurrents occur, and which overlays his perception of the real world (the "physical room"). AB is able to switch his attention voluntarily between this mental room and the physical room. Exemplifying the EI method, some of our observations were previously unknown even to AB. For example, AB initially reported to experience concurrents following visual presentation, yet we determined that in the majority of cases the concurrent followed an internal verbalization of the inducer, indicating an auditory component to sequence-space synesthesia. This finding is congruent with typical rehearsal of inducer sequences during development, implicating cross-modal interactions between auditory and visual systems in the genesis of this synesthetic form. To our knowledge, this paper describes the first application of an EI to synesthesia, and the first systematic longitudinal investigation of the first-person experience of synesthesia since the re-emergence of interest in this topic in the 1980's. These descriptions move beyond rudimentary graphical or spatial representations of the synesthetic spatial form, thereby providing new targets for neurobehavioral analysis.

  1. Markers of Developmental Synesthesia in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and development of grapheme-color synesthesia in children in the UK and US and its progression in longitudinal testing over 12 months (from ages 6/7 to 7/8 were studied at the Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.

  2. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits

  3. Synesthesia: A New Approach to Understanding the Development of Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a new theoretical framework for understanding intersensory development. Their approach is based upon insights gained from adults who experience synesthesia, in whom sensory stimuli induce extra cross-modal or intramodal percepts. Synesthesia appears to represent one way that typical developmental mechanisms…

  4. Olfactory-Induced Synesthesias: A Review and Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Tomiczek, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Recent reviews of synesthesia concentrate upon rare neurodevelopmental examples and exclude common olfactory-induced experiences with which they may profitably be compared. Like the neurodevelopmental synesthesias, odor-induced experiences involve different sensory modalities; are reliable, asymmetric (concurrents cannot induce), and automatic;…

  5. Cognitive neuroscience of synesthesia: Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This Special Issue of Cognitive Neuroscience showcases the latest theories and findings in research on synesthesia. The various contributions are discussed in relation to three broad themes: Models and neural mechanisms; new types of synesthesia; and cognitive profile and demographic characteristics.

  6. N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio-visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eSinke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia entails a special kind of sensory perception, where stimulation in one sensory modality leads to an internally generated perceptual experience of another, not stimulated sensory modality. This phenomenon can be viewed as an abnormal multisensory integration process as here the synesthetic percept is aberrantly fused with the stimulated modality. Indeed, recent synesthesia research has focused on multimodal processing even outside of the specific synesthesia-inducing context and has revealed changed multimodal integration, thus suggesting perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio-visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory-visually presented animated and inanimated objects in an audio-visual congruent and incongruent manner. Fourteen subjects with auditory-visual and/or grapheme-color synesthesia and 14 control subjects participated in the experiment. During presentation of the stimuli, event-related potentials were recorded from 32 electrodes. The analysis of reaction times and error rates revealed no group differences with best performance for audio-visually congruent stimulation indicating the well-known multimodal facilitation effect. We found an enhanced amplitude of the N1 component over occipital electrode sites for synesthetes compared to controls. The differences occurred irrespective of the experimental condition and therefore suggest a global influence on early sensory processing in synesthetes.

  7. N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio-visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Wiswede, Daniel; Emrich, Hinderk M; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F; Szycik, Gregor R

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia entails a special kind of sensory perception, where stimulation in one sensory modality leads to an internally generated perceptual experience of another, not stimulated sensory modality. This phenomenon can be viewed as an abnormal multisensory integration process as here the synesthetic percept is aberrantly fused with the stimulated modality. Indeed, recent synesthesia research has focused on multimodal processing even outside of the specific synesthesia-inducing context and has revealed changed multimodal integration, thus suggesting perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio-visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory-visually presented animated and in animated objects in an audio-visual congruent and incongruent manner. Fourteen subjects with auditory-visual and/or grapheme-color synesthesia and 14 control subjects participated in the experiment. During presentation of the stimuli, event-related potentials were recorded from 32 electrodes. The analysis of reaction times and error rates revealed no group differences with best performance for audio-visually congruent stimulation indicating the well-known multimodal facilitation effect. We found enhanced amplitude of the N1 component over occipital electrode sites for synesthetes compared to controls. The differences occurred irrespective of the experimental condition and therefore suggest a global influence on early sensory processing in synesthetes.

  8. N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio–visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Wiswede, Daniel; Emrich, Hinderk M.; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F.; Szycik, Gregor R.

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia entails a special kind of sensory perception, where stimulation in one sensory modality leads to an internally generated perceptual experience of another, not stimulated sensory modality. This phenomenon can be viewed as an abnormal multisensory integration process as here the synesthetic percept is aberrantly fused with the stimulated modality. Indeed, recent synesthesia research has focused on multimodal processing even outside of the specific synesthesia-inducing context and has revealed changed multimodal integration, thus suggesting perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio–visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory–visually presented animated and in animated objects in an audio–visual congruent and incongruent manner. Fourteen subjects with auditory-visual and/or grapheme-color synesthesia and 14 control subjects participated in the experiment. During presentation of the stimuli, event-related potentials were recorded from 32 electrodes. The analysis of reaction times and error rates revealed no group differences with best performance for audio-visually congruent stimulation indicating the well-known multimodal facilitation effect. We found enhanced amplitude of the N1 component over occipital electrode sites for synesthetes compared to controls. The differences occurred irrespective of the experimental condition and therefore suggest a global influence on early sensory processing in synesthetes. PMID:24523689

  9. Grapheme-color synesthesia subtypes: Stable individual differences reflected in posterior alpha-band oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Weidacker, Kathrin; Tankink, Judith; Scholte, H Steven; Rouw, Romke

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition in which seeing letters and numbers produces sensations of colors (e.g., the letter R may elicit a sky-blue percept). Recent evidence implicates posterior parietal areas, in addition to lower-level sensory processing regions, in the neurobiological mechanisms involved in synesthesia. Furthermore, these mechanisms seem to differ for "projectors" (synesthetes who report seeing the color "out there in the real world") versus "associators" (synesthetes who report the color to be only an internal experience). Relatively little is known about possible electrophysiological characteristics of grapheme-color synesthesia. Here we used EEG to investigate functional oscillatory differences among associators, projectors, and non-synesthetes. Projectors had stronger stimulus-related alpha-band (~10 Hz) power over posterior parietal electrodes, compared to both associators and non-synesthetes. Posterior alpha activity was not statistically significantly different between associators from non-synesthetes. We also performed a test-retest assessment of the projector-associator score and found strong retest reliability, as evidenced by a correlation coefficient of .85. These findings demonstrate that the projector-associator distinction is highly reliable over time and is related to neural oscillations in the alpha band.

  10. Is it for real? Evaluating authenticity of musical pitch-space synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkovski, O; Akiva-Kabiri, L; Gertner, L; Henik, A

    2012-08-01

    In spatial-sequence synesthesia, ordinal sequences are visualized in explicit spatial locations. We examined a recently documented subtype in which musical notes are represented in spatial configurations, to verify consistency and automaticity of musical pitch-space (M-S) synesthesia. An M-S synesthete performed a mapping pre-task (Exp. 1) used to indicate the locations of 7 auditory or visually presented notes, in 2 sessions a month apart. Results revealed strong correlations between sessions, suggesting the synesthete's musical forms were consistent over time. Experiment 2 assessed automaticity of M-S synesthesia. The same synesthete and matched controls preformed a spatial Stroop-like task. Participants were presented with an auditory or visual musical note and then had to reach for an asterisk (target) with a mouse cursor. The target appeared in a compatible or incompatible location (according to the synesthete's spatial representation). A compatibility effect was found for the synesthete but not for controls. The synesthete was significantly faster when the target appeared in compatible locations than in incompatible ones. Our findings show that for synesthetes, auditory and visually presented notes automatically trigger attention to specific spatial locations according to their specific M-S associations.

  11. Neuroscience of synesthesia and cross-modal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckar, Marcel; Bob, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality causes unusual experiences in a different, unstimulated modality. Recent findings suggest that research on synesthesia offers a unique opportunity to study the neural basis of subjective experiences in healthy and pathological brains. This review summarizes and reflects current knowledge concerning synesthesia in its various aspects, including its cognitive, neural, and behavioral aspects. In this context, recent data suggest new connections between specific conditions related to synesthesic mechanisms and association processes linked to construction of synesthetic cross-modal metaphors that may play a role in psychopathological thinking and imagination.

  12. Synesthesia: a colorful word with a touching sound?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylopoulos, Myrto I; Ro, Tony

    2013-10-22

    Synesthesia is a fairly common condition in which individuals experience atypical responses (such as color experiences) in association with certain types of stimuli (such as non-colored letters). Although synesthesia has been described for centuries, only very recently has there been an explosive growth of systematic scientific examinations of this condition. In this article, we review and critically evaluate current methods for both assessing synesthesia and examining its psychological basis, including the "test-retest" procedure, online battery assessments, and behavioral experiments. We highlight the limitations of these methods for understanding the nature of this complex condition and propose potential solutions to address some of these limitations. We also provide a set of markers that aid in distinguishing synesthesia from other closely related psychological phenomena.

  13. Synesthesia: A colorful word with a touching sound?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrto I. Mylopoulos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a fairly common condition in which individuals experience atypical responses (such as color experiences in association with certain types of stimuli (such as non-colored letters. Although synesthesia has been described for centuries, only very recently has there been an explosive growth of systematic scientific examinations of this condition. In this article, we review and critically evaluate current methods for both assessing synesthesia and examining its psychological basis, including the "test-retest" procedure, online battery assessments, and behavioral experiments. We highlight the limitations of these methods for understanding the nature of this complex condition and propose potential solutions to address some of these limitations. We also provide a set of characteristics that aid in distinguishing synesthesia from other closely related psychological phenomena.

  14. Effective connectivity determines the nature of subjective experience in grapheme-color synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Ouden, H.E.M. den; Hagoort, P.

    2011-01-01

    Synesthesia provides an elegant model to investigate neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in subjective experience in humans. In grapheme-color synesthesia, written letters induce color sensations, accompanied by activation of color area V4. Competing hypotheses suggest that enhanced

  15. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Charlotte A; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2-4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9-14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes.

  16. Non-optic vision: Beyond synesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew H; Shenker, Joel I

    2016-08-01

    Patient NS is a 28year-old female who went blind in her early twenties as a result of S-cone syndrome, a degenerative retinal disorder. A few years after losing her vision, she started experiencing visual perceptions of her hands as she moved them and objects that came into contact with her hands. Over the course of a year, these cross-modal sensations evolved to become veridical visual experiences accurately representative of her hands, objects she touched, and to some degree, objects she could infer from her immediate surroundings. We argue that these experiences are distinct from mental imagery as they occurred automatically, remained consistent over time, and were proprioceptively mediated by her head position much like normal optical vision. Moreover, she could neither consciously force these visual experiences to occur without sensory inference nor prevent them from happening when haptically exploring an object. Her previous visual experiences contributed to a strong influence of top-down processing in her perceptions. Though individuals have previously been able to develop limited veridical acquired synesthesia following extensive practice over many years with the use of a special sensory device, none reported experiencing the richness of complexity or degree of top-down processing exhibited by NS. Thus, we posit that NS's case may represent a phenomenon beyond synesthesia altogether. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A standardized test battery for the study of synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, David M; Kagan, Arielle D; Nelson, Stephanie S; Sagaram, Deepak; Sarma, Anand K

    2007-01-15

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one modality evokes sensation or experience in another modality. Although discussed in the literature well over a century ago, synesthesia slipped out of the scientific spotlight for decades because of the difficulty in verifying and quantifying private perceptual experiences. In recent years, the study of synesthesia has enjoyed a renaissance due to the introduction of tests that demonstrate the reality of the condition, its automatic and involuntary nature, and its measurable perceptual consequences. However, while several research groups now study synesthesia, there is no single protocol for comparing, contrasting and pooling synesthetic subjects across these groups. There is no standard battery of tests, no quantifiable scoring system, and no standard phrasing of questions. Additionally, the tests that exist offer no means for data comparison. To remedy this deficit we have devised the Synesthesia Battery. This unified collection of tests is freely accessible online (http://www.synesthete.org). It consists of a questionnaire and several online software programs, and test results are immediately available for use by synesthetes and invited researchers. Performance on the tests is quantified with a standard scoring system. We introduce several novel tests here, and offer the software for running the tests. By presenting standardized procedures for testing and comparing subjects, this endeavor hopes to speed scientific progress in synesthesia research.

  18. A standardized test battery for the study of synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, David M.; Kagan, Arielle D.; Nelson, Stephanie S.; Sagaram, Deepak; Sarma, Anand K.

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one modality evokes sensation or experience in another modality. Although discussed in the literature well over a century ago, synesthesia slipped out of the scientific spotlight for decades because of the difficulty in verifying and quantifying private perceptual experiences. In recent years, the study of synesthesia has enjoyed a renaissance due to the introduction of tests that demonstrate the reality of the condition, its automatic and involuntary nature, and its measurable perceptual consequences. However, while several research groups now study synesthesia, there is no single protocol for comparing, contrasting and pooling synesthetic subjects across these groups. There is no standard battery of tests, no quantifiable scoring system, and no standard phrasing of questions. Additionally, the tests that exist offer no means for data comparison. To remedy this deficit we have devised the Synesthesia Battery. This unified collection of tests is freely accessible online (http://www.synesthete.org). It consists of a questionnaire and several online software programs, and test results are immediately available for use by synesthetes and invited researchers. Performance on the tests is quantified with a standard scoring system. We introduce several novel tests here, and offer the software for running the tests. By presenting standardized procedures for testing and comparing subjects, this endeavor hopes to speed scientific progress in synesthesia research. PMID:16919755

  19. [Colors, tastes, numbers?: synesthesia in a Spanish sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Helena; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Ríos-Lago, Marcos

    2015-02-16

    Synesthesia is a neural phenomenon in which stimulation in one sensory or cognitive stream leads to associated experiences in a second, unstimulated stream. These activations occur involuntarily, automatically and consistently over time. To estimate the relative frequency of the different modalities of the phenomenon in a Spanish sample. Study performed in educational (55.04%), labor (20.54%) and digital contexts (24.4%) using the Synesthesia Questionnaire created by Artecitta Foundation. The analysis of the responses given by 803 participants suggests that 13.95% of the sample experience any synesthesia. The analysis of the relative frequencies shows that the most frequent modality is spatial sequence synesthesia (44.6%). 33.9% see colors when listening to sounds and/or music, 25.9% associate colors to temporal concepts, 20.5% assign gender and personality to letters and numbers, 10.7% experience grapheme-color synesthesia and 5.4% feel a specific flavor when hearing words. These data suggest that the presence of synesthesia in the Spanish sample under study is high, and that the investigation of the phenomenon and its different modalities needs to be approached on the basis of the current knowledge about its phenomenological variability and its genetic and neurophysiologic characteristics. Likewise, the results are useful to adjust the questionnaire items and increase their discriminative power.

  20. Synesthesia strengthens sound-symbolic cross-modal correspondences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Martinez, Margaret; McCormick, Kelly; Sathian, K

    2016-11-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which an experience in one domain is accompanied by an involuntary secondary experience in another, unrelated domain; in classical synesthesia, these associations are arbitrary and idiosyncratic. Cross-modal correspondences refer to universal associations between seemingly unrelated sensory features, e.g., auditory pitch and visual size. Some argue that these phenomena form a continuum, with classical synesthesia being an exaggeration of universal cross-modal correspondences, whereas others contend that the two are quite different, since cross-modal correspondences are non-arbitrary, non-idiosyncratic, and do not involve secondary experiences. Here, we used the implicit association test to compare synesthetes' and non-synesthetes' sensitivity to cross-modal correspondences. We tested the associations between auditory pitch and visual elevation, auditory pitch and visual size, and sound-symbolic correspondences between auditory pseudowords and visual shapes. Synesthetes were more sensitive than non-synesthetes to cross-modal correspondences involving sound-symbolic, but not low-level sensory, associations. We conclude that synesthesia heightens universally experienced cross-modal correspondences, but only when these involve sound symbolism. This is only partly consistent with the idea of a continuum between synesthesia and cross-modal correspondences, but accords with the idea that synesthesia is a high-level, post-perceptual phenomenon, with spillover of the abilities of synesthetes into domains outside their synesthesias. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that synesthetes, relative to non-synesthetes, experience stronger cross-modal correspondences outside their synesthetic domains. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Dynamic phenomenology of grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Bruce; Winter, Dorina; Tseng, Philip

    2010-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, observers perceive colors that are associated with letters and numbers. We tested the dynamic limits of this phenomenon by exposing two synesthetes to characters that rotate smoothly, that morph into other characters, that disappear abruptly, or that have colors either consistent or inconsistent with the corresponding synesthetic color. Rotating letters changed their synesthetic colors abruptly as letter identification changed or failed. Morphing letters also changed color together with a change in letter identification. Abrupt disappearance of a black character on a white background yielded a negative afterimage, but maintenance of the same synesthetic color. Our synesthetes could maintain both physical and synesthetic color in the same character, without conflict. Neon color spreading in one observer occurred for physical but not synesthetic color. These and other results show close linking of synesthetic color with character identity rather than image properties, in contrast to physical color.

  2. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the mechanism underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2-mediated abrogation of DNA replication stress. Indrajeet Ghodke and K Muniyappa. Supplementary Material. Supplementary table 1. Plasmids used in this study ...

  3. Beyond visual imagery: how modality-specific is enhanced mental imagery in synesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Mary Jane; Jonas, Clare N; Simner, Julia; Jansari, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia based in visual modalities has been associated with reports of vivid visual imagery. We extend this finding to consider whether other forms of synesthesia are also associated with enhanced imagery, and whether this enhancement reflects the modality of synesthesia. We used self-report imagery measures across multiple sensory modalities, comparing synesthetes' responses (with a variety of forms of synesthesia) to those of non-synesthete matched controls. Synesthetes reported higher levels of visual, auditory, gustatory, olfactory and tactile imagery and a greater level of imagery use. Furthermore, their reported enhanced imagery is restricted to the modalities involved in the individual's synesthesia. There was also a relationship between the number of forms of synesthesia an individual has, and the reported vividness of their imagery, highlighting the need for future research to consider the impact of multiple forms of synesthesia. We also recommend the use of behavioral measures to validate these self-report findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of the body schema on mirror-touch synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Jared; DePasquale, Carrie

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) report feeling touch on their own body when seeing someone else being touched. We examined how the body schema - an on-line representation of body position in space - is involved in mapping touch from a viewed body to one's own body. We showed 45 mirror-touch synesthetes videos of a hand being touched, varying the location of the viewed touch by hand (left, right), skin surface (palmar, dorsal) and finger (index, ring). Participant hand posture was either congruent or incongruent with the posture of the viewed hand. After seeing the video, participants were asked to report whether they felt touch on their own body and, if so, the intensity and location of their percepts. We found that participants reported more frequent and more veridical (i.e., felt at the same somatotopic location as the viewed touch) mirror-touch percepts on posturally congruent versus posturally incongruent trials. Furthermore, participant response patterns varied as a function of postural congruence. Some participants consistently felt sensations on the hand surface that was stimulated in the video - even if their hands were in the opposite posture. Other participants' responses were modulated based on their own hand position, such that percepts were more likely to be felt on the upright, plausible hand surface in the posturally incongruent condition. These results provide evidence that mapping viewed touch to one's own body involves an on-line representation of body position in space. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Color synesthesia. Insight into perception, emotion, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Avinoam B; Sanda, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    Synesthesia is an extraordinary perceptual phenomenon, in which individuals experience unusual percepts elicited by the activation of an unrelated sensory modality or by a cognitive process. Emotional reactions are commonly associated. The condition prompted philosophical debates on the nature of perception and impacted the course of art history. It recently generated a considerable interest among neuroscientists, but its clinical significance apparently remains underevaluated. This review focuses on the recent studies regarding variants of color synesthesia, the commonest form of the condition. Synesthesia is commonly classified as developmental and acquired. Developmental forms predispose to changes in primary sensory processing and cognitive functions, usually with better performances in certain aspects and worse in others, and to heightened creativity. Acquired forms of synesthesia commonly arise from drug ingestion or neurological disorders, including thalamic lesions and sensory deprivation (e.g., blindness). Cerebral exploration using structural and functional imaging has demonstrated distinct patterns in cortical activation and brain connectivity for controls and synesthetes. Artworks of affected painters are most illustrative of the nature of synesthetic experiences. Results of the recent investigations on synesthesia offered a remarkable insight into the mechanisms of perception, emotion and consciousness, and deserve attention both from neuroscientists and from clinicians.

  6. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Color synesthesia. Insight into perception, emotion, and consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Avinoam B.; Sanda, Nicolae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Synesthesia is an extraordinary perceptual phenomenon, in which individuals experience unusual percepts elicited by the activation of an unrelated sensory modality or by a cognitive process. Emotional reactions are commonly associated. The condition prompted philosophical debates on the nature of perception and impacted the course of art history. It recently generated a considerable interest among neuroscientists, but its clinical significance apparently remains underevaluated. This review focuses on the recent studies regarding variants of color synesthesia, the commonest form of the condition. Recent findings Synesthesia is commonly classified as developmental and acquired. Developmental forms predispose to changes in primary sensory processing and cognitive functions, usually with better performances in certain aspects and worse in others, and to heightened creativity. Acquired forms of synesthesia commonly arise from drug ingestion or neurological disorders, including thalamic lesions and sensory deprivation (e.g., blindness). Cerebral exploration using structural and functional imaging has demonstrated distinct patterns in cortical activation and brain connectivity for controls and synesthetes. Artworks of affected painters are most illustrative of the nature of synesthetic experiences. Summary Results of the recent investigations on synesthesia offered a remarkable insight into the mechanisms of perception, emotion and consciousness, and deserve attention both from neuroscientists and from clinicians. PMID:25545055

  8. Why Saturday could be both green and red in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miozzo, Michele; Laeng, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    It has long been observed that certain words induce multiple synesthetic colors, a phenomenon that has remained largely unexplored. We report here on the distinct synesthetic colors two synesthetes experienced with closed sets of concepts (digits, weekdays, months). For example, Saturday was associated with green, like other word starting with s; however, Saturday also had its specific color (red). Auditory priming and Visual Color Stroop tasks were used to understand the cognitive mechanisms supporting the distinct synesthetic colors. Results revealed that processing of word segments and whole words was specifically involved in each type of synesthetic colors. However, these mechanisms differed between participants, as they could relate either to orthography (and written words) or phonology (and spoken words). Further differences concerned the word representations, which varied as to whether or not they encoded serial positions. In addition to clarifying the cognitive mechanisms underlying the distinct synesthetic colors, our results offer some clues for understanding the neurocognitive underpinnings of a rather common form of synesthesia.

  9. Components of Attention in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia: A Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árni Gunnar Ásgeirsson

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition where the perception of graphemes consistently and automatically evokes an experience of non-physical color. Many have studied how synesthesia affects the processing of achromatic graphemes, but less is known about the synesthetic processing of physically colored graphemes. Here, we investigated how the visual processing of colored letters is affected by the congruence or incongruence of synesthetic grapheme-color associations. We briefly presented graphemes (10-150 ms to 9 grapheme-color synesthetes and to 9 control observers. Their task was to report as many letters (targets as possible, while ignoring digit (distractors. Graphemes were either congruently or incongruently colored with the synesthetes' reported grapheme-color association. A mathematical model, based on Bundesen's (1990 Theory of Visual Attention (TVA, was fitted to each observer's data, allowing us to estimate discrete components of visual attention. The models suggested that the synesthetes processed congruent letters faster than incongruent ones, and that they were able to retain more congruent letters in visual short-term memory, while the control group's model parameters were not significantly affected by congruence. The increase in processing speed, when synesthetes process congruent letters, suggests that synesthesia affects the processing of letters at a perceptual level. To account for the benefit in processing speed, we propose that synesthetic associations become integrated into the categories of graphemes, and that letter colors are considered as evidence for making certain perceptual categorizations in the visual system. We also propose that enhanced visual short-term memory capacity for congruently colored graphemes can be explained by the synesthetes' expertise regarding their specific grapheme-color associations.

  10. Components of Attention in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia: A Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Nordfang, Maria; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition where the perception of graphemes consistently and automatically evokes an experience of non-physical color. Many have studied how synesthesia affects the processing of achromatic graphemes, but less is known about the synesthetic processing of physically colored graphemes. Here, we investigated how the visual processing of colored letters is affected by the congruence or incongruence of synesthetic grapheme-color associations. We briefly presented graphemes (10-150 ms) to 9 grapheme-color synesthetes and to 9 control observers. Their task was to report as many letters (targets) as possible, while ignoring digit (distractors). Graphemes were either congruently or incongruently colored with the synesthetes' reported grapheme-color association. A mathematical model, based on Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), was fitted to each observer's data, allowing us to estimate discrete components of visual attention. The models suggested that the synesthetes processed congruent letters faster than incongruent ones, and that they were able to retain more congruent letters in visual short-term memory, while the control group's model parameters were not significantly affected by congruence. The increase in processing speed, when synesthetes process congruent letters, suggests that synesthesia affects the processing of letters at a perceptual level. To account for the benefit in processing speed, we propose that synesthetic associations become integrated into the categories of graphemes, and that letter colors are considered as evidence for making certain perceptual categorizations in the visual system. We also propose that enhanced visual short-term memory capacity for congruently colored graphemes can be explained by the synesthetes' expertise regarding their specific grapheme-color associations.

  11. Grapheme-color synesthesia influences overt visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Jonathan S A; Eaton, Daniel; Reynolds, Michael G; Dixon, Mike J; Smilek, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    For individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia, achromatic letters and digits elicit vivid perceptual experiences of color. We report two experiments that evaluate whether synesthesia influences overt visual attention. In these experiments, two grapheme-color synesthetes viewed colored letters while their eye movements were monitored. Letters were presented in colors that were either congruent or incongruent with the synesthetes' colors. Eye tracking analysis showed that synesthetes exhibited a color congruity bias-a propensity to fixate congruently colored letters more often and for longer durations than incongruently colored letters-in a naturalistic free-viewing task. In a more structured visual search task, this congruity bias caused synesthetes to rapidly fixate and identify congruently colored target letters, but led to problems in identifying incongruently colored target letters. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for perception in synesthesia.

  12. A critical review of the neuroimaging literature on synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupé, Jean-Michel; Dojat, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia refers to additional sensations experienced by some people for specific stimulations, such as the systematic arbitrary association of colors to letters for the most studied type. Here, we review all the studies (based mostly on functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging) that have searched for the neural correlates of this subjective experience, as well as structural differences related to synesthesia. Most differences claimed for synesthetes are unsupported, due mainly to low statistical power, statistical errors, and methodological limitations. Our critical review therefore casts some doubts on whether any neural correlate of the synesthetic experience has been established yet. Rather than being a neurological condition (i.e., a structural or functional brain anomaly), synesthesia could be reconsidered as a special kind of childhood memory, whose signature in the brain may be out of reach with present brain imaging techniques.

  13. A critical review of the neuroimaging literature on synesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel eHupé

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia refers to additional sensations experienced by some people for specific stimulations, such as the systematic arbitrary association of colors to letters for the most studied type. Here we review all the studies (based mostly on functional and structural MRI that have searched for the neural correlates of this subjective experience, as well as structural differences related to synesthesia. Most differences claimed for synesthetes are unsupported, due mainly to low statistical power, statistical errors and methodological limitations. Our critical review therefore casts some doubts on whether any neural correlate of the synesthetic experience has been established yet. Rather than being a neurological condition (i.e., a structural or functional brain anomaly, synesthesia could be reconsidered as a special kind of childhood memory, whose signature in the brain may be out of reach with present brain imaging techniques.

  14. Mirror-Touch and Ticker Tape Perceptions in Synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Anne Chun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia’s connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person’s arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one’s own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker’s mouth. To explore synesthesia’s associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n=3,743 was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1,017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However effect size was small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2 to 4% and sequence-space synesthesia (9 to 14%. Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect

  15. A taste for words and sounds: a case of lexical-gustatory and sound-gustatory synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2013-01-01

    Gustatory forms of synesthesia involve the automatic and consistent experience of tastes that are triggered by non-taste related inducers. We present a case of lexical-gustatory and sound-gustatory synesthesia within one individual, SC. Most words and a subset of non-linguistic sounds induce the experience of taste, smell and physical sensations for SC. SC's lexical-gustatory associations were significantly more consistent than those of a group of controls. We tested for effects of presentation modality (visual vs. auditory), taste-related congruency, and synesthetic inducer-concurrent direction using a priming task. SC's performance did not differ significantly from a trained control group. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of SC's synesthetic experiences by comparing her brain activation to the literature on brain networks related to language, music, and sound processing, in addition to synesthesia. Words that induced a strong taste were contrasted to words that induced weak-to-no tastes ("tasty" vs. "tasteless" words). Brain activation was also measured during passive listening to music and environmental sounds. Brain activation patterns showed evidence that two regions are implicated in SC's synesthetic experience of taste and smell: the left anterior insula and left superior parietal lobe. Anterior insula activation may reflect the synesthetic taste experience. The superior parietal lobe is proposed to be involved in binding sensory information across sub-types of synesthetes. We conclude that SC's synesthesia is genuine and reflected in her brain activation. The type of inducer (visual-lexical, auditory-lexical, and non-lexical auditory stimuli) could be differentiated based on patterns of brain activity.

  16. A taste for words and sounds: a case of lexical-gustatory and sound-gustatory synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia eColizoli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gustatory forms of synesthesia involve the automatic and consistent experience of tastes that are triggered by non-taste related inducers. We present a case of lexical-gustatory and sound-gustatory synesthesia within one individual, SC. Most words and a subset of nonlinguistic sounds induce the experience of taste, smell and physical sensations for SC. SC’s lexical-gustatory associations were significantly more consistent than those of a group of controls. We tested for effects of presentation modality (visual vs. auditory, taste-related congruency, and synesthetic inducer-concurrent direction using a priming task. SC’s performance did not differ significantly from a trained control group. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of SC’s synesthetic experiences by comparing her brain activation to the literature on brain networks related to language, music and sound processing, in addition to synesthesia. Words that induced a strong taste were contrasted to words that induced weak-to-no tastes (tasty vs. tasteless words. Brain activation was also measured during passive listening to music and environmental sounds. Brain activation patterns showed evidence that two regions are implicated in SC’s synesthetic experience of taste and smell: the left anterior insula and left superior parietal lobe. Anterior insula activation may reflect the synesthetic taste experience. The superior parietal lobe is proposed to be involved in binding sensory information across sub-types of synesthetes. We conclude that SC’s synesthesia is genuine and reflected in her brain activation. The type of inducer (visual-lexical, auditory-lexical, and non-lexical auditory stimuli could be differentiated based on patterns of brain activity.

  17. Grapheme learning and grapheme-color synesthesia: Toward a comprehensive model of grapheme-color association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko eAsano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in grapheme-color synesthesia research has revealed that certain regularities, as well as individual differences, figure into grapheme-color associations. Although several factors are known to regulate grapheme-color associations, the impact of factors, including their interrelationships, on synesthesia remains unclear. We investigated determinants of synesthetic color for graphemes (characters, letters of Hiragana, a phonetic script in the Japanese language, and the English alphabet. Results revealed that grapheme ordinality was the strongest predictor of synesthetic colors for Hiragana characters, followed by character sound, and visual shape. Ordinality and visual shapes also significantly predicted synesthetic colors for English alphabet letters, however, sounds did not. The relative impact of grapheme properties on grapheme-color associations and the differences between these two writing systems are accounted for by considering the way graphemes are processed in the brain and introduced during an individual's development. A new model is proposed which takes into account the developmental process of grapheme learning. The model provides comprehensive explanation of synesthetic grapheme-color association determination processes, including the differences across writing systems.

  18. Grapheme learning and grapheme-color synesthesia: toward a comprehensive model of grapheme-color association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in grapheme-color synesthesia research has revealed that certain regularities, as well as individual differences, figure into grapheme-color associations. Although several factors are known to regulate grapheme-color associations, the impact of factors, including their interrelationships, on synesthesia remains unclear. We investigated determinants of synesthetic color for graphemes (characters, letters) of Hiragana, a phonetic script in the Japanese language, and the English alphabet. Results revealed that grapheme ordinality was the strongest predictor of synesthetic colors for Hiragana characters, followed by character sound, and visual shape. Ordinality and visual shapes also significantly predicted synesthetic colors for English alphabet letters, however, sounds did not. The relative impact of grapheme properties on grapheme-color associations and the differences between these two writing systems are accounted for by considering the way graphemes are processed in the brain and introduced during an individual's development. A new model is proposed which takes into account the developmental process of grapheme learning. The model provides comprehensive explanation of synesthetic grapheme-color association determination processes, including the differences across writing systems.

  19. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 41; Issue 4. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the mechanism underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2-mediated abrogation of DNA replication stress. INDRAJEET GHODKE K MUNIYAPPA. ARTICLE Volume 41 Issue 4 December 2016 pp ...

  20. Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals evidence for the basis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals evidence for the basis of salt sensitivity in Thai jasmine rice ( Oryza sativa L. cv. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... the posttranscriptional mechanisms controlling protein expression levels were not as efficient as in Pokkali, indicating targets for future genetic improvement.

  1. When visual perception causes feeling: enhanced cross-modal processing in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Peter H; Zilles, Karl; Fink, Gereon R

    2005-12-01

    In synesthesia, stimulation of one sensory modality (e.g., hearing) triggers a percept in another, non-stimulated sensory modality (e.g., vision). Likewise, perception of a form (e.g., a letter) may induce a color percept (i.e., grapheme-color synesthesia). To date, the neural mechanisms underlying synesthesia remain to be elucidated. We disclosed by fMRI, while controlling for surface color processing, enhanced activity in the left intraparietal cortex during the experience of grapheme-color synesthesia (n = 9). In contrast, the perception of surface color per se activated the color centers in the fusiform gyrus bilaterally. The data support theoretical accounts that grapheme-color synesthesia may originate from enhanced cross-modal binding of form and color. A mismatch of surface color and grapheme induced synesthetically felt color additionally activated the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This suggests that cognitive control processes become active to resolve the perceptual conflict resulting from synesthesia.

  2. Synesthesia for color is linked to improved color perception but reduced motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banissy, Michael J; Tester, Victoria; Muggleton, Neil G; Janik, Agnieszka B; Davenport, Aimee; Franklin, Anna; Walsh, Vincent; Ward, Jamie

    2013-12-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which one property of a stimulus (e.g., shape) triggers a secondary percept (e.g., color) not typically associated with the first. Work on synesthesia has predominantly focused on confirming the authenticity of synesthetic experience, but much less research has been conducted to examine the extent to which synesthesia is linked to broader perceptual differences. In the research reported here, we examined whether synesthesia is associated with differences in color and motion processing by comparing these abilities in synesthetes who experience color as their evoked sensation with nonsynesthetic participants. We show that synesthesia for color is linked to facilitated color sensitivity but decreased motion sensitivity. These findings are discussed in relation to the neurocognitive mechanisms of synesthesia and interactions between color and motion processing in typical adults.

  3. Survival of the synesthesia gene: why do people hear colors and taste words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Ramachandran, V S

    2011-11-01

    Synesthesia is a perceptual experience in which stimuli presented through one modality will spontaneously evoke sensations in an unrelated modality. The condition occurs from increased communication between sensory regions and is involuntary, automatic, and stable over time. While synesthesia can occur in response to drugs, sensory deprivation, or brain damage, research has largely focused on heritable variants comprising roughly 4% of the general population. Genetic research on synesthesia suggests the phenomenon is heterogeneous and polygenetic, yet it remains unclear whether synesthesia ever provided a selective advantage or is merely a byproduct of some other useful selected trait. Progress in uncovering the genetic basis of synesthesia will help us understand why synesthesia has been conserved in the population.

  4. Survival of the synesthesia gene: why do people hear colors and taste words?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a perceptual experience in which stimuli presented through one modality will spontaneously evoke sensations in an unrelated modality. The condition occurs from increased communication between sensory regions and is involuntary, automatic, and stable over time. While synesthesia can occur in response to drugs, sensory deprivation, or brain damage, research has largely focused on heritable variants comprising roughly 4% of the general population. Genetic research on synesthesia suggests the phenomenon is heterogeneous and polygenetic, yet it remains unclear whether synesthesia ever provided a selective advantage or is merely a byproduct of some other useful selected trait. Progress in uncovering the genetic basis of synesthesia will help us understand why synesthesia has been conserved in the population.

  5. Synesthesia and learning: a critical review and novel theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Marcus R; Akins, Kathleen A; Spiker, Chris; Crawford, Lyle; Enns, James T

    2014-01-01

    Learning and synesthesia are profoundly interconnected. On the one hand, the development of synesthesia is clearly influenced by learning. Synesthetic inducers - the stimuli that evoke these unusual experiences - often involve the perception of complex properties learned in early childhood, e.g., letters, musical notes, numbers, months of the year, and even swimming strokes. Further, recent research has shown that the associations individual synesthetes make with these learned inducers are not arbitrary, but are strongly influenced by the structure of the learned domain. For instance, the synesthetic colors of letters are partially determined by letter frequency and the relative positions of letters in the alphabet. On the other hand, there is also a small, but growing, body of literature which shows that synesthesia can influence or be helpful in learning. For instance, synesthetes appear to be able to use their unusual experiences as mnemonic devices and can even exploit them while learning novel abstract categories. Here we review these two directions of influence and argue that they are interconnected. We propose that synesthesia arises, at least in part, because of the cognitive demands of learning in childhood, and that it is used to aid perception and understanding of a variety of learned categories. Our thesis is that the structural similarities between synesthetic triggering stimuli and synesthetic experiences are the remnants, the fossilized traces, of past learning challenges for which synsethesia was helpful.

  6. A social semiotic theory of synesthesia? - A discussion paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leeuwen, T.

    2016-01-01

    After a brief survey of ideas about synesthesia in philosophy, science and the arts, this paper explores the common qualities of the parameters of colour, graphic shape (including typography), timbre and texture, hypothesizes a number of points of correspondence and argues for their semiotic...

  7. What spatial coordinate defines color-space synesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Isabel; Ofir, Shiran; Henik, Avishai

    2016-06-01

    Synesthesia is characterized by the association between different stimuli modalities. For example, in sequence-space synesthesia, numbers, weekdays, months, and musical tones are visualized in specific spatial locations. Although sequence-space synesthesia tends to co-occur with other types of synesthesia (e.g., grapheme-color), our knowledge about how these individuals represent space is still limited. A central issue for understanding spatial processing refers to the coordinate system used to represent spatial locations. We report on a space-color synesthete (N.W.) who vividly experiences colors in specific spatial locations. We used a task where N.W. and control subjects were required to report the location of a gray square relative to a colored square. The color of the square was task-irrelevant. Participants responded to the following trial types: (1) central trials, where one stimulus appeared on the left and the other on the right side of fixation, and (2) relative location trials, where both stimuli appeared either on the left or on the right side of fixation. Results showed that the color of the target had a strong impact on N.W.'s responses on both trial types, but not on the controls' responses. These results show that the spatial representation underlying N.W.'s synesthetic experience is automatic and sensitive to the relative location of objects. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Synesthesia and Creativity in Fine Arts Students: An Empirical Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, George

    1989-01-01

    A study of 358 fine arts students at three large universities indicated that 23 percent experienced synesthesia in a spontaneous and consistent manner, and 49 percent reported no such experience. Results of comparative analysis are consistent with anecdotal reports that synesthetes are often successful in artistic fields, and possess high degrees…

  9. Components of Attention in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Nordfang, Maria; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition where the perception of graphemes consistently and automatically evokes an experience of non-physical color. Many have studied how synesthesia affects the processing of achromatic graphemes, but less is known about the synesthetic processing of physically...... colored graphemes. Here, we investigated how the visual processing of colored letters is affected by the congruence or incongruence of synesthetic grapheme-color associations. We briefly presented graphemes (10–150 ms) to 9 grapheme-color synesthetes and to 9 control observers. Their task was to report......’s data, allowing us to estimate discrete components of visual attention. The models suggested that the synesthetes processed congruent letters faster than incongruent ones, and that they were able to retain more congruent letters in visual short-term memory, while the control group’s model parameters...

  10. Approaches in Synesthesia Research: Neurocognitive Aspects and Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mikus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a fairly rare phenomenon in which the subject in contact with certain stimulus in one modality experiences unusual extra sensations in other modalities, such as seeing or feeling colours while listening to music or personifying of letters and numbers. The phenomenon was long perceived to be merely a product of imagination and associations. Latest research, however, is based on a multidisciplinary approach, which includes first-hand synesthetic reports, neuroimaging and behavioural tests used in confirming and explaining the phenomenon’s presence as well as its neurophysiological foundations. This article presents an overview of such investigations through the lens of cognitive and psychophysical paradigms, neural models and genetic studies of synesthesia.

  11. Neurophysiological investigation of idiopathic acquired auditory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afra, Pegah; Anderson, Jeffrey; Funke, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Matsuo, Fumisuke; Constantino, Tawnya; Warner, Judith

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of acquired auditory-visual synesthesia and its neurophysiological investigation in a healthy 42-year-old woman. She started experiencing persistent positive and intermittent negative visual phenomena at age 37 followed by auditory-visual synesthesia. Her neurophysiological investigation included video-EEG, fMRI, and MEG. Auditory stimuli (700 Hz, 50 ms duration, 0.5 s ISI) were presented binaurally at 60 db above the hearing threshold in a dark room. The patient had bilateral symmetrical auditory-evoked neuromagnetic responses followed by an occipital-evoked field 16.3 ms later. The activation of occipital cortex following auditory stimuli may represent recruitment of existing cross-modal sensory pathways.

  12. Multicolored words: Uncovering the relationship between reading mechanisms and synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Laura J; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M

    2016-02-01

    Grapheme-color and lexical-color synesthesia, the association of colors with letters and words, respectively, are some of the most commonly studied forms of synesthesia, yet relatively little is known about how synesthesia arises from and interfaces with the reading process. To date, synesthetic experiences in reading have only been reported in relation to a word's graphemes and meaning. We present a case study of WBL, a 21-year old male who experiences synesthetic colors for letters and words. Over 3 months, we obtained nearly 3000 color judgments for visually presented monomorphemic, prefixed, suffixed, and compound words as well as judgments for pseudocompound words (e.g., carpet), and nonwords. In Experiment 1, we show that word color is nearly always determined by the color of the first letter. Furthermore, WBL reported two separate colors for prefixed and compound words approximately 14% of the time, with the additional color determined by the first letter of the second morpheme. In Experiment 2, we further investigated how various morphological factors influenced WBL's percepts using the compound norms of Juhasz, Lai, and Woodcock (2014). In a logistic regression analysis of color judgments for nearly 400 compounds, we observed that the likelihood that WBL would perceive a compound as bearing 1 lexical color or 2 lexical colors was influenced by a variety of factors including stem frequency, compound frequency, and the relationship between the meaning of the compound and the meaning of its stems. This constitutes the first study reporting an effect of morphological structure in synesthesia and demonstrates that synesthetic colors result from a complex interaction of perceptual, graphemic, morphological, and semantic factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The development of a scientific understanding of synesthesia from early case studies (1849-1873).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewanski, Jörg; Simner, Julia; Day, Sean A; Ward, Jamie

    2011-10-01

    The first case of synesthesia was reported in 1812 ( Jewanski, Day, & Ward, 2009 ). However, it took almost seven decades before the idea of synesthesia entered the mainstream of science and, subsequently, art. There are no known new cases described between 1812 and 1848, but in the following three decades there are at least 11 reported cases of synesthesia and many reviews of these cases. This comes at an important period in the history of the neurosciences, and for sensory physiology in particular. However, the literature that describes synesthesia during this period is largely unknown to contemporary researchers and historians. The aim of this review is to discuss the reports of synesthesia during this period, providing translations of some key passages, and to place these reports within the contextual framework of nineteenth-century neuroscience.

  14. Multilevel analysis of individual differences in regularities of grapheme-color associations in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Saiki, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon where visual perception of letters and numbers stimulates perception of a specific color. Grapheme-color correspondences have been shown to be systematically associated with grapheme properties, including visual shape difference, ordinality, and frequency. However, the contributions of grapheme factors differ across individuals. In this study, we applied multilevel analysis to test whether individual differences in regularities of grapheme-color associations could be explained by individual styles of processing grapheme properties. These processing styles are reflected by the type of synesthetic experience. Specifically, we hypothesized that processing focusing on shape differences would be associated with projector synesthetes, while processing focusing on ordinality or familiarity would be associated with associator synesthetes. The analysis revealed that ordinality and familiarity factors were expressed more strongly among associators than among projectors. This finding suggests that grapheme-color associations are partly determined by the type of synesthetic experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Color and texture associations in voice-induced synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Anja; Simmons, David; Simner, Julia; Smith, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Voice-induced synesthesia, a form of synesthesia in which synesthetic perceptions are induced by the sounds of people's voices, appears to be relatively rare and has not been systematically studied. In this study we investigated the synesthetic color and visual texture perceptions experienced in response to different types of "voice quality" (e.g., nasal, whisper, falsetto). Experiences of three different groups-self-reported voice synesthetes, phoneticians, and controls-were compared using both qualitative and quantitative analysis in a study conducted online. Whilst, in the qualitative analysis, synesthetes used more color and texture terms to describe voices than either phoneticians or controls, only weak differences, and many similarities, between groups were found in the quantitative analysis. Notable consistent results between groups were the matching of higher speech fundamental frequencies with lighter and redder colors, the matching of "whispery" voices with smoke-like textures, and the matching of "harsh" and "creaky" voices with textures resembling dry cracked soil. These data are discussed in the light of current thinking about definitions and categorizations of synesthesia, especially in cases where individuals apparently have a range of different synesthetic inducers.

  16. Musical space synesthesia: automatic, explicit and conceptual connections between musical stimuli and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva-Kabiri, Lilach; Linkovski, Omer; Gertner, Limor; Henik, Avishai

    2014-08-01

    In musical-space synesthesia, musical pitches are perceived as having a spatially defined array. Previous studies showed that symbolic inducers (e.g., numbers, months) can modulate response according to the inducer's relative position on the synesthetic spatial form. In the current study we tested two musical-space synesthetes and a group of matched controls on three different tasks: musical-space mapping, spatial cue detection and a spatial Stroop-like task. In the free mapping task, both synesthetes exhibited a diagonal organization of musical pitch tones rising from bottom left to the top right. This organization was found to be consistent over time. In the subsequent tasks, synesthetes were asked to ignore an auditory or visually presented musical pitch (irrelevant information) and respond to a visual target (i.e., an asterisk) on the screen (relevant information). Compatibility between musical pitch and the target's spatial location was manipulated to be compatible or incompatible with the synesthetes' spatial representations. In the spatial cue detection task participants had to press the space key immediately upon detecting the target. In the Stroop-like task, they had to reach the target by using a mouse cursor. In both tasks, synesthetes' performance was modulated by the compatibility between irrelevant and relevant spatial information. Specifically, the target's spatial location conflicted with the spatial information triggered by the irrelevant musical stimulus. These results reveal that for musical-space synesthetes, musical information automatically orients attention according to their specific spatial musical-forms. The present study demonstrates the genuineness of musical-space synesthesia by revealing its two hallmarks-automaticity and consistency. In addition, our results challenge previous findings regarding an implicit vertical representation for pitch tones in non-synesthete musicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of non-symbolic numerical information suggest the existence of magnitude-space synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, Limor; Arend, Isabel; Henik, Avishai

    2012-08-01

    In number-space synesthesia, numbers are visualized in spatially defined arrays. In a recent study (Gertner et al. in Cortex, doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2012.03.019 , 2012), we found that the size congruency effect (SiCE) for physical judgments (i.e., comparing numbers' physical sizes while ignoring their numerical values, for example, 8) was modulated by the spatial position of the presented numbers. Surprisingly, we found that the neutral condition, which is comprise solely of physical sizes (e.g., 3), was affected as well. This pattern gave rise to the idea that number-space synesthesia might entail not only discrete, ordered, meaningful symbols (i.e., Arabic numbers) but also continuous non-symbolic magnitudes (i.e., sizes, length, luminance, etc.). We tested this idea by assessing the performance of two number-space synesthetes and 12 matched controls in 3 comparative judgment tasks involving symbolic and non-symbolic stimuli: (1) Arabic numbers, (2) dot clusters, and (3) sizes of squares. The spatial position of the presented stimuli was manipulated to be compatible or incompatible with respect to the synesthetic number-space perceptions. Results revealed that for synesthetes, but not for controls, non-symbolic magnitudes (dot clusters) as well as symbolic magnitudes (i.e., Arabic numbers) interacted with space. Our study suggests that number-space synesthetes might have a general magnitude-space association that is not restricted to concrete symbolic stimuli. These findings support recent theories on the perception and evaluation of sizes in numerical cognition.

  18. Synesthesia induced colors do not bias attention in the same manner as physical colors do

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia affects visual cognition in significant ways. The congruence or incongruence of physical stimuli with synesthetic color affects how quickly and accurately synesthetes respond to stimuli, and the induced color experience may help them memorize achromatic material...... represented in visual memory of observers with color-grapheme synesthesia, and consequently biases attention towards the synesthesia congruent stimuli. A group of synesthetes performed a memory task combined with a visual search for colored Landolt squares to explore this question. Each trial started...

  19. Can grapheme-color synesthesia be induced by hypnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Hazel P; Seth, Anil K; Dienes, Zoltan; Ward, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a perceptual experience where graphemes, letters or words evoke a specific color, which are experienced either as spatially coincident with the grapheme inducer (projector sub-type) or elsewhere, perhaps without a definite spatial location (associator sub-type). Here, we address the question of whether synesthesia can be rapidly produced using a hypnotic color suggestion to examine the possibility of "hypnotic synesthesia", i.e., subjectively experienced color hallucinations similar to those experienced by projector synesthetes. We assess the efficacy of this intervention using an "embedded figures" test, in which participants are required to detect a shape (e.g., a square) composed of local graphemic elements. For grapheme-color synesthetes, better performance on the task has been linked to a higher proportion of graphemes perceived as colored. We found no performance benefits on this test when using a hypnotic suggestion, as compared to a no-suggestion control condition. The same result was found when participants were separated according to the degree to which they were susceptible to the suggestion (number of colored trials perceived). However, we found a relationship between accuracy and subjective reports of color in those participants who reported a large proportion of colored trials: trials in which the embedded figure was accurately recognized (relative to trials in which it was not) were associated with reports of more intense colors occupying a greater spatial extent. Collectively, this implies that hypnotic color was only perceived after shape detection rather than aiding in shape detection via color-based perceptual grouping. The results suggest that hypnotically induced colors are not directly comparable to synesthetic ones.

  20. Comparative genomics reveals evidence of marine adaptation in Salinispora species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Actinobacteria represent a consistent component of most marine bacterial communities yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these Gram-positive bacteria adapt to life in the marine environment. Here we employed a phylogenomic approach to identify marine adaptation genes in marine Actinobacteria. The focus was on the obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora and the identification of marine adaptation genes that have been acquired from other marine bacteria. Results Functional annotation, comparative genomics, and evidence of a shared evolutionary history with bacteria from hyperosmotic environments were used to identify a pool of more than 50 marine adaptation genes. An Actinobacterial species tree was used to infer the likelihood of gene gain or loss in accounting for the distribution of each gene. Acquired marine adaptation genes were associated with electron transport, sodium and ABC transporters, and channels and pores. In addition, the loss of a mechanosensitive channel gene appears to have played a major role in the inability of Salinispora strains to grow following transfer to low osmotic strength media. Conclusions The marine Actinobacteria for which genome sequences are available are broadly distributed throughout the Actinobacterial phylogenetic tree and closely related to non-marine forms suggesting they have been independently introduced relatively recently into the marine environment. It appears that the acquisition of transporters in Salinispora spp. represents a major marine adaptation while gene loss is proposed to play a role in the inability of this genus to survive outside of the marine environment. This study reveals fundamental differences between marine adaptations in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and no common genetic basis for marine adaptation among the Actinobacteria analyzed. PMID:22401625

  1. Metacontrast masking is processed before grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Michael Patrick; Bridgeman, Bruce; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the physiological mechanism of grapheme-color synesthesia using metacontrast masking. A metacontrast target is rendered invisible by a mask that is delayed by about 60 ms; the target and mask do not overlap in space or time. Little masking occurs, however, if the target and mask are simultaneous. This effect must be cortical, because it can be obtained dichoptically. To compare the data for synesthetes and controls, we developed a metacontrast design in which nonsynesthete controls showed weaker dichromatic masking (i.e., the target and mask were in different colors) than monochromatic masking. We accomplished this with an equiluminant target, mask, and background for each observer. If synesthetic color affected metacontrast, synesthetes should show monochromatic masking more similar to the weak dichromatic masking among controls, because synesthetes could add their synesthetic color to the monochromatic condition. The target-mask pairs used for each synesthete were graphemes that elicited strong synesthetic colors. We found stronger monochromatic than dichromatic U-shaped metacontrast for both synesthetes and controls, with optimal masking at an asynchrony of 66 ms. The difference in performance between the monochromatic and dichromatic conditions in the synesthetes indicates that synesthesia occurs at a later processing stage than does metacontrast masking.

  2. The emotional valence of a conflict: implications from synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Amit; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    According to some synesthetes' reports, their experience involves an emotional sensation in which a conflict between the photism and presented color of a stimulus may evoke a feeling of discomfort. In order to investigate the impact of this experience on performance, two experiments were carried out on two synesthetes and their matched control groups. Experiments were tailored for each synesthete according to her unique photism. Participants were presented with stimuli (numerals or words) in colors and were asked to name the color of the stimulus and to ignore its meaning. Incongruent colors were associated with negative or positive emotional words or with non-emotional words. Not surprisingly, an incongruent color (e.g., 5 presented in yellow to a synesthete that sees 5 in red) slowed down color naming. Conflict situations (e.g., a numeral in an incongruent color) created a negative emotional experience. Most importantly, coherence between a conflict or non-conflict emotional experience and the emotion elicited by the color of the stimulus for a given synesthete modulated performance. In particular, synesthetes were faster in coherent than in incoherent situations. This research contributes to the understanding of emotional experience in synesthesia, and also suggests that synesthesia can be used as an instrument to investigate emotional processes in the wider population.

  3. Multiple neural mechanisms for coloring words in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takemasa; Noguchi, Yasuki; Koga, Hiroki; Tachibana, Ryosuke; Saiki, Jun; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Kita, Shinichi

    2014-07-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a phenomenon in which achromatic letters/digits automatically induce particular colors. When multiple letters are integrated into a word, some synesthetes perceive that all those letters are changed into the same color, reporting lexical color to that word. Previous psychological studies found several "rules" that determine those lexical colors. The colors to most words are determined by the first letters of the words, while some words in ordinal sequences have their specific colors. Recent studies further reported the third case where lexical colors might be influenced by semantic information of words. Although neural mechanisms determining those lexical colors remained unknown, here we identified three separate neural systems in the synesthete's brain underlying three rules for illusory coloring of words. In addition to the occipito-temporal and parietal regions previously found to be associated with the grapheme-color synesthesia, neural systems for lexical coloring extended to linguistic areas in the left inferior frontal and anterior temporal regions that were engaged in semantic analyses of words. Those results indicate an involvement of wider and higher neural networks than previously assumed in a production of synesthetic colors to visual stimuli and further showed a multiplicity of synesthetic mechanisms represented in the single brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The emotional valence of a conflict: Implications from synesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit ePerry

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to some synesthetes' reports, their experience involves an emotional sensation in which a conflict between the photism and presented color of a stimulus may evoke a feeling of discomfort. In order to investigate the impact of this experience on performance, two experiments were carried out on two synesthetes and their matched control groups. Experiments were tailored for each synesthete according to her unique photism. Participants were presented with stimuli (numerals or words in colors and were asked to name the color of the stimulus and to ignore its meaning. Incongruent colors were associated with negative or positive emotional words or with non-emotional words. Not surprisingly, an incongruent color (e.g., 5 presented in yellow to a synesthete that sees 5 in red slowed down color naming. Conflict situations (e.g., a numeral in an incongruent color created a negative emotional experience. Most importantly, coherence between a conflict or non-conflict emotional experience and the emotion elicited by the color of the stimulus for a given synesthete modulated performance. In particular, synesthetes were faster in coherent than in incoherent situations. This research contributes to the understanding of emotional experience in synesthesia, and also suggests that synesthesia can be used as an instrument to investigate emotional processes in the wider population.

  5. Of colored numbers and numbered colors: interactive processes in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebuis, Titia; Nijboer, Tanja C W; van der Smagt, Maarten J

    2009-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes experience a specific color when they see a grapheme but they do not report to perceive a grapheme when a color is presented. In this study, we investigate whether color can still evoke number-processes even when a vivid number experience is absent. We used color-number and number-color priming, both revealing faster responses in congruent compared to incongruent conditions. Interestingly, the congruency effect was of similar magnitude for both conditions, and a numerical distance effect was present only in the color-number priming task. In addition, a priming task in which synesthetes had to judge the parity of a colored number revealed faster responses in parity congruent than in parity incongruent trials. These combined results demonstrate that synesthesia is indeed bi-directional and of similar strength in both directions. Furthermore, they illustrate the precise nature of these interactions and show that the direction of these interactions is determined by task demands, not by the more vividly experienced aspect of the stimulus.

  6. Grapheme-color synesthesia and posttraumatic stress disorder: preliminary results from the veterans health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stuart N; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Erlich, Porat M; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered neuropsychological function, possibly including complex visual information processing. Grapheme-color synesthesia refers to the phenomenon that a particular letter or number elicits the visual perception of a specific color. The study objective was to assess if grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with PTSD among US veterans. We surveyed 700 veterans who were outpatients in a multihospital system in Pennsylvania. All veterans had served at least one warzone deployment. PTSD and grapheme-color synesthesia were assessed using validated research instruments. The mean age of veterans was 59 years, and 96% were men. The prevalence of current PTSD was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.1-8.8), and current partial PTSD was 11% (95% CI = 9.3-14.0). The prevalence of current depression was 6% (95% CI = 4.7-8.3). Altogether, 6% (95% CI = 4.8-8.5) of veterans screened positive for grapheme-color synesthesia. Bivariate analyses suggested that grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with current PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, p = .004) and current partial PTSD (OR = 2.4, p = .013), but not current depression (OR = 1.1, p = .91). Multivariate logistic regression results, adjusting for age, sex, marital status, level of education, current psychotropic medication use, and concussion history, confirmed these results. Grapheme-color synesthesia seems to be associated with PTSD among veterans who had been deployed. This finding may have implications for PTSD diagnostic screening and treatment. Research is recommended to confirm this finding and to determine if synesthesia is a risk indicator for PTSD among nonveterans.

  7. Grapheme-color Synesthesia and PTSD: Preliminary Results from the Veterans Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stuart N.; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Erlich, Porat M.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered neuropsychological function, possibly including complex visual information processing. Grapheme-color synesthesia refers to the phenomenon that a particular letter or number elicits the visual perception of a specific color. The study objective was to assess if grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with PTSD among US veterans. Method We surveyed 700 veterans who were outpatients in a multi-hospital system in Pennsylvania. All veterans had served at least one warzone deployment. PTSD and grapheme-color synesthesia were assessed using a validated research instruments. Results The mean age of veterans was 59 and 96% were men. The prevalence of current PTSD was 7% (95% C.I. = 5.1–8.8) and current partial PTSD was 11% (95% C.I. = 9.3–14.0). The prevalence of current depression was 6% (95% C.I. = 4.7–8.3). Altogether, 6% (95% C.I. = 4.8–8.5) of veterans screened positive for grapheme-color synesthesia. Bivariate analyses suggested that grapheme-color synesthesia was associated with current PTSD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, p = 0.004) and current partial PTSD (OR = 2.4, p = 0.013), but not current depression (OR = 1.1, p = 0.91). Multivariate logistic regression results, adjusting for age, gender, marital status, level of education, current psychotropic medication use, and concussion history, confirmed these results. Conclusion Grapheme-color synesthesia appears to be associated with PTSD among veterans who had been deployed. This finding may have implications for PTSD diagnostic screening and treatment. Research is recommended to confirm this finding and to determine if synesthesia is a risk indicator for PTSD among nonveterans. PMID:23115347

  8. A taste for words and sounds: a case of lexical-gustatory and sound-gustatory synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Rouw, R.

    2013-01-01

    Gustatory forms of synesthesia involve the automatic and consistent experience of tastes that are triggered by non-taste related inducers. We present a case of lexical-gustatory and sound-gustatory synesthesia within one individual, SC. Most words and a subset of non-linguistic sounds induce the

  9. Chocolate smells pink and stripy: Exploring olfactory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex; Stevenson, Richard J; Rich, Anina N

    2015-01-01

    Odors are often difficult to identify, and can be perceived either via the nose or mouth ("flavor"; not usually perceived as a "smell"). These features provide a unique opportunity to contrast conceptual and perceptual accounts of synesthesia. We presented six olfactory-visual synesthetes with a range of odorants. They tried to identify each smell, evaluate its attributes and illustrate their elicited visual experience. Judges rated the similarity of each synesthetes' illustrations over time (test-retest reliability). Synesthetic images were most similar from the same odor named consistently, but even inconsistently named same odors generated more similar images than different odors. This was driven by hedonic similarity. Odors presented as flavors only resulted in similar images when consistently named. Thus, the primary factor in generating a reliable synesthetic image is the name, with some influence of odor hedonics. Hedonics are a basic form of semantic knowledge, making this consistent with a conceptual basis for synaesthetic links.

  10. Seeing mathematics: perceptual experience and brain activity in acquired synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Berit; Vanni, Simo; Silvanto, Juha

    2013-01-01

    We studied the patient JP who has exceptional abilities to draw complex geometrical images by hand and a form of acquired synesthesia for mathematical formulas and objects, which he perceives as geometrical figures. JP sees all smooth curvatures as discrete lines, similarly regardless of scale. We carried out two preliminary investigations to establish the perceptual nature of synesthetic experience and to investigate the neural basis of this phenomenon. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, image-inducing formulas produced larger fMRI responses than non-image inducing formulas in the left temporal, parietal and frontal lobes. Thus our main finding is that the activation associated with his experience of complex geometrical images emerging from mathematical formulas is restricted to the left hemisphere.

  11. Two plus blue equals green: grapheme-color synesthesia allows cognitive access to numerical information via color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J Daniel; Barnes, Lianne N; Alvarez, Bryan D; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2013-12-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, graphemes (e.g., numbers or letters) evoke color experiences. It is generally reported that the opposite is not true: colors will not generate experiences of graphemes or their associated information. However, recent research has provided evidence that colors can implicitly elicit symbolic representations of associated graphemes. Here, we examine if these representations can be cognitively accessed. Using a mathematical verification task replacing graphemes with color patches, we find that synesthetes can verify such problems with colors as accurately as with graphemes. Doing so, however, takes time: ~250 ms per color. Moreover, we find minimal reaction time switch-costs for switching between computing with graphemes and colors. This demonstrates that given specific task demands, synesthetes can cognitively access numerical information elicited by physical colors, and they do so as accurately as with graphemes. We discuss these results in the context of possible cognitive strategies used to access the information. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Effective connectivity determines the nature of subjective experience in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Hagoort, Peter

    2011-07-06

    Synesthesia provides an elegant model to investigate neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in subjective experience in humans. In grapheme-color synesthesia, written letters induce color sensations, accompanied by activation of color area V4. Competing hypotheses suggest that enhanced V4 activity during synesthesia is either induced by direct bottom-up cross-activation from grapheme processing areas within the fusiform gyrus, or indirectly via higher-order parietal areas. Synesthetes differ in the way synesthetic color is perceived: "projector" synesthetes experience color externally colocalized with a presented grapheme, whereas "associators" report an internally evoked association. Using dynamic causal modeling for fMRI, we show that V4 cross-activation during synesthesia was induced via a bottom-up pathway (within fusiform gyrus) in projector synesthetes, but via a top-down pathway (via parietal lobe) in associators. These findings show how altered coupling within the same network of active regions leads to differences in subjective experience. Our findings reconcile the two most influential cross-activation accounts of synesthesia.

  13. Working memory, situation models, and synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Gibson, Bradley S; McNerney, M Windy

    2014-01-01

    Research on language comprehension suggests a strong relationship between working memory span measures and language comprehension. However, there is also evidence that this relationship weakens at higher levels of comprehension, such as the situation model level. The current study explored this relationship by comparing 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who have additional color experiences when they read words that begin with different letters and 48 normal controls on a number of tests of complex working memory capacity and processing at the situation model level. On all tests of working memory capacity, the synesthetes outperformed the controls. Importantly, there was no carryover benefit for the synesthetes for processing at the situation model level. This reinforces the idea that although some aspects of language comprehension are related to working memory span scores, this applies less directly to situation model levels. This suggests that theories of working memory must take into account this limitation, and the working memory processes that are involved in situation model construction and processing must be derived.

  14. From mirror-touch synesthesia to models of vicarious experience: A reply to commentaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    In this reply to the eight commentaries to our article, we discuss three important challenges. First, we discuss the relationship of mirror-touch to other forms of synesthesia. We note that synesthetic experiences are generally not mistaken as veridical but this does not mean that they lack percept-like qualities. We acknowledge that neither Threshold Theory nor Self-Other Theory offer a direct account of other forms of synesthesia, although we discuss how the latter could. Second, we discuss alternative explanations. Notably predictive coding offers a different way of framing our current theory, and extending it to related phenomena. Finally, we discuss how mirror-touch synesthesia may relate to other atypical experiences of body ownership such as the rubber hand illusion, and somatoparaphrenia.

  15. Differences in early sensory-perceptual processing in synesthesia: a visual evoked potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Kylie J; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie; Kelly, Simon P; Shalgi, Shani; Mitchell, Kevin J; Newell, Fiona N

    2008-11-15

    Synesthesia is a condition where stimulation of a single sensory modality or processing stream elicits an idiosyncratic, yet reliable perception in one or more other modalities or streams. Various models have been proposed to explain synesthesia, which have in common aberrant cross-activation of one cortical area by another. This has been observed directly in cases of linguistic-color synesthesia as cross-activation of the 'color area', V4, by stimulation of the grapheme area. The underlying neural substrates that mediate cross-activations in synesthesia are not well understood, however. In addition, the overall integrity of the visual system has never been assessed and it is not known whether wider differences in sensory-perceptual processing are associated with the condition. To assess whether fundamental differences in perceptual processing exist in synesthesia, we utilised high-density 128-channel electroencephalography (EEG) to measure sensory-perceptual processing using stimuli that differentially bias activation of the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways of the visual system. High and low spatial frequency gratings and luminance-contrast squares were presented to 15 synesthetes and 15 controls. We report, for the first time, early sensory-perceptual differences in synesthetes relative to non-synesthete controls in response to simple stimuli that do not elicit synesthetic color experiences. The differences are manifested in the early sensory components of the visual evoked potential (VEP) to stimuli that bias both magnocellular and parvocellular responses, but are opposite in direction, suggesting a differential effect on these two pathways. We discuss our results with reference to widespread connectivity differences as a broader phenotype of synesthesia.

  16. Why is the synesthete's "A" red? Using a five-language dataset to disentangle the effects of shape, sound, semantics, and ordinality on inducer-concurrent relationships in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Nicholas B; Rouw, Romke; Asano, Michiko; Kim, Chai-Youn; Melero, Helena; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2018-02-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which viewing a grapheme elicits an additional, automatic, and consistent sensation of color. Color-to-letter associations in synesthesia are interesting in their own right, but also offer an opportunity to examine relationships between visual, acoustic, and semantic aspects of language. Research using large populations of synesthetes has indeed found that grapheme-color pairings can be influenced by numerous properties of graphemes, but the contributions made by each of these explanatory factors are often confounded in a monolingual dataset (i.e., only English-speaking synesthetes). Here, we report the first demonstration of how a multilingual dataset can reveal potentially-universal influences on synesthetic associations, and disentangle previously-confounded hypotheses about the relationship between properties of synesthetic color and properties of the grapheme that induces it. Numerous studies have reported that for English-speaking synesthetes, "A" tends to be colored red more often than predicted by chance, and several explanatory factors have been proposed that could explain this association. Using a five-language dataset (native English, Dutch, Spanish, Japanese, and Korean speakers), we compare the predictions made by each explanatory factor, and show that only an ordinal explanation makes consistent predictions across all five languages, suggesting that the English "A" is red because the first grapheme of a synesthete's alphabet or syllabary tends to be associated with red. We propose that the relationship between the first grapheme and the color red is an association between an unusually-distinct ordinal position ("first") and an unusually-distinct color (red). We test the predictions made by this theory, and demonstrate that the first grapheme is unusually distinct (has a color that is distant in color space from the other letters' colors). Our results demonstrate the importance of considering

  17. Synesthesia for manual alphabet letters and numeral signs in second-language users of signed languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Joanna; Lyons, Tanya; Eagleman, David; Woll, Bencie; Ward, Jamie

    2016-08-01

    Many synesthetes experience colors when viewing letters or digits. We document, for the first time, an analogous phenomenon among users of signed languages who showed color synesthesia for fingerspelled letters and signed numerals. Four synesthetes experienced colors when they viewed manual letters and numerals (in two cases, colors were subjectively projected on to the hands). There was a correspondence between the colors experienced for written graphemes and their manual counterparts, suggesting that the development of these two types of synesthesia is interdependent despite the fact that these systems are superficially distinct and rely on different perceptual recognition mechanisms in the brain.

  18. [Synesthesias in the context of hallucinogen-induced persistent perception disorder following the use of lsd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, A; Blom, J D

    2014-01-01

    The hallucinogen-induced persistent perception disorder (hppd) is a disturbing complication resulting from the use of hallucinogens. We report on a case-study in which an artist suffering from visual, auditory and olfactory hallucinations also experienced chromatic-phonemic synesthesias that had persisted for two years after he had stopped using lysergic acid diethylamide (lsd). The case described demonstrates that individuals suffering from hppd can also experience synesthesias that may in fact differ phenomenologically from 'coloured hearing', which is a symptom known to occur in the context of substance abuse.

  19. Cross-modal, bidirectional priming in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paffen, Chris L E; Van der Smagt, Maarten J; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2015-05-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive achromatic graphemes to be inherently colored. In this study grapheme-color synesthetes and non-synesthetes discriminated (1) the color of visual targets presented along with aurally presented digit primes, and (2) the identity of aurally presented digit targets presented with visual color primes. Reaction times to visual color targets were longer when the color of the target was incongruent with the synesthetic percept reported for the prime. Likewise, discriminating aurally presented digit targets took longer when the color of the prime was incongruent with the synesthetic percept for the target. These priming effects were absent in non-synesthetes. We conclude that binding between digits and colors in grapheme-color synesthetes can occur bidirectionally across senses. The results are in line with the idea that synesthesia is the result of linking inducing stimuli (e.g. digits) to synesthetic percepts (colors) at an abstract - supra-modal - conceptual level of processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Second-order mappings in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Marcus R; Akins, Kathleen A; Enns, James T

    2012-04-01

    Typically, the search for order in grapheme-color synesthesia has been conducted by looking at the frequency of certain letter-color associations. Here, we report stronger associations when second-order similarity mappings are examined--specifically, mappings between the synesthetic colors of letters and letter shape, frequency, and position in the alphabet. The analyses demonstrate that these relations are independent of one other. More strikingly, our analyses show that each of the letter-color mappings is restricted to one dimension of color, with letter shape and ordinality linked to hue, and letter frequency linked to luminance. These results imply that synesthetic associations are acquired as the alphabet is learned, with associations involving letter shape, ordinality, and frequency being made independently and idiosyncratically. Because these mappings of similarity structure between domains (letters and colors) are similar to those found in numerous other cognitive and perceptual domains, they imply that synesthetic associations operate on principles common to many aspects of human cognition.

  1. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brang, D.; Rouw, R.; Ramachandran, V.S.; Coulson, S.

    2011-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the

  2. Synesthesia and the Phenomenological Experience: Implications for Ecological Mindfulness and Beginning Scholars in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    Phenomenological experiences based on an openness to the synesthesia of natural environments are a powerful pathway to the development of erotic relationships with and within a place. These relationships are beneficial for beginning scholars and those taking new jobs who find themselves adapting to a new place and career. First, I describe the…

  3. Synesthesia and Memory: Color Congruency, Von Restorff, and False Memory Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Gibson, Bradley S.; McNerney, M. Windy

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, we explored the influence of synesthesia on memory for word lists. We tested 10 grapheme-color synesthetes who reported an experience of color when reading letters or words. We replicated a previous finding that memory is compromised when synesthetic color is incongruent with perceptual color. Beyond this, we found that,…

  4. Color Processing in Synesthesia: What Synesthesia Can and Cannot Tell Us About Mechanisms of Color Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik McErlean, Agnieszka B; Banissy, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Synesthetic experiences of color have been traditionally conceptualized as a perceptual phenomenon. However, recent evidence suggests a role of higher order cognition in the formation of synesthetic experiences. Here, we discuss how synesthetic experiences of color differ from and influence veridical color processing, and how non-perceptual processes such as imagery and color memory might play a role in eliciting synesthetic color experience. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. The sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test of sequence-space synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Jünemann, Kristin; Mealor, Andy D; Burckhardt, Vera; Ward, Jamie

    2016-12-01

    People with sequence-space synesthesia (SSS) report stable visuo-spatial forms corresponding to numbers, days, and months (amongst others). This type of synesthesia has intrigued scientists for over 130 years but the lack of an agreed upon tool for assessing it has held back research on this phenomenon. The present study builds on previous tests by measuring the consistency of spatial locations that is known to discriminate controls from synesthetes. We document, for the first time, the sensitivity and specificity of such a test and suggest a diagnostic cut-off point for discriminating between the groups based on the area bounded by different placement attempts with the same item.

  6. Synesthesia in science and technology: more than making the unseen visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslick, Kenneth S

    2012-12-01

    Much of our science and technology relies on the visualization of complex data, and chemical biology, more than most fields, often deals with complex datasets. There are, however, other ways of making information available to our senses beyond the visual. Rare individuals naturally have sensory crossover, whose synesthesia permits them, for example, to see colors or shapes when hearing sounds or to sense a specific taste with a specific word. Many scientists, technologists and inventors, however, make a conscious attempt to convert one type of sensory-like input to a different sensory output. A laser light show, for example, converts sound to sight; infrared imaging converts heat to sight. Two recent examples of such intentional synesthesia are discussed in this context: sight-tasting and smell-seeing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Veridical mapping in savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia: an autism case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Lucie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane; Caron, Chantal; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    An enhanced role and autonomy of perception are prominent in autism. Furthermore, savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia are all more commonly found in autistic individuals than in the typical population. The mechanism of veridical mapping has been proposed to account for how enhanced perception in autism leads to the high prevalence of these three phenomena and their structural similarity. Veridical mapping entails functional rededication of perceptual brain regions to higher order cognitive operations, allowing the enhanced detection and memorization of isomorphisms between perceptual and non-perceptual structures across multiple scales. In this paper, we present FC, an autistic individual who possesses several savant abilities in addition to both absolute pitch and synesthesia-like associations. The co-occurrence in FC of abilities, some of them rare, which share the same structure, as well as FC's own accounts of their development, together suggest the importance of veridical mapping in the atypical range and nature of abilities displayed by autistic people.

  8. N1 enhancement in synesthesia during visual and audio-visual perception in semantic cross-modal conflict situations: an ERP study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sinke, Christopher; Neufeld, Janina; Wiswede, Daniel; Emrich, Hinderk M; Bleich, Stefan; Münte, Thomas F; Szycik, Gregor R

    2014-01-01

    ... perceptual alterations at a global level. Here, we focused on audio-visual processing in synesthesia using a semantic classification task in combination with visually or auditory-visually presented animated and in animated...

  9. Viral challenge reveals further evidence of skin-deep resilience in African Americans from disadvantaged backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E; Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Brody, Gene H; Chen, Edith

    2016-11-01

    Studies have revealed a phenomenon called skin-deep resilience, which develops in upwardly mobile African American youth. They perform well in school, maintain good mental health, and avoid legal problems. Despite outward indications of success, they also show evidence of worse health in biomarker studies. Here we extend this research, asking whether it manifests in differential susceptibility to upper respiratory infection, and if it emerges in European Americans as well. The sample included 514 adults in good health, as judged by physician examination and laboratory testing. Participants completed questionnaires about lifecourse socioeconomic conditions, conscientiousness, psychosocial adjustment, and lifestyle factors. They were subsequently inoculated with a rhinovirus that causes upper respiratory infection, and monitored in quarantine for 5 days the development of illness. Consistent with past work, African Americans from disadvantaged backgrounds displayed indications of skin-deep resilience. To the extent these participants were high in conscientiousness, they fared better across multiple domains of psychosocial functioning, as reflected in educational attainment, symptoms of depression, and close relationship quality (p values = .01-.04). But analyses of these participants' susceptibility to infection revealed the opposite pattern; higher conscientiousness was associated with a greater likelihood of becoming ill following inoculation (p value = .03). In European Americans, there was no evidence of skin-deep resilience; conscientiousness was associated with better psychosocial outcomes, but not infection risk. These observations suggest that resilience may be a double-edged sword for African Americans from disadvantaged backgrounds. The same characteristics associated with academic success and psychological adjustment forecast increased vulnerability to health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes.

  11. Grapheme-color synesthetes show peculiarities in their emotional brain: cortical and subcortical evidence from VBM analysis of 3D-T1 and DTI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melero, Helena; Peña-Melián, Ángel; Ríos-Lago, Marcos; Pajares, Gonzalo; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Álvarez-Linera, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which viewing achromatic letters/numbers leads to automatic and involuntary color experiences. In this study, voxel-based morphometry analyses were performed on T1 images and fractional anisotropy measures to examine the whole brain in associator grapheme-color synesthetes. These analyses provide new evidence of variations in emotional areas (both at the cortical and subcortical levels), findings that help understand the emotional component as a relevant aspect of the synesthetic experience. Additionally, this study replicates previous findings in the left intraparietal sulcus and, for the first time, reports the existence of anatomical differences in subcortical gray nuclei of developmental grapheme-color synesthetes, providing a link between acquired and developmental synesthesia. This empirical evidence, which goes beyond modality-specific areas, could lead to a better understanding of grapheme-color synesthesia as well as of other modalities of the phenomenon.

  12. Synesthesia and the phenomenological experience: implications for ecological mindfulness and beginning scholars in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Rachel A.

    2015-03-01

    Phenomenological experiences based on an openness to the synesthesia of natural environments are a powerful pathway to the development of erotic relationships with and within a place. These relationships are beneficial for beginning scholars and those taking new jobs who find themselves adapting to a new place and career. First, I describe the value and formation of erotic relationships and how they can be constructed through synesthesia and the phenomenological experience through my understanding of the ocean Other. Second, I describe how I have used mindfulness and lived experiences in the natural world to mediate the demands of being a new faculty, and how these provide a pathway to develop and foster relationships that are mutually beneficial and conserving. Among other sustaining qualities, mindfully experiencing natural phenomena reduce stress and increase mental function and emotional well-being. These experiences also connect us with the larger community, where we gain a sense of belonging, more readily establish roots and reasons for care of the Other that sustains us.

  13. Projectors, associators, visual imagery, and the time course of visual processing in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsel, Ben D; Kutas, Marta; Coulson, Seana

    2017-10-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, seeing particular letters or numbers evokes the experience of specific colors. We investigate the brain's real-time processing of words in this population by recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from 15 grapheme-color synesthetes and 15 controls as they judged the validity of word pairs ('yellow banana' vs. 'blue banana') presented under high and low visual contrast. Low contrast words elicited delayed P1/N170 visual ERP components in both groups, relative to high contrast. When color concepts were conveyed to synesthetes by individually tailored achromatic grapheme strings ('55555 banana'), visual contrast effects were like those in color words: P1/N170 components were delayed but unchanged in amplitude. When controls saw equivalent colored grapheme strings, visual contrast modulated P1/N170 amplitude but not latency. Color induction in synesthetes thus differs from color perception in controls. Independent from experimental effects, all orthographic stimuli elicited larger N170 and P2 in synesthetes than controls. While P2 (150-250ms) enhancement was similar in all synesthetes, N170 (130-210ms) amplitude varied with individual differences in synesthesia and visual imagery. Results suggest immediate cross-activation in visual areas processing color and shape is most pronounced in so-called projector synesthetes whose concurrent colors are experienced as originating in external space.

  14. Assessment of the hemispheric lateralization of grapheme-color synesthesia with Stroop-type tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Mathieu J; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task). Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment). Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms), a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults.

  15. Assessment of the hemispheric lateralization of grapheme-color synesthesia with Stroop-type tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu J Ruiz

    Full Text Available Grapheme-color synesthesia, the idiosyncratic, arbitrary association of colors to letters or numbers, develops in childhood once reading is mastered. Because language processing is strongly left-lateralized in most individuals, we hypothesized that grapheme-color synesthesia could be left-lateralized as well. We used synesthetic versions of the Stroop test with colored letters and numbers presented either in the right or the left visual field of thirty-four synesthetes. Interference by synesthetic colors was stronger for stimuli in the right hemifield (first experiment, color naming task. Synesthetes were also faster in the right hemifield when naming the synesthetic color of graphemes (second experiment. Overall, the lateralization effect was 7 ms (the 95% confidence interval was [1.5 12] ms, a delay compatible with an additional callosal transfer for stimuli presented in the left hemifield. Though weak, this effect suggests that the association of synesthetic colors to graphemes may be preferentially processed in the left hemisphere. We speculate that this left-lateralization could be a landmark of synesthetic grapheme-color associations, if not found for color associations learnt by non-synesthete adults.

  16. Veridical mapping in savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia: An autism case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie eBouvet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced role and autonomy of perception are prominent in autism. Furthermore, savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia are all more commonly found in autistic individuals than in the typical population. The mechanism of veridical mapping has been proposed to account for how enhanced perception in autism leads to the high prevalence of these three phenomena and their structural similarity. Veridical mapping entails functional rededication of perceptual brain regions to higher order cognitive operations, allowing the enhanced detection and memorization of isomorphisms between perceptual and non-perceptual structures across multiple scales. In this paper, we present FC, an autistic individual who possesses several savant abilities in addition to both absolute pitch and synesthesia-like associations. The co-occurrence in FC of abilities, some of them rare, which share the same structure, as well as FC’s own accounts of their development, together suggest the importance of veridical mapping in the atypical range and nature of abilities displayed by autistic people.

  17. Analysis of wheat SAGE tags reveals evidence for widespread antisense transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbings J George

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE is a powerful tool for genome-wide transcription studies. Unlike microarrays, it has the ability to detect novel forms of RNA such as alternatively spliced and antisense transcripts, without the need for prior knowledge of their existence. One limitation of using SAGE on an organism with a complex genome and lacking detailed sequence information, such as the hexaploid bread wheat Triticum aestivum, is accurate annotation of the tags generated. Without accurate annotation it is impossible to fully understand the dynamic processes involved in such complex polyploid organisms. Hence we have developed and utilised novel procedures to characterise, in detail, SAGE tags generated from the whole grain transcriptome of hexaploid wheat. Results Examination of 71,930 Long SAGE tags generated from six libraries derived from two wheat genotypes grown under two different conditions suggested that SAGE is a reliable and reproducible technique for use in studying the hexaploid wheat transcriptome. However, our results also showed that in poorly annotated and/or poorly sequenced genomes, such as hexaploid wheat, considerably more information can be extracted from SAGE data by carrying out a systematic analysis of both perfect and "fuzzy" (partially matched tags. This detailed analysis of the SAGE data shows first that while there is evidence of alternative polyadenylation this appears to occur exclusively within the 3' untranslated regions. Secondly, we found no strong evidence for widespread alternative splicing in the developing wheat grain transcriptome. However, analysis of our SAGE data shows that antisense transcripts are probably widespread within the transcriptome and appear to be derived from numerous locations within the genome. Examination of antisense transcripts showing sequence similarity to the Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b genes suggests that such antisense transcripts might have a

  18. PET and MRI reveal early evidence of neurodegeneration in spinocerebellar ataxia type 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Kathrin; Reimold, Matthias; Globas, Christoph; Hauser, Till Karsten; Walter, Uwe; Machulla, Hans-Jürgen; Rolfs, Arndt; Schöls, Ludger

    2012-07-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder presenting with a variable phenotype including ataxia, dystonia, chorea, and parkinsonism, as well as cognitive impairment. We evaluated morphologic and functional imaging characteristics to elucidate evidence of neurodegeneration in SCA17, even in the presymptomatic stage of the disease. Nine individuals of 3 large SCA17 pedigrees, including 4 presymptomatic mutation carriers, underwent cranial 3-dimensional MRI volumetry, as well as multitracer PET with (18)F-FDG, (11)C-d-threo-methylphenidate, and (11)C-raclopride. Healthy subjects showing no signs of a neurologic or psychiatric disease served as controls. MRI volumetry revealed atrophy of the cerebellum and caudate nucleus in manifesting patients (P = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively) and in presymptomatic mutation carriers (P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively). PET demonstrated decreased glucose metabolism in the striatum, as well as in the cuneus, cingulum, and parietal lobe, in all SCA17 patients and presymptomatic mutation carriers. In addition, PET was closely correlated with motor performance as assessed by the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (P = 0.037) and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (P = 0.05) and with cognitive function as assessed by the Mini-Mental Status Examination (P = 0.037). Furthermore, (11)C-raclopride PET showed impairment of the postsynaptic dopaminergic compartment of the putamen and caudate nucleus not only in manifest SCA17 patients (P = 0.04 and 0.008, respectively) but also in yet-unaffected mutation carriers (P = 0.05 and 0.05, respectively). The degree of postsynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction was associated with impairment of motor performance. In contrast, significant presynaptic dopaminergic deficits assessed with (11)C-d-threo-methylphenidate PET were not detected. MRI volumetry, as well as (11)C-raclopride and (18)F-FDG PET, reveal neuronal dysfunction and

  19. High quality maize centromere 10 sequence reveals evidence of frequent recombination events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kai Wolfgruber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ancestral centromeres of maize contain long stretches of the tandemly arranged CentC repeat. The abundance of tandem DNA repeats and centromeric retrotransposons (CR have presented a significant challenge to completely assembling centromeres using traditional sequencing methods. Here we report a nearly complete assembly of the 1.85 Mb maize centromere 10 from inbred B73 using PacBio technology and BACs from the reference genome project. The error rates estimated from overlapping BAC sequences are 7 x 10-6 and 5 x 10-5 for mismatches and indels, respectively. The number of gaps in the region covered by the reassembly was reduced from 140 in the reference genome to three. Three expressed genes are located between 92 and 477 kb of the inferred ancestral CentC cluster, which lies within the region of highest centromeric repeat density. The improved assembly increased the count of full-length centromeric retrotransposons from 5 to 55 and revealed a 22.7 kb segmental duplication that occurred approximately 121,000 years ago. Our analysis provides evidence of frequent recombination events in the form of partial retrotransposons, deletions within retrotransposons, chimeric retrotransposons, segmental duplications including higher order CentC repeats, a deleted CentC monomer, centromere-proximal inversions, and insertion of mitochondrial sequences. Double-strand DNA break (DSB repair is the most plausible mechanism for these events and may be the major driver of centromere repeat evolution and diversity. This repair appears to be mediated by microhomology, suggesting that tandem repeats may have evolved to facilitate the repair of frequent DSBs in centromeres.

  20. Is "Σ" purple or green? Bistable grapheme-color synesthesia induced by ambiguous characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhkyung; Blake, Randolph; Kim, Chai-Youn

    2013-09-01

    People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive specific colors when viewing different letters or numbers. Previous studies have suggested that synesthetic color experience can be bistable when induced by an ambiguous character. However, the exact relationship between processes underlying the identity of an alphanumeric character and the experience of the induced synesthetic color has not been examined. In the present study, we explored this by focusing on the temporal relation of inducer identification and color emergence using inducers whose identity could be rendered ambiguous upon rotation of the characters. Specifically, achromatic alphabetic letters (W/M) and digits (6/9) were presented at varying angles to 9 grapheme-color synesthetes. Results showed that grapheme identification and synesthetically perceived grapheme color covary with the orientation of the test stimulus and that synesthetes were slower naming the experienced color than identifying the character, particularly at intermediate angles where ambiguity was greatest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Colored halos around faces and emotion-evoked colors: A new form of synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.; Miller, Luke; Livingstone, Margaret S.; Brang, David

    2013-01-01

    The claim that some individuals see colored halos or auras around faces has long been part of popular folklore. Here we report on a 23-year-old man (subject TK) diagnosed with Asperger’s disorder, who began to consistently experience colors around individuals at the age of 10. TK’s colors are based on the individual’s identity and emotional connotation. We interpret these experiences as a form of synesthesia, and confirm their authenticity through a target detection paradigm. Additionally, we investigate TK’s claim that emotions evoke highly specific colors, allowing him, despite his Asperger’s, to introspect on emotions and recognize them in others. PMID:22115465

  2. Components of Attention in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Nordfang, Maria; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2015-01-01

    ’s data, allowing us to estimate discrete components of visual attention. The models suggested that the synesthetes processed congruent letters faster than incongruent ones, and that they were able to retain more congruent letters in visual short-term memory, while the control group’s model parameters...... integrated into the categories of graphemes, and that letter colors are considered as evidence for making certain perceptual categorizations in the visual system. We also propose that enhanced visual short-term memory capacity for congruently colored graphemes can be explained by the synesthetes’ expertise...

  3. A predictive processing theory of sensorimotor contingencies: Explaining the puzzle of perceptual presence and its absence in synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Normal perception involves experiencing objects within perceptual scenes as real, as existing in the world. This property of "perceptual presence" has motivated "sensorimotor theories" which understand perception to involve the mastery of sensorimotor contingencies. However, the mechanistic basis of sensorimotor contingencies and their mastery has remained unclear. Sensorimotor theory also struggles to explain instances of perception, such as synesthesia, that appear to lack perceptual presence and for which relevant sensorimotor contingencies are difficult to identify. On alternative "predictive processing" theories, perceptual content emerges from probabilistic inference on the external causes of sensory signals, however, this view has addressed neither the problem of perceptual presence nor synesthesia. Here, I describe a theory of predictive perception of sensorimotor contingencies which (1) accounts for perceptual presence in normal perception, as well as its absence in synesthesia, and (2) operationalizes the notion of sensorimotor contingencies and their mastery. The core idea is that generative models underlying perception incorporate explicitly counterfactual elements related to how sensory inputs would change on the basis of a broad repertoire of possible actions, even if those actions are not performed. These "counterfactually-rich" generative models encode sensorimotor contingencies related to repertoires of sensorimotor dependencies, with counterfactual richness determining the degree of perceptual presence associated with a stimulus. While the generative models underlying normal perception are typically counterfactually rich (reflecting a large repertoire of possible sensorimotor dependencies), those underlying synesthetic concurrents are hypothesized to be counterfactually poor. In addition to accounting for the phenomenology of synesthesia, the theory naturally accommodates phenomenological differences between a range of experiential states

  4. Grapheme-color and tone-color synesthesia is associated with structural brain changes in visual regions implicated in color, form, and motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banissy, Michael J; Stewart, Lauren; Muggleton, Neil G; Griffiths, Timothy D; Walsh, Vincent Y; Ward, Jamie; Kanai, Ryota

    2012-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which stimulation in one modality leads to a secondary experience in another sensory modality. Varying accounts attribute the condition to either neuroanatomical differences between the synesthetes and non-synesthetes or functional differences in how sensory brain regions interact. This study employed voxel-based morphometry to examine whether synesthetes who experience both grapheme-color and tone-color synesthesia as their evoked sensation show neuroanatomical differences in gray matter volume compared to non-synesthetes. We observed that synesthetes showed an increase in gray matter volume in left posterior fusiform gyrus (FG), but a concomitant decrease in anterior regions of left FG and left MT/V5. These findings imply that synesthesia for color is linked to neuroanatomical changes between adjacent regions of the visual system.

  5. The no-touch rubber hand paradigm and mirror-touch sensation: Support for the self-other theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebekah C; Davies, Anne M Aimola

    2015-01-01

    We thoroughly enjoyed Ward and Banissy's Discussion Paper on mirror-touch synesthesia. The authors contrast two theories for explaining this phenomenon-the Threshold Theory and their Self-Other Theory. Ward and Banissy note that the Self-Other Theory garners support from studies that have tested individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia using the rubber hand paradigm. In this Commentary, we provide further support for the Self-Other Theory by drawing on findings from control participants without mirror-touch synesthesia tested with two different no-touch rubber hand paradigms-one paradigm makes it easier while the other makes it more difficult to make the self-other distinction.

  6. The global land rush: what the evidence reveals about scale and geography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo; Polack, Emily

    2012-04-15

    In developing countries, millions of people depend on land for their food and livelihoods. But a global 'land rush' — moves to acquire large tracts of land across the world — is increasing competition for this vital resource. A growing body of evidence points to the scale, geography, players and key characteristics of the phenomenon. Some of this is based on media reports and some on country level inventories. Much of the data cannot be compared due to variations in methodology, timescale and the differing criteria for what makes a land deal. Further improving data and analysis is critical. But while exact numbers will keep changing, all evidence indicates that land acquisitions are happening quickly and on a large scale. So we urgently need to get on with developing appropriate responses.

  7. Bayesian Total-Evidence Dating Reveals the Recent Crown Radiation of Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavryushkina, Alexandra; Heath, Tracy A; Ksepka, Daniel T; Stadler, Tanja; Welch, David; Drummond, Alexei J

    2017-01-01

    The total-evidence approach to divergence time dating uses molecular and morphological data from extant and fossil species to infer phylogenetic relationships, species divergence times, and macroevolutionary parameters in a single coherent framework. Current model-based implementations of this approach lack an appropriate model for the tree describing the diversification and fossilization process and can produce estimates that lead to erroneous conclusions. We address this shortcoming by providing a total-evidence method implemented in a Bayesian framework. This approach uses a mechanistic tree prior to describe the underlying diversification process that generated the tree of extant and fossil taxa. Previous attempts to apply the total-evidence approach have used tree priors that do not account for the possibility that fossil samples may be direct ancestors of other samples, that is, ancestors of fossil or extant species or of clades. The fossilized birth–death (FBD) process explicitly models the diversification, fossilization, and sampling processes and naturally allows for sampled ancestors. This model was recently applied to estimate divergence times based on molecular data and fossil occurrence dates. We incorporate the FBD model and a model of morphological trait evolution into a Bayesian total-evidence approach to dating species phylogenies. We apply this method to extant and fossil penguins and show that the modern penguins radiated much more recently than has been previously estimated, with the basal divergence in the crown clade occurring at ∼12.7 ∼12.7 Ma and most splits leading to extant species occurring in the last 2 myr. Our results demonstrate that including stem-fossil diversity can greatly improve the estimates of the divergence times of crown taxa. The method is available in BEAST2 (version 2.4) software www.beast2.org with packages SA (version at least 1.1.4) and morph-models (version at least 1.0.4) installed.

  8. Bayesian Total-Evidence Dating Reveals the Recent Crown Radiation of Penguins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Tracy A.; Ksepka, Daniel T.; Stadler, Tanja; Welch, David; Drummond, Alexei J.

    2017-01-01

    The total-evidence approach to divergence time dating uses molecular and morphological data from extant and fossil species to infer phylogenetic relationships, species divergence times, and macroevolutionary parameters in a single coherent framework. Current model-based implementations of this approach lack an appropriate model for the tree describing the diversification and fossilization process and can produce estimates that lead to erroneous conclusions. We address this shortcoming by providing a total-evidence method implemented in a Bayesian framework. This approach uses a mechanistic tree prior to describe the underlying diversification process that generated the tree of extant and fossil taxa. Previous attempts to apply the total-evidence approach have used tree priors that do not account for the possibility that fossil samples may be direct ancestors of other samples, that is, ancestors of fossil or extant species or of clades. The fossilized birth–death (FBD) process explicitly models the diversification, fossilization, and sampling processes and naturally allows for sampled ancestors. This model was recently applied to estimate divergence times based on molecular data and fossil occurrence dates. We incorporate the FBD model and a model of morphological trait evolution into a Bayesian total-evidence approach to dating species phylogenies. We apply this method to extant and fossil penguins and show that the modern penguins radiated much more recently than has been previously estimated, with the basal divergence in the crown clade occurring at \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${\\sim}12.7$\\end{document} Ma and most splits leading to extant species occurring in the last 2 myr. Our results demonstrate that including stem-fossil diversity can greatly

  9. Comparative phylogeography and population genetics within Buteo lineatus reveals evidence of distinct evolutionary lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J.M.; Strobel, Bradley N.; Boal, C.W.; Hull, A.C.; Dykstra, C.R.; Irish, A.M.; Fish, A.M.; Ernest, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional subspecies classifications may suggest phylogenetic relationships that are discordant with evolutionary history and mislead evolutionary inference. To more accurately describe evolutionary relationships and inform conservation efforts, we investigated the genetic relationships and demographic histories of Buteo lineatus subspecies in eastern and western North America using 21 nuclear microsatellite loci and 375-base pairs of mitochondrial control region sequence. Frequency based analyses of mitochondrial sequence data support significant population distinction between eastern (B. l. lineatus/alleni/texanus) and western (B. l. elegans) subspecies of B. lineatus. This distinction was further supported by frequency and Bayesian analyses of the microsatellite data. We found evidence of differing demographic histories between regions; among eastern sites, mitochondrial data suggested that rapid population expansion occurred following the end of the last glacial maximum, with B. l. texanus population expansion preceding that of B. l. lineatus/alleni. No evidence of post-glacial population expansion was detected among western samples (B. l. elegans). Rather, microsatellite data suggest that the western population has experienced a recent bottleneck, presumably associated with extensive anthropogenic habitat loss during the 19th and 20th centuries. Our data indicate that eastern and western populations of B. lineatus are genetically distinct lineages, have experienced very different demographic histories, and suggest management as separate conservation units may be warranted. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence for Myelin Sheath Remodeling in the CNS Revealed by In Vivo Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Franziska; Vagionitis, Stavros; Czopka, Tim

    2018-02-19

    The length of myelin sheaths affects conduction speed along axons and information propagation. It has recently become clear that myelin may be adaptively modified to modulate circuit function, implying that length remodeling of myelin sheaths should occur. However, direct evidence for such events is lacking. We have investigated how myelination patterns are formed, maintained, and remodeled using long-term imaging and myelin ablation in zebrafish. We demonstrate that length differences between myelin sheaths are established by rapid and variable growth within 3 days after their formation, independently of their time of formation, and even along discontinuously myelinated axons. Afterward, sheaths continue extending at similar rates to compensate for overall animal growth. In consequence, once axon myelination patterns are established, they are maintained over long periods of time. We tested whether mature myelin sheaths can remodel by removing individual sheaths from single axons by targeted ablation. Remarkably, extensive changes in sheath length and number occurred, which frequently restored the original myelination pattern. Our results show that axons can control myelin growth and remodeling, and we provide evidence for a homeostatic control of axon myelination patterns by maintenance and remodeling of myelin sheath length, with implications for circuit development, function, and repair. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Krebs cycle metabolon: structural evidence of substrate channeling revealed by cross-linking and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Minteer, Shelley

    2015-02-02

    It has been hypothesized that the high metabolic flux in the mitochondria is due to the self-assembly of enzyme supercomplexes (called metabolons) that channel substrates from one enzyme to another, but there has been no experimental confirmation of this structure or the channeling. A structural investigation of enzyme organization within the Krebs cycle metabolon was accomplished by in vivo cross-linking and mass spectrometry. Eight Krebs cycle enzyme components were isolated upon chemical fixation, and interfacial residues between mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and aconitase were identified. Using constraint protein docking, a low-resolution structure for the three-enzyme complex was achieved, as well as the two-fold symmetric octamer. Surface analysis showed formation of electrostatic channeling upon protein-protein association, which is the first structural evidence of substrate channeling in the Krebs cycle metabolon. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Pulvinar neurons reveal neurobiological evidence of past selection for rapid detection of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Quan; Isbell, Lynne A; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Nguyen, Minh; Hori, Etsuro; Maior, Rafael S; Tomaz, Carlos; Tran, Anh Hai; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-11-19

    Snakes and their relationships with humans and other primates have attracted broad attention from multiple fields of study, but not, surprisingly, from neuroscience, despite the involvement of the visual system and strong behavioral and physiological evidence that humans and other primates can detect snakes faster than innocuous objects. Here, we report the existence of neurons in the primate medial and dorsolateral pulvinar that respond selectively to visual images of snakes. Compared with three other categories of stimuli (monkey faces, monkey hands, and geometrical shapes), snakes elicited the strongest, fastest responses, and the responses were not reduced by low spatial filtering. These findings integrate neuroscience with evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, herpetology, and primatology by identifying a neurobiological basis for primates' heightened visual sensitivity to snakes, and adding a crucial component to the growing evolutionary perspective that snakes have long shaped our primate lineage.

  13. Pulvinar neurons reveal neurobiological evidence of past selection for rapid detection of snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Quan; Isbell, Lynne A.; Matsumoto, Jumpei; Nguyen, Minh; Hori, Etsuro; Maior, Rafael S.; Tomaz, Carlos; Tran, Anh Hai; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    Snakes and their relationships with humans and other primates have attracted broad attention from multiple fields of study, but not, surprisingly, from neuroscience, despite the involvement of the visual system and strong behavioral and physiological evidence that humans and other primates can detect snakes faster than innocuous objects. Here, we report the existence of neurons in the primate medial and dorsolateral pulvinar that respond selectively to visual images of snakes. Compared with three other categories of stimuli (monkey faces, monkey hands, and geometrical shapes), snakes elicited the strongest, fastest responses, and the responses were not reduced by low spatial filtering. These findings integrate neuroscience with evolutionary biology, anthropology, psychology, herpetology, and primatology by identifying a neurobiological basis for primates’ heightened visual sensitivity to snakes, and adding a crucial component to the growing evolutionary perspective that snakes have long shaped our primate lineage. PMID:24167268

  14. Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawa Sugiyama

    Full Text Available From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipulation of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1-550, one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches expressing state ideology and militarism during the construction of the Moon and the Sun Pyramids. The caches contain the remains of nearly 200 carnivorous animals, human sacrificial victims and other symbolic artifacts. This paper argues the presence of skeletal pathologies of infectious disease and injuries manifest on the carnivore remains show direct evidence of captivity. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N of bones and teeth confirms that some of these carnivores were consuming high levels of C4 foods, likely reflecting a maize-based anthropocentric food chain. These results push back the antiquity of keeping captive carnivores for ritualistic purposes nearly 1000 years before the Spanish conquistadors described Moctezuma's zoo at the Aztec capital. Mirroring these documents the results indicate a select group of carnivores at Teotihuacan may have been fed maize-eating omnivores, such as dogs and humans. Unlike historical records, the present study provides the earliest and direct archaeological evidence for this practice in Mesoamerica. It also represents the first systematic isotopic exploration of a population of archaeological eagles (n = 24 and felids (n = 29.

  15. Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Nawa; Somerville, Andrew D; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    From Roman gladiatorial combat to Egyptian animal mummies, the capture and manipulation of carnivores was instrumental in helping to shape social hierarchies throughout the ancient world. This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1-550), one of the largest pre-Hispanic cities, animal remains were integral components of ritual caches expressing state ideology and militarism during the construction of the Moon and the Sun Pyramids. The caches contain the remains of nearly 200 carnivorous animals, human sacrificial victims and other symbolic artifacts. This paper argues the presence of skeletal pathologies of infectious disease and injuries manifest on the carnivore remains show direct evidence of captivity. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C and δ15N) of bones and teeth confirms that some of these carnivores were consuming high levels of C4 foods, likely reflecting a maize-based anthropocentric food chain. These results push back the antiquity of keeping captive carnivores for ritualistic purposes nearly 1000 years before the Spanish conquistadors described Moctezuma's zoo at the Aztec capital. Mirroring these documents the results indicate a select group of carnivores at Teotihuacan may have been fed maize-eating omnivores, such as dogs and humans. Unlike historical records, the present study provides the earliest and direct archaeological evidence for this practice in Mesoamerica. It also represents the first systematic isotopic exploration of a population of archaeological eagles (n = 24) and felids (n = 29).

  16. Deep sequencing evidence from single grapevine plants reveals a virome dominated by mycoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rwahnih, M; Daubert, S; Urbez-Torres, J R; Cordero, F; Rowhani, A

    2011-03-01

    We have characterized the virome in single grapevines by 454 high-throughput sequencing of double-stranded RNA recovered from the vine stem. The analysis revealed a substantial set of sequences similar to those of fungal viruses. Twenty-six putative fungal virus groups were identified from a single plant source. These represented half of all known mycoviral families including the Chrysoviridae, Hypoviridae, Narnaviridae, Partitiviridae, and Totiviridae. Three of the mycoviruses were associated with Botrytis cinerea, a common fungal pathogen of grapes. Most of the rest appeared to be undescribed. The presence of viral sequences identified by BLAST analysis was confirmed by sequencing PCR products generated from the starting material using primers designed from the genomic sequences of putative mycoviruses. To further characterize these sequences as fungal viruses, fungi from the grapevine tissue were cultured and screened with the same PCR probes. Five of the mycoviruses identified in the total grapevine extract were identified again in extracts of the fungal cultures.

  17. Children with dyslexia reveal abnormal native language representations: evidence from a study of mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Jennifer; Leppänen, Paavo H T; Bartling, Jürgen; Csépe, Valéria; Démonet, Jean-Francois; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2011-08-01

    Although a deficit perceiving phonemes, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN), is apparent in developmental dyslexia (DD), studies have not yet addressed whether this deficit might be a result of deficient native language speech representations. The present study examines how a native-vowel prototype and an atypical vowel are discriminated by 9-year-old children with (n = 14) and without (n = 12) DD. MMN was elicited in all conditions in both groups. The control group revealed enhanced MMN to the native-vowel prototype in comparison to the atypical vowel. Children with DD did not show enhanced MMN amplitude to the native-vowel prototype, suggesting impaired tuning to native language speech representations. Furthermore, higher MMN amplitudes to the native-vowel prototype correlated with more advanced reading (r = - .47) and spelling skills (r = - .52). Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Short- and long-range neural synchrony in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volberg, Gregor; Karmann, Anna; Birkner, Stefanie; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-07-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon where single graphemes (e.g., the letter "E") induce simultaneous sensations of colors (e.g., the color green) that were not objectively shown. Current models disagree as to whether the color sensations arise from increased short-range connectivity between anatomically adjacent grapheme- and color-processing brain structures or from decreased effectiveness of inhibitory long-range connections feeding back into visual cortex. We addressed this issue by examining neural synchrony obtained from EEG activity, in a sample of grapheme-color synesthetes that were presented with color-inducing versus non-color-inducing graphemes. For color-inducing graphemes, the results showed a decrease in the number of long-range couplings in the theta frequency band (4-7 Hz, 280-540 msec) and a concurrent increase of short-range phase-locking within lower beta band (13-20 Hz, 380-420 msec at occipital electrodes). Because the effects were both found in long-range synchrony and later within the visual processing stream, the results support the idea that reduced inhibition is an important factor for the emergence of synesthetic colors.

  19. Seeing the sound after visual loss: functional MRI in acquired auditory-visual synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Zixin; Hsieh, Po-Jang; Milea, Dan

    2017-02-01

    Acquired auditory-visual synesthesia (AVS) is a rare neurological sign, in which specific auditory stimulation triggers visual experience. In this study, we used event-related fMRI to explore the brain regions correlated with acquired monocular sound-induced phosphenes, which occurred 2 months after unilateral visual loss due to an ischemic optic neuropathy. During the fMRI session, 1-s pure tones at various pitches were presented to the patient, who was asked to report occurrence of sound-induced phosphenes by pressing one of the two buttons (yes/no). The brain activation during phosphene-experienced trials was contrasted with non-phosphene trials and compared to results obtained in one healthy control subject who underwent the same fMRI protocol. Our results suggest, for the first time, that acquired AVS occurring after visual impairment is associated with bilateral activation of primary and secondary visual cortex, possibly due to cross-wiring between auditory and visual sensory modalities.

  20. De novo hybrid assembly of the rubber tree genome reveals evidence of paleotetraploidy in Hevea species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootakham, Wirulda; Sonthirod, Chutima; Naktang, Chaiwat; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Yoocha, Thippawan; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Theerawattanasuk, Kanikar; Rattanawong, Ratchanee; Lekawipat, Napawan; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2017-02-02

    Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an important economic species as it is the sole commercial producer of high-quality natural rubber. Here, we report a de novo hybrid assembly of BPM24 accession, which exhibits resistance to major fungal pathogens in Southeast Asia. Deep-coverage 454/Illumina short-read and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) long-read sequence data were acquired to generate a preliminary draft, which was subsequently scaffolded using a long-range "Chicago" technique to obtain a final assembly of 1.26 Gb (N50 = 96.8 kb). The assembled genome contains 69.2% repetitive sequences and has a GC content of 34.31%. Using a high-density SNP-based genetic map, we were able to anchor 28.9% of the genome assembly (363 Mb) associated with over two thirds of the predicted protein-coding genes into rubber tree's 18 linkage groups. These genetically anchored sequences allowed comparative analyses of the intragenomic homeologous synteny, providing the first concrete evidence to demonstrate the presence of paleotetraploidy in Hevea species. Additionally, the degree of macrosynteny conservation observed between rubber tree and cassava strongly supports the hypothesis that the paleotetraploidization event took place prior to the divergence of the Hevea and Manihot species.

  1. Population expansions shared among coexisting bacterial lineages are revealed by genetic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitia, Morena; Escalante, Ana E; Rebollar, Eria A; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Comparative population studies can help elucidate the influence of historical events upon current patterns of biodiversity among taxa that coexist in a given geographic area. In particular, comparative assessments derived from population genetics and coalescent theory have been used to investigate population dynamics of bacterial pathogens in order to understand disease epidemics. In contrast, and despite the ecological relevance of non-host associated and naturally occurring bacteria, there is little understanding of the processes determining their diversity. Here we analyzed the patterns of genetic diversity in coexisting populations of three genera of bacteria (Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, and Pseudomonas) that are abundant in the aquatic systems of the Cuatro Cienegas Basin, Mexico. We tested the hypothesis that a common habitat leaves a signature upon the genetic variation present in bacterial populations, independent of phylogenetic relationships. We used multilocus markers to assess genetic diversity and (1) performed comparative phylogenetic analyses, (2) described the genetic structure of bacterial populations, (3) calculated descriptive parameters of genetic diversity, (4) performed neutrality tests, and (5) conducted coalescent-based historical reconstructions. Our results show a trend of synchronic expansions across most populations independent of both lineage and sampling site. Thus, we provide empirical evidence supporting the analysis of coexisting bacterial lineages in natural environments to advance our understanding of bacterial evolution beyond medical or health-related microbes.

  2. Isotope evidence for agricultural extensification reveals how the world's first cities were fed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styring, Amy K; Charles, Michael; Fantone, Federica; Hald, Mette Marie; McMahon, Augusta; Meadow, Richard H; Nicholls, Geoff K; Patel, Ajita K; Pitre, Mindy C; Smith, Alexia; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz; Stein, Gil; Weber, Jill A; Weiss, Harvey; Bogaard, Amy

    2017-06-05

    This study sheds light on the agricultural economy that underpinned the emergence of the first urban centres in northern Mesopotamia. Using δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of crop remains from the sites of Tell Sabi Abyad, Tell Zeidan, Hamoukar, Tell Brak and Tell Leilan (6500-2000 cal bc), we reveal that labour-intensive practices such as manuring/middening and water management formed an integral part of the agricultural strategy from the seventh millennium bc. Increased agricultural production to support growing urban populations was achieved by cultivation of larger areas of land, entailing lower manure/midden inputs per unit area-extensification. Our findings paint a nuanced picture of the role of agricultural production in new forms of political centralization. The shift towards lower-input farming most plausibly developed gradually at a household level, but the increased importance of land-based wealth constituted a key potential source of political power, providing the possibility for greater bureaucratic control and contributing to the wider societal changes that accompanied urbanization.

  3. Gene expression reveals evidence for EGFR-dependent proximal-distal limb patterning in a myriapod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2017-05-01

    Evolution of segmented limbs is one of the key innovations of Arthropoda, allowing development of functionally specific specialized head and trunk appendages, a major factor behind their unmatched evolutionary success. Proximodistal limb patterning is controlled by two regulatory networks in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, and other insects. The first is represented by the function of the morphogens Wingless (Wg) and Decapentaplegic (Dpp); the second by the EGFR-signaling cascade. While the role of Wg and Dpp has been studied in a wide range of arthropods representing all main branches, that is, Pancrustacea (= Hexapoda + Crustacea), Myriapoda and Chelicerata, investigation of the potential role of EGFR-signaling is restricted to insects (Hexapoda). Gene expression analysis of Egfr, its potential ligands, and putative downstream factors in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata (Myriapoda: Diplopoda), reveals that-in at least mandibulate arthropods-EGFR-signaling is likely a conserved regulatory mechanism in proximodistal limb patterning. © 2017 The Authors. Evolution and Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. What does children's spatial language reveal about spatial concepts? Evidence from the use of containment expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Megan; Papafragou, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Children's overextensions of spatial language are often taken to reveal spatial biases. However, it is unclear whether extension patterns should be attributed to children's overly general spatial concepts or to a narrower notion of conceptual similarity allowing metaphor-like extensions. We describe a previously unnoticed extension of spatial expressions and use a novel method to determine its origins. English- and Greek-speaking 4- and 5-year-olds used containment expressions (e.g., English into, Greek mesa) for events where an object moved into another object but extended such expressions to events where the object moved behind or under another object. The pattern emerged in adult speakers of both languages and also in speakers of 10 additional languages. We conclude that learners do not have an overly general concept of Containment. Nevertheless, children (and adults) perceive similarities across Containment and other types of spatial scenes, even when these similarities are obscured by the conventional forms of the language. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Sebastien [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  6. Genomic evidence reveals numerous Salmonella enterica serovar Newport reintroduction events in Suwannee watershed irrigation ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoguang; Jackson, Scott A; Gangiredla, Jayanthi; Wang, Weimin; Liu, Huanli; Tall, Ben D; Beaubrun, Junia Jean-Gilles; Jay-Russell, Michele; Vellidis, George; Elkins, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    Our previous work indicated a predominance (56.8%) of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport among isolates recovered from irrigation ponds used in produce farms over a 2-year period (B. Li et al., Appl Environ Microbiol 80:6355-6365, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02063-14). This observation provided a valuable set of metrics to explore an underaddressed issue of environmental survival of Salmonella by DNA microarray. Microarray analysis correctly identified all the isolates (n = 53) and differentiated the S. Newport isolates into two phylogenetic lineages (S. Newport II and S. Newport III). Serovar distribution analysis showed no instances where the same serovar was recovered from a pond for more than a month. Furthermore, during the study, numerous isolates with an indistinguishable genotype were recovered from different ponds as far as 180 km apart for time intervals as long as 2 years. Although isolates within either lineage were phylogenetically related as determined by microarray analysis, subtle genotypic differences were detected within the lineages, suggesting that isolates in either lineage could have come from several unique hosts. For example, strains in four different subgroups (A, B, C, and D) possessed an indistinguishable genotype within their subgroups as measured by gene differences, suggesting that strains in each subgroup shared a common host. Based on this comparative genomic evidence and the spatial and temporal factors, we speculated that the presence of Salmonella in the ponds was likely due to numerous punctuated reintroduction events associated with several different but common hosts in the environment. These findings may have implications for the development of strategies for efficient and safe irrigation to minimize the risk of Salmonella outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Copyright © 2015 Li et al.

  7. Genome-wide Evidence Reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals Are Distinct Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Pollinger, John; Godinho, Raquel; Robinson, Jacqueline; Lea, Amanda; Hendricks, Sarah; Schweizer, Rena M; Thalmann, Olaf; Silva, Pedro; Fan, Zhenxin; Yurchenko, Andrey A; Dobrynin, Pavel; Makunin, Alexey; Cahill, James A; Shapiro, Beth; Álvares, Francisco; Brito, José C; Geffen, Eli; Leonard, Jennifer A; Helgen, Kristofer M; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Wayne, Robert K

    2015-08-17

    The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a previously unrecognized phylogenetically distinct species despite a long history of taxonomic work on African canids. To test the distinct-species hypothesis and understand the evolutionary history that would account for this puzzling result, we analyzed extensive genomic data including mitochondrial genome sequences, sequences from 20 autosomal loci (17 introns and 3 exon segments), microsatellite loci, X- and Y-linked zinc-finger protein gene (ZFX and ZFY) sequences, and whole-genome nuclear sequences in African and Eurasian golden jackals and gray wolves. Our results provide consistent and robust evidence that populations of golden jackals from Africa and Eurasia represent distinct monophyletic lineages separated for more than one million years, sufficient to merit formal recognition as different species: C. anthus (African golden wolf) and C. aureus (Eurasian golden jackal). Using morphologic data, we demonstrate a striking morphologic similarity between East African and Eurasian golden jackals, suggesting parallelism, which may have misled taxonomists and likely reflects uniquely intense interspecific competition in the East African carnivore guild. Our study shows how ecology can confound taxonomy if interspecific competition constrains size diversification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomic evidence reveals a radiation of placental mammals uninterrupted by the KPg boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang; Zhang, Jin; Rheindt, Frank E; Lei, Fumin; Qu, Yanhua; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yu; Sullivan, Corwin; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Yang, Fengtang; Chen, Jinping; Edwards, Scott V; Meng, Jin; Wu, Shaoyuan

    2017-08-29

    The timing of the diversification of placental mammals relative to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (KPg) boundary mass extinction remains highly controversial. In particular, there have been seemingly irreconcilable differences in the dating of the early placental radiation not only between fossil-based and molecular datasets but also among molecular datasets. To help resolve this discrepancy, we performed genome-scale analyses using 4,388 loci from 90 taxa, including representatives of all extant placental orders and transcriptome data from flying lemurs (Dermoptera) and pangolins (Pholidota). Depending on the gene partitioning scheme, molecular clock model, and genic deviation from molecular clock assumptions, extensive sensitivity analyses recovered widely varying diversification scenarios for placental mammals from a given gene set, ranging from a deep Cretaceous origin and diversification to a scenario spanning the KPg boundary, suggesting that the use of suboptimal molecular clock markers and methodologies is a major cause of controversies regarding placental diversification timing. We demonstrate that reconciliation between molecular and paleontological estimates of placental divergence times can be achieved using the appropriate clock model and gene partitioning scheme while accounting for the degree to which individual genes violate molecular clock assumptions. A birth-death-shift analysis suggests that placental mammals underwent a continuous radiation across the KPg boundary without apparent interruption by the mass extinction, paralleling a genus-level radiation of multituberculates and ecomorphological diversification of both multituberculates and therians. These findings suggest that the KPg catastrophe evidently played a limited role in placental diversification, which, instead, was likely a delayed response to the slightly earlier radiation of angiosperms.

  9. Meteorological variation in daily travel behaviour: evidence from revealed preference data from the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Lieve; Wets, Geert; Cools, Mario

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the meteorological variation in revealed preference travel data. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of weather conditions on daily activity participation (trip motives) and daily modal choices in the Netherlands. To this end, data from the Dutch National Travel Household Survey of 2008 were matched to hourly weather data provided by the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute and were complemented with thermal indices to indicate the level of thermal comfort and additional variables to indicate the seasonality of the weather conditions. Two multinomial logit-generalised estimation equations (MNL-GEE) models were constructed, one to assess the impact of weather conditions on trip motives and one to assess the effect of weather conditions on modal choice. The modelling results indicate that, depending on the travel attribute of concern, other factors might play a role. Nonetheless, the thermal component, as well as the aesthetical component and the physical component of weather play a significant role. Moreover, the parameter estimates indicate significant differences in the impact of weather conditions when different time scales are considered (e.g. daily versus hourly based). The fact that snow does not play any role at all was unexpected. This finding can be explained by the relatively low occurrence of this weather type in the study area. It is important to consider the effects of weather in travel demand modelling frameworks because this will help to achieve higher accuracy and more realistic traffic forecasts. These will in turn allow policy makers to make better long-term and short-term decisions to achieve various political goals, such as progress towards a sustainable transportation system. Further research in this respect should emphasise the role of weather conditions and activity-scheduling attributes.

  10. The colonization and divergence patterns of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) populations reveal evidence of genetic surfing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Kohn, Michael H; Zhang, Songmei; Wan, Xinrong; Shi, Dazhao; Wang, Deng

    2017-06-21

    The colonial habit of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) differs from that of most other species of the genus Microtus. The demographic history of this species and the patterns shaping its current genetic structure remain unknown. Here, we explored patterns of genetic differentiation and infered the demographic history of Brandt's vole populations through analyses of nuclear microsatellite and D-loop sequences. Phylogenetic analyses divided the sampled populations into three main clusters, which represent the southeastern, northeastern and western parts of the total range in Mongolia and China. Molecular data revealed an ancestral area located in the southeast of the extant range, in the Xilinguole District, Inner Mongolia, China, from where Brandt's vole populations began expanding. A gene flow analysis suggested that the most likely colonization route was from the ancestral area and was followed by subsequent northeastward and westward range expansions. We identified decreases in genetic diversity with increasing distance from the founder population within the newly occupied regions (northeastern and western regions), clinal patterns in the allele frequencies, alleles that were rare in the original area that have become common in the newly occupied regions, and higher genetic differentiation in the expanded range compared with the original one. Our results indicate that L. brandtii most likely originated from the southeastern part of its current geographic range, and subsequently colonized into the northeastern and western parts by expansion. The genetic patterns among the derived populations and with respect to the original population are consistent with that expected under genetic surfing models, which indicated that genetic drift, rather than gene flow, is the predominant factor underlying the genetic structure of expanding Brandt's vole populations.

  11. Absolute Pitch and Synesthesia: Two Sides of the Same Coin? Shared and Distinct Neural Substrates of Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche; Zamm, Anna; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    People with Absolute Pitch can categorize musical pitches without a reference, whereas people with tone-color synesthesia can see colors when hearing music. Both of these special populations perceive music in an above-normal manner. In this study we asked whether AP possessors and tone-color synesthetes might recruit specialized neural mechanisms during music listening. Furthermore, we tested the degree to which neural substrates recruited for music listening may be shared between these special populations. AP possessors, tone-color synesthetes, and matched controls rated the perceived arousal levels of musical excerpts in a sparse-sampled fMRI study. Both APs and synesthetes showed enhanced superior temporal gyrus (STG, secondary auditory cortex) activation relative to controls during music listening, with left-lateralized enhancement in the APs and right-lateralized enhancement in the synesthetes. When listening to highly arousing excerpts, AP possessors showed additional activation in the left STG whereas synesthetes showed enhanced activity in the bilateral lingual gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (late visual areas). Results support both shared and distinct neural enhancements in AP and synesthesia: common enhancements in early cortical mechanisms of perceptual analysis, followed by relative specialization in later association and categorization processes that support the unique behaviors of these special populations during music listening. PMID:23508195

  12. Adaptive molecular evolution of MC1R gene reveals the evidence for positive diversifying selection in indigenous goat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hafiz Ishfaq; Liu, Guiqiong; Jiang, Xunping; Liu, Chenhui; Chong, Yuqing; Huarong, Huang

    2017-07-01

    Detecting signatures of selection can provide a new insight into the mechanism of contemporary breeding and artificial selection and further reveal the causal genes associated to the phenotypic variation. However, the signatures of selection on genes entailing for profitable traits between Chinese commercial and indigenous goats have been poorly interpreted. We noticed footprints of positive selection at MC1R gene containing SNPs genotyped in five Chinese native goat breeds. An experimental distribution of FST was built based on approximations of FST for each SNP across five breeds. We identified selection using the high FST outlier method and found that MC1R candidate gene show evidence of positive selection. Furthermore, adaptive selection pressure on specific codons was determined using different codon based on maximum-likelihood methods; signature of positive selection in mammalian MC1R was explored in individual codons. Evolutionary analyses were inferred under maximum likelihood models, the HyPhy package implemented in the DATAMONKEY Web Server. The results of codon selection displayed positive diversifying selection at the sites were mainly involved in development of genetic variations in coat color in various mammalian species. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat MC1R provides new insights that the gene evolution may have been modulated by domestication events in goats.

  13. Activation of the DLPFC Reveals an Asymmetric Effect in Risky Decision Making: Evidence from a tDCS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Daqiang; Chen, Shu; Wang, Siqi; Shi, Jinchuan; Ye, Hang; Luo, Jun; Zheng, Haoli

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of loss aversion (the tendency for losses to have a greater impact than comparable gains) has long been observed in daily life. Neurocognitive studies and brain imaging studies have shed light on the correlation between the phenomenon of loss aversion and the brain region of the prefrontal cortex. Recent brain stimulation studies using bilateral transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have obtained various results showing the causal relationship between brain regions and decision making. With the goal of studying whether unilateral stimulation can change participants’ risky decision making in the frames of gains and losses, we applied different polarities of tDCS over the regions of the right or left prefrontal cortex. We also designed a risk measurement table (Multiple Price List) to reflect the participants’ attitudes toward risky decision making via the crossover point including the frames of gains and losses. The results of our experiment indicated that the participants tended to be more risk averse in the gain frame after receiving left anodal tDCS and more risk seeking in the loss frame after receiving right cathodal tDCS, which was consistent with the hypothesis that the process of risky decision making was correlated with the interaction of multiple systems in the brain. Our conclusion revealed an asymmetric effect of right/left DLPFC when the participants faced gains and losses, which partially provided the neural evidence and a feasible paradigm to help better understand risky decision making and loss aversion. The current study can not only expand the traditional understanding of the behavioral preferences of humans in economics but also accommodate empirical observations of behavioral economists on the preferences of humans. PMID:28174549

  14. Grapheme-color synesthetes show peculiarities in their emotional brain: cortical and subcortical evidence from VBM analysis of 3D-T1 and DTI data

    OpenAIRE

    Melero, Helena; Peña Melián, Ángel; Rios Lagos, Marcos; Pajares Martinsanz, Gonzalo; Hernández Tamames, J.A.; Álvarez Linera, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which viewing achromatic letters/numbers leads to automatic and involuntary color experiences. In this study, voxel-based morphometry analyses were performed on T1 images and fractional anisotropy measures to examine the whole brain in associator grapheme-color synesthetes. These analyses provide new evidence of variations in emotional areas (both at the cortical and subcortical levels), findings that help understand the emotional com...

  15. Empirical evidence reveals seasonally dependent reduction in nitrification in coastal sediments subjected to near future ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeckman, U.; Van Colen, C.; Guilini, K.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Soetaert, K.; Vincx, M.; Vanaverbeke, J.

    2014-01-01

    Research so far has provided little evidence that benthic biogeochemical cycling is affected by ocean acidification under realistic climate change scenarios. We measured nutrient exchange and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) rates to estimate nitrification in natural coastal permeable

  16. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and MRI Reveal No Evidence for Brain Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Neva M.; Shaw, Dennis. W. W.; Richards, Todd L.; Estes, Annette M.; Friedman, Seth D.; Petropoulos, Helen; Artru, Alan A.; Dager, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as an etiologic factor in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ([superscript 1]HMRS) and MRI were used to assess for evidence of brain mitochondrial dysfunction in longitudinal samples of children with ASD or developmental delay (DD), and cross-sectionally…

  17. The Role of Sensory Perception, Emotionality and "Lifeworld" in Auditory Word Processing: Evidence from Congenital Blindness and Synesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Judith; Domahs, Frank; Kauschke, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Although it has been established that human beings process concrete and abstract words differently, it is still a matter of debate what factors contribute to this difference. Since concrete concepts are closely tied to sensory perception, perceptual experience seems to play an important role in their processing. The present study investigated the…

  18. Introgression evidence and phylogenetic relationships among three (ParaMisgurnus species as revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovlić I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of (ParaMisgurnus genera is still debated. We therefore used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, Paramisgurnus dabryanus and Misgurnus fossilis. Differing phylogenetic signals from mitochondrial and nuclear marker data suggest an introgression event in the history of M. anguillicaudatus and M. mohoity. No substantial genetic evidence was found that Paramisgurnus dabryanus should be classified as a separate genus.

  19. Morphological characteristics and genetic evidence reveals a new species of Manihot (Euphorbiaceae, Crotonoideae) from Goiás, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos José; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; Oliveira, Patrícia Rasteiro Ordiale

    2017-01-01

    Abstract During botanical expeditions between 2010 and 2015, as part of a taxonomic study of Manihot in the Midwest region of Brazil, approximately 500 specimens of the genus were collected. Some of these specimens presented similarities to Manihot irwinii. However, after careful morphological analyses, associated with genetic evidence, we propose here Manihot pulchrifolius as a new species. The new species is described, illustrated, and compared to Manihot irwinii, its most similar species. Furthermore, geographic distribution, conservation status, and period of flowering and fruiting of the novel species are also provided. PMID:28814925

  20. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of current hand amputees reveals evidence for neuronal-level changes in former sensorimotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirstea, Carmen M; Choi, In-Young; Lee, Phil; Peng, Huiling; Kaufman, Christina L; Frey, Scott H

    2017-04-01

    Deafferentation is accompanied by large-scale functional reorganization of maps in the primary sensory and motor areas of the hemisphere contralateral to injury. Animal models of deafferentation suggest a variety of cellular-level changes including depression of neuronal metabolism and even neuronal death. Whether similar neuronal changes contribute to patterns of reorganization within the contralateral sensorimotor cortex of chronic human amputees is uncertain. We used functional MRI-guided proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test the hypothesis that unilateral deafferentation is associated with lower levels of N -acetylaspartate (NAA, a putative marker of neuronal integrity) in the sensorimotor hand territory located contralateral to the missing hand in chronic amputees ( n = 19) compared with the analogous hand territory of age- and sex-matched healthy controls ( n = 28). We also tested whether former amputees [i.e., recipients of replanted ( n = 3) or transplanted ( n = 2) hands] exhibit NAA levels that are indistinguishable from controls, possible evidence for reversal of the effects of deafferentation. As predicted, relative to controls, current amputees exhibited lower levels of NAA that were negatively and significantly correlated with the time after amputation. Contrary to our prediction, NAA levels in both replanted and transplanted patients fell within the range of the current amputees. We suggest that lower levels of NAA in current amputees reflects altered neuronal integrity consequent to chronic deafferentation. Thus local changes in NAA levels may provide a means of assessing neuroplastic changes in deafferented cortex. Results from former amputees suggest that these changes may not be readily reversible through reafferentation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first to use functional magnetic resonance-guided magnetic resonance spectroscopy to examine neurochemical mechanisms underlying functional reorganization in the primary somatosensory

  1. Stable Isotopic Signatures in the Isolated Brine Cyroecosystem of Lake Vida Reveal Evidence of both Abiotic and Biotic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, A. E.; Ostrom, N. E.; Glazer, B. T.; McKay, C.; Kenig, F.; Loeffler, F. E.; Fritsen, C. H.; Doran, P. T.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Vida in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica harbors ice-entrained brine that has been isolated from surface processes for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, temperature of -13.4 °C, lack of oxygen, and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. As an example, the brine contains excessive quantities of both reduced and oxidized nitrogen in nearly all forms, which in several cases are the highest levels found among natural ecosystems on Earth. Though this cryoecosystem appears to be relatively inhospitable, we have evidence that microbial life persists in abundance (cell levels over 107 cells per mL), is capable of protein production at in situ temperatures, and harbors a unique, but not necessarily novel, assemblage of bacterial phylotypes spanning at least eight phyla. In order to assess in situ microbial activities occurring today and in the past, and test hypotheses concerning energy generation in the brine cryoecosystem, the stable isotope signatures of nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen have been characterized in liquid and dissolved gas phases of the brine. The data provide evidence for both biotic and potentially abiotic formation of different fractions. The site preference of 15N-nitrous oxide (-3.64) suggests that the primary source of this dissolved gas, which is found at levels as high as 86 μM, is biologically produced by denitrification pathways. This appears to be consistent with detection of Marinobacter and Psychrobacter-related bacterial rRNA gene sequences and isolates in the brine microbial community. On the other hand, dissolved hydrogen present in the brine harbors an δH-H2 isotope signature suggesting that abiotic (potentially via serpentinization) or biotic production is equivocal based on the significant levels of fractionation observed. We postulate however, that a serpentinization production route is more favorable in this system that lies in a basin comprised of Ferrar dolerite sills and granite

  2. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual 'evidence' supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  3. Empirical Evidence Reveals Seasonally Dependent Reduction in Nitrification in Coastal Sediments Subjected to Near Future Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeckman, Ulrike; Van Colen, Carl; Guilini, Katja; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Soetaert, Karline; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Research so far has provided little evidence that benthic biogeochemical cycling is affected by ocean acidification under realistic climate change scenarios. We measured nutrient exchange and sediment community oxygen consumption (SCOC) rates to estimate nitrification in natural coastal permeable and fine sandy sediments under pre-phytoplankton bloom and bloom conditions. Ocean acidification, as mimicked in the laboratory by a realistic pH decrease of 0.3, significantly reduced SCOC on average by 60% and benthic nitrification rates on average by 94% in both sediment types in February (pre-bloom period), but not in April (bloom period). No changes in macrofauna functional community (density, structural and functional diversity) were observed between ambient and acidified conditions, suggesting that changes in benthic biogeochemical cycling were predominantly mediated by changes in the activity of the microbial community during the short-term incubations (14 days), rather than by changes in engineering effects of bioturbating and bio-irrigating macrofauna. As benthic nitrification makes up the gross of ocean nitrification, a slowdown of this nitrogen cycling pathway in both permeable and fine sediments in winter, could therefore have global impacts on coupled nitrification-denitrification and hence eventually on pelagic nutrient availability. PMID:25329898

  4. Microsatellite markers reveal a strong geographical structure in European populations of Castanea sativa (Fagaceae): evidence for multiple glacial refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioni, Claudia; Martin, M Angela; Pollegioni, Paola; Cherubini, Marcello; Villani, Fiorella

    2013-05-01

    Large-scale studies on the genetic diversity of forest trees are relevant for the inventory, conservation, and management of genetic resources and provide an insight into the geographical origins of the species. This approach is appropriate to use with Castanea sativa, a tree of great economic importance and the only species from the genus Castanea in Europe. The history of C. sativa was deduced from fossil pollen data, but the large-scale genetic structure of this species needs to be elucidated. We evaluated the genetic diversity of C. sativa to define previously unclarified genetic relationships among the populations from Turkey and those from Greece and western Europe. The influence of natural events such as glaciations and human impact in terms of species distribution are discussed. • Wild chestnut trees (779) were sampled in 31 European sites. Six polymorphic microsatellites were used for the analysis. A set of measures of intra- and interpopulation genetic statistics were calculated. The population structure was inferred by using a Bayesian approach. • The population structure showed a genetic divergence between the eastern (Greek and Turkish) and western (Italian and Spanish) populations. Two gene pools and a zone of gene introgression in Turkey were revealed. • The inferred population structure shows a strong geographical correspondence with the hypothesized glacial refugia and rules out the migration of the chestnut from Turkey and Greece to Italy. The homogeneous gene pool observed in Italy and Spain could have been originated from common refugia along with human-mediated colonization.

  5. Deep Sequencing Reveals Novel Genetic Variants in Children with Acute Liver Failure and Tissue Evidence of Impaired Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, C Alexander; Wang, Xinjian; Wang, Jin; Peters, Anna; Simmons, Julia R; Moran, Molly C; Mathur, Abhinav; Husami, Ammar; Qian, Yaping; Sheridan, Rachel; Bove, Kevin E; Witte, David; Huang, Taosheng; Miethke, Alexander G

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of acute liver failure (ALF) remains elusive in almost half of affected children. We hypothesized that inherited mitochondrial and fatty acid oxidation disorders were occult etiological factors in patients with idiopathic ALF and impaired energy metabolism. Twelve patients with elevated blood molar lactate/pyruvate ratio and indeterminate etiology were selected from a retrospective cohort of 74 subjects with ALF because their fixed and frozen liver samples were available for histological, ultrastructural, molecular and biochemical analysis. A customized next-generation sequencing panel for 26 genes associated with mitochondrial and fatty acid oxidation defects revealed mutations and sequence variants in five subjects. Variants involved the genes ACAD9, POLG, POLG2, DGUOK, and RRM2B; the latter not previously reported in subjects with ALF. The explanted livers of the patients with heterozygous, truncating insertion mutations in RRM2B showed patchy micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content liver tissue in children with elevated lactate/pyruvate ratio expand the spectrum of genes associated with pediatric ALF.

  6. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBigand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, it has been argued that 1 music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and 2 that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  7. Empirical evidence for musical syntax processing? Computer simulations reveal the contribution of auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, Emmanuel; Delbé, Charles; Poulin-Charronnat, Bénédicte; Leman, Marc; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, it has been argued that (1) music processing involves syntactic representations similar to those observed in language, and (2) that music and language share similar syntactic-like processes and neural resources. This claim is important for understanding the origin of music and language abilities and, furthermore, it has clinical implications. The Western musical system, however, is rooted in psychoacoustic properties of sound, and this is not the case for linguistic syntax. Accordingly, musical syntax processing could be parsimoniously understood as an emergent property of auditory memory rather than a property of abstract processing similar to linguistic processing. To support this view, we simulated numerous empirical studies that investigated the processing of harmonic structures, using a model based on the accumulation of sensory information in auditory memory. The simulations revealed that most of the musical syntax manipulations used with behavioral and neurophysiological methods as well as with developmental and cross-cultural approaches can be accounted for by the auditory memory model. This led us to question whether current research on musical syntax can really be compared with linguistic processing. Our simulation also raises methodological and theoretical challenges to study musical syntax while disentangling the confounded low-level sensory influences. In order to investigate syntactic abilities in music comparable to language, research should preferentially use musical material with structures that circumvent the tonal effect exerted by psychoacoustic properties of sounds.

  8. The Strong Gravitationally Lensed Herschel Galaxy HLock01: Optical Spectroscopy Reveals a Close Galaxy Merger with Evidence of Inflowing Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Chaves, Rui; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Gavazzi, Raphael; Martínez-Navajas, Paloma I.; Riechers, Dominik; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Clements, David L.; Cooray, Asantha; Farrah, Duncan; Ivison, Rob J.; Jiménez-Ángel, Camilo E.; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Oliver, Seb; Omont, Alain; Scott, Douglas; Shu, Yiping; Wardlow, Julie

    2018-02-01

    The submillimeter galaxy (SMG) HERMES J105751.1+573027 (hereafter HLock01) at z = 2.9574 ± 0.0001 is one of the brightest gravitationally lensed sources discovered in the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey. Apart from the high flux densities in the far-infrared, it is also extremely bright in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), with a total apparent magnitude m UV ≃ 19.7 mag. We report here deep spectroscopic observations with the Gran Telescopio Canarias of the optically bright lensed images of HLock01. Our results suggest that HLock01 is a merger system composed of the Herschel-selected SMG and an optically bright Lyman break-like galaxy (LBG), separated by only 3.3 kpc in projection. While the SMG appears very massive (M * ≃ 5 × 1011 M ⊙), with a highly extinguished stellar component (A V ≃ 4.3 ), the LBG is a young, lower-mass (M * ≃ 1 × 1010 M ⊙), but still luminous (10× {L}UV}* ) satellite galaxy. Detailed analysis of the high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) rest-frame UV spectrum of the LBG shows complex kinematics of the gas, exhibiting both blueshifted and redshifted absorption components. While the blueshifted component is associated with strong galactic outflows from the massive stars in the LBG, as is common in most star-forming galaxies, the redshifted component may be associated with gas inflow seen along a favorable sightline to the LBG. We also find evidence of an extended gas reservoir around HLock01 at an impact parameter of 110 kpc, through the detection of C II λλ1334 absorption in the red wing of a bright Lyα emitter at z ≃ 3.327. The data presented here highlight the power of gravitational lensing in high S/N studies to probe deeply into the physics of high-z star-forming galaxies.

  9. Absolute pitch: evidence for early cognitive facilitation during passive listening as revealed by reduced P3a amplitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogenmoser, Lars; Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-03-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the rare ability to identify or produce different pitches without using reference tones. At least two sequential processing stages are assumed to contribute to this phenomenon. The first recruits a pitch memory mechanism at an early stage of auditory processing, whereas the second is driven by a later cognitive mechanism (pitch labeling). Several investigations have used active tasks, but it is unclear how these two mechanisms contribute to AP during passive listening. The present work investigated the temporal dynamics of tone processing in AP and non-AP (NAP) participants by using EEG. We applied a passive oddball paradigm with between- and within-tone category manipulations and analyzed the MMN reflecting the early stage of auditory processing and the P3a response reflecting the later cognitive mechanism during the second processing stage. Results did not reveal between-group differences in MMN waveforms. By contrast, the P3a response was specifically associated with AP and sensitive to the processing of different pitch types. Specifically, AP participants exhibited smaller P3a amplitudes, especially in between-tone category conditions, and P3a responses correlated significantly with the age of commencement of musical training, suggesting an influence of early musical exposure on AP. Our results reinforce the current opinion that the representation of pitches at the processing level of the auditory-related cortex is comparable among AP and NAP participants, whereas the later processing stage is critical for AP. Results are interpreted as reflecting cognitive facilitation in AP participants, possibly driven by the availability of multiple codes for tones.

  10. A Snapshot Avian Surveillance Reveals West Nile Virus and Evidence of Wild Birds Participating in Toscana Virus Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacioglu, Sabri; Dincer, Ender; Isler, Cafer Tayer; Karapinar, Zeynep; Ataseven, Veysel Soydal; Ozkul, Aykut; Ergunay, Koray

    2017-10-01

    Birds are involved in the epidemiology of several vector-borne viruses, as amplification hosts for viruses, dissemination vehicles for the vectors, and sources of emerging strains in cross-species transmission. Turkey provides diverse habitats for a variety of wild birds and is located along major bird migration routes. This study was undertaken to provide a cross-sectional screening of avian specimens for a spectrum of vector-borne viruses. The specimens were collected in Hatay province, in the Mediterranean coast of the Anatolian peninsula, located in the convergence zone of the known migration routes. Generic PCR assays were used for the detection of members of Nairovirus, Flavivirus, and Phlebovirus genera of Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridae families. The circulating viruses were characterized via sequencing and selected specimens were inoculated onto Vero cell lines for virus isolation. Specimens from 72 wild birds belonging in 8 orders and 14 species were collected. A total of 158 specimens that comprise 32 sera (20.3%) from 7 species and 126 tissues (79.7%) from 14 species were screened. Eight specimens (8/158, 5%), obtained from 4 individuals (4/72, 5.5%), were positive. West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 1 sequences were characterized in the spleen, heart, and kidney tissues from a lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), which distinctly clustered from sequences previously identified in Turkey. Toscana virus (TOSV) genotype A and B sequences were identified in brain and kidney tissues from a greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus), a great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), and a black stork (Ciconia nigra), without successful virus isolation. Partial amino acid sequences of the viral nucleocapsid protein revealed previously unreported substitutions. This study documents the involvement of avians in WNV dispersion in Anatolia as well in TOSV life cycle.

  11. Exploring evidence of positive selection reveals genetic basis of meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs through whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Song, Ki-Duk; Seo, Minseok; Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Kim, Jaemin; Kwak, Woori; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, EuiSoo; Jeong, Dong Kee; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2015-08-20

    Natural and artificial selection following domestication has led to the existence of more than a hundred pig breeds, as well as incredible variation in phenotypic traits. Berkshire pigs are regarded as having superior meat quality compared to other breeds. As the meat production industry seeks selective breeding approaches to improve profitable traits such as meat quality, information about genetic determinants of these traits is in high demand. However, most of the studies have been performed using trained sensory panel analysis without investigating the underlying genetic factors. Here we investigate the relationship between genomic composition and this phenotypic trait by scanning for signatures of positive selection in whole-genome sequencing data. We generated genomes of 10 Berkshire pigs at a total of 100.6 coverage depth, using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. Along with the genomes of 11 Landrace and 13 Yorkshire pigs, we identified genomic variants of 18.9 million SNVs and 3.4 million Indels in the mapped regions. We identified several associated genes related to lipid metabolism, intramuscular fatty acid deposition, and muscle fiber type which attribute to pork quality (TG, FABP1, AKIRIN2, GLP2R, TGFBR3, JPH3, ICAM2, and ERN1) by applying between population statistical tests (XP-EHH and XP-CLR). A statistical enrichment test was also conducted to detect breed specific genetic variation. In addition, de novo short sequence read assembly strategy identified several candidate genes (SLC25A14, IGF1, PI4KA, CACNA1A) as also contributing to lipid metabolism. Results revealed several candidate genes involved in Berkshire meat quality; most of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and intramuscular fat deposition. These results can provide a basis for future research on the genomic characteristics of Berkshire pigs.

  12. Deep Sequencing Reveals Novel Genetic Variants in Children with Acute Liver Failure and Tissue Evidence of Impaired Energy Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Alexander Valencia

    Full Text Available The etiology of acute liver failure (ALF remains elusive in almost half of affected children. We hypothesized that inherited mitochondrial and fatty acid oxidation disorders were occult etiological factors in patients with idiopathic ALF and impaired energy metabolism.Twelve patients with elevated blood molar lactate/pyruvate ratio and indeterminate etiology were selected from a retrospective cohort of 74 subjects with ALF because their fixed and frozen liver samples were available for histological, ultrastructural, molecular and biochemical analysis.A customized next-generation sequencing panel for 26 genes associated with mitochondrial and fatty acid oxidation defects revealed mutations and sequence variants in five subjects. Variants involved the genes ACAD9, POLG, POLG2, DGUOK, and RRM2B; the latter not previously reported in subjects with ALF. The explanted livers of the patients with heterozygous, truncating insertion mutations in RRM2B showed patchy micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, decreased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content <30% of controls, and reduced respiratory chain complex activity; both patients had good post-transplant outcome. One infant with severe lactic acidosis was found to carry two heterozygous variants in ACAD9, which was associated with isolated complex I deficiency and diffuse hypergranular hepatocytes. The two subjects with heterozygous variants of unknown clinical significance in POLG and DGUOK developed ALF following drug exposure. Their hepatocytes displayed abnormal mitochondria by electron microscopy.Targeted next generation sequencing and correlation with histological, ultrastructural and functional studies on liver tissue in children with elevated lactate/pyruvate ratio expand the spectrum of genes associated with pediatric ALF.

  13. Evidence for sub-lacustrine volcanic activity in Lake Bolsena (central Italy) revealed by high resolution seismic data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhorst, Katja; Krastel, Sebastian; Wagner, Bernd; Schuerer, Anke

    2017-06-01

    The Bolsena caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.2 Ma has a well preserved structural rim, which makes it an ideal site to study the tectonic and volcanic evolution of calderas. However, the main area is covered by a 150 m deep lake which makes it rather difficult to investigate the subsurface structure directly. To overcome this problem new high resolution hydro-acoustic surveys using a multichannel reflection seismic system and a sediment echo-sounder system were conducted in September 2012. As space was limited we used a rowing boat towed by a rubber boat to handle a 36 m long and 24 channel streamer to receive seismic reflections produced using a Mini GI-Gun (0.25 l). The subsurface structure of Lake Bolsena was imaged up to a sediment depth of 190 m, which is estimated to have filled over a period of 333 kyrs. However, massive pyroclastic flow deposits found in the deeper parts of the basin indicate an initial infill of volcanic deposits from two adjacent younger calderas, the Latera (W) and Montefiascone (SE) calderas. Our data suggest that the caldera has a long history of active volcanism, because the lacustrine sediments show post-sedimentary influences of geothermal fluids. We mapped several mound structures at various stratigraphic depths. Two volcanic structures outcrop at the modern lake surface implying recent activity. One of these structures is hardly covered by sediments and has a crater-like feature in its summit. The other structure shows a pockmark-like depression on top. Another observable feature is a partially sediment filled crater located in the western part of the lake which further implies the existence of a magma chamber located beneath the Bolsena caldera. Since the late Pleistocene and Holocene, the sedimentation was mainly hemipelagic evidenced by a sediment drape of up to 10 m thick sediment drape on the uppermost sediments. Beneath the drape we found evidence for a distal tephra layer likely related to an explosive eruption from

  14. A comparison of in vitro properties of resting SOD1 transgenic microglia reveals evidence of reduced neuroprotective function

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    Monk Peter N

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of mutant copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1 in rodents has provided useful models for studying the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Microglia have been shown to contribute to ALS disease progression in these models, although the mechanism of this contribution remains to be elucidated. Here, we present the first evidence of the effects of overexpression of mutant (TG G93A and wild type (TG WT human SOD1 transgenes on a set of functional properties of microglia relevant to ALS progression, including expression of integrin β-1, spreading and migration, phagocytosis of apoptotic neuronal cell debris, and intracellular calcium changes in response to an inflammatory stimulus. Results TG SOD1 G93A but not TG SOD1 WT microglia had lower expression levels of the cell adhesion molecule subunit integrin β-1 than their NTG control cells [NTG (G93A and NTG (WT, respectively, 92.8 ± 2.8% on TG G93A, 92.0 ± 6.6% on TG WT, 100.0 ± 1.6% on NTG (G93A, and 100.0 ± 2.7% on NTG (WT cells], resulting in decreased spreading ability, with no effect on ability to migrate. Both TG G93A and TG WT microglia had reduced capacity to phagocytose apoptotic neuronal cell debris (13.0 ± 1.3% for TG G93A, 16.5 ± 1.9% for TG WT, 28.6 ± 1.8% for NTG (G93A, and 26.9 ± 2.8% for NTG (WT cells. Extracellular stimulation of microglia with ATP resulted in smaller increase in intracellular free calcium in TG G93A and TG WT microglia relative to NTG controls (0.28 ± 0.02 μM for TG G93A, 0.24 ± 0.03 μM for TG WT, 0.39 ± 0.03 μM for NTG (G93A, and 0.37 ± 0.05 μM for NTG (WT microglia. Conclusions These findings indicate that, under resting conditions, microglia from mutant SOD1 transgenic mice have a reduced capacity to elicit physiological responses following tissue disturbances and that higher levels of stimulatory signals, and/or prolonged stimulation may be necessary to initiate these responses. Overall, resting

  15. The Phenomenon of Synesthesia in the European Musical Art of Romanticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals synesthesiс foundations of artistic and aesthetic consciousness of philosophers, poets, composers of the Romantic era. Based on the analysis of the epistolary and critical heritage of Romantic composers, the particularities of synaesthesia manifestation in their creative thinking have been identified. The importance of visual, tactile, gustatory, kinesthetic perception in the process of meaning and image creation has been proved.

  16. Deep sequencing reveals the complete genome and evidence for transcriptional activity of the first virus-like sequences identified in Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui Berry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacreses, Javier; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Sánchez, Carolina; Hewstone, Nicole; Undurraga, Soledad F; Alzate, Juan F; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Polanco, Victor

    2015-04-03

    Here, we report the genome sequence and evidence for transcriptional activity of a virus-like element in the native Chilean berry tree Aristotelia chilensis. We propose to name the endogenous sequence as Aristotelia chilensis Virus 1 (AcV1). High-throughput sequencing of the genome of this tree uncovered an endogenous viral element, with a size of 7122 bp, corresponding to the complete genome of AcV1. Its sequence contains three open reading frames (ORFs): ORFs 1 and 2 shares 66%-73% amino acid similarity with members of the Caulimoviridae virus family, especially the Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), Petuvirus genus. ORF1 encodes a movement protein (MP); ORF2 a Reverse Transcriptase (RT) and a Ribonuclease H (RNase H) domain; and ORF3 showed no amino acid sequence similarity with any other known virus proteins. Analogous to other known endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (EPRVs), AcV1 is integrated in the genome of Maqui Berry and showed low viral transcriptional activity, which was detected by deep sequencing technology (DNA and RNA-seq). Phylogenetic analysis of AcV1 and other pararetroviruses revealed a closer resemblance with Petuvirus. Overall, our data suggests that AcV1 could be a new member of Caulimoviridae family, genus Petuvirus, and the first evidence of this kind of virus in a fruit plant.

  17. Grapheme-color synesthesia interferes with color perception in a standard Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, F M; Aben, H P; Smits, M; Röder, C H

    2014-01-31

    This study examined the proposed automatic and involuntary nature of synesthetic experiences in grapheme-color synesthetes by comparing behavioral and blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses in a synesthetic and a standard version of the Stroop task. Clear interference effects in terms of slower reaction times and stronger BOLD responses in the rostral cingulate zone (RCZ) were found in synesthetes performing the synesthetic version of the Stroop task. Surprisingly, less interference was found in synesthetes compared with controls performing the standard Stroop task. This smaller interference effect, expressed as the difference in reaction time between incongruent and neutral stimuli, was explained in terms of experienced interference during the neutral condition of the Stroop task in synesthetes. This was confirmed by stronger BOLD responses in the RCZ for synesthetes specifically in the neutral condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show different performance of synesthetes in a standard Stroop task and the presented data can be seen as strong evidence for the automatic and involuntary nature of synesthetic experiences. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender differences of brain glucose metabolic networks revealed by FDG-PET: evidence from a large cohort of 400 young adults.

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    Yuxiao Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gender differences of the human brain are an important issue in neuroscience research. In recent years, an increasing amount of evidence has been gathered from noninvasive neuroimaging studies supporting a sexual dimorphism of the human brain. However, there is a lack of imaging studies on gender differences of brain metabolic networks based on a large population sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FDG PET data of 400 right-handed, healthy subjects, including 200 females (age: 25:45 years, mean age ± SD: 40.9 ± 3.9 years and 200 age-matched males were obtained and analyzed in the present study. We first investigated the regional differences of brain glucose metabolism between genders using a voxel-based two-sample t-test analysis. Subsequently, we investigated the gender differences of the metabolic networks. Sixteen metabolic covariance networks using seed-based correlation were analyzed. Seven regions showing significant regional metabolic differences between genders, and nine regions conventionally used in the resting-state network studies were selected as regions-of-interest. Permutation tests were used for comparing within- and between-network connectivity between genders. RESULTS: Compared with the males, females showed higher metabolism in the posterior part and lower metabolism in the anterior part of the brain. Moreover, there were widely distributed patterns of the metabolic networks in the human brain. In addition, significant gender differences within and between brain glucose metabolic networks were revealed in the present study. CONCLUSION: This study provides solid data that reveal gender differences in regional brain glucose metabolism and brain glucose metabolic networks. These observations might contribute to the better understanding of the gender differences in human brain functions, and suggest that gender should be included as a covariate when designing experiments and explaining results of brain glucose metabolic

  19. Epoch-based likelihood models reveal no evidence for accelerated evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles in response to cenozoic climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benedict; Lee, Michael S Y

    2015-09-01

    A broad scale analysis of the evolution of viviparity across nearly 4,000 species of squamates revealed that origins increase in frequency toward the present, raising the question of whether rates of change have accelerated. We here use simulations to show that the increased frequency is within the range expected given that the number of squamate lineages also increases with time. Novel, epoch-based methods implemented in BEAST (which allow rates of discrete character evolution to vary across time-slices) also give congruent results, with recent epochs having very similar rates to older epochs. Thus, contrary to expectations, there was no accelerated burst of origins of viviparity in response to global cooling during the Cenozoic or glacial cycles during the Plio-Pleistocene. However, if one accepts the conventional view that viviparity is more likely to evolve than to be lost, and also the evidence here that viviparity has evolved with similar regularity throughout the last 200 Ma, then the absence of large, ancient clades of viviparous squamates (analogs to therian mammals) requires explanation. Viviparous squamate lineages might be more prone to extinction than are oviparous lineages, due to their prevalance at high elevations and latitudes and thus greater susceptibility to climate fluctuations. If so, the directional bias in character evolution would be offset by the bias in extinction rates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mitochondrial coding genome analysis of tropical root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne) supports haplotype based diagnostics and reveals evidence of recent reticulate evolution.

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    Janssen, Toon; Karssen, Gerrit; Verhaeven, Myrtle; Coyne, Danny; Bert, Wim

    2016-03-04

    The polyphagous parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered to be the most significant nematode pest in sub-tropical and tropical agriculture. Despite the crucial need for correct diagnosis, identification of these pathogens remains problematic. The traditionally used diagnostic strategies, including morphometrics, host-range tests, biochemical and molecular techniques, now appear to be unreliable due to the recently-suggested hybrid origin of root-knot nematodes. In order to determine a suitable barcode region for these pathogens nine quickly-evolving mitochondrial coding genes were screened. Resulting haplotype networks revealed closely related lineages indicating a recent speciation, an anthropogenic-aided distribution through agricultural practices, and evidence for reticulate evolution within M. arenaria. Nonetheless, nucleotide polymorphisms harbor enough variation to distinguish these closely-related lineages. Furthermore, completeness of lineage sorting was verified by screening 80 populations from widespread geographical origins and variable hosts. Importantly, our results indicate that mitochondrial haplotypes are strongly linked and consistent with traditional esterase isozyme patterns, suggesting that different parthenogenetic lineages can be reliably identified using mitochondrial haplotypes. The study indicates that the barcode region Nad5 can reliably identify the major lineages of tropical root-knot nematodes.

  1. Disparity between dorsal and ventral networks in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: Evidence revealed by graph theoretical analysis based on cortical thickness from MRI

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    Seung-Goo eKim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most widely accepted neuroanatomical models on OCD, it has been hypothesized that imbalance between an excitatory direct (ventral pathway and an inhibitory indirect (dorsal pathway in cortico-striato-thalamic circuit underlies the emergence of OCD. Here we examine the structural network in drug-free patients with OCD in terms of graph theoretical measures for the first time. We used a measure called efficiency which quantifies how a node transfers information efficiently. To construct brain networks, cortical thickness was automatically estimated using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the network of the OCD patients was as efficient as that of healthy controls so that the both networks were in the small-world regime. More importantly, however, disparity between the dorsal and the ventral networks in the OCD patients was found, suggesting a positive evidence to the imbalance theory on the underlying pathophysiology of OCD.

  2. Genomic characterization of Ambrosia asymptomatic virus 1 and evidence of other Tymovirales members in the Oklahoma tallgrass prairie revealed by sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mukta; Sokhandan Bashir, Nemat; Palmer, Michael W; Melcher, Ulrich

    2014-07-01

    The Plant Virus Biodiversity and Ecology project was undertaken to better understand the nature of plant-viral interactions and the occurrence of non-pathogenic viruses. Plants from the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve (TPP), Osage County, Oklahoma, were surveyed from 2005 to 2008 for the presence of viruses, resulting in the detection, using a virus-like particle enrichment method, of the genome a novel virus, Ambrosia asymptomatic virus 1 (AAV1), from Ambrosia psilostachya DC (western ragweed). Here, we present the genomic organization and genetic variability of AAV1. The virus has a single-stranded RNA genome of about 7408 nt, which has six open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the replicase and coat protein ORFs of the virus indicates strongly that the virus should be placed in the genus Mandarivirus. No evidence of recombination was detected. We also report the detection in the TPP of two known viruses and seven other putative viruses, members of the order Tymovirales.

  3. Bioinformatic analysis of the neutrality of RNA secondary structure elements across genotypes reveals evidence for direct evolution of genetic robustness in HCV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkin, Alexander; Cohen, Moriah; Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Barash, Danny

    2010-12-01

    The properties and origin of genetic robustness have recently been investigated in several works that examined microRNA stem-loop structures, and a variety of conclusions have been reached without agreement. Considering that this is a universal phenomenon that is not restricted to miRNAs, we recall the original work on this topic that began from looking at viral RNAs of several types. We provide a link to this work by examining the neutrality of HCV structural elements, performing a detailed bioinformatic analysis using RNA secondary structure predictions across genotypes. This study provides supporting evidence for direct evolution of genetic robustness that is not limited to noncoding RNAs participating in gene regulation, but includes functionally important structural elements of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that show excess of robustness beyond the intrinsic robustness of their stem-loop structure. These findings further support the adaptive behavior of genetic robustness in functional RNAs of various types that seem to have evolved with selection pressure towards increased robustness.

  4. Comparative genomics reveals cotton-specific virulence factors in flexible genomic regions in Verticillium dahliae and evidence of horizontal gene transfer from Fusarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Yin; Liu, Chun; Gui, Yue-Jing; Si, Kai-Wei; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Jie; Short, Dylan P G; Huang, Jin-Qun; Li, Nan-Yang; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Wen-Qi; Yang, Lin; Ma, Xue-Feng; Li, Ting-Gang; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Bao-Li; Bao, Yu-Ming; Subbarao, Krishna V; Zhang, Geng-Yun; Dai, Xiao-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae isolates are most virulent on the host from which they were originally isolated. Mechanisms underlying these dominant host adaptations are currently unknown. We sequenced the genome of V. dahliae Vd991, which is highly virulent on its original host, cotton, and performed comparisons with the reference genomes of JR2 (from tomato) and VdLs.17 (from lettuce). Pathogenicity-related factor prediction, orthology and multigene family classification, transcriptome analyses, phylogenetic analyses, and pathogenicity experiments were performed. The Vd991 genome harbored several exclusive, lineage-specific (LS) genes within LS regions (LSRs). Deletion mutants of the seven genes within one LSR (G-LSR2) in Vd991 were less virulent only on cotton. Integration of G-LSR2 genes individually into JR2 and VdLs.17 resulted in significantly enhanced virulence on cotton but did not affect virulence on tomato or lettuce. Transcription levels of the seven LS genes in Vd991 were higher during the early stages of cotton infection, as compared with other hosts. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that G-LSR2 was acquired from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum through horizontal gene transfer. Our results provide evidence that horizontal gene transfer from Fusarium to Vd991 contributed significantly to its adaptation to cotton and may represent a significant mechanism in the evolution of an asexual plant pathogen. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Sequencing and characterisation of rearrangements in three S. pastorianus strains reveals the presence of chimeric genes and gives evidence of breakpoint reuse.

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    Sarah K Hewitt

    Full Text Available Gross chromosomal rearrangements have the potential to be evolutionarily advantageous to an adapting organism. The generation of a hybrid species increases opportunity for recombination by bringing together two homologous genomes. We sought to define the location of genomic rearrangements in three strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus, a natural lager-brewing yeast hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus, using whole genome shotgun sequencing. Each strain of S. pastorianus has lost species-specific portions of its genome and has undergone extensive recombination, producing chimeric chromosomes. We predicted 30 breakpoints that we confirmed at the single nucleotide level by designing species-specific primers that flank each breakpoint, and then sequencing the PCR product. These rearrangements are the result of recombination between areas of homology between the two subgenomes, rather than repetitive elements such as transposons or tRNAs. Interestingly, 28/30 S. cerevisiae-S. eubayanus recombination breakpoints are located within genic regions, generating chimeric genes. Furthermore we show evidence for the reuse of two breakpoints, located in HSP82 and KEM1, in strains of proposed independent origin.

  6. Cytochrome b gene reveals panmixia among Japanese Threadfin Bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch, 1791) populations along the coasts of Peninsular Malaysia and provides evidence of a cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong-Chiun; Ahmad, Abu Talib; Nuruddin, Ahmad Adnan; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated genetic differentiation among ten presumed Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus populations along the coast of Peninsular Malaysia based on the partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (982 bp). Genetic divergences (Kimura-2 parameter) ranged from 0.5% to 0.8% among nine of the ten populations while these nine populations were 4.4% to 4.6% diverged from the Kuala Besar population located at the Northeast coast. The constructed Neighbour Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees based on haplotypes showed the Kuala Besar population forming an isolated cluster. The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) of the ten populations a priori assigned into four regions, revealed that most of the variation occurred within population with a fairly low but significant level of regional differentiation (FST = 0.07, p 0.05 and FCT = 0.07, p Malaysia were panmictic. However, the Kuala Besar population, although morphologically identical was composed of a genetically discrete taxon from the rest. These findings are important contributions in formulating sustainable fishery management policies for this important fishery in Peninsular Malaysia.

  7. Community barcoding reveals little effect of ocean acidification on the composition of coastal plankton communities: Evidence from a long-term mesocosm study in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak.

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    Julia A F Langer

    Full Text Available The acidification of the oceans could potentially alter marine plankton communities with consequences for ecosystem functioning. While several studies have investigated effects of ocean acidification on communities using traditional methods, few have used genetic analyses. Here, we use community barcoding to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the composition of a coastal plankton community in a large scale, in situ, long-term mesocosm experiment. High-throughput sequencing resulted in the identification of a wide range of planktonic taxa (Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Haptophyceae, Fungi, Metazoa, Hydrozoa, Rhizaria, Straminipila, Chlorophyta. Analyses based on predicted operational taxonomical units as well as taxonomical compositions revealed no differences between communities in high CO2 mesocosms (~ 760 μatm and those exposed to present-day CO2 conditions. Observed shifts in the planktonic community composition were mainly related to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients. Furthermore, based on our investigations, the elevated CO2 did not affect the intraspecific diversity of the most common mesozooplankter, the calanoid copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes. Nevertheless, accompanying studies found temporary effects attributed to a raise in CO2. Differences in taxa composition between the CO2 treatments could, however, only be observed in a specific period of the experiment. Based on our genetic investigations, no compositional long-term shifts of the plankton communities exposed to elevated CO2 conditions were observed. Thus, we conclude that the compositions of planktonic communities, especially those in coastal areas, remain rather unaffected by increased CO2.

  8. Community barcoding reveals little effect of ocean acidification on the composition of coastal plankton communities: Evidence from a long-term mesocosm study in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Julia A F; Sharma, Rahul; Schmidt, Susanne I; Bahrdt, Sebastian; Horn, Henriette G; Algueró-Muñiz, María; Nam, Bora; Achterberg, Eric P; Riebesell, Ulf; Boersma, Maarten; Thines, Marco; Schwenk, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The acidification of the oceans could potentially alter marine plankton communities with consequences for ecosystem functioning. While several studies have investigated effects of ocean acidification on communities using traditional methods, few have used genetic analyses. Here, we use community barcoding to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the composition of a coastal plankton community in a large scale, in situ, long-term mesocosm experiment. High-throughput sequencing resulted in the identification of a wide range of planktonic taxa (Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Haptophyceae, Fungi, Metazoa, Hydrozoa, Rhizaria, Straminipila, Chlorophyta). Analyses based on predicted operational taxonomical units as well as taxonomical compositions revealed no differences between communities in high CO2 mesocosms (~ 760 μatm) and those exposed to present-day CO2 conditions. Observed shifts in the planktonic community composition were mainly related to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients. Furthermore, based on our investigations, the elevated CO2 did not affect the intraspecific diversity of the most common mesozooplankter, the calanoid copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes. Nevertheless, accompanying studies found temporary effects attributed to a raise in CO2. Differences in taxa composition between the CO2 treatments could, however, only be observed in a specific period of the experiment. Based on our genetic investigations, no compositional long-term shifts of the plankton communities exposed to elevated CO2 conditions were observed. Thus, we conclude that the compositions of planktonic communities, especially those in coastal areas, remain rather unaffected by increased CO2.

  9. Investigation of the diversity of effector genes in the banana pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, reveals evidence of horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czislowski, Elizabeth; Fraser-Smith, Sam; Zander, Manuel; O'Neill, Wayne T; Meldrum, Rachel A; Tran-Nguyen, Lucy T T; Batley, Jacqueline; Aitken, Elizabeth A B

    2017-08-12

    It is hypothesized that the virulence of phytopathogenic fungi is mediated through the secretion of small effector proteins that interfere with the defence responses of the host plant. In Fusarium oxysporum, one family of effectors, the Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes, has been identified. We sought to characterize the diversity and evolution of the SIX genes in the banana-infecting lineages of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Whole-genome sequencing data were generated for the 23 genetic lineages of Foc, which were subsequently queried for the 14 known SIX genes (SIX1-SIX14). The sequences of the identified SIX genes were confirmed in a larger collection of Foc isolates. Genealogies were generated for each of the SIX genes identified in Foc to further investigate the evolution of the SIX genes in Foc. Within Foc, variation of the SIX gene profile, including the presence of specific SIX homologues, correlated with the pathogenic race structure of Foc. Furthermore, the topologies of the SIX gene trees were discordant with the topology of an infraspecies phylogeny inferred from EF-1α/RPB1/RPB2 (translation elongation factor-1α/RNA polymerase II subunit I/RNA polymerase II subunit II). A series of topological constraint models provided strong evidence for the horizontal transmission of SIX genes in Foc. The horizontal inheritance of pathogenicity genes in Foc counters previous assumptions that convergent evolution has driven the polyphyletic phylogeny of Foc. This work has significant implications for the management of Foc, including the improvement of diagnostics and breeding programmes. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  10. High-throughput sequencing of partially edited trypanosome mRNAs reveals barriers to editing progression and evidence for alternative editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Rachel M.; Bruno, Andrew E.; Bard, Jonathan E.; Buck, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in kinetoplastids entails the addition and deletion of uridine residues throughout the length of mitochondrial transcripts to generate translatable mRNAs. This complex process requires the coordinated use of several multiprotein complexes as well as the sequential use of noncoding template RNAs called guide RNAs. The majority of steady-state mitochondrial mRNAs are partially edited and often contain regions of mis-editing, termed junctions, whose role is unclear. Here, we report a novel method for sequencing entire populations of pre-edited partially edited, and fully edited RNAs and analyzing editing characteristics across populations using a new bioinformatics tool, the Trypanosome RNA Editing Alignment Tool (TREAT). Using TREAT, we examined populations of two transcripts, RPS12 and ND7-5′, in wild-type Trypanosoma brucei. We provide evidence that the majority of partially edited sequences contain junctions, that intrinsic pause sites arise during the progression of editing, and that the mechanisms that mediate pausing in the generation of canonical fully edited sequences are distinct from those that mediate the ends of junction regions. Furthermore, we identify alternatively edited sequences that constitute plausible alternative open reading frames and identify substantial variability in the 5′ UTRs of both canonical and alternatively edited sequences. This work is the first to use high-throughput sequencing to examine full-length sequences of whole populations of partially edited transcripts. Our method is highly applicable to current questions in the RNA editing field, including defining mechanisms of action for editing factors and identifying potential alternatively edited sequences. PMID:26908922

  11. High-throughput sequencing of partially edited trypanosome mRNAs reveals barriers to editing progression and evidence for alternative editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Rachel M; Bruno, Andrew E; Bard, Jonathan E; Buck, Michael J; Read, Laurie K

    2016-05-01

    Uridine insertion/deletion RNA editing in kinetoplastids entails the addition and deletion of uridine residues throughout the length of mitochondrial transcripts to generate translatable mRNAs. This complex process requires the coordinated use of several multiprotein complexes as well as the sequential use of noncoding template RNAs called guide RNAs. The majority of steady-state mitochondrial mRNAs are partially edited and often contain regions of mis-editing, termed junctions, whose role is unclear. Here, we report a novel method for sequencing entire populations of pre-edited partially edited, and fully edited RNAs and analyzing editing characteristics across populations using a new bioinformatics tool, the Trypanosome RNA Editing Alignment Tool (TREAT). Using TREAT, we examined populations of two transcripts, RPS12 and ND7-5', in wild-typeTrypanosoma brucei We provide evidence that the majority of partially edited sequences contain junctions, that intrinsic pause sites arise during the progression of editing, and that the mechanisms that mediate pausing in the generation of canonical fully edited sequences are distinct from those that mediate the ends of junction regions. Furthermore, we identify alternatively edited sequences that constitute plausible alternative open reading frames and identify substantial variability in the 5' UTRs of both canonical and alternatively edited sequences. This work is the first to use high-throughput sequencing to examine full-length sequences of whole populations of partially edited transcripts. Our method is highly applicable to current questions in the RNA editing field, including defining mechanisms of action for editing factors and identifying potential alternatively edited sequences. © 2016 Simpson et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  12. Hepatitis E virus infection in central China reveals no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area.

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    Wen Zhang

    central China was confirmed by Dot-blot assay. In conclusion, although all the HEV strains prevalent in central China belonged to genotype 4, there is no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area.

  13. Knockouts reveal overlapping functions of M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors and evidence for a local glutamatergic circuit within the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi A.; Ishibashi, Masaru; Wess, Jürgen; Bickford, Martha E.

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) and peduncolopontine tegmental (PPT) nuclei regulate reward, arousal, and sensory gating via major projections to midbrain dopamine regions, the thalamus, and pontine targets. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) on LDT neurons produce a membrane hyperpolarization and inhibit spike-evoked Ca2+ transients. Pharmacological studies suggest M2 mAChRs are involved, but the role of these and other localized mAChRs (M1--M4) has not been definitively tested. To identify the underlying receptors and to circumvent the limited receptor selectivity of available mAChR ligands, we used light- and electron-immunomicroscopy and whole cell recording with Ca2+ imaging in brain slices from knockout mice constitutively lacking either M2, M4, or both mAChRs. Immunomicroscopy findings support a role for M2 mAChRs, since cholinergic and noncholinergic LDT and pedunculopontine tegmental neurons contain M2-specific immunoreactivity. However, whole cell recording revealed that the presence of either M2 or M4 mAChRs was sufficient, and that the presence of at least one of these receptors was required for these carbachol actions. Moreover, in the absence of M2 and M4 mAChRs, carbachol elicited both direct excitation and barrages of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials (sEPSPs) in cholinergic LDT neurons mediated by M1 and/or M3 mAChRs. Focal carbachol application to surgically reduced slices suggest that local glutamatergic neurons are a source of these sEPSPs. Finally, neither direct nor indirect excitation were knockout artifacts, since each was detected in wild-type slices, although sEPSP barrages were delayed, suggesting M2 and M4 receptors normally delay excitation of glutamatergic inputs. Collectively, our findings indicate that multiple mAChRs coordinate cholinergic outflow from the LDT in an unexpectedly complex manner. An intriguing possibility is that a local circuit transforms LDT muscarinic inputs from a

  14. The neural bases of grapheme-color synesthesia are not localized in real color-sensitive areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupé, Jean-Michel; Bordier, Cécile; Dojat, Michel

    2012-07-01

    The subjective experience of color by synesthetes when viewing achromatic letters and numbers supposedly relates to real color experience, as exemplified by the recruitment of the V4 color center observed in some brain imaging studies. Phenomenological reports and psychophysics tests indicate, however, that both experiences are different. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tried to precise the degree of coactivation by real and synesthetic colors, by evaluating each color center individually, and applying adaptation protocols across real and synesthetic colors. We also looked for structural differences between synesthetes and nonsynesthetes. In 10 synesthetes, we found that color areas and retinotopic areas were not activated by synesthetic colors, whatever the strength of synesthetic associations measured objectively for each subject. Voxel-based morphometry revealed no white matter (WM) or gray matter difference in those regions when compared with 25 control subjects. But synesthetes had more WM in the retrosplenial cortex bilaterally. The joint coding of real and synesthetic colors, if it exists, must therefore be distributed rather than localized in the visual cortex. Alternatively, the key to synesthetic color experience might not lie in the color system.

  15. Genomic Analysis of Uterine Lavage Fluid Detects Early Endometrial Cancers and Reveals a Prevalent Landscape of Driver Mutations in Women without Histopathologic Evidence of Cancer: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Navya Nair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy, and its incidence and associated mortality are increasing. Despite the immediate need to detect these cancers at an earlier stage, there is no effective screening methodology or protocol for endometrial cancer. The comprehensive, genomics-based analysis of endometrial cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA revealed many of the molecular defects that define this cancer. Based on these cancer genome results, and in a prospective study, we hypothesized that the use of ultra-deep, targeted gene sequencing could detect somatic mutations in uterine lavage fluid obtained from women undergoing hysteroscopy as a means of molecular screening and diagnosis.Uterine lavage and paired blood samples were collected and analyzed from 107 consecutive patients who were undergoing hysteroscopy and curettage for diagnostic evaluation from this single-institution study. The lavage fluid was separated into cellular and acellular fractions by centrifugation. Cellular and cell-free DNA (cfDNA were isolated from each lavage. Two targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS gene panels, one composed of 56 genes and the other of 12 genes, were used for ultra-deep sequencing. To rule out potential NGS-based errors, orthogonal mutation validation was performed using digital PCR and Sanger sequencing. Seven patients were diagnosed with endometrial cancer based on classic histopathologic analysis. Six of these patients had stage IA cancer, and one of these cancers was only detectable as a microscopic focus within a polyp. All seven patients were found to have significant cancer-associated gene mutations in both cell pellet and cfDNA fractions. In the four patients in whom adequate tumor sample was available, all tumor mutations above a specific allele fraction were present in the uterine lavage DNA samples. Mutations originally only detected in lavage fluid fractions were later confirmed to be present in tumor but at

  16. A comparative analysis of the substrate permissiveness of HCV and GBV-B NS3/4A proteases reveals genetic evidence for an interaction with NS4B protein during genome replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benureau, Yann; Warter, Lucile; Malcolm, Bruce A; Martin, Annette

    2010-10-25

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) serine protease (NS3/4A) processes the NS3-NS5B segment of the viral polyprotein and also cleaves host proteins involved in interferon signaling, making it an important target for antiviral drug discovery and suggesting a wide breadth of substrate specificity. We compared substrate specificities of the HCV protease with that of the GB virus B (GBV-B), a distantly related nonhuman primate hepacivirus, by exchanging amino acid sequences at the NS4B/5A and/or NS5A/5B cleavage junctions between these viruses within the backbone of subgenomic replicons. This mutagenesis study demonstrated that the GBV-B protease had a broader substrate tolerance, a feature corroborated by structural homology modeling. However, despite efficient polyprotein processing, GBV-B RNAs containing HCV sequences at the C-terminus of NS4B had a pseudo-lethal replication phenotype. Replication-competent revertants contained second-site substitutions within the NS3 protease or NS4B N-terminus, providing genetic evidence for an essential interaction between NS3 and NS4B during genome replication. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolutionary history of the ancient cutinase family in five filamentous Ascomycetes reveals differential gene duplications and losses and in Magnaporthe grisea shows evidence of sub- and neo-functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamnioti, Pari; Furlong, Rebecca F; Gurr, Sarah J

    2008-01-01

    * The cuticle is the first barrier for fungi that parasitize plants systematically or opportunistically. Here, the evolutionary history is reported of the multimembered cutinase families of the plant pathogenic Ascomycetes Magnaporthe grisea, Fusarium graminearum and Botrytis cinerea and the saprotrophic Ascomycetes Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. * Molecular taxonomy of all fungal cutinases demonstrates a clear division into two ancient subfamilies. No evidence was found for lateral gene transfer from prokaryotes. The cutinases in the five Ascomycetes show significant copy number variation, they form six clades and their extreme sequence diversity is highlighted by the lack of consensus intron. The average ratio of gene duplication to loss is 2 : 3, with the exception of M. grisea and N. crassa, which exhibit extreme family expansion and contraction, respectively. * Detailed transcript profiling in vivo, categorizes the M. grisea cutinases into four regulatory patterns. Symmetric or asymmetric expression profiles of phylogenetically related cutinase genes suggest subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization, respectively. * The cutinase family-size per fungal species is discussed in relation to genome characteristics and lifestyle. The ancestry of the cutinase gene family, together with the expression divergence of its individual members provides a first insight into the drivers for niche differentiation in fungi.

  18. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  19. Reaction Intermediates of Nitric Oxide Synthase from Deinococcus radiodurans as Revealed by Pulse Radiolysis; Evidence for Intramo-lecular Electron Transfer from Biopterin to FeII-O2 Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Yuko; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Fusako; Tsubaki, Motonari; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2018-01-10

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a cytochrome P450-type mono-oxygenase that catalyzes the oxidation of L-arginine (Arg) to nitric oxide (NO) through a reaction intermediate N-hydroxy-L-arginine (NHA). The mechanism underlying the reaction catalyzed by NOS from Deinococcus radiodurans was investigated using pulse radiolysis. Radiolytically-generated hydrated electrons reduced the heme iron of NOS within 2 μs. Subsequently, ferrous heme reacted with O2 to form a ferrous-dioxygen intermediated with a second-order rate constant of 2.8 × 108 M-1 s-1. In the tetrahydrofolate (H4F)-bound enzyme, the ferrous-dioxygen intermediate was found to decay an another intermediate with a first-order rate constant of 2.2 × 103 s-1. The spectrum of the intermediate featured an absorption maximum at 440 nm and an absorption minimum at 390 nm. In the absence of H4F, this step did not proceed, suggesting that H4F was reduced with the ferrous-dioxygen intermediate to form a second intermediate. The intermediate further converted to the original ferric form with a first-order rate constant of 4 s-1. A similar intermediate could be detected after pulse radiolysis in the presence of NHA, although the intermediate decayed more slowly (0.5 s-1). These data suggested that a common catalytically active intermediate involved in the substrate oxidation of both Arg and NHA may be formed during catalysis. In addition, we investigated the solvent isotope effects on the kinetics of the intermediate after pulse radiolysis. Our experiments revealed dramatic kinetic solvent isotope effects on the conversion of the intermediate to the ferric form, of 10.5 and 2.5 for Arg and NHA, respectively, whereas the faster phases were not affected. These data suggest that the proton transfer in DrNOS is the rate-limiting reaction of the intermediate with the substrates.

  20. Biogeographical Evidences Help Revealing the Origin of Hainan Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhu

    Full Text Available Both the continental or island origin of Hainan, and the Indo-Malaysian or East Asian affinity of its flora, are debatable. In this study, 196 families, 1283 genera and 3894 species of Hainan plants were recognized. Patterns of seed plant distribution were quantified at the generic and the family levels. The floras of Vietnam, and the adjacent Guangxi and Guangdong provinces of mainland China, were compared with Hainan. The results showed that the flora of Hainan Island is dominated by families and genera with tropical distributions. Among its floristic elements, tropical Asian distributions make up 23.85% of the total flora, while East Asian distributions contribute only 3.74%. There are only 7 genera and c. 10% of species endemic to Hainan Island. The Hainan flora has strong similarities to the flora of Vietnam at the family and the generic levels, and also to the flora of Guangxi, but less with the adjacent Guangdong province. The main conclusions are: Hainan's flora is tropical in nature with a strongly tropical Asian affinity, and it has very low endemism at the generic and species levels, which implies a continental origin. We conjecture that Hainan Island could have been adjacent to northern Vietnam and the Guangxi at least in Eocene. This suggestion is supported by palaeobotanical, palaeomagnetic and volcanism studies.

  1. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-26

    Oct 26, 2016 ... Trujillo and Sung 2001; Ghosal and Muniyappa 2005;. Ghosal and Muniyappa 2007). Others have reported that in wild-type and Δmre11 strains DSBs are formed at inverted repeat sites, indicating that Mre11 is not solely responsible for the initial processing of cruciform structures (Lobachev et al. 2002).

  2. Gradual consolidation of synesthesia during adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Nordfang, Maria; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    ), and recently Simner & Bain (2013) has convincingly shown that consolidation of colour-grapheme synaesthesia develop during childhood and early adolescence. Together these studies seem to suggest that the attentional effects seen in adult observers who have colour-grapheme synaesthesia may in fact reflect...

  3. Synesthesia and the McCollough Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, V S; Marcus, Zeve

    2017-01-01

    Synesthetes, who see printed black letters and numbers as being colored, are thought to have enhanced cross-activation between brain modules for color and form. Since the McCollough effect also results from oriented contours (i.e., form) evoking specific colors, we conjectured that synesthetes may experience an enhanced McCollough effect, and find that this is indeed true.

  4. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  5. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  6. When bugs reveal biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    monitoring tools, instant communication and online databases, one might be forgiven for thinking that such knowledge is easy to come by. However, of the approximately 5,400 terrestrial mammals on the IUCN Red List, no fewer than 789 (ca. 14%) are listed as 'Data Deficient' (IUCN 2012) - IUCN's term...... of the power of molecular methods that identify mammals based on trace evidence. Suitable substrates include the obvious, such as faecal and hair samples (e.g. Vigilant et al. 2009), to the less obvious, including environmental DNA extracted from sediments, soil or water samples (e.g. Taberlet et al. 2012...

  7. Alaska geology revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Labay, Keith A.

    2016-11-09

    This map shows the generalized geology of Alaska, which helps us to understand where potential mineral deposits and energy resources might be found, define ecosystems, and ultimately, teach us about the earth history of the State. Rock units are grouped in very broad categories on the basis of age and general rock type. A much more detailed and fully referenced presentation of the geology of Alaska is available in the Geologic Map of Alaska (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3340). This product represents the simplification of thousands of individual rock units into just 39 broad groups. Even with this generalization, the sheer complexity of Alaskan geology remains evident.

  8. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  9. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  10. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red, figure 2) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow, figure 3). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images like the one shown in figure 2, reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together (figure 3). Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile.

  11. When bugs reveal biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, Kristine; Schnell, Ida B; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2013-02-01

    One of the fundamental challenges of conservation biology is gathering data on species distribution and abundance. And unless conservationists know where a species is found and in which numbers, it is very difficult to apply effective conservation efforts. In today's age of increasingly powerful monitoring tools, instant communication and online databases, one might be forgiven for thinking that such knowledge is easy to come by. However, of the approximately 5,400 terrestrial mammals on the IUCN Red List, no fewer than 789 (ca. 14%) are listed as 'Data Deficient' (IUCN 2012) – IUCN’s term for 'haven't got a clue'. Until recently, the only way to gather information of numbers and distribution of terrestrial mammals (and many other vertebrates) was through observational-based approaches such as visual records, the presence of tracks or spoor or even identification from bushmeat or hunters' trophies pinned to the walls in local villages. While recent technological developments have considerably improved the efficacy of such approaches, for example, using remote-sensing devices such as audio- or camera-traps or even remote drones (Koh & Wich 2012), there has been a growing realization of the power of molecular methods that identify mammals based on trace evidence. Suitable substrates include the obvious, such as faecal and hair samples (e.g. Vigilant et al. 2009), to the less obvious, including environmental DNA extracted from sediments, soil or water samples (e.g. Taberlet et al. 2012), and as recently demonstrated, the dietary content of blood-sucking invertebrates (Gariepy et al. 2012; Schnell et al. 2012). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Calvignac-Spencer et al. (2013) present a potentially powerful development in this regard; diet analysis of carrion flies. With their near global distribution, and as most field biologists know, irritatingly high frequency in most terrestrial areas of conservation concern (which directly translates into ease of sampling

  12. Cosmic Flasher Reveals All!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    For more information on magnetars and soft gamma-ray repeaters, see the Background Information which includes a "movie" of the flashing magnetar nebula, as seen by the VLA. Astronomers have found evidence for the most powerful magnetic field ever seen in the universe. They found it by observing a long-sought, short-lived "afterglow" of subatomic particles ejected from a magnetar -- a neutron star with a magnetic field billions of times stronger than any on Earth and 100 times stronger than any other previously known in the Universe. The afterglow is believed to be the aftermath of a massive starquake on the neutron star's surface. "And where there's smoke, there's fire, and we've seen the 'smoke' that tells us there's a magnetar out there," says Dale Frail, who used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to make the discovery. "Nature has created a unique laboratory where there are magnetic fields far stronger than anything that can be created here on Earth. As a result, the study of these objects enables us to study the effects of extraordinarily intense magnetic fields on matter," explains Dr. Morris L. Aizenman, Executive Officer in the Division of Astronomy at the National Science Foundation. Frail, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, along with Shri Kulkarni and Josh Bloom, astronomers at Caltech, discovered radio emission coming from a strange object 15,000 light-years away in our own Milky Way Galaxy. The radio emission was seen after the object experienced an outburst of gamma-rays and X-rays in late August. "This emission comes from particles ejected at nearly the speed of light from the surface of the neutron star interacting with the extremely powerful magnetic field," said Kulkarni. This is the first time this phenomenon, predicted by theorists, has been seen so clearly from a suspected magnetar. "Magnetars are expected to behave in certain ways. Astronomers have seen

  13. ON EVIDENCE: APPROACH FROM THE PHILOSOPHICAL HERMENEUTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo García Rillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the term analytical evidence to reveal the original meaning of its application to account for hermeneutical situations in the world of life, the study was conducted from philosophical hermeneutics stating the following: viewpoint, understanding horizon and fusion of horizons. In the viewpoint uses of evidence are described. The horizon of understanding traces the history of the concept of evidence highlighting the perspective of Husserl. In the fusion of horizons evidence described in three levels of reality: perceived (evidence from beliefs, known (evidence from knowledge and constructed (deliberative evidence. We conclude that the historicity of the world allows rehabilitate the tradition and gives meaning to the evidence as the fact that it gets in the eyes through the original experience of hermeneutics situation that exists in practice.

  14. Revealing the Anatomy of Vote Trading

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, Omar A

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation in the form of vote trading, also known as logrolling, is central for law-making processes, shaping the development of democratic societies. Empirical evidence of logrolling is scarce and limited to highly specific situations because existing methods are not easily applicable to broader contexts. We have developed a general and scalable methodology for revealing a network of vote traders, allowing us to measure logrolling on a large scale. Analysis on more than 9 million votes spanning 40 years in the U.S. Congress reveals a higher logrolling prevalence in the Senate and an overall decreasing trend over recent congresses, coincidental with high levels of political polarization. Our method is applicable in multiple contexts, shedding light on many aspects of logrolling and opening new doors in the study of hidden cooperation.

  15. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient’s needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies). PMID:28025604

  16. [Vulvar oedema revealing systemic mastocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveza, E; Locatelli, F; Girardin, M; Valmary-Degano, S; Daguindau, E; Aubin, F; Humbert, P; Pelletier, F

    2015-11-01

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterised by abnormal proliferation of mast cells in various organs. We report an original case of systemic mastocytosis revealed by vulvar oedema. A 24-year-old patient was examined in the dermatology department for vulvar oedema appearing during sexual intercourse. She presented vasomotor dysfunction of the lower limbs, urticaria on the trunk on exertion, diarrhoea and bone pains. Laboratory tests showed serum tryptase of 29.7μg and plasma histamine at twice the normal value. Myelogram results showed infiltration by dysmorphic mast cells. Screening for c-kit D816V mutation was positive. Duodenal biopsies revealed mast-cell clusters with aggregation involving over 15 mast cells. CD2 staining was inconclusive and CD25 staining could not be done. Trabecular osteopenia was found, and we thus made a diagnosis of indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM variant Ia) as per the WHO 2008 criteria. Symptomatic treatment was initiated (antiH1, H2, antileukotrienes) and clinical and laboratory follow-up was instituted. The cutaneous signs leading to diagnosis in this patient of systemic mastocytosis involving several organs were seemingly minimal signs associated with mastocyte degranulation. This is the third recorded case of mastocytosis revealed by vulvar oedema and the first case revealing systemic involvement. The two previously reported cases of vulvar oedema revealed cutaneous mastocytosis alone. Mastocytosis, whether systemic or cutaneous, must be included among the differential diagnoses considered in the presence of vulvar oedema. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Some Thoughts on Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Michael; Medsker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Evidence seems to be a particularly newsworthy topic these days, prominent in stories about weapons of mass destruction, the President's record in the National Guard, Martha Stewart's stock sales, global warming and the EPA, and so forth. "Evidence," not surprisingly, derives from "evident," which the American Heritage Dictionary defines as…

  18. Revealing and Concealing in Antiquity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secrecy and the act of concealing and revealing knowledge effectually segregate the initiated and the uninitiated. The act of sharing or hiding knowledge plays a central role in all human relations private or public, political or religious. This volume explores the concept of secrecy and its impl...

  19. Grapheme-color synesthetes show enhanced crossmodal processing between auditory and visual modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Williams, Lisa E; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2012-05-01

    Synesthesia is an involuntary experience in which stimulation of one sensory modality triggers additional, atypical sensory experiences. Strong multisensory processes are present in the general population, but the relationship between these 'normal' sensory interactions and synesthesia is currently unknown. Neuroimaging research suggests that some forms of synesthesia are caused by enhanced cross-activation between brain areas specialized for the processing of different sensory attributes, and finds evidence of increased white matter connections among regions known to be involved in typical crossmodal processes. Using two classic crossmodal integration tasks we show that grapheme-color synesthetes exhibit enhanced crossmodal interactions between auditory and visual modalities, suggesting that the experience of synesthesia in one modality generalizes to enhanced crossmodal processes with other modalities. This finding supports our conjecture that the atypical sensory experiences of synesthetes represent a selective expression of a more diffuse propensity toward 'typical' crossmodality interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  20. [Cervicofacial cellulitis revealing cutaneous lymphomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbouzid, M A; Bencheikh, R; Benhammou, A; El Edghiri, H; Boulaich, M; Essakali, L; Kzadri, M

    2007-06-01

    The cervicofacial localization of cutaneous lymphomas is rare. These lymphomas usually present as a long-lasting and treatment-refractory papule or nodule. Lymphomas can also be revealed by cervicofacial cellulitis. We report 2 cases of cervicofacial cellulitis revealing a cutaneous lymphoma. The diagnosis was proved by multiple biopsies, performed because there was no clinical improvement in spite of an aggressive and adequate antibiotherapy. Our 2 patients were treated by radio and chemotherapy. Cutaneous lymphomas are lymphocytic proliferations stemming from cutaneous lymphoid tissue, without nodal, medullary, or visceral localization. Their clinical presentation is quite polymorphic, and cellulitis is one of the modes of revelation, especially forehead and neck localization. They have no portal of entry and are resistant to treatment. The diagnosis relies on histology, and biopsies must be performed if there is a suspicion of lymphoma. The treatment is radio and chemotherapy, and the evolution depends on the tumoral stage.

  1. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis. ....... Given advances in evolutionary psychology and neuroscience, I propose one way to model those evolutionary pressures that will hopefully prove useful in expanding normative economics.......If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  2. Urticarial vasculitis reveals unsuspected thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Olga; Mota, Alberto; Baudrier, Teresa; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with erythematous, violaceous plaques with a serpiginous and unusual appearance located on the left shoulder, left thigh, and right buttock, evolving for 5 days, which eventually became generalized. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and a diagnosis of urticarial vasculitis was made. The complete blood count, biochemistry, complement levels, and other immunological test results were unremarkable. However, antithyroid antibody titers were increased. Despite having normal thyroid function tests and an absence of specific symptoms, the patient underwent a thyroid ultrasound, which revealed features of thyroiditis, and was subsequently referred to an endocrinologist. Several diseases can be associated with urticarial vasculitis, namely infections and autoimmune connective-tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome. Thyroiditis is an uncommon association.

  3. What Facial Appearance Reveals Over Time: When Perceived Expressions in Neutral Faces Reveal Stable Emotion Dispositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Reginald B; Garrido, Carlos O; Albohn, Daniel N; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    It might seem a reasonable assumption that when we are not actively using our faces to express ourselves (i.e., when we display nonexpressive, or neutral faces), those around us will not be able to read our emotions. Herein, using a variety of expression-related ratings, we examined whether age-related changes in the face can accurately reveal one's innermost affective dispositions. In each study, we found that expressive ratings of neutral facial displays predicted self-reported positive/negative dispositional affect, but only for elderly women, and only for positive affect. These findings meaningfully replicate and extend earlier work examining age-related emotion cues in the face of elderly women (Malatesta et al., 1987a). We discuss these findings in light of evidence that women are expected to, and do, smile more than men, and that the quality of their smiles predicts their life satisfaction. Although ratings of old male faces did not significantly predict self-reported affective dispositions, the trend was similar to that found for old female faces. A plausible explanation for this gender difference is that in the process of attenuating emotional expressions over their lifetimes, old men reveal less evidence of their total emotional experiences in their faces than do old women.

  4. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...... comparison is not possible because of perpetrators masking their faces. The nature of judicial and natural scientific forms of evidence is discussed, and rulings dealing with the admissibility of video footage and forensic evidence in general are given. Technical issues of video materials are discussed......, and the study also discusses how such evidence may be presented, both in written statements and in court....

  5. Cross-modal, bidirectional priming in grapheme-color synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paffen, Chris L E; Van der Smagt, Maarten J; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive achromatic graphemes to be inherently colored. In this study grapheme-color synesthetes and non-synesthetes discriminated (1) the color of visual targets presented along with aurally presented digit primes, and (2) the identity of aurally presented digit targets

  6. Do graphemes attract spatial attention in grapheme-color synesthesia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volberg, G; Chockley, A S; Greenlee, M W

    2017-05-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive concurrent colors for some objectively achromatic graphemes (inducers). Using oscillatory responses in the electroencephalogram, we tested the hypothesis that inducers automatically attract spatial attention and, thus, favor a conscious experience of color. Achromatic inducers and real-colored non-inducers were presented to the left or to the right visual hemifield and orientation judgments were required for subsequently presented Gabor patches. The graphemes were irrelevant for the task so that the related brain response was purely stimulus-driven. Synesthetes (n =12), but not an equal number of controls, showed an early theta power increase for inducers presented to the right compared to the left hemifield, with sources in left fusiform gyrus. Alpha power asymmetries indicative of shifts of spatial attention were not observed. Together, synesthetes showed an increased responsiveness to inducers in grapheme processing areas. However, contrary to our hypothesis, inducers did not attract spatial attention in synesthetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Theory of Synesthesia Applied to Persuasion in Print Advertising Headlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michelle R.; Hitchon, Jacqueline C.

    1995-01-01

    Tests the persuasive impact of synesthetic metaphors (which equate sense A to sense B) in advertising headlines. Finds that in some circumstances, synesthetic headlines produce less, rather than more, favorable attitudes toward the advertisement and brand than literal equivalents. (SR)

  8. Synesthesia and rhythm. The road to absolute cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Roncero Palomar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Absolute cinema, developed during the historical avant-garde, con-tinued with a long artistic tradition that linked musical with visual experience. Due to cinema as médium of expression, this filmmakers were able to work with the moving image to develop concepts such as rhythm, also with more complex figures than the colored spots that other devices could create at those time. This study starts with the published texts in 1704 by Newton about color, and provides an overview of those artistic highlights that link image and sound, and which creates the origins of absolute cinema. The connections and equivalences between the visual and sound experiences used by these filmmakers are also studied in order to know if there was a continuous line with the origins of these studies or if there was a rupture and other later investigations were able to have more repercussion in their works.

  9. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  10. Coordinated neural, behavioral, and phenomenological changes in perceptual plasticity through overtraining of synesthetic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, Nicolas; Schwartzman, David J; Bor, Daniel; Seth, Anil K

    2018-01-31

    Synesthesia is associated with additional perceptual experiences, which are automatically and consistently triggered by specific inducing stimuli. Synesthesia is also accompanied by more general sensory and cortical changes, including enhanced modality-specific cortical excitability. Extensive cognitive training has been shown to generate synesthesia-like phenomenology but whether these experiences are accompanied by neurophysiological changes characteristic of synesthesia remains unknown. Addressing this question provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the neural basis of perceptual plasticity relevant to conscious experiences. Here we investigate whether extensive training of letter-color associations leads not only to synesthetic experiences, but also to changes in cortical excitability. We confirm that overtraining synesthetic associations results in synesthetic phenomenology. Stroop tasks further reveal synesthesia-like performance following training. Electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation show, respectively, enhanced visual evoked potentials (in response to untrained patterns) and lower phosphene thresholds, demonstrating specific cortical changes. An active (using letter-symbol training) and a passive control confirmed these results were due to letter-color training and not simply to repeated testing. Summarizing, we demonstrate specific cortical changes, following training-induced acquisition of synesthetic phenomenology that are characteristic of genuine synesthesia. Collectively, our data reveal dramatic plasticity in human visual perception, expressed through a coordinated set of behavioral, neurophysiological, and phenomenological changes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. To Reveal Thy Heart Perchance to Reveal the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Faux

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Ronald PELIAS, a professor of speech communications, employs a variety of writing methods as examples of alternative ways to do research and to share with the reader a seldom seen and seldom considered aspect of academic life: Heart. In the early chapters of the book, PELIAS sets out to establish a way to place his Heart in the foreground; baring his emotional vulnerability, his humanness, his being in the world. Later chapters of the book encompass an autoethnographic study of academic life in which the previously revealed Heart is placed in context. In this review essay I discuss PELIAS' book in relation to the larger literature on autoethnography and subjectivist research; I follow this by discussing the need for and usefulness of such alternative methods using PELIAS' autoethnography of academic life as a context. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs050279

  12. Burned-out seminoma revealed by solitary rib bone metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishisho, Toshihiko; Miyagi, Ryo; Sairyo, Koichi [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima-city, Tokushima (Japan); Sakaki, Mika [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Hidaka-city, Saitama (Japan); Takao, Shoichiro [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima-city, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    Burned-out tumor is a rare phenomenon in which a testicular tumor regresses in the primary lesion and progresses in a metastatic lesion. We report the case of a 30-year-old male with burned-out seminoma revealed by open biopsy of solitary 10th rib bone metastasis. He underwent inguinal orchiectomy, which revealed hyalinization, indicating a spontaneously regressed testicular tumor. Chemotherapy for seminoma was administered in three cycles of bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin therapy. The chemotherapy was effective, and wide resection of the rib was subsequently performed. No postoperative chemotherapy was performed, and there has been no evidence of recurrence for 3 years postoperatively. (orig.)

  13. What is Evidence? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, I have been pondering what we really mean when we say “evidence based practice”? In LIS, we all know the definitions that have been proposed (Booth 2000, Eldredge 2000, Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, and which have not ever really been challenged. But have we ever said explicitly what qualifies as evidence in this model? The underlying assumption seems to be that evidence is research, hence, we are really talking about research-based practice, but we don’t actually use that term.Higgs and Jones (2000 note that evidence is “knowledge derived from a variety of sources that has been subjected to testing and has found to be credible.” The Oxford English Dictionary states that evidence is “something serving as a proof” (OED, 2011. Neither of these definitions of evidence notes that evidence equals research; research is only one form of evidence. It certainly isn’t the only form of evidence – so what, then, constitutes evidence?Rycroff-Malone et al. (2004 state that that in order for evidence based practice to create a broader evidence base in nursing, “the external, scientific and the internal, intuitive” need to be brought together. The external, scientific is what evidence based practice has been focused on, in the form of scientific research, but Rycroff-Malone et al. note that other elements such as clinical experience, patient experience, and information from the local context also need to be considered.In library and information practice, what are the other forms of evidence we need to consider? I propose that while research evidence is of high importance to our profession and knowledge, LIS practitioners need to first of all consider local evidence. Local evidence is found in our working environment and specific to the context in which we carry out our work. It includes such things as our experiences with patrons in particular contexts, and what we observe to work in such situations, assessment of programs

  14. Teaching with Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret; Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Jacobsen, Rebecca; Segall, Avner

    2017-01-01

    In this age of real and fake news, students need to be able to assess the trustworthiness of evidence. The authors' current research examines students' use of evidence in secondary social studies classrooms as students deliberate contemporary public policy issues. The authors found that students shifted their evaluations of the trustworthiness of…

  15. Evidence based practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an influential interdisciplinary movement that originated in medicine as evidence-based medicine (EBM) about 1992. EBP is of considerable interest to library and information science (LIS) because it focuses on a thorough documentation of the basis for the decision...

  16. Observational Evidence for Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  17. Evidence-based radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafslund, Bjorg [Institute of Radiography, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Bergen University College, P.O. Box 7030, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)], E-mail: bhaf@hib.no; Clare, Judith; Graverholt, Birgitte; Wammen Nortvedt, Monica [Centre for Evidence Based Practice, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Bergen University College, Bergen (Norway)

    2008-11-15

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain.

  18. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  19. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  20. Revealing Non-Covalent Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erin R.; Keinan, Shahar; Mori-Sánchez, Paula; Contreras-García, Julia; Cohen, Aron J.; Yang, Weitao

    2010-01-01

    Molecular structure does not easily identify the intricate non-covalent interactions that govern many areas of biology and chemistry, including design of new materials and drugs. We develop an approach to detect non-covalent interactions in real space, based on the electron density and its derivatives. Our approach reveals underlying chemistry that compliments the covalent structure. It provides a rich representation of van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, and steric repulsion in small molecules, molecular complexes, and solids. Most importantly, the method, requiring only knowledge of the atomic coordinates, is efficient and applicable to large systems, such as proteins or DNA. Across these applications, a view of non-bonded interactions emerges as continuous surfaces rather than close contacts between atom pairs, offering rich insight into the design of new and improved ligands. PMID:20394428

  1. [Evidence-based physiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Tamás

    2013-12-01

    This article on physiotherapy presents some current evidence stating the strengths and weaknesses of the physiotherapeutic procedures. In the area of physiotherapy empirical data obtained during decades were overtaken by evidence from current studies. The author points out the great problem of physiotherapy, namely the heterogeneity of the applied parameters. Knowledge of current evidence may be very important and helpful for the physicians, but the author proposes, from the practical point of view, that physiotherapeutical procedures based on exprience and used for many years should not be entirely neglected. Nowadays physiotherapy plays an important role in the treament of locomotor diseases but its use is increasing in other fields of medicine, as well.

  2. Evidence-based dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chi Chi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicine (EBM has become a hot topic in medical practice, education, and research. However, a large number of senior doctors did not have an opportunity to learn EBM in medical schools. Firstly, this article addresses the history of EBM and the principle of practicing EBM, i.e., asking, acquiring, appraisal, application, and auditing. Secondly, this article also provides a brief introduction to evidence-based dermatology and compares the introduction of clinical practice guidelines between Europe, the UK, and the US. Finally, this article addresses the present condition and future perspective of evidence-based dermatology in Taiwan.

  3. Anticipatory looks reveal expectations about discourse relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Hannah; Horton, William S

    2014-12-01

    Previous research provides evidence for expectation-driven processing within sentences at phonological, lexical, and syntactic levels of linguistic structure. Less well-established is whether comprehenders also anticipate pragmatic relationships between sentences. To address this, we evaluate a unit of discourse structure that comprehenders must infer to hold between sentences in order for a discourse to make sense-the intersentential coherence relation. In a novel eyetracking paradigm, we trained participants to associate particular spatial locations with particular coherence relations. Experiment 1 shows that the subset of listeners who successfully acquired the location∼relation mappings during training subsequently looked to these locations during testing in response to a coherence-signaling intersentential connective. Experiment 2 finds that listeners' looks during sentences containing coherence-biasing verbs reveal expectations about upcoming sentence types. This work extends existing research on prediction beyond sentence-internal structure and provides a new methodology for examining the cues that comprehenders use to establish relationships at the discourse level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Facial appearance reveals immunity in African men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalane, Khutso G; Tribe, Catherine; Steel, Helen C; Cholo, Moloko C; Coetzee, Vinet

    2017-08-07

    Facial appearance is thought to indicate immunity in humans, but very few studies have tested this relationship directly. The aim of this study was to test the relationship between direct measures of immunity, perceived facial health and attractiveness, and facial cues in African men. We show that men with a stronger cytokine response are considered significantly more attractive and healthy. Men with more masculine, heavier facial features (i.e. muscular appearance) have a significantly higher cytokine response and appear significantly healthier and more attractive, while men with a yellower, lighter, "carotenoid" skin colour, have a marginally higher immune response and are also considered significantly more healthy and attractive. In contrast, more symmetrical, skinnier looking men appeared more attractive and healthier, but did not have a stronger cytokine response. These findings also shed new light on the "androgen-mediated" traits proposed by the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) and we propose that facial muscularity serves as a better estimate of an "androgen-mediated" trait than facial masculinity. Finally, we build on previous evidence to show that men's facial features do indeed reveal aspects of immunity, even better than more traditional measures of health, such as body mass index (BMI).

  5. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  6. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... and electronic patient records for diabetes patients, this paper reports research in progress regarding the prospects and pitfalls of evidence-based development....

  7. Accelerated Evidence Search Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Accelerated Evidence Search Report IMPORTANT INFORMATIVE STATEMENTS Accelerated Multi-Camera Evidence Search and Retrieval CSSP Project #: CSSP -2013...CD-1063 was supported by the Canadian Safety and Security Program ( CSSP ) which is led by Defence Research and Development Canada’s Centre for...Border Technology Division The CSSP is a federally-funded program to strengthen Canada’s ability to anticipate, prevent/mitigate, prepare for, respond to

  8. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materia...

  9. Enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in grapheme–color synesthesia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Wudarczyk, Olga Anna; Kochuparampil, Priya; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2013-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that the encoding of visual information and the maintenance of this information in a temporarily accessible state in working memory rely on the same neural mechanisms. A consequence of this overlap is that atypical forms of perception should influence working memory. We examined this by investigating whether having grapheme–color synesthesia, a condition characterized by the involuntary experience of color photisms when reading or representing graphemes, would confer benefits on working memory. Two competing hypotheses propose that superior memory in synesthesia results from information being coded in two information channels (dual-coding) or from superior dimension-specific visual processing (enhanced processing). We discriminated between these hypotheses in three n-back experiments in which controls and synesthetes viewed inducer and non-inducer graphemes and maintained color or grapheme information in working memory. Synesthetes displayed superior color working memory than controls for both grapheme types, whereas the two groups did not differ in grapheme working memory. Further analyses excluded the possibilities of enhanced working memory among synesthetes being due to greater color discrimination, stimulus color familiarity, or bidirectionality. These results reveal enhanced dimension-specific visual working memory in this population and supply further evidence for a close relationship between sensory processing and the maintenance of sensory information in working memory. PMID:23892185

  10. Spitzer Reveals Stellar 'Family Tree'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] High resolution poster version Generations of stars can be seen in this new infrared portrait from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. In this wispy star-forming region, called W5, the oldest stars can be seen as blue dots in the centers of the two hollow cavities (other blue dots are background and foreground stars not associated with the region). Younger stars line the rims of the cavities, and some can be seen as pink dots at the tips of the elephant-trunk-like pillars. The white knotty areas are where the youngest stars are forming. Red shows heated dust that pervades the region's cavities, while green highlights dense clouds. W5 spans an area of sky equivalent to four full moons and is about 6,500 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. The Spitzer picture was taken over a period of 24 hours. Like other massive star-forming regions, such as Orion and Carina, W5 contains large cavities that were carved out by radiation and winds from the region's most massive stars. According to the theory of triggered star-formation, the carving out of these cavities pushes gas together, causing it to ignite into successive generations of new stars. This image contains some of the best evidence yet for the triggered star-formation theory. Scientists analyzing the photo have been able to show that the ages of the stars become progressively and systematically younger with distance from the center of the cavities. This is a three-color composite showing infrared observations from two Spitzer instruments. Blue represents 3.6-micron light and green shows light of 8 microns, both captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Red is 24-micron light detected by Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer.

  11. Tadpole begging reveals high quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, M B; Strickler, S A; Stynoski, J L

    2017-05-01

    Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources nonrandomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e. begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We tested the predictions of three 'honest begging' hypotheses - Signal of Need, Signal of Quality and Signal of Hunger - in the tadpoles of a terrestrial frog (Oophaga pumilio). In this frog, mothers provision tadpoles with trophic eggs, and when mothers visit, tadpoles perform a putative begging signal by stiffening their bodies and vibrating rapidly. We assessed the information content of intense tadpole begging with an experimental manipulation of tadpole condition (need/quality) and food deprivation (hunger). This experiment revealed patterns consistent with the Signal of Quality hypothesis and directly counter to predictions of Signal of Need and Signal of Hunger. Begging effort and performance were higher in more developed and higher condition tadpoles and declined with food deprivation. Free-living mothers were unlikely to feed tadpoles of a nonbegging species experimentally cross-fostered with their own, and allocated larger meals to more developed tadpoles and those that vibrated at higher speed. Mother O. pumilio favour their high-quality young, and because their concurrent offspring are reared in separate nurseries, must do so by making active allocation decisions. Our results suggest that these maternal choices are based at least in part on offspring signals, indicating that offspring solicitation can evolve to signal high quality. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. LTDNA Evidence on Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  13. Evidence-Based Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin

    Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.

  14. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  15. Electrophysiological Evidence reveals Differences between the Recognition of Microexpressions and Macroexpressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunbing Shen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microexpressions are fleeting facial expressions that are important for judging people’s true emotions. Little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying the recognition of microexpressions (with duration of less than 200 ms and macroexpressions (with duration of greater than 200 ms. We used an affective priming paradigm in which a picture of a facial expression is the prime and an emotional word is the target, and electroencephalogram (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs to examine neural activities associated with recognizing microexpressions and macroexpressions. The results showed that there were significant main effects of duration and valence for N170/VPP. The main effect of congruence for N400 is also significant. Further, sLORETA showed that the brain regions responsible for these significant differences included the inferior temporal gyrus and widespread regions of the frontal lobe. Furthermore, the results suggested that the left hemisphere was more involved than the right hemisphere in processing a microexpression. The main effect of duration for the event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP was significant, and the theta oscillations (4 Hz to 8 Hz increased in recognizing expressions with a duration of 40 ms compared with 300 ms. Thus, there are different EEG/ERPs neural mechanisms for recognizing microexpressions compared to recognizing macroexpressions.

  16. Evidence for high frequency of chromosomal mosaicism in spontaneous abortions revealed by interphase FISH analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Kolotii, Alexei D; Iourov, Ivan Y; Monakhov, Viktor V; Kirillova, Elena A; Soloviev, Ilia V; Yurov, Yuri B

    2005-03-01

    Numerical chromosomal imbalances are a common feature of spontaneous abortions. However, the incidence of mosaic forms of chromosomal abnormalities has not been evaluated. We have applied interphase multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization using original DNA probes for chromosomes 1, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, and Y to study chromosomal abnormalities in 148 specimens of spontaneous abortions. We have detected chromosomal abnormalities in 89/148 (60.1%) of specimens. Among them, aneuploidy was detected in 74 samples (83.1%). In the remaining samples, polyploidy was detected. The mosaic forms of chromosome abnormality, including autosomal and sex chromosomal aneuploidies and polyploidy (31 and 12 cases, respectively), were observed in 43/89 (48.3%) of specimens. The most frequent mosaic form of aneuploidy was related to chromosome X (19 cases). The frequency of mosaic forms of chromosomal abnormalities in samples with male chromosomal complement was 50% (16/32 chromosomally abnormal), and in samples with female chromosomal complement, it was 47.4% (27/57 chromosomally abnormal). The present study demonstrates that the postzygotic or mitotic errors leading to chromosomal mosaicism in spontaneous abortions are more frequent than previously suspected. Chromosomal mosaicism may contribute significantly to both pregnancy complications and spontaneous fetal loss.

  17. RNA-Seq analysis reveals new evidence for inflammation-related changes in aged kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeui; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Kim, Chul-Hong; Choi, Yeon Ja; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Kim, Mi Eun; Lee, Jun Sik; Park, Min Hi; Chung, Ki Wung; Kim, Dae Hyun; Lee, Jaewon; Im, Dong-Soon; Yoon, Seokjoo; Lee, Sunghoon; Yu, Byung Pal; Bhak, Jong; Chung, Hae Young

    2016-01-01

    Age-related dysregulated inflammation plays an essential role as a major risk factor underlying the pathophysiological aging process. To better understand how inflammatory processes are related to aging at the molecular level, we sequenced the transcriptome of young and aged rat kidney using RNA-Seq to detect known genes, novel genes, and alternative splicing events that are differentially expressed. By comparing young (6 months of age) and old (25 months of age) rats, we detected 722 up-regulated genes and 111 down-regulated genes. In the aged rats, we found 32 novel genes and 107 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 6.6% of the up-regulated genes were related to inflammation (P inflammation-related pathways such as cytokines (P = 4.4 × 10−16), which were found up-regulated in the aged rats. Furthermore, an up-regulated inflammatory gene analysis identified the involvement of transcription factors, such as STAT4, EGR1, and FOSL1, which regulate cancer as well as inflammation in aging processes. Thus, RNA changes in these pathways support their involvement in the pro-inflammatory status during aging. We propose that whole RNA-Seq is a useful tool to identify novel genes and alternative splicing events by documenting broadly implicated inflammation-related genes involved in aging processes. PMID:27153548

  18. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jes; Sørensen, Jens A; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised huma...

  19. Analysis of ten Brucella genomes reveals evidence for horizontal gene transfer despite a preferred intracellular lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattam, Alice R; Williams, Kelly P; Snyder, Eric E; Almeida, Nalvo F; Shukla, Maulik; Dickerman, A W; Crasta, O R; Kenyon, R; Lu, J; Shallom, J M; Yoo, H; Ficht, T A; Tsolis, R M; Munk, C; Tapia, R; Han, C S; Detter, J C; Bruce, D; Brettin, T S; Sobral, Bruno W; Boyle, Stephen M; Setubal, João C

    2009-06-01

    The facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Brucella infects a wide range of warm-blooded land and marine vertebrates and causes brucellosis. Currently, there are nine recognized Brucella species based on host preferences and phenotypic differences. The availability of 10 different genomes consisting of two chromosomes and representing six of the species allowed for a detailed comparison among themselves and relatives in the order Rhizobiales. Phylogenomic analysis of ortholog families shows limited divergence but distinct radiations, producing four clades as follows: Brucella abortus-Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis-Brucella canis, Brucella ovis, and Brucella ceti. In addition, Brucella phylogeny does not appear to reflect the phylogeny of Brucella species' preferred hosts. About 4.6% of protein-coding genes seem to be pseudogenes, which is a relatively large fraction. Only B. suis 1330 appears to have an intact beta-ketoadipate pathway, responsible for utilization of plant-derived compounds. In contrast, this pathway in the other species is highly pseudogenized and consistent with the "domino theory" of gene death. There are distinct shared anomalous regions (SARs) found in both chromosomes as the result of horizontal gene transfer unique to Brucella and not shared with its closest relative Ochrobactrum, a soil bacterium, suggesting their acquisition occurred in spite of a predominantly intracellular lifestyle. In particular, SAR 2-5 appears to have been acquired by Brucella after it became intracellular. The SARs contain many genes, including those involved in O-polysaccharide synthesis and type IV secretion, which if mutated or absent significantly affect the ability of Brucella to survive intracellularly in the infected host.

  20. Estimating household water demand using revealed and contingent behaviors: Evidence from Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheesman, Jeremy; Bennett, Jeff; Son, Tran Vo Hung

    2008-11-01

    This article estimates the water demand of households using (1) municipal water exclusively and (2) municipal water and household well water in the capital city of Dak Lak Province in Vietnam. Household water demands are estimated using a panel data set formed by pooling household records of metered municipal water consumption and their stated preferences for water consumption contingent on hypothetical water prices. Estimates show that households using municipal water exclusively have very price inelastic demand. Households using municipal and household well water have more price elastic, but still inelastic, simultaneous water demand and treat municipal water and household well water as substitutes. Household water consumption is influenced by household water storage and supply infrastructure, income, and socioeconomic attributes. The demand estimates are used to forecast municipal water consumption by households in Buon Ma Thuot following an increase to the municipal water tariff to forecast the municipal water supply company's revenue stream following a tariff increase and to estimate the consumer surplus loss resulting from municipal water supply shortages.

  1. [Real-world evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fiore, Luca; Addis, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Real-world evidence is among the most frequently discussed issues at professional medical conferences and meetings. It refers to data and information derived from sources such as electronic health records, disease or product registries, and observational research. Looking for an accelerated approval of new pharmaceutical products and devices, real-world evidence is considered a useful tool to confirm data collected for regulatory purposes. Anyway, randomised controlled trials still remain the gold standard of clinical research, in order to minimize bias and to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical intervention. A pragmatic approach and quasi-randomised trials to shorten length and costs of the studies can be considered. The problem lies with the quality of data rather than with the context in which evidence is gathered.

  2. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.; Schaap, H.; Bruijn, E. de

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  3. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.M.; Schaap, H.; de Bruijn, E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  4. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference Survey Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  5. Fossil wood evidences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and. Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India. (Rajasthan and ...

  6. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  7. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roberts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1 expert competence; (2 disciplinary domain; (3 methodological validity; (4 materiality; and (5 legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law’s fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. Section 2 then examines English and Northern Irish courts’ attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially concern the manner in which LTDNA profiling results are presented and explained to

  8. Multiethnic GWAS Reveals Polygenic Architecture of Earlobe Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, John R; Li, Jinxi; Lee, Myoung Keun; Roosenboom, Jasmien; Orlova, Ekaterina; Adhikari, Kaustabh; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Pfeffer, Paige E; Wollenschlaeger, Christopher A; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Wehby, George L; Moreno, Lina M; Ding, Anan; Jin, Li; Yang, Yajun; Carlson, Jenna C; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Marazita, Mary L; Hinds, David A; Cox, Timothy C; Wang, Sijia; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Weinberg, Seth M

    2017-12-07

    The genetic basis of earlobe attachment has been a matter of debate since the early 20th century, such that geneticists argue both for and against polygenic inheritance. Recent genetic studies have identified a few loci associated with the trait, but large-scale analyses are still lacking. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of lobe attachment in a multiethnic sample of 74,660 individuals from four cohorts (three with the trait scored by an expert rater and one with the trait self-reported). Meta-analysis of the three expert-rater-scored cohorts revealed six associated loci harboring numerous candidate genes, including EDAR, SP5, MRPS22, ADGRG6 (GPR126), KIAA1217, and PAX9. The large self-reported 23andMe cohort recapitulated each of these six loci. Moreover, meta-analysis across all four cohorts revealed a total of 49 significant (p < 5 × 10-8) loci. Annotation and enrichment analyses of these 49 loci showed strong evidence of genes involved in ear development and syndromes with auricular phenotypes. RNA sequencing data from both human fetal ear and mouse second branchial arch tissue confirmed that genes located among associated loci showed evidence of expression. These results provide strong evidence for the polygenic nature of earlobe attachment and offer insights into the biological basis of normal and abnormal ear development. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Evidence Missing from Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Richard B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. Regrettably, the task force report was largely silent on three critical issues. As a consequence, it omitted much of the evidence necessary for a complete picture of evidence-based…

  10. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  11. Evidence on acne therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sousa Costa

    Full Text Available Among the current treatments available for acne vulgaris, many widely practiced options lack support from studies at the best level of scientific evidence. The aim of this narrative review was to present the very latest information on topical and systemic treatments for acne vulgaris. Information from systematic reviews and well-designed clinical trials, obtained through a systematic search of the major medical databases, is emphasized. There are important issues regarding the clinical management of acne that still lack consistent grounding in scientific evidence. Among these are the optimum dose and duration of treatment with oral antibiotics that can be given without inducing bacterial resistance, and the safety of oral isotretinoin.

  12. Ingratiation: Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Robin, Stéphane; Rusinowska, Agnieszka; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    We investigate experimentally ingratiatory behavior expressed by opinion conformity. Both individuals' performance at a task and their opinions on various topics can be observed before unequal payoffs are assigned by a second mover. In some treatments, first movers can change their opinion after learning that held by the second mover. We find evidence of high ingratiation indices, as opinion conformity is rewarded. However, second movers reward conformity less when it is common knowledge that...

  13. [Evidence for exercise prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritani, Toshio

    2009-02-01

    This brief review includes recent evidences regarding the etiology of obesity and metabolic syndrome with a special reference to autonomic nervous system activity. The role of exercise in prevention and treatment of obesity in adults and children is described in conjunction with MONA LISA Hypothesis put forth by Bray (1991). Finally, recent topics of myokines, i.e., muscle activity-derived cytokines are briefly discussed.

  14. INADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE IN CIVIL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Dika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the exclusion of specific means of evidence as instruments for determining the object of evidence, as well as the taking of evidence in the framework of the Croatian civil procedure law. The introduction lays the grounds for classifying and qualifying exclusion of evidence (general, special; absolute, relative; removable, irremovable; direct, indirect, after which greater attention is paid to the so called absolute and relative type; exclusionary evidence of the direct relative type pertaining to the establishing of facts, and evidence dismissals. With regard to the indirect relative type, the paper examines exclusionary evidence concerning the object of evidence. The remainder of the paper focuses on illegally obtained evidence, while outlining the constitutional, statutory, judicature and doctrinaire premises of bearing for such evidence. Subsequently, the question of evidence obtained in violation of the Constitutional guarantee of respect and legal protection of private and family life, dignity, reputation and honour, as well as evidence obtained by breach of the Constitutional guarantee of freedom and secrecy of correspondence and all other forms of communication, and in violation of the right to safety and privacy of personal data, are discussed too. In addition, the paper analyses the institutions of preclusion of evidence and the so called informative evidence. Concluding, the author points to a lacking regulation of inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law, underlining the need to determine de lege ferenda legal requirements with a view to operationalizing inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law.

  15. Museums? Evidence from two Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah Kasim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence on Young Adults’ motivations for visiting and not visiting museums. Using purposive sampling, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to respondents in Kedah, Malaysia and Eskisehir, Turkey. Both Kedah and Eskisehir share one similarity – they both have many museums. The findings revealed that in both study contexts, young people tended to visit museums for practical reasons such as to help them prepare homework or a project. They also visit for intrinsic reasons such as to satisfy their curiosity. Both samples also illustrate Davies (2001 contention that awareness is an important precursor to potential visits. On the other hand, both samples are different in reasons for not visiting. While young people in Eskisehir cite emotional reasons for deciding not to visit, young people in Kedah offered more practical ones such as lack of time and interest, or more interested in other activities. The study findings are useful for understanding reasons behind the generally low museum visits among youth. Several managerial implications of the study were also proposed.

  16. Merging Evidence-Based Psychosocial Interventions in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lecomte

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial interventions are an essential part of the treatment for people with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. The criteria regarding what makes an intervention “evidence-based” along with a current list of evidence-based interventions are presented. Although many evidence-based interventions exist, implementation studies reveal that few, if any, are ever implemented in a given setting. Various theories and approaches have been developed to better understand and overcome implementation obstacles. Among these, merging two evidence-based interventions, or offering an evidence-based intervention within an evidence-based service, are increasingly being reported and studied in the literature. Five such merges are presented, along with their empirical support: cognitive behavior therapy (CBT with skills training; CBT and family psychoeducation; supported employment (SE and skills training; SE and cognitive remediation; and SE and CBT.

  17. Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, J D

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL).

  18. Limitations of Expert Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Serpil Salaçin

    1997-01-01

    Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerin...

  19. Evidence Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    present Fed.R.Evid. 410 may also be found at Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure ll(e)(6). For a complete history of the evolution of the Federal Rule...87 7-87 ~ ’~ -] NOTE: The following sections of this part of the chapter offer brief notes and outlines on trial procedures and evolutions involving...arrest even though it was conducted at FBI headquarters. (c) United States v. Birdsong , 446 F.2d 325 (5th Cir. 1971) (search of auto trunk upheld as

  20. Systemic treatments in paediatric psoriasis: a systematic evidence-based update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, M.J. van; Mul, K; Jager, M.E.A. de; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Jong, E.M.G.J. de; Seyger, M.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, a systematic review revealed that evidence-based data on efficacy and safety of treatments in paediatric psoriasis are scarce and with low level of evidence. In recent years, publications on this topic have increased exponentially. To present a systematic, evidence-based update on the

  1. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  2. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  3. [Cholangitis revealing an intrahepatic Osler's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Kochlef; Dalila, Gargouri; Olfa, Bousnina; Malika, Romani; Afef, Kilani; Najet, BelHadg; Jamel, Kharrat; Abdeljabbar, Gorbel; Sarra, Shili; Chiraz, Jemli; Mohamed, Habib Daghfous; Slim, Khlifi; Anis, Ben Maamer; Abdelmajid, Letaïef

    2005-08-01

    Osler Weber Rendu Disease is an hereditary haemorrhagic télangectasia habitually revealed by reccurent bleeding (epistaxis). Hepatic involvement in Osler disease is found in 8 to 31%, manifested by cholestasis. We report an original observation of a cholangitis revealing Osler disease.

  4. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    guidance producing programmes and at all stages of development. CE could range from information from experts and patient/carers, grey literature (including evidence from websites and policy reports) and testimony from stakeholders through consultation. Six tools for critical appraisal of CE were available...... scientific literature is sparse and to also capture the experience of all stakeholders in discussions, including that of experts and patients. We aimed to ascertain how CE was being used at the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). METHODS: Relevant data corresponding to the use of CE...... was extracted from all NICE technical and process manuals by two reviewers and quality assured and analyzed by a third reviewer. This was considered in light of the results of a focused literature review and a combined checklist for quality assessment was developed. RESULTS: At NICE, CE is utilised across all...

  5. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  6. Evidence for robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Ravikiran; Nathwani, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Robots have been successfully used in commercial industry and have enabled humans to perform tasks which are repetitive, dangerous and requiring extreme force. Their role has evolved and now includes many aspects of surgery to improve safety and precision. Orthopaedic surgery is largely performed on bones which are rigid immobile structures which can easily be performed by robots with great precision. Robots have been designed for use in orthopaedic surgery including joint arthroplasty and spine surgery. Experimental studies have been published evaluating the role of robots in arthroscopy and trauma surgery. In this article, we will review the incorporation of robots in orthopaedic surgery looking into the evidence in their use. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  7. Corroborating evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebius, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    Proponents of evidence-based medicine (EBM) have argued convincingly for applying this scientific method to medicine. However, the current methodological framework of the EBM movement has recently been called into question, especially in epidemiology and the philosophy of science. The debate has focused on whether the methodology of randomized controlled trials provides the best evidence available. This paper attempts to shift the focus of the debate by arguing that clinical reasoning involves a patchwork of evidential approaches and that the emphasis on evidence hierarchies of methodology fails to lend credence to the common practice of corroboration in medicine. I argue that the strength of evidence lies in the evidence itself, and not the methodology used to obtain that evidence. Ultimately, when it comes to evaluating the effectiveness of medical interventions, it is the evidence obtained from the methodology rather than the methodology that should establish the strength of the evidence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  9. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Rod A.; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years sp...

  10. Evidence-based clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine combines the patient's preferences with clinical experience and the best research evidence. Randomized clinical trials are considered the most valid research design for evaluating health-care interventions. However, empirical research shows that intervention effects may...... practice. By investments in education, applied research, and The Cochrane Collaboration, evidence-based medicine may form a stronger basis for clinical practice....

  11. Effects of false-evidence ploys and expert testimony on jurors' verdicts, recommended sentences, and perceptions of confession evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, William Douglas; Forrest, Krista D

    2009-01-01

    During interrogations, police may use false-evidence ploys or fabricated claims to convince suspects to confess. Mock jurors read trial materials containing interrogation transcripts with or without a false-evidence ploy and one of two expert witness conditions (present or absent). We examined jurors' verdicts, recommended sentences, and perceptions of the interrogation. Although factual evidence and the defendant's confession remained constant across conditions, false-evidence ploys led to fewer convictions and shorter sentences. Jurors also perceived interrogations with ploys as more deceptive and coercive. Expert testimony reduced convictions and increased interrogation deception and coercion ratings. Across ploy types, participants rated demeanor ploys as less deceptive and recommended longer sentences for confessors. Outcomes reveal important, previously unrecognized consequences of false-evidence ploys. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Agriculture–Tourism Linkages in Botswana: Evidence from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the linkages between the tourism and agriculture sectors in Botswana using evidence gathered from the country's growing safari lodge accommodation sector. The findings reveal limited local linkages between agriculture and tourism, and instead the existence of high levels of food imports from ...

  13. Geochemistry evidence for depositional settings and provenance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 1. Geochemistry evidence for depositional settings and ... Mountain has been the primary source to Jiyuan basin. We conclude that the Jurassic rocks of Jiyuan basin reveal the progressive uplift and denudation processes of the Taihang Mountain.

  14. Evidence Searching for Evidence-based Psychology Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Falzon, Louise; Davidson, Karina W.; Bruns, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    There is an increased awareness of evidence-based methodology among psychologists, but little exists in the literature about how to access the research. Moreover, the prohibitive cost of this information combined with limited time are barriers to the identification of evidence to answer clinical questions. This article presents an example of a question worked though in an evidence-based way. Methods are highlighted, including distinguishing background and foreground questions, breaking down q...

  15. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Geum Oh, PhD, RN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR, a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings.

  16. Evidence of me” in evidence based medicine?

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Evidence based medicine provides independent, validated advice about treatment options, but does it take sufficient account of individual patients' values to provide them with an optimal health outcome?

  17. Evidence based medical imaging (EBMI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tony [Senior Lecturer in Medical Radiation Science, University Department of Rural Health, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Locked Bag 9783 NEMSC, Tamworth, NSW 2348 (Australia)], E-mail: tony.smith@hnehealth.nsw.gov.au

    2008-08-15

    Background: The evidence based paradigm was first described about a decade ago. Previous authors have described a framework for the application of evidence based medicine which can be readily adapted to medical imaging practice. Purpose: This paper promotes the application of the evidence based framework in both the justification of the choice of examination type and the optimisation of the imaging technique used. Methods: The framework includes five integrated steps: framing a concise clinical question; searching for evidence to answer that question; critically appraising the evidence; applying the evidence in clinical practice; and, evaluating the use of revised practices. Results: This paper illustrates the use of the evidence based framework in medical imaging (that is, evidence based medical imaging) using the examples of two clinically relevant case studies. In doing so, a range of information technology and other resources available to medical imaging practitioners are identified with the intention of encouraging the application of the evidence based paradigm in radiography and radiology. Conclusion: There is a perceived need for radiographers and radiologists to make greater use of valid research evidence from the literature to inform their clinical practice and thus provide better quality services.

  18. Evidence and Ethics (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the December issue of EBLIP, the final issue of my first year as Editor-in-Chief. A year which I have thoroughly enjoyed and one where the fears over what to write in my editorials haven’t materialised. This quarter, ethics has featured quite heavily in my working life so I decided to make this the topic of the editorial, sharing some of my thoughts regarding evidence, ethics and how ethical principles are implemented within the EBLIP journal.Ethics are “principles of conduct or standards of behaviour governing an individual or profession” (Library and Information Science Editorial Committee, 2010, and as individuals or professionals we may be governed by various ethical codes. As I'm sure you know, EBLIP originated in the health domain, where ethical values and ethical research feature strongly. Indeed, by its formal definition, research cannot take place unless “ethical approval” from an appropriate committee has been granted. The practicalities of taking research through the ethical approval process can often be time consuming, and those involved in research need to bear this in mind when planning a project. Each committee will have a slightly different form and process (which can add to the frustration of the researcher, but basically will make their decision to approve on the basis that the research includes obtaining informed consent from participants (i.e., participants know what the research is about and what their involvement will mean; that the research will not cause harm to participants; that confidentiality will be maintained; and that the research undertaken is methodologically rigorous and worthwhile. Preparing a proposal for ethical approval, whilst time consuming, makes the researcher think about all aspects of the research and how it is going to be operationalized, which can save lots of time and effort in the long run and may well also improve the research design. These principles are the same whatever

  19. Limitations of Expert Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil Salaçin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Limitations of Expert Evidence Edited by Stephen Leadbeatter MB ChB MCRPath ISBN 1 86016 029 8 Printed in Great Britain by Cathedral Print Services Ltd, Salisbury, 1996 Kitap 25 Ekim 1994 te The Royal College of Physicians ve The Royal College of Pathologists tarafından düzenlenen konferanstan sonra hekimlere ve avukatlara konuyu tartışmaya açmak için basılmış. Bilirkişi görüşünün temel filozofisinin, bu görevi yapanlar ve bu hizmeti alanların yapabileceklerinin sınırlarının tartışılması amaçlanmış.Seksen altı sayfadan oluşan kitabın fiatı on iki İngiliz Sterlini. Kitap üç bölüm ve bunların altında toplanan on ana başlıktan oluşmakta. Elinize aldığınızda küçük boyutu ve anlaşılır dili ile hemen okunup bitirelecek kitaplardan sanılıyor. En azından ben böyle düşünmüştüm. Ancak daha L A Tuınberg ve A J Bellinham’ın ön yazısında ben çarpıldım. Değerli yazarların kaleme aldığı başlıklar ve gündeme getirdiği tartışmaların tüm Adli Bilimlerle uğraşanların dikkatle okuması gereken cinsten olduğu kanısındayım. Birinci bölüm The Legal Perspective iki anabaşlıktan oluşuyor, The Criminal legal perspective Honour Judje Martin Stephens tarafından yazılmış,bilirkişi olarak görev yapabilmek için belgelenmiş bir eğitim olması gerektiği, mahkemelerde ya da yazılı raporlarda verilebilecek görüşlerin incelikleri tartışılmış. Bu bölümün ikinci anabaşlığı The civil legal perspective avukat Jennifer Cummin tarafından yazılmış. Toplum gözünde bilirkişinin anlamı ve mahkemenin bilirkişi görüşünü değişmez bilimsel doğru gibi algılayarak düştüğü bilimsel yanılgı ve raporlardaki kavram farkı dile getirilmiş. İkinci Bölüm The Medical And Scientific Perspective başlığı altında Roger C Evans MD Clinical evidence başlığında toplumun hasta tedavisi ve bilirkişilik hizmetinden beklentilerinin unrealistik olduğu ve

  20. The Streptococcus milleri population of a cystic fibrosis clinic reveals patient specificity and intraspecies diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Christopher D; Sibley, Kristen A; Leong, Tara A; Grinwis, Margot E; Parkins, Michael D; Rabin, Harvey R; Surette, Michael G

    2010-07-01

    The genetic relatedness of Streptococcus milleri group isolates from the airways of cystic fibrosis patients was determined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This study reveals no evidence for patient-to-patient transmission in our patient population; however, within individual patients, complex inter- and intraspecies diversity and dynamics can be observed.

  1. Limits of Evidence within EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of admissibility of evidence has been regulated only very scarcely in the EU. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters has been embracing the increasing number of instruments, covering plethora of aspects, however, the field of admissibility of evidence remains almost untouched. Can the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice be called the Common Evidence Area? From the national perspective, the issue of admissibility of evidence is still subject to divergent solutions in the Member States, concerning the common law and continental law systems, i.e. the right of access to a lawyer. Thus, the paper aims to take into account the tendencies of legal rule in matter of admissibility of evidence, the dynamic of evidence movement within EU area.

  2. Does Misaligned Currency Affect Economic Growth? – Evidence from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonći Svilokos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to measure the currency misalignment of the Croatian kuna and to reveal whether it affects economic growth for the period 2001 (Q1 to 2013 (Q3. The estimate relies on recent cointegration techniques, VAR models and Granger causality tests. The findings show that there are two misalignment sub-periods for the Croatian kuna: undervaluation in the period from 2000Q1 to 2007Q4 and overvaluation in the period from 2008Q1 to 2013Q3. The evidence reveals that for the whole sample period, the Granger causality goes from misalignments (MISA to GDP growth under the 10 percent significance level. However, for the two sub-periods no evidence of Granger causality from MISA to GDP growth or vice versa is found. The research also reveals that the currency misalignments in the observed period are relatively small.

  3. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA's Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This presentation specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as an overview of the content of the final report for that internship.

  4. The role of conceptual knowledge in understanding synaesthesia: Evaluating contemporary findings from a "hub-and-spokes" perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Rocco; Rich, Anina N

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which stimulation in one sensory modality triggers involuntary experiences typically not associated with that stimulation. Inducing stimuli (inducers) and synesthetic experiences (concurrents) may occur within the same modality (e.g., seeing colors while reading achromatic text) or span across different modalities (e.g., tasting flavors while listening to music). Although there has been considerable progress over the last decade in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms of synesthesia, the focus of current neurocognitive models of synesthesia does not encompass many crucial psychophysical characteristics documented in behavioral research. Prominent theories of the neurophysiological basis of synesthesia construe it as a perceptual phenomenon and hence focus primarily on the modality-specific brain regions for perception. Many behavioral studies, however, suggest an essential role for conceptual-level information in synesthesia. For example, there is evidence that synesthetic experience arises subsequent to identification of an inducing stimulus, differs substantially from real perceptual events, can be akin to perceptual memory, and is susceptible to lexical/semantic contexts. These data suggest that neural mechanisms lying beyond the realm of the perceptual cortex (especially the visual system), such as regions subserving conceptual knowledge, may play pivotal roles in the neural architecture of synesthesia. Here we discuss the significance of non-perceptual mechanisms that call for a re-evaluation of the emphasis on synesthesia as a perceptual phenomenon. We also review recent studies which hint that some aspects of synesthesia resemble our general conceptual knowledge for object attributes, at both psychophysical and neural levels. We then present a conceptual-mediation model of synesthesia in which the inducer and concurrent are linked within a conceptual-level representation. This "inducer-to-concurrent" nexus is

  5. The role of conceptual knowledge in understanding synaesthesia: Evaluating contemporary findings from a “hub-and-spokes” perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Rocco

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which stimulation in one sensory modality triggers involuntary experiences typically not associated with that stimulation. Inducing stimuli (inducers) and synesthetic experiences (concurrents) may occur within the same modality (e.g., seeing colors while reading achromatic text) or span across different modalities (e.g., tasting flavors while listening to music). Although there has been considerable progress over the last decade in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms of synesthesia, the focus of current neurocognitive models of synesthesia does not encompass many crucial psychophysical characteristics documented in behavioral research. Prominent theories of the neurophysiological basis of synesthesia construe it as a perceptual phenomenon and hence focus primarily on the modality-specific brain regions for perception. Many behavioral studies, however, suggest an essential role for conceptual-level information in synesthesia. For example, there is evidence that synesthetic experience arises subsequent to identification of an inducing stimulus, differs substantially from real perceptual events, can be akin to perceptual memory, and is susceptible to lexical/semantic contexts. These data suggest that neural mechanisms lying beyond the realm of the perceptual cortex (especially the visual system), such as regions subserving conceptual knowledge, may play pivotal roles in the neural architecture of synesthesia. Here we discuss the significance of non-perceptual mechanisms that call for a re-evaluation of the emphasis on synesthesia as a perceptual phenomenon. We also review recent studies which hint that some aspects of synesthesia resemble our general conceptual knowledge for object attributes, at both psychophysical and neural levels. We then present a conceptual-mediation model of synesthesia in which the inducer and concurrent are linked within a conceptual-level representation. This “inducer-to-concurrent” nexus is

  6. Evidence-Based Medicine: Rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew K; Most, Sam P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence-based medicine has become increasingly prominent in the climate of modern day healthcare. The practice of evidence-based medicine involves the integration of the best available evidence with clinical experience and expertise to help guide clinical decision-making. The essential tenets of evidence-based medicine can be applied to both functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty. Current outcome measures in functional and aesthetic rhinoplasty, including objective, subjective, and clinician-reported measures, is summarized and the current data is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence-based clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garattini, Silvio; Jakobsen, Janus C; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Using the best quality of clinical research evidence is essential for choosing the right treatment for patients. How to identify the best research evidence is, however, difficult. In this narrative review we summarise these threats and describe how to minimise them. Pertinent literature was consi......Using the best quality of clinical research evidence is essential for choosing the right treatment for patients. How to identify the best research evidence is, however, difficult. In this narrative review we summarise these threats and describe how to minimise them. Pertinent literature...

  8. Evidence-based medicine, meer dan evidence alleen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, Marlous|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357299817; Bartelink, Marie Louise|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/100449069

    2017-01-01

    Aan de praktijk van evidence-based medicine (EBM) besteden we in de huisartsopleiding te weinig aandacht. Iedere huisarts die de adviezen uit een NHG-Standaard volgt, of ervan afwijkt, doet aan EBM: het wegen van beschikbare evidence met de eigen ervaring en met de voorkeuren van de patiënt.

  9. [Cervical Pott's disease revealed by retropharyngeal abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, A; Bencheikh, R; Benbouzid, M-A; Boulaich, M; Essakali, L; Kzadri, M

    2007-12-01

    Retropharyngeal abscesses are exceptional in adults. The etiologies are numerous, cervical spine tuberculosis is one of them. We report two cases of cervical Pott's disease revealed by a retropharyngeal abscess. The clinical presentation was non-specific, dominated by oropharyngeal obstruction. Radiological findings suggested the diagnosis, showing a retropharyngeal collection with vertebral osteolysis. The bacteriological and histological assessment confirmed the diagnosis. The evolution was favorable after treatment by antituberculosis drugs. Vertebral tuberculosis is rare. Cervical involvement is exceptional, and retropharyngeal abscesses can be the revealing feature of this condition. Symptoms are not specific. The diagnosis is based on radiological and bacteriological assessment. Treatment with antituberculosis drugs leads to a good outcome.

  10. Tyrannosauroid integument reveals conflicting patterns of gigantism and feather evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Phil R; Campione, Nicolás E; Persons, W Scott; Currie, Philip J; Larson, Peter L; Tanke, Darren H; Bakker, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence for feathers in theropods has led to speculations that the largest tyrannosaurids, including Tyrannosaurus rex, were extensively feathered. We describe fossil integument from Tyrannosaurus and other tyrannosaurids (Albertosaurus, Daspletosaurus, Gorgosaurus and Tarbosaurus), confirming that these large-bodied forms possessed scaly, reptilian-like skin. Body size evolution in tyrannosauroids reveals two independent occurrences of gigantism; specifically, the large sizes in Yutyrannus and tyrannosaurids were independently derived. These new findings demonstrate that extensive feather coverings observed in some early tyrannosauroids were lost by the Albian, basal to Tyrannosauridae. This loss is unrelated to palaeoclimate but possibly tied to the evolution of gigantism, although other mechanisms exist. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Evidence Searching for Evidence-based Psychology Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Louise; Davidson, Karina W.; Bruns, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    There is an increased awareness of evidence-based methodology among psychologists, but little exists in the literature about how to access the research. Moreover, the prohibitive cost of this information combined with limited time are barriers to the identification of evidence to answer clinical questions. This article presents an example of a question worked though in an evidence-based way. Methods are highlighted, including distinguishing background and foreground questions, breaking down questions into searchable statements, and adapting statements to suit both the question being asked and the resource being searched. A number of free, evidence-based resources are listed. Knowing how and where to access this information will enable practitioners to more easily use an evidence-based approach to their practice. PMID:21503266

  12. Conformational biosensors reveal GPCR signalling from endosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irannejad, R; Tomshine, Jin C; Tomshine, Jon R

    2013-01-01

    A long-held tenet of molecular pharmacology is that canonical signal transduction mediated by G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins is confined to the plasma membrane. Evidence supporting this traditional view is based on analytical methods that provide limited o...

  13. Microsatellite markers reveal low genetic differentiation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pair-wise comparisons of 16 populations. An assignment test conformed to known population histories and provided additional support for the hypothesis of low differentiation between populations. There was no evidence of loss of genetic diversity in any individual population. Parentage analysis confirmed the utility of the ...

  14. Evidence appraisal: a scoping review, conceptual framework, and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Andrew; Venker, Eric; Weng, Chunhua

    2017-11-01

    Critical appraisal of clinical evidence promises to help prevent, detect, and address flaws related to study importance, ethics, validity, applicability, and reporting. These research issues are of growing concern. The purpose of this scoping review is to survey the current literature on evidence appraisal to develop a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We conducted an iterative literature search of Medline for discussion or research on the critical appraisal of clinical evidence. After title and abstract review, 121 articles were included in the analysis. We performed qualitative thematic analysis to describe the evidence appraisal architecture and its issues and opportunities. From this analysis, we derived a conceptual framework and an informatics research agenda. We identified 68 themes in 10 categories. This analysis revealed that the practice of evidence appraisal is quite common but is rarely subjected to documentation, organization, validation, integration, or uptake. This is related to underdeveloped tools, scant incentives, and insufficient acquisition of appraisal data and transformation of the data into usable knowledge. The gaps in acquiring appraisal data, transforming the data into actionable information and knowledge, and ensuring its dissemination and adoption can be addressed with proven informatics approaches. Evidence appraisal faces several challenges, but implementing an informatics research agenda would likely help realize the potential of evidence appraisal for improving the rigor and value of clinical evidence.

  15. Revealed preference analysis of noncooperative household consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a revealed preference approach to analyse non-unitary household consumption behaviour that is not cooperative (or Pareto efficient). We derive global necessary and sufficient conditions for data consistency with the model. We show that the conditions can be verified by means of relatively

  16. Revealed preference tests for collective household behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.; Verriest, E.; Molina, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter contains a state of the art of revealed preference tests for consistency of observed household behavior with Pareto efficiency. These tests are entirely nonparametric, since they do not require any assumptions regarding the parametric form of individual preferences or the intrahousehold

  17. Hypoglycemia revealing arachnoidocele in infant | Jellouli | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arachnoidocele is characterized by the herniation of the subarachnoid space within the sella turcica, associated with some degree of flattening of the pituitary ... An exploration of the pituitary was requested, finding an achievement of the cortical axis revealed by the occurrence of multiple episodes of hypoglycemia with ...

  18. Genetic variation and geographical differentiation revealed using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Zhang L., Lu S., Sun D., and Peng J. 2015 Genetic variation and geographical differentiation revealed using ISSR markers in tung tree,. Vernicia fordii. J. Genet. 94, e5–e9. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/94/e5.pdf]. Introduction. Tung tree, Vernicia fordii is an oil-bearing woody plant species of ...

  19. Commentary: Revealing the workings of universal grammar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 5. Commentary: Revealing the workings of universal grammar. Mohinish Shukla. Volume 28 Issue 5 September 2003 pp 535-537. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/028/05/0535-0537. Author Affiliations.

  20. Systemic lupus erythematous revealed by cytomegalovirus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection have been described as exacerbing systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). The role of CMV in starting off SLE remains object of debate. We report a severe presentation of SLE revealed by CMV infection with hemophogocytic syndrome. A 22 old women without a history of systemic disease ...

  1. [Mastitis revealing Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannepond, C; Le Fourn, E; de Muret, A; Ouldamer, L; Carmier, D; Machet, L

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome often involves the skin, and this may sometimes reveal the disease. A 25-year-old woman was referred to a gynaecologist for inflammation of the right breast with breast discharge. Cytological analysis of the liquid showed numerous inflammatory cells, particularly polymorphonuclear eosinophils and neutrophils. Ultrasound examination of the breast was consistent with galactophoritis. CRP was normal, and hypereosinophilia was seen. The patient was subsequently referred to a dermatology unit. Skin examination revealed inflammation of the entire breast, which was painful, warm and erythematous; the border was oedematous with blisters. Necrotic lesions were also present on the thumbs and knees. Skin biopsy of the breast showed a dermal infiltrate with abundant infiltrate of polymorphonuclear eosinophils, including patchy necrosis and intraepidermal vesicles. Histological examination of a biopsy sample from a thumb revealed eosinophilic granuloma and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was also presenting asthma, pulmonary infiltrates and mononeuropathy at L3, consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Breast involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is very rare (only one other case has been reported). This is the first case in which the breast condition revealed the disease. Cutaneous involvement of the breast is, however, also compatible with Wells' cellulitis. The lesions quickly disappeared with 1mg/kg/d oral prednisolone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic relationship among Musa genotypes revealed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic relationship among Musa genotypes revealed by microsatellite markers. NAP Abdullah, GB Saleh, ETS Putra, ZB Wahab. Abstract. A banana germplasm was established containing 44 Musa genotypes collected from various locations in Malaysia. To detect their genetic variation and to rule out duplicates among ...

  3. Revealed Preference Theory, Rationality, and Neoclassical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealed Preference Theory (Samuelson 1938) is an attempt to establish economic theory as a genuine empirical science by ridding it of nonempirical psychological concepts. Samuelson's goal was to rid economic theory of the last vestiges of utility analysis. Samuelson structured his theory on a set of preference axioms ...

  4. Bilateral stellate neuroretinitis revealing a pheochromocytoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundus examination showed bilateral stellate neuroretinitis. Physical examination revealed a malignant hypertension of 210/150mmHg. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a left suprarenal mass, whereas urinary catecholamine level was abnormally high which supported a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.The patient ...

  5. Eye Movements Reveal Dynamics of Task Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Ulrich; Kuhns, David; Rieter, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    With the goal to determine the cognitive architecture that underlies flexible changes of control settings, we assessed within-trial and across-trial dynamics of attentional selection by tracking of eye movements in the context of a cued task-switching paradigm. Within-trial dynamics revealed a switch-induced, discrete delay in onset of…

  6. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every cellular process mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. As results from ENCODE show, open chromatin assays can efficiently integrate across diverse regulatory elements, revealing functional non-coding genome. In this study, we use a MNase hypersensitivity assay to discover o...

  7. Color-shape associations revealed with implicit association tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow). Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky's color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky's theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people's color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods.

  8. Color-shape associations revealed with implicit association tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen

    Full Text Available Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow. Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky's color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky's theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people's color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods.

  9. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, William R; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-02-18

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas recent studies measured utility functions and their corresponding neural correlates in monkeys, it is not known whether monkeys distort probability in a manner similar to humans. Therefore, we investigated economic choices in macaque monkeys for evidence of probability distortion. We trained two monkeys to predict reward from probabilistic gambles with constant outcome values (0.5 ml or nothing). The probability of winning was conveyed using explicit visual cues (sector stimuli). Choices between the gambles revealed that the monkeys used the explicit probability information to make meaningful decisions. Using these cues, we measured probability distortion from choices between the gambles and safe rewards. Parametric modeling of the choices revealed classic probability weighting functions with inverted-S shape. Therefore, the animals overweighted low probability rewards and underweighted high probability rewards. Empirical investigation of the behavior verified that the choices were best explained by a combination of nonlinear value and nonlinear probability distortion. Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. Copyright © 2015 Stauffer et al.

  10. The microbiome of Brazilian mangrove sediments as revealed by metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dini Andreote

    Full Text Available Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct mangrove areas (BrMgv01 to 04 in Brazil. The taxonomic approaches applied revealed the dominance of Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in the samples. Paired statistical analysis showed higher proportions of specific taxonomic groups in each dataset. The metabolic reconstruction indicated the possible occurrence of processes modulated by the prevailing conditions found in mangrove sediments. In terms of carbon cycling, the sequences indicated the prevalence of genes involved in the metabolism of methane, formaldehyde, and carbon dioxide. With respect to the nitrogen cycle, evidence for sequences associated with dissimilatory reduction of nitrate, nitrogen immobilization, and denitrification was detected. Sequences related to the production of adenylsulfate, sulfite, and H(2S were relevant to the sulphur cycle. These data indicate that the microbial core involved in methane, nitrogen, and sulphur metabolism consists mainly of Burkholderiaceae, Planctomycetaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Desulfobacteraceae. Comparison of our data to datasets from soil and sea samples resulted in the allotment of the mangrove sediments between those samples. The results of this study add valuable data about the composition of microbial communities in mangroves and also shed light on possible transformations promoted by microbial organisms in mangrove sediments.

  11. The features of Drosophila core promoters revealed by statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifonov Edward N

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental investigation of transcription is still a very labor- and time-consuming process. Only a few transcription initiation scenarios have been studied in detail. The mechanism of interaction between basal machinery and promoter, in particular core promoter elements, is not known for the majority of identified promoters. In this study, we reveal various transcription initiation mechanisms by statistical analysis of 3393 nonredundant Drosophila promoters. Results Using Drosophila-specific position-weight matrices, we identified promoters containing TATA box, Initiator, Downstream Promoter Element (DPE, and Motif Ten Element (MTE, as well as core elements discovered in Human (TFIIB Recognition Element (BRE and Downstream Core Element (DCE. Promoters utilizing known synergetic combinations of two core elements (TATA_Inr, Inr_MTE, Inr_DPE, and DPE_MTE were identified. We also establish the existence of promoters with potentially novel synergetic combinations: TATA_DPE and TATA_MTE. Our analysis revealed several motifs with the features of promoter elements, including possible novel core promoter element(s. Comparison of Human and Drosophila showed consistent percentages of promoters with TATA, Inr, DPE, and synergetic combinations thereof, as well as most of the same functional and mutual positions of the core elements. No statistical evidence of MTE utilization in Human was found. Distinct nucleosome positioning in particular promoter classes was revealed. Conclusion We present lists of promoters that potentially utilize the aforementioned elements/combinations. The number of these promoters is two orders of magnitude larger than the number of promoters in which transcription initiation was experimentally studied. The sequences are ready to be experimentally tested or used for further statistical analysis. The developed approach may be utilized for other species.

  12. From Evidence Based Medicine to Medicine Based Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Ralph I; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Caricchio, Roberto; Singer, Burton H

    2017-11-01

    Evidence based medicine, using randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses as the major tools and sources of evidence about average results for heterogeneous groups of patients, developed as a reaction against poorly designed observational treatment research and physician reliance on personal experience with other patients as a guide to decision-making about a patient at hand. However, these tools do not answer the clinician's question: "Will a given therapeutic regimen help my patient at a given point in her/his clinical course?" We introduce fine-grained profiling of the patient at hand, accompanied by comparative evidence of responses from approximate matches to this patient on whom a contemplated treatment has/has not been administered. This represents medicine based evidence that is tuned to decision-making for the particular patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Septic sacroiliitis revealing an infectious endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Hariz, Anis; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 43-year-old man admitted for right hip ache and fever. Physical examination revealed a fever, an ache at the manipulation of the sacroiliac joint and a limitation of abduction and external rotation of the right hip. There was no murmur in cardiac auscultation. No anomaly was found at the conventional radiographs of the sacroiliac joint, while the pelvic MRI confirmed a right sacroiliitis. A sacroiliac puncture with a study of synovial fluid demonstrated the presence of Streptococcus viridans. The blood culture revealed the same germ. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography confirmed infectious endocarditis with vegetation in the mitral valve. He received penicillin G and gentamicin relayed by pristinamycin because of an allergy to penicillin G with a total duration of treatment of 40 days. His symptoms and the laboratory and radiological tests abnormalities resolved totally with no recurrence. PMID:25123569

  14. Septic sacroiliitis revealing an infectious endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Hariz, Anis; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2014-08-14

    We report the case of a 43-year-old man admitted for right hip ache and fever. Physical examination revealed a fever, an ache at the manipulation of the sacroiliac joint and a limitation of abduction and external rotation of the right hip. There was no murmur in cardiac auscultation. No anomaly was found at the conventional radiographs of the sacroiliac joint, while the pelvic MRI confirmed a right sacroiliitis. A sacroiliac puncture with a study of synovial fluid demonstrated the presence of Streptococcus viridans. The blood culture revealed the same germ. Transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography confirmed infectious endocarditis with vegetation in the mitral valve. He received penicillin G and gentamicin relayed by pristinamycin because of an allergy to penicillin G with a total duration of treatment of 40 days. His symptoms and the laboratory and radiological tests abnormalities resolved totally with no recurrence. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Learning From Others About Research Evidence (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-06-01

    .The unsuitability of the RCT has also been raised regarding generating evidence for EBLIP (e.g. Banks, 2008; however, “best evidence” doesn’t need to be an RCT. The definition of EBLIP provided by Booth (2006 mentions best quality evidence (generated from research, among other elements, but makes no mention of particular research designs. In addition, both Eldredge (2004 and Crumley and Koufogiannakis (2002 have argued for the consideration of a wide type of study designs as evidence within EBLIP, a viewpoint with which I have long agreed. After all, it is much more important to choose a design that is suitable to answer the question at hand and provide good quality evidence, rather than trying to use a "good quality" design at the expense of finding relevant evidence. Bearing that in mind, I'm racking my brains to think of how I can use webometrics and techniques from history to investigate my practice. At the same time, I urge you to think widely about research evidence and try exploring some different methodologies and see what evidence they can reveal.

  16. Revealed Comparative Advantage in the Internal Market

    OpenAIRE

    Widgrén, Mika

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates comparative advantage and its development across selected Asian, American and European countries between 1996 and 2002. In doing so, we calculate the Balassa index of revealed comparative advantage using industry data at the HS 4-digit level. The major part of the analysis concentrates on the factor intensities of the sample countries’ comparative advantage and the overlap between them in the Internal Market. The paper shows that there is clearly some convergence in te...

  17. Comparative genomics reveals novel biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskur, Jure; Schnackerz, Klaus D; Andersen, Gorm; Björnberg, Olof

    2007-08-01

    How well do we understand which enzymes are involved in the primary metabolism of the cell? A recent study using comparative genomics and postgenomics approaches revealed a novel pathway in the most studied organism, Escherichia coli. The analysis of a new operon consisting of seven previously uncharacterized genes thought to be involved in the degradation of nucleic acid precursors shows the impact of comparative genomics on the discovery of novel pathways and enzymes.

  18. Hyposplenism revealed by Plasmodium malariae infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hommel, Benjamin; Galloula, Alexandre; Simon, Anne; Buffet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Hyposplenism, due to splenectomy, inherited red blood cell disorders or acquired conditions such as celiac disease, has an important impact on the severity of malaria, especially in non-immune patients. Conversely, that malaria may reveal functional hyposplenism has not been described previously. METHODS: A 31-year old gardener was diagnosed with an uncomplicated attack of Plasmodium malariae 11 years after leaving the endemic area. In addition to trophozoi...

  19. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  20. Hyposplenism revealed by Plasmodium malariae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Benjamin; Galloula, Alexandre; Simon, Anne; Buffet, Pierre

    2013-08-02

    Hyposplenism, due to splenectomy, inherited red blood cell disorders or acquired conditions such as celiac disease, has an important impact on the severity of malaria, especially in non-immune patients. Conversely, that malaria may reveal functional hyposplenism has not been described previously. A 31-year old gardener was diagnosed with an uncomplicated attack of Plasmodium malariae 11 years after leaving the endemic area. In addition to trophozoites and schizonts, thick and thin smears also showed Howell-Jolly bodies, pointing to functional hyposplenism. This was later confirmed by the presence of a calcified spleen in the context of S/β + sickle-cell syndrome in a patient previously unaware of this condition. Malaria may reveal hyposplenism. Although Howell-Jolly bodies are morphologically similar to nuclei of young Plasmodium trophozoite, distinction on smears is based on the absence of cytoplasm and irregular size of Howell-Jolly bodies. In the patient reported here, hyposplenism was revealed by the occurrence of P. malariae infection relatively late in life. Timely diagnosis of hyposplenism resulted in the implementation of appropriate measures to prevent overwhelming infection with capsulated bacteria. This observation highlights the importance of diagnosing hyposplenism in patients with malaria despite the morphological similarities between ring nuclei and Howell-Jolly bodies on thick smears.

  1. Standardized description of scientific evidence using the Evidence Ontology (ECO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Mungall, Christopher J; Balakrishnan, Rama; Christie, Karen R; Huntley, Rachael P; White, Owen; Blake, Judith A; Lewis, Suzanna E; Giglio, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The Evidence Ontology (ECO) is a structured, controlled vocabulary for capturing evidence in biological research. ECO includes diverse terms for categorizing evidence that supports annotation assertions including experimental types, computational methods, author statements and curator inferences. Using ECO, annotation assertions can be distinguished according to the evidence they are based on such as those made by curators versus those automatically computed or those made via high-throughput data review versus single test experiments. Originally created for capturing evidence associated with Gene Ontology annotations, ECO is now used in other capacities by many additional annotation resources including UniProt, Mouse Genome Informatics, Saccharomyces Genome Database, PomBase, the Protein Information Resource and others. Information on the development and use of ECO can be found at http://evidenceontology.org. The ontology is freely available under Creative Commons license (CC BY-SA 3.0), and can be downloaded in both Open Biological Ontologies and Web Ontology Language formats at http://code.google.com/p/evidenceontology. Also at this site is a tracker for user submission of term requests and questions. ECO remains under active development in response to user-requested terms and in collaborations with other ontologies and database resources. Database URL: Evidence Ontology Web site: http://evidenceontology.org. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Dynamical evidence for Planet X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John D.; Standish, E. Myles, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The dynamical evidence for a planet beyond the orbit of Neptune is reviewed. Three years of radio tracking data from Pioneer 10 can be fit to the noise level with no evidence for unmodelled acceleration at a level higher than 5 x 10 to the -14th km/sq s. The evidence does not place severe limits on the Planet X model, but does place a firm limit of five earth masses on a hypothetical comet belt just beyond the orbit of Neptune.

  3. Evidence, politics, and technological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelijns, Annetine C; Brown, Lawrence D; Magnell, Corey; Ronchi, Elettra; Moskowitz, Alan J

    2005-01-01

    In few fields of public policy are the use and cost of services so powerfully driven by technological change as they are in medicine. To manage technology, policy-makers have expanded their investment in evaluative research. This paper addresses three underexamined challenges in using evidence: those inherent in the dynamics of technological change itself; those inherent in the analytical enterprise; and the ways in which political factors shape the translation of evidence into policy decisions. The design of institutional arrangements and processes that seek to blend evidence with politics merit closer attention, and existing cross-national arrangements deserve careful study.

  4. Evidence-based playground design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refshauge, Anne Dahl; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Lamm, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops, explores and evaluates an evidence-based approach to playground design, with a public park playground (playlab Cph) in Copenhagen as a case study. In the increasingly urbanised world, park playgrounds are valuable places that support healthy child development by providing...... opportunities for play, nature exploration and sensory stimulation. As it is increasingly expected that designers base their decisions on research evidence, there is a need to develop approaches to facilitate this, which also applies to playground design. The design of PlayLab Cph was based on relevant evidence...

  5. Combining Evidence from Homologous Datasets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feng, Ao; Allan, James

    2006-01-01

    .... We argue that combining evidence from these "homologous" datasets can give us better representation of the original data, and our experiments show that a model combining all sources outperforms each...

  6. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  7. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  8. Evidence accumulation for spatial reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, T.; Hwang, V. S. S.; Davis, L. S.

    1984-01-01

    The evidence accumulation proces of an image understanding system is described enabling the system to perform top-down(goal-oriented) picture processing as well as bottom-up verification of consistent spatial relations among objects.

  9. Commentary: evidence to guide gun violence prevention in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively.

  10. Evidence-based cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinagare, Atul B.; Khorasani, Ramin [Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients.

  11. Body selectivity in occipitotemporal cortex: Causal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Paul E; Peelen, Marius V

    2016-03-01

    Perception of others' bodies provides information that is useful for a number of important social-cognitive processes. Evidence from neuroimaging methods has identified focal cortical regions that are highly selective for perceiving bodies and body parts, including the extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform body area (FBA). Our understanding of the functional properties of these regions, and their causal contributions to behavior, has benefitted from the study of neuropsychological patients and particularly from investigations using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We review this evidence, focusing on TMS studies that are revealing of how (and when) activity in EBA contributes to detecting people in natural scenes; to resolving their body shape, movements, actions, individual parts, and identities; and to guiding goal-directed behavior. These findings are considered in reference to a framework for body perception in which the patterns of neural activity in EBA and FBA jointly serve to make explicit the elements of the visual scene that correspond to the body and its parts. These representations are modulated by other sources of information such as prior knowledge, and are shared with wider brain networks involved in many aspects of social cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Dermohypodermitis on the face revealing TIBOLA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, J; Durox, H; Sparsa, A; Bonnetblanc, J-M; Doffoel-Hantz, V

    2011-05-01

    Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) is an emerging rickettsiosis in Europe, transmitted by the Dermacentor tick. This syndrome is defined as the association of an inoculation eschar on the scalp that may be surrounded by an erythema scalp, fever, and painful cervical lymphadenopathy in colder months. Children and women are at higher risk for TIBOLA. We report the case of a 9 year-old French child with an acute hemifacial edema and erythema revealing TIBOLA. Early empirical antibiotic therapy should be prescribed in any suspected TIBOLA, before confirmation of the diagnosis. The recommended treatment is doxycycline or macrolide. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  13. Evidence Corner: Evidence-based Care for Malignant Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Malignant fungating wounds occur in 5% to 10% of individuals with cancer.1 They arise "when malignant tumour cells infiltrate and erode through the skin."2 Guidelines for treating these malignant wounds (MW) often lack randomized, clinical trial (RCT) evidence supporting local wound care interventions that meet patients' physical or psychosocial needs or facilitate healing.3 The rarity of RCTs exploring healing of MWs likely results from their very low expectation of complete closure.1 Affected patients and their professional and family caregivers rate pain, infection, and odor management among the most important challenges in minimizing distress.4-6 Though a recently updated Cochrane review3 reminds us that evidence remains insufficient for firm conclusions supporting management of MW, it does cite 2 recent RCTs described herein7,8 that can serve as "current best evidence"9 to inform clinical decisions for alleviating some aspects of these patients' distress.

  14. Changes in Pluto's Atmosphere Revealed by Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Widemann, Thomas; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Veillet, Christian; Colas, Francois; Roques, Francoise; Beisker, Wolfgang; Kretlow, Mike; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Hainaut, Olivier

    After the discovery and study of Pluto's tenuous atmosphere in 1985 and 1988 with stellar occultations 14 years were necessary before two other occultations by the planet could be observed on 20 July 2002 and 21 August 2002 from Northern Chile with a portable telescope and from CFHT in Hawaii respectively. These occultations reveal drastric changes in Pluto's nitrogen atmosphere whose pressure increased by a factor two or more since 1988. In spite of an increasing distance to the Sun (and a correlated decrease of solar energy input at Pluto) this increase can be explained by the fact that Pluto's south pole went from permanent darkness to permanent illumination between 1988 and 2002. This might cause the sublimation of the south polar cap and the increase of pressure which could go on till 2015 according to current nitrogen cycle models. Furthermore we detect temperature contrasts between the polar and the equatorial regions probed on Pluto possibly caused by different diurnally averaged insolations at those locations. Finally spikes observed in the light curves reveal a dynamical activity in Pluto's atmosphere.

  15. [Severe pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, N; Coolen-Allou, N; Delmas, B; Cordier, C; Allyn, J

    2016-12-01

    High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality rate (>50%). In some cases, diagnosis of PE remains a challenge with atypical presentations like in this case report with a PE revealed by status epilepticus. We report the case of a 40-year-old man without prior disease, hospitalized in ICU for status epilepticus. All paraclinical examinations at admission did not show any significant abnormalities (laboratory tests, cardiologic and neurological investigations). On day 1, he presented a sudden circulatory collapse and echocardiography showed right intra-auricular thrombus. He was treated by thrombolysis and arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After stabilization, computed tomography showed severe bilateral PE. He developed multi-organ failure and died 4days after admission. Pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus has rarely been reported and is associated with poor prognosis. Physicians should be aware and think of the possibility of PE in patients with status epilepticus without any history or risk factors of seizure and normal neurological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of self-overlap reveals trade-offs in plankton swimming trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; Visser, Andre W.; Mazzocchi, Maria Grazia

    2014-01-01

    these contrasting processes. This trade-off can be hypothesized as being evident in the behaviour of plankton, which inhabit a dilute three-dimensional environment with few refuges or orienting landmarks. We present an analysis of the swimming path geometries based on a volumetric Monte Carlo sampling approach......, which is particularly adept at revealing such trade-offs by measuring the self-overlap of the trajectories. Application of this method to experimentally measured trajectories reveals that swimming patterns in copepods are shaped to efficiently explore volumes at small scales, while achieving a large...

  17. The Impact of Auctions on Residential Sale Prices : Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Frino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study re-examines the variation in selling prices between the auction and private treaty method of sales.Using sales data from five major Australian capital cities over a four year period, we estimate a hedonic pricingmodel. Results indicate that for house sales, auctions lead to greater selling prices across all cities examined.However, results for unit sales reveal that this auction premium is only evident in two cities where auctionsare less prevalent. Further analysis reveals that self-selection (where a particular method of sale is selected tomaximise the selling price is evident across the sample. After controlling for this self-selection bias using atwo-stage model, houses sold via auction generally command a higher price. This suggests that the auctionmethod of selling provides a price premium over the private treaty method of sale.

  18. What Do Australian Library and Information Professionals Experience as Evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Gillespie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article presents the findings of a project which established an empirical basis for evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP. More specifically, the paper explores what library and information professionals experienced as evidence in the context of their professional practice. Methods – The project consisted of two sub-studies. The public library sub-study was conducted using ethnography. Over a 5-month period, a member of the research team travelled to a regional public library on 15 occasions, staying between 3 and 4 days on each visit. The researcher observed, interacted, and became involved in the day-to-day activities of this library. These activities were recorded in a journal and added to the researcher’s insights and thoughts. Additionally, 13 face-to-face interviews with staff in positions ranging from the operational to the executive were conducted. The academic sub-study was conducted using Constructivist Grounded Theory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either in person or via Skype, with 13 librarians from Australian universities. Interviewees were in a diverse array of roles, from liaison librarian to manager and library director. Results – The project found that the Australian academic librarians and the public librarians who participated in the project experienced six elements as evidence: observation, feedback, professional colleagues, research literature, statistics, and intuition. Each of these will be described and highlighted with examples from each of the two studies. Conclusions – The findings of this study revealed many similarities in the way that library professionals from both studies experienced evidence. Evidence was not hierarchical, with evidence from many sources being valued equally. In contextualizing evidence and applying to the local environment, library professionals were able to draw upon more than one source of evidence and apply their professional knowledge

  19. The Evidentiary Value of DNA Fingerprint as Criminal Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussa Masoud Irhouma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of criminal evidence is considered to be one of the greatest challenges that face authorities concerned with fighting crime at all levels. Due to this, authorities try to benefit as much as possible from scientific evidence due to the important role it plays in revealing the identity of criminals or victims in present or past criminal cases against unknown people through the physical traces that are found at the scene of an event, which include biological traces. DNA is one of these scientific evidences which can be benefited from in the field of crime investigation. Despite the importance of DNA technology in this area of work, there is still some debate surrounding its acceptance as criminal evidence. Some experts believe it to be of great importance whereas others cast doubt on its evidentiary value. They attribute this to a number of factors including the experts who are entrusted to examine DNA samples, the laboratories in which DNA analysis takes place, as well as the fact that resorting to DNA as a criminal evidence raises some legal complexities related to the permissibility of using it and the conditions and scope of its use. This paper sheds light on DNA and its evidentiary value among the judiciary in criminal cases by answering a number of questions such as the possibility of forcing a person to undergo DNA analysis or not to do so and to what extent it is to be relied upon as criminal evidence. This paper concluded the importance of DNA and its role in the field of criminal evidence. Despite this, even if the DNA evidence is sufficient in proving the innocence of the accused, it is only an indication that must not be solely relied upon and treated as a single conclusive evidence, particularly in cases that involve prescribed Islamic or retributive punishments.

  20. From evidence-based to evidence-reflected practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    , cost-efficiency and measurable quality. Thus, today, evidence-based practice has become an expectation and fashion, often used to emphasize the grounding of practice in research based knowledge that provides measurable evidence for best practice. But at the same time, there is a growing distrust......“Knowledge” is of the utmost significance for professional practice and learning. Today, though, the established knowledge base is changing in all areas of the labour market (Alvesson, 2004). Work and society are dominated by commitment to demands for high levels of demonstrable accountability...

  1. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis Reveals Historical Lineages in Yellowstone Bison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Forgacs

    Full Text Available Yellowstone National Park is home to one of the only plains bison populations that have continuously existed on their present landscape since prehistoric times without evidence of domestic cattle introgression. Previous studies characterized the relatively high levels of nuclear genetic diversity in these bison, but little is known about their mitochondrial haplotype diversity. This study assessed mitochondrial genomes from 25 randomly selected Yellowstone bison and found 10 different mitochondrial haplotypes with a haplotype diversity of 0.78 (± 0.06. Spatial analysis of these mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes did not detect geographic population subdivision (FST = -0.06, p = 0.76. However, we identified two independent and historically important lineages in Yellowstone bison by combining data from 65 bison (defined by 120 polymorphic sites from across North America representing a total of 30 different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from one of the Yellowstone lineages represent descendants of the 22 indigenous bison remaining in central Yellowstone in 1902. The other mitochondrial DNA lineage represents descendants of the 18 females introduced from northern Montana in 1902 to supplement the indigenous bison population and develop a new breeding herd in the northern region of the park. Comparing modern and historical mitochondrial DNA diversity in Yellowstone bison helps uncover a historical context of park restoration efforts during the early 1900s, provides evidence against a hypothesized mitochondrial disease in bison, and reveals the signature of recent hybridization between American plains bison (Bison bison bison and Canadian wood bison (B. b. athabascae. Our study demonstrates how mitochondrial DNA can be applied to delineate the history of wildlife species and inform future conservation actions.

  2. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis Reveals Historical Lineages in Yellowstone Bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park is home to one of the only plains bison populations that have continuously existed on their present landscape since prehistoric times without evidence of domestic cattle introgression. Previous studies characterized the relatively high levels of nuclear genetic diversity in these bison, but little is known about their mitochondrial haplotype diversity. This study assessed mitochondrial genomes from 25 randomly selected Yellowstone bison and found 10 different mitochondrial haplotypes with a haplotype diversity of 0.78 (± 0.06). Spatial analysis of these mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes did not detect geographic population subdivision (FST = -0.06, p = 0.76). However, we identified two independent and historically important lineages in Yellowstone bison by combining data from 65 bison (defined by 120 polymorphic sites) from across North America representing a total of 30 different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from one of the Yellowstone lineages represent descendants of the 22 indigenous bison remaining in central Yellowstone in 1902. The other mitochondrial DNA lineage represents descendants of the 18 females introduced from northern Montana in 1902 to supplement the indigenous bison population and develop a new breeding herd in the northern region of the park. Comparing modern and historical mitochondrial DNA diversity in Yellowstone bison helps uncover a historical context of park restoration efforts during the early 1900s, provides evidence against a hypothesized mitochondrial disease in bison, and reveals the signature of recent hybridization between American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and Canadian wood bison (B. b. athabascae). Our study demonstrates how mitochondrial DNA can be applied to delineate the history of wildlife species and inform future conservation actions. PMID:27880780

  3. Evidence-based management reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovner, Anthony R; Rundall, Thomas G

    2006-01-01

    Reports of medical mistakes have splashed across newspapers and magazines in the United States. At the same time, instances of overuse, underuse, and misuse of management tactics and strategies receive far less attention. The sense of urgency associated with improving the quality of medical care does not exist with respect to improving the quality of management decision making. A more evidence-based approach would improve the competence of the decision-makers and their motivation to use more scientific methods when making a decision. The authors of this article consider a study of 68 U.S. health services managers that found a low level of evidence-based management behaviors. From the findings, four strategies are suggested to increase health systems managers' use of research evidence to improve decision making: focusing evidence-based decision making on strategically important issues, developing committees and other structures to diffuse management research throughout the organization, building a management culture that values research, and training managers in the competencies required to apply research evidence to health services management decisions. To aid the manager in understanding and applying an evidenced-based approach to decision making, the article provides practical tools, techniques, and resources for immediate use.

  4. Competing At Home To Win Abroad: Evidence From Japanese Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mariko Sakakibara; Porter, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    The study explores the influence of domestic competition on international trade performance, using data from a broad sample of Japanese industries. Domestic rivalry is measured directly using marketshare instability rather than employing structural variables such as seller concentration. We find robust evidence that domestic rivalry has a positive and significant relationship with trade performance measured by world export share, particularly when R&D intensity reveals opportunities for dynam...

  5. Decentralised Governance, Transparency and Accountability: Empirical Evidence from West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Md Nazrul Islam

    2004-01-01

    Decentralised governance has been conceived as an instrument for promoting development. It is expected to facilitate effective people’s participation, enhance degree of transparency and ensure greater accountability. This paper examines the relationship between decentralised governance and transparency as well as accountability in the light of empirical evidence. The study reveals that transparency and accountability can be enhanced at the grass roots level by strengthening institutions of de...

  6. Mesocosms Reveal Ecological Surprises from Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien A Fordham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding, predicting, and mitigating the impacts of climate change on biodiversity poses one of the most crucial challenges this century. Currently, we know more about how future climates are likely to shift across the globe than about how species will respond to these changes. Two recent studies show how mesocosm experiments can hasten understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change on species' extinction risk, community structure, and ecosystem functions. Using a large-scale terrestrial warming experiment, Bestion et al. provide the first direct evidence that future global warming can increase extinction risk for temperate ectotherms. Using aquatic mesocosms, Yvon-Durocher et al. show that human-induced climate change could, in some cases, actually enhance the diversity of local communities, increasing productivity. Blending these theoretical and empirical results with computational models will improve forecasts of biodiversity loss and altered ecosystem processes due to climate change.

  7. 20 CFR 220.12 - Evidence considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence considered. 220.12 Section 220.12... § 220.12 Evidence considered. The regulations explaining the employee's responsibility to provide evidence of disability, the kind of evidence, what medical evidence consists of, and the consequences of...

  8. 42 CFR 498.61 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 498.61 Section 498.61 Public Health... PROGRAM Hearings § 498.61 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence. ...

  9. 42 CFR 423.1048 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 423.1048 Section 423.1048 Public Health....1048 Evidence. Evidence may be received at the hearing even though inadmissible under the rules of evidence applicable to court procedure. The ALJ rules on the admissibility of evidence. ...

  10. The two faces of medical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Rolf H; von Uexküll, Thure; Herrmann, Jörg M

    2002-07-27

    The dictionary definition of "evidence" is given. The meaning of evidence in the history of science is described. Clinical examples are presented to illustrate different aspects of evidence, i.e. the mechanistic versus the semiotic points of view. Evidence is explained in the light of constructivism, and suggestions are presented as to how evidence can be applied in a biopsychosocial model of medicine.

  11. Wegener Granulomatosis Revealed by Pleural Effusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffart, Anne-Claire; Arbib, François; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Roux, Jean-François; Bland, Vincent; Ferretti, Gilbert; Diab, Samia

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary signs are common in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). However, an initial presentation including pleural effusion has not been described. We describe a case of WG in which pleural effusion was the first clinical manifestation. A 45-year-old man with dorsal pain presented with pleural thickening and effusion, and a visible nodule on a thoracic scan. A dense chronic inflammatory infiltrate was obtained by pleural biopsy and an open lung biopsy revealed necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis. Serologies were positive for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antiproteinase 3 antibodies. A diagnosis of WG was conducted and the patient was started on cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone as an initial treatment, with a favorable evolution. Although pleural effusion is rarely described in WG, this pathology must be considered in the presence of this clinical manifestation. PMID:20168982

  12. Wegener Granulomatosis Revealed by Pleural Effusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Claire Toffart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary signs are common in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG. However, an initial presentation including pleural effusion has not been described. We describe a case of WG in which pleural effusion was the first clinical manifestation. A 45-year-old man with dorsal pain presented with pleural thickening and effusion, and a visible nodule on a thoracic scan. A dense chronic inflammatory infiltrate was obtained by pleural biopsy and an open lung biopsy revealed necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis. Serologies were positive for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antiproteinase 3 antibodies. A diagnosis of WG was conducted and the patient was started on cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone as an initial treatment, with a favorable evolution. Although pleural effusion is rarely described in WG, this pathology must be considered in the presence of this clinical manifestation.

  13. Revealing effective classifiers through network comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to compare complex systems can provide new insight into the fundamental nature of the processes captured, in ways that are otherwise inaccessible to observation. Here, we introduce the n-tangle method to directly compare two networks for structural similarity, based on the distribution of edge density in network subgraphs. We demonstrate that this method can efficiently introduce comparative analysis into network science and opens the road for many new applications. For example, we show how the construction of a “phylogenetic tree” across animal taxa according to their social structure can reveal commonalities in the behavioral ecology of the populations, or how students create similar networks according to the University size. Our method can be expanded to study many additional properties, such as network classification, changes during time evolution, convergence of growth models, and detection of structural changes during damage.

  14. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-11-01

    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  15. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  16. Revealing effective classifiers through network comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Gallos, Lazaros K

    2014-01-01

    The ability to compare complex systems can provide new insight into the fundamental nature of the processes captured in ways that are otherwise inaccessible to observation. Here, we introduce the $n$-tangle method to directly compare two networks for structural similarity, based on the distribution of edge density in network subgraphs. We demonstrate that this method can efficiently introduce comparative analysis into network science and opens the road for many new applications. For example, we show how the construction of a phylogenetic tree across animal taxa according to their social structure can reveal commonalities in the behavioral ecology of the populations, or how students create similar networks according to the University size. Our method can be expanded to study a multitude of additional properties, such as network classification, changes during time evolution, convergence of growth models, and detection of structural changes during damage.

  17. Evidence in the learning organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umscheid Craig A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational leaders in business and medicine have been experiencing a similar dilemma: how to ensure that their organizational members are adopting work innovations in a timely fashion. Organizational leaders in healthcare have attempted to resolve this dilemma by offering specific solutions, such as evidence-based medicine (EBM, but organizations are still not systematically adopting evidence-based practice innovations as rapidly as expected by policy-makers (the knowing-doing gap problem. Some business leaders have adopted a systems-based perspective, called the learning organization (LO, to address a similar dilemma. Three years ago, the Society of General Internal Medicine's Evidence-based Medicine Task Force began an inquiry to integrate the EBM and LO concepts into one model to address the knowing-doing gap problem. Methods During the model development process, the authors searched several databases for relevant LO frameworks and their related concepts by using a broad search strategy. To identify the key LO frameworks and consolidate them into one model, the authors used consensus-based decision-making and a narrative thematic synthesis guided by several qualitative criteria. The authors subjected the model to external, independent review and improved upon its design with this feedback. Results The authors found seven LO frameworks particularly relevant to evidence-based practice innovations in organizations. The authors describe their interpretations of these frameworks for healthcare organizations, the process they used to integrate the LO frameworks with EBM principles, and the resulting Evidence in the Learning Organization (ELO model. They also provide a health organization scenario to illustrate ELO concepts in application. Conclusion The authors intend, by sharing the LO frameworks and the ELO model, to help organizations identify their capacities to learn and share knowledge about evidence-based practice

  18. Personality and cognitive profiles of a general synesthetic trait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, R.; Scholte, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    The recent sharp increase in studies on synesthesia has taught us a lot about this fascinating condition. Still, while we define synesthesia as 'the mixing of senses', the great majority of synesthesia studies focus on only one synesthesia type (in particular grapheme-color synesthesia). In this

  19. Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.

    2017-11-01

    Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.

  20. Short-run Exchange-Rate Dynamics: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, John A.; Dahl, Christian Møller; Osler, Carol L.

    Recent research has revealed a wealth of information about the microeconomics of currency markets and thus the determination of exchange rates at short horizons. This information is valuable to us as scientists since, like evidence of macroeconomic regularities, it can provide critical guidance...... for designing exchange-rate models. This paper presents an optimizing model of short-run exchange-rate dynamics consistent with both the micro evidence and the macro evidence, the first such model of which we are aware. With respect to microeconomics, the model is consistent with the institutional structure...... of currency markets, it accurately reflects the constraints and objectives faced by the major participants, and it fits key stylized facts concerning returns and order flow. With respect to macroeconomics, the model is consistent with most of the major puzzles that have emerged under floating rates....

  1. Is Physical Evidence Still Valid? A Study of Low Cost Carriers in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasintha Soelasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical evidence has been widely accepted as variable that has impact on satisfaction, specifically in airline service. However, this study showed some opposite result for low cost airlines in Indonesia. It revealed that physical evidence has no effect on the passengers’ satisfaction but the fares and its service quality to passengers.’ This study collected sample of 317 passengers from commercial domestic flights at terminal 1, 2, and 3 at Soekarno Hatta airport in Cengkareng, Indonesia. The variables used in this study were: fares, service quality, physical evidence, passengers’ satisfaction levels and repeat buying. Two variables, i.e.: service quality and physical evidence were treated as second order. This study used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM for verification analysis. The result revealed that there was no effect of physical evidence on the passengers’ satisfaction. It also found that repeat buying demonstrated the passengers’ satisfaction.

  2. 7 CFR 15.117 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Administrative Review Under the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Hearing Procedures § 15.117 Evidence... evidence shall not apply but rules or principles designed to assure the most credible evidence available...

  3. Metabolomics reveals insect metabolic responses associated with fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Jiang; Luo, Feifei; Gao, Qiang; Shang, Yanfang; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-06-01

    The interactions between insects and pathogenic fungi are complex. We employed metabolomic techniques to profile insect metabolic dynamics upon infection by the pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Silkworm larvae were infected with fungal spores and microscopic observations demonstrated that the exhaustion of insect hemocytes was coupled with fungal propagation in the insect body cavity. Metabolomic analyses revealed that fungal infection could significantly alter insect energy and nutrient metabolisms as well as the immune defense responses, including the upregulation of carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, and lipids, but the downregulation of eicosanoids and amines. The insect antifeedant effect of the fungal infection was evident with the reduced level of maclurin (a component of mulberry leaves) in infected insects but elevated accumulations in control insects. Insecticidal and cytotoxic mycotoxins like oosporein and beauveriolides were also detected in insects at the later stages of infection. Taken together, the metabolomics data suggest that insect immune responses are energy-cost reactions and the strategies of nutrient deprivation, inhibition of host immune responses, and toxin production would be jointly employed by the fungus to kill insects. The data obtained in this study will facilitate future functional studies of genes and pathways associated with insect-fungus interactions.

  4. Spatial congruity effects reveal metaphorical thinking, not polarity correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eDolscheid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as high and low, or as front and back, to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small, but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short, even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects.

  5. Spatial Congruity Effects Reveal Metaphorical Thinking, not Polarity Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolscheid, Sarah; Casasanto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness) has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as "high" and "low," or as "front" and "back," to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small), but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short), even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects.

  6. CRISPR loci reveal networks of gene exchange in archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodt, Avital; Lurie-Weinberger, Mor N; Gophna, Uri

    2011-12-21

    CRISPR (Clustered, Regularly, Interspaced, Short, Palindromic Repeats) loci provide prokaryotes with an adaptive immunity against viruses and other mobile genetic elements. CRISPR arrays can be transcribed and processed into small crRNA molecules, which are then used by the cell to target the foreign nucleic acid. Since spacers are accumulated by active CRISPR/Cas systems, the sequences of these spacers provide a record of the past "infection history" of the organism. Here we analyzed all currently known spacers present in archaeal genomes and identified their source by DNA similarity. While nearly 50% of archaeal spacers matched mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids or viruses, several others matched chromosomal genes of other organisms, primarily other archaea. Thus, networks of gene exchange between archaeal species were revealed by the spacer analysis, including many cases of inter-genus and inter-species gene transfer events. Spacers that recognize viral sequences tend to be located further away from the leader sequence, implying that there exists a selective pressure for their retention. CRISPR spacers provide direct evidence for extensive gene exchange in archaea, especially within genera, and support the current dogma where the primary role of the CRISPR/Cas system is anti-viral and anti-plasmid defense. This article was reviewed by: Profs. W. Ford Doolittle, John van der Oost, Christa Schleper (nominated by board member Prof. J Peter Gogarten).

  7. Phylogeny of the Botryosphaeriaceae reveals patterns of host association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wet, Juanita; Slippers, Bernard; Preisig, Oliver; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Three anamorph genera of the Botryosphaeriaceae namely Diplodia, Lasiodiplodia and Dothiorella have typically dark, ovoid conidia with thick walls, and are consequently difficult to distinguish from each other. These genera are well-known pathogens of especially pine species. We generated a multiple gene genealogy to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Botryosphaeriaceae with dark conidial anamorphs, and mapped host associations based on this phylogeny. The multiple gene genealogy separated Diplodia, Lasiodiplodia and Dothiorella and it revealed trends in the patterns of host association. The data set was expanded to include more lineages of the Botryosphaeriaceae, and included all isolates from different host species for which ITS sequence data are available. Results indicate that Diplodia species occur mainly on gymnosperms, with a few species on both gymnosperms and angiosperms. Lasiodiplodia species occur equally on both gymnosperms and angiosperms, Dothiorella species are restricted to angiosperms and Neofusicoccum species occur mainly on angiosperms with rare reports on Southern Hemisphere gymnosperms. Botryosphaeria species with Fusicoccum anamorphs occur mostly on angiosperms with rare reports on gymnosperms. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that a putative ancestor of the Botryosphaeriaceae most likely evolved on the angiosperms. Another interesting observation was that both host generalist and specialist species were observed in all the lineages of the Botryosphaeriaceae, with little evidence of host associated co-evolution.

  8. Circular RNA profile in gliomas revealed by identification tool UROBORUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Naibo; Han, Ping; Moon, Byoung-San; Lai, Rose K.; Wang, Kai; Lu, Wange

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that many endogenous circular RNAs (circRNAs) may play roles in biological processes. However, the expression patterns and functions of circRNAs in human diseases are not well understood. Computationally identifying circRNAs from total RNA-seq data is a primary step in studying their expression pattern and biological roles. In this work, we have developed a computational pipeline named UROBORUS to detect circRNAs in total RNA-seq data. By applying UROBORUS to RNA-seq data from 46 gliomas and normal brain samples, we detected thousands of circRNAs supported by at least two read counts, followed by successful experimental validation on 24 circRNAs from the randomly selected 27 circRNAs. UROBORUS is an efficient tool that can detect circRNAs with low expression levels in total RNA-seq without RNase R treatment. The circRNAs expression profiling revealed more than 476 circular RNAs differentially expressed in control brain tissues and gliomas. Together with parental gene expression, we found that circRNA and its parental gene have diversified expression patterns in gliomas and control brain tissues. This study establishes an efficient and sensitive approach for predicting circRNAs using total RNA-seq data. The UROBORUS pipeline can be accessed freely for non-commercial purposes at http://uroborus.openbioinformatics.org/. PMID:26873924

  9. CRISPR loci reveal networks of gene exchange in archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodt Avital

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CRISPR (Clustered, Regularly, Interspaced, Short, Palindromic Repeats loci provide prokaryotes with an adaptive immunity against viruses and other mobile genetic elements. CRISPR arrays can be transcribed and processed into small crRNA molecules, which are then used by the cell to target the foreign nucleic acid. Since spacers are accumulated by active CRISPR/Cas systems, the sequences of these spacers provide a record of the past "infection history" of the organism. Results Here we analyzed all currently known spacers present in archaeal genomes and identified their source by DNA similarity. While nearly 50% of archaeal spacers matched mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids or viruses, several others matched chromosomal genes of other organisms, primarily other archaea. Thus, networks of gene exchange between archaeal species were revealed by the spacer analysis, including many cases of inter-genus and inter-species gene transfer events. Spacers that recognize viral sequences tend to be located further away from the leader sequence, implying that there exists a selective pressure for their retention. Conclusions CRISPR spacers provide direct evidence for extensive gene exchange in archaea, especially within genera, and support the current dogma where the primary role of the CRISPR/Cas system is anti-viral and anti-plasmid defense. Open peer review This article was reviewed by: Profs. W. Ford Doolittle, John van der Oost, Christa Schleper (nominated by board member Prof. J Peter Gogarten

  10. The Comprehension Hypothesis: Recent Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Research published in recent years that deals with the Comprehension (Input) Hypothesis is reviewed, and evidence supporting the hypothesis is underlined. The research is from the areas of literacy development, second-language learning, and foreign-language learning and confirms the claim that development of language and literacy operate in much…

  11. The evidence for Allee effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Kramer; Brian Dennis; Andrew M. Liebhold; John M. Drake

    2009-01-01

    Allee effects are an important dynamic phenomenon believed to be manifested in several population processes, notably extinction and invasion. Though widely cited in these contexts, the evidence for their strength and prevalence has not been critically evaluated. We review results from 91 studies on Allee effects in natural animal populations. We focus on empirical...

  12. Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Steven F.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    1976-01-01

    Authors believes that three phenomena are all instances of "learned helplessness," instances in which an organism has learned that outcomes are uncontrollable by his responses and is seriously debilitated by this knowledge. This article explores the evidence for the phenomena of learned helplessness, and discussed a variety of theoretical…

  13. [Neuropsychiatric symptoms revealing pseudohypoparathyroidism with Fahr's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otheman, Y; Khalloufi, H; Benhima, I; Ouanass, A

    2011-02-01

    Fahr's syndrome is characterized by the presence of intracerebral, bilateral and symmetrical non-arteriosclerotic calcifications, located in the central grey nuclei. One of its main etiologies is pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), due to a resistance to the action of parathormone (PTH) with essentially hypocalcaemia and a normal or a high rate of PTH. Mr B.A. is a 36-year-old man, admitted to hospital because of refractory psychotic symptoms associated with alcohol abuse and fits of convulsion, for diagnostic and therapeutic update. Mr B.A. had presented convulsions since the age of 10, without regular medical treatment. He showed a decrease in his school performances and started using alcohol. Since the age of 17, he began expressing delusions of persecution and of enchantment fed by the persistence of the convulsions. He was administered phenobarbital, and classic antipsychotics (haloperidol and levomepromazine) and developed serious extrapyramidal side effects, treated with an anticholinergic (trihexyphenidyl). Evolution was rather disadvantageous: more epileptic fits, exaggeration of tremors; abuse of alcohol and persistence of psychotic symptoms. On admission, psychiatric examination objectified paranoid delusions of being possessed and persecuted by others. Neurological examination revealed the presence of limb tremors, with a positive Froment's sign on the right, and dysarthria. Other than this, the patient was shorter in comparison with his siblings and exhibited bad dentition. A CT brain scan found bilateral, symmetric basal ganglia calcifications, confirmed by MRI, in favour of Fahr's syndrome. Phosphocalcic investigations revealed a low concentration of serum calcium (65 mg/l) and a hyperphosphataemia (60.1mg/l). The blood level of parathyroid hormone was in the upper limit of normal (66 ng/l), and levels of thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone were normal. The diagnosis of Fahr's syndrome, revealing a pseudohypoparathyroidism was posed, and the

  14. Speeding Clouds May Reveal Invisible Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Several small, speeding clouds have been discovered at the center of our galaxy. A new study suggests that these unusual objects may reveal the lurking presence of inactive black holes.Peculiar Cloudsa) Velocity-integrated intensity map showing the location of the two high-velocity compact clouds, HCN0.0090.044 and HCN0.0850.094, in the context of larger molecular clouds. b) and c) Latitude-velocity and longitude-velocity maps for HCN0.0090.044 and HCN0.0850.094, respectively. d) and e) spectra for the two compacts clouds, respectively. Click for a closer look. [Takekawa et al. 2017]Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole marking the center of our galaxy, is surrounded by a region roughly 650 light-years across known as the Central Molecular Zone. This area at the heart of our galaxy is filled with large amounts of warm, dense molecular gas that has a complex distribution and turbulent kinematics.Several peculiar gas clouds have been discovered within the Central Molecular Zone within the past two decades. These clouds, dubbed high-velocity compact clouds, are characterized by their compact sizes and extremely broad velocity widths.What created this mysterious population of energetic clouds? The recent discovery of two new high-velocity compact clouds, reported on in a paper led by Shunya Takekawa (Keio University, Japan), may help us to answer this question.Two More to the CountUsing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii, Takekawa and collaborators detected the small clouds near the circumnuclear disk at the centermost part of our galaxy. These two clouds have velocity spreads of -80 to -20 km/s and -80 to 0 km/s and compact sizes of just over 1 light-year. The clouds similar appearances and physical properties suggest that they may both have been formed by the same process.Takekawa and collaborators explore and discard several possible origins for these clouds, such as outflows from massive protostars (no massive, luminous stars have been detected affiliated

  15. MYSTERIES OF THE HUMAN FETUS REVEALED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Curt A

    2015-09-01

    The impressive program of research from the DiPietro laboratory succeeds in its aim to document the ontogeny of human fetal neurobehavioral development. From studies of great depth and breadth, and wielding creative methods of assessment, DiPietro et al. open a window into the largely inaccessible developing human fetal brain. This commentary, with reference to the seminal cardiovascular studies of the Laceys, supports the measures of the fetal heart to index fetal well-being and to provide evidence of stimulus processing. A separate case is made that the DiPietro program provides unique and invaluable information for assessing the influential Developmental Origins of Health and Disease or Fetal Programming Models. The goal of these models, to predict or understand the influences of early experience or response patterns on later postnatal life, is identical to the ultimate goal of the DiPietro program. Because human fetal behavior is uncontaminated by socialization or parenting or peers, it may be the best reflection of fetal exposures. The remarkable neurobehavioral profiles generated by the DiPietro program can make a critical contribution to the Fetal Programming Model in terms of sensitive and critical periods of nervous system vulnerability and to specify gestational periods of neurobehavioral risk. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. NSAIDs: Old Drugs Reveal New Anticancer Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A. Piazza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors have antineoplastic activity, but toxicity from cyclooxygenase (COX inhibition and the suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limits their use for cancer chemoprevention. Previous studies as reviewed here suggest that the mechanism for their anticancer properties does not require COX inhibition, but instead involves an off-target effect. In support of this possibility, recent molecular modeling studies have shown that the NSAID sulindac can be chemically modified to selectively design out its COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity. Unexpectedly, certain derivatives that were synthesized based on in silico modeling displayed increased potency to inhibit tumor cell growth. Other experiments have shown that sulindac can inhibit phosphodiesterase to increase intracellular cyclic GMP levels and that this activity is closely associated with its ability to selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Together, these studies suggest that COX-independent mechanisms can be targeted to develop safer and more efficacious drugs for cancer chemoprevention.

  17. VISTA Reveals the Secret of the Unicorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A new infrared image from ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals an extraordinary landscape of glowing tendrils of gas, dark clouds and young stars within the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). This star-forming region, known as Monoceros R2, is embedded within a huge dark cloud. The region is almost completely obscured by interstellar dust when viewed in visible light, but is spectacular in the infrared. An active stellar nursery lies hidden inside a massive dark cloud rich in molecules and dust in the constellation of Monoceros. Although it appears close in the sky to the more familiar Orion Nebula it is actually almost twice as far from Earth, at a distance of about 2700 light-years. In visible light a grouping of massive hot stars creates a beautiful collection of reflection nebulae where the bluish starlight is scattered from parts of the dark, foggy outer layers of the molecular cloud. However, most of the new-born massive stars remain hidden as the thick interstellar dust strongly absorbs their ultraviolet and visible light. In this gorgeous infrared image taken from ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA [1], eso0949) penetrates the dark curtain of cosmic dust and reveals in astonishing detail the folds, loops and filaments sculpted from the dusty interstellar matter by intense particle winds and the radiation emitted by hot young stars. "When I first saw this image I just said 'Wow!' I was amazed to see all the dust streamers so clearly around the Monoceros R2 cluster, as well as the jets from highly embedded young stellar objects. There is such a great wealth of exciting detail revealed in these VISTA images," says Jim Emerson, of Queen Mary, University of London and leader of the VISTA consortium. With its huge field of view, large mirror and sensitive camera, VISTA is ideal for obtaining deep, high quality infrared images of large areas of the sky, such as the Monoceros R2 region

  18. [Polymyalgia rheumatica revealing a lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Defuentes, G; Duron-Martineau, S; Berets, O; Vaylet, F; Margery, J

    2013-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory condition belonging to the connective tissue diseases, which occurs quite frequently in the elderly. Previously, cases have been reported in association with malignant tumours, in a synchronous fashion or prior to the appearance of the cancer. In these cases, the polymyalgia rheumatica is considered to be a paraneoplastic syndrome. We report the cases of a 63-year-old woman and a 58-year-old man with severe proximal girdle pain associated to a high-level of systemic inflammatory markers and a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica was made. In the face of a lack of ineffectiveness of analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatments, an intensive investigation was undertaken which in both cases revealed an adenocarcinoma of the lung. The rheumatic manifestations responded well to chemotherapy targeting the lung tumour. We present here a review of the literature to give prominence to the diagnostic pitfalls that can occur around paraneoplastic polymyalgia rheumatica. The presence of therapeutic resistance at the onset of treatment and other atypical features may suggest the presence of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Photoacoustic imaging reveals hidden underdrawings in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserevelakis, George J; Vrouvaki, Ilianna; Siozos, Panagiotis; Melessanaki, Krystallia; Hatzigiannakis, Kostas; Fotakis, Costas; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2017-04-07

    A novel, non-invasive, imaging methodology, based on the photoacoustic effect, is introduced in the context of artwork diagnostics with emphasis on the uncovering of hidden features such as underdrawings or original sketch lines in paintings. Photoacoustic microscopy, a rapidly growing imaging method widely employed in biomedical research, exploits the ultrasonic acoustic waves, generated by light from a pulsed or intensity modulated source interacting with a medium, to map the spatial distribution of absorbing components. Having over three orders of magnitude higher transmission through strongly scattering media, compared to light in the visible and near infrared, the photoacoustic signal offers substantially improved detection sensitivity and achieves excellent optical absorption contrast at high spatial resolution. Photoacoustic images, collected from miniature oil paintings on canvas, illuminated with a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm on their reverse side, reveal clearly the presence of pencil sketch lines coated over by several paint layers, exceeding 0.5 mm in thickness. By adjusting the detection bandwidth of the optically induced ultrasonic waves, photoacoustic imaging can be used for looking into a broad variety of artefacts having diverse optical properties and geometrical profiles, such as manuscripts, glass objects, plastic modern art or even stone sculpture.

  20. Featured Image: Revealing Hidden Objects with Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    Stunning color astronomical images can often be the motivation for astronomers to continue slogging through countless data files, calculations, and simulations as we seek to understand the mysteries of the universe. But sometimes the stunning images can, themselves, be the source of scientific discovery. This is the case with the below image of Lynds Dark Nebula 673, located in the Aquila constellation, that was captured with the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory by a team of scientists led by Travis Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage). After creating the image with a novel color-composite imaging method that reveals faint H emission (visible in red in both images here), Rector and collaborators identified the presence of a dozen new Herbig-Haro objects small cloud patches that are caused when material is energetically flung out from newly born stars. The image adapted above shows three of the new objects, HH 118789, aligned with two previously known objects, HH 32 and 332 suggesting they are driven by the same source. For more beautiful images and insight into the authors discoveries, check out the article linked below!Full view of Lynds Dark Nebula 673. Click for the larger view this beautiful composite image deserves! [T.A. Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage) and H. Schweiker (WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF)]CitationT. A. Rector et al 2018 ApJ 852 13. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9ce1

  1. Revealing the interface in polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammarano, Mauro; Maupin, Paul H; Sung, Li-Piin; Gilman, Jeffrey W; McCarthy, Edward D; Kim, Yeon S; Fox, Douglas M

    2011-04-26

    The morphological characterization of polymer nanocomposites over multiple length scales is a fundamental challenge. Here, we report a technique for high-throughput monitoring of interface and dispersion in polymer nanocomposites based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), fluorescently labeled with 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl)-aminofluorescein (FL) and dispersed into polyethylene (PE) doped with Coumarin 30 (C30), is used as a model system to assess the ability of FRET to evaluate the effect of processing on NFC dispersion in PE. The level of energy transfer and its standard deviation, measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), are exploited to monitor the extent of interface formation and composite homogeneity, respectively. FRET algorithms are used to generate color-coded images for a real-space observation of energy transfer efficiency. These images reveal interface formation at a nanoscale while probing a macroscale area that is large enough to be representative of the entire sample. The unique ability of this technique to simultaneously provide orientation/spatial information at a macroscale and nanoscale features, encoded in the FRET signal, provides a new powerful tool for structure-property-processing investigation in polymer nanocomposites.

  2. Myasthenia Revealed Following Laparotomy - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah GHANNAM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia (muscle weakness is a rare neuromuscular disease of which respiratory failure is the main complication. The accidental discovery of such disease in the perioperative period is rare and potentially serious.We report a case of a woman who underwent emergency operation for appendiceal peritonitis, and failed repeatedly at weaning from postoperative mechanical ventilation. The usual etiologies such as postoperative respiratory complications, ventilator-associated pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome complicating the septic shock or having no impact on it, and neuromyopathy’s resuscitation were considered, researched, examined or eliminated.Faced with the diagnostic impasse and the obvious weaning failure, another interview revealed signs of muscle fatigue which led to the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis decompensated perioperatively. Once the diagnosis was confirmed by means of a neostigmine test, the specific treatment began, particularly through plasma exchange sessions, and the process of weaning resumed. The result was complete weaning. A three-month follow-up showed a stable patient with no significant muscular disability.

  3. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM REVEALING ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebbi Wafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of panniculitis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to various etiologies. However, the occurrence of erythema nodosum in malignant hemopathy had rarely been reported. Case report: A 42 year-old woman presented with a four week history of recurrent multiple painful erythematous nodules developed on the lower limbs associated with arthralgia of the ankles and fever. The clinical features of skin lesions with contusiform color evolution allowed establishing the diagnosis of EN. No underlying cause was found. The skin lesions were improved with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. Three months later, the patient consulted for recurrence of EN associated with fever, inflammatory polyarthralgia and hepatosplenomegaly. The peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia. A bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia type 2. Initiation of chemotherapy was followed by the complete disappearance of skin lesions of EN. Conclusion: Paraneoplastic erythema nodosum is a rare entity. In the literature, a few cases of association with leukemia have been reported. Exploration for solid neoplasms or hemopathy in case of recurrent EN or resistance to conventional treatment should be systematic

  4. Biosignatures as revealed by spectropolarimetry of Earthshine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, Michael F; Bagnulo, Stefano; Palle, Enric

    2012-02-29

    Low-resolution intensity spectra of Earth's atmosphere obtained from space reveal strong signatures of life ('biosignatures'), such as molecular oxygen and methane with abundances far from chemical equilibrium, as well as the presence of a 'red edge' (a sharp increase of albedo for wavelengths longer than 700 nm) caused by surface vegetation. Light passing through the atmosphere is strongly linearly polarized by scattering (from air molecules, aerosols and cloud particles) and by reflection (from oceans and land). Spectropolarimetric observations of local patches of Earth's sky light from the ground contain signatures of oxygen, ozone and water, and are used to characterize the properties of clouds and aerosols. When applied to exoplanets, ground-based spectropolarimetry can better constrain properties of atmospheres and surfaces than can standard intensity spectroscopy. Here we report disk-integrated linear polarization spectra of Earthshine, which is sunlight that has been first reflected by Earth and then reflected back to Earth by the Moon. The observations allow us to determine the fractional contribution of clouds and ocean surface, and are sensitive to visible areas of vegetation as small as 10 per cent. They represent a benchmark for the diagnostics of the atmospheric composition, mean cloud height and surfaces of exoplanets.

  5. Stable Isotopes and Zooarchaeology at Teotihuacan, Mexico Reveal Earliest Evidence of Wild Carnivore Management in Mesoamerica: e0135635

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nawa Sugiyama; Andrew D Somerville; Margaret J Schoeninger

    2015-01-01

    .... This paper investigates the historical inflection point when humans began to control animals not only as alimental resources but as ritual symbols and social actors in the New World. At Teotihuacan (A.D. 1-550...

  6. Granger causality mapping during joint actions reveals evidence for forward models that could overcome sensory-motor delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Kokal

    Full Text Available Studies investigating joint actions have suggested a central role for the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS because of the close link between perception and action provided by these brain regions [1], [2], [3]. In contrast, our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment demonstrated that the BOLD response of the pMNS does not suggest that it directly integrates observed and executed actions during joint actions [4]. To test whether the pMNS might contribute indirectly to the integration process by sending information to brain areas responsible for this integration (integration network, here we used Granger causality mapping (GCM [5]. We explored the directional information flow between the anterior sites of the pMNS and previously identified integrative brain regions. We found that the left BA44 sent more information than it received to both the integration network (left thalamus, right middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum and more posterior nodes of the pMNS (BA2. Thus, during joint actions, two anatomically separate networks therefore seem effectively connected and the information flow is predominantly from anterior to posterior areas of the brain. These findings suggest that the pMNS is involved indirectly in joint actions by transforming observed and executed actions into a common code and is part of a generative model that could predict the future somatosensory and visual consequences of observed and executed actions in order to overcome otherwise inevitable neural delays.

  7. First evidence of hybridization between golden jackal (Canis aureus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as revealed by genetic markers

    OpenAIRE

    Galov, Ana; Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, Romolo; Arbanasi?, Haidi; Lapalombella, Silvana; Florijan?i?, Tihomir; Bo?kovi?, Ivica; Galaverni, Marco; Randi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent in nature and numerous cases of hybridization between wild canids and domestic dogs have been recorded. However, hybrids between golden jackals (Canis aureus) and other canids have not been described before. In this study, we combined the use of biparental (15 autosomal microsatellites and three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci) and uniparental (mtDNA control region and a Y-linked Zfy intron) genetic markers to assess the admixed o...

  8. First evidence of hybridization between golden jackal (Canis aureus) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as revealed by genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galov, Ana; Fabbri, Elena; Caniglia, Romolo; Arbanasić, Haidi; Lapalombella, Silvana; Florijančić, Tihomir; Bošković, Ivica; Galaverni, Marco; Randi, Ettore

    2015-12-01

    Interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent in nature and numerous cases of hybridization between wild canids and domestic dogs have been recorded. However, hybrids between golden jackals (Canis aureus) and other canids have not been described before. In this study, we combined the use of biparental (15 autosomal microsatellites and three major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci) and uniparental (mtDNA control region and a Y-linked Zfy intron) genetic markers to assess the admixed origin of three wild-living canids showing anomalous phenotypic traits. Results indicated that these canids were hybrids between golden jackals and domestic dogs. One of them was a backcross to jackal and another one was a backcross to dog, confirming that golden jackal-domestic dog hybrids are fertile. The uniparental markers showed that the direction of hybridization, namely females of the wild species hybridizing with male domestic dogs, was common to most cases of canid hybridization. A melanistic 3bp-deletion at the K locus (β-defensin CDB103 gene), that was absent in reference golden jackal samples, but was found in a backcross to jackal with anomalous black coat, suggested its introgression from dogs via hybridization. Moreover, we demonstrated that MHC sequences, although rarely used as markers of hybridization, can be also suitable for the identification of hybrids, as long as haplotypes are exclusive for the parental species.

  9. Single-cell whole genome sequencing reveals no evidence for common aneuploidy in normal and Alzheimer's disease neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, Hilda; Spierings, Diana C J; Taudt, Aaron S; Bakker, Bjorn; Porubský, David; Falconer, Ester; Novoa, Carolina; Halsema, Nancy; Kazemier, Hinke G; Hoekstra-Wakker, Karina; Guryev, Victor; den Dunnen, Wilfred F A; Foijer, Floris; Tatché, Maria Colomé; Boddeke, Hendrikus W G M; Lansdorp, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease of the brain and the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Aneuploidy, a state in which cells have an abnormal number of chromosomes, has been proposed to play a role in neurodegeneration in AD patients. Several studies using

  10. Bioinformatics approach reveals evidence for impaired endometrial maturation before and during early pregnancy in women who developed preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglino, Maria B; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Jeyabalan, Arun; Hogge, William A; Conrad, Kirk P

    2015-02-01

    Impaired uterine invasion by extravillous trophoblast in early gestation is implicated in the genesis of preeclampsia, a potentially lethal malady of human pregnancy. However, reasons for extravillous trophoblast dysfunction remain unclear because of virtual inaccessibility of early placental and uterine tissues from women who develop preeclampsia, and the absence of animal models in which the disease spontaneously occurs. Consequently, the possibility that deficient or defective maturation of the endometrium (decidualization) may compromise extravillous trophoblast invasion in preeclampsia remains unexplored. Using a bioinformatics approach, we tested this hypothesis identifying 396 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in chorionic villous samples from women at ≈11.5 gestational weeks who developed severe preeclampsia symptoms 6 months later compared with chorionic villous samples from normal pregnancies. A large number, 154 or 40%, overlapped with DEG associated with various stages of normal endometrial maturation before and after implantation as identified by other microarray data sets (P=4.7×10(-14)). One-hundred and sixteen of the 154 DEG or 75% overlapped with DEG associated with normal decidualization in the absence of extravillous trophoblast, ie, late-secretory endometrium (LSE) and endometrium from tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP; P=4.2×10(-9)). Finally, 112 of these 154 DEG or 73% changed in the opposite direction in microarray data sets related to normal endometrial maturation (P=0.01), including 16 DEG upregulated in decidual (relative to peripheral blood) natural killer cells that were downregulated in chorionic villous samples from women who developed preeclampsia (Ppreeclampsia. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Partial sequencing reveals the transposable element composition of Coffea genomes and provides evidence for distinct evolutionary stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Romain; Darré, Thibaud; Dupeyron, Mathilde; de Kochko, Alexandre; Hamon, Serge; Couturon, Emmanuel; Crouzillat, Dominique; Rigoreau, Michel; Rakotomalala, Jean-Jacques; Raharimalala, Nathalie E; Akaffou, Sélastique Doffou; Hamon, Perla

    2016-10-01

    The Coffea genus, 124 described species, has a natural distribution spreading from inter-tropical Africa, to Western Indian Ocean Islands, India, Asia and up to Australasia. Two cultivated species, C. arabica and C. canephora, are intensively studied while, the breeding potential and the genome composition of all the wild species remained poorly uncharacterized. Here, we report the characterization and comparison of the highly repeated transposable elements content of 11 Coffea species representatives of the natural biogeographic distribution. A total of 994 Mb from 454 reads were produced with a genome coverage ranging between 3.2 and 15.7 %. The analyses showed that highly repeated transposable elements, mainly LTR retrotransposons (LTR-RT), represent between 32 and 53 % of Coffea genomes depending on their biogeographic location and genome size. Species from West and Central Africa (Eucoffea) contained the highest LTR-RT content but with no strong variation relative to their genome size. At the opposite, for the insular species (Mascarocoffea), a strong variation of LTR-RT was observed suggesting differential dynamics of these elements in this group. Two LTR-RT lineages, SIRE and Del were clearly differentially accumulated between African and insular species, suggesting these lineages were associated to the genome divergence of Coffea species in Africa. Altogether, the information obtained in this study improves our knowledge and brings new data on the composition, the evolution and the divergence of wild Coffea genomes.

  12. The Tres Tabernae archeological site (Cisterna di Latina, Italy: new evidence revealed through an integrated geophysical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Cafarella

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available «Mercator» (Medocc, INTERREG IIIB is a European project that is aimed at a detailed investigation of the historical and archeological heritage of the Mediterranean area. Within this project, broad research is being financed regarding the importance of the development of the main ancient merchant routes in this region. These various tasks include this integrated geophysical survey at the Tres Tabernae site, an ancient statio along the Appian way (close to Latina, central Italy. This was carried out using several techniques that are focused on the identification of buried archeological remains. The main goal of this investigation was to cover the area surrounding this partially excavated site to obtain a quick, but meaningful, result relating to the presence of interesting buried features. For this, the geophysical techniques involved were frequency-domain electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, and magnetometry. To obtain the best results, these methods were optimized, taking into account the kind of structures involved and their relation to the environmental context. The combination of these different geophysical techniques shows good results, indicating the possible presence of new buried structures, such as walls, floors and a lead pipe.

  13. Evidence of trace conditioning in comatose patients revealed by the reactivation of EEG responses to alerting sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Elsa; Nguepnjo Nguissi, Nathalie Ata; Tzovara, Athina; Viceic, Dragana; Rusca, Marco; Oddo, Mauro; Rossetti, Andrea O; De Lucia, Marzia

    2016-11-01

    Trace conditioning refers to a learning process occurring after repeated presentation of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS+) and a salient unconditioned stimulus (UCS) separated by a temporal gap. Recent studies have reported that trace conditioning can occur in humans in reduced levels of consciousness by showing a transfer of the unconditioned autonomic response to the CS+ in healthy sleeping individuals and in vegetative state patients. However, no previous studies have investigated the neural underpinning of trace conditioning in the absence of consciousness in humans. In the present study, we recorded the EEG activity of 29 post-anoxic comatose patients while presenting a trace conditioning paradigm using neutral tones as CS+ and alerting sounds as UCS. Most patients received therapeutic hypothermia and all were deeply unconscious according to standardized clinical scales. After repeated presentation of the CS+ and UCS couple, learning was assessed by measuring the EEG activity during the period where the UCS is omitted after CS+ presentation. Specifically we assessed the 'reactivation' of the neural response to UCS omission by applying a decoding algorithm derived from the statistical model of the EEG activity in response to the UCS presentation. The same procedure was used in a group of 12 awake healthy controls. We found a reactivation of the UCS response in absence of stimulation in eight patients (five under therapeutic hypothermia) and four healthy controls. Additionally, the reactivation effect was temporally specific within trials since it manifested primarily at the specific latency of UCS presentation and significantly less before or after this period. Our results show for the first time that trace conditioning may manifest as a reactivation of the EEG activity related to the UCS and even in the absence of consciousness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High genetic differentiation with no evidence of hybridisation between four limpet species (Patella spp. revealed by allozyme loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sá-Pinto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of hybridisation between limpet species of the genus Patella has always been a contentious issue. Although a previous allozyme study reported high differentiation and no hybridisation between Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, Patella depressa Pennant, 1777 and Patella ulyssiponensis Gmelin, 1791 along English shores, the recent finding of an mtDNA haplotype of P. depressa in a P. vulgata individual raised new doubts on this issue. To further study the possibility of hybridisation between limpet species and their level of genetic differentiation, ten allozyme loci were screened using starch gel electrophoresis for P. ulyssiponensis, P. depressa, P. vulgata and Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, from the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Our results show high differentiation between species, which could be clearly separated into different clusters with a Bayesian clustering algorithm. No significant signs of hybridisation were detected between any of the four species. Thus, the hypothesis of hybridisation between P. vulgata and P. depressa across their sympatric distribution is not supported. Two sympatric clusters were recovered within P. vulgata that could be related to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium found in locus MPI. Finally, due to the high level of intraspecific variability, the studied loci are interesting tools for the analysis of population structure and stock identification.

  15. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seçkin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI) or indirect (-mIş) evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition. PMID:26441762

  16. Touchscreen-paradigm for mice reveals cross-species evidence for an antagonistic relationship of cognitive flexibility and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Helene Richter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The abilities to either flexibly adjust behavior according to changing demands (cognitive flexibility or to maintain it in the face of potential distractors (cognitive stability are critical for adaptive behavior in many situations. Recently, a novel human paradigm has found individual differences of cognitive flexibility and stability to be related to common prefrontal networks. The aims of the present study were, first, to translate this paradigm from humans to mice and, second, to test conceptual predictions of a computational model of prefrontal working memory mechanisms, the Dual State Theory, which assumes an antagonistic relation between cognitive flexibility and stability.Mice were trained in a touchscreen-paradigm to discriminate visual cues. The task involved ‘ongoing’ and cued ‘switch’ trials. In addition distractor cues were interspersed to test the ability to resist distraction, and an ambiguous condition assessed the spontaneous switching between two possible responses without explicit cues. While response times did not differ substantially between conditions, error rates increased from the ‘ongoing’ baseline condition to the most complex condition, where subjects were required to switch between two responses in the presence of a distracting cue. Importantly, subjects switching more often spontaneously were found to be more distractible by task irrelevant cues, but also more flexible in situations, where switching was required. These results support a dichotomy of cognitive flexibility and stability as predicted by the Dual State Theory. Furthermore, they replicate critical aspects of the human paradigm, which indicates the translational potential of the testing procedure and supports the use of touchscreen procedures in preclinical animal research.

  17. The paleoenvironment of Hispanopithecus laietanus as revealed by paleobotanical evidence from the Late Miocene of Can Llobateres 1 (Catalonia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmi, Josep; Casanovas-Vilar, Isaac; Robles, Josep M; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Alba, David M

    2012-03-01

    The early Vallesian site of Can Llobateres 1 (Vallès-Penedès Basin, Catalonia, Spain) is one of the richest localities of the European Late Miocene, having yielded the most complete remains of the fossil great ape Hispanopithecus laietanus (Primates: Hominidae). Fossil plant remains had been previously reported from this site but mostly remained unpublished. Here we describe an assemblage of plant megaremains recovered in 2010, which provides valuable paleoenvironmental data. This assemblage consists of a mixture of parautochthonous and allochthonous detached organs (leaves, stems, reproductive structures) deposited in marshy areas. The source vegetation mainly consisted of abundant reeds, palms, evergreen laurels and figs that probably grew in or near the marsh boundaries or nearby riparian forests. This environmental picture is consistent with the mammalian fauna, which shows the prevalence of humid forested environments, although somewhat more open woodlands might have been present away from the wet areas. The occurrence of mega-mesothermal taxa, together with the absence of deciduous elements, is consistent with a subtropical to warm-temperate climate. Within this mosaic environment, H. laietanus would have preferred the more humid and forested habitats, which probably were still quite common in the Vallès-Penedès during the early Vallesian. Such habitats would have provided a continuous ripe fruit supply throughout the year to these frugivorous great apes. Paleobotanical data from older sites of the same area and nearby basins show that the zonal vegetation was a warm-temperate mixed forest defined by evergreen laurels, together with leguminous trees and shrubs as well as a significant proportion of deciduous elements. Tropical and subtropical taxa would have been restricted to humid areas in the lowlands. From the late Vallesian onwards, many of these taxa disappeared from the Vallès-Penedès, whereas deciduous trees became dominant in the forested areas and wetlands, thus likely having driven Hispanopithecus to extinction in the study area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inferior frontal oscillations reveal visuo-motor matching for actions and speech: evidence from human intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halje, Pär; Seeck, Margitta; Blanke, Olaf; Ionta, Silvio

    2015-12-01

    The neural correspondence between the systems responsible for the execution and recognition of actions has been suggested both in humans and non-human primates. Apart from being a key region of this visuo-motor observation-execution matching (OEM) system, the human inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is also important for speech production. The functional overlap of visuo-motor OEM and speech, together with the phylogenetic history of the IFG as a motor area, has led to the idea that speech function has evolved from pre-existing motor systems and to the hypothesis that an OEM system may exist also for speech. However, visuo-motor OEM and speech OEM have never been compared directly. We used electrocorticography to analyze oscillations recorded from intracranial electrodes in human fronto-parieto-temporal cortex during visuo-motor (executing or visually observing an action) and speech OEM tasks (verbally describing an action using the first or third person pronoun). The results show that neural activity related to visuo-motor OEM is widespread in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Speech OEM also elicited widespread responses partly overlapping with visuo-motor OEM sites (bilaterally), including frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Interestingly a more focal region, the inferior frontal gyrus (bilaterally), showed both visuo-motor OEM and speech OEM properties independent of orolingual speech-unrelated movements. Building on the methodological advantages in human invasive electrocorticography, the present findings provide highly precise spatial and temporal information to support the existence of a modality-independent action representation system in the human brain that is shared between systems for performing, interpreting and describing actions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear and mitochondrial markers reveal evidence for genetically segregated cryptic speciation in giant Pacific octopuses from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Scheel, David; Sage, G.K.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple species of large octopus are known from the north Pacific waters around Japan, however only one large species is known in the Gulf of Alaska (the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini). Current taxonomy of E. dofleini is based on geographic and morphological characteristics, although with advances in genetic technology that is changing. Here, we used two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I), three nuclear genes (rhodopsin, octopine dehydrogenase, and paired-box 6), and 18 microsatellite loci for phylogeographic and phylogenetic analyses of octopuses collected from across southcentral and the eastern Aleutian Islands (Dutch Harbor), Alaska. Our results suggest the presence of a cryptic Enteroctopus species that is allied to, but distinguished from E. dofleini in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Existence of an undescribed and previously unrecognized taxon raises important questions about the taxonomy of octopus in southcentral Alaska waters.

  20. Co-evolution of cancer microenvironment reveals distinctive patterns of gastric cancer invasion: laboratory evidence and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer invasion results from constant interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment. Major components of the cancer microenvironment are stromal cells, infiltrating inflammatory cells, collagens, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP and newly formed blood vessels. This study was to determine the roles of MMP-9, MMP-2, type IV collagen, infiltrating macrophages and tumor microvessels in gastric cancer (GC invasion and their clinico-pathological significance. Methods Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 37 GC patients were studied by Streptavidin-Peroxidase (SP immunohistochemical technique to determine the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, type IV collagen, macrophages infiltration and microvessel density (MVD. Different invasion patterns were delineated and their correlation with major clinico-pathological information was explored. Results MMP2 expression was higher in malignant gland compared to normal gland, especially nearby the basement membrane (BM. High densities of macrophages at the interface of cancer nests and stroma were found where BM integrity was destroyed. MMP2 expression was significantly increased in cases with recurrence and distant metastasis (P = 0.047 and 0.048, respectively. Infiltrating macrophages were correlated with serosa invasion (P = 0.011 and TNM stage (P = 0.001. MVD was higher in type IV collagen negative group compared to type IV collagen positive group (P = 0.026. MVD was related to infiltrating macrophages density (P = 0.040. Patients with negative MMP9 expression had better overall survival (OS compared to those with positive MMP9 expression (Median OS 44.0 vs 13.5 mo, P = 0.036. Median OS was significantly longer in type IV collagen positive group than negative group (Median OS 25.5 vs 10.0 mo, P = 0.044. The cumulative OS rate was higher in low macrophages density group than in high macrophages density group (median OS 40.5 vs 13.0 mo, P = 0.056. Median OS was significantly longer in low MVD group than high MVD group (median OS 39.0 vs 8.5 mo, P = 0.001. The difference of disease-free survival (DFS between low MVD group and high MVD group was not statistically significant (P = 0.260. Four typical patterns of cancer invasion were identified based on histological study of the cancer tissue, including Washing pattern, Ameba-like pattern, Spindle pattern and Linear pattern. Conclusions Proteolytic enzymes MMP9, MMP2 and macrophages in stroma contribute to GC progression by facilitating the angiogenesis. Cancer invasion patterns may help predict GC metastasis.

  1. Looking at the evidence in visual world: eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seçkin eArslan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference to information source, through inflectional affixes signaling either direct (-DI or indirect (-mIş evidentiality. We conducted an eye-tracking-during-listening experiment where participants were given access to visual ‘evidence’ supporting the use of either a direct or indirect evidential form. The behavioral results indicate that the monolingual Turkish speakers comprehended direct and indirect evidential scenarios equally well. In contrast, both late and early bilinguals were less accurate and slower to respond to direct than to indirect evidentials. The behavioral results were also reflected in the proportions of looks data. That is, both late and early bilinguals fixated less frequently on the target picture in the direct than in the indirect evidential condition while the monolinguals showed no difference between these conditions. Taken together, our results indicate reduced sensitivity to the semantic and pragmatic function of direct evidential forms in both late and early bilingual speakers, suggesting a simplification of the Turkish evidentiality system in Turkish heritage grammars. We discuss our findings with regard to theories of incomplete acquisition and first language attrition.

  2. Looking at the evidence in visual world : eye-movements reveal how bilingual and monolingual Turkish speakers process grammatical evidentiality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslan, Seckin; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Felser, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study presents pioneering data on how adult early bilinguals (heritage speakers) and late bilingual speakers of Turkish and German process grammatical evidentiality in a visual world setting in comparison to monolingual speakers of Turkish. Turkish marks evidentiality, the linguistic reference

  3. Evidence that Acetonitrile is Sensitive to Different Interaction Sites of Ionic Liquids as Revealed by Excess Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Zhang, Tian; Deng, Geng; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2017-05-19

    By studying the interactions between an ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and a co-solvent acetonitrile, the C≡N stretching vibration is found to be sensitive to different interaction sites as shown by excess infrared spectroscopy. Four existing forms of acetonitrile molecules are identified and a detailed transformation process of the ionic liquid upon dilution is obtained. Such characteristics of the nitrile group are discussed from the viewpoint of its ability to form hydrogen bonds with proton donors. It is believed that this is due to the intermediate charge donating ability of the C≡N group as compared with other groups such as S=O, CH3 , and aromatic C-H. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Genomic and population analyses of the mating type loci in Coccidioides species reveal evidence for sexual reproduction and gene acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, M Alejandra; Barker, Bridget M; Kroken, Scott; Rounsley, Steven D; Orbach, Marc J

    2007-07-01

    Coccidioides species, the fungi responsible for the valley fever disease, are known to reproduce asexually through the production of arthroconidia that are the infectious propagules. The possible role of sexual reproduction in the survival and dispersal of these pathogens is unexplored. To determine the potential for mating of Coccidioides, we analyzed genome sequences and identified mating type loci characteristic of heterothallic ascomycetes. Coccidioides strains contain either a MAT1-1 or a MAT1-2 idiomorph, which is 8.1 or 9 kb in length, respectively, the longest reported for any ascomycete species. These idiomorphs contain four or five genes, respectively, more than are present in the MAT loci of most ascomycetes. Along with their cDNA structures, we determined that all genes in the MAT loci are transcribed. Two genes frequently found in common sequences flanking MAT idiomorphs, APN2 and COX13, are within the MAT loci in Coccidioides, but the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 copies have diverged dramatically from each other. Data indicate that the acquisition of these genes in the MAT loci occurred prior to the separation of Coccidioides from Uncinocarpus reesii. An analysis of 436 Coccidioides isolates from patients and the environment indicates that in both Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, there is a 1:1 distribution of MAT loci, as would be expected for sexually reproducing species. In addition, an analysis of isolates obtained from 11 soil samples demonstrated that at three sampling sites, strains of both mating types were present, indicating that compatible strains were in close proximity in the environment.

  5. Ancient biomolecules: their origins, fossilization, and role in revealing the history of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E G; Summons, Roger E

    2014-05-01

    The discovery of traces of a blood meal in the abdomen of a 50-million-year-old mosquito reminds us of the insights that the chemistry of fossils can provide. Ancient DNA is the best known fossil molecule. It is less well known that new fossil targets and a growing database of ancient gene sequences are paralleled by discoveries on other classes of organic molecules. New analytical tools, such as the synchrotron, reveal traces of the original composition of arthropod cuticles that are more than 400 my old. Pigments such as melanin are readily fossilized, surviving virtually unaltered for ∼200 my. Other biomarkers provide evidence of microbial processes in ancient sediments, and have been used to reveal the presence of demosponges, for example, more than 635 mya, long before their spicules appear in the fossil record. Ancient biomolecules are a powerful complement to fossil remains in revealing the history of life. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evidence of Historical Supernovae in Ice Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donna

    2011-05-01

    Within the framework of the U.S. Greenland Ice Core Science Project (GISP2), an ice core, known as the GISP H-Core, was collected in June, 1992 adjacent to the GISP2 summit drill site. The project scientists, Gisela A.M. Dreschhoff and Edward J. Zeller, were interested in dating solar proton events with volcanic eruptions. The GISP2-H 122-meter firn and ice core is a record of 415 years of liquid electrical conductivity (LEC) and nitrate concentrations, spanning the years 1992 at the surface through 1577 at the bottom. At the National Ice Core Laboratory in Denver, Colorado, the core (beneath the 12-meter firn) was sliced into 1.5 cm sections and analyzed. The resulting data set consisted of 7,776 individual analyses. The ultrahigh resolution sampling technique resulted in a time resolution of one week near the surface and one month at depth. The liquid electrical conductivity (LEC) sequence contains signals from a number of known volcanic eruptions and provides a dating system at specific locations along the core. The terrestrial and solar background nitrate records show seasonal and annual variations, respectively. However, major nitrate anomalies within the record do not correspond to any known terrestrial or solar events. There is evidence that these nitrate anomalies could be a record of supernovae events. Cosmic X-rays ionize atmospheric nitrogen, producing excess nitrate that is then deposited in the Polar Regions. The GISP2-H ice core has revealed nitrate anomalies at the times of the Tycho and Kepler supernovae. The Cassiopeia A supernova event may be documented in the core as well. We have developed a classroom activity for high school and college students, in which they examine several lines of evidence in the Greenland ice core, discriminating among nearby and mid-latitude volcanic activity, solar proton events, and supernovae. Students infer the date of the Cassiopeia A supernova.

  7. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayal, Ehsan; Roure, Béatrice; Philippe, Hervé; Collins, Allen G; Lavrov, Dennis V

    2013-01-09

    Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) - cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage - and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) - cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that the shared morphological characters in

  8. Cnidarian phylogenetic relationships as revealed by mitogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydroids, jellyfish) is a phylum of relatively simple aquatic animals characterized by the presence of the cnidocyst: a cell containing a giant capsular organelle with an eversible tubule (cnida). Species within Cnidaria have life cycles that involve one or both of the two distinct body forms, a typically benthic polyp, which may or may not be colonial, and a typically pelagic mostly solitary medusa. The currently accepted taxonomic scheme subdivides Cnidaria into two main assemblages: Anthozoa (Hexacorallia + Octocorallia) – cnidarians with a reproductive polyp and the absence of a medusa stage – and Medusozoa (Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, Staurozoa) – cnidarians that usually possess a reproductive medusa stage. Hypothesized relationships among these taxa greatly impact interpretations of cnidarian character evolution. Results We expanded the sampling of cnidarian mitochondrial genomes, particularly from Medusozoa, to reevaluate phylogenetic relationships within Cnidaria. Our phylogenetic analyses based on a mitochogenomic dataset support many prior hypotheses, including monophyly of Hexacorallia, Octocorallia, Medusozoa, Cubozoa, Staurozoa, Hydrozoa, Carybdeida, Chirodropida, and Hydroidolina, but reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, indicating that the Octocorallia + Medusozoa relationship is not the result of sampling bias, as proposed earlier. Further, our analyses contradict Scyphozoa [Discomedusae + Coronatae], Acraspeda [Cubozoa + Scyphozoa], as well as the hypothesis that Staurozoa is the sister group to all the other medusozoans. Conclusions Cnidarian mitochondrial genomic data contain phylogenetic signal informative for understanding the evolutionary history of this phylum. Mitogenome-based phylogenies, which reject the monophyly of Anthozoa, provide further evidence for the polyp-first hypothesis. By rejecting the traditional Acraspeda and Scyphozoa hypotheses, these analyses suggest that

  9. NASA's Hyperwall Revealing the Big Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers

    2011-01-01

    NASA:s hyperwall is a sophisticated visualization tool used to display large datasets. The hyperwall, or video wall, is capable of displaying multiple high-definition data visualizations and/or images simultaneously across an arrangement of screens. Functioning as a key component at many NASA exhibits, the hyperwall is used to help explain phenomena, ideas, or examples of world change. The traveling version of the hyperwall is typically comprised of nine 42-50" flat-screen monitors arranged in a 3x3 array (as depicted below). However, it is not limited to monitor size or number; screen sizes can be as large as 52" and the arrangement of screens can include more than nine monitors. Generally, NASA satellite and model data are used to highlight particular themes in atmospheric, land, and ocean science. Many of the existing hyperwall stories reveal change across space and time, while others display large-scale still-images accompanied by descriptive, story-telling captions. Hyperwall content on a variety of Earth Science topics already exists and is made available to the public at: eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/hyperwall. Keynote and PowerPoint presentations as well as Summary of Story files are available for download on each existing topic. New hyperwall content and accompanying files will continue being developed to promote scientific literacy across a diverse group of audience members. NASA invites the use of content accessible through this website but requests the user to acknowledge any and all data sources referenced in the content being used.

  10. Physical evidence for dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scranton, Ryan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Stebbins, Albert; Szapudi, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Afshordi, Niayesh; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Lupton, Robert H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Sheth, Ravi K.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tegmark, Max; Xu, Yongzhong; Anderson, Scott F.; /Pittsburgh U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Fermilab /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Princeton U.

    2003-07-01

    The authors present measurements of the angular cross-correlation between luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the cosmic microwave background temperature maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. They find a statistically significant achromatic positive correlation between these two data sets, which is consistent with the expected signal from the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. they do not detect any anti-correlation on small angular scales as would be produced from a large Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, although they do see evidence for some SZ effect for their highest redshift samples. Assuming a flat universe, their preliminary detection of the ISW effect provides independent physical evidence for the existence of dark energy.

  11. Evidence, Ethics & Social Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.

  12. Experimental Evidence on Transfer Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Quoc H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We use incentivized economics experiments to test both the point predictions and comparative static predictions of optimal transfer pricing models, comparing behavior under varying conditions, including wholly versus partially-owned subsidiaries and different tariff and tax rates. As predicted, we find that transfer prices are responsive to relative tax and tariff rates as well as ownership proportions. Additionally, we examine convergence and learning in this setting. While individuals do not choose optimal transfer prices, their choices converge to optimal levels with experience. This paper thus makes two important contributions. First, by comparing behavior with theoretical predictions it provides evidence of whether (and when individuals set transfer prices optimally. Second, by comparing behavior under conditions of full and partial ownership it provides evidence on the impact of policy interventions (like regulating ownership proportions by MNEs on tax revenues.

  13. Breastfeeding promotion: evidence and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bellù

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although breastfeeding is associated with many health benefits in children and mothers, and World Health Organization (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age, overall breastfeeding rates remain low. Italian rates of exclusive breastfeeding do not differ from international data. The aim of this review is to evaluate evidence of breastfeeding promotion interventions and the remaining problems to achieve them. We found that breastfeeding support is a complex system of interventions, including individual, structural and environmental factors. Many systematic reviews report evidence that breastfeeding support offered to women increases duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, both in full term healthy newborns and in preterm infants. Political and economic efforts should be made to ensure breastfeeding support to all women in the different settings, assuming it as a collective target.

  14. Literature evidence in open targets - a target validation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, Şenay; Dunham, Ian; McEntyre, Johanna

    2017-06-06

    We present the Europe PMC literature component of Open Targets - a target validation platform that integrates various evidence to aid drug target identification and validation. The component identifies target-disease associations in documents and ranks the documents based on their confidence from the Europe PMC literature database, by using rules utilising expert-provided heuristic information. The confidence score of a given document represents how valuable the document is in the scope of target validation for a given target-disease association by taking into account the credibility of the association based on the properties of the text. The component serves the platform regularly with the up-to-date data since December, 2015. Currently, there are a total number of 1168365 distinct target-disease associations text mined from >26 million PubMed abstracts and >1.2 million Open Access full text articles. Our comparative analyses on the current available evidence data in the platform revealed that 850179 of these associations are exclusively identified by literature mining. This component helps the platform's users by providing the most relevant literature hits for a given target and disease. The text mining evidence along with the other types of evidence can be explored visually through https://www.targetvalidation.org and all the evidence data is available for download in json format from https://www.targetvalidation.org/downloads/data .

  15. Clean Evidence on Peer Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Armin; Ichino, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    While confounding factors typically jeopardize the possibility of using observational data to measure peer effects, field experiments over the potential for obtaining clean evidence. In this paper we measure the output of subjects who were asked to stuff letters into envelopes, with a remuneration completely independent of output. We study two treatments. In the 'pair' treatment two subjects work at the same time in the same room. Peer effects are possible in this situation and imply that out...

  16. A Technique: Examining the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive therapy is based on the realistic epistemology which exerts that there is an objective reality beyond human experience. Cognitive models of psychopathology stipulate that the processing of external event or internal stimuli is biased and therefore systematically distorts the individual’s construction of his or her experiences, leading to a variety of cognitive errors. These distorted cognitions predispose or perpetuates mental disorders. If this bias that is also manifested in the automatic thoughts during specific instances can be attenuated by weakening the belief in these thoughts, it may lead into change in the accompanying emotion and dysfunctional behaviour. Objective: The aim of this review is to describe the basic technique of cognitive therapy namely “examining the evidence” and also present the clinical application of this technique. In order to perform this technique, first situation must be detailed. Then assessed emotion is graded according to its severity. After that, key automatic thought must be identified and phrased accordingly. After grading belief in the thought, evidence for and against the thought can be generated using appropriate questioning. In the end by using this evidence, the belief in the automatic thought and the emotion must be reviewed. Examining the evidence can also be used as a homework assignment to be done between sessions. In this text, steps of examining the evidence, which questions to be asked, and the points that must be attendant is reviewed and a sample interview is included. Conclusion: By its empirical nature “examining the evidence” is the most valuable technique of cognitive therapy and when it is applied properly long lasting change can occur in clients

  17. Ingratiation and Favoritism: Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Robin, Stéphane; Rusinowska, Agnieszka; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2012-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/documents-de-travail-du-ces/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2012.32 - ISSN : 1955-611X; We provide experimental evidence of worker's ingratiation by opinion conformity and of managers' discrimination in favor of workers with whom they share similar opinions. In our Baseline, managers can observe both workers' performance at a task and opinions before assigning unequal payoffs. In the Ingrat...

  18. Indicators of Evidence for Bioequivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Morgenthaler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Some equivalence tests are based on two one-sided tests, where in many applications the test statistics are approximately normal. We define and find evidence for equivalence in Z-tests and then one- and two-sample binomial tests as well as for t-tests. Multivariate equivalence tests are typically based on statistics with non-central chi-squared or non-central F distributions in which the non-centrality parameter λ is a measure of heterogeneity of several groups. Classical tests of the null λ ≥ λ 0 versus the equivalence alternative λ < λ 0 are available, but simple formulae for power functions are not. In these tests, the equivalence limit λ 0 is typically chosen by context. We provide extensions of classical variance stabilizing transformations for the non-central chi-squared and F distributions that are easy to implement and which lead to indicators of evidence for equivalence. Approximate power functions are also obtained via simple expressions for the expected evidence in these equivalence tests.

  19. Evidence for glaciation in Elysium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Duwayne M.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of permafrost and the surface modification due to frost effects and the presence of ice on Mars dates from early observations. Later analysis of the Viking Orbiter imagery produced evidence suggesting the former presence of ice sheets that could have played a part in shaping the surface of Mars. Similarities were pointed out between a number of streamlined Martian channel features and similar streamlined landforms created by Antarctic ice sheet movement. A study of Viking Orbiter imagery of Granicus Valles and the surrounding terrain in Elysium has produced further evidence of glaciation on Mars. Volcanism has played an important role in developing the landscapes of the Elysium region. A possible explanation is that subsidence occurred during formation of the Martian moberg ridges due to the melting of ground ice near the eruption area while at a distance most of the ground ice in the permafrost is still present and the original elevation was preserved. Meltwater during and following eruptions might be suddenly released during subglacial volcanism into Granicus Valles in one case and into Hrad Valles in the other. Fluvial erosion thus could have played a role in shaping both.

  20. Evidence-Based Practice and School Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2005-01-01

    School nurses need to demonstrate that their practice is based on the best evidence available, which is usually data obtained from research. Evidence-based practice involves combining the best evidence available with nursing expertise and patient and family preferences to determine optimum care. Evidence-based practice guidelines are developed by…