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Sample records for synergistic drug-cytokine induction

  1. Synergistic action of radiation and chemical carcinogen in induction of leukemia in mice, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajitani, Takashi

    1982-01-01

    1. There was no synergistic interaction of radiation and N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU) in induction of leukemia if irradiation was confined to the thymic region. 2. Cell kinetics in the thymus and bone marrow of young-adult mice were studied following whole-body X-irradiation or local X-irradiation over the thymus. It was found that whole-body X-irradiation caused drastic injuries, followed by a vigorous regeneration in both thymus and bone marrow, whereas local X-irradiation caused much milder changes in the thymus than whole-body X-irradiation, and caused no apparent changes in the bone marrow. 3. A single dose of 5 mg of NEU force administered by gastric intubation was found to be moderately leukemogenic, inducing thymic lymphomas in 37% of young adult female C57BL/6N mice. 4. Whole-body X-irradiation with 400R enhanced the incidence of thymic lymphoma when mice were irradiated 5 days prior to a single dose of NEU force administered by gastric intubation. In contrast, no enhancing effect was observed when the mice were irradiated 30 days prior to a single dose of NEU. 5. The results indicate that whole-body X-irradiation right before NEU administration plays a role in providing a cell population either in the thymus or bone marrow susceptible to NEU during postirradiation repair-period. (author)

  2. Synergistic induction of profibrotic PAI-1 by TGF-β and radiation depends on p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Jong, Edwin de; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced fibrosis is a severe side effect of radiotherapy. TGF-β and radiation synergistically induce expression of the profibrotic PAI-1 gene and this cooperation potentially involves p53. Here, we demonstrate that p53 is both indispensable and sufficient for the radiation effect inducing synergistic activation of PAI-1 by radiation and TGF-β.

  3. Bcl-2 antagonists interact synergistically with bortezomib in DLBCL cells in association with JNK activation and induction of ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasmahapatra, Girija; Lembersky, Dmitry; Rahmani, Mohamed; Kramer, Lora; Friedberg, Jonathan; Fisher, Richard I; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

    2009-05-01

    Mechanisms underlying interactions between the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and small molecule Bcl-2 antagonists were examined in GC- and ABC-type human DLBCL (diffuse lymphocytic B-cell lymphoma) cells. Concomitant or sequential exposure to non- or minimally toxic concentrations of bortezomib or other proteasome inhibitors and either HA14-1 or gossypol resulted in a striking increase in Bax/Bak conformational change/translocation, cytochrome c release, caspase activation and synergistic induction of apoptosis in both GC- and ABC-type cells. These events were associated with a sharp increase in activation of the stress kinase JNK and evidence of ER stress induction (e.g., eIF2alpha phosphorylation, activation of caspases-2 and -4, and Grp78 upregulation). Pharmacologic or genetic (e.g., shRNA knockdown) interruption of JNK signaling attenuated HA14-1/bortezomib lethality and ER stress induction. Genetic disruption of the ER stress pathway (e.g., in cells expressing caspase-4 shRNA or DN-eIF2alpha) significantly attenuated lethality. The toxicity of this regimen was independent of ROS generation. Finally, HA14-1 significantly increased bortezomib-mediated JNK activation, ER stress induction, and lethality in bortezomib-resistant cells. Collectively these findings indicate that small molecule Bcl-2 antagonists promote bortezomib-mediated mitochondrial injury and lethality in DLBCL cells in association with enhanced JNK activation and ER stress induction. They also raise the possibility that such a strategy may be effective in different DLBCL sub-types (e.g., GC- or ABC), and in bortezomib-resistant disease.

  4. Synergistic action of radiation and chemical carcinogen in induction of thymic lymphoma in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Kamiya, Kenji; Seyama, Toshio; Ito, Takaaki; Yokoro, Kenjiro

    1980-01-01

    Young adult C57BL/6 female mice were used to study the induction of leukemia by a combined treatment of x-rays and N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU). Administration of NEU after x-ray irradiation induced the leukemia in 100% with shortening latent period, which indicated that the combined treatment enhanced the leukemia induction. Thymic localized X-irradiation decreased the leukemia induction ratio from 100 to 55% and prolonged the latent period from 86 days to 128 days, compared with the whole body irradiation. For whole body irradiation, thymus weights, cell counts, rates of DNA-synthesizing cells, and rates, of mitotic index were decreased markedly after irradiation. For thymus weights and cell counts minimum values were observed after 3 days, and recovered by 10 days. DNA-synthesizing cells and the rates of mitotic index began to increase from the minimum value at the first day to the maximum value at the 5th day after irradiation. By thymic localized irradiation, no marked damage nor recovering process could be followed. It was suggested that the administration of NEU after irradiation, especially, to the young recovering cells with high potential for proliferation derived the high induction rate of leukemia. (Nakanishi, T.)

  5. Strong synergistic induction of CYP1A1 expression by andrographolide plus typical CYP1A inducers in mouse hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Sirisangtrakul, Wanna; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Kawasaki, Yuki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2007-01-01

    The effects of andrographolide, the major diterpenoid constituent of Andrographis paniculata, on the expression of cytochrome P450 superfamily 1 members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, as well as on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were investigated in comparison with the effects of typical CYP1A inducers, including benz[a]anthracene, β-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Andrographolide significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner, as did the typical CYP1A inducers, but did not induce that of CYP1B1 or AhR. Interestingly, andrographolide plus the typical CYP1A inducers synergistically induced CYP1A1 expression, and the synergism was blocked by an AhR antagonist, resveratrol. The CYP1A1 enzyme activity showed a similar pattern of induction. This is the first report that shows that andrographolide has a potency to induce CYP1A1 enzyme and indicates that andrographolide could be a very useful compound for investigating the regulatory mechanism of the CYP1A1 induction pathway. In addition, our findings suggest preparing advice for rational administration of A. paniculata, according to its ability to induce CYP1A1 expression

  6. Increasing Pleurotus ostreatus laccase production by culture medium optimization and copper/lignin synergistic induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Raunel; Acevedo, Abisaí; Galindo, Enrique; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo

    2011-04-01

    Laccases have great biotechnological potential in diverse industries as they catalyze the oxidation of a broad variety of chemical compounds. Production of laccases by basidiomycetes has been broadly studied as they secrete the enzymes, grow on cheap substrates, and they generally produce more than one isoenzyme (constitutive and/or inducible). Laccase production and isoenzyme profile can be modified through medium composition and the use of inducers. The objective of this work was to increase laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus CP-50 through culture medium optimization and the simultaneous use of copper and lignin as inducers. Increased fungal growth was obtained through the use of a factorial fractional experimental design 2⁶⁻² where the influence of the nature and concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources was assessed. Although specific laccase production (U/mg biomass) decreased when malt extract medium was supplemented with carbon and nitrogen sources, fungal growth and laccase volumetric activity increased four and sixfold, respectively. The effect of media supplementation with copper and/or lignin on laccase production by P. ostreatus CP-50 was studied. A positive synergistic effect between copper and lignin was observed on laccase production. Overall, the use of an optimized medium and the simultaneous addition of copper and lignin improved growth, laccase volumetric activity, and process productivity by 4-, 60-, and 10-fold, respectively.

  7. Synergistic effect of CTLA-4 blockade and cancer chemotherapy in the induction of anti-tumor immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Joost Lesterhuis

    Full Text Available Several chemotherapeutics exert immunomodulatory effects. One of these is the nucleoside analogue gemcitabine, which is widely used in patients with lung cancer, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, mesothelioma and several other types of cancer, but with limited efficacy. We hypothesized that the immunopotentiating effects of this drug are partly restrained by the inhibitory T cell molecule CTLA-4 and thus could be augmented by combining it with a blocking antibody against CTLA-4, which on its own has recently shown beneficial clinical effects in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. Here we show, using two non-immunogenic murine tumor models, that treatment with gemcitabine chemotherapy in combination with CTLA-4 blockade results in the induction of a potent anti-tumor immune response. Depletion experiments demonstrated that both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells are required for optimal therapeutic effect. Mice treated with the combination exhibited tumor regression and long-term protective immunity. In addition, we show that the efficacy of the combination is moderated by the timing of administration of the two agents. Our results show that immune checkpoint blockade and cytotoxic chemotherapy can have a synergistic effect in the treatment of cancer. These results provide a basis to pursue combination therapies with anti-CTLA-4 and immunopotentiating chemotherapy and have important implications for future studies in cancer patients. Since both drugs are approved for use in patients our data can be immediately translated into clinical trials.

  8. Cross-talk between PKA-Cβ and p65 mediates synergistic induction of PDE4B by roflumilast and NTHi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki-Miyata, Seiko; Miyata, Masanori; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Xu, Haidong; Kai, Hirofumi; Yan, Chen; Li, Jian-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) plays a key role in regulating inflammation. Roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase (PDE)4-selective inhibitor, has recently been approved for treating severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with exacerbation. However, there is also clinical evidence suggesting the development of tachyphylaxis or tolerance on repeated dosing of roflumilast and the possible contribution of PDE4B up-regulation, which could be counterproductive for suppressing inflammation. Thus, understanding how PDE4B is up-regulated in the context of the complex pathogenesis and medications of COPD may help improve the efficacy and possibly ameliorate the tolerance of roflumilast. Here we show that roflumilast synergizes with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a major bacterial cause of COPD exacerbation, to up-regulate PDE4B2 expression in human airway epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Up-regulated PDE4B2 contributes to the induction of certain important chemokines in both enzymatic activity-dependent and activity-independent manners. We also found that protein kinase A catalytic subunit β (PKA-Cβ) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit were required for the synergistic induction of PDE4B2. PKA-Cβ phosphorylates p65 in a cAMP-dependent manner. Moreover, Ser276 of p65 is critical for mediating the PKA-Cβ–induced p65 phosphorylation and the synergistic induction of PDE4B2. Collectively, our data unveil a previously unidentified mechanism underlying synergistic up-regulation of PDE4B2 via a cross-talk between PKA-Cβ and p65 and may help develop new therapeutic strategies to improve the efficacy of PDE4 inhibitor. PMID:25831493

  9. Synergistic antitumor effects of radiation and proteasome inhibitor treatment in pancreatic cancer through the induction of autophagy and the downregulation of TRAF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Lin, Shu-Wen; Lin, Li-Ching; Hsu, Yung-Ho; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2015-09-01

    Ninety percent of human pancreatic cancer is characterized by activating K-RAS mutations. TRAF6 is an oncogene that plays a vital role in K-RAS-mediated oncogenesis. We investigated the synergistic effect of combining ionizing radiation (IR) and proteasome inhibitor (MG132). Furthermore, following combined treatment with IR and MG132, we analyzed the expression of TRAF6 and the mechanism of human pancreatic cancer cell death in vitro and in an orthotopic pancreatic cancer mouse model. The combined treatment groups displayed synergistic cell killing effects and induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in human pancreatic cancer cells. The combined treatment groups were characterized by enhanced cytotoxicity, which resulted from increased autophagy induction through the inhibition of TRAF6. Significantly reduced cytotoxicity was observed following MG132 and IR treatment of MIA PaCa-2 cells pre-treated with 3-MA (an autophagy inhibitor). Down-regulation of TRAF6 led to a significant increase in apoptosis and autophagy. In an orthotopic xenograft model of SCID mice, combination MG132 and IR therapy resulted in a significant increase in the tumor growth delay time and a decreased tumor tissue expression of TRAF6. IR combined with a proteasome inhibitor or TRAF6 inhibition could represent a new therapeutic strategy for human pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synergistic interaction of gamma rays and some metallic salts in the induction of chlorophyll mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, T.P.; Vaidyanath, K.

    1978-01-01

    In this study the mutagenic activity of 9 metallic salts was tested in comparison and conjunction with gamma rays on rice seed. In M 2 , barium and cadmium produced chlorophyll mutation and mutant frequencies on a par with those of 20 kR gamma rays. Similarly, copper and mercury induced moderately high mutation and mutant frequencies. Salts of strontium, iron and lead showed rather weak mutagenic effects. On the other hand, two metals - manganese anc calcium - failed to provoke chlorophyll mutations in rice seed. Sequential treatments of gamma rays + 5 metals, namely Sr, Cd, Hg, Pb and Cu, produced synergistic yields of chlorophyll mutants in the M 2 generation. Two genetically active metals, Ba and Fe, showed less than additive effects when post-treated after gamma irradiation. Manganese, which failed to induce chlorophyll mutations in independent treatment, potentiated the mutagenic activity of gamma radiation in sequential treatment. On the other hand, sequential treatment with calcium seemed to confer a substantial protection against gamma-ray-induced genetic lesions. The probable mechanisms of synergistic interaction, mutagenic potentiation and protection, observed in sequential treatments, are discussed. (Auth.)

  11. Synergistic effects of parabens on the induction of calbindin-D(9k) gene expression act via a progesterone receptor-mediated pathway in GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Nguyen, T-T; An, B-S; Choi, K-C; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-02-01

    Although the endocrine-disrupting bioactivity of parabens is weakly estrogenic (parabens are xenoestrogens), their combined synergistic effect is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben (EP), propyl paraben (PP), isopropyl paraben (IPP), butyl paraben (BP), and isobutyl paraben (IBP), either alone or in combination (MP + EP + PP + BP; PP + IPP; and BP + IBP) on the induction of the estrogenic biomarker gene, calbindin-D(9k) (CaBP-9k), in rat pituitary lactosomatotrophic GH3 cells. The expression of CaBP-9k mRNA and protein was analyzed using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. After 24 h of treatment, a significant increase in CaBP-9k expression was observed. This was dependent upon the length of the paraben alkyl chains (shortest in MP and longest in IBP). Interestingly, the synergistic effects of these paraben combinations were observed at a dose (10(-5) M) of these parabens, which induced the highest expression of CaBP-9k mRNA and protein. To investigate the involvement of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs), through which parabens exert their effects, the expression levels of ERα and PR-B were also examined. The expression of ERα mRNA and protein fluctuated after paraben treatment in GH3 cells, which was not significant. However, the expression level of ERα gene was induced when cotreated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and ICI 182, 780 (estrogen receptor antagonist). The different combinations of parabens induced the expression of the PR-B gene, which was abolished by cotreatment with ICI 182,780. The expression patterns of CaBP-9k and PR-B genes appeared to be similar in response to paraben treatments. This implied that CaBP-9k expression in GH3 cells may be induced by parabens via a PR-mediated pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that exposure to multiple parabens at low concentrations may increase their synergistic estrogenic activities in GH3 cells

  12. Molecular mechanisms of synergistic induction of apoptosis by the combination therapy with hyperthermia and cisplatin in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Fu; Yan, Xiang-Ming; Lan, Bin; Lei, Yin-Rui; Li, Xiao-Hu; Gao, Shuai; Guo, Yi-Feng; Guo, Fang

    2016-10-14

    Prostate Cancer has become the second leading cause of male cancer-related incidence and mortality in United States. Hyperthermia (HT) is known to serve as a powerful tool in treatment of prostate cancer in clinical. The combination treatment with HT and cisplatin has a synergistic effect to inhibit prostate cancer progression and demonstrates better clinical effectiveness than HT or chemotherapy alone. But molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon have not been illuminated clearly. In this study, we used MTS assay to examine cell viabilities of PC-3, LNCaP, DU-145 and RM-1 cells after treated by HT and cisplatin. Then colony formation of PC-3 and DU-145 cells after treated with HT and cisplatin were photographed. To investigate whether the combination therapy would enhance apoptosis of PC-3 and DU-145 cells, we used Western blot analysis to detect expression level of proteins on apoptosis-regulated signaling pathway in PC-3 and DU-145 cells. Our results showed that the combination treatment decreased cell viabilities and colony formation of prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and this combination therapy enhanced apoptosis of PC-3 and DU-145 cells via activation of Caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. We also found that the combination therapy could down-regulate the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and IAP family proteins. At last, the combination therapy activated AMPKα-JNK signaling pathway and inhibited Akt-mTOR-p70s6k signaling pathway to promote apoptosis of PC-3 and DU-145 cells. In conclusion, this study clearly elucidated how the combination therapy with HT and cisplatin promoted apoptosis of prostate cancer cells in synergy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tetrahydrobiopterin, l-Arginine and Vitamin C Act Synergistically to Decrease Oxidative Stress, Increase Nitric Oxide and Improve Blood Flow after Induction of Hindlimb Ischemia in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinglian; Tie, Guodong; Messina, Louis M

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a potent vasodilator and signaling molecule that plays an essential role in vascular remodeling of collateral arteries and perfusion recovery in response to hindlimb ischemia. In ischemic conditions, decreased NO bioavailability was observed because of increased oxidative stress, decreased l-arginine and tetrahy-drobiopterin. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary cosupplementation with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), l-arginine, and vitamin C acts synergistically to decrease oxidative stress, increase nitric oxide and improve blood flow in response to acute hindlimb ischemia. Rats were fed normal chow, chow supplemented with BH4 or l-arginine (alone or in combination) or chow supplemented with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C for 1 wk before induction of unilateral hindlimb ischemia. Cosupplementation with BH4 + l-arginine resulted in greater eNOS expression, Ca2+-dependent NOS activity and NO concentration in gastrocnemius from the is-chemic hindlimb, as well as greater recovery of foot perfusion and more collateral artery enlargement than did rats receiving either agent separately. The addition of vitamin C to the BH4 + l-arginine regimen did further increase these dependent variables, although only the increase in eNOS expression reached statistical significances. In addition, rats given all three supplements demonstrated significantly less Ca2+-independent activity, less nitrotyrosine accumulation, greater glutathione:glutathione disulfide (GSH:GSSG) ratio and less gastrocnemius muscle necrosis, on both macroscopic and microscopic levels. In conclusion, cosupplementation with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C significantly increased vascular perfusion after hindlimb ischemia by increasing eNOS activity and reducing oxidative stress and tissue necrosis. Oral cosupplementation of l-arginine, BH4 and vitamin C holds promise as a biological therapy to induce collateral artery enlargement. PMID

  14. Synergistic Induction of Eotaxin and VCAM-1 Expression in Human Corneal Fibroblasts by Staphylococcal Peptidoglycan and Either IL-4 or IL-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Fukuda

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Interaction of innate and adaptive immunity, as manifested by synergistic stimulation of eotaxin and VCAM-1 expression in corneal fibroblasts by peptidoglycan and Th2 cytokines, may play an important role in tissue eosinophilia associated with ocular allergy.

  15. Toxicological responses of environmental mixtures: Environmental metal mixtures display synergistic induction of metal-responsive and oxidative stress genes in placental cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebambo, Oluwadamilare A; Ray, Paul D; Shea, Damian; Fry, Rebecca C

    2015-12-15

    Exposure to elevated levels of the toxic metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) represents a major global health problem. These metals often occur as mixtures in the environment, creating the potential for interactive or synergistic biological effects different from those observed in single exposure conditions. In the present study, environmental mixtures collected from two waste sites in China and comparable mixtures prepared in the laboratory were tested for toxicogenomic response in placental JEG-3 cells. These cells serve as a model for evaluating cellular responses to exposures during pregnancy. One of the mixtures was predominated by iAs and one by Cd. Six gene biomarkers were measured in order to evaluate the effects from the metal mixtures using dose and time-course experiments including: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and metallothionein isoforms (MT1A, MT1F and MT1G) previously shown to be preferentially induced by exposure to either iAs or Cd, and metal transporter genes aquaporin-9 (AQP9) and ATPase, Cu(2+) transporting, beta polypeptide (ATP7B). There was a significant increase in the mRNA expression levels of ATP7B, HO-1, MT1A, MT1F, and MT1G in mixture-treated cells compared to the iAs or Cd only-treated cells. Notably, the genomic responses were observed at concentrations significantly lower than levels found at the environmental collection sites. These data demonstrate that metal mixtures increase the expression of gene biomarkers in placental JEG-3 cells in a synergistic manner. Taken together, the data suggest that toxic metals that co-occur may induce detrimental health effects that are currently underestimated when analyzed as single metals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Synergistic effects in mixed Escherichia coli biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Holler, B.M.; Molin, Søren

    2006-01-01

    the pathways governing development of more complex heterogeneous communities. In this study, we established a laboratory model where biofilm-stimulating effects due to interactions between genetically diverse strains of Escherichia coli were monitored. Synergistic induction of biofilm formation resulting from...... the cocultivation of 403 undomesticated E. coli strains with a characterized E. coli K-12 strain was detected at a significant frequency. The survey suggests that different mechanisms underlie the observed stimulation, yet synergistic development of biofilm within the subset of E. coli isolates (n = 56) exhibiting...... the strongest effects was most often linked to conjugative transmission of natural plasmids carried by the E. coli isolates (70%). Thus, the capacity of an isolate to promote the biofilm through cocultivation was (i) transferable to the K-12 strain, (ii) was linked with the acquisition of conjugation genes...

  17. Synergistic induction of CX3CL1 by TNF alpha and IFN gamma in osteoblasts from rheumatoid arthritis: involvement of NF-kappa B and STAT-1 signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuninobu Wakabayashi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Takeo Isozaki, Tsuyoshi Kasama, Ryo Takahashi, Tsuyoshi Odai, Kuninobu Wakabayashi, Hirohito Kanemitsu, Kyoko Nohtomi, Hiroko T Takeuchi, Satoshi Matsukura, Masakazu TezukaDivision of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, and the Department of Orthopedics, Denencyofu Central Hospital, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: To explore the regulation of CX3CL1 in inflammatory bone diseases, CX3CL1 expression by osteoblasts (OB was examined. Human OB isolated from rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, osteoarthritis patients, and normal individuals were incubated in the presence of cytokines. Soluble CX3CL1 levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of CX3CL1 mRNA was examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α or interferon (IFN-γ alone RA OB induced negligible CX3CL1 secretion, the combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ induced dramatic increases in both soluble CX3CL1 protein and mRNA transcripts. This synergistic effect was more pronounced in OB from RA than in OB from either osteoarthritis or normal individuals. The expression of CX3CL1 was markedly reduced by specific inhibitors of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB or STAT-1 transcription factor. These findings suggest that osteoblasts are an important cellular source of CX3CL1 and may play roles in inflammatory bone/joint diseases.Keywords: osteoblast, CX3CL1, chemokine, NF-κB, STAT-1

  18. Sustained induction of cytochrome P4501A1 in human hepatoma cells by co-exposure to benzo[a]pyrene and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole underlies the synergistic effects on DNA adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gábelová, Alena, E-mail: alena.gabelova@savba.sk [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Poláková, Veronika [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Prochazka, Gabriela [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Kretová, Miroslava; Poloncová, Katarína; Regendová, Eva; Luciaková, Katarína [Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Vlárska 7, 833 91 Bratislava (Slovakia); Segerbäck, Dan [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    To gain a deeper insight into the potential interactions between individual aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture, several benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) binary mixtures were studied. The biological activity of the binary mixtures was investigated in the HepG2 and WB-F344 liver cell lines and the Chinese hamster V79 cell line that stably expresses the human cytochrome P4501A1 (hCYP1A1). In the V79 cells, binary mixtures, in contrast to individual carcinogens, caused a significant decrease in the levels of micronuclei, DNA adducts and gene mutations, but not in cell survival. Similarly, a lower frequency of micronuclei and levels of DNA adducts were found in rat liver WB-F344 cells treated with a binary mixture, regardless of the exposure time. The observed antagonism between B[a]P and DBC may be due to an inhibition of Cyp1a1 expression because cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC showed a decrease in Cyp1a1 mRNA levels. In human liver HepG2 cells exposed to binary mixtures for 2 h, a reduction in micronuclei frequency was also found. However, after a 24 h treatment, synergism between B[a]P and DBC was determined based on DNA adduct formation. Accordingly, the up-regulation of CYP1A1 expression was detected in HepG2 cells exposed to B[a]P:DBC. Our results show significant differences in the response of human and rat cells to B[a]P:DBC mixtures and stress the need to use multiple experimental systems when evaluating the potential risk of environmental pollutants. Our data also indicate that an increased expression of CYP1A1 results in a synergistic effect of B[a]P and DBC in human cells. As humans are exposed to a plethora of noxious chemicals, our results have important implications for human carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • B[a]P:DBC mixtures were less genotoxic in V79MZh1A1 cells than B[a]P and DBC alone. • An antagonism between B[a]P and DBC was determined in rat liver WB-F344 cells. • The inhibition of CYP1a1 expression by B[a]P:DBC mixture

  19. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    which proven synergists cease to act as synergists towards the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. To do this, we compared several approaches and test-setups to evaluate which approach gives the most conservative estimate for the lower threshold for synergy for three known azole synergists. We focus.......619±8.555μgL(-1)) and 0.122±0.0417μM (40.236±13.75μgL(-1)), respectively, in the 14-days tests. Testing synergy in relation to concentration addition provided the most conservative values. The threshold values for the vertical assessments in tests where the two could be compared were in general 1.2 to 4.......7 fold higher than the horizontal assessments. Using passive dosing rather than dilution series or spiking did not lower the threshold significantly. Below the threshold for synergy, slight antagony could often be observed. This is most likely due to induction of enzymes active in metabolization of alpha...

  20. Labor Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ154 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Labor Induction • What is labor induction? • Why is labor induced? • What is the Bishop score? • What is “ripening ...

  1. Induction cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosbety, Y. [Ugine Aciers, 73 (France)

    1994-10-01

    The principles of heating by electromagnetic induction, the large families of induction hobs and key figures of the rapidity developing market. Performances and interests of induction (energy savings, rapidity and precision of heating, safety). Steels used: ferritic stainless steels alone or three-layer materials. (author). 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The principle of linear induction acceleration is described, and examples are given of practical configurations for induction linacs. These examples include the Advanced Technology Accelerator, Long Pulse Induction Linac, Radial Line Accelerator (RADLAC), and Magnetically-Insulated Electron-Focussed Ion Linac. A related concept, the auto accelerator, is described in which the high-current electron-beam technology in the sub-10 MeV region is exploited to produce electron beams at energies perhaps as high as the 100 to 1000 MeV range. Induction linacs for ions are also discussed. The efficiency of induction linear acceleration is analyzed

  3. Determining lower threshold concentrations for synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Kretschmann, Andreas; Nørgaard, Katrine Banke; Mayer, Philipp; Cedergreen, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Though only occurring rarely, synergistic interactions between chemicals in mixtures have long been a point of focus. Most studies analyzing synergistic interactions used unrealistically high chemical concentrations. The aim of the present study is to determine the threshold concentration below which proven synergists cease to act as synergists towards the aquatic crustacean Daphnia magna. To do this, we compared several approaches and test-setups to evaluate which approach gives the most conservative estimate for the lower threshold for synergy for three known azole synergists. We focus on synergistic interactions between the pyrethroid insecticide, alpha-cypermethrin, and one of the three azole fungicides prochloraz, propiconazole or epoxiconazole measured on Daphnia magna immobilization. Three different experimental setups were applied: A standard 48h acute toxicity test, an adapted 48h test using passive dosing for constant chemical exposure concentrations, and a 14-day test. Synergy was defined as occuring in mixtures where either EC 50 values decreased more than two-fold below what was predicted by concentration addition (horizontal assessment) or as mixtures where the fraction of immobile organisms increased more than two-fold above what was predicted by independent action (vertical assessment). All three tests confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of a lower azole threshold concentration below which no synergistic interaction was observed. The lower threshold concentration, however, decreased with increasing test duration from 0.026±0.013μM (9.794±4.897μgL -1 ), 0.425±0.089μM (145.435±30.46μgL -1 ) and 0.757±0.253μM (249.659±83.44μgL -1 ) for prochloraz, propiconazole and epoxiconazole in standard 48h toxicity tests to 0.015±0.004μM (5.651±1.507μgL -1 ), 0.145±0.025μM (49.619±8.555μgL -1 ) and 0.122±0.0417μM (40.236±13.75μgL -1 ), respectively, in the 14-days tests. Testing synergy in relation to concentration addition provided

  4. Synergistic Moel of Organizational Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard O.

    1985-01-01

    Defines the concept of the synergistic model of organizational structure. The primary components of the model are cooperative action and job integration, which have as a direct result the increased energy in staff members using the model. (MD)

  5. Inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Induction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; Tokunaga, M.

    1984-01-01

    Induction period is the temporal aspect of the excess cancer risk that follows an exposure to ionizing radiation. Operationally, it can be thought of as the time from an exposure of brief duration to the diagnosis of any resultant cancer. Whereas the magnitude of excess risk can be described by a single number, such as the average yearly excess risk over some fixed time interval after exposure, the temporal distribution requires a histogram or a curve, that is, an array or continuum of numbers. The study of induction period involves a search for a simple way of describing the temporal distribution of risk, that is, a way of describing a continuum by using only one or two numbers. In other words, the goal is to describe induction period probabilistically, using a parametric model with a few parameters

  7. Induction Brazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul

    Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The present report...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for determination of appropriate/optimiged coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper...

  8. Induction accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  9. Induction practice -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Nicolas; Sprogøe, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    Research on induction of newcomers is primarily focused on individual processes, such as acquisition of knowledge and socialization in order to create a smooth and frictionless entry period. The interest of our research, however, is the processes that happen on the organizational level. We claim...... that induction potentially triggers both individual and organizational learning and by drawing on practice-based theory we discuss how the interplay between individual and the organization, what we call agenerative dance, ignites both kinds of learning. We focus on and describe the interplay , ignites both kinds...... of learning. We focus on and describe the interplay that takes place in particular induction events and analyze the "dance" through the lens of learning. The paper concludes with a brief discussion about the implications for practitioners and the challenges and future research prospects we have encountered...

  10. Silica ecosystem for synergistic biotransformation

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Baris R.; Sakkos, Jonathan K.; Yeom, Sujin; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2016-01-01

    Synergistical bacterial species can perform more varied and complex transformations of chemical substances than either species alone, but this is rarely used commercially because of technical difficulties in maintaining mixed cultures. Typical problems with mixed cultures on scale are unrestrained growth of one bacterium, which leads to suboptimal population ratios, and lack of control over bacterial spatial distribution, which leads to inefficient substrate transport. To address these issues...

  11. Synergistic Interactions in Multispecies Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Dawei

    that the plasmid host range can be greatly affected by the surrounding bacterial community. This needs to be taken into account as many antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants are plasmid-encoded, which can spread further and raise antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil....... bacterial species, the study to elucidate the impact of interaction networks on the multispecies biofilms in natural ecosystems, especially in soil, is still at an early stage. The diverse patterns of interactions within the mixed communities as well as the predatorprey relationship between protozoa...... interactions in this four-species biofilm model community. Manuscript 2 presents the further application of this developed approach on evaluating the synergistic/antagonistic interactions in multispecies biofilms composed of seven soil isolates. 63% of the four-species biofilms were found to interact...

  12. Synergistic Interactions in Multispecies Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Dawei

    structured aggregation consisting of multiple species of bacteria whose function relies on a complex web of cooperative and/or competitive interactions between community members, indicating that research in “whole-entity” should not be based on the assembled results from “mono pieces”. As one of the best...... bacterial species, the study to elucidate the impact of interaction networks on the multispecies biofilms in natural ecosystems, especially in soil, is still at an early stage. The diverse patterns of interactions within the mixed communities as well as the predatorprey relationship between protozoa...... interactions in this four-species biofilm model community. Manuscript 2 presents the further application of this developed approach on evaluating the synergistic/antagonistic interactions in multispecies biofilms composed of seven soil isolates. 63% of the four-species biofilms were found to interact...

  13. Rhinovirus-bacteria coexposure synergistically induces CCL20 production from human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Barbara A; Jamieson, Kyla C; Arnason, Jason W; Kooi, Cora; Wiehler, Shahina; Traves, Suzanne L; Leigh, Richard; Proud, David

    2017-05-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are triggered by viral or bacterial pathogens, with human rhinovirus (HRV) and nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHI) among the most commonly detected pathogens. Patients who suffer from concomitant viral and bacterial infection have more severe exacerbations. The airway epithelial cell is the initial site of viral and bacterial interactions, and CCL20 is an epithelial chemokine that attracts immature dendritic cells to the airways and can act as an antimicrobial. As such, it contributes to innate and adaptive immune responses to infection. We used primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells and the BEAS-2B cell line to examine the effects of bacterial-viral coexposure, as well as each stimulus alone, on epithelial expression of CXCL8 and, in particular, CCL20. HRV-bacterial coexposure induced synergistic production of CXCL8 and CCL20 compared with the sum of each stimulus alone. Synergistic induction of CCL20 did not require viral replication and occurred with two different HRV serotypes that use different viral receptors. Synergy was also seen with either NTHI or Pseudomonas aeruginosa Synergistic induction of CCL20 was transcriptionally regulated. Although NF-κB was required for transcription, it did not regulate synergy, but NF-IL-6 did appear to contribute. Among MAPK inhibitors studied, neither SB203580 nor PD98059 had any effect on synergy, whereas U0126 prevented synergistic induction of CCL20 by HRV and bacteria, apparently via "off-target" effects. Thus bacterial-viral coexposure synergistically increases innate immune responses compared with individual infections. We speculate that this increased inflammatory response leads to worse clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Nanotechnology for Multimodal Synergistic Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenpei; Yung, Bryant; Huang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-11-22

    The complexity, diversity, and heterogeneity of tumors seriously undermine the therapeutic potential of treatment. Therefore, the current trend in clinical research has gradually shifted from a focus on monotherapy to combination therapy for enhanced treatment efficacy. More importantly, the cooperative enhancement interactions between several types of monotherapy contribute to the naissance of multimodal synergistic therapy, which results in remarkable superadditive (namely "1 + 1 > 2") effects, stronger than any single therapy or their theoretical combination. In this review, state-of-the-art studies concerning recent advances in nanotechnology-mediated multimodal synergistic therapy will be systematically discussed, with an emphasis on the construction of multifunctional nanomaterials for realizing bimodal and trimodal synergistic therapy as well as the intensive exploration of the underlying synergistic mechanisms for explaining the significant improvements in synergistic therapeutic outcome. Furthermore, the featured applications of multimodal synergistic therapy in overcoming tumor multidrug resistance, hypoxia, and metastasis will also be discussed in detail, which may provide new ways for the efficient regression and even elimination of drug resistant, hypoxic solid, or distant metastatic tumors. Finally, some design tips for multifunctional nanomaterials and an outlook on the future development of multimodal synergistic therapy will be provided, highlighting key scientific issues and technical challenges and requiring remediation to accelerate clinical translation.

  15. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    an induction principle that combines the comfort of structural induction with the expressive strength of transfinite induction. Using lexicographic path induction, we give a consistency proof of Martin-Löf’s intuitionistic theory of inductive definitions. The consistency of Heyting arithmetic follows directly...

  16. Silica ecosystem for synergistic biotransformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Baris R.; Sakkos, Jonathan K.; Yeom, Sujin; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Aksan, Alptekin

    2016-06-01

    Synergistical bacterial species can perform more varied and complex transformations of chemical substances than either species alone, but this is rarely used commercially because of technical difficulties in maintaining mixed cultures. Typical problems with mixed cultures on scale are unrestrained growth of one bacterium, which leads to suboptimal population ratios, and lack of control over bacterial spatial distribution, which leads to inefficient substrate transport. To address these issues, we designed and produced a synthetic ecosystem by co-encapsulation in a silica gel matrix, which enabled precise control of the microbial populations and their microenvironment. As a case study, two greatly different microorganisms: Pseudomonas sp. NCIB 9816 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 were encapsulated. NCIB 9816 can aerobically biotransform over 100 aromatic hydrocarbons, a feat useful for synthesis of higher value commodity chemicals or environmental remediation. In our system, NCIB 9816 was used for biotransformation of naphthalene (a model substrate) into CO2 and the cyanobacterium PCC 7942 was used to provide the necessary oxygen for the biotransformation reactions via photosynthesis. A mathematical model was constructed to determine the critical cell density parameter to maximize oxygen production, and was then used to maximize the biotransformation rate of the system.

  17. Statistical metamodeling for revealing synergistic antimicrobial interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Chia Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens are becoming drug resistant faster than we can develop new antimicrobials. To address this threat in public health, a metamodel antimicrobial cocktail optimization (MACO scheme is demonstrated for rapid screening of potent antibiotic cocktails using uropathogenic clinical isolates as model systems. With the MACO scheme, only 18 parallel trials were required to determine a potent antimicrobial cocktail out of hundreds of possible combinations. In particular, trimethoprim and gentamicin were identified to work synergistically for inhibiting the bacterial growth. Sensitivity analysis indicated gentamicin functions as a synergist for trimethoprim, and reduces its minimum inhibitory concentration for 40-fold. Validation study also confirmed that the trimethoprim-gentamicin synergistic cocktail effectively inhibited the growths of multiple strains of uropathogenic clinical isolates. With its effectiveness and simplicity, the MACO scheme possesses the potential to serve as a generic platform for identifying synergistic antimicrobial cocktails toward management of bacterial infection in the future.

  18. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  19. Intrinsic synergistic-topological mechanism versus synergistic-topological matrix in microtubule self-organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buljan Vlado A

    2014-12-01

    Overall our data indicate that under crowded conditions in vitro, the self-organization of a microtubule fiber is governed by an intrinsic synergistic-topological mechanism, which in conjunction with the topological changes, GTP-tubulin depletion, and cooperative motion of fiber constituting microtubules, may generate and maintain a ‘synergistic-topological matrix’. Failure of the mechanism to form biologically feasible microtubule synergistic-topological matrix may, per se, precondition tumorigenesis.

  20. Synergistic effects in plasma surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, J.B.; Behrisch, R.

    1984-01-01

    The possible synergistic effects which can contribute to plasma surface interaction phenomena in fusion devices are reviewed. These effects include the influence of reactive ions, surface modification, temperature, radiation damage, and external forces and fields on erosion yields, hydrogen retention and release, and other surface processes. The important synergistic effects are described in terms of surface and edge conditions encountered in present fusion devices and expected in future reactors. Priority data needs include the chemical erosion of graphite at high particle fluxes, melt-layer stability under disruption-induced eddy current forces, the influence of bulk neutron damage on hydrogen retention, and an in-situ evaluation of synergistic effects in operating fusion devices

  1. SYNERGISTIC ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF STEM BARK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. The study was aimed at screening the stem bark extracts of Faidherbia albida and Psidium guajava for synergistic antibacterial effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The powdered plant materials were extracted with methanol using cold maceration technique and the extracts were ...

  2. Modelling synergistic effects of appetite regulating hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects...

  3. Synergistic Antimicrobial Activities Of Phytoestrogens In Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts of both leaves were studied for their in-vitro synergistic antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative micro-organisms, and Yeast using Agar diffusion method. The GC-MS phytochemical screening of methanolic extract showed that the major compounds in ...

  4. Inductive Monitoring System (IMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMS: Inductive Monitoring System The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a tool that uses a data mining technique called clustering to extract models of normal...

  5. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  6. Biomimetism, biomimetic matrices and the induction of bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Ugo

    2009-09-01

    the induction of bone formation, the emergence of the skeleton, of the vertebrates and of Homo species * Different strategies for the induction of bone formation. Biological significance of redundancy and synergistic induction of bone formation. Biomimetism and biomimetic matrices self-assembling the induction of bone formation The concavity: the shape of life and the induction of bone formation. Influence of geometry on the expression of the osteogenic phenotype. Conclusion and therapeutic perspectives on porous biomimetic matrices with intrinsic osteoinductivity Bone formation by induction initiates by invocation of osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily; when combined with insoluble signals or substrata, the osteogenic soluble signals trigger the ripple-like cascade of cell differentiation into osteoblastic cell lines secreting bone matrix at site of surgical implantation. A most exciting and novel strategy to initiate bone formation by induction is to carve smart self-inducing geometric concavities assembled within biomimetic constructs. The assembly of a series of repetitive concavities within the biomimetic constructs is endowed with the striking prerogative of differentiating osteoblast-like cells attached to the biomimetic matrices initiating the induction of bone formation as a secondary response. Importantly, the induction of bone formation is initiated without the exogenous application of the osteogenic soluble molecular signals of the TGF-beta superfamily. This manuscript reviews the available data on this fascinating phenomenon, i.e. biomimetic matrices that arouse and set into motion the mammalian natural ability to heal thus constructing biomimetic matrices that in their own right set into motion inductive regenerative phenomena initiating the cascade of bone differentiation by induction biomimetizing the remodelling cycle of the primate cortico-cancellous bone.

  7. Synergistic effects in threshold models on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Jonas S.; Porter, Mason A.

    2018-01-01

    Network structure can have a significant impact on the propagation of diseases, memes, and information on social networks. Different types of spreading processes (and other dynamical processes) are affected by network architecture in different ways, and it is important to develop tractable models of spreading processes on networks to explore such issues. In this paper, we incorporate the idea of synergy into a two-state ("active" or "passive") threshold model of social influence on networks. Our model's update rule is deterministic, and the influence of each meme-carrying (i.e., active) neighbor can—depending on a parameter—either be enhanced or inhibited by an amount that depends on the number of active neighbors of a node. Such a synergistic system models social behavior in which the willingness to adopt either accelerates or saturates in a way that depends on the number of neighbors who have adopted that behavior. We illustrate that our model's synergy parameter has a crucial effect on system dynamics, as it determines whether degree-k nodes are possible or impossible to activate. We simulate synergistic meme spreading on both random-graph models and networks constructed from empirical data. Using a heterogeneous mean-field approximation, which we derive under the assumption that a network is locally tree-like, we are able to determine which synergy-parameter values allow degree-k nodes to be activated for many networks and for a broad family of synergistic models.

  8. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  9. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  10. Sequential inductive learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratch, J. [Univ. of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This article advocates a new model for inductive learning. Called sequential induction, it helps bridge classical fixed-sample learning techniques (which are efficient but difficult to formally characterize), and worst-case approaches (which provide strong statistical guarantees but are too inefficient for practical use). Learning proceeds as a sequence of decisions which are informed by training data. By analyzing induction at the level of these decisions, and by utilizing the only enough data to make each decision, sequential induction provides statistical guarantees but with substantially less data than worst-case methods require. The sequential inductive model is also useful as a method for determining a sufficient sample size for inductive learning and as such, is relevant to learning problems where the preponderance of data or the cost of gathering data precludes the use of traditional methods.

  11. Maxwell's inductions from Faraday's induction law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redžić, D. V.

    2018-03-01

    In article 598 of his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (Maxwell 1891 A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (Oxford: Clarendon)), Maxwell gives a seminal analysis of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. We present a detailed account of the analysis, attempting to reconstruct the missing steps, and discuss some related matters.

  12. Induction Therapy for Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Isabelle; Weder, Walter

    2015-01-01

    One particular approach of multimodality treatment for mesothelioma is induction therapy followed by surgery. Among its several advantages, the most important is downstaging of the tumor into a resectable stage, although morbidity and mortality might be increased. In this article we review the principles and outcome of different modalities for induction treatment of mesothelioma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Urofollitropin and ovulation induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, Madelon; Yding Andersen, Claus; Bayram, Neriman; van der Veen, Fulco

    2005-01-01

    Anovulation is a common cause of female infertility. Treatment for women with anovulation is aimed at induction of ovulation. Ovulation induction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is indicated in women with WHO type II anovulation in whom treatment with clomifene citrate (clomifene) has

  14. Half Bridge Inductive Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán GERMÁN-SALLÓ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating performs contactless, efficient and fast heating of conductive materials, therefore became one of the preferred heating procedure in industrial, domestic and medical applications. During induction heating the high-frequency alternating currents that heat the material are induced by means of electromagnetic induction. The material to be heated is placed inside the time-varying magnetic field generated by applying a highfrequency alternating current to an induction coil. The alternating electromagnetic field induces eddy currents in the workpiece, resulting resistive losses, which then heat the material. This paper describes the design of a power electronic converter circuit for induction heating equipment and presents the obtained results. The realized circuit is a low power half bridge resonant inverter which uses power MOS transistors and adequate driver circuits.

  15. White piedra: further evidence of a synergistic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youker, Summer R; Andreozzi, Robert J; Appelbaum, Peter C; Credito, Kim; Miller, Jeffrey J

    2003-10-01

    White piedra is a fungal infection of the hair shaft caused by Trichosporon beigelii. A synergistic coryneform bacterial infection is often present with T beigelii. White piedra, although not commonly reported to infect scalp hair in North America, is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of scalp hair concretions. We report a case of white piedra of scalp hair with synergistic coryneform bacterial infection in two sisters, both US natives. Culture and light and electronmicroscopic evidence of the synergistic infection are presented.

  16. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  17. Synergistic drug combinations improve therapeutic selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehàr, Joseph; Krueger, Andrew S.; Avery, William; Heilbut, Adrian M.; Johansen, Lisa M.; Price, E. Roydon; Rickles, Richard J.; Short, Glenn F.; Staunton, Jane E.; Jin, Xiaowei; Lee, Margaret S.; Zimmermann, Grant R.; Borisy, Alexis A.

    2009-01-01

    Prevailing drug discovery approaches focus on compounds with molecular selectivity, inhibiting disease-relevant targets over others in vitro. However in vivo, many such agents are not therapeutically selective, either because of undesirable activity at effective doses or because the biological system responds to compensate. In theory, drug combinations should permit increased control of such complex biology, but there is a common concern that therapeutic synergy will generally be mirrored by synergistic side-effects. Here we provide evidence, from 94,110 multi-dose combination experiments representing diverse disease areas and large scale flux balance simulations of inhibited bacterial metabolism, that multi-target synergies are more specific than single agent activities to particular cellular contexts. Using an anti-inflammatory combination, we show how multi-target synergy can achieve therapeutic selectivity in animals through differential target expression. Synergistic combinations can increase the number of selective therapies using the current pharmacopeia, and offer opportunities for more precise control of biological systems. PMID:19581876

  18. Enhancement of auranofin-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cells by selenocystine, a synergistic inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoran Liu

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin system plays an important role in regulation of intracellular redox balance and various signaling pathways. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR is overexpressed in many cancer cells and has been identified as a potential target of anticancer drugs. Auranofin (AF is potent TrxR inhibitor with novel in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. Selenocystine (SeC is a nutritionally available selenoamino acid with selective anticancer effects through induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrated the synergistic effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of SeC in combination with AF on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The results showed that SeC and AF synergistically inhibited the cancer cell growth through induction of ROS-dependent apoptosis with the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction. DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation and down-regulation of phosphorylated AKT and ERK also contributed to cell apoptosis. Moreover, we demonstrated the important role of TrxR activity in the synergistic action of SeC and AF. Taken together, our results suggest the strategy to use SeC and AF in combination could be a highly efficient way to achieve anticancer synergism by targeting TrxR.

  19. Synergistic apoptosis induction in leukemic cells by the phosphatase inhibitor salubrinal and proteasome inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes C A Drexler

    Full Text Available Cells adapt to endoplasmic reticulum (ER-stress by arresting global protein synthesis while simultaneously activating specific transcription factors and their downstream targets. These processes are mediated in part by the phosphorylation-dependent inactivation of the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha. Following restoration of homeostasis protein synthesis is resumed when the serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1 dephosphorylates and reactivates eIF2alpha. Proteasome inhibitors, used to treat multiple myeloma patients evoke ER-stress and apoptosis by blocking the ER-associated degradation of misfolded proteins (ERAD, however, the role of eIF2alpha phosphorylation in leukemic cells under conditions of proteasome inhibitor-mediated ER stress is currently unclear.Bcr-Abl-positive and negative leukemic cell lines were used to investigate the functional implications of PP1-related phosphatase activities on eIF2alpha phosphorylation in proteasome inhibitor-mediated ER stress and apoptosis. Rather unexpectedly, salubrinal, a recently identified PP1 inhibitor capable to protect against ER stress in various model systems, strongly synergized with proteasome inhibitors to augment apoptotic death of different leukemic cell lines. Salubrinal treatment did not affect the phosphorlyation status of eIF2alpha. Furthermore, the proapoptotic effect of salubrinal occurred independently from the chemical nature of the proteasome inhibitor, was recapitulated by a second unrelated phosphatase inhibitor and was unaffected by overexpression of a dominant negative eIF2alpha S51A variant that can not be phosphorylated. Salubrinal further aggravated ER-stress and proteotoxicity inflicted by the proteasome inhibitors on the leukemic cells since characteristic ER stress responses, such as ATF4 and CHOP synthesis, XBP1 splicing, activation of MAP kinases and eventually apoptosis were efficiently abrogated by the translational inhibitor cycloheximide.Although PP1 activity does not play a major role in regulating the ER stress response in leukemic cells, phosphatase signaling nevertheless significantly limits proteasome inhibitor-mediated ER-stress and apoptosis. Inclusion of specific phosphatase inhibitors might therefore represent an option to improve current proteasome inhibitor-based treatment modalities for hematological cancers.

  20. Synergistic activity of letrozole and sorafenib on breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Mara A; Fumarola, Claudia; Alfieri, Roberta R; La Monica, Silvia; Cavazzoni, Andrea; Galetti, Maricla; Gatti, Rita; Belletti, Silvana; Harris, Adrian L; Fox, Stephen B; Evans, Dean B; Dowsett, Mitch; Martin, Lesley-Ann; Bottini, Alberto; Generali, Daniele; Petronini, Pier Giorgio

    2010-11-01

    Estrogens induce breast tumor cell proliferation by directly regulating gene expression via the estrogen receptor (ER) transcriptional activity and by affecting growth factor signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin Complex1 (mTORC1) cascades. In this study we demonstrated the preclinical therapeutic efficacy of combining the aromatase inhibitor letrozole with the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib in aromatase-expressing breast cancer cell lines. Treatment with letrozole reduced testosterone-driven cell proliferation, by inhibiting the synthesis of estrogens. Sorafenib inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner; this effect was not dependent on sorafenib-mediated inhibition of Raf1, but involved the down-regulation of mTORC1 and its targets p70S6K and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). At concentrations of 5-10 μM the growth-inhibitory effect of sorafenib was associated with the induction of apoptosis, as indicated by release of cytochrome c and Apoptosis-Inducing Factor into the cytosol, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-7, and PARP-1 cleavage. Combination of letrozole and sorafenib produced a synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation associated with an enhanced accumulation of cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle and with a down-regulation of the cell cycle regulatory proteins c-myc, cyclin D1, and phospho-Rb. In addition, longer experiments (12 weeks) demonstrated that sorafenib may be effective in preventing the acquisition of resistance towards letrozole. Together, these results indicate that combination of letrozole and sorafenib might constitute a promising approach to the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer.

  1. Thermal kinetic inductance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Thomas; Gades, Lisa; Miceli, Antonio; Quaranta, Orlando

    2016-12-20

    A microcalorimeter for radiation detection that uses superconducting kinetic inductance resonators as the thermometers. The detector is frequency-multiplexed which enables detector systems with a large number of pixels.

  2. Doubly fed induction machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  3. Linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for rf accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power is very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. This paper surveys the US induction linac technology with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs

  4. Induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean; Biringer, Anne; Lee, Lily; Dy, Jessica

    2013-09-01

    To review the most current literature in order to provide evidence-based recommendations to obstetrical care providers on induction of labour. Intervention in a pregnancy with induction of labour. Appropriate timing and method of induction, appropriate mode of delivery, and optimal maternal and perinatal outcomes. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., labour, induced, labour induction, cervical ripening) and key words (e.g., induce, induction, augmentation). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to the end of 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The evidence in this document was rated using criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventative Health Care (Table 1). SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Prostaglandins E(2) (cervical and vaginal) are effective agents of cervical ripening and induction of labour for an unfavourable cervix. (I) 2. Intravaginal prostaglandins E(2) are preferred to intracervical prostaglandins E(2) because they results in more timely vaginal deliveries. (I).

  5. Linear induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The development of linear induction accelerators has been motivated by applications requiring high-pulsed currents of charged particles at voltages exceeding the capability of single-stage, diode-type accelerators and at currents too high for r.f. accelerators. In principle, one can accelerate charged particles to arbitrarily high voltages using a multi-stage induction machine, but the 50-MeV, 10-kA Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL is the highest voltage machine in existence at this time. The advent of magnetic pulse power systems makes sustained operation at high-repetition rates practical, and this capability for high-average power in very likely to open up many new applications of induction machines in the future. The US induction linac technology is surveyed with primary emphasis on electron machines. A simplified description of how induction machines couple energy to the electron beam is given, to illustrate many of the general issues that bound the design space of induction linacs. A key issue in all high-intensity linacs is that of beam instability

  6. Obesity and bipolar disorder: synergistic neurotoxic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Celina S; Carvalho, André F; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S

    2013-11-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a disabling and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that is typified by a complex illness presentation, episode recurrence and by its frequent association with psychiatric and medical comorbidities. Over the past decade, obesity has emerged as one of many comorbidities generating substantial concern in the BD population due to important prognostic implications. This comprehensive review details the bidirectional relationship between obesity and BD as evidenced by alterations in the structure and function of the central nervous system, in addition to greater depressive recurrence, cognitive dysfunction and risk of suicidality. Drawing on current research results, this article presents several putative mechanisms underlying the synergistic toxic effects and provides a framework for future treatment options for the obesity-BD comorbidity. There is a need for more large-scale prospective studies to investigate the bidirectional relationships between obesity and BD.

  7. Drug Repurposing Approach Identifies a Synergistic Drug Combination of an Antifungal Agent and an Experimental Organometallic Drug for Melanoma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Tina; Demaria, Olivier; Zava, Olivier; Joncic, Ana; Gilliet, Michel; Dyson, Paul J

    2018-01-02

    By screening a drug library comprising FDA approved compounds, we discovered a potent interaction between the antifungal agent haloprogin and the experimental organometallic drug RAPTA-T, to synergistically induce cancer cell killing. The combination of these two small molecules, even at low doses, elicited an improved therapeutic response on tumor growth over either agent alone or the current treatment used in the clinic in the highly aggressive syngeneic B16F10 melanoma tumor model, where classical cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents show little efficacy. The combination with the repurposed chemodrug haloprogin provides the basis for a new powerful treatment option for cutaneous melanoma. Importantly, because synergistic induction of tumor cell death is achieved with low individual drug doses, and cellular targets for RAPTA-T are different from those of classical chemotherapeutic drugs, a therapeutic strategy based on this approach could avoid toxicities and potentially resistance mechanisms, and could even inhibit metastatic progression.

  8. Biomolecular Network-Based Synergistic Drug Combination Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug combination is a powerful and promising approach for complex disease therapy such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, the number of synergistic drug combinations approved by the Food and Drug Administration is very small. To bridge the gap between urgent need and low yield, researchers have constructed various models to identify synergistic drug combinations. Among these models, biomolecular network-based model is outstanding because of its ability to reflect and illustrate the relationships among drugs, disease-related genes, therapeutic targets, and disease-specific signaling pathways as a system. In this review, we analyzed and classified models for synergistic drug combination prediction in recent decade according to their respective algorithms. Besides, we collected useful resources including databases and analysis tools for synergistic drug combination prediction. It should provide a quick resource for computational biologists who work with network medicine or synergistic drug combination designing.

  9. Synergistic inhibitory effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with sorafenib on hepatoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Shan Peng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in solid tumors, associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance, recurrence and metastasis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy can increase tissue oxygen pressure and content to prevent the resistance, recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Presently, Sorafenib is a first-line drug, targeted for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC but effective in only a small portion of patients and can induce hypoxia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of HBO in combination with sorafenib on hepatoma cells. METHODS: Hepatoma cell lines (BEL-7402 and SK-Hep1 were treated with HBO at 2 atmosphere absolute pressure for 80 min per day or combined with sorafenib or cisplatin. At different time points, cells were tested for cell growth, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle and migration. Finally, miRNA from the hepatoma cells was detected by microRNA array and validated by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: Although HBO, sorafenib or cisplatin alone could inhibit growth of hepatoma cells, HBO combined with sorafenib or cisplatin resulted in much greater synergistic growth inhibition (cell proliferation and colony formation in hepatoma cells. Similarly, the synergistic effect of HBO and sorafenib on induction of apoptosis was also observed in hepatoma cells. HBO induced G1 arrest in SK-Hep1 not in BEL-7402 cells, but enhanced cell cycle arrest induced by sorafenib in BEL-7402 treated cells. However, HBO had no obvious effect on the migration of hepatoma cells, and microRNA array analysis showed that hepatoma cells with HBO treatment had significantly different microRNA expression profiles from those with blank control. CONCLUSIONS: We show for the first time that HBO combined with sorafenib results in synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis in hepatoma cells, suggesting a potential application of HBO combined with sorafenib in HCC patients. Additionally, we also show that HBO significantly altered microRNA expression

  10. Synergistic Catalysis: A Powerful Synthetic Strategy for New Reaction Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Anna E.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic catalysis is a synthetic strategy wherein both the nucleophile and the electrophile are simultaneously activated by two separate and distinct catalysts to afford a single chemical transformation. This powerful catalysis strategy leads to several benefits, specifically synergistic catalysis can (i) introduce new, previously unattainable chemical transformations, (ii) improve the efficiency of existing transformations, and (iii) create or improve catalytic enantioselectivity where stereocontrol was previously absent or challenging. This perspective aims to highlight these benefits using many of the successful examples of synergistic catalysis found in the literature. PMID:22518271

  11. Synergistic Smart Fuel For Microstructure Mediated Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Steven L. Garrett; Randall A. Ali

    2013-07-01

    Advancing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants requires enhancing our basic understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The two most significant issues limiting the effectiveness and lifespan of the fuel are the loss of thermal conductivity of the fuel and the mechanical strength of both fuel and cladding. The core of a nuclear reactor presents an extremely harsh and challenging environment for both sensors and telemetry due to elevated temperatures and large fluxes of energetic and ionizing particles from radioactive decay processes. The majority of measurements are made in reactors using “radiation hardened” sensors and materials. A different approach has been pursued in this research that exploits high temperatures and materials that are robust with respect to ionizing radiation. This synergistically designed thermoacoustic sensor will be self-powered, wireless, and provide telemetry. The novel sensor will be able to provide reactor process information even if external electrical power and communication are unavailable. In addition, the form-factor for the sensor is identical to the existing fuel rods within reactors and contains no moving parts. Results from initial proof of concept experiments designed to characterize porosity, surface properties and monitor gas composition will be discussed.

  12. Synergistic neurotrophic effects of piracetam and thiotriazoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gromova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the synergy between the nootropic drug piracetam and the metabolic agent thiotriazoline that maintains energy metabolism and survival of neurons and other types of cells. Piracetam, a nootropic drug, a chemical pyrrolidone derivative, is used in neurological, psychiatric, and narcological practice. There is evidence on the positive effect of piracetam in elderly and senile patients with coronary heart disease. This drug is supposed to stimulate redox processes, to enhance glucose utilization, and to improve regional blood flow in the ischemic brain regions. Due to its action, the drug activates glycolytic processes and elevates ATP concentrations in brain tissue. Thiotriazoline is a compound that has antioxidant, anti-ischemic properties. The co-administration of piracetam and thiothriazoline is an innovation area in the treatment of stroke and other brain damages, especially in insulin resistance and high blood glucose levels. The paper considers the neurobiological properties of thiotriazoline and piracetam, which synergistically exert neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects.

  13. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity of biomass-petroleum coke blended char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; Gong, Yan; Ding, Lu; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-06-01

    In this work, effects of gasification temperature (900°C-1100°C) and blended ratio (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) on reactivity of petroleum coke and biomass co-gasification were studied in TGA. Quantification analysis of active AAEM transformation and in situ investigation of morphological structure variations in gasification were conducted respectively using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and heating stage microscope to explore synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity. The results indicated that char gasification reactivity was enhanced with increasing biomass proportion and gasification temperature. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity was presented after complete generation of biomass ash, and gradually weakened with increasing temperature from 1000°C to 1100°C after reaching the most significant value at 1000°C. This phenomenon was well related with the appearance of molten biomass ash rich in glassy state potassium and the weakest inhibition effect on active potassium transformation during co-gasification at the temperature higher than 1000°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synergistic Anticancer Effect of Tocotrienol Combined with Chemotherapeutic Agents or Dietary Components: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Eitsuka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienol (T3, unsaturated vitamin E, is gaining a lot of attention owing to its potent anticancer effect, since its efficacy is much greater than that of tocopherol (Toc. Various factors are known to be involved in such antitumor action, including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, antiangiogenesis, anti-metastasis, nuclear factor-κB suppression, and telomerase inhibition. Owing to a difference in the affinity of T3 and Toc for the α-tocopherol transfer protein, the bioavailability of orally ingested T3 is lower than that of Toc. Furthermore, cellular uptake of T3 is interrupted by coadministration of α-Toc in vitro and in vivo. Based on this, several studies are in progress to screen for molecules that can synergize with T3 in order to augment its potency. Combinations of T3 with chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g., statins, celecoxib, and gefitinib or dietary components (e.g., polyphenols, sesamin, and ferulic acid exhibit synergistic actions on cancer cell growth and signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the current status of synergistic effects of T3 and an array of agents on cancer cells, and discuss their molecular mechanisms of action. These combination strategies would encourage further investigation and application in cancer prevention and therapy.

  15. Synergistic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Mexican Seaweeds against Measles Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Morán-Santibañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs extracted from five seaweed samples collected or cultivated in Mexico (Macrocystis pyrifera, Eisenia arborea, Pelvetia compressa, Ulva intestinalis, and Solieria filiformis were tested in this study in order to evaluate their effect on measles virus in vitro. All polysaccharides showed antiviral activity (as measured by the reduction of syncytia formation and low cytotoxicity (MTT assay at inhibitory concentrations. SPs from Eisenia arborea and Solieria filiformis showed the highest antiviral activities (confirmed by qPCR and were selected to determine their combined effect. Their synergistic effect was observed at low concentrations (0.0274 μg/mL and 0.011 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis SPs, resp., which exhibited by far a higher inhibitory effect (96% syncytia reduction in comparison to the individual SP effects (50% inhibition with 0.275 μg/mL and 0.985 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis, resp.. Time of addition experiments and viral penetration assays suggest that best activities of these SPs occur at different stages of infection. The synergistic effect would allow reducing the treatment dose and toxicity and minimizing or delaying the induction of antiviral resistance; sulfated polysaccharides of the tested seaweed species thus appear as promising candidates for the development of natural antiviral agents.

  16. Electron Induction Linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    Electron induction linacs have been used for over four decades for a variety of applications. As discussed in Chap. 8, these include basic studies in magnetically confined fusion, transport of intense electron beams in various gases, the generation of electromagnetic radiation from free electron lasers, radiation processing of materials and food, and flash X-ray radiography sources.

  17. Lexicographic Path Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Programming languages theory is full of problems that reduce to proving the consistency of a logic, such as the normalization of typed lambda-calculi, the decidability of equality in type theory, equivalence testing of traces in security, etc. Although the principle of transfinite induction...

  18. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system...

  19. Two pathways act in an additive rather than obligatorily synergistic fashion to induce systemic acquired resistance and PR gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro Allan D

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local infection with necrotizing pathogens induces whole plant immunity to secondary challenge. Pathogenesis-related genes are induced in parallel with this systemic acquired resistance response and thought to be co-regulated. The hypothesis of co-regulation has been challenged by induction of Arabidopsis PR-1 but not systemic acquired resistance in npr1 mutant plants responding to Pseudomonas syringae carrying the avirulence gene avrRpt2. However, experiments with ndr1 mutant plants have revealed major differences between avirulence genes. The ndr1-1 mutation prevents hypersensitive cell death, systemic acquired resistance and PR-1 induction elicited by bacteria carrying avrRpt2. This mutation does not prevent these responses to bacteria carrying avrB. Results Systemic acquired resistance, PR-1 induction and PR-5 induction were assessed in comparisons of npr1-2 and ndr1-1 mutant plants, double mutant plants, and wild-type plants. Systemic acquired resistance was displayed by all four plant lines in response to Pseudomonas syringae bacteria carrying avrB. PR-1 induction was partially impaired by either single mutation in response to either bacterial strain, but only fully impaired in the double mutant in response to avrRpt2. PR-5 induction was not fully impaired in any of the mutants in response to either avirulence gene. Conclusion Two pathways act additively, rather than in an obligatorily synergistic fashion, to induce systemic acquired resistance, PR-1 and PR-5. One of these pathways is NPR1-independent and depends on signals associated with hypersensitive cell death. The other pathway is dependent on salicylic acid accumulation and acts through NPR1. At least two other pathways also contribute additively to PR-5 induction.

  20. Inductive Communication System Design Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    The report documents the experience obtained during the design and development of the Inductive Communications System used in the Morgantown People Mover. The Inductive Communications System is used to provide wayside-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-waysid...

  1. Combination of ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine synergistically induces cell cycle deregulation and apoptosis in mesothelioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinotti, Simona [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, viale T. Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Ranzato, Elia, E-mail: ranzato@unipmn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, viale T. Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Parodi, Monica [IRCCS A.O.U. S. Martino-IST, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, 16132 Genova (Italy); DI.ME.S., Università degli Studi di Genova, Via L. Alberti 2, 16132 Genova (Italy); Vitale, Massimo [IRCCS A.O.U. S. Martino-IST, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, 16132 Genova (Italy); Burlando, Bruno [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, viale T. Michel 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MMe) is a poor-prognosis tumor in need of innovative therapies. In a previous in vivo study, we showed synergistic anti-MMe properties of the ascorbate/epigallocatechin-3-gallate/gemcitabine combination. We have now focused on the mechanism of action, showing the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest through measurements of caspase 3, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, annexin V, and DNA content. StellArray™ PCR technology and Western immunoblotting revealed DAPK2-dependent apoptosis, upregulation of cell cycle promoters, downregulation of cell cycle checkpoints and repression of NFκB expression. The complex of data indicates that the mixture is synergistic in inducing cell cycle deregulation and non-inflammatory apoptosis, suggesting its possible use in MMe treatment. - Highlights: • Ascorbate/epigallocathechin-gallate/gemcitabine has been tested on mesothelioma cells • A synergistic mechanism has been shown for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis • PCR-array analysis has revealed the de-regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle genes • Maximum upregulation has been found for the Death-Associated Protein Kinase-2 gene • Data suggest that the mixture could be used as a clinical treatment.

  2. Inductive energy storage commutator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    An inductive energy storage commutator is described. The value of commutated current is up to 800 A, the voltage amplitude in the load is up to 50 kV, the working frequency is equal to 1-50 Hz, the commutated power is up to 40 MW. The commutating device comprises of the first stage commutator having two in-series connected modules of the BTSV - 800/235 high-voltage thyristor unit, the second stage commutator containing three GMI-43A parallel connected powerful pulsed triodes, a commutating capacitor, an induction coil, two supplementary high-voltage thyristor keys (20 in-series connected thyristors T2-300 (13 class)), load, control pulse shapers, thyristor keys, power supply

  3. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  4. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  5. Inductive Supervised Quantum Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monràs, Alex; Sentís, Gael; Wittek, Peter

    2017-05-01

    In supervised learning, an inductive learning algorithm extracts general rules from observed training instances, then the rules are applied to test instances. We show that this splitting of training and application arises naturally, in the classical setting, from a simple independence requirement with a physical interpretation of being nonsignaling. Thus, two seemingly different definitions of inductive learning happen to coincide. This follows from the properties of classical information that break down in the quantum setup. We prove a quantum de Finetti theorem for quantum channels, which shows that in the quantum case, the equivalence holds in the asymptotic setting, that is, for large numbers of test instances. This reveals a natural analogy between classical learning protocols and their quantum counterparts, justifying a similar treatment, and allowing us to inquire about standard elements in computational learning theory, such as structural risk minimization and sample complexity.

  6. Induction technology optimization code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1992-01-01

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. (Author) 11 refs., 3 figs

  7. Synergistic combination of fluoro chalcone and doxorubicin on HeLa cervical cancer cells by inducing apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianingrum, Retno; Arty, Indyah Sulistyo; Atun, Sri

    2017-03-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), a primary chemotherapeutic agent used for cancer treatment is known to have various side effect included multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. Combination chemotherapy is one of some approaches to reduce Dox side effect. Chalcones have been reported to reduce the proliferation of many cancer cells. The research were conducted to investigate the cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induction of a chalcone derivate which is containing fluoro substituent [1 - (4" - fluorophenyl) -3 - (4' - hydroxy - 3' - methoxyphenyl) - 2 - propene - 1 -on] (FHM) and its combination with Dox on HeLa cells line. The observation of the cytotoxic activity was conducted using MTT [3 - (4, 5 - dimethyl thiazol - 2 - y1) - 2.5 - diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Apoptosis induction was determined by flow cytometric. The changes of cell morphology were observed using phase contrast microscopy. The combination index (CI) was used to determine the effect of the combination. The study showed that FHM inhibited the HeLa cell growth with IC50 of 34 μM, while the IC50 of Dox was 1 μM. The combination had a higher inhibitory effect on cell growth compare to the single treatment of FHM and Dox. All of the combination doses under IC50 of FHM and Dox gave synergistic (CI: - 0.7) up to strong synergistic effect (CI: 0.l - 0.3). The synergistic effects of the combination were due to their ability to induce apoptosis in the HeLa cells. According to the result, FHM was potential to be developed as a co-chemotherapeutic agent with Dox for cervical cancer.

  8. Synergistic Action of D-Glucose and Acetosyringone on Agrobacterium Strains for Efficient Dunaliella Transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Srinivasan

    Full Text Available An effective transformation protocol for Dunaliella, a β-carotene producer, was developed using the synergistic mechanism of D-glucose and Acetosyringone on three different Agrobacterium strains (EHA105, GV3101 and LBA4404. In the present study, we investigated the pre-induction of Agrobacterium strains harboring pMDC45 binary vector in TAP media at varying concentrations of D-glucose (5 mM, 10 mM, and 15mM and 100 μM of Acetosyringone for co-cultivation. Induction of Agrobacterium strains with 10 mM D-glucose and 100 μM Acetosyringone showed higher rates of efficiency compared to other treatments. The presence of GFP and HPT transgenes as a measure of transformation efficiency from the transgenic lines were determined using fluorescent microscopy, PCR, and southern blot analyzes. Highest transformation rate was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (181 ± 3.78 cfu per 106 cells followed by GV3101 (128 ± 5.29 cfu per 106 cells and EHA105 (61 ± 5.03 cfu per 106 cells. However, the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 exhibited more efficient single copy transgene (HPT transfer into the genome of D. salina than LBA4404. Therefore, future studies dealing with genetic modifications in D. salina can utilize GV3101 as an optimal Agrobacterium strain for gene transfer.

  9. Synergistic Action of D-Glucose and Acetosyringone on Agrobacterium Strains for Efficient Dunaliella Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Ramachandran; Gothandam, Kodiveri Muthukalianan

    2016-01-01

    An effective transformation protocol for Dunaliella, a β-carotene producer, was developed using the synergistic mechanism of D-glucose and Acetosyringone on three different Agrobacterium strains (EHA105, GV3101 and LBA4404). In the present study, we investigated the pre-induction of Agrobacterium strains harboring pMDC45 binary vector in TAP media at varying concentrations of D-glucose (5 mM, 10 mM, and 15mM) and 100 μM of Acetosyringone for co-cultivation. Induction of Agrobacterium strains with 10 mM D-glucose and 100 μM Acetosyringone showed higher rates of efficiency compared to other treatments. The presence of GFP and HPT transgenes as a measure of transformation efficiency from the transgenic lines were determined using fluorescent microscopy, PCR, and southern blot analyzes. Highest transformation rate was obtained with the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 (181 ± 3.78 cfu per 106 cells) followed by GV3101 (128 ± 5.29 cfu per 106 cells) and EHA105 (61 ± 5.03 cfu per 106 cells). However, the Agrobacterium strain GV3101 exhibited more efficient single copy transgene (HPT) transfer into the genome of D. salina than LBA4404. Therefore, future studies dealing with genetic modifications in D. salina can utilize GV3101 as an optimal Agrobacterium strain for gene transfer.

  10. Mathematical description of synergistic interaction between radon and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Kyu Kim; Petin, V.G.; Belkina, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Background: A certain level of background exposure to ionizing radiation and natural or man-made chemicals is always present in the environment. Radon and its short-lived decay products are considered as important sources of public exposure to the natural radioactivity. It is well known from epidemiological and toxicological studies that synergistic interaction between smoking and radon occurs, which is especially important for high natural background areas. Objective: This study has been done to suggest a mathematical model to describe the synergistic interaction of radon with tobacco smoking, and to demonstrate the ability of the model to describe carcinogenic effects of the combined action. Methods: A simple mathematical model was formulated to describe and predict the synergistic interaction of radon with smoking. The model postulates that the occurrence of synergism is to be expected as a result of additional carcinogenic damage arisen from the interaction of sublesions induced by the two factors under consideration. Results: The predictions of the model were verified by comparison with experimental data published by other researchers. The model appears to be appropriate and the predictions are valid. Conclusions: : The suggested mathematical model predicts the greatest level of synergistic effect and condition under which the maximum synergy is attained. The synergistic effect appeared to decline with any deviation from the optimal value of the ratio of carcinogenic effective damages produced by each agent alone.

  11. Linear induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkman, W.E.; Adams, W.Q.; Berrier, B.R.

    1978-01-01

    A linear induction motor has been operated on a test bed with a feedback pulse resolution of 5 nm (0.2 μin). Slewing tests with this slide drive have shown positioning errors less than or equal to 33 nm (1.3 μin) at feedrates between 0 and 25.4 mm/min (0-1 ipm). A 0.86-m (34-in)-stroke linear motor is being investigated, using the SPACO machine as a test bed. Initial results were encouraging, and work is continuing to optimize the servosystem compensation

  12. Low inductance gas switching.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and

  13. Synergistic effect of κ-carrageenan on oxazolone-induced inflammation in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Feng; Gao, Xin; Niu, Tingting; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Yan, Xiaojun; Chen, Haimin

    2016-03-25

    Carrageenan is a traditional ingredient that has been widely used in the food industry. In the present study, we propose a hypothesis that carrageenan is a conditional inflammatory agent. When the intestinal tract is in an "unhealthy" state such as that during bacterial infection or acute inflammation, carrageenan can synergistically enhance the inflammatory response. BALB/C mice received κ-carrageenan via intragastric administration prior to the induction of oxazolone colitis. Weight changes, survival rate, histologic change, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, ratio of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in peripheral blood, and expression of genes and proteins involved in inflammation and cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa were examined. Intragastric administration of κ-carrageenan to BALB/c mice prior to the induction of oxazolone colitis resulted in an aggravation of body weight loss, a decrease in the survival ratio, aggravation of colonic inflammation, and decrease in the ratio of CD4 + CD25+/CD4+. The secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) also significantly increased after κ-carrageenan administration. κ-Carrageenan, together with oxazolone, suppressed the expression of forkhead box p3 (FOXp3) and increased the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the colonic mucosa. These results were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analyses at the molecular and protein levels, respectively. κ-Carrageenan aggravated oxazolone-induced intestinal inflammation in BALB/c mice. This effect is associated with an activation of the TLR4-NF-κB pathway, a decreased ratio of Tregs, and the induction of Th2-dependent immune responses.

  14. Synergistic activation of NF-κB by nontypeable H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae is mediated by CK2, IKKβ-IκBα, and p38 MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Soo-Mi; Wang, Beinan; Rixter, Davida; Lim, Jae Hyang; Koga, Tomoaki; Ishinaga, Hajime; Chen, L.-F.; Jono, Hirofumi; Xu Haidong; Li, J.-D.

    2006-01-01

    In review of the past studies on NF-κB regulation, most of them have focused on investigating how NF-κB is activated by a single inducer at a time. Given the fact that, in mixed bacterial infections in vivo, multiple inflammation inducers, including both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, are present simultaneously, a key issue that has yet to be addressed is whether NTHi and S. pneumoniae simultaneously activate NF-κB and the subsequent inflammatory response in a synergistic manner. Here, we show that NTHi and S. pneumoniae synergistically induce NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response via activation of multiple signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. The classical IKKβ-IκBα and p38 MAPK pathways are involved in synergistic activation of NF-κB via two distinct mechanisms, p65 nuclear translocation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Moreover, casein kinase 2 (CK2) is involved in synergistic induction of NF-κB via a mechanism dependent on phosphorylation of p65 at both Ser536 and Ser276 sites. These studies bring new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response in polymicrobial infections and may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies for modulating inflammation in mixed infections for patients with otitis media and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

  15. Azole Fungicides as Synergists in the Aquatic Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergager, Maj-Britt Andersen

    hazard.This PhD thesis evaluates the role of the so called azole fungicides as synergists in the aquaticenvironment through an assessment of the effect of sorption, time and azole concentration on theoccurrence and magnitude of synergistic interactions with pyrethroid insecticides towards...... the aquaticcrustacean Daphnia magna in both laboratory experiments and natural-like environments. In the PhDthesis, synergy is defined as happening in mixtures where either EC50 values decrease more than two-foldbelow the prediction by the model of Concentration Addition (horizontal assessment of synergy) or wherethe...... in stormwater runoff ordrain water and in the aquatic environment, the pesticides mainly occur in sorbed form. Sorption istraditionally considered to limit bioaccessibility and toxicity of hydrophobic compounds, hence,synergistic interactions may be limited in natural environments compared to laboratory studies...

  16. Ultrastrong Bioinspired Graphene-Based Fibers via Synergistic Toughening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yuchen; Ming, Peng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Tianxi; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2016-04-13

    Ultrastrong bioinspired graphene-based fibers are designed and prepared via synergistic toughening of ionic and covalent bonding. The tensile strength reaches up to 842.6 MPa and is superior to all other reported graphene-based fibers. In addition, its electrical conductivity is as high as 292.4 S cm(-1). This bioinspired synergistic toughening strategy supplies new insight toward the construction of integrated high-performance graphene-based fibers in the near future. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Because primary energies such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy are limited in quantity of supply, it is necessary to use available energies effectively for the increase of energy demand that is inevitable this century while keeping environment in good condition. For this purpose, an efficient synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels together converted to energy carriers such are electricity, hydrogen, and synthetic fuels seems to be effective. Synergistic energy conversion processes containing nuclear energy were surveyed and effects of these processes on resource saving and the CO 2 emission reduction were discussed. (T.T.)

  18. Involvement of DNA damage in hydroxyurea-mediated induction of endogenous murine retrovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rascati, R.J.; Tennant, R.W.

    1979-04-30

    Hydroxyurea (HU) induces AKR cells to produce endogenous murine retrovirus at a low frequency (approx. 1 x 10/sup -5/), and DNA synthesis is required soon after treatment with HU for induction to be observed (i.e., no stable induction intermediate is formed). Induction by HU can be enhanced by simultaneous treatment with halogenated pyrimidines, with the concomitant appearance of a stable induction intermediate state. The effects of the two compounds are synergistic, indicating an actual stimulation of HU-mediated induction by iodode-oxyuridine. Since HU inhibits semiconservative replication, and since (/sup 3/H)bromodeoxyuridine is incorporated into the cellular genome predominantly by unscheduled DNA synthesis (repair replication) under these conditions, this stimulation appears to be the result of insertion into DNA of the thymidine analogs during the repair of HU-induced alterations in the DNA. The nature of HU damage to DNA is not defined; if single-strand breaks are involved, they may occur at a frequency <10/sup -8/ and escape detection, but induction could also be due to other alterations in DNA. The characteristics of induction by HU, therefore, are similar to those of induction by other DNA-damaging treatments such as ..gamma.. or x irradiation or methylcholanthrene. This suggests that these agents may induce by similar, if not identical, mechanisms. Further, the ability of halogenated pyrimidines to form a stable induction intermediate when incorporated by repair synthesis, similar to the intermediate formed when the analogs are incorporated during semiconservative replication, suggests that the same sites are involved for induction by damaging agents or by halogenated pyrimidine incorporation.

  19. Vector control of induction machines

    CERN Document Server

    Robyns, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the main law of physics and fundamental concepts inherent in electromechanical conversion, ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" introduces the standard mathematical models for induction machines - whichever rotor technology is used - as well as several squirrel-cage induction machine vector-control strategies. The use of causal ordering graphs allows systematization of the design stage, as well as standardization of the structure of control devices. ""Vector Control of Induction Machines"" suggests a unique approach aimed at reducing parameter sensitivity for

  20. Sulforaphane and TRAIL induce a synergistic elimination of advanced prostate cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labsch, Sabrina; Liu, Li; Bauer, Nathalie; Zhang, Yiyao; Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Gladkich, Jury; Schönsiegel, Frank; Herr, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    Advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Apoptosis-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in AIPC and are not eliminated by current therapeutics. Novel therapeutic options, which are currently being evaluated in patient studies, include TRAIL and the broccoli-derived isothiocyanate sulforaphane. Although neither agent targets normal cells, TRAIL induces apoptosis in most cancer cells, and sulforaphane eliminates CSCs. In this study, the established AIPC cell lines DU145 and PC3, with enriched CSC features, and primary patient-derived prostate CSCs were treated with sulforaphane and recombinant soluble TRAIL. We examined the effects of these drugs on NF-κB activity, self-renewal and differentiation potential, and stem cell signaling via spheroid- and colony-forming assays, FACS and western blot analyses, immunohistochemistry, and an antibody protein array in vitro and after xenotransplantation. We largely found a stronger effect of sulforaphane on CSC properties compared to TRAIL, though the agents acted synergistically when applied in combination. This was associated with the inhibition of TRAIL-induced NF-κB binding; CXCR4, Jagged1, Notch 1, SOX 2, and Nanog expression; ALDH1 activity inhibition; and the elimination of differentiation and self-renewal potential. In vivo, tumor engraftment and tumor growth were strongly inhibited, without the induction of liver necrosis or other obvious side effects. These findings suggest that sulforaphane shifts the balance from TRAIL-induced survival signals to apoptosis and thus explains the observed synergistic effect. A nutritional strategy for high sulforaphane intake may target the cancer-specific activity of TRAIL in CSCs.

  1. Synergistic interactions between HDAC and sirtuin inhibitors in human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea, Michele; Soncini, Debora; Fruscione, Floriana; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Garuti, Anna; Emionite, Laura; Moran, Eva; Magnone, Mirko; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Reverberi, Daniele; Caffa, Irene; Salis, Annalisa; Cagnetta, Antonia; Bergamaschi, Micaela; Casciaro, Salvatore; Pierri, Ivana; Damonte, Gianluca; Ansaldi, Filippo; Gobbi, Marco; Pistoia, Vito; Ballestrero, Alberto; Patrone, Franco; Bruzzone, Santina; Nencioni, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is frequent in human leukemias. However, while classical, NAD(+)-independent HDACs are an established therapeutic target, the relevance of NAD(+)-dependent HDACs (sirtuins) in leukemia treatment remains unclear. Here, we assessed the antileukemic activity of sirtuin inhibitors and of the NAD(+)-lowering drug FK866, alone and in combination with traditional HDAC inhibitors. Primary leukemia cells, leukemia cell lines, healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors were treated with sirtuin inhibitors (sirtinol, cambinol, EX527) and with FK866, with or without addition of the HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, sodium butyrate, and vorinostat. Cell death was quantified by propidium iodide cell staining and subsequent flow-cytometry. Apoptosis induction was monitored by cell staining with FITC-Annexin-V/propidium iodide or with TMRE followed by flow-cytometric analysis, and by measuring caspase3/7 activity. Intracellular Bax was detected by flow-cytometry and western blotting. Cellular NAD(+) levels were measured by enzymatic cycling assays. Bax was overexpressed by retroviral transduction. Bax and SIRT1 were silenced by RNA-interference. Sirtuin inhibitors and FK866 synergistically enhanced HDAC inhibitor activity in leukemia cells, but not in healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors. In leukemia cells, HDAC inhibitors were found to induce upregulation of Bax, a pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family-member whose translocation to mitochondria is normally prevented by SIRT1. As a result, leukemia cells become sensitized to sirtuin inhibitor-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, NAD(+)-independent HDACs and sirtuins cooperate in leukemia cells to avoid apoptosis. Combining sirtuin with HDAC inhibitors results in synergistic antileukemic activity that could be therapeutically exploited.

  2. Synergistic interactions between HDAC and sirtuin inhibitors in human leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cea

    Full Text Available Aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC activity is frequent in human leukemias. However, while classical, NAD(+-independent HDACs are an established therapeutic target, the relevance of NAD(+-dependent HDACs (sirtuins in leukemia treatment remains unclear. Here, we assessed the antileukemic activity of sirtuin inhibitors and of the NAD(+-lowering drug FK866, alone and in combination with traditional HDAC inhibitors. Primary leukemia cells, leukemia cell lines, healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors were treated with sirtuin inhibitors (sirtinol, cambinol, EX527 and with FK866, with or without addition of the HDAC inhibitors valproic acid, sodium butyrate, and vorinostat. Cell death was quantified by propidium iodide cell staining and subsequent flow-cytometry. Apoptosis induction was monitored by cell staining with FITC-Annexin-V/propidium iodide or with TMRE followed by flow-cytometric analysis, and by measuring caspase3/7 activity. Intracellular Bax was detected by flow-cytometry and western blotting. Cellular NAD(+ levels were measured by enzymatic cycling assays. Bax was overexpressed by retroviral transduction. Bax and SIRT1 were silenced by RNA-interference. Sirtuin inhibitors and FK866 synergistically enhanced HDAC inhibitor activity in leukemia cells, but not in healthy leukocytes and hematopoietic progenitors. In leukemia cells, HDAC inhibitors were found to induce upregulation of Bax, a pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family-member whose translocation to mitochondria is normally prevented by SIRT1. As a result, leukemia cells become sensitized to sirtuin inhibitor-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, NAD(+-independent HDACs and sirtuins cooperate in leukemia cells to avoid apoptosis. Combining sirtuin with HDAC inhibitors results in synergistic antileukemic activity that could be therapeutically exploited.

  3. Synergistic effects of acyclic retinoid and OSI-461 on growth inhibition and gene expression in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Masahito; Suzui, Masumi; Deguchi, Atsuko; Lim, Jin T E; Xiao, Danhua; Hayes, Julia H; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos P; Weinstein, I Bernard

    2004-10-01

    Hepatoma is one of the most frequently occurring cancers worldwide. However, effective chemotherapeutic agents for this disease have not been developed. Acyclic retinoid, a novel synthetic retinoid, can reduce the incidence of postsurgical recurrence of hepatoma and improve the survival rate. OSI-461, a potent derivative of exisulind, can increase intracellular levels of cyclic GMP, which leads to activation of protein kinase G and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the combined effects of acyclic retinoid plus OSI-461 in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line. We found that the combination of as little as 1.0 micromol/L acyclic retinoid and 0.01 micromol/L OSI-461 exerted synergistic inhibition of the growth of HepG2 cells. Combined treatment with low concentrations of these two agents also acted synergistically to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells through induction of Bax and Apaf-1, reduction of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9. OSI-461 enhanced the G0-G1 arrest caused by acyclic retinoid, and the combination of these agents caused a synergistic decrease in the levels of expression of cyclin D1 protein and mRNA, inhibited cyclin D1 promoter activity, decreased the level of hyperphosphorylated forms of the Rb protein, induced increased cellular levels of the p21(CIP1) protein and mRNA, and stimulated p21(CIP1) promoter activity. Moreover, OSI-461 enhanced the ability of acyclic retinoid to induce increased cellular levels of retinoic acid receptor beta and to stimulate retinoic acid response element-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity. A hypothetical model involving concerted effects on p21(CIP1) and retinoic acid receptor beta expression is proposed to explain these synergistic effects. Our results suggest that the combination of acyclic retinoid plus OSI-461 might be an effective regimen for the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of human hepatoma and possibly other malignancies.

  4. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  5. Electromagnetic induction spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, I. J.; Keiswetter, Dean A.

    1998-09-01

    An object, made partly or wholly of metals, has a distinct combination of electrical conductivity, magnetic permeability, and geometrical shape and size. When the object is exposed to a low-frequency electromagnetic field, it produces a secondary magnetic field. By measuring the secondary field in a broadband spectrum, we obtain a distinct spectral signature that may uniquely identify the object. Based on the response spectrum, we attempt to 'fingerprint' the object. This is the basic concept of Electromagnetic Induction Spectroscopy (EMIS). EMIS technology may be particularly useful for detecting buried landmines and unexploded ordnance. By fully characterizing and identifying an object without excavation. We should be able to reduce significantly the number of false targets. EMIS should be fully applicable to many other problems where target identification and recognition (without intrusive search) are important. For instance, an advanced EMIS device at an airport security gate may be able to recognize a particular weapon by its maker and type.

  6. Induction heating using induction coils in series-parallel circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, Marc Rollo; Geren, William Preston; Miller, Robert James; Negley, Mark Alan; Dykstra, William Chet

    2017-11-14

    A part is inductively heated by multiple, self-regulating induction coil circuits having susceptors, coupled together in parallel and in series with an AC power supply. Each of the circuits includes a tuning capacitor that tunes the circuit to resonate at the frequency of AC power supply.

  7. Induction of pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Corey; Liu, Jun; Sumer, Huseyin; Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Verma, Rajneesh; Carvalho, Edmund; Verma, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    The molecular and phenotypic irreversibility of mammalian cell differentiation was a fundamental principle of developmental biology at least until the 1980s, despite numerous reports dating back to the 1950s of the induction of pluripotency in amphibian cells by nuclear transfer (NT). Landmark reports in the 1980s and 1990s in sheep progressively challenged this dogmatic assumption; firstly, embryonic development of reconstructed embryos comprising whole (donor) blastomeres fused to enucleated oocytes, and famously, the cloning of Dolly from a terminally differentiated cell. Thus, the intrinsic ability of oocyte-derived factors to reverse the differentiated phenotype was confirmed. The concomitant elucidation of methods for human embryonic stem cell isolation and cultivation presented opportunities for therapeutic cell replacement strategies, particularly through NT of patient nuclei to enucleated oocytes for subsequent isolation of patient-specific (autologous), pluripotent cells from the resulting blastocysts. Associated logistical limitations of working with human oocytes, in addition to ethical and moral objections prompted exploration of alternative approaches to generate autologous stem cells for therapy, utilizing the full repertoire of factors characteristic of pluripotency, primarily through cell fusion and use of pluripotent cell extracts. Stunningly, in 2006, Japanese scientists described somatic cell reprogramming through delivery of four key factors (identified through a deductive approach from 24 candidate genes). Although less efficient than previous approaches, much of current stem cell research adopts this focused approach to cell reprogramming and (autologous) cell therapy. This chapter is a quasi-historical commentary of the various aforementioned approaches for the induction of pluripotency in lineage-committed cells, and introduces transcriptional and epigenetic changes occurring during reprogramming.

  8. Antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction for liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Wettergren, André; Wilson, Colin H

    2014-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of T-cell specific antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction for prevention of acute rejection in liver transplant recipients. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register...... to identify additional trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised clinical trials assessing immunosuppression with T-cell specific antibody induction versus corticosteroid induction in liver transplant recipients. Our inclusion criteria stated that participants within each included trial should...... (bias) using bias risk domains with definitions. We used trial sequential analysis to control for random errors (play of chance). MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 randomised trials with a total of 1589 liver transplant recipients, which studied the use of T-cell specific antibody induction versus...

  9. Mechanisms of synergistic skin penetration by sonophoresis and iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikima, Tomohiro; Ohsumi, Shinya; Shirouzu, Kenta; Tojo, Kakuji

    2009-05-01

    The mechanism of skin penetration enhancement by ultrasound under sonophoresis (US) or by an electrical field under iontophoresis (IP) was investigated using hairless mouse skin in vitro. The seven model chemicals with different molecular weights (122-1485) were dissolved in a hydrophilic gel. Donor gel with the chemicals was loaded on the skin surface and then the skin was treated with US (300 kHz, 5.2 W/cm(2), 5.4% duty-cycle) and IP (0.32+/-0.03 mA/cm(2)) individually or with US and IP in combination (US+IP). The penetration profiles of the chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 500 were influenced by the presence of an electric charge, the profiles of ionized chemicals for US+IP were the same as profiles for IP, while the penetration flux of a non-ionized chemical synergistically increased with US+IP compared with the individual flux of US and IP. The chemicals with molecular weight of more than 1000 showed synergistic effects with US+IP. The mathematical simulation assuming a bilayer skin model revealed that the synergistic effects were mainly influenced by electroosmosis in the stratum corneum (SC). Therefore the synergistic effects of US+IP was mainly caused by the SC diffusivity of chemicals increased by US and the electroosmotic water flow by IP application.

  10. Inhibitive and Synergistic Properties of Ethanolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also noted that only KCl was synergistic to the ethanol extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus, while other halides tested were antagonistic. All the data acquired reveal that the ethanolic extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus act as an inhibitor in the acid environment due to the phytochemicals: saponin, tannins, flavonoid, ...

  11. Synergistic Effect of Trehalose and Saccharose Pretreatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2). Osmotic fragility is an important factor in the maintenance of RBC integrity and normal functions [23]. Trehalose and saccharose pretreatment synergistically decreased lyophilization-rehydration-induced damage on. RBC osmotic fragility by reducing the osmotic fragility (Fig. 3). PS is only distributed in the internal side of ...

  12. Synergistic therapy of enalapril and Cordyceps sinensis in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) still remains an important factor that affects the long-term survival of renal recipients. The aim of the study was to investigate synergistic effect of enalapril (an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ACEI) and Cordyceps sinensis (Bailing capsule, fermented agent of C. sinensis) on ...

  13. Synergistic Effect of Trehalose and Saccharose Pretreatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the synergistic effect of trehalose and saccharose pretreatment on maintenance of lyophilized human red blood cell (RBC) quality. Methods: RBCs were pre-treated with trehalose and saccharose, and then lyophilized and re-hydrated. Prior to lyophilization and after re hydration, RBC parameters, ...

  14. Synergistic antibacterial effect of stem bark extracts of Faidherbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at screening the stem bark extracts of Faidherbia albida and Psidium guajava for synergistic antibacterial effect against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The powdered plant materials were extracted with methanol using cold maceration technique and the extracts were screened for ...

  15. Hybrid Nanotechnologies for Detection and Synergistic Therapies for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    diagnostic nanosystems for therapeutic and theranostic targeting of breast cancers . 15. SUBJECT TERMS anti-angiogenesis, phage display, tumor homing...Therapies for Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Erkki Ruoslahti, M.D., Ph.D...for Detection and Synergistic Therapies for Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0698 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  16. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic activities of tea polyphenols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics has become an increasing global problem and there is a need to find out novel potent antimicrobial agents with alternative modes of action as accessories to antibiotic therapy. This study investigated the antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic properties of tea polyphenols. The tea ...

  17. Synergistic effects of ethanolic plant extract mixtures against food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic effects were observed when mixtures of ethanolic plant extract against food-borne pathogen bacteria were used, so this may be a better way to design alternative pathogen control methodologies for food-borne pathogen bacteria. Keywords: Larrea tridentate, Flourensia cernua, Opuntia ficus-indica, ethanolic ...

  18. Synergistic Effect of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on Changes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic Effect of Poultry Manure and Sawdust on Changes in Soil Structural Indices of a Sandy-Clay Loam Ultisol. ... Decreases in bulk density occurred as a result of increase in amendment applied, the trend was 8t>4t>2t for all the amendments. However, only the application of 8t/ha of poultry manure decrease bulk ...

  19. Synergistic effects of squalene and polyunsaturated fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have studied the synergistic effects of squalene and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA concentrate) on isoprenaline-induced infarction in rats with respect to changes in the levels of plasma diagnostic marker enzymes and myocardial antioxidant defense system. Intraperitoneal injection of isoprenaline caused a ...

  20. Synergistic interaction between two linear inhibitors on a single ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). vanadate (Van) and L-phenylalanine (L-phe) were studied using a modification of the common Yonetani-Theorell procedure proposed for studying synergistic inhibition. The modes of inhibition of ALP by Van and L-phe as analysed using the ...

  1. Carbon dioxide and nisin act synergistically on Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lilian; Chen, Y.H.; Chikindas, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the synergistic action of carbon dioxide and nisin on Listeria monocytogenes Scott A wild-type and nisin-resistant (Nis(r)) cells grown in broth at 4 degrees C. Carbon dioxide extended the lag phase and decreased the specific growth rate of both strains, but to a greater degree...

  2. Synergistic extraction of thorium in presence of neutral donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Basu, S.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of neutral organophosphorous compounds on the extraction of thorium by β-hydroxy naphthaldoxime in xylene are reported. Enhancement of extraction is explained in terms of formation of a complex adduct in organic phase. Synergistic coefficients and apparent formation constants of complex adducts are calculated. (author)

  3. Contrast-induced nephrotoxicity: possible synergistic effect of stress hyperglycemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative stress on the renal tubules has been implicated as a mechanism of injury in both stress hyperglycemia and contrast-induced nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of these effects has a synergistic effect on accentuating renal tubular apoptosis and therefore increasing the risk of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity.

  4. Synergistic effect of Murraya koenigii and Telfairia occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larger zones of inhibition were observed for M. Koenigii extract than T. occidentalis extract, and larger zones of inhibition were observed by their synergy than on their separate use. Synergistic antibacterial activity of the extract ranged from 0 mm to 20.0 ± 0.03 mm, zone of inhibition of M. koenigii extract ranged from 0 mm ...

  5. Tungstate as a synergist to phosphonate-based formulation for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Tungstate as a synergist to phosphonate based formulation for corrosion control of carbon steel. 641. IEp (%) = 100 [1 – (i′corr/icorr)],. (2) where icorr and i′corr are the corrosion current densi- ties in case of the control and inhibitor solutions respectively. Impedance spectra in the form of Nyquist plots were recorded at ...

  6. Synergistic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Adenium obesum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Adenium obesum (Apocynaceae) Stem-Bark and Oxytetracycline against Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates. ... Phytochemical examination of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, saponins, glycosides, anthraquinones, tannins and flavonoids. This result indicated ...

  7. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Raekil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM. Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.

  8. Cancer-selective induction of apotosis by leczyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eTatsuta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid-binding lectin (SBL is a multifunctional protein that is isolated from oocytes of Rana catesbeiana. It has both lectin and ribonuclease (enzyme properties, and therefore is called leczyme. We examined the antitumor effects of SBL and discovered that SBL has potential as a new type of anticancer drug. SBL causes a cancer-selective induction of apoptosis by multiple signaling pathways whereby RNA is its target. It is suggested that the mitochondrial pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated pathway participate in SBL-induced signaling. The synergistic antitumor effects with other molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL and interferon γ (IFN-γ, have been reported. In this study, we summarize the effects of SBL and focus on its cancer-selective apoptotic properties. In addition, we present a possible explanation its cancer specificity.

  9. Synergistic effects of irradiation of waste-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodbridge, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    Water is an absolute necessity for all forms of animal and plant life. As man's requirements for water increase, the need for better methods of purification also increase. Technology has been slow to develop new methods of water treatment for the direct utilization of waste-water. Many new construction projects are at a standstill because waste-water treatment methods have not been developed to handle adequately the ever-increasing flow of sewage. Theoretical considerations of the use of high-level radiation in the treatment of waste-water have failed to consider the effects of the hydrated electron, and the potential of the possible synergistic effects of combining chlorine, oxygen and irradiation. An extensive testing programme at the University Center for Pollution Research of the Florida Institute of Technology over the past four years has shown that irradiation of waste-water samples immersed in an aqueous environment provide bacterial kill and reduction in organic pollution far greater than that obtained from theoretical considerations of G values and earlier experiments where the waste samples were not immersed in an aqueous environment. These testing programmes have investigated the synergistic effects of combining oxygen and irradiation. Each of these combined treatments resulted in an increased bacterial kill factor. Tests on Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and faecal streptococcus bacteria indicate that the synergistic effects observed for faecal coliform bacteria also apply to the pathogenic bacteria. A statistical analysis of the data obtained shows the relationships between the various effects on the bacteria. A definite shielding factor from the turbidity of the waste-water has been shown to exist. Synergistic effects have been shown to offset significantly the shielding effects. Optimization of these synergistic effects can greatly increase the effectiveness of irradiation in the treatment of waste-water. (author)

  10. Covariation in Natural Causal Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Patricia W.; Novick, Laura R.

    1991-01-01

    Biases and models usually offered by cognitive and social psychology and by philosophy to explain causal induction are evaluated with respect to focal sets (contextually determined sets of events over which covariation is computed). A probabilistic contrast model is proposed as underlying covariation computation in natural causal induction. (SLD)

  11. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated.…

  12. Induction Hardening of Ferromagnetic Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barglik, J.; Doležel, Ivo; Škopek, M.; Ulrych, B.

    č. 1 (2002), s. 28-29 ISSN 0340-3521 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/01/0184; GA MŠk ME 542 Grant - others:PSC(PL) 7T08603716 Keywords : Induction heating * induction hardening * ferromagnetic bodies Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  13. Economic implications of labor induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Simon, Raquel; Montañes, Antonio; Clemente, Jesús; Del Pino, María D; Romero, Manuel A; Fabre, Ernesto; Oros, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    To assess health service costs associated with labor induction according to different clinical situations in a tertiary-level hospital. In a prospective study, individual patient cost data were assessed for women admitted for induction of labor at a tertiary hospital in Spain between November 1, 2012, and August 31, 2013. The costs of labor induction were estimated according to maternal and neonatal outcomes, method of delivery, cervical condition at admission, and obstetric indication. Direct costs including professional fees, epidural, maternal stay, consumables, and drugs were calculated. Overall, 412 women were included in the final cost analysis. The mean total cost of labor induction was €3589.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3475.13-3704.61). Cesarean delivery after labor induction (€4830.45, 95% CI 4623.13-5037.58) was significantly more expensive than spontaneous delivery (€3037.45, 95% CI 2966.91-3179.99) and instrumental vaginal delivery (€3344.31, 95%CI 3151.69-3536.93). The total cost for patients with a very unfavorable cervix (Bishop score Labor induction for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was the most expensive obstetric indication for induction of labor (€4347.32, 95% CI 3890.45-4804.18). Following the induction of labor, a number of patient- and treatment-related factors influence costs associated with delivery. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Are a healthy diet and physical activity synergistically associated with cognitive functioning in older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, W.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, M.; Van der Schans, C. P.; Hobbelen, J. S. M.

    Previous research has demonstrated that being both physically active and adhering a healthy diet is associated with improved cognitive functioning; however, it remains unclear whether these factors act synergistically. We investigated the synergistic association of a healthy diet and being

  15. Synergistic activity of mecillinam in combination with the beta-lactamase inhibitors clavulanic acid and sulbactam.

    OpenAIRE

    Neu, H C

    1982-01-01

    The beta-lactamase inhibitors clavulanic acid and sulbactam were combined with mecillinam. beta-Lactamase-containing Escherichia coli resistant to mecillinam was synergistically inhibited by both clavulanic acid and sulbactam. beta-Lactamase-containing Enterobacter was synergistically inhibited, but strains lacking beta-lactamases were not synergistically inhibited. Synergistic inhibition was noted for beta-lactamase-containing, mecillinam-resistant Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Serratia, and Salm...

  16. Induction: The Early Years of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edi; Davis, Douglas; Colarusso, Ron; Grainger, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the need for induction programs for beginning teachers and discusses the theoretical and research support for them. Develops the notion of induction as a community responsibility and describes a university-school induction consortium, a university induction program, an induction program at a middle school, and the role of the principal…

  17. Inductively generating Euler diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Gem; Rodgers, Peter; Howse, John; Zhang, Leishi

    2011-01-01

    Euler diagrams have a wide variety of uses, from information visualization to logical reasoning. In all of their application areas, the ability to automatically layout Euler diagrams brings considerable benefits. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Euler diagram generation. We develop certain graphs associated with Euler diagrams in order to allow curves to be added by finding cycles in these graphs. This permits us to build Euler diagrams inductively, adding one curve at a time. Our technique is adaptable, allowing the easy specification, and enforcement, of sets of well-formedness conditions; we present a series of results that identify properties of cycles that correspond to the well-formedness conditions. This improves upon other contributions toward the automated generation of Euler diagrams which implicitly assume some fixed set of well-formedness conditions must hold. In addition, unlike most of these other generation methods, our technique allows any abstract description to be drawn as an Euler diagram. To establish the utility of the approach, a prototype implementation has been developed. © 2011 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

  18. Synergistic inhibitory effect of berberine and d-limonene on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Ling; Liu, Dong-Wu; Tang, Guang-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2014-09-01

    This study aims at evaluating the anticancer effects of berberine hydrochloride (berberine) and d-limonene, alone and in combination, on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 to determine whether berberine and d-limonene work synergistically and elucidate their mechanisms. MGC803 cells were treated with berberine and d-limonene, alone and in combination, for 24-48 h. The inhibitory effects of these drugs on growth were determined by MTT assay. The combination index and drug reduction index were calculated with the Chou-Talalay method based on the median-effect principle. Flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy were employed to evaluate the effects of both drugs on cell-cycle perturbation and apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 in MGC803 cells. Berberine or d-limonene alone can inhibit the growth of MGC803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Berberine and d-limonene at a combination ratio of 1:4 exhibited a synergistic effect on anti-MGC803 cells. The two drugs distinctly induced intracellular ROS generation, reduced the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), enhanced the expression of caspase-3, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2. The combination of berberine and d-limonene showed more remarkable effects compared with drugs used singly in MGC803 cells. The combination of berberine and d-limonene exerted synergistic anticancer effects on MGC803 cells by cell-cycle arrest, ROS production, and apoptosis induction through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway.

  19. Overview of Bearingless Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless induction motors combining functions of both torque generation and noncontact magnetic suspension together have attracted more and more attention in the past decades due to their definite advantages of compactness, simple structure, less maintenance, no wear particles, high rotational speed, and so forth. This paper overviews the key technologies of the bearingless induction motors, with emphasis on motor topologies, mathematical models, and control strategies. Particularly, in the control issues, the vector control, independent control, direct torque control, nonlinear decoupling control, sensorless control, and so forth are investigated. In addition, several possible development trends of the bearingless induction motors are also discussed.

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma repression by TNFα-mediated synergistic lethal effect of mitosis defect-induced senescence and cell death sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Fu, Jing; Du, Min; Zhang, Haibin; Li, Lu; Cen, Jin; Li, Weiyun; Chen, Xiaotao; Lin, Yunfei; Conway, Edward M; Pikarsky, Eli; Wang, Hongyan; Pan, Guoyu; Ji, Yuan; Wang, Hong-Yang; Hui, Lijian

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer lacking effective therapies. Several measures have been proposed to treat HCCs, such as senescence induction, mitotic inhibition, and cell death promotion. However, data from other cancers suggest that single use of these approaches may not be effective. Here, by genetic targeting of Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) that plays dual roles in mitosis and cell survival, we identified a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-mediated synergistic lethal effect between senescence and apoptosis sensitization in malignant HCCs. Survivin deficiency results in mitosis defect-associated senescence in HCC cells, which triggers local inflammation and increased TNFα. Survivin inactivation also sensitizes HCC cells to TNFα-triggered cell death, which leads to marked HCC regression. Based on these findings, we designed a combination treatment using mitosis inhibitor and proapoptosis compounds. This treatment recapitulates the therapeutic effect of Survivin deletion and effectively eliminates HCCs, thus representing a potential strategy for HCC therapy. Survivin ablation dramatically suppresses human and mouse HCCs by triggering senescence-associated TNFα and sensitizing HCC cells to TNFα-induced cell death. Combined use of mitotic inhibitor and second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases mimetic can induce senescence-associated TNFα and enhance TNFα-induced cell death and synergistically eliminate HCC. (Hepatology 2016;64:1105-1120). © 2016 The Authors. (Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. DNA, cell wall and general oxidative damage underlie the tellurite/cefotaxime synergistic effect in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto C Molina-Quiroz

    Full Text Available The constant emergence of antibiotic multi-resistant pathogens is a concern worldwide. An alternative for bacterial treatment using nM concentrations of tellurite was recently proposed to boost antibiotic-toxicity and a synergistic effect of tellurite/cefotaxime (CTX was described. In this work, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is proposed. Global changes of the transcriptional profile of Escherichia coli exposed to tellurite/CTX were determined by DNA microarrays. Induction of a number of stress regulators (as SoxS, genes related to oxidative damage and membrane transporters was observed. Accordingly, increased tellurite adsorption/uptake and oxidative injuries to proteins and DNA were determined in cells exposed to the mixture of toxicants, suggesting that the tellurite-mediated CTX-potentiating effect is dependent, at least in part, on oxidative stress. Thus, the synergistic tellurite-mediated CTX-potentiating effect depends on increased tellurite uptake/adsorption which results in damage to proteins, DNA and probably other macromolecules. Our findings represent a contribution to the current knowledge of bacterial physiology under antibiotic stress and can be of great interest in the development of new antibiotic-potentiating strategies.

  2. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil: Production process assessment and synergistic effects in its properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoira, Laureano; Garcia Galean, Juan; Alcantara, Ramon [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, ETS Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Lapuerta, Magin; Garcia-Contreras, Reyes [Maquinas y Motores Termicos, ETS Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from castor oil have been synthesized by methanolysis catalyzed by sodium methoxide and the optimal transesterification conditions have been found. However, some properties of the castor FAME render it unsuitable in pure state for its direct use as fuel in internal combustion engines. Thus, blends with reference diesel have been prepared and their properties have been evaluated. Among these properties, the oxidative stability of the blends shows a negative anti-synergistic effect, that is, all the blends have an induction period lower than the pure reference diesel and the pure castor FAME. On the contrary, the lubricity shows a positive synergistic effect, the wear scar of the blends being always lower than those of the pure components. The cold-filter plugging point of the blends shows also a singular effect, since the filterability remains identical to that of the reference diesel until around 50 vol% of castor FAME has been blended with it. The blends of castor FAME and reference diesel until approximately 40 vol% of castor FAME meet most of the specifications of the EN 590 standard. (author)

  3. Optimal control of induction heating processes

    CERN Document Server

    Rapoport, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    This book introduces new approaches to solving optimal control problems in induction heating process applications. Optimal Control of Induction Heating Processes demonstrates how to apply and use new optimization techniques for different types of induction heating installations. Focusing on practical methods for solving real engineering optimization problems, the text features a variety of specific optimization examples for induction heater modes and designs, particularly those used in industrial applications. The book describes basic physical phenomena in induction heating and induction

  4. Synergistic antibiotic combinations for colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Béla; Kocsis, Béla; Tóth, Ákos; Damjanova, Ivelina; Szász, Máté; Kristóf, Katalin; Nagy, Károly; Szabó, Dóra

    2013-06-01

    In this study antibiotic combinations for multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were investigated. The study included a colistin-susceptible and a colistin-resistant KPC-2 producing K. pneumoniae ST258 strains isolated in 2008 and 2009 during an outbreak in Hungary. Antibiotic combinations were analyzed by checkerboard technique and fractional inhibitory concentration indices were calculated. The following antibiotics were tested: ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ampicillin, imipenem, ertapenem, amikacin, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, rifampicin, polymyxin B and colistin. Combinations including 0.25 μg/ml colistin plus 1 μg/ml rifampicin, 0.25 μg/ml polymyxin B plus 1 μg/ml rifampicin, 1 μg/ml imipenem plus 2 μg/ml tobramycin, were found synergistic.These in vitro synergistic combinations suggest potential therapeutical options against infections caused by KPC-2 producing, multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae ST258.

  5. Comprehension of synergistic mechanisms for uranium extraction from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecheur, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Uranium VI is commonly extracted from phosphoric ores by a well-known process exploiting the synergistic mixture of two extractant molecules: HDEHP and TOPO. In the field of liquid-liquid extraction, synergistic combinations are common but the mechanisms at the origin of the synergy are not well understood. A multi-scale approach has been used to describe these mechanisms, combining two different descriptions: the molecular scale focuses on the ion point of view, while the supramolecular scale focuses on extractants' aggregation. These two approaches have been rationalized by molecular dynamics computations. The results allow describing the synergy through the structure of the complexes and aggregates. With the same approach, some bifunctional compounds, combining the two extracting sites in one molecule, have been studied and compared to the HDEHP/TOPO system in order to identify the origin of their increased capacities in extraction and selectivity. (author) [fr

  6. Synergistic Effects of a Smac Mimetic with Doxorubicin Against Human Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Etsuko; Kawamoto, Teruya; Ueha, Takeshi; Hara, Hitomi; Fukase, Naomasa; Minoda, Masaya; Morishita, Masayuki; Takemori, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Shuichi; Nishida, Kotaro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Akisue, Toshihiro

    2017-11-01

    Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) is a proapoptogenic mitochondrial protein that antagonizes inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), resulting in induction of apoptosis. In the present study we investigated the effects of a Smac mimetic in combination with doxorubicin against osteosarcoma. In vitro effects of the combination of a Smac mimetic AT-406 and doxorubicin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines were examined using cell proliferation assays, flow cytometry, and immunoblot analyses. For in vivo experiments, human osteosarcoma xenografts were treated with combination of the two substances, and tumor volume and apoptotic activity in treated tumors were assessed. In vitro studies revealed that combination of the two substances significantly inhibited osteosarcoma proliferation with decreased cIAP1 expression and induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells. Combination of the two substances significantly suppressed osteosarcoma growth in vivo. Moreover, decreased cIAP1 expression and increased apoptotic activity were observed in tumors treated by their combination of the substances. The Smac mimetic AT-406 showed an apoptotic effect and a synergistic antitumor effect with doxorubicin on osteosarcoma. The combination of AT-406 and doxorubicin may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma treatment. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Synergistic effects between catalase inhibitors and modulators of nitric oxide metabolism on tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitors of catalase (such as ascorbate, methyldopa, salicylic acid and neutralizing antibodies) synergize with modulators of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism (such as arginine, arginase inhibitor, NO synthase-inducing interferons and NO dioxygenase inhibitors) in the singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase. This is followed by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis induction. TGF-beta, NADPH oxidase-1, NO synthase, dual oxidase-1 and caspase-9 are characterized as essential catalysts in this process. The FAS receptor and caspase-8 are required for amplification of ROS signaling triggered by individual compounds, but are dispensable when the synergistic effect is established. Our findings explain the antitumor effects of catalase inhibitors and of compounds that target NO metabolism, as well as their synergy. These data may have an impact on epidemiological studies related to secondary plant compounds and open new perspectives for the establishment of novel antitumor drugs and for the improvement of established chemotherapeutics. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Doxorubicin and Tacrolimus (FK506 on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Capone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and shows a complex clinical course, poor response to pharmacological treatment, and a severe prognosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether tacrolimus (FK506 has synergistic antitumor effects with doxorubicin on two human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, Huh7 and HepG2. Cell viability was analyzed by Sulforhodamine B assay and synergic effect was evaluated by the software CalcuSyn. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin V and Dead Cell assay. Apoptosis-related protein PARP-1 cleaved and autophagy-related protein expressions (Beclin-1 and LC3B were measured by western blotting analysis. Cytokines concentration in cellular supernatants after treatments was studied by Bio-Plex assay. Interestingly the formulation with doxorubicin and tacrolimus induced higher cytotoxicity level on tumor cells than single treatment. Moreover, our results showed that the mechanisms involved were (i a strong cell apoptosis induction, (ii contemporaneous decrease of autophagy activation, understood as prosurvival process, and (iii downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, future studies could relate to the doxorubicin/tacrolimus combination effects in mice models bearing HCC in order to see if this formulation could be useful in HCC treatment.

  9. Effects of immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Two-month-old piglets were fed with 1, 1.5 and 2% immune synergist of Chinese medicinal herbs together with vaccination against classic swine fever. Serum IgG and IgM levels increased more than the control group on day. 30 (P<0.05). B and T lymphocyte proliferation in piglets fed with 1.5 and 2% ...

  10. Synergistic chemopreventive effects of nobiletin and atorvastatin on colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Song, Mingyue; Qiu, Peiju; Rakariyatham, Kanyasiri; Li, Fang; Gao, Zili; Cai, Xiaokun; Wang, Minqi; Xu, Fei; Zheng, Jinkai; Xiao, Hang

    2017-04-01

    Different cancer chemopreventive agents may act synergistically and their combination may produce enhanced protective effects against carcinogenesis than each individual agent alone. Herein, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of nobiletin (NBT, a citrus polymethoxyflavone) and atorvastatin (ATST, a lipid-lowering drug) in colon cancer cells/macrophages and an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis rat model. The results demonstrated that co-treatments of NBT/ATST produced enhanced growth inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects on the colon cancer cells and macrophages, respectively. Isobologram analysis confirmed that these interactions between NBT and ATST were synergistic. NBT/ATST co-treatment also synergistically induced extensive cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Oral administration of NBT (0.1%, w/w in diet) or ATST (0.04%, w/w in diet) significantly decreased colonic tumor incidence and multiplicity in AOM-treated rats. Most importantly, co-treatment of NBT/ATST at their half doses (0.05% NBT + 0.02% ATST, w/w in diet) resulted in even stronger inhibitory effects on colonic tumor incidence and multiplicity than did NBT or ATST alone at higher doses. Statistical analysis confirmed that the enhanced chemopreventive activities against colon carcinogenesis in rats by the NBT/ATST combination were highly synergistic. Our results further demonstrated that NBT/ATST co-treatment profoundly modulated key cellular signaling regulators associated with inflammation, cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis in the colon of AOM-treated rats. In conclusion, for the first time, our results demonstrated a strong synergy in inhibiting colon carcinogenesis produced by the co-treatment of NBT and ATST, which provided a scientific basis for using NBT in combination with ATST for colon cancer chemoprevention in humans. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  11. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  12. Fatigue Resistant Bioinspired Composite from Synergistic Two-Dimensional Nanocomponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sijie; Zhang, Qi; Zhou, Xiaohang; Li, Dechang; Ji, Baohua; Jiang, Lei; Cheng, Qunfeng

    2017-07-25

    Portable and wearable electronics require much more flexible graphene-based electrode with high fatigue life, which could repeatedly bend, fold, or stretch without sacrificing its mechanical properties and electrical conductivity. Herein, a kind of ultrahigh fatigue resistant graphene-based nanocomposite via tungsten disulfide (WS 2 ) nanosheets is synthesized by introducing a synergistic effect with covalently cross-linking inspired by the orderly layered structure and abundant interfacial interactions of nacre. The fatigue life of resultant graphene-based nanocomposites is more than one million times at the stress level of 270 MPa, and the electrical conductivity can be kept as high as 197.1 S/cm after 1.0 × 10 5 tensile testing cycles. These outstanding properties are attributed to the synergistic effect from lubrication of WS 2 nanosheets for deflecting crack propagation, and covalent bonding between adjacent GO nanosheets for bridging crack, which is verified by the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The WS 2 induced synergistic effect with covalent bonding offers a guidance for constructing graphene-based nanocomposites with high fatigue life, which have great potential for applications in flexible and wearable electronic devices, etc.

  13. Novel, Synergistic Antifungal Combinations that Target Translation Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Martinez, Elena; Vallieres, Cindy; Holland, Sara L.; Avery, Simon V.

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for new antifungal or fungicide treatments, as resistance to existing treatments grows. Combination treatments help to combat resistance. Here we develop a novel, effective target for combination antifungal therapy. Different aminoglycoside antibiotics combined with different sulphate-transport inhibitors produced strong, synergistic growth-inhibition of several fungi. Combinations decreased the respective MICs by ≥8-fold. Synergy was suppressed in yeast mutants resistant to effects of sulphate-mimetics (like chromate or molybdate) on sulphate transport. By different mechanisms, aminoglycosides and inhibition of sulphate transport cause errors in mRNA translation. The mistranslation rate was stimulated up to 10-fold when the agents were used in combination, consistent with this being the mode of synergistic action. A range of undesirable fungi were susceptible to synergistic inhibition by the combinations, including the human pathogens Candida albicans, C. glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, the food spoilage organism Zygosaccharomyces bailii and the phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Zymoseptoria tritici. There was some specificity as certain fungi were unaffected. There was no synergy against bacterial or mammalian cells. The results indicate that translation fidelity is a promising new target for combinatorial treatment of undesirable fungi, the combinations requiring substantially decreased doses of active components compared to each agent alone. PMID:26573415

  14. Synergistic combination dry powders for inhaled antimicrobial therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2013-06-01

    Combination products play an important role in medicine as they offer improved clinical effectiveness, enhanced patient adherence, and reduced administrative costs. In combination antimicrobial therapy, the desired outcome is to extend the antimicrobial spectrum and to achieve a possible synergistic effect. However, adverse antagonistic species may sometimes emerge from such combinations, leading to treatment failure. Therefore, it is crucial to screen the drug candidates for compatibility and possible antagonistic interactions. This work aims to develop a novel synergistic dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation for antimicrobial combination therapy via the pulmonary route. Binary and ternary combinations were prepared via spray drying on a BUCHI® Nano Spray Dryer B-90. All powders were within the respirable size range, and were consisted of spherical particles that were slightly corrugated. The powers yielded fine particle fractions (of the loaded dose) of over 40% when dispersed using an Aerolizer® DPI at 60 L/min. Time-kill studies carried out against common respiratory tract pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumannii at 1x the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) over 24 hours revealed no antagonistic behavior for both combinations. While the interactions were generally found to be indifferent, a favorable synergistic effect was detected in the binary combination when it was tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria.

  15. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Tribulus terrestris and Bitter Almond Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abtahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial effects of the extracts of different kinds of plants have been demonstrated in several studies. However, no study has been conducted so far on the synergistic effects of two herbal extracts on their germicidal effects. In this study, in addition to antibacterial effects of the aqueous, methanol or ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and bitter almond on some bacteria, the synergistic effects of the extracts of these two plants were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, water, methanol and ethanol extracts of seeds were screened against some bacterial strains. Seeds were extracted by percolation method. Aliquots of the extracts at variable concentrations were then incubated with different bacterial strains, and the antimicrobial activities of the extracts from seeds were determined by MIC. Three antibiotics were used as reference compounds for antibacterial activities. Seeds extract inhibited significantly the growth of the tested bacterial strains. Results: The greatest synergistic effect of T. terrestris and bitter almond extracts is detected in methanol and aqueous extracts. Among the bacterial strains tested, Staphylococcus aureus was most susceptibility. Conclusion: The results showed the highest antibacterial effect in the combination of methanol extract of T. terrestris and the aqueous extract of the bitter almond.

  16. Pooled screening for synergistic interactions subject to blocking and noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Li

    Full Text Available The complex molecular networks in the cell can give rise to surprising interactions: gene deletions that are synthetically lethal, gene overexpressions that promote stemness or differentiation, synergistic drug interactions that heighten potency. Yet, the number of actual interactions is dwarfed by the number of potential interactions, and discovering them remains a major problem. Pooled screening, in which multiple factors are simultaneously tested for possible interactions, has the potential to increase the efficiency of searching for interactions among a large set of factors. However, pooling also carries with it the risk of masking genuine interactions due to antagonistic influence from other factors in the pool. Here, we explore several theoretical models of pooled screening, allowing for synergy and antagonism between factors, noisy measurements, and other forms of uncertainty. We investigate randomized sequential designs, deriving formulae for the expected number of tests that need to be performed to discover a synergistic interaction, and the optimal size of pools to test. We find that even in the presence of significant antagonistic interactions and testing noise, randomized pooled designs can significantly outperform exhaustive testing of all possible combinations. We also find that testing noise does not affect optimal pool size, and that mitigating noise by a selective approach to retesting outperforms naive replication of all tests. Finally, we show that a Bayesian approach can be used to handle uncertainty in problem parameters, such as the extent of synergistic and antagonistic interactions, resulting in schedules for adapting pool size during the course of testing.

  17. Intelligent Sensing in Inverter-fed Induction Motors: Wavelet-based Symbolic Dynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan SAMSI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet transform allows adaptive usage of windows to extract pertinent information from sensor signals, and symbolic dynamic analysis provides coarse graining of the underlying information for enhanced computational speed and robustness of sensor-data-driven decision-making. These two concepts are synergistically combined for real-time intelligent sensing of faults whose signatures are small compared to coefficients of dominant frequencies in the signal. Feasibility of the proposed intelligent sensing method is demonstrated on an experimental apparatus for early detection of rotor bar breakage in an inverter-fed induction motor.

  18. Ascorbic acid and a cytostatic inhibitor of glycolysis synergistically induce apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha B Vuyyuri

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA exhibits significant anticancer activity at pharmacologic doses achievable by parenteral administration that have minimal effects on normal cells. Thus, AA has potential uses as a chemotherapeutic agent alone or in combination with other therapeutics that specifically target cancer-cell metabolism. We compared the effects of AA and combinations of AA with the glycolysis inhibitor 3-(3-pyridinyl-1-(4-pyridinyl-2-propen-1-one (3-PO on the viability of three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines to the effects on an immortalized lung epithelial cell line. AA concentrations of 0.5 to 5 mM caused a complete loss of viability in all NSCLC lines compared to a <10% loss of viability in the lung epithelial cell line. Combinations of AA and 3-PO synergistically enhanced cell death in all NSCLC cell lines at concentrations well below the IC50 concentrations for each compound alone. A synergistic interaction was not observed in combination treatments of lung epithelial cells and combination treatments that caused a complete loss of viability in NSCLC cells had modest effects on normal lung cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Combination treatments induced dramatically higher ROS levels compared to treatment with AA and 3-PO alone in NSCLC cells and combination-induced cell death was inhibited by addition of catalase to the medium. Analyses of DNA fragmentation, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, annexin V-binding, and caspase activity demonstrated that AA-induced cell death is caused via the activation of apoptosis and that the combination treatments caused a synergistic induction of apoptosis. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of AA against NSCLC cells and that combinations of AA with 3-PO synergistically induce apoptosis via a ROS-dependent mechanism. These results support further evaluation of pharmacologic concentrations of AA as an adjuvant treatment for NSCLC and that combination of AA with

  19. The miR-302-Mediated Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC): Multiple Synergistic Reprogramming Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shao-Yao; Fang, William; Lin, Shi-Lung

    2018-01-01

    Pluripotency represents a unique feature of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). To generate ESC-like-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells, the cell genome needs to be reset and reprogrammed to express the ESC-specific transcriptome. Numerous studies have shown that genomic DNA demethylation is required for epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei to form iPSCs; yet, the mechanism remains largely unclear. In ESCs, the reprogramming process goes through two critical stages: germline and zygotic demethylation, both of which erase genomic DNA methylation sites and hence allow for different gene expression patterns to be reset into a pluripotent state. Recently, miR-302, an ESC-specific microRNA (miRNA), was found to play an essential role in four aspects of this reprogramming mechanism-(1) initiating global genomic DNA demethylation, (2) activating ESC-specific gene expression, (3) inhibiting developmental signaling, and (4) preventing stem cell tumorigenicity. In this review, we will summarize miR-302 functions in all four reprogramming aspects and further discuss how these findings may improve the efficiency and safety of the current iPSC technology.

  20. Synergistic Induction of Potential Warburg Effect in Zebrafish Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Co-Transgenic Expression of Myc and xmrk Oncogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available Previously we have generated inducible liver tumor models by transgenic expression of Myc or xmrk (activated EGFR homolog oncogenes in zebrafish. To investigate the interaction of the two oncogenes, we crossed the two transgenic lines and observed more severe and faster hepatocarcinogenesis in Myc/xmrk double transgenic zebrafish than either single transgenic fish. RNA-Seq analyses revealed distinct changes in many molecular pathways among the three types of liver tumors. In particular, we found dramatic alteration of cancer metabolism based on the uniquely enriched pathways in the Myc/xmrk tumors. Critical glycolytic genes including hk2, pkm and ldha were significantly up-regulated in Myc/xmrk tumors but not in either single oncogene-induced tumors, suggesting a potential Warburg effect. In RT-qPCR analyses, the specific pkm2 isoformin Warburg effect was found to be highly enriched in the Myc/xmrk tumors but not in Myc or xmrk tumors, consistent with the observations in many human cancers with Warburg effect. Moreover, the splicing factor genes (hnrnpa1, ptbp1a, ptbp1b and sfrs3b responsible for generating the pkm isoform were also greatly up-regulated in the Myc/xmrk tumors. As Pkm2 isoform is generally inactive and causes incomplete glycolysis to favor anabolism and tumor growth, by treatment with a Pkm2-specific activator, TEPP-46, we further demonstrated that activation of Pkm2 suppressed the growth of oncogenic liver as well as proliferation of liver cells. Collectively, our Myc/xmrk zebrafish model suggests synergetic effect of EGFR and MYC in triggering Warburg effect in the HCC formation and may provide a promising in vivo model for Warburg effect.

  1. Hypnosis for induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Shirakawa, Miyako N; Ota, Erika; Hanada, Nobutsugu; Mori, Rintaro

    2014-08-14

    Induction of labour using pharmacological and mechanical methods can increase complications. Complementary and alternative medicine methods including hypnosis may have the potential to provide a safe alternative option for the induction of labour. However, the effectiveness of hypnosis for inducing labour has not yet been fully evaluated. To assess the effect of hypnosis for induction of labour compared with no intervention or any other interventions. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2014), handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted key personnel and organisations in the field for published and unpublished references. All published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs of acceptable quality comparing hypnosis with no intervention or any other interventions, in which the primary outcome is to assess whether labour was induced. Two review authors assessed the one trial report that was identified (but was subsequently excluded). No RCTs or cluster-RCTs were identified from the search strategy. There was no evidence available from RCTs to assess the effect of hypnosis for induction of labour. Evidence from RCTs is required to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this intervention for labour induction. As hypnosis may delay standard care (in case standard care is withheld during hypnosis), its use in induction of labour should be considered on a case-by-case basis.Future RCTs are required to examine the effectiveness and safety of hypnotic relaxation for induction of labour among pregnant women who have anxiety above a certain level. The length and timing of the intervention, as well as the staff training required, should be taken into consideration. Moreover, the views and experiences of women and staff should also be included in future RCTs.

  2. Estimation of physical parameters in induction motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, H.; Knudsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    Parameter estimation in induction motors is a field of great interest, because accurate models are needed for robust dynamic control of induction motors......Parameter estimation in induction motors is a field of great interest, because accurate models are needed for robust dynamic control of induction motors...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating conditions... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091...

  4. Synergistic anti-tumor actions of luteolin and silibinin prevented cell migration and invasion and induced apoptosis in glioblastoma SNB19 cells and glioblastoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Mrinmay; Ray, Swapan K

    2015-12-10

    Glioblastoma is the most lethal brain tumor. Failure of conventional chemotherapies prompted the search for natural compounds for treatment of glioblastoma. Plant-derived flavonoids could be alternative medicine for inhibiting not only glioblastoma cells but also glioblastoma stem cells (GSC). Two plant-derived flavonoids are luteolin (LUT) and silibinin (SIL). We investigated anti-tumor mechanisms of LUT and SIL in different human glioblastoma cells and GSC and found significant synergistic inhibition of human glioblastoma LN18 and SNB19 cells and GSC following treatment with combination of 20µM LUT and 50µM SIL. Combination of 20µM LUT and 50µM SIL was more effective than a conventional chemotherapeutic agent (BCNU or TMZ). We continued our studies with SNB19 cells and GSC and found dramatic inhibition of cell migration from spheroids and also cell invasion through matrigel following treatment with combination of LUT and SIL. This combination was highly effective to block angiogenesis and survival pathways leading to induction of apoptosis. Inhibition of PKCα, XIAP, and iNOS ultimately caused induction of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Collectively, synergistic efficacy of LUT and SIL could be a promising therapy to inhibit cell migration and invasion and induce apoptosis in different glioblastoma cells including GSC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergistic Effect of Forbesione From Garcinia hanburyi in Combination with 5-Fluorouracil on Cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boueroy, Parichart; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya; Boonmars, Thidarut; Saensa-ard, Sunitta; Wattanawongdon, Wareeporn; Kongsanthia, Charuphan; Salao, Kanin; Wongwajana, Suwin; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2017-12-29

    Background: Chemotherapy for advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is largely ineffective; thus innovative combinations of chemotherapeutic agents and natural compounds represent a promising strategy. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of forbesione combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamster cholangiocarcinoma (Ham-1) cells both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor effects of 5-FU combined with forbesione in vitro were determined using the Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and the effects in vivo were assessed in transplanted Ham-1 allograph models. Using ethidium bromide/acridine orange (EB/AO) staining, the morphological changes of apoptotic cells was investigated. The expressions of apoptosis-related molecules after combined treatment with forbesione and 5-FU were determined using real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Forbesione or 5-FU alone inhibited proliferation of Ham-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner and their combination showed a synergistic proliferation inhibitory effect in vitro. In vivo studies, forbesione in combination with 5-FU exhibited greater inhibition of the tumor in the hamster model compared with treatment using either drug alone. Forbesione combined with 5-FU exerted stronger apoptotic induction in Ham-1 cells than did single drug treatment. The combination of drugs strongly suppressed the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and procaspase-3 while enhancing the expression of p53, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), caspase-9 and caspase-3, compared with single drug treatments. These results explained the decreased expression of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) positive cells and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells in Ham-1 cell tumor tissues of the treated hamsters. There was no apparent systemic toxicity observed in the treated animals compared with the control groups. Forbesione combined with 5-FU strongly induced apoptosis in Ham-1 cells. The growth

  6. Multiple levels of synergistic collaboration in termite lignocellulose digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Scharf

    Full Text Available In addition to evolving eusocial lifestyles, two equally fascinating aspects of termite biology are their mutualistic relationships with gut symbionts and their use of lignocellulose as a primary nutrition source. Termites are also considered excellent model systems for studying the production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from 2nd generation (non-food feedstocks. While the idea that gut symbionts are the sole contributors to termite lignocellulose digestion has remained popular and compelling, in recent years host contributions to the digestion process have become increasingly apparent. However, the degree to which host and symbiont, and host enzymes, collaborate in lignocellulose digestion remain poorly understood. Also, how digestive enzymes specifically collaborate (i.e., in additive or synergistic ways is largely unknown. In the present study we undertook translational-genomic studies to gain unprecedented insights into digestion by the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its symbiotic gut flora. We used a combination of native gut tissue preparations and recombinant enzymes derived from the host gut transcriptome to identify synergistic collaborations between host and symbiont, and also among enzymes produced exclusively by the host termite. Our findings provide important new evidence of synergistic collaboration among enzymes in the release of fermentable monosaccharides from wood lignocellulose. These monosaccharides (glucose and pentoses are highly relevant to 2(nd-generation bioethanol production. We also show that, although significant digestion capabilities occur in host termite tissues, catalytic tradeoffs exist that apparently favor mutualism with symbiotic lignocellulose-digesting microbes. These findings contribute important new insights towards the development of termite-derived biofuel processing biotechnologies and shed new light on selective forces that likely favored symbiosis and, subsequently, group living in

  7. Synergistic Anticancer Action of Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization and Glycolysis Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosic, Milica; Arsikin-Csordas, Katarina; Paunovic, Verica; Firestone, Raymond A; Ristic, Biljana; Mircic, Aleksandar; Petricevic, Sasa; Bosnjak, Mihajlo; Zogovic, Nevena; Mandic, Milos; Bumbasirevic, Vladimir; Trajkovic, Vladimir; Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica

    2016-10-28

    We investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effect of combining lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP)-inducing agent N-dodecylimidazole (NDI) with glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG). NDI-triggered LMP and 2DG-mediated glycolysis block synergized in inducing rapid ATP depletion, mitochondrial damage, and reactive oxygen species production, eventually leading to necrotic death of U251 glioma cells but not primary astrocytes. NDI/2DG-induced death of glioma cells was partly prevented by lysosomal cathepsin inhibitor E64 and antioxidant α-tocopherol, suggesting the involvement of LMP and oxidative stress in the observed cytotoxicity. LMP-inducing agent chloroquine also displayed a synergistic anticancer effect with 2DG, whereas glucose deprivation or glycolytic inhibitors iodoacetate and sodium fluoride synergistically cooperated with NDI, thus further indicating that the anticancer effect of NDI/2DG combination was indeed due to LMP and glycolysis block. The two agents synergistically induced ATP depletion, mitochondrial depolarization, oxidative stress, and necrotic death also in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Moreover, the combined oral administration of NDI and 2DG reduced in vivo melanoma growth in C57BL/6 mice by inducing necrotic death of tumor cells, without causing liver, spleen, or kidney toxicity. Based on these results, we propose that NDI-triggered LMP causes initial mitochondrial damage that is further increased by 2DG due to the lack of glycolytic ATP required to maintain mitochondrial health. This leads to a positive feedback cycle of mitochondrial dysfunction, ATP loss, and reactive oxygen species production, culminating in necrotic cell death. Therefore, the combination of LMP-inducing agents and glycolysis inhibitors seems worthy of further exploration as an anticancer strategy. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...

  9. Induction interview form in EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,

    2007-01-01

    As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...

  10. Induction brazing of complex joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Poul; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2003-01-01

    Induction brazing is a fast and appropriate method for industrial joining of complex geometries and metal combinations. In all types of brazing processes it is important to heat the joint interface of the two materials to the same, high temperature. If one of the specimens is warmer than the other...... materials has large influence on the heating time and temperature distribution in induction heating. In order to ensure high and uniform temperature distribution near the interface of a joint between dissimilar materials the precise coil geometry and position is of great importance. The present paper...... presents a combined numerical and experimental method for fast determination of appropriate coil geometry and position in induction brazing tube-to-plate joints of different ratios between tube and plate thickness and different combinations of the materials stainless steel, brass and copper. The method has...

  11. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  12. Induction and deduction in morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullemeijer, P

    1987-01-01

    Professor de Wilde's scientific contributions can be divided into two separate areas based on the applied methods: induction and deduction. The first method is used in the investigation of the finger ridge pattern and the second in that of the branching of bloodvessels. It is shown that with induction alternative classifications and explanations remain always possible and that the ultimate choice of the classification depends on supposed biological meanings or practical applicability. In the case of the finger ridge patterns the latter criterion is decisive. With the deductive method a sufficient logical explanation within the boundary conditions can be reached. Alternatives can be presented if the boundary conditions are changed or the functional parameters have to be chosen differently, which is necessary when direct observation (induction) "shows" that other functions are involved. A number of advantages and problematic points in both methods are analysed and their relationship and function in morphology are demonstrated in the mentioned research topics.

  13. Metallomics and NMR-based metabolomics of Chlorella sp. reveal the synergistic role of copper and cadmium in multi-metal toxicity and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlin; Tan, Nicole G J; Fu, Baohui; Li, Sam F Y

    2015-03-01

    Industrial wastewaters often contain high levels of metal mixtures, in which metal mixtures may have synergistic or antagonistic effects on aquatic organisms. A combination of metallomics and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)-based metabolomics was employed to understand the consequences of multi-metal systems (Cu, Cd, Pb) on freshwater microalgae. Morphological characterization, cell viability and chlorophyll a determination of metal-spiked Chlorella sp. suggested synergistic effects of Cu and Cd on growth inhibition and toxicity. While Pb has no apparent effect on Chlorella sp. metabolome, a substantial decrease of sucrose, amino acid content and glycerophospholipid precursors in Cu-spiked microalgae revealed Cu-induced oxidative stress. Addition of Cd to Cu-spiked cultures induced more drastic metabolic perturbations, hence we confirmed that Cu and Cd synergistically influenced photosynthesis inhibition, oxidative stress and membrane degradation. Total elemental analysis revealed a significant decrease in K, and an increase in Na, Mg, Zn and Mn concentrations in Cu-spiked cultures. This indicated that Cu is more toxic to Chlorella sp. as compared to Cd or Pb, and the combination of Cu and Cd has a strong synergistic effect on Chlorella sp. oxidative stress induction. Oxidative stress is confirmed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis, which demonstrated a drastic decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio solely in Cu-spiked cultures. Interestingly, we observed Cu-facilitated Cd and Pb bioconcentration in Chlorella sp. The absence of phytochelatins and an increment of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) yields in Cu-spiked cultures suggested that the mode of bioconcentration of Cd and Pb is through adsorption of free metals onto the algal EPS rather than intracellular chelation to phytochelatins.

  14. What is Life? Among Other Things, It's a Synergistic Effect!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Corning

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been many different ways of characterizing and describing the phenomenon of life over the years. One aspect that has not often been stressed is lifersquo;s emergent propertiesmdash;the synergies that are produced when many elements or parts combine to produce distinctive new ldquo;wholesrdquo;. Indeed, complex living systems represent a multi-leveled, multi-faceted hierarchy of synergistic effects that has evolved over several billion years. Some of the many examples of synergy at various levels of life are briefly described, and it is emphasized that life is still creating itself and still exploring its potentialities.

  15. Synergistic Effect of Lupenone and Caryophyllene Oxide against Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glendy Polanco-Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro trypanocidal activity of a 1 : 4 mixture of lupenone and caryophyllene oxide confirmed a synergistic effect of the terpenoids against epimastigotes forms of T. cruzi (IC50=10.4 μg/mL, FIC = 0.46. In addition, testing of the terpenoid mixture for its capacity to reduce the number of amastigote nests in cardiac tissue and skeletal muscle of infected mice showed a reduction of more than 80% at a dose level of 20.8 mg·kg−1·day−1.

  16. Technological inductive power transfer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzharov, Nikolay D.; Nemkov, Valentin S.

    2017-05-01

    Inductive power transfer is a very fast expanding technology with multiple design principles and practical implementations ranging from charging phones and computers to bionic systems, car chargers and continuous power transfer in technological lines. Only a group of devices working in near magnetic field is considered. This article is devoted to overview of different inductive power transfer (IPT) devices. The review of literature in this area showed that industrial IPT are not much discussed and examined. The authors have experience in design and implementation of several types of IPTs belonging to wireless automotive chargers and to industrial application group. Main attention in the article is paid to principles and design of technological IPTs

  17. A relevance theory of induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L; Coley, John D; Storms, Gert; Hayes, Brett K

    2003-09-01

    A framework theory, organized around the principle of relevance, is proposed for category-based reasoning. According to the relevance principle, people assume that premises are informative with respect to conclusions. This idea leads to the prediction that people will use causal scenarios and property reinforcement strategies in inductive reasoning. These predictions are contrasted with both existing models and normative logic. Judgments of argument strength were gathered in three different countries, and the results showed the importance of both causal scenarios and property reinforcement in category-based inferences. The relation between the relevance framework and existing models of category-based inductive reasoning is discussed in the light of these findings.

  18. Induction linacs and pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Progress in electronic power conversion technology is making possible a new class of induction linacs that can operate at extremely high repetition rates. Advances in insulator technology, pulse forming line design and switching may also lead to a new type of high current accelerator with accelerating gradients at least an order of magnitude greater than those attainable today. The evolution of the induction accelerator pulsed power system will be discussed along with some details of these emerging technologies which are at the frontiers of accelerator technology

  19. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj P Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb.

  20. Synergistic ototoxicity due to noise exposure and aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongzhe; Steyger, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic exposure to high intensity and/or prolonged noise causes temporary or permanent threshold shifts in auditory perception, reflected by reversible or irreversible damage in the cochlea. Aminoglycoside antibiotics, used for treating or preventing life-threatening bacterial infections, also induce cytotoxicity in the cochlea. Combined noise and aminoglycoside exposure, particularly in neonatal intensive care units, can lead to auditory threshold shifts greater than simple summation of the two insults. The synergistic toxicity of acoustic exposure and aminoglycoside antibiotics is not limited to simultaneous exposures. Prior acoustic insult which does not result in permanent threshold shifts potentiates aminoglycoside ototoxicity. In addition, exposure to subdamaging doses of aminoglycosides aggravates noise-induced cochlear damage. The mechanisms by which aminoglycosides cause auditory dysfunction are still being unraveled, but likely include the following: 1) penetration into the endolymphatic fluid of the scala media, 2) permeation of nonselective cation channels on the apical surface of hair cells, and 3) generation of toxic reactive oxygen species and interference with other cellular pathways. Here we discuss the effect of combined noise and aminoglycoside exposure to identify pivotal synergistic events that can potentiate ototoxicity, in addition to a current understanding of aminoglycoside trafficking within the cochlea. Preventing the ototoxic synergy of noise and aminoglycosides is best achieved by using non-ototoxic bactericidal drugs, and by attenuating perceived noise intensity when life-saving aminoglycoside therapy is required.

  1. Synergistic Effects of PPARγ Ligands and Retinoids in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Shimizu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The activation of PPARs by their specific ligands is regarded as one of the promising strategies to inhibit cancer cell growth. However, recent clinical trials targeting several common cancers showed no beneficial effect when PPAR ligands are used as a monotherapy. Retinoid X receptors (RXRs, which play a critical role in normal cell proliferation as a master regulator for nuclear receptors, preferentially form heterodimers with PPARs. A malfunction of RXRα due to phosphorylation by the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway is associated with the development of certain types of human malignancies. The activation of PPARγ/RXR heterodimer by their respective ligands synergistically inhibits cell growth, while inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells when the phosphorylation of RXRα was inhibited. We herein review the synergistic antitumor effects produced by the combination of the PPAR, especially PPARγ, ligands plus other agents, especially retinoids, in a variety of human cancers. We also focus on the phosphorylation of RXRα because the inhibition of RXRα phosphorylation and the restoration of its physiological function may activate PPAR/RXR heterodimer and, therefore, be a potentially effective and critical strategy for the inhibition of cancer cell growth.

  2. Synergistic impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on model ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lewis J; Newbold, Tim; Purves, Drew W; Tittensor, Derek P; Harfoot, Michael B J

    2016-09-28

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity, yet separating their effects is challenging. We use a multi-trophic, trait-based, and spatially explicit general ecosystem model to examine the independent and synergistic effects of these processes on ecosystem structure. We manipulated habitat by removing plant biomass in varying spatial extents, intensities, and configurations. We found that emergent synergistic interactions of loss and fragmentation are major determinants of ecosystem response, including population declines and trophic pyramid shifts. Furthermore, trait-mediated interactions, such as a disproportionate sensitivity of large-sized organisms to fragmentation, produce significant effects in shaping responses. We also show that top-down regulation mitigates the effects of land use on plant biomass loss, suggesting that models lacking these interactions-including most carbon stock models-may not adequately capture land-use change impacts. Our results have important implications for understanding ecosystem responses to environmental change, and assessing the impacts of habitat fragmentation. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Non-equilibrium synergistic effects in atmospheric pressure plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian; Li, He-Ping; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2018-03-19

    Non-equilibrium is one of the important features of an atmospheric gas discharge plasma. It involves complicated physical-chemical processes and plays a key role in various actual plasma processing. In this report, a novel complete non-equilibrium model is developed to reveal the non-equilibrium synergistic effects for the atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasmas (AP-LTPs). It combines a thermal-chemical non-equilibrium fluid model for the quasi-neutral plasma region and a simplified sheath model for the electrode sheath region. The free-burning argon arc is selected as a model system because both the electrical-thermal-chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium regions are involved simultaneously in this arc plasma system. The modeling results indicate for the first time that it is the strong and synergistic interactions among the mass, momentum and energy transfer processes that determine the self-consistent non-equilibrium characteristics of the AP-LTPs. An energy transfer process related to the non-uniform spatial distributions of the electron-to-heavy-particle temperature ratio has also been discovered for the first time. It has a significant influence for self-consistently predicting the transition region between the "hot" and "cold" equilibrium regions of an AP-LTP system. The modeling results would provide an instructive guidance for predicting and possibly controlling the non-equilibrium particle-energy transportation process in various AP-LTPs in future.

  4. Phonotactics in inductive logic programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Konstantopoulos, S.; Klopotek, M.A.; Wierzchon, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the results of applying inductive logic programming (ILP) to a relatively simple linguistic task, that of recognizing monosyllables in one language. ILP is suited to linguistic problems given linguists' preference for formulating their theories in discrete rules, and because of ILP's

  5. Inductively coupled helium plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Akbar; Chan, Shi-Kit; Van Hoven, Raymond L.

    1989-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma torch including a base member, a plasma tube and a threaded insert member within the plasma tube for directing the plasma gas in a tangential flow pattern. The design of the torch eliminates the need for a separate coolant gas tube. The torch can be readily assembled and disassembled with a high degree of alignment accuracy.

  6. Teaching Inductive Reasoning with Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2017-01-01

    Working with language-independent logic structures can help students develop both inductive and deductive reasoning skills. The Japanese publisher Nikoli (with resources available both in print and online) produces a treasure trove of language-independent logic puzzles. The Nikoli print resources are mostly in Japanese, creating the extra…

  7. Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Hamide

    2016-01-01

    Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…

  8. Induction of formaldehyde contact sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Vølund, A

    1985-01-01

    , and formaldehyde 1% and 0.1% was used for challenge. The incidence of contact sensitivity depended on the intradermal, but not on the topical induction dose. Statistical analyses showed a non-monotonous (non-linear) dose response relationship. The estimated maximal sensitization rate in Copenhagen was 80% after...

  9. High average power induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swingle, J.C.

    1985-10-01

    The induction accelerator is discussed with respect to general background and concept, beam transport, scaling, pulse power technology, and the electron beam injector. A discussion of the factors which affect the scaling of the intensity of the beam is given. Limiting factors include collective forces in the beam, virtual cathode formation, surroundings, and beam breakup instability. 24 refs., 11 figs

  10. Sulforaphane synergistically enhances the cytotoxicity of arsenic trioxide in multiple myeloma cells via stress-mediated pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    DOUDICAN, NICOLE A.; WEN, SHIH YA; MAZUMDER, AMITABHA; ORLOW, SETH J.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent paraprotein production in plasma cells necessitates a highly developed rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is unusually susceptible to perturbations in protein synthesis. This biology is believed to account for the exquisite sensitivity of multiple myeloma (MM) to the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ). Despite remarkable response rates to BTZ in MM, BTZ carries the potential for serious side-effects and development of resistance. We, therefore, sought to identify therapeutic combinations that effectively disrupt proteostasis in order to provide new potential treatments for MM. We found that sulforaphane, a dietary isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, inhibits TNFα-induced Iκβ proteasomal degradation in a manner similar to BTZ. Like BTZ, sulforaphane synergistically enhances the cytotoxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO), an agent with clinical activity in MM. ATO and sulforaphane co-treatment augmented apoptotic induction as demonstrated by cleavage of caspase-3, -4 and PARP. The enhanced apoptotic response was dependent upon production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as demonstrated by glutathione depletion and partial inhibition of the apoptotic cascade after pretreatment with the radical scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Combination treatment resulted in enhanced ER stress signaling and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), indicative of perturbation of proteostasis. Specifically, combination treatment caused elevated expression of the molecular chaperone HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) along with increased PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) and eIF2α phosphorylation and XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) splicing, key indicators of UPR activation. Moreover, increased splicing of XBP1 was apparent upon combination treatment compared to treatment with either agent alone. Sulforaphane in combination with ATO effectively disrupts protein homeostasis through ROS generation and induction of ER stress to

  11. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-04-05

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial.

  12. Smac mimetics and type II interferon synergistically induce necroptosis in various cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekay, Michael John; Roesler, Stefanie; Frank, Tanja; Knuth, Anne-Kathrin; Eckhardt, Ines; Fulda, Simone

    2017-12-01

    Since cancer cells often evade apoptosis, induction of necroptosis as another mode of programmed cell death is considered a promising therapeutic alternative. Here, we identify a novel synergistic interaction of Smac mimetics that antagonize x-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP), cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis (cIAP) 1 and 2 with interferon (IFN)γ to induce necroptosis in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells in which caspase activation is blocked. This synergism is confirmed by calculation of combination indices (CIs) and found in both solid and hematological cancer cell lines as well as for different Smac mimetics (i.e. BV6, Birinapant), pointing to a broader relevance. Importantly, individual genetic knockdown of key components of necroptosis signaling, i.e. receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1, RIP3 or mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL), significantly protects from BV6/IFNγ-induced cell death. Similarly, pharmacological inhibitors of RIP1 (necrostatin-1(Nec-1)), RIP3 (GSK'872) or MLKL (necrosulfonamide (NSA)) significantly reduce BV6/IFNγ-stimulated cell death. Of note, IFN-regulatory factor (IRF)1 is required for BV6/IFNγ-mediated necroptosis, as IRF1 silencing provides protection from cell death. By comparison, antibodies blocking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or CD95 ligand fail to inhibit BV6/IFNγ-induced cell death, pointing to a mechanism independently of death receptor ligands. This is the first report showing that Smac mimetics synergize with IFNγ to trigger necroptosis in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells with important implications for Smac mimetic-based strategies for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenotypic Screening Identifies Synergistically Acting Natural Product Enhancing the Performance of Biomaterial Based Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Sivasubramanian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential of multifunctional wound heal biomaterial relies on the optimal content of therapeutic constituents as well as the desirable physical, chemical, and biological properties to accelerate the healing process. Formulating biomaterials such as amnion or collagen based scaffolds with natural products offer an affordable strategy to develop dressing material with high efficiency in healing wounds. Using image based phenotyping and quantification, we screened natural product derived bioactive compounds for modulators of types I and III collagen production from human foreskin derived fibroblast cells. The identified hit was then formulated with amnion to develop a biomaterial, and its biophysical properties, in vitro and in vivo effects were characterized. In addition, we performed functional profiling analyses by PCR array to understand the effect of individual components of these materials on various genes such as inflammatory mediators including chemokines and cytokines, growth factors, fibroblast stimulating markers for collagen secretion, matrix metalloproteinases, etc., associated with wound healing. FACS based cell cycle analyses were carried out to evaluate the potential of biomaterials for induction of proliferation of fibroblasts. Western blot analyses was done to examine the effect of biomaterial on collagen synthesis by cells and compared to cells grown in the presence of growth factors. This work demonstrated an uncomplicated way of identifying components that synergistically promote healing. Besides, we demonstrated that modulating local wound environment using biomaterials with bioactive compounds could enhance healing. This study finds that the developed biomaterials offer immense scope for healing wounds by means of their skin regenerative features such as anti-inflammatory, fibroblast stimulation for collagen secretion as well as inhibition of enzymes and markers impeding the healing, hydrodynamic properties complemented

  14. Synergistic effects of coralyne and paclitaxel on cell migration and proliferation of breast cancer cells lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Seema; Badana, Anil Kumar; Mohan, G Murali; Shailender Naik, G; Malla, RamaRao

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer in woman. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is most aggressive form of breast cancer. There is a growing interest in the use of natural products in combinational chemotherapy to improve the effectiveness in combating proliferation of cancer cells. Here, we hypothesized that coralyne in combination with paclitaxel may exhibit synergistic effect on inhibition of proliferation, migration and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. MTT and BrdU incorporation assays were performed to study the effect of drugs alone and in combination on cell cytotoxicity and proliferation of the breast cancer cell lines, respectively. Adhesion and wound healing assays were performed to study the cell and extracellular matrix interactions. In addition, expression of proliferation marker ki-67 and apoptotic markers Bax and Bcl-2 was determined to study the effect of coralyne in combination with paclitaxel by reverse transcriptase PCR and confirmed by Western blot. The results indicated the synergism between coralyne and paclitaxel on proliferation and migration of breast cancer cell lines. This study also showed that combinational drug treatment decreased the expression of ki-67 and there was an increase in pro apoptotic factor Bax with decreased in expression of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 in breast cancer cell lines with negligible effect on normal breast cell line. Overall, our data described the promising therapeutic potential of coralyne in combination with paclitaxel in treating breast cancer at lower effective dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Suppression of human monocyte tissue factor induction by red wine phenolics and synthetic derivatives of resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurjeet; Roberti, Marinella; Raul, Francis; Pendurthi, Usha R.

    2010-01-01

    Prevention of cardiovascular disease through nutritional supplements is growing in popularity throughout the world. Multiple epidemiologic studies found that moderate consumption of alcohol, particularly red wine, lowers mortality rates from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Chronic inflammation and atherosclerosis associated with CHD culminate in aberrant intravascular expression of tissue factor (TF), which triggers blood coagulation leading to thrombosis, a major cause for heart attack. We showed earlier that two red wine phenolics, resveratrol and quercetin, suppressed TF induction in endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated efficacy of seven resveratrol derivatives, which were shown to be effective in regulating cancer cell growth in vitro at much lower concentrations than the parent compound resveratrol, in inhibiting TF induction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We also tested possible synergistic effects of resveratrol and quercetin with the other major red wine phenolics in suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TF expression in human PBMCs. We found that several resveratrol derivatives were 2- to 10-fold more efficient than resveratrol in inhibiting TF induction. Our study found no evidence for synergism among red wine polyphenolics. These data suggest that structural alterations of resveratrol can be effective in producing potent antithrombotic agents that will have therapeutic potential in the improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of CHD. Among major red wine phenolics, quercetin appears to be the predominant suppressor of TF induction. PMID:16507316

  16. Induction Processed Separable Tubular Brazed Connectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, V

    1966-01-01

    .... The induction process was selected for brazing the separable tube connectors. Special plier-type induction brazing tools were made to permit the brazing of M-1 thrust chamber transition tube joints to the fuel torus. An 82% gold-18...

  17. Synergistic effects of concurrent blockade of PI3K and MEK pathways in pancreatic cancer preclinical models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhong

    Full Text Available Patients with pancreatic cancer have dismal prognoses, and novel therapies are urgently needed. Mutations of the KRAS oncogene occur frequently in pancreatic cancer and represent an attractive target. Direct targeting of the predominant KRAS pathways have been challenging and research into therapeutic strategies have been now refocused on pathways downstream of KRAS, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK [MEK]. We hypothesized that concurrent inhibition of the PI3K and MEK pathways would result in synergistic antitumor activity, as it would circumvent the compensatory feedback loop between the two pathways. We investigated the combined effect of the PI3K inhibitor, GDC0941, and the MEK inhibitor, AZD6244, on cell viability, apoptosis and cell signaling in a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines. An in vivo analysis was conducted on pancreatic cancer xenografts. While BxPC-3 (KRAS wild type and MIA PaCa-2 (KRAS mutated cell lines were sensitive to GDC0941 and AZD6244 as single agents, synergistic inhibition of tumor cell growth and induction of apoptosis were observed in both cell lines when the two drugs were combined. Interestingly, phosphorylation of the cap-dependent translational components, 4E-binding protein (p-4E-BP1 and S6 was found to be closely associated with sensitivity to GDC0941 and AZD6244. In BxPC-3 cell xenografts, survival differences were observed between the control and the AZD6244, GDC0941, and combination groups. Our study provides the rationale for concurrent targeting of the PI3K and MEK pathways, regardless of KRAS status, and suggests that phosphorylation of 4E-BP1and S6 can serve as a predictive biomarker for response to treatment.

  18. What makes a good induction supporter?

    OpenAIRE

    Rippon, J.H.; Martin, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Teacher Induction Scheme, introduced in 2002, marked the first major change to new teacher induction in Scotland in 37 years. This paper gives an outline of these changes set against developments in mentoring theory in the wider context. It argues that the personal qualities of the induction supporter are crucial to developing an effective mentoring relationship. The views of student teachers are used to describe preferred characteristics of effective mentors and effective induction provi...

  19. Development of induction cells at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huacen; Zhang Kaizhi; Cheng Nian'an; Zhang Wenwei; Lai Qinggui; Wen Long; Zhang Linwen; Deng Jianjun; Ding Bonan

    2002-01-01

    The effects to develop induction cells for induction linac and radiography at CAEP are introduced and reviewed in this paper. During the past two decades, several kinds of cells have been designed and tested, and some of them have been used for construction of induction linac, such as Dragon-1 and 12 MeV, and a Synthetic Test Stand (STS) for comprehensive linac technology study. The structure, test results and performance in the induction linac of these cells are given

  20. The induction on a continuous variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingzhong.

    1989-06-01

    Mathematical induction is a useful tool. But it could be used to prove only the proposition with form P(n) for the natural number n. Could the natural number n be replaced by a continuous variable x? Yes, and then we have the continuous induction. The continuous induction is very easy to grasp by the students who have learned mathematical induction. And it can be used to prove many basic propositions in the elementary calculus. (author)

  1. Herd Clustering: A synergistic data clustering approach using collective intelligence

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun

    2014-10-01

    Traditional data mining methods emphasize on analytical abilities to decipher data, assuming that data are static during a mining process. We challenge this assumption, arguing that we can improve the analysis by vitalizing data. In this paper, this principle is used to develop a new clustering algorithm. Inspired by herd behavior, the clustering method is a synergistic approach using collective intelligence called Herd Clustering (HC). The novel part is laid in its first stage where data instances are represented by moving particles. Particles attract each other locally and form clusters by themselves as shown in the case studies reported. To demonstrate its effectiveness, the performance of HC is compared to other state-of-the art clustering methods on more than thirty datasets using four performance metrics. An application for DNA motif discovery is also conducted. The results support the effectiveness of HC and thus the underlying philosophy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Synergistic extraction behaviour of americium from simulated acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Veeraraghavan, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of americium has been investigated with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (PBI) and oxodonors viz. tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and di-n-butyl octanamide (DBOA) using dodecane as the diluent from 1-6 M HNO 3 media. It is observed that D Am remains unaltered with PBI concentration (in the range 0.06-0.1 M) at 1.47 M TBP in the entire range of HNO 3 concentration. PBI and TBP in combination appears more promising compared to other synergistic systems. The possibility of using this mixture for americium removal from high level liquid waste solution has been explored. Extraction studies indicated that prior removal of uranium by 20% TBP in dodecane is helpful in the quantitative recovery of americium in three contacts. Effect of lanthanides on D Am is found to be marginal. (orig.)

  3. Synergistic Antipseudomonal Effects of Synthetic Peptide AMP38 and Carbapenems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudilla, Héctor; Fusté, Ester; Cajal, Yolanda; Rabanal, Francesc; Vinuesa, Teresa; Viñas, Miguel

    2016-09-12

    The aim was to explore the antimicrobial activity of a synthetic peptide (AMP38) and its synergy with imipenem against imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The main mechanism of imipenem resistance is the loss or alteration of protein OprD. Time-kill and minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) determinations were carried out by using clinical imipenem-resistant strains. AMP38 was markedly synergistic with imipenem when determined in imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. MBEC obtained for the combination of AMP38 and imipenem was of 62.5 μg/mL, whereas the MBEC of each antimicrobial separately was 500 μg/mL. AMP38 should be regarded as a promising antimicrobial to fight MDR P. aeruginosa infections. Moreover, killing effect and antibiofilm activity of AMP38 plus imipenem was much higher than that of colistin plus imipenem.

  4. Induction Motors by Electric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the issues and means of detection of mechanical abnormalities in induction motors by electric measurements. If undetected and untreated, the worn or damaged bearings, rotor imbalance and eccentricity, broken bars of the rotor cage, and torsional and lateral vibration lead to roughly a half of all failures of induction motor drives. The detection of abnormalities is based on the fact that they cause periodic disturbance of motor variables, such as the speed, torque, current, and magnetic flux. Thus, spectral analysis of those or related quantities may yield a warning about an incipient failure of the drive system. Although the traditional non-invasive diagnostics has mostly been based on the signature analysis of the stator current, other media can also be employed. In particular, the partial instantaneous input power is shown, theoretically and experimentally, to offer distinct advantages under noisy operating conditions. Use of torque and flux estimates is also discussed.

  5. Online Monitoring of Induction Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Timothy R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lybeck, Nancy Jean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The online monitoring of active components project, under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, researched diagnostic and prognostic models for alternating current induction motors (IM). Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the fault signatures previously implemented in the Asset Fault Signature Database of EPRI’s Fleet Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW PHM) Suite software. Induction Motor diagnostic models were researched using the experimental data collected by Idaho State University. Prognostic models were explored in the set of literature and through a limited experiment with 40HP to seek the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW PHM Suite.

  6. Non-carbon induction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  7. Induction studies with satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    1999-01-01

    The natural variations of the Earth's magnetic field of periods spanning from milliseconds to decades can be used to infer the conductivity-depth profile of the Earth's interior. Satellites provide a good spatial coverage of magnetic measurements, and forthcoming missions will probably allow....... This paper reviews and discusses the possibilities for induction studies using high-precision magnetic measurements from low-altitude satellites. The different methods and various transfer functions are presented, with special emphasis on the differences in analysing data from ground stations and from...... satellites. The results of several induction studies with scalar satellite data (from the POGO satellites) and with vector data (from the Magsat mission) demonstrate the ability to probe the Earth's conductivity from space. However, compared to the results obtained with ground data the satellite results...

  8. Synergistic extraction of actinides : Part I. Hexa-and pentavalent actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.K.; Ramakrishna, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed discussion on the reported literature on the synergistic extraction of hexa- and pentavalent actinide ions, by different combinations of extractants and from different aqueous media, is presented. Structural aspects of the various complexes involved in synergism also are reviewed. A short account of the applications based on synergistic extraction is also given. (author)

  9. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that engine... matter during takeoff, landing, and taxiing. (e) If the engine induction system contains parts or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine and... distribution with the induction system valves in any position. (c) No air intake may open within the engine... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091...

  11. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  12. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  13. Blackout cloth for dormancy induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Jopson

    2007-01-01

    The use of blackout cloth to create long night photoperiods for the induction of dormancy in certain conifer species has been an established practice for a long time. Its use was suggested by Tinus and McDonald (1979) as an effective technique, and the practice has been commonly used in Canadian forest nurseries for a number of years. Cal-Forest Nursery installed its...

  14. Inductive, Analogical, and Communicative Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adri Smaling

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three forms of inductive generalization - statistical generalization, variation-based generalization and theory-carried generalization - are insufficient concerning case-to-case generalization, which is a form of analogical generalization. The quality of case-to-case generalization needs to be reinforced by setting up explicit analogical argumentation. To evaluate analogical argumentation six criteria are discussed. Good analogical reasoning is an indispensable support to forms of communicative generalization - receptive and responsive (participative generalization — as well as exemplary generalization.

  15. Panobinostat synergistically enhances the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin, doxorubicin or etoposide on high-risk neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Wang

    Full Text Available High-risk neuroblastoma remains a therapeutic challenge with a long-term survival rate of less than 40%. Therefore, new agents are urgently needed to overcome chemotherapy resistance so as to improve the treatment outcome of this deadly disease. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs represent a novel class of anticancer drugs. Recent studies demonstrated that HDACIs can down-regulate the CHK1 pathway by which cancer cells can develop resistance to conventional chemotherapy drugs. This prompted our hypothesis that combining HDACIs with DNA damaging chemotherapeutic drugs for treating neuroblastoma would result in enhanced anti-tumor activities of these drugs. Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines with a novel pan-HDACI, panobinostat (LBH589, resulted in dose-dependent growth arrest and apoptosis in 4 high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines. Further, the combination of panobinostat with cisplatin, doxorubicin, or etoposide resulted in highly synergistic antitumor interactions in the high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines, independent of the sequence of drug administration. This was accompanied by cooperative induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, panobinostat treatment resulted in substantial down-regulation of CHK1 and its downstream pathway and abrogation of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint. Synergistic antitumor interactions were also observed when the DNA damaging agents were combined with a CHK1-specific inhibitor, LY2603618. Contrary to panobinostat treatment, LY2603618 treatments neither resulted in abrogation of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint nor enhanced cisplatin, doxorubicin, or etoposide-induced apoptosis in the high-risk neuroblastoma cells. Surprisingly, LY2603618 treatments caused substantial down-regulation of total CDK1. Despite this discrepancy between panobinostat and LY2603618, our results indicate that suppression of the CHK1 pathway by panobinostat is at least partially responsible for the synergistic antitumor interactions

  16. Induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serment G, J.; Brena V, M.

    2000-01-01

    At the incidence on biological systems, the ionizing radiation can affect so much its structural components as the genetic material since in a direct form or by the free radicals produced mainly the water radiolysis via (indirect effect). The alpha particles produce a great quantity of leisures in sites very near of them, by consequence results in a major RDB frequency. For establish the influence that would be the leisures concentration (specifically RDB) it was decided to research what occur when is irradiated with high LET corpuscular radiation and major power of ionization using for this alpha particles of an Americium 241 source and Escherichia coli stubs with different defects in reparation genes, recombination and protection to the radiation damage. (Author)

  17. Antibody induction versus placebo, no induction, or another type of antibody induction for liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Wettergren, André; Wilson, Colin H

    2014-01-01

    errors (bias) using bias risk domains with definitions. We used trial sequential analysis to control for random errors (play of chance). We presented outcome results in a summary of findings table. MAIN RESULTS: We included 19 randomised clinical trials with a total of 2067 liver transplant recipients......, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension - when the T-cell specific antibody induction agents were analysed together or separately. Limited data were available for meta-analysis on drug-specific adverse events such as haematological adverse events for antithymocyte globulin. No data were found on quality......, and hypertension. No data were found on quality of life. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effects of T-cell antibody induction remain uncertain because of the high risk of bias of the randomised clinical trials, the small number of randomised clinical trials reported, and the limited numbers of participants and outcomes...

  18. Identifying Natural syNergist from Pongamia pinnata Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Combined with Isobolographic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For identifying the synergistic compounds from Pongamia pinnata, an approach based on high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC combined with isobolographic analysis was designed to detect the synergistic effects in the complex mixture [...

  19. Patient education to reduce elective labor inductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Newman, Gloria; Chirino, Octavio R

    2010-01-01

    To reduce elective inductions among nulliparous women in a community hospital by adding standardized education regarding induction risks to prepared childbirth classes. Elective induction rates were compared between class attendees and nonattendees before and after the standardized content was added to prepared childbirth classes. A survey of nulliparous women's decisions regarding elective induction was conducted. Elective induction rates of 3,337 nulliparous women were evaluated over a 14-month period (n = 1,694, 7 months before adding content to classes; n = 1,643, 7 months after). Rates did not differ between class attendees (35.2%, n = 301) and nonattendees (37.2%, n = 312, p = .37) before the content was included. However, after standardized education was added, class attendees were less likely to have elective induction (27.9%, n = 239) than nonattendees (37%, n = 292, p beneficial in reducing elective inductions.

  20. Dose sparing of induction dose of propofol by fentanyl and butorphanol: A comparison based on entropy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasleen Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The induction dose of propofol is reduced with concomitant use of opioids as a result of a possible synergistic action. Aim and Objectives: The present study compared the effect of fentanyl and two doses of butorphanol pre-treatment on the induction dose of propofol, with specific emphasis on entropy. Methods: Three groups of 40 patients each, of the American Society of Anaesthesiologistsphysical status I and II, were randomized to receive fentanyl 2 μg/kg (Group F, butorphanol 20 μg/kg (Group B 20 or 40 μg/kg (Group B 40 as pre-treatment. Five minutes later, the degree of sedation was assessed by the observer′s assessment of alertness scale (OAA/S. Induction of anesthesia was done with propofol (30 mg/10 s till the loss of response to verbal commands. Thereafter, rocuronium 1 mg/kg was administered and endotracheal intubation was performed 2 min later. OAA/S, propofol induction dose, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and entropy (response and state were compared in the three groups. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using ANOVA test with posthoc significance, Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test and Fischer exact test. A P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The induction dose of propofol (mg/kg was observed to be 1.1±0.50 in Group F, 1.05±0.35 in Group B 20 and 1.18±0.41 in Group B40. Induction with propofol occurred at higher entropy values on pre-treatment with both fentanyl as well as butorphanol. Hemodynamic variables were comparable in all the three groups. Conclusion: Butorphanol 20 μg/kg and 40 μg/kg reduce the induction requirement of propofol, comparable to that of fentanyl 2 μg/kg, and confer hemodynamic stability at induction and intubation.

  1. Induction of Protective Genes Leads to Islet Survival and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation is the most valid approach to the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, the function of transplanted islets is often compromised since a large number of β cells undergo apoptosis induced by stress and the immune rejection response elicited by the recipient after transplantation. Conventional treatment for islet transplantation is to administer immunosuppressive drugs to the recipient to suppress the immune rejection response mounted against transplanted islets. Induction of protective genes in the recipient (e.g., heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, A20/tumor necrosis factor alpha inducible protein3 (tnfaip3, biliverdin reductase (BVR, Bcl2, and others or administration of one or more of the products of HO-1 to the donor, the islets themselves, and/or the recipient offers an alternative or synergistic approach to improve islet graft survival and function. In this perspective, we summarize studies describing the protective effects of these genes on islet survival and function in rodent allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation models and the prevention of onset of diabetes, with emphasis on HO-1, A20, and BVR. Such approaches are also appealing to islet autotransplantation in patients with chronic pancreatitis after total pancreatectomy, a procedure that currently only leads to 1/3 of transplanted patients being diabetes-free.

  2. Lessons for Inductive Germline Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seervai, Riyad N.H.; Wessel, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Formation of the germline in an embryo marks a fresh round of reproductive potential, yet the developmental stage and location within the embryo where the primordial germ cells (PGCs) form differs wildly among species. In most animals, the germline is formed either by an inherited mechanism, in which maternal provisions within the oocyte drive localized germ-cell fate once acquired in the embryo, or an inductive mechanism that involves signaling between cells that directs germ-cell fate. The inherited mechanism has been widely studied in model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Xenopus laevis, and Danio rerio. Given the rapid generation time and the effective adaptation for laboratory research of these organisms, it is not coincidental that research on these organisms has led the field in elucidating mechanisms for germline specification. The inductive mechanism, however, is less well understood and is studied primarily in the mouse (Mus musculus). In this review, we compare and contrast these two fundamental mechanisms for germline determination, beginning with the key molecular determinants that play a role in the formation of germ cells across all animal taxa. We next explore the current understanding of the inductive mechanism of germ-cell determination in mice, and evaluate the hypotheses for selective pressures on these contrasting mechanisms. We then discuss the hypothesis that the transition between these determination mechanisms, which has happened many times in phylogeny, is more of a continuum than a binary change. Finally, we propose an analogy between germline determination and sex determination in vertebrates—two of the milestones of reproduction and development—in which animals use contrasting strategies to activate similar pathways. PMID:23450642

  3. Elementary induction on abstract structures

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, Yiannis N

    2008-01-01

    Hailed by the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society as ""easy to use and a pleasure to read,"" this research monograph is recommended for students and professionals interested in model theory and definability theory. The sole prerequisite is a familiarity with the basics of logic, model theory, and set theory.The author, Professor of Mathematics at UCLA and Emeritus Professor of Mathematics,University of Athens, Greece, begins with a focus on the theory of inductive and hyperelementary sets. Subsequent chapters advance to acceptable structures and countable acceptable structures, concl

  4. Induction Hardening of External Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukanin, V. A.; Ivanov, A. N.; Zenkov, A. E.; Vologdin, V. V.; Vologdin, V. V., Jr.

    2018-03-01

    Problems and solution of gear induction hardening are described. Main attention is paid to the parameters of heating and cooling systems. ELTA 7.0 program has been used to obtain the required electrical parameters of inductor, power sources, resonant circuits, as well as to choose the quenching media. Comparison of experimental and calculated results of investigation is provided. In order to compare advantages and disadvantages of single- and dual-frequency heating processes, many variants of these technologies were simulated. The predicted structure and hardness of steel gears are obtained by use of the ELTA data base taken into account the Continuous Cooling Transformation diagrams.

  5. An Induction Linac Test Stand

    CERN Document Server

    De Hope, William; Kihara, Ron; Ong, Mike; Vogtlin, George; Zentler, Jan-Mark

    2005-01-01

    A single-cell test stand has been constructed to facilitate study and guide improvements of the induction electron linac at the FXR radiographic facility at LLNL.* This paper will discuss how modifications in pulse compression and shaping, pulse power transmission, initial ferrite state, and accelerator cell loading have been performed on the test stand and can be applied to the entire accelerator. Some of the specialized diagnostics being used will be described. Finally, the paper will discuss how computer modeling and judicious timing control can be used to optimize accelerator performance by making only selective changes that can be accomplished at minimal cost.

  6. Synergistic activity of troxacitabine (Troxatyl™ and gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leblond Lorraine

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gemcitabine, a deoxycytidine nucleoside analog, is the current standard chemotherapy used as first-line treatment for patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancer of the pancreas, and extends life survival by 5.7 months. Advanced pancreatic cancer thus remains a highly unmet medical need and new therapeutic agents are required for this patient population. Troxacitabine (Troxatyl™ is the first unnatural L-nucleoside analog to show potent preclinical antitumor activity and is currently under clinical investigation. Troxacitabine was recently evaluated as a first-line therapy in 54 patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and gave comparable overall results to those reported with gemcitabine in recently published randomized trials. Methods The human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines, AsPC-1, Capan-2, MIA PaCa-2 and Panc-1, were exposed to troxacitabine or gemcitabine alone or in combination, for 72 h, and the effects on cell growth were determined by electronic particle counting. Synergistic efficacy was determined by the isobologram and combination-index methods of Chou and Talalay. Mechanistic studies addressed incorporation of troxacitabine into DNA and intracellular levels of troxacitabine and gemcitabine metabolites. For in vivo studies, we evaluated the effect of both drugs, alone and in combination, on the growth of established human pancreatic (AsPC-1 tumors implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Statistical analysis was calculated by a one-way ANOVA with Dunnett as a post-test and the two-tailed unpaired t test using GraphPad prism software. Results Synergy, evaluated using the CalcuSyn Software, was observed in all four cell-lines at multiple drug concentrations resulting in combination indices under 0.7 at Fa of 0.5 (50% reduction of cell growth. The effects of drug exposures on troxacitabine and gemcitabine nucleotide pools were analyzed, and although gemcitabine reduced phosphorylation of

  7. Poly(I:C)-Encapsulating Nanoparticles Enhance Innate Immune Responses to the Tuberculosis Vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) via Synergistic Activation of Innate Immune Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Martin T; Repnik, Urska; Müller, Elisabeth; Spanier, Julia; Kalinke, Ulrich; Corthay, Alexandre; Griffiths, Gareth

    2017-11-06

    The attenuated live vaccine strain bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but is largely ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, the most common disease form. This is in part due to BCG's ability to interfere with the host innate immune response, a feature that might be targeted to enhance the potency of this vaccine. Here, we investigated the ability of chitosan-based nanoparticles (pIC-NPs) containing polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), an inducer of innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), to enhance the immunogenicity of BCG in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) in vitro. Incorporation of poly(I:C) into NPs protected it against degradation by ribonucleases and increased its uptake by mouse BMDM. Whereas soluble poly(I:C) was ineffective, pIC-NPs strongly enhanced the proinflammatory immune response of BCG-infected macrophages in a synergistic fashion, as evident by increased production of cytokines and induction of nitric oxide synthesis. Using macrophages from mice deficient in key signaling molecules involved in the pathogen recognition response, we identified combined activation of MyD88- and TRIF-dependent TLR signaling pathways to be essential for the synergistic effect between BCG and NP. Moreover, synergy was strongly dependent on the order of the two stimuli, with TLR activation by BCG functioning as the priming event for the subsequent pIC-NP stimulus, which acted through an auto-/paracrine type I interferon (IFN) feedback loop. Our results provide a foundation for a promising new approach to enhance BCG-vaccine immunogenicity by costimulation with NPs. They also contribute to a molecular understanding of the observed synergistic interaction between the pIC-NPs and BCG vaccine.

  8. Combination of gefitinib and DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine exerts synergistic anti-cancer activity in colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-feng Lou

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the treatment of human colon cancer, the chemotherapy efficacy against colon cancer is still unsatisfactory. In the present study, effects of concomitant inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and DNA methyltransferase were examined in human colon cancer cells. We demonstrated that decitabine (a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor synergized with gefitinib (an EGFR inhibitor to reduce cell viability and colony formation in SW1116 and LOVO cells. However, the combination of the two compounds displayed minimal toxicity to NCM460 cells, a normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell line. The combination was also more effective at inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/S6 kinase pathway. In addition, the combination of decitabine with gefitinib markedly inhibited colon cancer cell migration. Furthermore, gefitinib synergistically enhanced decitabine-induced cytotoxicity was primarily due to apoptosis as shown by Annexin V labeling that was attenuated by z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor. Concomitantly, cell apoptosis resulting from the co-treatment of gefitinib and decitabine was accompanied by induction of BAX, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP, along with reduction of Bcl-2 compared to treatment with either drug alone. Interestingly, combined treatment with these two drugs increased the expression of XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1 which play an important role in cell apoptosis. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA depletion of XAF1 significantly attenuated colon cancer cells apoptosis induced by the combination of the two drugs. Our findings suggested that gefitinib in combination with decitabine exerted enhanced cell apoptosis in colon cancer cells were involved in mitochondrial-mediated pathway and induction of XAF1 expression. In conclusion, based on the observations from our study, we suggested that the combined administration of these two drugs might be considered as a novel therapeutic regimen for treating colon

  9. Nonlinear optical enhancement induced by synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and CdS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Baohua, E-mail: bhzhu@henu.edu.cn, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn; Cao, Yawan; Wang, Chong; Wang, Ji; Gu, Yuzong, E-mail: bhzhu@henu.edu.cn, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Microsystem, School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Wang, Fangfang [Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Materials and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2016-06-20

    CdS nanocrystals are attached on graphene nanosheets and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated by picosecond Z-scan technique at 532 nm. We found that synergistic effect between the graphene and CdS makes a major enhancement on the nonlinear optical absorption of graphene/CdS nanohybrid in comparison with cooperative effect, and the synergistic improvement is restricted by nonradiative defects in hybrid. The synergistic mechanism involving the local field theory and charge transfer evolution is proposed.

  10. Supersonic induction plasma jet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selezneva, S.E.; Boulos, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been applied to study the argon plasma flow downstream of the induction plasma torch. It is shown that by means of the convergent-divergent nozzle adjustment and chamber pressure reduction, a supersonic plasma jet can be obtained. We investigate the supersonic and a more traditional subsonic plasma jets impinging onto a normal substrate. Comparing to the subsonic jet, the supersonic one is narrower and much faster. Near-substrate velocity and temperature boundary layers are thinner, so the heat flux near the stagnation point is higher in the supersonic jet. The supersonic plasma jet is characterized by the electron overpopulation and the domination of the recombination over the dissociation, resulting into the heating of the electron gas. Because of these processes, the supersonic induction plasma permits to separate spatially different functions (dissociation and ionization, transport and deposition) and to optimize each of them. The considered configuration can be advantageous in some industrial applications, such as plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond and polymer-like films and in plasma spraying of nanoscaled powders

  11. Supersonic induction plasma jet modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selezneva, S.E. E-mail: svetlana2@hermes.usherbS_Selezneva2@hermes.usherb; Boulos, M.I

    2001-06-01

    Numerical simulations have been applied to study the argon plasma flow downstream of the induction plasma torch. It is shown that by means of the convergent-divergent nozzle adjustment and chamber pressure reduction, a supersonic plasma jet can be obtained. We investigate the supersonic and a more traditional subsonic plasma jets impinging onto a normal substrate. Comparing to the subsonic jet, the supersonic one is narrower and much faster. Near-substrate velocity and temperature boundary layers are thinner, so the heat flux near the stagnation point is higher in the supersonic jet. The supersonic plasma jet is characterized by the electron overpopulation and the domination of the recombination over the dissociation, resulting into the heating of the electron gas. Because of these processes, the supersonic induction plasma permits to separate spatially different functions (dissociation and ionization, transport and deposition) and to optimize each of them. The considered configuration can be advantageous in some industrial applications, such as plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond and polymer-like films and in plasma spraying of nanoscaled powders.

  12. Beam dynamics for induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    An induction linac uses pulsed power that is applied directly, without any intervening resonant cavities, to accelerate a charged particle pulse. This approach can accommodate a large multiple-beam focusing lattice capable of transporting a large total beam current with a long pulse duration, which may be compressed while accelerating as well as afterward. The mean accelerating gradient is relatively low (less than about 1.5 MV/m), but the potential efficiency of energy transfer can be large up to about 50%. A multiple-beam induction linac is therefore a natural candidate accelerator for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver. However, the accelerated beams must meet stringent requirements on occupied phase space volume in order to be focused accurately and with small radius onto the fusion target. Dynamical considerations in the beam injector and linac, as well as in the final compression, final focus, and the fusion chamber, determine the quality of the driver beams as they approach the target. Requirements and tolerances derived from beam dynamics strongly influence the linac configuration and component design. After a summary of dynamical considerations, two major topics are addressed here: transportable current limits, which determine the choice of focal system for the linac, and longitudinal control of the beams, which are potentially destabilized by their interaction with the pulsed power system

  13. A multi-functional nanoplatform for tumor synergistic phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Jiao, Xiaojing; Chen, Qianqian; Ji, Yandan; Zhang, Xiaoge; Zhu, Xing; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-02-01

    Phototherapy, which mainly includes photothermal treatment (PTT) and photodynamic treatment (PDT), is a photo-initiated, noninvasive and effective approach for cancer treatment. The high accumulation of photosensitizers (PSs) in a targeted tumor is still a major challenge for efficient light conversion, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and local hyperthermia. In this study, a simple and efficient hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified nanoplatform (HA-TiO2@MWCNTs) with high tumor-targeting ability, excellent phototherapy efficiency, low light-associated side effects and good water solubility was developed. It could be an effective carrier to load hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), owing to the tubular conjugate structure. Apart from this, the as-prepared TiO2@MWCNTs nanocomposites could also be used as PSs for tumor PTT and PDT. Those results in vitro and in vivo showed that the anti-tumor effect of this system-mediated PTT/PDT were significantly better than those of single treatment manner. In addition, this drug delivery system could realize high ratio of drug loading, sustained drug release, prolonged circulation in vivo and active targeted accumulation in tumor. These results suggest that HA-TiO2@MWCNTs/HMME has high potential for tumor synergistic phototherapy as a smart theranostic nanoplatform.

  14. A multi-functional nanoplatform for tumor synergistic phototherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Jiao, Xiaojing; Chen, Qianqian; Ji, Yandan; Zhang, Xiaoge; Zhu, Xing; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy, which mainly includes photothermal treatment (PTT) and photodynamic treatment (PDT), is a photo-initiated, noninvasive and effective approach for cancer treatment. The high accumulation of photosensitizers (PSs) in a targeted tumor is still a major challenge for efficient light conversion, to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and local hyperthermia. In this study, a simple and efficient hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified nanoplatform (HA-TiO 2 @MWCNTs) with high tumor-targeting ability, excellent phototherapy efficiency, low light-associated side effects and good water solubility was developed. It could be an effective carrier to load hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), owing to the tubular conjugate structure. Apart from this, the as-prepared TiO 2 @MWCNTs nanocomposites could also be used as PSs for tumor PTT and PDT. Those results in vitro and in vivo showed that the anti-tumor effect of this system-mediated PTT/PDT were significantly better than those of single treatment manner. In addition, this drug delivery system could realize high ratio of drug loading, sustained drug release, prolonged circulation in vivo and active targeted accumulation in tumor. These results suggest that HA-TiO 2 @MWCNTs/HMME has high potential for tumor synergistic phototherapy as a smart theranostic nanoplatform. (paper)

  15. Synergistic Combination of Electrolysis and Electroporation for Tissue Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehling, Michael K; Guenther, Enric; Mikus, Paul; Klein, Nina; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Electrolysis, electrochemotherapy with reversible electroporation, nanosecond pulsed electric fields and irreversible electroporation are valuable non-thermal electricity based tissue ablation technologies. This paper reports results from the first large animal study of a new non-thermal tissue ablation technology that employs "Synergistic electrolysis and electroporation" (SEE). The goal of this pre-clinical study is to expand on earlier studies with small animals and use the pig liver to establish SEE treatment parameters of clinical utility. We examined two SEE methods. One of the methods employs multiple electrochemotherapy-type reversible electroporation magnitude pulses, designed in such a way that the charge delivered during the electroporation pulses generates the electrolytic products. The second SEE method combines the delivery of a small number of electrochemotherapy magnitude electroporation pulses with a low voltage electrolysis generating DC current in three different ways. We show that both methods can produce lesion with dimensions of clinical utility, without the need to inject drugs as in electrochemotherapy, faster than with conventional electrolysis and with lower electric fields than irreversible electroporation and nanosecond pulsed ablation.

  16. Synergistic effect of fragrant herbs in Japanese scent sachets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yumi; Ito, Michiho

    2015-02-01

    The sedative activity of eight aromatic natural medicines that are traditionally used in Japanese scent sachets was examined using an open field test with mice. Galangal (Kaempferia galanga), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), sandalwood (Santalum album), spikenard (Nardostachys chinensis), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), star anise (Illicium verum), and borneol (Dryobalanops aromatica) distilled oils were used. These natural medicines have various pharmacological effects. For example, galangal has insecticidal activity and clove extracts possess strong total antioxidant activity. Aromatherapy, a well-known complementary medicine system that uses inhalation, has recently attracted much attention. The sedative activity of inhaled aromatic compounds or essential oils has been examined by measuring the spontaneous motor activity of mice in an open field test. The galangal, patchouli, sandalwood, spikenard, and borneol oils showed significant sedative effects. The effect was stronger for a mixture of the five oils than for any of the single oils. This suggests that the oil mixture may have synergistic activity. Sedative activity was not observed when inactive oils (cinnamon, clove, and star anise) were added to the mixture of the five active oils. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Synergistic activity of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins against Simulium spp. larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerat, Rose; Pereira, Eleny; Teles, Beatriz; Martins, Erica; Praça, Lilian; Queiroz, Paulo; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra; Ramos, Felipe; Soares, Carlos Marcelo

    2014-09-01

    Species of Simulium spread diseases in humans and animals such as onchocerciasis and mansonelosis, causing health problems and economic loses. One alternative for controlling these insects is the use of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (Bti). This bacterium produces different dipteran-active Cry and Cyt toxins and has been widely used in blackfly biological control programs worldwide. Studies on other insect targets have revealed the role of individual Cry and Cyt proteins in toxicity and demonstrated a synergistic effect among them. However, the insecticidal activity and interactions of these proteins against Simulium larvae have not been reported. In this study we demonstrate that Cry4Ba is the most effective toxin followed by Cry4Aa and Cry11Aa. Cry10Aa and Cyt1Aa were not toxic when administered alone but both were able to synergise the activity of Cry4B and Cry11Aa toxins. Cyt1Aa is also able to synergise with Cry4Aa. The mixture of all toxin-producing strains showed the greatest level of synergism, but still lower than the Bti parental strain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MODELLING SYNERGISTIC EYE MOVEMENTS IN THE VISUAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARITZ Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Some theoretical and practical considerations about eye movements in visual field are presented in the first part of this paper. These movements are developed into human body to be synergistic and are allowed to obtain the visual perception in 3D space. The theoretical background of the eye movements’ analysis is founded on the establishment of movement equations of the eyeball, as they consider it a solid body with a fixed point. The exterior actions, the order and execution of the movements are ensured by the neural and muscular external system and thus the position, stability and movements of the eye can be quantified through the method of reverse kinematic. The purpose of these researches is the development of a simulation model of human binocular visual system, an acquisition methodology and an experimental setup for data processing and recording regarding the eye movements, presented in the second part of the paper. The modeling system of ocular movements aims to establish the binocular synergy and limits of visual field changes in condition of ocular motor dysfunctions. By biomechanical movements of eyeball is established a modeling strategy for different sort of processes parameters like convergence, fixation and eye lens accommodation to obtain responses from binocular balance. The results of modelling processes and the positions of eye ball and axis in visual field are presented in the final part of the paper.

  19. Synergistic effects of resistance training and protein intake: practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Cholewa, Jason Michael; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, X I A; Magagnin, Daiane; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Teixeira, Tamiris da Silva; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle mass. The muscle protein accretion process depends on a robust synergistic action between protein intake and overload. The intake of protein after resistance training increases plasma amino acids, which results in the activation of signaling molecules leading to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Although both essential and non-essential amino acids are necessary for hypertrophy, the intake of free L-leucine or high-leucine whole proteins has been specifically shown to increase the initiation of translation that is essential for elevated MPS. The literature supports the use of protein intake following resistance-training sessions to enhance MPS; however, less understood are the effects of different protein sources and timing protocols on MPS. The sum of the adaptions from each individual training session is essential to muscle hypertrophy, and thus highlights the importance of an optimal supplementation protocol. The aim of this review is to present recent findings reported in the literature and to discuss the practical application of these results. In that light, new speculations and questions will arise that may direct future investigations. The information and recommendations generated in this review should be of benefit to clinical dietitians as well as those engaged in sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola synergistic polymicrobial biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhu

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis has a polymicrobial biofilm aetiology and interactions between key bacterial species are strongly implicated as contributing to disease progression. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia have all been implicated as playing roles in disease progression. P. gingivalis cell-surface-located protease/adhesins, the gingipains, have been suggested to be involved in its interactions with several other bacterial species. The aims of this study were to determine polymicrobial biofilm formation by P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia, as well as the role of P. gingivalis gingipains in biofilm formation by using a gingipain null triple mutant. To determine homotypic and polymicrobial biofilm formation a flow cell system was employed and the biofilms imaged and quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridization using DNA species-specific probes and confocal scanning laser microscopy imaging. Of the three species, only P. gingivalis and T. denticola formed mature, homotypic biofilms, and a strong synergy was observed between P. gingivalis and T. denticola in polymicrobial biofilm formation. This synergy was demonstrated by significant increases in biovolume, average biofilm thickness and maximum biofilm thickness of both species. In addition there was a morphological change of T. denticola in polymicrobial biofilms when compared with homotypic biofilms, suggesting reduced motility in homotypic biofilms. P. gingivalis gingipains were shown to play an essential role in synergistic polymicrobial biofilm formation with T. denticola.

  1. Ocean warming and acidification synergistically increase coral mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, F.; Caroselli, E.; Mengoli, S.; Brizi, L.; Fantazzini, P.; Capaccioni, B.; Pasquini, L.; Fabricius, K. E.; Dubinsky, Z.; Falini, G.; Goffredo, S.

    2017-01-01

    Organisms that accumulate calcium carbonate structures are particularly vulnerable to ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA), potentially reducing the socioeconomic benefits of ecosystems reliant on these taxa. Since rising atmospheric CO2 is responsible for global warming and increasing ocean acidity, to correctly predict how OW and OA will affect marine organisms, their possible interactive effects must be assessed. Here we investigate, in the field, the combined temperature (range: 16-26 °C) and acidification (range: pHTS 8.1-7.4) effects on mortality and growth of Mediterranean coral species transplanted, in different seasonal periods, along a natural pH gradient generated by a CO2 vent. We show a synergistic adverse effect on mortality rates (up to 60%), for solitary and colonial, symbiotic and asymbiotic corals, suggesting that high seawater temperatures may have increased their metabolic rates which, in conjunction with decreasing pH, could have led to rapid deterioration of cellular processes and performance. The net calcification rate of the symbiotic species was not affected by decreasing pH, regardless of temperature, while in the two asymbiotic species it was negatively affected by increasing acidification and temperature, suggesting that symbiotic corals may be more tolerant to increasing warming and acidifying conditions compared to asymbiotic ones.

  2. Synergistic degradation of konjac glucomannan by alkaline and thermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weiping; Mei, Ting; Wang, Yuntao; Xu, Wei; Li, Jing; Zhou, Bin; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The application of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in the food industry is always limited by its high viscosity. Hereby, low-viscosity KGM was prepared by alkaline-thermal degradation method. This process was demonstrated by the changes of average molecular weight and a kinetic model was developed. The results revealed that high alkalinity and high temperature had a synergetic effect on degradation. The structure of hydrolysates was evaluated by periodate oxidation and their fluidly properties were researched by rheology measurements. The degradation was divided into two regimes. The rate of the first regime (within 1h) is higher than that of the second one (last 1h). It is found that alkaline hydrolysis and deacetylation have a synergistic effect on the degradation under high alkalinity (pH 9.2) and low temperature condition (25 °C). Finally, rheology parameters showed alkaline-thermal degradation is a promising way that can be applied in practice to degrade KGM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola synergistic polymicrobial biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Dashper, Stuart G; Chen, Yu-Yen; Crawford, Simon; Slakeski, Nada; Reynolds, Eric C

    2013-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis has a polymicrobial biofilm aetiology and interactions between key bacterial species are strongly implicated as contributing to disease progression. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia have all been implicated as playing roles in disease progression. P. gingivalis cell-surface-located protease/adhesins, the gingipains, have been suggested to be involved in its interactions with several other bacterial species. The aims of this study were to determine polymicrobial biofilm formation by P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia, as well as the role of P. gingivalis gingipains in biofilm formation by using a gingipain null triple mutant. To determine homotypic and polymicrobial biofilm formation a flow cell system was employed and the biofilms imaged and quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridization using DNA species-specific probes and confocal scanning laser microscopy imaging. Of the three species, only P. gingivalis and T. denticola formed mature, homotypic biofilms, and a strong synergy was observed between P. gingivalis and T. denticola in polymicrobial biofilm formation. This synergy was demonstrated by significant increases in biovolume, average biofilm thickness and maximum biofilm thickness of both species. In addition there was a morphological change of T. denticola in polymicrobial biofilms when compared with homotypic biofilms, suggesting reduced motility in homotypic biofilms. P. gingivalis gingipains were shown to play an essential role in synergistic polymicrobial biofilm formation with T. denticola.

  4. Synergistic Smart Fuel For In-pile Nuclear Reactor Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Randall A. Ali; Steven L . Garrett

    2013-10-01

    In March 2011, an earthquake of magnitude 9.0 on the Richter scale struck Japan with its epicenter on the northeast coast, near the Tohoku region. In addition to the immense physical destruction and casualties across the country, several nuclear power plants (NPP) were affected. It was the Fukushima Daiichi NPP that experienced the most severe and irreversible damage. The earthquake brought the reactors at Fukushima to an automatic shutdown and because the power transmission lines were damaged, emergency diesel generators (EDGs) were activated to ensure that there was continued cooling of the reactors and spent fuel pools. The situation was being successfully managed until the tsunami hit about forty-five minutes later with a maximum wave height of approximately 15 m. The influx of water submerged the EDGs, the electrical switchgear, and dc batteries, resulting in the total loss of power to the reactors.2 At this point, the situation became critical. There was a loss of the sensors and instrumentation within the reactor that could have provided valuable information to guide the operators to make informed decisions and avoid the unfortunate events that followed. In the light of these events, we have developed and tested a potential self-powered thermoacoustic system, which will have the ability to serve as a temperature sensor and can transmit data independently of electronic networks. Such a device is synergistic with the harsh environment of the nuclear reactor as it utilizes the heat from the nuclear fuel to provide the input power.

  5. Synergistic antiviral activity of gemcitabine and ribavirin against enteroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunju; Kim, Chonsaeng; Kim, Dong-eun; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Choi, Miri; Choi, Kwangman; Kang, Mingu; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Hae Soo; Shin, Jin Soo; Kim, Janghwan; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Mi-Young; Lee, Su Ui; Lee, Chong-Kyo; Kim, Meehyein; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Cho, Sungchan

    2015-12-01

    Enteroviruses are major causative agents of various human diseases, and some of them are currently considered to be an enormous threat to public health. However, no effective therapy is currently available for the treatment of these infections. We identified gemcitabine, a nucleoside-analog drug used for cancer treatment, from a screen of bioactive chemicals as a novel inhibitor of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and enterovirus 71 (EV71). Gemcitabine potently inhibited the proliferation of CVB3 and EV71, as well as the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons, in cells with a low micromolar IC50 (1-5 μM). Its strong inhibitory effect was also observed in cells infected with human rhinoviruses, demonstrating broad-spectrum antiviral effects on enteroviruses. Mechanistically, an extensive analysis excluded the involvement of 2C, 3A, IRES-dependent translation, and also that of polyprotein processing in the antiviral effects of gemcitabine. Importantly, gemcitabine in combination with ribavirin, an antiviral drug currently being used against a few RNA viruses, exhibited a synergistic antiviral effect on the replication of CVB3 and EV71 replicons. Consequently, our results clearly demonstrate a new indication for gemcitabine as an effective broad-spectrum inhibitor of enteroviruses and strongly suggest a new therapeutic strategy using gemcitabine alone or in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of various diseases associated with enterovirus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential synergistic effects of human placental extract and minoxidil on hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T-R; Oh, C T; Park, H M; Han, H J; Ji, H J; Kim, B J

    2015-08-01

    Human placenta extract (HPE) has been used to alleviate tiredness and promote wound healing, and for its antiageing functions; however, it has not yet been studied for its effects on hair growth. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of HPE on hair growth by observing its actions on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs). To define how HPE promotes induction of anagen hair growth during the telogen phase, and to understand the synergistic molecular mechanisms of HPE and minoxidil (MXD) actions on hair growth. We examined the effects of HPE and MXD on C57BL6/J mice using haematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative histomorphometry, hair growth scoring, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on the dorsal skins of C57BL/6J mice. We found that HPE synergistically augmented the effects of MXD, a promoter of hair growth. In particular, histomorphometric analysis data indicated that subcutaneous injection of HPE induced an earlier anagen phase and prolonged the anagen phase. It also stimulated increases in both the number and size of hair follicles in groups treated with HPE alone and HPE + MXD. From our data, we conclude that HPE increases β-catenin and Wnt3a expression levels. Overall, our findings suggest that HPE in combination with MXD has hair growth-promoting activity and is a potential novel therapeutic treatment for alopecia or baldness in humans. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma repression by TNFα‐mediated synergistic lethal effect of mitosis defect‐induced senescence and cell death sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Fu, Jing; Du, Min; Zhang, Haibin; Li, Lu; Cen, Jin; Li, Weiyun; Chen, Xiaotao; Lin, Yunfei; Conway, Edward M.; Pikarsky, Eli; Wang, Hongyan; Pan, Guoyu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a cancer lacking effective therapies. Several measures have been proposed to treat HCCs, such as senescence induction, mitotic inhibition, and cell death promotion. However, data from other cancers suggest that single use of these approaches may not be effective. Here, by genetic targeting of Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) that plays dual roles in mitosis and cell survival, we identified a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)‐mediated synergistic lethal effect between senescence and apoptosis sensitization in malignant HCCs. Survivin deficiency results in mitosis defect‐associated senescence in HCC cells, which triggers local inflammation and increased TNFα. Survivin inactivation also sensitizes HCC cells to TNFα‐triggered cell death, which leads to marked HCC regression. Based on these findings, we designed a combination treatment using mitosis inhibitor and proapoptosis compounds. This treatment recapitulates the therapeutic effect of Survivin deletion and effectively eliminates HCCs, thus representing a potential strategy for HCC therapy. Conclusion: Survivin ablation dramatically suppresses human and mouse HCCs by triggering senescence‐associated TNFα and sensitizing HCC cells to TNFα‐induced cell death. Combined use of mitotic inhibitor and second mitochondrial‐derived activator of caspases mimetic can induce senescence‐associated TNFα and enhance TNFα‐induced cell death and synergistically eliminate HCC. (Hepatology 2016;64:1105‐1120) PMID:27177758

  8. Synergistic effects between [Si-hemicellulose matrix] ligands and Zn ions in inhibiting Cd ion uptake in rice (Oryza sativa) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Zhang, Xiuqing; Wang, Lijun

    2017-05-01

    Our study demonstrated that Zn alleviated Cd toxicity in the presence of Si in the cell walls by Zn 2+ binding to ligands through the formation of the [Si-hemicellulose matrix]Zn complexes that restrict the uptake of Cd. The plant cell wall exhibits preferential sites for the accumulation of metals at toxic concentrations. Through modification of wall polysaccharide components, elements, such as silicon (Si) and zinc (Zn), may play active roles in alleviating the toxicity of heavy metals, including cadmium (Cd). However, enhanced tolerance for Cd stress may rely on synergistic effects between nutrient elements. Here, we cultured Si-accumulating suspension cells of rice (Oryza sativa) exposed to Cd and Zn treatments, either separately or in combination, and investigated cells using noninvasive microtest technology (NMT), inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that Zn alleviated Cd toxicity in the presence of Si in the cell walls by binding of Zn 2+ to ligands through the formation of the [Si-hemicellulose matrix]Zn complexes and co-precipitates to greatly inhibit Cd 2+ uptake into cells. This, in turn, induced the lower expression of Cd-related transporters. This synergistic effect could be decisive for the survival of cells under conditions of high Cd concentrations.

  9. Batf3 and Id2 have a synergistic effect on Irf8-directed classical CD8α+ dendritic cell development

    KAUST Repository

    Jaiswal, Hemant

    2013-11-13

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous cell populations represented by different subtypes, each varying in terms of gene expression patterns and specific functions. Recent studies identified transcription factors essential for the development of different DC subtypes, yet molecular mechanisms for the developmental program and functions remain poorly understood. In this study, we developed and characterized a mouse DC progenitor-like cell line, designated DC9, from Irf8-/- bone marrow cells as a model for DC development and function. Expression of Irf8 in DC9 cells led to plasmacytoid DCs and CD8α+ DC-like cells, with a concomitant increase in plasmacytoid DC- and CD8α+ DC-specific gene transcripts and induction of type I IFNs and IL12p40 following TLR ligand stimulation. Irf8 expression in DC9 cells led to an increase in Id2 and Batf3 transcript levels, transcription factors shown to be important for the development of CD8α+ DCs. We show that, without Irf8 , expression of Id2 and Batf3 was not sufficient for directing classical CD8α+ DC development. When coexpressed with Irf8, Batf3 and Id2 had a synergistic effect on classical CD8α+ DC development. We demonstrate that Irf8 is upstream of Batf3 and Id2 in the classical CD8α+ DC developmental program and define the hierarchical relationship of transcription factors important for classical CD8α+ DC development.

  10. State plane analysis of induction hob generators

    OpenAIRE

    Carthy, Sean

    1994-01-01

    Induction cooking hobs have greatly gained in popularity m Europe during the 1980's. This fact has focused attention on the particular problems encountered in their design. To this day, the design approaches remain largely empirical This thesis presents an analysis technique specially adapted to the induction hob generator The series resonant converter is seen to be widely used in the induction cooking application. As a first step, a technique for determining steady-state operation of the...

  11. Magnetic Field Measurement of induction Hobs

    OpenAIRE

    森, 秀樹||モリ, ヒデキ||Mori, Hideki; 松井, 景樹||マツイ, ケイジュ||Matsui, Keiju; 山本, 勇||ヤマモト, イサム||Yamamoto, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Recently domestic induction hobs have rapidly come into wide use in Japan. When cooking a strong high frequency magnetic field is generated in the area of induction hob. However, there are few reports of the measurement of the magnetic field during actual cooking. The magnetic field resulting from various working conditions of several types of induction hobs are reported here. Measurements of the magnetic field due to differences in various types of converter, the size and materials of the co...

  12. Polish Gynecological Society Recommendations for Labor Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba-Opoń, Dorota; Drews, Krzysztof; Huras, Hubert; Laudański, Piotr; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    Labor induction involves artificial stimulation of childbirth before the natural, spontaneous onset of labor. It is one of the most common procedures in modern obstetrics. The frequency of labor induction has doubled in recent decades due to the development of perinatology and methods of monitoring fetal well-being in particular. Currently, one in five pregnant women and 30-40% of women delivering vaginally undergo this procedure. Reasons for induction include reduction of the perinatal mortality and morbidity of the fetus and newborn, as well as the reduction of maternal complications. However, as every medical intervention, labor induction is associated with a risk of complications.

  13. Open switching of current varying inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, P.I.; Lukyanchikov, L.A.; Ten, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    The electromotive force of induction occurs in a varying inductance of a current circuit part. It can be used to control and switch the current. The effect, occurring under the forced inductance decrease, is used widely for explosive magnetic generators to produce high currents, to store high-density energy and to generate superhigh magnetic fields. This paper gives an analysis of open switching of the currents by varying inductance in some simple electrotechnical models of circuits used in pulse power engineering to obtain high energies

  14. Experimental Demonstration of the Induction Synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Ken; Nakamura, Eiji; Arakida, Yoshio; Iwashita, Taiki; Kono, Tadaaki; Shimosaki, Yoshito; Wake, Masayoshi; Dixit, Tanuja; Otsuka, Kazunori; Torikai, Kota

    2007-01-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of the induction synchrotron, the concept of which has been proposed as a future accelerator for the second generation of neutrino factory or hadron collider. The induction synchrotron supports a superbunch and a superbunch permits more charge to be accelerated while observing the constraints of the transverse space-charge limit. By using a newly developed induction acceleration system instead of radio-wave acceleration devices, a single proton bunch injected from the 500 MeV booster ring and captured by the barrier bucket created by the induction step voltages was accelerated to 6 GeV in the KEK proton synchrotron

  15. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  16. Leptospiral Outer Membrane Proteins OmpL1 and LipL41 Exhibit Synergistic Immunoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, David A.; Mazel, Mary K.; McCoy, Adam M.; Milward, Frank; Chao, Garlo; Matsunaga, James; Wagar, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    New vaccine strategies are needed for prevention of leptospirosis, a widespread human and veterinary disease caused by invasive spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. We have examined the immunoprotective capacity of the leptospiral porin OmpL1 and the leptospiral outer membrane lipoprotein LipL41 in the Golden Syrian hamster model of leptospirosis. Specialized expression plasmids were developed to facilitate expression of leptospiral proteins in Escherichia coli as the membrane-associated proteins OmpL1-M and LipL41-M. Although OmpL1-M expression is highly toxic in E. coli, this was accomplished by using plasmid pMMB66-OmpL1, which has undetectable background expression without induction. LipL41-M expression and processing were enhanced by altering its lipoprotein signal peptidase cleavage site to mimic that of the murein lipoprotein. Active immunization of hamsters with E. coli membrane fractions containing a combination of OmpL1-M and LipL41-M was found to provide significant protection against homologous challenge with Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. At 28 days after intraperitoneal inoculation, survival in animals vaccinated with both proteins was 71% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53 to 89%), compared with only 25% (95% CI, 8 to 42%) in the control group (P < 0.001). On the basis of serological, histological, and microbiological assays, no evidence of infection was found in the vaccinated survivors. The protective effects of immunization with OmpL1-M and LipL41-M were synergistic, since significant levels of protection were not observed in animals immunized with either OmpL1-M or LipL41-M alone. In contrast to immunization with the membrane-associated forms of leptospiral proteins, hamsters immunized with His6-OmpL1 and His6-LipL41 fusion proteins, either alone or in combination, were not protected. These data indicate that the manner in which OmpL1 and LipL41 associates with membranes is an important determinant of immunoprotection. PMID

  17. Developing an Agent-Based Drug Model to Investigate the Synergistic Effects of Drug Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongjie; Yin, Zuojing; Cao, Zhiwei; Zhang, Le

    2017-12-14

    The growth and survival of cancer cells are greatly related to their surrounding microenvironment. To understand the regulation under the impact of anti-cancer drugs and their synergistic effects, we have developed a multiscale agent-based model that can investigate the synergistic effects of drug combinations with three innovations. First, it explores the synergistic effects of drug combinations in a huge dose combinational space at the cell line level. Second, it can simulate the interaction between cells and their microenvironment. Third, it employs both local and global optimization algorithms to train the key parameters and validate the predictive power of the model by using experimental data. The research results indicate that our multicellular system can not only describe the interactions between the microenvironment and cells in detail, but also predict the synergistic effects of drug combinations.

  18. BACKWARD INDUCTION: MERITS AND FLAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiński Marek M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Backward induction (BI was one of the earliest methods developed for solving finite sequential games with perfect information. It proved to be especially useful in the context of Tom Schelling’s ideas of credible versus incredible threats. BI can be also extended to solve complex games that include an infinite number of actions or an infinite number of periods. However, some more complex empirical or experimental predictions remain dramatically at odds with theoretical predictions obtained by BI. The primary example of such a troublesome game is Centipede. The problems appear in other long games with sufficiently complex structure. BI also shares the problems of subgame perfect equilibrium and fails to eliminate certain unreasonable Nash equilibria.

  19. Selective Induction of Optical Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Uttam; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Deng, Tian-Song; Parker, John; Shepherd, Nolan; Weizmann, Yossi; Scherer, Norbert F

    2017-12-13

    An extension of the Maxwell-Faraday law of electromagnetic induction to optical frequencies requires spatially appropriate materials and optical beams to create resonances and excitations with curl. Here we employ cylindrical vector beams with azimuthal polarization to create electric fields that selectively drive magnetic responses in dielectric core-metal nanoparticle "satellite" nanostructures. These optical frequency magnetic resonances are induced in materials that do not possess spin or orbital angular momentum. Multipole expansion analysis of the scattered fields obtained from electrodynamics simulations show that the excitation with azimuthally polarized beams selectively enhances magnetic vs electric dipole resonances by nearly 100-fold in experiments. Multipolar resonances (e.g., quadrupole and octupole) are enhanced 5-fold by focused azimuthally versus linearly polarized beams. We also selectively excite electric multipolar resonances in the same identical nanostructures with radially polarized light. This work opens new opportunities for spectroscopic investigation and control of "dark modes", Fano resonances, and magnetic modes in nanomaterials and engineered metamaterials.

  20. Antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea and their major contributed antioxidant compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Shuqin; Wang, Kaidi; Lei, Yukun; Yao, Shuting; Lu, Baiyi; Huang, Weisu

    2017-01-01

    The antioxidant synergistic effects of Osmanthus fragrans flowers with green tea were evaluated, and their major antioxidant compounds contributed to the total amount of synergy were determined. The antioxidant compounds in O. fragrans flowers with green tea were identified by LC-MS and quantified by UPLC-PDA. The synergistic antioxidant interactions between O. fragrans flowers with green tea and their antioxidant compounds were tested using the Prieto?s model after the simulated digestion. T...

  1. Copper(II)/amine synergistically catalyzed enantioselective alkylation of cyclic N-acyl hemiaminals with aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shutao; Mao, Ying; Lou, Hongxiang; Liu, Lei

    2015-07-07

    The first catalytic asymmetric alkylation of N-acyl quinoliniums with aldehydes has been described. A copper/amine synergistic catalytic system has been developed, allowing the addition of functionalized aldehydes to a wide range of electronically varied N-acyl quinoliniums in good yields with excellent enantiocontrol. The synergistic catalytic system was also effective for N-acyl dihydroisoquinoliniums and β-caboliniums, demonstrating the general applicability of the protocol in the enantioselective alkylation of diverse cyclic N-acyl hemiaminals.

  2. Synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptide DP7 combined with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaozhe; Li, Zhan; Li, Xiaolu; Tian, Yaomei; Fan, Yingzi; Yu, Chaoheng; Zhou, Bailing; Liu, Yi; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present a great threat to public health. In this study, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and antibiotics on several multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were studied, and their synergistic effects on azithromycin (AZT)-resistance genes were analyzed to determine the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and these synergistic effects. A checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic effects of AMPs (DP7 and CLS001) and several antibiotics (gentamicin, vancomycin [VAN], AZT, and amoxicillin) on clinical bacterial strains ( Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii , and Escherichia coli ). The AZT-resistance genes ( ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA , and msrA ) were identified in the resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For all the clinical isolates tested that were resistant to different antibiotics, DP7 had high antimicrobial activity (≤32 mg/L). When DP7 was combined with VAN or AZT, the effect was most frequently synergistic. When we studied the resistance genes of the AZT-resistant isolates, the synergistic effect of DP7-AZT occurred most frequently in highly resistant strains or strains carrying more than two AZT-resistance genes. A transmission electron microscopic analysis of the S. aureus strain synergistically affected by DP7-AZT showed no noteworthy morphological changes, suggesting that a molecular-level mechanism plays an important role in the synergistic action of DP7-AZT. AMP DP7 plus the antibiotic AZT or VAN is more effective, especially against highly antibiotic-resistant strains.

  3. Synergistic Effects of Cellulosomal Xylanase and Cellulases from Clostridium cellulovorans on Plant Cell Wall Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Murashima, Koichiro; Kosugi, Akihiko; Doi, Roy H.

    2003-01-01

    Plant cell walls are comprised of cellulose and hemicellulose and other polymers that are intertwined, and this complex structure presents a barrier to degradation by pure cellulases or hemicellulases. In this study, we determined the synergistic effects on corn cell wall degradation by the action of cellulosomal xylanase XynA and cellulosomal cellulases from Clostridium cellulovorans. XynA minicellulosomes and cellulase minicellulosomes were found to degrade corn cell walls synergistically b...

  4. Synergistic combinations of antifungals and antivirulence agents to fight against Candida albicans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jinhui; Ren, Biao; Tong, Yaojun

    2015-01-01

    -drug resistance, demand innovative strategies for new effective antifungal drugs. Synergistic combinations of antifungals and anti-virulence agents highlight the pragmatic strategy to reduce the development of drug resistant and potentially repurpose known antifungals, which bypass the costly and time......-consuming pipeline of new drug development. Anti-virulence and synergistic combination provide new options for antifungal drug discovery by counteracting the difficulty or failure of traditional therapy for fungal infections....

  5. Synergistic estrogenic effects of Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdovszky, Katharina; Hahn, Kathrin; Braun, Dominik; Warth, Benedikt; Marko, Doris

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites formed by various fungal species that are found as natural contaminants in food. This very heterogeneous group of compounds triggers multiple toxic mechanisms, including endocrine disruptive potential. Current risk assessment of mycotoxins, as for most chemical substances, is based on the effects of single compounds. However, concern on a potential enhancement of risks by interactions of single substances in naturally occurring mixtures has greatly increased recently. In this study, the combinatory effects of three mycoestrogens were investigated in detail. This includes the endocrine disruptors zearalenone (ZEN) and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) produced by Fusarium fungi and alternariol (AOH), a cytotoxic and estrogenic mycotoxin formed by Alternaria species. For evaluation of effects, estrogen-dependent activation of alkaline phosphatase (AlP) and cell proliferation were tested in the adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. The estrogenic potential varied among the single substances. Half maximum effect concentrations (EC50) for AlP activation were evaluated for α-ZEL, ZEN and AOH as 37 pM, 562 pM and 995 nM, respectively. All three mycotoxins were found to act as partial agonists. The majority of binary combinations, even at very low concentrations in the case of α-ZEL, showed strong synergism in the AlP assay. These potentiating phenomena of mycotoxin mixtures highlight the urgent need to incorporate combinatory effects into future risk assessment, especially when endocrine disruptors are involved. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first investigation on synergistic effects of mycoestrogens.

  6. Looming signals reveal synergistic principles of multisensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Céline; Thelen, Antonia; Romei, Vincenzo; Thut, Gregor; Murray, Micah M

    2012-01-25

    Multisensory interactions are a fundamental feature of brain organization. Principles governing multisensory processing have been established by varying stimulus location, timing and efficacy independently. Determining whether and how such principles operate when stimuli vary dynamically in their perceived distance (as when looming/receding) provides an assay for synergy among the above principles and also means for linking multisensory interactions between rudimentary stimuli with higher-order signals used for communication and motor planning. Human participants indicated movement of looming or receding versus static stimuli that were visual, auditory, or multisensory combinations while 160-channel EEG was recorded. Multivariate EEG analyses and distributed source estimations were performed. Nonlinear interactions between looming signals were observed at early poststimulus latencies (∼75 ms) in analyses of voltage waveforms, global field power, and source estimations. These looming-specific interactions positively correlated with reaction time facilitation, providing direct links between neural and performance metrics of multisensory integration. Statistical analyses of source estimations identified looming-specific interactions within the right claustrum/insula extending inferiorly into the amygdala and also within the bilateral cuneus extending into the inferior and lateral occipital cortices. Multisensory effects common to all conditions, regardless of perceived distance and congruity, followed (∼115 ms) and manifested as faster transition between temporally stable brain networks (vs summed responses to unisensory conditions). We demonstrate the early-latency, synergistic interplay between existing principles of multisensory interactions. Such findings change the manner in which to model multisensory interactions at neural and behavioral/perceptual levels. We also provide neurophysiologic backing for the notion that looming signals receive preferential

  7. Synergistic Antimycobacterial Actions of Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f Sims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette Labuschagné

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Euclea natalensis A.DC., Knowltonia vesicatoria (L.f Sims, and Pelargonium sidoides DC. are South African plants traditionally used to treat tuberculosis. Extracts from these plants were used in combination with isoniazid (INH to investigate the possibility of synergy with respect to antimycobacterial activity. The ethanol extract of K. vesicatoria was subjected to fractionation to identify the active compounds. The activity of the Knowltonia extract remained superior to the fractions with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 625.0 μg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis and an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL against M. tuberculosis. The K. vesicatoria extract was tested against two different drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis, which resulted in an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL on both strains. The combination of K. vesicatoria with INH exhibited the best synergistic antimycobacterial activity with a fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.25 (a combined concentration of 6.28 μg/mL. A fifty percent inhibitory concentration of this combination against U937 cells was 121.0 μg/mL. Two compounds, stigmasta-5,23-dien-3-ol (1 and 5-(hydroxymethylfuran-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from K. vesicatoria as the first report of isolation for both compounds from this plant and the first report of antimycobacterial activity. Compound (1 was active against drug-sensitive M. tuberculosis with an MIC of 50.00 μg/mL.

  8. Microbial Reverse Electrodialysis Cells for Synergistically Enhanced Power Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2011-07-01

    A new type of bioelectrochemical system for producing electrical power, called a microbial reverse-electrodialysis cell (MRC), was developed to increase voltages and power densities compared to those generated individually by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) or reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems. In RED systems, electrode overpotentials create significant energy losses due to thermodynamically unfavorable electrode reactions, and therefore a large number of stacked cells must be used to have significant energy recovery. This results in high capital costs for the large number of membranes, and increases energy losses from pumping water through a large number of cells. In an MRC, high overpotentials are avoided through oxidation of organic matter by exoelectrogenic bacteria on the anode and oxygen reduction on the cathode. An MRC containing only five pairs of RED cells, fed solutions typical of seawater (600 mM NaCl) and river water (12 mM NaCl) at 0.85 mL/min, produced up to 3.6 W/m2 (cathode surface area) and 1.2-1.3 V with acetate as a substrate. Pumping accounted for <2% of the produced power. A higher flow rate (1.55 mL/min) increased power densities up to 4.3 W/m2. COD removal was 98% with a Coulombic efficiency of 64%. Power production by the individual components was substantially lower with 0.7 W/m2 without salinity driven energy, and <0.015 W/m2 with reduced exoelectrogenic activity due to substrate depletion. These results show that the combination of an MFC and a RED stack synergistically increases performance relative to the individual systems, producing a new type of system that can be used to more efficiently capture salinity driven energy from seawater and river water. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. The effect of insecticide synergists on the response of scabies mites to pyrethroid acaricides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasay, Cielo; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Gunning, Robin; Rossiter, Louise; Holt, Deborah; Walton, Shelley; Beckham, Simone; McCarthy, James

    2009-01-01

    Permethrin is the active component of topical creams widely used to treat human scabies. Recent evidence has demonstrated that scabies mites are becoming increasingly tolerant to topical permethrin and oral ivermectin. An effective approach to manage pesticide resistance is the addition of synergists to counteract metabolic resistance. Synergists are also useful for laboratory investigation of resistance mechanisms through their ability to inhibit specific metabolic pathways. To determine the role of metabolic degradation as a mechanism for acaricide resistance in scabies mites, PBO (piperonyl butoxide), DEF (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) and DEM (diethyl maleate) were first tested for synergistic activity with permethrin in a bioassay of mite killing. Then, to investigate the relative role of specific metabolic pathways inhibited by these synergists, enzyme assays were developed to measure esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450) activity in mite extracts. A statistically significant difference in median survival time of permethrin-resistant Sarcoptes scabiei variety canis was noted when any of the three synergists were used in combination with permethrin compared to median survival time of mites exposed to permethrin alone (presistant mites compared to sensitive mites. These findings indicate the potential utility of synergists in reversing resistance to pyrethroid-based acaricides and suggest a significant role of metabolic mechanisms in mediating pyrethroid resistance in scabies mites.

  10. Arsenic Induction of Metallothionein and Metallothionein Induction Against Arsenic Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur; De Ley, Marc

    Human exposure to arsenic (As) can lead to oxidative stress that can become evident in organs such as the skin, liver, kidneys and lungs. Several intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms including glutathione (GSH) and metallothionein (MT) have been shown to minimize As cytotoxicity. The current review summarizes the involvement of MT as an intracellular defense mechanism against As cytotoxicity, mostly in blood. Zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) supplements are also proposed as a possible remediation of As cytotoxicity. In vivo and in vitro studies on As toxicity were reviewed to summarize cytotoxic mechanisms of As. Intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms of MT are linked in relation to As cytotoxicity. Arsenic uses a different route, compared to major metal MT inducers such as Zn, to enter/exit blood cells. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies showed that upregulated MT biosynthesis in blood components are related to toxic levels of As. Despite the cysteine residues in MT that aid to bind As, MT is not the preferred binding protein for As. Nonetheless, intracellular oxidative stress due to As toxicity can be minimized, if not eliminated, by MT. Thus MT induction by essential metals such as Zn and Se supplementation could be beneficial to fight against As toxicity.

  11. Inductive Reasoning About Effectful Data Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filinski, Andrzej; Støvring, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    We present a pair of reasoning principles, definition and proof by rigid induction, which can be seen as proper generalizations of lazy-datatype induction to monadic effects other than partiality. We further show how these principles can be integrated into logical-relations arguments, and obtain...

  12. A Philosophical Treatise of Universal Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rathmanner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding inductive reasoning is a problem that has engaged mankind for thousands of years. This problem is relevant to a wide range of fields and is integral to the philosophy of science. It has been tackled by many great minds ranging from philosophers to scientists to mathematicians, and more recently computer scientists. In this article we argue the case for Solomonoff Induction, a formal inductive framework which combines algorithmic information theory with the Bayesian framework. Although it achieves excellent theoretical results and is based on solid philosophical foundations, the requisite technical knowledge necessary for understanding this framework has caused it to remain largely unknown and unappreciated in the wider scientific community. The main contribution of this article is to convey Solomonoff induction and its related concepts in a generally accessible form with the aim of bridging this current technical gap. In the process we examine the major historical contributions that have led to the formulation of Solomonoff Induction as well as criticisms of Solomonoff and induction in general. In particular we examine how Solomonoff induction addresses many issues that have plagued other inductive systems, such as the black ravens paradox and the confirmation problem, and compare this approach with other recent approaches.

  13. The Tower of Hanoi and Inductive Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrotsy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In the "Australian Curriculum," the concept of mathematical induction is first met in the senior secondary subject Specialist Mathematics. This article details an example, the Tower of Hanoi problem, which provides an enactive introduction to the inductive process before moving to more abstract and cognitively demanding representations.…

  14. INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF STANDARDS OF MUTUAL INDUCTANCE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    from the metre and second by the use of similar Campbell standards of mutual inductance. A direct comparison of the units of inductance derived in...the two laboratories has been made, using a third Campbell standard whose value was determined electrically. Comparison of the results established by

  15. Modeling and analysis with induction generators

    CERN Document Server

    Simões, M Godoy

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceAcknowledgmentsAuthorsPrinciples of Alternative Sources of Energy and Electric GenerationScope of This ChapterLegal DefinitionsPrinciples of Electrical ConversionBasic Definitions of Electrical PowerCharacteristics of Primary SourcesCharacteristics of Remote Industrial, Commercial, and Residential Sites and Rural EnergySelection of the Electric GeneratorInterfacing Primary Source, Generator, and LoadExample of a Simple Integrated Generating and Energy-Storing SystemSolved ProblemsSuggested ProblemsReferencesSteady-State Model of Induction GeneratorsScope of This ChapterInterconnection and Disconnection of the Electric Distribution NetworkRobustness of Induction GeneratorsClassical Steady-State Representation of the Asynchronous MachineGenerated PowerInduced TorqueRepresentation of Induction Generator LossesMeasurement of Induction Generator ParametersBlocked Rotor Test (s = 1)No-Load Test (s = 0)Features of Induction Machines Working as Generators Interconnected to the Distribution NetworkHigh-...

  16. On line protection systems for induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, I.; Celik, H.; Sefa, I.; Demirbas, S.

    2005-01-01

    Protection of induction motors is very important since they are widely used in industry for many applications due to their high robustness, reliability, low cost and maintenance, high efficiency and long service life. So, protecting these motors is crucial for operations. This paper presents a combined protection approach for induction motors. To achieve this, the electrical values of the induction motor were measured with sensitivity ±1% through a data acquisition card and processed with software developed in Visual C++. An on line protection system for induction motors was achieved easily and effectively. The experimental results have shown that the induction motor was protected against the possible problems faced during the operation. The software developed for this protection provides flexible and reliable media for operators and their motors. It is expected that the motor protection achieved in this study might be faster than the classical techniques and also may be applied to larger motors easily after small modifications of the software

  17. Video luminescent barometry - The induction period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibel, Rory H.; Khalil, Gamal; Gouterman, Martin; Gallery, Jean; Callis, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Video monitoring of oxygen quenching of the photoluminescence of platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) in silicone polymer resin may be used to measure pressure distribution over an airfoil. A continuous increase of the luminescence intensity of PtOEP on exposure to the exciting light is known as the induction effect. The effect of several factors on PtOEP photoluminescence and the induction effect was investigated. The experimental apparatus is described and results are presented. It was observed that the relative induction amplitude and induction time increase at higher oxygen pressure and with thicker films. These observations may be explained if the singlet oxygen produced by oxygen quenching is consumed by the polymer and is therefore unavailable for further quenching. Researchers using this method for measuring pressure distribution on airfoil surfaces should be aware of the induction effect and its implications.

  18. Reasoning about modular datatypes with Mendler induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Torrini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In functional programming, datatypes a la carte provide a convenient modular representation of recursive datatypes, based on their initial algebra semantics. Unfortunately it is highly challenging to implement this technique in proof assistants that are based on type theory, like Coq. The reason is that it involves type definitions, such as those of type-level fixpoint operators, that are not strictly positive. The known work-around of impredicative encodings is problematic, insofar as it impedes conventional inductive reasoning. Weak induction principles can be used instead, but they considerably complicate proofs. This paper proposes a novel and simpler technique to reason inductively about impredicative encodings, based on Mendler-style induction. This technique involves dispensing with dependent induction, ensuring that datatypes can be lifted to predicates and relying on relational formulations. A case study on proving subject reduction for structural operational semantics illustrates that the approach enables modular proofs, and that these proofs are essentially similar to conventional ones.

  19. Induction accelerator test module for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.

    1991-04-01

    An induction linac test module suitable for investigating the drive requirements and the longitudinal coupling impedance of a high-power ion induction linac has been constructed by the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) group at LBL. The induction linac heavy ion driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as presently envisioned uses multiple parallel beams which are transported in separate focusing channels but accelerated together in the induction modules. The resulting induction modules consequently have large beam apertures-1--2 meters in diameter- and correspondingly large outside diameters. The module geometry is related to a low-frequency ''gap capacity'' and high-frequency structural resonances, which are affected by the magnetic core loading and the module pulser impedance. A description of the test module and preliminary results are presented. 3 figs

  20. Synergistic effect of gefitinib and rofecoxib in mesothelioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi Ada

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant mesothelioma (MM is an aggressive tumor that is resistant to conventional modes of treatment with chemotherapy, surgery or radiation. Research into the molecular pathways involved in the development of MM should yield information that will guide therapeutic decisions. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 are involved in the carcinogenesis of MM. Combination of COX-2 and EGFR inhibitors, therefore, could be an effective strategy for reducing cell growth in those lines expressing the two molecular markers. Results In order to verify the effect of COX-2 and EGFR inhibitors, five MM cell lines NCI-2452, MPP89, Ist-Mes-1, Ist-Mes-2 and MSTO-211 were characterized for COX-2 and EGFR and then treated with respective inhibitors (rofecoxib and gefitinib alone and in combination. Only MPP89, Ist-Mes-1 and Ist-Mes-2 were sensitive to rofecoxib and showed growth-inhibition upon gefitinib treatment. The combination of two drugs demonstrated synergistic effects on cell killing only in Ist-Mes-2, the cell line that was more sensitive to gefitinib and rofecoxib alone. Down-regulation of COX-2, EGFR, p-EGFR and up-regulation of p21 and p27 were found in Ist-Mes-2, after treatment with single agents and in combination. In contrast, association of two drugs resulted in antagonistic effect in Ist-Mes-1 and MPP89. In these cell lines after rofecoxib exposition, only an evident reduction of p-AKT was observed. No change in p-AKT in Ist-Mes-1 and MPP89 was observed after treatment with gefitinib alone and in combination with rofecoxib. Conclusions Gefitinib and rofecoxib exert cell type-specific effects that vary between different MM cells. Total EGFR expression and downstream signalling does not correlate with gefitinib sensitivity. These data suggest that the effect of gefitinib can be potentiated by rofecoxib in MM cell lines where AKT is not activated.

  1. Synergistic antitumor activity of oncolytic reovirus and chemotherapeutic agents in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffey Matthew C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reovirus type 3 Dearing strain (ReoT3D has an inherent propensity to preferentially infect and destroy cancer cells. The oncolytic activity of ReoT3D as a single agent has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo against various cancers, including colon, pancreatic, ovarian and breast cancers. Its human safety and potential efficacy are currently being investigated in early clinical trials. In this study, we investigated the in vitro combination effects of ReoT3D and chemotherapeutic agents against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Results ReoT3D alone exerted significant cytolytic activity in 7 of 9 NSCLC cell lines examined, with the 50% effective dose, defined as the initial virus dose to achieve 50% cell killing after 48 hours of infection, ranging from 1.46 ± 0.12 ~2.68 ± 0.25 (mean ± SD log10 pfu/cell. Chou-Talalay analysis of the combination of ReoT3D with cisplatin, gemcitabine, or vinblastine demonstrated strong synergistic effects on cell killing, but only in cell lines that were sensitive to these compounds. In contrast, the combination of ReoT3D and paclitaxel was invariably synergistic in all cell lines tested, regardless of their levels of sensitivity to either agent. Treatment of NSCLC cell lines with the ReoT3D-paclitaxel combination resulted in increased poly (ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage and caspase activity compared to single therapy, indicating enhanced apoptosis induction in dually treated NSCLC cells. NSCLC cells treated with the ReoT3D-paclitaxel combination showed increased proportions of mitotic and apoptotic cells, and a more pronounced level of caspase-3 activation was demonstrated in mitotically arrested cells. Conclusion These data suggest that the oncolytic activity of ReoT3D can be potentiated by taxanes and other chemotherapeutic agents, and that the ReoT3D-taxane combination most effectively achieves synergy through accelerated apoptosis triggered by prolonged mitotic arrest.

  2. The intestinal micro-environment imprints stromal cells to promote efficient Treg induction in gut-draining lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cording, S; Wahl, B; Kulkarni, D; Chopra, H; Pezoldt, J; Buettner, M; Dummer, A; Hadis, U; Heimesaat, M; Bereswill, S; Falk, C; Bode, U; Hamann, A; Fleissner, D; Huehn, J; Pabst, O

    2014-03-01

    De novo induction of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells (Tregs) is particularly efficient in gut-draining mesenteric and celiac lymph nodes (mLN and celLN). Here we used LN transplantations to dissect the contribution of stromal cells and environmental factors to the high Treg-inducing capacity of these LN. After transplantation into the popliteal fossa, mLN and celLN retained their high Treg-inducing capacity, whereas transplantation of skin-draining LN into the gut mesenteries did not enable efficient Treg induction. However, de novo Treg induction was abolished in the absence of dendritic cells (DC), indicating that this process depends on synergistic contributions of stromal and DC. Stromal cells themselves were influenced by environmental signals as mLN grafts taken from germ-free donors and celLN grafts taken from vitamin A-deficient donors did not show any superior Treg-inducing capacity. Collectively, our observations reveal a hitherto unrecognized role of LN stromal cells for the de novo induction of Foxp3⁺ Tregs.

  3. Inductive cooling in quantum magnetomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchez, Erick; Twamley, Jason; Bowen, Warwick P.; Vanner, Michael R.

    Coupling to light or microwave fields allows quantum control of the motion of a mechanical oscillator, and offers prospects for precision sensing, quantum information systems, and tests of fundamental physics. In cavity electromechanics ground state cooling has been achieved using resolved sideband cooling. Here we present an alternative approach based on a magnetomechanical system that inductively couples an LC resonator to a mechanical oscillator. The experimental setup consists of a micro cantilever with a pyramidal magnetic tip attached at the end of the beam. The sharp end of the magnetic tip is positioned close to the planar microfabricated inductor of the LC resonator. The displacement in the position of the end of the cantilever generates a change in flux through the coil inducing an electromotive force in the circuit. The current in the LC resonator generates a magnetic field, and then a force between the tip and the coil. When they are strongly coupled and the mechanical resonance frequency ωm exceeds the electrical decay rate of the resonator γe, resolved sideband cooling can be used to cool the mechanics. We present estimations for the coupling rates and the experimental parameters required for these experiments. E. Romero acknowledges to CONACyT.

  4. Synergistic interactions promote behavior spreading and alter phase transitions on multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan-Hui; Wang, Wei; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Synergistic interactions are ubiquitous in the real world. Recent studies have revealed that, for a single-layer network, synergy can enhance spreading and even induce an explosive contagion. There is at the present a growing interest in behavior spreading dynamics on multiplex networks. What is the role of synergistic interactions in behavior spreading in such networked systems? To address this question, we articulate a synergistic behavior spreading model on a double layer network, where the key manifestation of the synergistic interactions is that the adoption of one behavior by a node in one layer enhances its probability of adopting the behavior in the other layer. A general result is that synergistic interactions can greatly enhance the spreading of the behaviors in both layers. A remarkable phenomenon is that the interactions can alter the nature of the phase transition associated with behavior adoption or spreading dynamics. In particular, depending on the transmission rate of one behavior in a network layer, synergistic interactions can lead to a discontinuous (first-order) or a continuous (second-order) transition in the adoption scope of the other behavior with respect to its transmission rate. A surprising two-stage spreading process can arise: due to synergy, nodes having adopted one behavior in one layer adopt the other behavior in the other layer and then prompt the remaining nodes in this layer to quickly adopt the behavior. Analytically, we develop an edge-based compartmental theory and perform a bifurcation analysis to fully understand, in the weak synergistic interaction regime where the dynamical correlation between the network layers is negligible, the role of the interactions in promoting the social behavioral spreading dynamics in the whole system.

  5. Phospho-Akt overexpression is prognostic and can be used to tailor the synergistic interaction of Akt inhibitors with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Massihnia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence of a constitutive activation of Akt in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC, associated with poor prognosis and chemoresistance. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of phospho-Akt in PDAC tissues and cells, and investigated molecular mechanisms influencing the therapeutic potential of Akt inhibition in combination with gemcitabine. Methods Phospho-Akt expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays (TMAs with specimens tissue from radically-resected patients (n = 100. Data were analyzed by Fisher and log-rank test. In vitro studies were performed in 14 PDAC cells, including seven primary cultures, characterized for their Akt1 mRNA and phospho-Akt/Akt levels by quantitative-RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Growth inhibitory effects of Akt inhibitors and gemcitabine were evaluated by SRB assay, whereas modulation of Akt and phospho-Akt was investigated by Western blotting and ELISA. Cell cycle perturbation, apoptosis-induction, and anti-migratory behaviors were studied by flow cytometry, AnnexinV, membrane potential, and migration assay, while pharmacological interaction with gemcitabine was determined with combination index (CI method. Results Immunohistochemistry of TMAs revealed a correlation between phospho-Akt expression and worse outcome, particularly in patients with the highest phospho-Akt levels, who had significantly shorter overall and progression-free-survival. Similar expression levels were detected in LPC028 primary cells, while LPC006 were characterized by low phospho-Akt. Remarkably, Akt inhibitors reduced cancer cell growth in monolayers and spheroids and synergistically enhanced the antiproliferative activity of gemcitabine in LPC028, while this combination was antagonistic in LPC006 cells. The synergistic effect was paralleled by a reduced expression of ribonucleotide reductase, potentially facilitating gemcitabine cytotoxicity. Inhibition of Akt

  6. DNA damage stress and inhibition of Jak2-V617F cause its degradation and synergistically induce apoptosis through activation of GSK3β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikage Nagao

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Jak2 plays a crucial role in cytokine receptor signaling in hematopoietic cells. The activated Jak2-V617F mutant is present in most cases of BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms and constitutively activates downstream signals from homodimeric cytokine receptors, such as the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR. Here we examine the effects of DNA damage stress on Jak2 or Jak2-V617F and on induction of apoptosis in hematopoietic cells. Etoposide or doxorubicin dose-dependently decreased the expression level of Jak2 in UT7 or 32D cells expressing EpoR in the absence of Epo and that of exogenously expressed Jak2-V617F in UT7 cells when cotreated with the Jak2 inhibitor JakI-1 or AG490. Studies with pharmacological inhibitors and genetic manipulations further showed that downregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway leading to the activation of GSK3β may be involved in downregulation of Jak2 or Jak2-V617F as well as in synergistic induction of Bax activation and apoptosis. The downregulation of Jak2 was inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor MG132 or by expression of both of loss-of-function mutants of c-Cbl and Cbl-b, E3 ubiquitin ligases which facilitated ubiquitination of Jak2-V617F when co-expressed in 293T cells. The pan-caspase inhibitor Boc-d-fmk also inhibited the Jak2 downregulation as well as appearance of a 100-kDa fragment that contained the N-terminal portion of Jak2 in response to DNA damage. Together, these data suggest that DNA damage stress with simultaneous inhibition of the kinase activity causes degradation of Jak2 or Jak2-V617F by caspase cleavage and proteasomal degradation through GSK3β activation, which is closely involved in synergistic induction of apoptosis in hematopoietic cells.

  7. Designing of Synergistic Waste Mixtures for Multiphase Reactive Smelting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaso Manojlović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnace (EAF dust, together with a mill scale and coke were smelted in a laboratory electric arc furnace. These metallurgical wastes consist of a many different phases and elements, making the reaction process complex. Thermo-chemical analysis of the reactions in metal, slag, and gas phases was done, and used for modeling of the mixture composition and energy consumption required for smelting. Modelling was performed with the software named RikiAlC. The crude ZnO, slag, and metal phase were analyzed using the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS, the optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES, the X-ray diffraction (XRD, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, and reflected and transmitted light microscopy. Also, in order to follow the behavior of this process the exhausted gases were monitored. The synergetic effects of the designed mixture may be recognized in minimizing energy consumption for the smelting process, improving the product yield efficiency, and reducing the negative environmental effects.

  8. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  9. Synergistic Success: The Power of Mentorship and Reaching the Senior Levels of the U.S. Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    SYNERGISTIC SUCCESS: THE POWER OF MENTORSHIP AND REACHING THE SENIOR LEVELS OF THE U.S. ARMY A thesis presented to the Faculty of...To) AUG 2016 – JUNE 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Synergistic Success: The Power of Mentorship and Reaching the Senior Levels of the U.S. Army 5a...Synergistic Success: The Power of Mentorship and Reaching the Senior Levels of the U.S. Army Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Jack D

  10. Synergistic antitumor effects of novel HDAC inhibitors and paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zuco

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies support the therapeutic potential of histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACi in combination with taxanes. The efficacy of combination has been mainly ascribed to a cooperative effect on microtubule stabilization following tubulin acetylation. In the present study we investigated the effect of paclitaxel in combination with two novel HDACi, ST2782 or ST3595, able to induce p53 and tubulin hyperacetylation. A synergistic effect of the paclitaxel/ST2782 (or ST3595 combination was found in wild-type p53 ovarian carcinoma cells, but not in a p53 mutant subline, in spite of a marked tubulin acetylation. Such a synergistic interaction was confirmed in additional human solid tumor cell lines harboring wild-type p53 but not in those expressing mutant or null p53. In addition, a synergistic cytotoxic effect was found when ST2782 was combined with the depolymerising agent vinorelbine. In contrast to SAHA, which was substantially less effective in sensitizing cells to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis, ST2782 prevented up-regulation of p21(WAF1/Cip1 by paclitaxel, which has a protective role in response to taxanes, and caused p53 down-regulation, acetylation and mitochondrial localization of acetylated p53. The synergistic antitumor effects of the paclitaxel/ST3595 combination were confirmed in two tumor xenograft models. Our results support the relevance of p53 modulation as a major determinant of the synergistic interaction observed between paclitaxel and novel HDACi and emphasize the therapeutic interest of this combination.

  11. Synergistic Enhancement of Cancer Therapy Using a Combination of Ceramide and Docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xia Feng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide (CE-based combination therapy (CE combination as a novel therapeutic strategy has attracted great attention in the field of anti-cancer therapy. The principal purposes of this study were to investigate the synergistic effect of CE in combination with docetaxel (DTX (CE + DTX and to explore the synergy mechanisms of CE + DTX. The 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT and combination index (CI assay showed that simultaneous administration of CE and DTX with a molar ratio of 0.5:1 could generate the optimal synergistic effect on murine malignant melanoma cell (B16, CI = 0.31 and human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7, CI = 0.48. The apoptosis, cell cycle, and cytoskeleton destruction study demonstrated that CE could target and destruct the microfilament actin, subsequently activate Caspase-3 and induce apoptosis. Meanwhile, DTX could target and disrupt the microtubules cytoskeleton, leading to a high proportion of cancer cells in G2/M-phase arrest. Moreover, CE plus DTX could cause a synergistic destruction of cytoskeleton, which resulted in a significantly higher apoptosis and a significantly higher arrest in G2/M arrest comparing with either agent alone (p < 0.01. The in vivo antitumor study evaluated in B16 tumor-bearing mice also validated the synergistic effects. All these results suggested that CE could enhance the antitumor activity of DTX in a synergistic manner, which suggest promising application prospects of CE + DTX combination treatment.

  12. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Farooqui

    Full Text Available Synergistic combinations of antimicrobial agents with different mechanisms of action have been introduced as more successful strategies to combat infections involving multidrug resistant (MDR bacteria. In this study, we investigated synergistic antimicrobial activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia which are commonly used plants with different antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 350 Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains belonging to 10 different bacterial species, was tested against Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined by agar dilution and microbroth dilution assays. Plant extracts were tested for synergistic antimicrobial activity with different antimicrobial agents by checkerboard titration, Etest/agar incorporation assays, and time kill kinetics. Extract treated and untreated bacteria were subjected to transmission electron microscopy to see the effect on bacterial cell morphology. Camellia sinensis extract showed higher antibacterial activity against MDR S. Typhi, alone and in combination with nalidixic acid, than to susceptible isolates." We further explore anti-staphylococcal activity of Juglans regia that lead to the changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as possible target of action. The synergistic combination of Juglans regia and oxacillin reverted oxacillin resistance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strains in vitro. This study provides novel information about antimicrobial and synergistic activity of Camellia sinensis and Juglans regia against MDR pathogens.

  13. Overview of QTL detection in plants and tests for synergistic epistatic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannink, Jean-Luc; Moreau, Laurence; Charmet, Gilles; Charcosset, Alain

    2009-06-01

    Improvements in the usefulness of QTL analysis arise from better statistical methods applied to the problem, ability to analyze more complex mating designs, and the fitting of less simplified genetic models. Here we review the advantages of different plant mating designs in QTL analysis and conclude that diallel designs have several favorable properties. We then turn to the detection of systematic genome-wide synergistic epistasis. This form of epistasis has important implications from evolutionary (maintenance of sexual reproduction and concealment of cryptic genetic variation) and practical perspectives (response to pyramided favorable alleles). We develop two methods for detecting systematic synergistic epistasis, one based on analyzing interactions between locus effects and predicted individual genotypic values and one based on analyzing pairwise locus interactions. Using the first method we detect synergistic epistasis in a barley and a wheat dataset but not in a maize dataset. We fail to detect synergistic epistasis with the second method. We discuss our results in the light of theoretical questions concerning the mechanisms of synergistic epistasis.

  14. Synergistic effects of ethnomedicinal plants of Apocynaceae family and antibiotics against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusri, Sasitorn; Siriyong, Thanyaluck; Na-Phatthalung, Pinanong; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 17 ethnomedicinal plants belonging to Apocynaceae family used in combination with 16 conventional antibiotics against non-multidrug resistant-, multidrug resistant (MDR)-, and extensive drug resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii). Antibacterial activity and resistance modifying ability of 272 combinations were determined by growth inhibition assays and further confirmed by time-kill assay. Among the combinations of the antibiotics with Apocynaceae ethanol extracts on this pathogen, 15 (5%) had synergistic effects, 23 (8%) had partial synergistic effects and 234 (86%) had no effects. Synergistic activity was observed mostly when the Apocynaceae extracts were combined with rifampicin or cefazolin. Interestingly, 10 out of 17 combinations between the extracts and rifampicin displayed synergistic or partial synergistic behaviors. Holarrhena antidysenterica extract was additionally tested to restore rifampicin activity against clinical isolates of MDR and XDR A. baumannii. With respect to total or partial synergy, 70% was XDR A. baumannii isolates and 66% was MDR A. baumannii isolates. Holarrhena antidysenterica extract clearly demonstrated the ability to restore rifampicin activity against both A. baumannii ATCC19606 and clinically isolated A. baumannii. Additional studies examining its active principles as well as mechanisms of actions such as the effects on efflux pumps and outer membrane permeability alterations are recommended. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synergistic effects of Chinese herbal medicine: a comprehensive review of methodology and current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilised complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of Chinese herbal medicine, misconceptions about synergy, methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengthen and weakness of these models in the context of Chinese herbal medicine and summarise the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.

  16. Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Is Drug-Cytokine Interaction the Linchpin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert A; Maiuri, Ashley R; Ganey, Patricia E

    2017-02-01

    Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury continues to be a human health problem in part because drugs that cause these reactions are not identified in current preclinical testing and because progress in prevention is hampered by incomplete knowledge of mechanisms that underlie these adverse responses. Several hypotheses involving adaptive immune responses, inflammatory stress, inability to adapt to stress, and multiple, concurrent factors have been proposed. Yet much remains unknown about how drugs interact with the liver to effect death of hepatocytes. Evidence supporting hypotheses implicating adaptive or innate immune responses in afflicted patients has begun to emerge and is bolstered by results obtained in experimental animal models and in vitro systems. A commonality in adaptive and innate immunity is the production of cytokines, including interferon-γ (IFNγ). IFNγ initiates cell signaling pathways that culminate in cell death or inhibition of proliferative repair. Tumor necrosis factor-α, another cytokine prominent in immune responses, can also promote cell death. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor-α interacts with IFNγ, leading to enhanced cellular responses to each cytokine. In this short review, we propose that the interaction of drugs with these cytokines contributes to idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury, and mechanisms by which this could occur are discussed. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. A combination of indol-3-carbinol and genistein synergistically induces apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation and progression of autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Hirotsuna

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chemopreventive effects of dietary phytochemicals on malignant tumors have been studied extensively because of a relative lack of toxicity. To achieve desirable effects, however, treatment with a single agent mostly requires high doses. Therefore, studies on effective combinations of phytochemicals at relatively low concentrations might contribute to chemopreventive strategies. Results Here we found for the first time that co-treatment with I3C and genistein, derived from cruciferous vegetables and soy, respectively, synergistically suppressed the viability of human colon cancer HT-29 cells at concentrations at which each agent alone was ineffective. The suppression of cell viability was due to the induction of a caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, the combination effectively inhibited phosphorylation of Akt followed by dephosphorylation of caspase-9 or down-regulation of XIAP and survivin, which contribute to the induction of apoptosis. In addition, the co-treatment also enhanced the induction of autophagy mediated by the dephosphorylation of mTOR, one of the downstream targets of Akt, whereas the maturation of autophagosomes was inhibited. These results give rise to the possibility that co-treatment with I3C and genistein induces apoptosis through the simultaneous inhibition of Akt activity and progression of the autophagic process. This possibility was examined using inhibitors of Akt combined with inhibitors of autophagy. The combination effectively induced apoptosis, whereas the Akt inhibitor alone did not. Conclusion Although in vivo study is further required to evaluate physiological efficacies and toxicity of the combination treatment, our findings might provide a new insight into the development of novel combination therapies/chemoprevention against malignant tumors using dietary phytochemicals.

  18. Inductance calculation system for superconducting circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, M.; Shimizu, N.; Miyamoto, N.; Harada, Y.; Goto, E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a method for calculating the inductance of complicated three-dimensional superconducting circuits. In this method, current distribution is obtained by solving the simultaneous linear equation which satisfies both Maxwell's and london's equations. Inductance is calculated from magnetic energy caused by the current. Extrapolations are used to reduce the computational resources and to increase the accuracy of the results. Based upon the method, a CAD system was developed to design superconducting circuits. The inductance of complicated 3D superconducting circuits, which was unattainable except by experiments, can be easily calculated by this system. Coupling inductance of a dc-SQUID is calculated using the CAD system. The result agrees well with the experiment

  19. Validity of a frustration-induction procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henna, Elaine; Zilberman, Monica L; Gentil, Valentim; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2008-03-01

    To test a reliable and easily administered frustration-induction procedure for experimental research. One hundred volunteers (81 women, mean age +/- SD 34.2 +/- 8 years) physically and psychiatrically healthy submitted to the frustration induction procedure were prevented from reaching reward level scores. Subjective aggressiveness feelings related to frustration were self-rated in a 13-item visual analogue scale before and after the procedure. Significant increases in aggressiveness-related feelings were detected in 12 of the 13 items. This was consistent with the observed overt behavior of the subjects during the task. The frustration-induction procedure is a simple, easy to administer frustration-induction procedure that can be used in experimental studies in normal subjects.

  20. Parthenogenesis induction by Wolbachia in parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maternally inherited intracellular bacterium, Wolbachia pipientis, induces reproductive alterations in host arthropod populations such as male-killing, feminization, parthenogenesis induction (PI, or reproduction without males) and cytoplasmic incompatibility. Here we report that PI in Mexican O...

  1. Induction Motor Diagnosis in Variable Speed Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Several diagnostic techniques are presented for the detection of electrical fault in induction motor variable speed drives. These techinques are developed taking into account the impact of the control system on machine variables and non stationary operating conditions.

  2. Induction of labor in the obese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhstaller, Kelly

    2015-10-01

    Obese women are at an increased risk of antepartum pregnancy complications and are therefore more likely to require an induction of labor than normal weight women. They also have an increased rate of failing an induction of labor, a rate that rises significantly with increasing body mass index, and subsequent surgical and neonatal complications of an intrapartum cesarean delivery. This increase in induction failure may be due to differences in the myometrium of obese women resulting in decreased contraction strength. There have been only a few studies comparing the efficacy of the various cervical ripening agents in obese women and at this point no recommendation can be made as to what method may result in the greatest chance of a successful induction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Failed labor induction: toward an objective diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rouse, Dwight J

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes in women undergoing labor induction with an unfavorable cervix according to duration of oxytocin administration in the latent phase of labor after ruptured membranes.

  4. Relations between premise similarity and inductive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Feeney, Aidan

    2005-04-01

    According to the diversity principle, diverse evidence is strong evidence. There has been considerable evidence that people respect this principle in inductive reasoning. However, exceptions may be particularly informative. Medin, Coley, Storms, and Hayes (2003) introduced a relevance theory of inductive reasoning and used this theory to predict exceptions, including the nondiversity-by-property-reinforcement effect. A new experiment in which this phenomenon was investigated is reported here. Subjects made inductive strength judgments and similarity judgments for stimuli from Medin et al. (2003). The inductive strength judgments showed the same pattern as that in Medin et al. (2003); however, the similarity judgments suggested that the pattern should be interpreted as a diversity effect, rather than as a nondiversity effect. It is concluded that the evidence regarding the predicted nondiversity-by-property-reinforcement effect does not give distinctive support for relevance theory, although this theory does address other results.

  5. Progress in antenna coupled kinetic inductance detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baryshev, A.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Freni, A.; Gerini, G.; Hoevers, H.; Iacono, A.; Neto, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the combined Dutch efforts toward the development of large wideband focal plane array receivers based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). Taking into account strict electromagnetic and detector sensitivity requirements for future ground and space based observatories, this

  6. CORELESS INDUCTION FURNACE. CONSTRUCTIVE DIFFERENCES, OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Saharevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main tendencies of development of induction crucible furnaces are considered. constructive differences of crucible furnaces in comparison with fuel furnaces are given. The area of their application is specified.

  7. Superconducting Resonant Inductive Power Coupling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will develop a technology to wirelessly and efficiently transfer power over hundreds of meters via resonant inductive coupling. The key...

  8. An experimental reexamination of Faradayan electrogravitational induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    Motivated by a reexamination of Faraday's conjectures and experiments on electrogravitational induction of 130 years ago, a new experimental approach to the exploration of such hypothetical coupling is suggested. It consists of sharply accelerating a metal sample with a mass of the order of 10 3 g and checking to see if a transient 'effective' electric charge is induced in the sample during the acceleration-as is expected on the basis of the Faraday electrogravitational induction hypothesis. Apparatus capable of discriminating electrogravitational induction effects to several orders of magnitude greater accuracy than hitherto achieved is described. The results of such an experiment, in which signals conforming to expectation are obtained, are reported. Tests that appear to rule out conventional charge generation mechanisms as the source of the observed signals are considered. Several other experiments where one might expect electrogravitational induction effects to manifest themselves, especially in the muon magnetic moment, are considered. (author)

  9. Synergistic bactericidal activity of chlorhexidine-loaded, silver-decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Meng; Wang, Qiu-Jing; Chang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Zheng; Zheng, Xiao; Shao, Dan; Dong, Wen-Fei; Zhou, Yan-Min

    2017-01-01

    Combination of chlorhexidine (CHX) and silver ions could engender synergistic bactericidal effect and improve the bactericidal efficacy. It is highly desired to develop an efficient carrier for the antiseptics codelivery targeting infection foci with acidic microenvironment. In this work, monodisperse mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) nanospheres were successfully developed as an ideal carrier for CHX and nanosilver codelivery through a facile and environmentally friendly method. The CHX-loaded, silver-decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Ag-MSNs@CHX) exhibited a pH-responsive release manner of CHX and silver ions simultaneously, leading to synergistically antibacterial effect against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli . Moreover, the effective antibacterial concentration of Ag-MSNs@CHX showed less cytotoxicity on normal cells. Given their synergistically bactericidal ability and good biocompatibility, these nanoantiseptics might have effective and broad clinical applications for bacterial infections.

  10. The dietary biogenic amines tyramine and histamine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Redruello, Begoña; Linares, Daniel M; Ladero, Victor; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BA) most commonly found at high concentrations in food; they may even appear together at toxic concentrations. The present work examines, via real-time cell analysis, whether histamine and tyramine show synergistic toxicity towards intestinal cell cultures. Employing a constant equipotency ratio, their interaction was examined via the combination index (CI) method of Chou & Talalay. Co-treatment with tyramine and histamine was associated with a stronger cytotoxic effect than was treatment with either BA or on its own. Indeed, a synergistic interaction (CIhistamine, at concentrations below the legal limit, increases the cytotoxicity of tyramine at concentrations frequently reached in some foods. The synergistic cytotoxicity of tyramine and histamine should be taken into account when establishing legal limits designed to ensure consumer safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TNF-α contributes to postmenopausal osteoporosis by synergistically promoting RANKL-induced osteoclast formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Li; He, Li; Liang, Yijian; Qin, Hui; Yu, Bin; Chang, Linli; Xue, Li

    2018-03-20

    Previous studies showed that inflammatory cytokines promote osteoclast formation, characterized by the function of bone resorption. However, it remains unclear whether inflammatory factors contribute to osteoporosis syndrome in postmenopausal women. Here, we found that postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (PO) had increased levels of TNF-α, compared with those without osteoporosis. TNF-α is highly correlated with the RANK and estrogen levels in PO patients. in vitro, TNF-α synergistically promotes RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt signaling. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K/Akt totally blocked the synergistic effects of TNF-α on NF-κB activation as well as osteoclast formation. Together, these results demonstrate that TNF-α synergistically promotes RANKL-induced osteoclasts formation through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling, which ultimately contributes to osteoporosis syndrome in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Synergistic effects of iron powder on intumescent flame retardant polypropylene system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of iron powder as a synergistic agent on the flame retardancy of intumescent flame retardant polypropylene composites (IFR-PP were studied. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and cone calorimeter (CONE were used to evaluate the synergistic effects of iron powder (Fe. The TGA data showed that Fe could enhance the thermal stability of the IFR-PP systems at high temperature and effectively increase the char residue formation. The CONE results revealed that Fe and IFR could clearly change the decomposition behavior of PP and form a char layer on the surface of the composites, consequently resulting in efficient reduction of the flammability parameters, such as heat release rate (HRR, mass loss (ML, Mass loss rate (MLR, total heat release (THR, carbon monoxide and so on. Thus, a suitable amount of Fe plays a synergistic effect in the flame retardancy of IFR composites.

  13. Antibacterial synergistic effect of chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide against Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, D; Heling, I; Daniel, I; Ginsburg, I

    1999-02-01

    Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Hydrogen peroxide (HP) are potent antibacterial agents that are used in controlling dental plaque. However, both agents bear undesired side-effects. We have tested the hypothesis that an antibacterial synergistic effect can occur between the two agents against Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. We have found that at several combinations of HP and CHX an antibacterial synergistic effect does occur, while at other combinations a on-significant synergism was noticed. No antagonism between the two agents was found in our experimental system. It can be postulated that the mechanism of this synergistic effect is via alteration of the bacterial cell-surface by CHX thereby allowing for an increased amount of HP to penetrate and to react with the intercellular organelles of the bacteria. These results suggest that CHX and HP can be of use in controlling the dental plaque in the oral cavity.

  14. Synergistic activity of coriander oil and conventional antibiotics against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, A; Ferreira, S; Silva, F; Domingues, F C

    2012-02-15

    In this study we investigated the existence of synergistic antibacterial effect between coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil and six different antibacterial drugs (cefoperazone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, tetracycline and piperacillin). The antibacterial activity of coriander oil was assessed using microdilution susceptibility testing and synergistic interaction by checkerboard assays. The association of coriander essential oil with chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and tetracycline against Acinetobacter baumannii showed in vitro effectiveness, which is an indicator of a possible synergistic interaction against two reference strains of A. baumannii (LMG 1025 and LMG 1041) (FIC index from 0.047 to 0.375). However, when tested the involvement between coriander essential oil and piperacillin or cefoperazone, the isobolograms and FIC index showed an additive interaction. The in vitro interaction could improve the antimicrobial effectiveness of ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and tetracycline and may contribute to resensitize A. baumannii to the action of chloramphenicol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Finite Element Model of Gear Induction Hardening

    OpenAIRE

    Hodek, J; Zemko, M; Shykula, P

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a finite element model of a gear induction hardening process. The gear was surface-heated by an induction coil and quickly cooled by spraying water. The finite element model was developed as a three-dimensional model. The electromagnetic field, temperature field, stress distribution and microstructure distribution were examined. Temperature and microstructural characteristics were measured and used. The gear material data was obtained in part by mea...

  16. Pyrrhonism and Hume's rejection of induction

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanovski, Mašan

    2012-01-01

    Sextus' rejection of induction poses a serious problem for Charlotte Stough's classical interpretation of Pyrrhonism. Her explanation of Pyrrhonist action is not available to the classical interpretation, because it implies that a Pyrrhonean has beliefs about his future impressions. In this article, the main premises of Hume's rejection of induction are reconstructed from Sextus' account of commemorative and indicative signs. The Pyrrhonean is not entitled to hold rational beliefs about his f...

  17. A Metric Observer for Induction Motors Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Benbouzid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with metric observer application for induction motors. Firstly, assuming that stator currents and speed are measured, a metric observer is designed to estimate the rotor fluxes. Secondly, assuming that only stator currents are measured, another metric observer is derived to estimate rotor fluxes and speed. The proposed observer validity is checked throughout simulations on a 4 kW induction motor drive.

  18. Diagnostics of internal inductance in HT-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Li; Wan Baonian; Qian Jinping; Fan Hengyu

    2001-01-01

    Two arrays of Mirnov coils and a pair of concentric loops have been installed to superconducting tokamak HT-7. Software compensation and digital Fourier series expansion are the two techniques that have been applied successfully in measuring diamagnetic flux of concentric loops and internal inductance. The internal inductance of plasma l i , poloidal beta β p , Grad Shafranov parameter Λ, plasma minor radius α p and the center of the outermost magnetic flux surface Δ g are determined

  19. Physic basis of electromagnetic induction low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The statement on the macro level of EMF dependence on change in magnetic flux in time wrong reflects the physical phenomenon of electromagnetic induction low by Faraday, because EMF can be inducted if the magnetic flux of the circuit does not change. Changing magnetic flux of the circuit when the electromotive force arises is only a result of crossing the magnetic field lines by conductor and is an exception, which applies only to certain classes of electric machines.

  20. Co-pyrolysis of waste newspaper with high-density polyethylene: Synergistic effect and oil characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weimin; Shi, Shukai; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Minzhi; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synergistic effect during co-pyrolysis occurred at 400–500 °C. • Oil yield from co-pyrolysis was increased by 31.59% compared to theoretical data. • Viscosity and T.A.N. of co-pyrolysis oil were decreased by 75.96% and 216.04%. • Synergistic effect was determined by altering the compounds content in derived oil. - Abstract: Biomass from waste newspaper (WP) was first co-pyrolyzed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in order to enhance the oil yield and its fuel properties. The synergistic effects during co-pyrolysis were investigated in terms of entire pyrolysis process, products yield and properties of liquid products (aqueous phase and oil phase) using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR), physical properties analysis, elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that synergistic effect occurred at 400–500 °C resulting in an obviously increase in oil phase by 31.59% as compared to theoretical data. Positive synergistic effects on fuel properties of co-pyrolysis oil were observed, especially demonstrating dramatically decrease in viscosity and total acid number by 75.96% and 216.04% in comparison to theoretical data. WP pyrolyzed alone gives mainly oxygenated compounds in its derived oil, while HDPE give hydrocarbons. No cross reaction products appeared in co-pyrolysis oil, implying that the synergistic effects were determined by altering its compounds content rather than generating cross reaction products. Unfortunately, aqueous phase and oil phase exhibit similar composition.

  1. The effect of insecticide synergists on the response of scabies mites to pyrethroid acaricides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cielo Pasay

    Full Text Available Permethrin is the active component of topical creams widely used to treat human scabies. Recent evidence has demonstrated that scabies mites are becoming increasingly tolerant to topical permethrin and oral ivermectin. An effective approach to manage pesticide resistance is the addition of synergists to counteract metabolic resistance. Synergists are also useful for laboratory investigation of resistance mechanisms through their ability to inhibit specific metabolic pathways.To determine the role of metabolic degradation as a mechanism for acaricide resistance in scabies mites, PBO (piperonyl butoxide, DEF (S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate and DEM (diethyl maleate were first tested for synergistic activity with permethrin in a bioassay of mite killing. Then, to investigate the relative role of specific metabolic pathways inhibited by these synergists, enzyme assays were developed to measure esterase, glutathione S-transferase (GST and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytochrome P450 activity in mite extracts. A statistically significant difference in median survival time of permethrin-resistant Sarcoptes scabiei variety canis was noted when any of the three synergists were used in combination with permethrin compared to median survival time of mites exposed to permethrin alone (p<0.0001. Incubation of mite homogenates with DEF showed inhibition of esterase activity (37%; inhibition of GST activity (73% with DEM and inhibition of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity (81% with PBO. A 7-fold increase in esterase activity, a 4-fold increase in GST activity and a 2-fold increase in cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity were observed in resistant mites compared to sensitive mites.These findings indicate the potential utility of synergists in reversing resistance to pyrethroid-based acaricides and suggest a significant role of metabolic mechanisms in mediating pyrethroid resistance in scabies mites.

  2. Synergistic antitumor activities of docetaxel and octreotide associated with apoptotic-upregulation in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Zhu

    Full Text Available Androgen deprivation therapy has become the fist-line treatment of metastatic prostate cancer; however, progression to castrate resistance disease occurs in the majority of patients. Thus, there is an urgent need for improvements in therapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer. The aims of the present study were to determine the efficacy somatostatin analogue octreotide (OCT combined with a low dose of docetaxel (DTX using castration resistant prostate cancer cells and to investigate the involved molecular mechanisms in vitro. The anti-proliferative and synergism potential effects were determined by MTT assay. Induction of apoptosis was analyzed employing annexing V and propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. VEGFA, CASP9, CASP3 and ABCB1 gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and Q-RT-PCR analysis. OCT in combination with DTX treatments on DU145 cell migration was also evaluated. Investigation revealed that combined administration of DTX and OCT had significant, synergistically greater cytotoxicity than DTX or OCT treatment alone. The combination of the two drugs caused a more marked increase in apoptosis and resulted in greater suppression of invasive potential than either individual agent. There was obvious increase in caspase 3 expression in the OCT alone and two-drug combined treatment groups, however, VEGFA expression was markedly suppressed in them. These results support the conclusion that somatostatin analogues combined with docetaxel may enhance the chemotherapy efficacies through multiple mechanisms in castration-resistant PCa cell line. This work provides a preclinical rationale for the therapeutic strategies to improve the treatment in castrate resistance disease.

  3. Synergistic Effects of a Mixture of Glycosaminoglycans to Inhibit Adipogenesis and Enhance Chondrocyte Features in Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar D. Petrov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells affect homeostasis of adipose and joint tissues. Factors influencing their differentiation fate are of interest for both obesity and joint problems. We studied the impact of a mixture of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs (hyaluronic acid: dermatan sulfate 1:0.25, w/w used in an oral supplement for joint discomfort (Oralvisc™ on the differentiation fate of multipotent cells. Methods: Primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs were used as a model system. Post-confluent monolayer MEF cultures non-stimulated or hormonally stimulated to adipogenesis were chronically exposed to the GAGs mixture, its individual components or vehicle. The appearance of lipid laden cells, lipid accumulation and expression of selected genes at the mRNA and protein level was assessed. Results: Exposure to the GAGs mixture synergistically suppressed spontaneous adipogenesis and induced the expression of cartilage extracellular matrix proteins, aggrecan core protein, decorin and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. Hormonally-induced adipogenesis in the presence of the GAGs mixture resulted in decreased adipogenic differentiation, down-regulation of adipogenic/lipogenic factors and genes for insulin resistance-related adipokines (resistin and retinol binding protein 4, and up-regulation of oxidative metabolism-related genes. Adipogenesis in the presence of dermatan sulfate, the minor component of the mixture, was not impaired but resulted in smaller lipid droplets and the induction of a more complete brown adipocyte-related transcriptional program in the cells in the adipose state. Conclusions: The Oralvisc™ GAGs mixture can tip the adipogenic/chondrogenic fate balance of multipotent cells away from adipogenesis while favoring chondrocyte related gene expression. The mixture and its dermatan sulfate component also have modulatory effects of interest on hormonally-induced adipogenesis and on metabolic and secretory capabilities of

  4. Synergistic Effect of Caffeine and Glucocorticoids on Expression of Surfactant Protein B (SP-B) mRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrholz, Markus; Bersani, Iliana; Kramer, Boris W.; Speer, Christian P.; Kunzmann, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Administration of glucocorticoids and caffeine is a common therapeutic intervention in the neonatal period, but possible interactions between these substances are still unclear. The present study investigated the effect of caffeine and different glucocorticoids on expression of surfactant protein (SP)-B, crucial for the physiological function of pulmonary surfactant. We measured expression levels of SP-B, various SP-B transcription factors including erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 4 (ErbB4) and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), as well as the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) after administering different doses of glucocorticoids, caffeine, cAMP, or the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor rolipram in the human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H441. Administration of dexamethasone (1 µM) or caffeine (5 mM) stimulated SP-B mRNA expression with a maximal of 38.8±11.1-fold and 5.2±1.4-fold increase, respectively. Synergistic induction was achieved after co-administration of dexamethasone (1 mM) in combination with caffeine (10 mM) (206±59.7-fold increase, pglucocorticoids and caffeine, achieved by accumulation of intracellular cAMP. This effect was mediated by a caffeine-dependent phosphodiesterase inhibition and by upregulation of both ErbB4 and the GR. These results suggested that caffeine is able to induce the expression of SP-transcription factors and affects the signaling pathways of glucocorticoids, amplifying their effects. Co-administration of caffeine and corticosteroids may therefore be of benefit in surfactant homeostasis. PMID:23272120

  5. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of the species Salvia officinalis L. and its synergistic action with the preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate in vitro against selected food spoiling bacteria. Synergism was assessed by the checkerboard assay method and quantitatively represented by the FIC index. Synergistic action was established for aqueous extract/sodium benzoate, aqueous extract/potassium sorbate, aqueous extract/sodium nitrite combinations. Synergism was detected in relation to: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus sp. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding up to 1/8 MIC values.

  6. DNA damage in human lymphocytes due to synergistic interaction between ionizing radiation and pesticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Lee, K. H.; Lee, B. H.; Chun, K. J.

    2001-01-01

    Biological risks may arise from the possibility of the synergistic interaction between harmful factors such as ionizing radiation and pesticide. The effect of pesticide on radiation-induced DNA damage in human in human blood lymphocytes was evaluated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. The lymphocytes, with or without pretreatment of the pesticide, were exposed to 2.0 Gy of gamma ray. Significantly increased tail moment, which was a marker of DNA strand breaks in SCGE assay, showed an excellent dose-response relationship. The present study confirms that the pesticide has the cytotoxic effect on lymphocytes and that it interacts synergistically with ionizing radiationon DNA damage, as well

  7. Forskolin and the meiosis inducing substance synergistically initiate meiosis in fetal male germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, A G; Fenger, M; Westergaard, L

    1993-01-01

    We have shown that Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) and forskolin synergistically and dose dependently induce meiosis in germ cells of cultured fetal mouse testes. We used a bioassay which consists of fetal mouse testes and ovaries cultured for 6 days. In this study MIS media are spent culture...... in male germ cells during culture. We found that MIS media as well as forskolin induced meiosis in fetal male germ cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MIS media and forskolin acted synergistically by inducing meiosis. Female germ cells seem to be unaffected by the various culture media...

  8. Synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptide DP7 combined with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu X

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaozhe Wu,1 Zhan Li,1 Xiaolu Li,2,3 Yaomei Tian,1 Yingzi Fan,1 Chaoheng Yu,1 Bailing Zhou,1 Yi Liu,4 Rong Xiang,5 Li Yang1 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy/Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 2International Center for Translational Chinese Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences, Chengdu, 3Department of Plastic and Burn Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 4Department of Microbial Examination, Sichuan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu, 5Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present a great threat to public health. In this study, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and antibiotics on several multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were studied, and their synergistic effects on azithromycin (AZT-resistance genes were analyzed to determine the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and these synergistic effects. A checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic effects of AMPs (DP7 and CLS001 and several antibiotics (gentamicin, vancomycin [VAN], AZT, and amoxicillin on clinical bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli. The AZT-resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA, and msrA were identified in the resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For all the clinical isolates tested that were resistant to different antibiotics, DP7 had high antimicrobial activity (≤32 mg/L. When DP7 was combined with VAN or AZT, the effect was most frequently synergistic. When we studied the resistance genes of the AZT-resistant isolates, the synergistic effect of DP7–AZT occurred most frequently in highly resistant strains or strains carrying more than two AZT-resistance genes. A transmission electron microscopic analysis of the S. aureus

  9. High Frequency Multiple Shoot Induction of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.: Shoot Tip V/S Rhizome Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Nagesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. is an endangered medicinal plant with anticancer properties. The rhizome and tuberous roots of the plant have been used extensively in India in indigenous medicine. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Curculigo orchioides is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered ‘endangered’ in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. Here, we describe a successful protocol for multiple shoot induction of C. orchioides using shoot tip and rhizome disc. We find that proximal rhizome discs are optimal for high frequency shoot bud formation than shoot tip and distal rhizome disc. We observed a synergistic effect between 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin (KN (each at 1 mg/L on the regeneration of shoot buds from proximal rhizome disc than shoot tip explant. Optimum root induction was achieved on half-strength MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to natural condition with 90% survival.

  10. Effect of antioxidants, oxidants, metals and saliva on cytotoxicity induction by sodium fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Takashi; Morshed, Sufi Reza M; Otsuki, Sumiko; Takayama, Fumitoshi; Satoh, Takao; Hashimoto, Ken; Yasui, Toshikazu; Ogawa, Satomi; Kanegae, Haruhide; Yokote, Yoshiko; Akahane, Kiso; Kashimata, Masanori; Satoh, Kazue; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We have recently found that millimolar concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) induced apoptotic cell death, characterized by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, in tumor cell lines. This finding paved the way to investigating the interaction between NaF and the oral environment. As an initial step, we investigated redox compounds, metals and saliva, which may modify the cytotoxic activity of NaF against a human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HSC-2). The minimum exposure time to NaF required for cytotoxicity induction was 8 hours. Noncytotoxic concentrations of antioxidants (sodium ascorbate, gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, chlorogenic acid, curcumin, superoxide dismutase, catalase), oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite), metals (CuCl, CuCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, CoCl2) or saliva neither protected against, nor enhanced the cytotoxic activity of NaF. Cytotoxic concentrations of these compounds produced somewhat additive, but not synergistic, effects on the cytotoxicity of NaF. ESR analysis demonstrated that NaF did not apparently change the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate and gallic acid, measured under alkaline conditions. During the cell death induction in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells by NaF, the consumption of glucose rapidly declined, followed by a decline in the consumption of major amino acids. The present study suggests that the cytotoxic activity of NaF is not regulated by the redox mechanism, but rather linked to the rapid decline in glucose consumption at early stage.

  11. Synergistic Effect of Simvastatin Plus Radiation in Gastric Cancer and Colorectal Cancer: Implications of BIRC5 and Connective Tissue Growth Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Taekyu [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, VHS Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyoung [Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungmin [Changduk Girls' High School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Won Ki, E-mail: wonki.kang@samsung.com [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: We investigated the synergistic effect of simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor plus radiation therapy, on the proliferation and survival of gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We also studied several genes involved in the simvastatin/radiation-induced effects. Methods and Materials: Gastric cancer (AGS, SNU601, MKN1, and MKN28) and CRC (CoLo320, SW48, HT29, and HCT8) cell lines were treated with 0.2 μM simvastatin alone, or in combination with 0 to 4 Gy of radiation, and subjected to clonogenic survival and proliferation assays in vitro. To assess the molecular mechanism of the combination treatment, we performed microarray analysis, immunoblot assays, small interfering RNA knockdown experiments, and plasmid rescue assays. The antitumoral effects of simvastatin and radiation were evaluated in vivo using xenograft models. Results: The combination therapy of simvastatin plus radiation inhibited basal clonogenic survival and proliferation of GC and CRC cells in vitro. Simvastatin suppressed the expression of BIRC5 and CTGF genes in these cancer cells. In vivo, the combined treatment with simvastatin and radiation significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumors compared with treatment with radiation alone. Conclusion: We suggest that simvastatin has a synergistic effect with radiation on GC and CRC through the induction of apoptosis, which may be mediated by a simultaneous inhibition of BIRC5 and CTGF expression. A clinical trial of simvastatin in combination with radiation in patients with GC or CRC is warranted.

  12. CQ synergistically sensitizes human colorectal cancer cells to SN-38/CPT-11 through lysosomal and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via p53-ROS cross-talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pinjia; Luo, Xiaoyong; Nie, Peipei; Wu, Baoyan; Xu, Wei; Shi, Xinpeng; Chang, Haocai; Li, Bing; Yu, Xiurong; Zou, Zhengzhi

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy plays a key role in supporting cell survival against chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In this study, we found the chemotherapy agent SN-38 induced autophagy in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. However, inhibition of autophagy using a small molecular inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and ATG5 siRNA did not increase SN-38-induced cytotoxicity in CRC cells. Notably, another autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor activity of SN-38 in CRC cells with wild type (WT) p53. Subsequently, we identified a potential mechanism of this cooperative interaction by showing that CQ and SN-38 acted together to trigger reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, upregulate p53 expression, elicit the loss of lysosomal membrane potential (LMP) and mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm). In addition, ROS induced by CQ plus SN-38 upregulated p53 levels by activating p38, conversely, p53 stimulated ROS. These results suggested that ROS and p53 reciprocally promoted each other's production and cooperated to induce CRC cell death. Moreover, we showed induction of ROS and p53 by the two agents provoked the loss of LMP and ∆ψm. Altogether, all results suggested that CQ synergistically sensitized human CRC cells with WT p53 to SN-38 through lysosomal and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via p53-ROS cross-talk. Lastly, we showed that CQ could enhance CRC cells response to CPT-11 (a prodrug of SN-38) in xenograft models. Thus the combined treatment might represent an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... engine installations, each induction system duct must be— (1) Strong enough to prevent induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 29.1093...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Induction System § 23.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 23.1093...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 27.1093...

  19. 32 CFR 1624.9 - Induction into the Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Induction into the Armed Forces. 1624.9 Section... INDUCTIONS § 1624.9 Induction into the Armed Forces. Registrants in classes 1-A and 1-A-0, who have been... inducted at the MEPS into the Armed Forces. ...

  20. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Merete Boye; Jacobsen, Charlotte Munch

    1996-01-01

    Meyer, A. S. & C. Jacobsen, 1996. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid, J. Food Lipids, 3, 139-147.......Meyer, A. S. & C. Jacobsen, 1996. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid, J. Food Lipids, 3, 139-147....

  1. Synergistic Activities of an Efflux Pump Inhibitor and Iron Chelators against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Liang; Molin, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The efflux pump inhibitor phenyl-arginine-beta-naphthylamide (PA beta N) was paired with iron chelators 2,2'-dipyridyl, acetohydroxamic acid, and EDTA to assess synergistic activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth and biofilm formation. All of the tested iron chelators synergistically...

  2. Two-Phase Induction Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Arab Markadeh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of variable-speed drives for two (single induction motor is a reality. This article attempts mainly to investigate the reasons for this lack of variable – speed drives. This paper deals with literature survey of various existing converter topologies, which have been proposed for adjustable speed single phase induction motor drives. Various converter topologies have been compared in this paper. Among these converter topologies, the adjustable frequency PWM inverter is the best choice for single-phase induction motor drives. However, adjustable-frequency drives have not been widely used with single-phase Induction motors. The open-loop constant V/F control law cannot be used with the single-phase induction motor drives as it is used with three phase motors. The variation of the operating frequency at lower speed range with constant load torque causes variation in motor's slip. A constant V/F control is suitable only over the upper speed range.

  3. What Can a Hypnotic Induction Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Erik; Sadler, Pamela

    2016-10-01

    In contrast to how recent definitions of hypnosis describe the induction, a work-sample perspective is advocated that characterizes the induction as an initial, stage-setting phase encompassing everything in a hypnotic session up to the first hypnotic suggestion of particular relevance to the therapeutic or research goals at hand. Four major ways are then discussed in which the induction could affect subsequent hypnotic responses: It may provide information about how subsequent behaviors are to be enacted; it may provide cues about the nature of the interpersonal interaction to be expected in hypnosis; it may provide meta-suggestions, defined as suggestive statements intended to enhance responses to subsequent hypnotic suggestions; and it may provide a clear transition to help allow new behaviors and experiences to emerge. Several ideas for future research are advanced, such as mapping hypnosis style onto the interpersonal circumplex, evaluating whether attentional-state changes measured at the end of the induction actually mediate subsequent hypnotic responsiveness, and systematically examining the impact of ritual-like aspects of inductions.

  4. Induction of labour in postdates pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.N.; Ahsan, S.; Sher, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To differentiate the effect of gestation on the mode of delivery by analysing the difference in the mode of induction, length of labour and the difference in parity or Bishop score and their effect on the mode of delivery of postdates women. Study Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: PAEC General Hospital, Islamabad, from July 2006 to July 2008. Methodology:Patients were induced at 41 weeks (Group B) and > 40 weeks (Group A) of gestation. Tab misoprostol and PGE2 tablets were administered according to amniotic fluid index (AFI) and parity . Study variables included duration of gestation, mode of induction, length of labour, difference in parity and Bishop score assessed before induction in each group. The outcome was assessed by applying Chi-square test by comparing mode of delivery with the study variables in both groups. Results: A total of 78 patients were inducted in the study. They were divided in group B (n = 39) induced 41 weeks and group A (n = 39) induced at 40 weeks. Eighty four percent (n = 35) patients in group B delivered vaginally as compared to 71% (n = 28) in the 40 weeks group (p < 0.0001). The higher number of vaginal deliveries in 41 weeks group was independent of association between the induction agent, parity and mode of delivery. Conclusion: The mean length of gestation was the single most important factor among the studied variables in predicting a vaginal delivery. (author)

  5. THE SYNERGISTIC SYLLABUS FOR TEACHING READING IN 32 TOURISM VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlis Qoidah Noor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Syllabus at 2013 Curriculum for vocational high school created many problems to apply in the class. Based on the Need Analysis, the writer develops a Synergistic Syllabus for teaching Reading in vocational high school. It contains the syllabus combined from Task- Based Learning, Situational Syllabus, Program of International Student Assessment ( PISA item test and Character Building. It is a R and D research uses three phases of Observation, Developing and Try Out. It is in a True Experimental Research. The main findings are Reading Skill cannot be taught effectively for some reasons. There is no appropriate syllabus for teaching Reading; most teachers need some models in a syllabus. The results are the Synergistic Syllabus for teaching Reading, a set of Reading Material for Teaching Reading and a set of the lesson plan for one semester at Grade X of Tourism VHS. It is measured through mean, median and t- Test. To Sum up Synergistic Syllabus can develop many aspects, the systematic and meaningful activities in the class, motivation and good attitude. The standardized item of assignment, and a sense of competition in Reading activities and the Synergistic Syllabus assist teachers in teaching Reading using 2013 curriculum in the class effectively.

  6. Synergistic combination therapy of antitumor agents, membrane modification agents and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watarai, Jiro; Itagaki, Takatomo; Akutsu, Thoru; Yamaguchi, Kouichi; Kato, Isao

    1983-01-01

    Larygeal cancer were treated with synergistic combination therapy of Futraful in suppository, vitamin A, cepharanthin and irradiation from April 1981 to June 1982. This combination therapy resulted in high percentage of the tumor regression in the case of the invading laryngeal cancer and negligible complication. (author)

  7. Writing throughout the Biochemistry Curriculum: Synergistic Inquiry-Based Writing Projects for Biochemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Pamela; Streu, Craig

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a synergistic two-semester writing sequence for biochemistry courses. In the first semester, students select a putative protein and are tasked with researching their protein largely through bioinformatics resources. In the second semester, students develop original ideas and present them in the form of a research grant…

  8. Degradation by synergistic effect in synthetic insulators; Degradacion por efecto sinergico en aisladores sinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza M, Anibal; Montesinos S, Jose I. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    A study is presented of the main degradation phenomena experimented by synthetic insulators and the simultaneous participation of such phenomena to propitiate a synergistic effect. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio de los principales fenomenos de degradacion que sufren los aisladores sinteticos y la participacion simultanea de dichos fenomenos para propiciar un efecto sinergico.

  9. Synergistic dual activation catalysis by palladium nanoparticles for epoxide ring opening with phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Kapileswar; Roy, Sudipta Raha; Pipaliya, Bhavin V; Chakraborti, Asit K

    2013-07-04

    Synergistic dual activation catalysis has been devised for epoxide phenolysis wherein palladium nanoparticles induce electrophilic activation via coordination with the epoxide oxygen followed by nucleophilic activation through anion-π interaction with the aromatic ring of the phenol, and water (reaction medium) also renders assistance through 'epoxide-phenol' dual activation.

  10. Synergistic effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation in bipolar operational amplifier OP07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Liu; Wei, Chen; Shanchao, Yang; Xiaoming, Jin; Chaohui, He

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the synergistic effects in bipolar operational amplifier OP07. The radiation effects are studied by neutron beam, gamma ray, and mixed neutron/gamma ray environments. The characterateristics of the synergistic effects are studied through comparison of different experiment results. The results show that the bipolar operational amplifier OP07 exhibited significant synergistic effects in the mixed neutron and gamma irradiation. The bipolar transistor is identified as the most radiation sensitive unit of the operational amplifier. In this paper, a series of simulations are performed on bipolar transistors in different radiation environments. In the theoretical simulation, the geometric model and calculations based on the Medici toolkit are built to study the radiation effects in bipolar components. The effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation is simulated based on the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects in bipolar transistors. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. The results of the experiments and simulation indicate that the radiation effects in the bipolar devices subjected to mixed neutron and gamma environments is not a simple combination of total ionizing dose (TID) effects and displacement damage. The data suggests that the TID effect could enhance the displacement damage. The synergistic effect should not be neglected in complex radiation environments.

  11. Synergistic effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation in bipolar operational amplifier OP07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Liu, E-mail: liuyan@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an 710024 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wei, Chen; Shanchao, Yang; Xiaoming, Jin [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an 710024 (China); Chaohui, He [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-09-21

    This paper presents the synergistic effects in bipolar operational amplifier OP07. The radiation effects are studied by neutron beam, gamma ray, and mixed neutron/gamma ray environments. The characterateristics of the synergistic effects are studied through comparison of different experiment results. The results show that the bipolar operational amplifier OP07 exhibited significant synergistic effects in the mixed neutron and gamma irradiation. The bipolar transistor is identified as the most radiation sensitive unit of the operational amplifier. In this paper, a series of simulations are performed on bipolar transistors in different radiation environments. In the theoretical simulation, the geometric model and calculations based on the Medici toolkit are built to study the radiation effects in bipolar components. The effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation is simulated based on the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects in bipolar transistors. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. The results of the experiments and simulation indicate that the radiation effects in the bipolar devices subjected to mixed neutron and gamma environments is not a simple combination of total ionizing dose (TID) effects and displacement damage. The data suggests that the TID effect could enhance the displacement damage. The synergistic effect should not be neglected in complex radiation environments.

  12. Synergistic Effect of Molybdate and Monoethanolamine on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Tap Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. S. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B. [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of nitrite and ethanolamines. Ethanolamine is one of the representative organic corrosion inhibitors and can be categorized as adsorption type. However, nitrosamines can form when amines mix with sodium nitrite. Since nitrosamine is a carcinogen, the co-addition of nitrite and ethanolamine will be not practical, and thus, a non-toxic combination of inhibitors shall be needed. In order to maximize the effect of monoethanolamine, we focused on the addition of molybdate. Molybdate has been used to alternate the addition of chromate, but it showed insufficient oxidizing power relative to corrosion inhibitors. This work evaluated the synergistic effect of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, and its corrosion mechanism was elucidated. A high concentration of molybdate or monoethanolamine was needed to inhibit the corrosion of ductile cast iron in tap water, but in the case of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, a synergistic effect was observed. This synergistic effect could be attributed to the molybdate that partly oxidizes the metallic surface and the monoethanolamine that is simultaneously adsorbed on the graphite surface. This adsorbed layer then acts as the barrier layer that mitigates galvanic corrosion between the graphite and the matrix.

  13. Synergistic growth inhibition of cancer cells harboring the RET/PTC1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synergistic growth inhibition of cancer cells harboring the RET/PTC1 oncogene by staurosporine and rotenone involves enhanced cell death. ANTÓNIO PEDRO GONÇALVES, ARNALDO VIDEIRA, VALDEMAR MÁXIMO and PAULA SOARES. J. Biosci. 36(4), September 2011, 639-648, © Indian Academy of Sciences.

  14. Revisiting the functional anatomy of the palmaris longus as a thenar synergist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Colin W; Fanous, Jacob; Rice, Charles L

    2017-11-27

    Surgical studies describe the palmaris longus (PL) as a synergist in thumb abduction, which may facilitate its use in restoring thumb function using opponensplasty. However, beyond morphological descriptions and isometric thenar abduction strength measures, the evidence supporting the PL as a thenar synergist in-vivo is limited. The purpose here was to determine whether the PL provides synergistic contributions to thenar musculature by: (1) recording PL muscle activity using indwelling electromyography (EMG) during thumb movements; and (2) quantifying changes in PL muscle architecture using ultrasonography. In 10 healthy males, PL muscle activity was recorded during maximal thenar muscle contractions (abduction, flexion, opposition, adduction, and extension) with the wrist secured in a neutral position. The PL EMG was normalized to its maximal EMG recorded during isometric wrist flexion. Dynamic changes in PL muscle thickness (M T ) were determined during abduction and adduction using ultrasound imaging. The results indicate that the PL is activated during thenar movements with greatest relative PL EMG recorded during thenar abduction (46%), flexion (35%) and opposition (37%). Compared to rest, PL M T significantly increased (21%) during maximal thenar abduction. With direct measures in vivo, this study supports morphological and surgical observations indicating the PL acts as an extrinsic hand muscle in enhancing thenar muscle actions. Knowledge of the synergistic relationship between the PL and thenar musculature may allow for further development of surgical opponensplasty approaches using the abductor pollicis brevis and PL as a functional digastric unit. Clin. Anat, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolone and macrolide antibiotics with phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euna eOh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing resistance of Campylobacter to clinically-important antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones and macrolides, is a serious public health problem. The objective of this study is to investigate synergistic anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of fluoroquinolones and macrolides in combination with phenolic compounds. Synergistic antimicrobial activity was measured by performing a checkerboard assay with ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in the presence of 21 phenolic compounds. Membrane permeability changes in C. jejuni by phenolic compounds were determined by measuring the level of intracellular uptake of 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN. Antibiotic accumulation assays were performed to evaluate the level of ciprofloxacin accumulation in C. jejuni. Six phenolic compounds, including p-coumaric acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, and taxifolin, significantly increased the susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in several human and poultry isolates. The synergistic antimicrobial effect was also observed in ciprofloxacin- and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni strains. The phenolic compounds also substantially increased membrane permeability and antibiotic accumulation in C. jejuni. Interestingly, some phenolic compounds, such as gallic acid and taxifolin, significantly reduced the expression of the CmeABC multidrug efflux pump. Phenolic compounds increased the NPN accumulation in the cmeB mutant, indicating phenolic compounds may affect the membrane permeability. In this study, we successfully demonstrated that combinational treatment of C. jejuni with antibiotics and phenolic compounds synergistically inhibits C. jejuni by impacting both antimicrobial influx and efflux.

  16. SUMOylation of Rad52-Rad59 synergistically change the outcome of mitotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Sonia; Altmannova, Veronika; Eckert-Boulet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    for survival after genotoxic stress, it affects the outcome of recombination to promote conservative DNA repair. In some genetic assays, Rad52 and Rad59 SUMOylation act synergistically. Collectively, our data indicate that the described SUMO modifications affect the balance between conservative and non...

  17. Super absorbent conjugated microporous polymers: a synergistic structural effect on the exceptional uptake of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Xu, Yanhong; Guo, Zhaoqi; Nagai, Atsushi; Jiang, Donglin

    2013-04-21

    Conjugated microporous polymers exhibit a synergistic structural effect on the exceptional uptake of amines, whereas the dense porphyrin units facilitate uptake, the high porosity offers a large interface and the swellability boosts capacity. They are efficient in the uptake of both vapor and liquid amines, are applicable to various types of amines, and are excellent for cycle use.

  18. Synergistic extraction of thorium by β-hydroxy naphthaldoxime in presence of neutral donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Biswas, S.; Basu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of neutral organophosphorous compounds on the extraction of thorium by β-hydroxy naphthaldoxime in xylene are reported. Enhancement of the extraction is explained by a complex adduct formation in the organic phase. Synergistic coefficients and apparent formation constant of complex adducts are calculated. (author)

  19. Synergistic effects in mechanical properties of PLA/PCL blends with optimized composition, processing, and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Fortelný, Ivan; Nevoralová, Martina; Hodan, Jiří; Kredatusová, Jana; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 120 (2015), s. 98971-98982 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17921S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : biodegradable poly mer blends * synergistic effects * impact strength Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  20. Synergistic growth inhibition of cancer cells harboring the RET/PTC1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TPC-1 is a highly proliferative thyroid papillary carcinoma-derived cell line. These cells express the RET/PTC1 fusion protein, whose isoforms are characterized in this work. The bacterial alkaloid staurosporine and the plant extract rotenone are death-inducing drugs that have an inhibitory synergistic effect on the growth of ...

  1. Investigation of antioxidant interactions between Radix Astragali and Cimicifuga foetida and identification of synergistic antioxidant compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    Full Text Available The medicinal plants of Huang-qi (Radix Astragali and Sheng-ma (Cimicifuga foetida demonstrate significantly better antioxidant effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the bioactive components and interactional mechanism underlying this synergistic action are still not well understood. In the present study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay was employed to investigate the antioxidant capacity of single herbs and their combination with the purpose of screening synergistic antioxidant compounds from them. Chromatographic isolation was performed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 columns and HPLC, and consequently to yield formononetin, calycosin, ferulic acid and isoferulic acid, which were identified by their retention time, UV λmax, MS and MS/MS data. The combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin at a dose ratio of 1∶1 resulted in significant synergy in scavenging DPPH radicals and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Furthermore, the protective effects of these four potential synergistic compounds were examined using H2O2-induced HepG2 Cells bioassay. Results revealed that the similar synergy was observed in the combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin. These findings might provide some theoretical basis for the purported synergistic efficiency of Huang-qi and Sheng-ma as functional foods, dietary supplements and medicinal drugs.

  2. Investigation of antioxidant interactions between Radix Astragali and Cimicifuga foetida and identification of synergistic antioxidant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Shancang; Li, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Qu, Yi; Sun, Tianlei; Luo, Ting; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    The medicinal plants of Huang-qi (Radix Astragali) and Sheng-ma (Cimicifuga foetida) demonstrate significantly better antioxidant effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the bioactive components and interactional mechanism underlying this synergistic action are still not well understood. In the present study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was employed to investigate the antioxidant capacity of single herbs and their combination with the purpose of screening synergistic antioxidant compounds from them. Chromatographic isolation was performed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 columns and HPLC, and consequently to yield formononetin, calycosin, ferulic acid and isoferulic acid, which were identified by their retention time, UV λmax, MS and MS/MS data. The combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin at a dose ratio of 1∶1 resulted in significant synergy in scavenging DPPH radicals and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Furthermore, the protective effects of these four potential synergistic compounds were examined using H2O2-induced HepG2 Cells bioassay. Results revealed that the similar synergy was observed in the combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin. These findings might provide some theoretical basis for the purported synergistic efficiency of Huang-qi and Sheng-ma as functional foods, dietary supplements and medicinal drugs.

  3. Towards enhancing photocatalytic hydrogen generation: Which is more important, alloy synergistic effect or plasmonic effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhe; Kibria, Md Golam; AlOtaibi, Bandar; Duchesne, Paul N.; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Gao, Yu; Zhang, Qingzhe; Mi, Zetian; Zhang, Peng; Govorov, Alexander O.; Mai, Liqiang; Chaker, Mohamed; Ma, Dongling

    2018-02-01

    Synergistic effect in alloys and plasmonic effect have both been explored for increasing the efficiency of water splitting. In depth understanding and comparison of their respective contributions in certain promising systems is highly desired for catalyst development, yet rarely investigated so far. We report herein our thorough investigations on a series of highly interesting nanocomposites composed of Pt, Au and C3N4 nanocomponents, which are designed to benefit from both synergistic and plasmonic effects. Detailed analyses led to an important conclusion that the contribution from the synergistic effect was at least 3.5 times that from the plasmonic effect in the best performing sample, Pt50Au50 alloy decorated C3N4. It showed remarkable turnover frequency of >1.6 mmol h-1 g-1 at room temperature. Our work provides physical insights for catalyst development by rationally designing samples to compare long-known synergistic effect with recently emerging, attractive plasmonic effect and represents the first case study in the field.

  4. Mathematical description and prognosis of Synergistic interaction of radon and tobacco smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Belkina, S. A.; Petin, V. G.

    2007-01-01

    : Radon and its short-lived decay products are considered as the important sources of public exposure to natural radioactivity. The synergistic interaction between tobacco smoking and radon is known to be an actual problem. This study has provided a mathematical description and prognosis of the carcinogenic effects after combined action of radon with smoking. Materials and Methods: A simple mathematical model was adjusted for the optimization and prognosis of the synergistic interaction of radon with smoking. The model postulates that the occurrence of synergism is to be expected as a result of additional carcinogenic damage arising from the interaction of sub lesions induced by the two agents under consideration. Results: The predictions of the model were verified by comparison with experimental data published by other researchers. The model appears to be appropriate and the predictions valid. Conclusion: The suggested mathematical model predicts the greatest level of synergistic effect and condition under which this level is reached. The synergistic effect appeared to decline with any deviation from the optimal value of the ratio of carcinogenic effective damages produced by each agent alone

  5. Synergistic effects of some plant growth regulators on in vitro shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The synergistic effects of some plant growth regulators was investigated upon shoot proliferation and growth of korarima (Aframomum corrorima (Braun) Jansen), an important culinary and medicinal plant species native to Ethiopia. Cultures were initiated from axillary bud explants of rhizome using Murashige and Skoog ...

  6. Esterase inhibition by synergists in the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Soler, Neus; Cervera, Amelia; Quinto, Vicente; Abellán, Jaime; Bielza, Pablo; Martínez-Pardo, Rafael; Garcerá, Maria Dolores

    2011-12-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is among the most important crop pests in the south-eastern region of Spain. Its increasing resistance to insecticides constitutes a serious problem, and understanding the mechanisms involved is therefore of great interest. Use of synergists to inhibit the enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification is widely used to determine their responsibility for insecticide resistance. However, they do not always act as intended or expected, and caution must be exercised when interpreting synergist results. Laboratory-selected strains of WFT were used to analyse the effects of the synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and methiocarb on total esterase activity. Significant differences were found, indicating esterase activity inhibition by DEF, a lower effect for methiocarb and a small inhibition of the activity by PBO. Esterase isoenzyme inhibition by these compounds showed a similar result; this assay revealed an extreme sensitivity of Triplet A (resistance-associated esterases) to DEF. In an in vivo assay carried out with these compounds at different incubation times, only DEF caused posterior in vitro esterase activity inhibition, with a maximum effect 1 h after treatment. In this work, only DEF shows true synergistic inhibition of WFT esterases. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Investigating the synergistic antioxidant effects of some flavonoid and phenolic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic and flavonoid compounds are secondary metabolites of plants which possess various activities such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetes and anticancer effects. It has been established that these compounds can scavenge free radicals produced in the body. Because of this ability, not only the plants containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds but also, the pure compounds are used in medicinal products for prevention and treatment of many disorders. Considering that the golden aim of the pharmaceutical industries is using the most effective compounds with lower concentrations, determination of the best combination of the compounds with synergistic effects is important. In the present study, synergistic antioxidant effects of four phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, gallic acid, rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid and two flavonoids,  rutin and quercetin, have been investigated by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power method. The synergistic effect was assessed by comparing the experimental antioxidant activity of the mixtures with calculated theoretical values and the interactions of the compounds were determined. The results showed that combination of gallic acid and caffeic acid demonstrated considerable synergistic effects (137.8% while other combinations were less potent. Among examined substances, rutin was the only one which had no effect on the other compounds. The results of ternary combinations of compounds demonstrated antagonistic effects in some cases. This was more considerable in mixture of rutin, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid (-21.8%, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid (-20%, rutin, rosmarinic acid, gallic acid (-18.5% and rutin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid (-15.8%, while, combination of quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid (59.4% and quercetin, gallic acid, rutin (55.2% showed the most synergistic effects. It was concluded that binary and ternary combination of quercetin, rutin, caffeic acid

  8. Evaluation of Antimycobacterial and Synergistic Activity of Plants Selected Based on Cheminformatic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahgozar, Nafise; Bakhshi Khaniki, Gholamreza; Sardari, Soroush

    2018-03-07

    Drug resistance is a major public health problem and a threat to progress made in bovine tuberculosis care and control worldwide. This study aimed at evaluating anti-mycobacterial and synergistic activity of some medicinal plants that were selected by cheminformatics studies against Mycobacterium bovis. Considering the strong synergistic antimycobacterial action of oleanolic acid in combination with tuberculosis drugs, NCBI database was explored to find the compounds with over 80% similarity to oleanolic acid, called S1. Plants containing S1-type compounds were traced to and resulted in five plants, including Datura stramonium, Boswellia serrata Lavandula stoechas, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris, as experimental samples. Crude extracts were prepared by percolation using 80% ethanol or as the product of a pharmaceutical company. The extracts were screened against Mycobacterium bovis using broth microdilution method and Alamar Blue Assay. Extracts from these plants were used in combination with isoniazid and ethambutol to investigate the possibility of synergy with respect to antimycobacterial activity. The extracts from D. stramonium, B. serrata a, L. stoechas, R. officinalis, and T. Thymus vulgaris showed antimycobacterial activity of 375, 125, 250, 187.5, 500 µg/ml, respectively. The best synergistic results were for L. stoechas and D. stramonium in combination with ethambutol, the fractional inhibitory concentration index was 0.125 µg/ml for both. The observed antimycobacterial and synergistic activities are completely novel and obtained from targeted screening designed according to cheminformatics strategy. As for the synergistic action of the extracts, they can be used as a supplement in bTB treatment.

  9. Synergistic electrocatalytic effect of nanostructured mixed films formed by functionalised gold nanoparticles and bisphthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Plaza, C. [Universidad de Valladolid, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School (Spain); Furini, L.N. [Universidad de Valladolid, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School (Spain); Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Constantino, C.J.L. [Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNESP Univ Estadual Paulista, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Saja, J.A. de [Universidad de Valladolid, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@eii.uva.es [Universidad de Valladolid, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School (Spain)

    2014-12-03

    Graphical abstract: Sensors based on gold nanoparticles and lutetium bisphthalocyanine, co-deposited using Langmuir–Blodgett technique, have demonstrated improved sensing properties towards hydroquinone due to synergistic effects. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles and lutetium bisphthalocyanine have been co-deposited using the LB technique. • Films used as voltammetric sensors provide enhanced responses towards hydroquinone. • The efficient electrocatalytic properties are due to synergistic effects. - Abstract: A synergistic electrocatalytic effect was observed in sensors where two electrocatalytic materials (functionalized gold nanoparticles and lutetium bisphthalocyanine) were co-deposited using the Langmuir–Blodgett technique. Films were prepared using a novel method where water soluble functionalised gold nanoparticles [(11-mercaptoundecyl)tetra(ethylene glycol)] (SAuNPs) were inserted in floating films of lutetium bisphthalocyanine (LuPc{sub 2}) and dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODAB) as the amphiphilic matrix. The formation of stable and homogeneous mixed films was confirmed by π-A isotherms, BAM, UV–vis and Raman spectroscopy, as well as by SEM and TEM microscopy. The synergistic effect towards hydroquinone of the electrodes modified with LuPc{sub 2}:DODAB/SAuNP was characterised by an increase in the intensity of the redox peaks and a reduction of the overpotential. This synergistic electrocatalytic effect arose from the interaction between the SAuNPs and the phthalocyanines that occur in the Langmuir–Blodgett films and from the high surface area provided by the nanostructured films. The sensitivity increased with the amount of LuPc{sub 2} and SAuNPs inserted in the films and limits of detection in the range of 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} were attained.

  10. Early humans' egalitarian politics: runaway synergistic competition under an adapted veil of ignorance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Marc

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a model of human uniqueness based on an unusual distinction between two contrasted kinds of political competition and political status: (1) antagonistic competition, in quest of dominance (antagonistic status), a zero-sum, self-limiting game whose stake--who takes what, when, how--summarizes a classical definition of politics (Lasswell 1936), and (2) synergistic competition, in quest of merit (synergistic status), a positive-sum, self-reinforcing game whose stake becomes "who brings what to a team's common good." In this view, Rawls's (1971) famous virtual "veil of ignorance" mainly conceals politics' antagonistic stakes so as to devise the principles of a just, egalitarian society, yet without providing any means to enforce these ideals (Sen 2009). Instead, this paper proposes that human uniqueness flourished under a real "adapted veil of ignorance" concealing the steady inflation of synergistic politics which resulted from early humans' sturdy egalitarianism. This proposition divides into four parts: (1) early humans first stumbled on a purely cultural means to enforce a unique kind of within-team antagonistic equality--dyadic balanced deterrence thanks to handheld weapons (Chapais 2008); (2) this cultural innovation is thus closely tied to humans' darkest side, but it also launched the cumulative evolution of humans' brightest qualities--egalitarian team synergy and solidarity, together with the associated synergistic intelligence, culture, and communications; (3) runaway synergistic competition for differential merit among antagonistically equal obligate teammates is the single politically selective mechanism behind the cumulative evolution of all these brighter qualities, but numerous factors to be clarified here conceal this mighty evolutionary driver; (4) this veil of ignorance persists today, which explains why humans' unique prosocial capacities are still not clearly understood by science. The purpose of this paper is to start lifting

  11. Synergistic approach for treatment of chicken coccidiosis using berberine--A plant natural product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tauseef Ahmad; Kamili, Azra N; Chishti, M Z; Tanveer, Syed; Ahad, Shazia; Johri, R K

    2016-04-01

    Despite the advent of anticoccidial drugs and vaccines, coccidiosis continues to result in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Berberine, a natural alkaloid is well known in studies involving synergistic approaches, thereby reducing the dosage of principal drugs. Therefore, a study was designed to see whether a synergistic anticoccidial effect could be obtained between amprolium and berberine, in vivo using broiler chicken. Anticoccidial activity was measured in comparison to the reference drug amprolium on the basis of oocyst output reduction, mean weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Oocyst output was measured using Mc-Masters counting technique. Different combinations of berberine and amprolium were tested and out of which 1:1 ratio was the most effective for controlling these parasites. Oral gavaging of 100(50 + 50) mg/kg body weight of 1:1 ratio of amprolium and berberine caused the equivalent reduction in number of oocysts (38.85 ± 9.61) one day prior to that of standard drug amprolium (49.95 ± 16.65) as well as pure berberine (44.4 ± 9.61) used in the study. Weight gain of birds was also highest in the synergistic group (1547.43 ± 12.86) among all the infected groups. Besides feed conversion ratio in the synergistic group was also better (1.387 ± 0.026). The results of this study proved the effectiveness of both amprolium and berberine and revealed synergism between amprolium and berberine against coccidian oocysts, confirmed by significant reduction in the number of coccidian oocysts shed in the feces, leading to better weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio. The study deep-rooted the synergistic potential of berberine, a natural bioactive compound for controlling a protozoan parasite and the results of this study corroborate with its use for treatment of severe diarrhoea, amoebiasis and intestinal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Endolysin LysSA97 is synergistic with carvacrol in controlling Staphylococcus aureus in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoonjee; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2017-03-06

    LysSA97 is an endolysin encoded by the bacteriophage SA97, the genome sequence of which has been recently revealed. LysSA97 has lytic activity against a variety of Staphylococcus strains that cause foodborne illness. In order to improve its potential as a biocontrol agent against Staphylococcus, various types of essential oil-derived active compounds were tested in combination with LysSA97; carvacrol exhibited significant synergistic effects when combined with LysSA97. The synergistic antimicrobial activity between endolysin and carvacrol in food products, including milk and beef, were investigated. While LysSA97 (376nM) and carvacrol (3.33mM) showed 0.8±0.2 and 1.0±0.0logCFU/mL reduction in Staphylococcus aureus cells, respectively; when applied alone in bacterial culture, the cocktail containing both at the same concentrations exhibited a bacterial decrease of 4.5±0.2logCFU/mL. The synergistic activity of carvacrol was also reproduced in combination with other endolysins, and their cooperative bactericidal effects were validated in ten additional S. aureus strains, including two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), suggesting the wide application of carvacrol as a bactericidal agent coupled with endolysin. When LysSA97 and carvacrol were used in combination in foods, the synergistic activity appeared to be influenced by the total lipid content of foods, and bacteria in skim milk were more drastically inactivated than those in whole milk. Therefore, this is the first report demonstrating that endolysin and carvacrol act synergistically to inactivate S. aureus in food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  14. Prophage induction and inactivation by uv light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.; Cox, S.H.; Jett, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the induction curves for uv light-irradiated Haemophilus influenzae lysogens and the distribution of pyrimidine dimers in a repair-deficient lysogen suggests that one dimer per prophage-size segment of the host bacterial chromosome is necessary as a preinduction event. The close correlations obtained prompted a renewed consideration of the possibility that direct prophage induction occurs when one dimer is stabilized within the prophage genome. The host excision-repair system apparently functions to reduce the probability of stabilizing within the prophage those dimers that are necessary for induction and inactivation. The presence of the inducible defective prophage in strain Rd depresses the inducibility of prophage HP1c1

  15. Stator Fault Modelling of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg; Kallesøe, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real measurem......In this paper a model of an induction motor affected by stator faults is presented. Two different types of faults are considered, these are; disconnection of a supply phase, and inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits inside the stator. The output of the derived model is compared to real...... measurements from a specially designed induction motor. With this motor it is possible to simulate both terminal disconnections, inter-turn and turn-turn short circuits. The results show good agreement between the measurements and the simulated signals obtained from the model. In the tests focus...

  16. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...

  17. Application and Perspectives of Multiphase Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benas Kundrotas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the areas of applying multiphase induction motors. Their advantages against three phase motors have become the main reason for employing them in multiphase drives. The paper deals with the six-phase induction motor having two similar three phase windings in the stator shifted by 30 degrees in space and three phase windings in the rotor. Differential equations for this motor are presented and transformed to dq synchronous reference frame. The transformed equations are expressed in a matrix form and solved by MATLAB software using the Dormand-Prince (ode45 method. The transient characteristics of the torque, speed and current of the six-phase induction motor are calculated and discussed.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Pulmonary Hypertensive Crisis on Induction of Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisler, Travis; Marquez, Jose M; Hilmi, Ibtesam; Subramaniam, Kathirvel

    2017-03-01

    Anesthesia for lung transplantation remains one of the highest risk surgeries in the domain of the cardiothoracic anesthesiologist. End-stage lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, and right heart dysfunction as well as other comorbid disease factors predispose the patient to cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic dysfunction during general anesthesia. Perhaps the highest risk phase of surgery in the patient with severe pulmonary hypertension is during the induction of anesthesia when the removal of intrinsic sympathetic tone and onset of positive pressure ventilation can decompensate a severely compromised cardiovascular system. Severe hypotension, cardiac arrest, and death have been reported previously. Here we present 2 high-risk patients for lung transplantation, their anesthetic induction course, and outcomes. We offer suggestions for the safe management of anesthetic induction to mitigate against hemodynamic and respiratory complications.

  19. Determination of Coil Inductances Cylindrical Iron Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeddine Mazouz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the investigation and development of a structure and performance characteristics of a coil iron nucleus cylindrical (C.I.N.C. The coil iron nucleus cylindrical is a nonlinear electro radio in which the moving of the nucleus in a sense or in other causes change in inductance and can reach extreme values at the superposition of nucleus and coil centers. The variation of the inductance and the degree of freedom of movement of the nucleus can lead to a device with electromechanical conversion The aim of this paper is the determination and visualization of self inductance and mutual of the (C.I.N.C based on geometric dimensions and the displacement of the nucleus.  

  20. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  1. A theory evaluation of an induction programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenrick Hendricks

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: An induction programme is commonly used to help new employees understand their job within the organisation. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine whether or not the programme theory of an induction programme was plausible and would lead to the intended outcomes as described by the programme manager. Motivation for the study: Induction training is one of the most common training programmes in an organisation. However, there is little research to evaluate whether or not the activities of an induction programme will lead to the intended outcomes of such a programme. Research design, approach and method: This theory evaluation used a descriptive design. One hundred and thirteen employees of a media company completed a ten-item, five-point Likert scale which measured their perceptions of the programme’s outcome, identification with the organisation and intentions to stay with the organisation. Main findings: From this theory evaluation it was apparent that an induction programme based on an implausible programme theory could be problematic. An implausible programme theory affects the design of the programme activities and unsuitable activities may not deliver the desired outcomes. Practical/managerial implications: The intention of the evaluation is to guide human resource managers through a process of replacing an implausible programme theory with one that is plausible, and which ensures better alignment of programme activities and outcomes. Contribution/value-add: The evaluators showed how a plausible programme theory could improve programme design. This redesigned induction programme may lead to benefits, such as staff retention and company identification, rather than the vague assumption that it has been conforming to a legal obligation.

  2. Synthesis of semiconductor polymers by inductive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, G.; Cruz, G.; Olayo, M.G.; Morales, J.

    2003-01-01

    When carrying out the synthesis of semiconductor polymers by plasma it is important to consider the electric arrangement of the discharge since this it influences in the distribution of the energy of the particles in the reactor. The main electric arrangements in those that are developed the brightness discharges of radio frequency are resistive, capacitive and inductive. In the Laboratory of Materials processing by plasma of the ININ its have been worked different synthesis of polymers with resistive arrangements with good results. In this work the results of the synthesis and characterization of poly aniline and chlorate polyethylene by inductive plasma are presented. (Author)

  3. Induction generator models in dynamic simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans; Akhmatov, Vladislav

    1999-01-01

    For AC network with large amount of induction generators (windmills) the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after fault in weak networks when comparing dynamic and transient stability descriptions and the reasons of discrepancies are explained. It is fo......For AC network with large amount of induction generators (windmills) the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after fault in weak networks when comparing dynamic and transient stability descriptions and the reasons of discrepancies are explained...... to a tunny generator through a shaft....

  4. About Eddy Currents in Induction Melting Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafiţa Nicolae-Bogdan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method forcomputing the eddy currents in induction meltingprocesses for non-ferrous alloys. We take intoconsideration the situation when only the crucible ismoving, inside the coils. This fact makes differentialcomputation methods to be hard to apply, because isnecessary to generate a new mesh and a new systemmatrix for every for every new position of the cruciblerelated to the coils. Integral methods cancel thisdrawback because the mesh is generated only for thedomains with eddy currents. For integral methods, themesh and the inductance matrix remain unchangedduring the movement of the crucible; only the free termsof the equation system will change.

  5. Inductive Loops for Sensing Position as Signature Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbani, Sofiane; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Nordin, Anis Norashikin; Khan, Sheroz; Shobaki, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an inductive sensing technique made of a special shaped inductive loop is proposed. The inductive loop has an inner turn fitted within an outer turn, making a total inductance value 100μH. This loop is made to be shown with balanced response using three capacitance values of 0.068μF each when a sinusoidal voltage source of 5V peak-to-peak is applied. The variation of the relative permeability of the inductance of the inductive loop (AL) results in a variation of the overall inductance value (L+AL), that causes the output signal to change in term of shape and amplitude for variation of total inductance sweep over a given period of time. As a result of change in inductance value (lμH) there is a correspondence increase of 300mV. Theoretical derivations have showed in close agreement with the simulation plots obtained using Multisim software

  6. Inductive Loops for Sensing Position as Signature Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbani, Sofiane; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Norashikin Nordin, Anis; Khan, Sheroz; Shobaki, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, an inductive sensing technique made of a special shaped inductive loop is proposed. The inductive loop has an inner turn fitted within an outer turn, making a total inductance value 100μH. This loop is made to be shown with balanced response using three capacitance values of 0.068μF each when a sinusoidal voltage source of 5V peak-to-peak is applied. The variation of the relative permeability of the inductance of the inductive loop (AL) results in a variation of the overall inductance value (L+AL), that causes the output signal to change in term of shape and amplitude for variation of total inductance sweep over a given period of time. As a result of change in inductance value (lμH) there is a correspondence increase of 300mV. Theoretical derivations have showed in close agreement with the simulation plots obtained using Multisim software.

  7. Modeling induction heater temperature distribution in polymeric material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. G.; Filimonova, O. V.

    2017-10-01

    An induction heating system has a number of inherent benefits compared to traditional heating systems due to a non-contact heating process. The main interesting area of the induction heating process is the efficiency of the usage of energy, choice of the plate material and different coil configurations based on application. Correctly designed, manufactured and maintained induction coils are critical to the overall efficiency of induction heating solutions. The paper describes how the induction heating system in plastic injection molding is designed. The use of numerical simulation in order to get the optimum design of the induction coil is shown. The purpose of this work is to consider various coil configurations used in the induction heating process, which is widely used in plastic molding. Correctly designed, manufactured and maintained induction coils are critical to the overall efficiency of induction heating solutions. The results of calculation are in the numerical model.

  8. Human harvest, climate change and their synergistic effects drove the Chinese Crested Tern to the brink of extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuihua Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic effect refers to simultaneous actions of separate factors which have a greater total effect than the sum of the individual factor effects. However, there has been a limited knowledge on how synergistic effects occur and individual roles of different drivers are not often considered. Therefore, it becomes quite challenging to manage multiple threatening processes simultaneously in order to mitigate biodiversity loss. In this regard, our hypothesis is, if the traits actually play different roles in the synergistic interaction, conservation efforts could be made more effectively. To understand the synergistic effect and test our hypothesis, we examined the processes associated with the endangerment of critically endangered Chinese Crested Tern (Thalasseus bernsteini, whose total population number was estimated no more than 50. Through monitoring of breeding colonies and investigations into causative factors, combined with other data on human activities, we found that widespread human harvest of seabird eggs and increasing frequency of typhoons are the major factors that threatened the Chinese Crested Tern. Furthermore, 28 percent of breeding failures were due to the synergistic effects in which egg harvest-induced renestings suffered the higher frequent typhoons. In such combined interactions, the egg harvest has clearly served as a proximal factor for the population decline, and the superimposition of enhanced typhoon activity further accelerated the species toward imminent extinction. Our findings suggest that species endangerment, on one hand, should be treated as a synergistic process, while conservation efforts, on the other hand, should focus principally on combatting the threat that triggers synergistic effects.

  9. Lysogenic induction in Lex Al Escherichia coli mutants: characterization of the induction and prophage repressor influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, R.E.S.

    1982-01-01

    SOS functions require new synthesis of protein and have been described as dependent on both the rec A and lex A genes. The induction of prophage was studied in bacterial strains lysogenic for a series of phages which synthesize different levels of repressor (λ, λ i m m 4 3 4 J and λ i m m 4 3 4 T ) and was compared to W-reactivation. Prophage induction was detected in lex Al mutants although at a slightly lower level and requiring two times longer when compared with wild-type. The optimum UV-dose for induction differed for each lysogenic strain and correlated with the level of repressor

  10. Helical chirality induction of expanded porphyrin analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2,2 -Bipyridine was readily obtained from 6,6 - dibromo-2,2 -bipyridine and then used for synthesizing cyclotetrapyrroletetrapyridine O3.18. 3. Helical chirality induction. 3.1 Chirality sensing of carboxylic acids by O1. Facile methods for the determination of molecular chi- rality are of increasing interest in view of the role of.

  11. Is spacing really the 'friend of induction'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInductive learning takes place when people learn a new concept or category by observing a variety of exemplars. Kornell and Bjork (2008) asked participants to learn new painting styles either by presenting different paintings of the same artist consecutively (massed presentation) or by

  12. Eleusis: complexity and interaction in inductive inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurzen, L.; Arrazola, X.; Ponte, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the computational complexity of the inductive inference game Eleusis. Eleusis is a card game in which one player constructs a secret rule which has to be discovered by the other players. We determine the complexity of various decision problems that arise in Eleusis. We show that

  13. Save power in AC induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Relatively simple and inexpensive circuitry improves power factor and reduces power dissipation in induction motors operating below full load. Electronic control loop conserves energy by reducing voltage applied to lightly loaded motor. Circuit forces motor to run at constant predetermined optimum power factor, regardless of load or line voltage variations. Solid-state switch varies voltage.

  14. Four quadrant control of induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1991-01-01

    Induction motors are the nation's workhorse, being the motor of choice in most applications due to their simple rugged construction. It has been estimated that 14 to 27 percent of the country's total electricity use could be saved with adjustable speed drives. Until now, induction motors have not been suited well for variable speed or servo-drives, due to the inherent complexity, size, and inefficiency of their variable speed controls. Work at NASA Lewis Research Center on field oriented control of induction motors using pulse population modulation method holds the promise for the desired drive electronics. The system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio which enables the user to operate the motor at maximum efficiency, while having independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor in all four quadrants of the speed torque map. Multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of machine. The pulse population technique, results to date, and projections for implementation of this existing new motor control technology are discussed.

  15. atriplex halimus (amarantacees) callogenesis induction from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Y. Halfaoui

    1 janv. 2018 ... callogenesis from adult walnut leaves (Juglans Regia L.). Chilean J. Agric. Res., 2009, 69 (3),. 460-466. [32] Haouala F., Farhat N. & Chabchoub L. Effets du type et de la position de l'explant sur l'induction de cals chez le gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii Bolus). Tropicultura, 2010, 28 (1),. 57-60. [33] Naz S.

  16. Thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, C; Jacoby, J; Schweizer, W; Wiechula, J

    2009-03-01

    A thyristor stack for pulsed inductive plasma generation has been developed and tested. The stack design includes a free wheeling diode assembly for current reversal. Triggering of the device is achieved by a high side biased, self supplied gate driver unit using gating energy derived from a local snubber network. The structure guarantees a hard firing gate pulse for the required high dI/dt application. A single fiber optic command is needed to achieve a simultaneous turn on of the thyristors. The stack assembly is used for switching a series resonant circuit with a ringing frequency of 30 kHz. In the prototype pulsed power system described here an inductive discharge has been generated with a pulse duration of 120 micros and a pulse energy of 50 J. A maximum power transfer efficiency of 84% and a peak power of 480 kW inside the discharge were achieved. System tests were performed with a purely inductive load and an inductively generated plasma acting as a load through transformer action at a voltage level of 4.1 kV, a peak current of 5 kA, and a current switching rate of 1 kA/micros.

  17. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite step for successful genetic transformation of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus L.). The objective of this study was to establish efficient in vitro plant regeneration for three watermelon cultivars. To achieve optimal conditions for adventitious shoot induction, the ...

  18. Between autobiography and reality : Popper's inductive years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hark, M.R.M.

    On the basis of his unpublished thesis 'Gewohnheit und Gesetzerlebnis in der Erziehung' (1926-7) a historical reconstruction is given of the genesis of Popper's ideas on induction and demarcation which differs radically from his own account in Unended quest. It is shown not only that he

  19. Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhamäki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field. The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km−1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981.

  20. Harmonic analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the frequency spectrum of the stator and rotor currents in a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in wind power applications. The paper also presents a method to eliminate higher harmonics and interharmonics in the DFIG stator current. The method is implemented...

  1. Analysis of induction phenomena in thermonuclear experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeds, W.E.; Dodd, C.V.

    1976-01-01

    Many of the problems involving transients induced by changing currents in the large coils of thermonuclear machines are identical to those arising in nondestructive testing by eddy currents. There are three chief methods used for calculating such induction phenomena: analytical boundary-value solutions, relaxation or iteration techniques, and model experiments. Some of the results obtained by each of these methods are described below

  2. A model of annular linear induction pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momozaki, Yoichi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-27

    The present work explains how the magnetic field and the induced current are obtained when the distributed coils are powered by a 3 phase power supply.  From the magnetic field and the induced current, the thrust and the induction losses in the pump can be calculated to estimate the pump performance.

  3. Combined Approach for Solving the Electromagnetic Induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inverse electromagnetic induction is an imaging technique for reconstructing the conductivity and permeability distributions in a region of interest from measurements of impedance made at its boundary. In general, there are two approaches to the reconstruction problem: the pixel-based approach and the parameter-based ...

  4. The differential induction machine: Theory and performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    differential mode. This paper presents the construction of the above machine and performance of the same based on experimental results from a laboratory prototype. The equivalent circuit of the motor has been presented and verified experimentally. Keywords. Differential drive; electric vehicle drive; induction machine. 1.

  5. A logic for inductive probabilistic reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Inductive probabilistic reasoning is understood as the application of inference patterns that use statistical background information to assign (subjective) probabilities to single events. The simplest such inference pattern is direct inference: from '70% of As are Bs" and "a is an A" infer that a...

  6. Open Problems in Universal Induction & Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Hutter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Specialized intelligent systems can be found everywhere: finger print, handwriting, speech, and face recognition, spam filtering, chess and other game programs, robots, et al. This decade the first presumably complete mathematical theory of artificial intelligence based on universal induction-prediction-decision-action has been proposed. This informationtheoretic approach solidifies the foundations of inductive inference and artificial intelligence. Getting the foundations right usually marks a significant progress and maturing of a field. The theory provides a gold standard and guidance for researchers working on intelligent algorithms. The roots of universal induction have been laid exactly half-a-century ago and the roots of universal intelligence exactly one decade ago. So it is timely to take stock of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. Since there are already good recent surveys, I describe the state-of-the-art only in passing and refer the reader to the literature. This article concentrates on the open problems in universal induction and its extension to universal intelligence.

  7. Investigation of an Electromagnetic Induction Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    generated in accor- dance with the hardware specification. The range of ζ for estimation is chosen such that log(ζ̃min) and log(ζ̃max) are 2.45 and 6.62...T. H. Bell, J. Soukup, and D. Keiswet- ter, “Simple phenomenological models for wideband frequency-domain electromagnetic induction,” IEEE Trans

  8. IT induction and information security awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Maddock, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    This pocket guide offers practical advice on how to develop an IT Induction programme for staff that can help safeguard business information. By providing employees with simple instruction in good IT working practices, and by making sure they know what is expected of them, a company can strengthen their information security and reduce the risk that data will be stolen or lost.

  9. Frequency characteristics of geomagnetic induction anomalies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P V Vijaya Kumar

    2017-10-07

    Oct 7, 2017 ... (BAG) consists of 8 km thick sediments and named as Ulva basin (UB). The thickness of the sediments in south and SW are less due to extensive volcanic .... period range of 8–128 min using robust regression technique (Egbert and Booker 1993). The mag- nitude (S) and azimuth (φ) of these induction.

  10. Single phase induction motor with starting performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, M.; Demeter, E. [Research Institute for Electrical Machines, ICPE-ME, Bucharest (Romania); Navrapescu, V. [University `Politehnica` Bucharest, Electrical Engineering Faculty Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The paper presents problems related to a special type of single phase induction motor. The main novelty consists in the use of a conducting (aluminium casted) shell distributed on the periferic region of the rotor. As a result the starting performance, as well as the rated ones, is much improved in comparison with the conventional construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  11. Relations between Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation of arguments.…

  12. Induction and Deduction in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseey, M. N.

    1970-01-01

    A clarification of induction and deduction as the types of logic behind educational methodology. Dialectical logic, a form of the deductive method, is a very effective research methodological approach because it reveals the inner nature of the subject under investigation. (CB)

  13. Free positioning for inductive wireless power system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.

    2012-01-01

    In inductive wireless power transmission system a lateral displacement of the receiver coil to the transmitter coil leads to a change ofthe coupling factor and thus an unwanted variation of the power transfer. Here, an algorithm to determine the turn distribution to achieve homogeneous coupling

  14. Electromagnetic induction phenomena in plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlovitz, B.

    1982-01-01

    The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is considered in complex high temperature plasma systems. Thermal energy of such fully ionized plasma is really energy of the magnetic vortex fields surrounding the randomly moving ions and electrons. In an expanding plasma stream, moving across the containing magnetic field, random thermal motion of the ions and electrons is converted into ordered motion and thereby random magnetic energy of the plasma into magnetic energy of an ordered field. Consequently, in contrast to simple systems consisting of coils and magnets only, an expanding plasma stream can maintain net outflow of ordered magnetic energy from a closed volume for an indefinite length of time. Conversion of thermal energy of plasma into ordered magnetic energy by the thermodynamic expansion process leads to the expectation of a new induction phenomenon: the generation of a unidirectional induced electromotive force of unlimited duration, measured in a closed loop at rest relative to the magnetic field, by the expansion work of the plasma stream. No change is required in the differential form of Maxwell's equations for the existence of this induction phenomenon, only the definition of the concept of rate of change of magnetic flux needs to be modified in the macroscopic equations to correspond to the rate of flow of magnetic energy across a closed surface. An experimental test of the predicted induction phenomenon is proposed

  15. impedance calculations of induction machine rotor conductors.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. The exact calculation of the impedance of induction machine rotor conductors at several operating frequencies are necessary if the dynamic behaviour of the machine is to give a good correlation between the simulated starting torque and current and the experimental results. This paper describes a method of'.

  16. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  17. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator

  18. Induction inserts at the Los Alamos PSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King-Yuen Ng

    2002-01-01

    Ferrite-loaded induction tuners installed in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring have been successful in compensating space-charge effects. However, the resistive part of the ferrite introduces unacceptable microwave instability and severe bunch lengthening. An effective cure was found by heating the ferrite cores up to ∼ 130 C. An understanding of the instability and cure is presented

  19. Synergistic induction of lipid catabolism and anti-inflammatory lipids in white fat of dietary obese mice in response to calorie restriction and n-3 fatty acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flachs, Pavel; Rühl, R.; Hensler, Michal; Janovská, Petra; Zouhar, Petr; Kůs, Vladimír; Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Papp, E.; Kuda, Ondřej; Svobodová, Michaela; Rossmeisl, Martin; Tsenov, Grygoriy; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Kopecký, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 10 (2011), s. 2626-2638 ISSN 0012-186X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/08/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 15-Deoxy-Delta(12,15)-prostaglandin J(2) * DHA * EPA * fish oil * white adipose tissue * metabolic syndrome Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism , Nutrition Impact factor: 6.814, year: 2011

  20. Negative mood induction and unbalanced nutrition style as possible triggers of binges in binge eating disorder (BED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch, S; Michael, T; Biedert, E; Meyer, A H; Margraf, J

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether negative mood and unbalanced nutrition style (fat rich/carbohydrate low) synergistically trigger binge eating in overweight and obese binge eating disorder (BED) patients. Subsequently to following an unbalanced or a balanced nutrition plan for three days, participants' food intake in a taste test was measured. During the taste test, participants were either in a negative or a neutral mood that was induced through a guided imagery task. Sixty-nine overweight and obese women with BED (mean age: 36.7 years, mean body mass index: 32.8 kg/m2). Eating behavior was assessed by measuring the amount of eaten food during the taste test. Visual analog scales were used to assess negative affect, tension, urge to eat, and hunger before and after the mood induction and after the taste test. Negative mood and unbalanced nutrition had neither a combined synergistic effect nor separate additive effects on the amount of food intake. Negative affect and tension decreased after the taste test in the negative mood group. Negative mood does not invariably enhance the risk of binge-eating behavior. Fat-rich, carbohydrate-low nutrition style did not influence food intake during a taste test. This finding questions the role of this specific nutrition style as a crucial factor in promoting binge eating. If replicated, these findings are important, since they could guide development of treatment protocols.

  1. Performing Implicit Induction Reasoning with Certifying Proof Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Stratulat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Largely adopted by proof assistants, the conventional induction methods based on explicit induction schemas are non-reductive and local, at schema level. On the other hand, the implicit induction methods used by automated theorem provers allow for lazy and mutual induction reasoning. In this paper, we present a new tactic for the Coq proof assistant able to perform automatically implicit induction reasoning. By using an automatic black-box approach, conjectures intended to be manually proved by the certifying proof environment that integrates Coq are proved instead by the Spike implicit induction theorem prover. The resulting proofs are translated afterwards into certified Coq scripts.

  2. Assessment and modeling of inductive and non-inductive scenarios for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, D.; Vayakis, G.; Moreau, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments in modeling and simulations of ITER performances and scenarios. The first part presents an improved modeling of coupled divertor/main plasma operation including the simulation of the measurements involved in the control loop. The second part explores the fusion performances predicted under non-inductive operation with internal transport barrier. The final part covers a detailed scenario for non-inductive operation using a reverse shear configuration with lower hybrid and fast wave current drive. (author)

  3. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Melissa officinalis L. and some preservatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanojeic, D.; Comic, L.; Stefanovic, O.; Solujic Sukdolak, S.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the species Melissa officinalis L. and their in vitro synergistic action with preservatives, namely: sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate against selected food spoiling bacteria, for a potential use in food industry. Synergistic action was noticed in almost every combination between plant extracts and preservatives. This work showed that the active compounds from ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis L. significantly enhanced the effectiveness of tested preservatives. Synergism was established at plant extract and preservative concentrations corresponding to 1/4 and 1/8 minimal inhibitory concentration values, which indicated the possibility of avoiding the use of higher concentrations of tested preservatives. (Author) 25 refs.

  4. Synergistic Inhibition of Protein Fibrillation by Proline and Sorbitol: Biophysical Investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinjan Choudhary

    Full Text Available We report here interesting synergistic effects of proline and sorbitol, two well-known chemical chaperones, in the inhibition of fibrillation of two proteins, insulin and lysozyme. A combination of many biophysical techniques has been used to understand the structural morphology and modes of interaction of the chaperones with the proteins during fibrillation. Both the chaperones establish stronger polar interactions in the elongation and saturation stages of fibrillation compared to that in the native stage. However, when presented as a mixture, we also see contribution of hydrophobic interactions. Thus, a co-operative adjustment of polar and hydrophobic interactions between the chaperones and the protein surface seems to drive the synergistic effects in the fibrillation process. In insulin, this synergy is quantitatively similar in all the stages of the fibrillation process. These observations would have significant implications for understanding protein folding concepts, in general, and for designing combination therapies against protein fibrillation, in particular.

  5. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1: Mechanisms of its synergistic regulation by growth factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiaoling [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    My research is on the synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β. The mechanism of synergistic regulation of PAI-1 by EGF and TGF-β are addressed. Methods are described for effective identification of RNA accessible sites for antisense oligodexoxynucleotides (ODNs) and siRNA. In this study effective AS-ODN sequences for both Lcn2 and Bcl2 were identified by in vitro tiled microarray studies. Our results suggest that hybridization of ODN arrays to a target mRNA under physiological conditions might be used as a rapid and reliable in vitro method to accurately identify targets on mRNA molecules for effective antisense and potential siRNA activity in vivo.

  6. Crown ethers as size-selective synergists in solvent extraction systems: a new selectivity parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mixtures of macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers) and organic-phase-soluble liquid cation exchangers have been found to produce a synergistic effect in the extraction of metal ions. The synergistic effect is size selective; that is, it tends to be greatest for those ions that best fit the crown ether cavity. The mixtures of a liquid cation exchanger and a crown ether also allow metal ion extraction from common mineral-acid anion systems (NO 3 - , Cl - , SO 4 2- ) that would be impossible with the crown ether alone, because of the difficulty of solubilizing those anions in nonpolar solvents. This cooperation makes the use of crown ethers as size-selective coordinators available for process applications. Size selectivity of compounds such as crown ethers may thus become a useful new parameter in designing selective solvent extraction systems. Results are reported for alkali (including Cs) and alkaline earth (including Sr) extraction by HDEHP mixed with various crown ethers. (author)

  7. Phosphorus doped and defects engineered graphene for improved electrochemical sensing: synergistic effect of dopants and defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Ke; Wang, Fan; Tian, Ye; Wei, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Heteroatom-doped graphene materials emerged as promising metal-free catalysts have recently attracted a growing interest in electrochemical sensing applications. However, their catalytic activity and sensing performances still need to be further improved. Herein, we reported the development of unique phosphorus (P)-doped and plasma-etched graphene (denoted as PG-E) as an efficient metal-free electrocatalyst for dopamine (DA) sensing. It was demonstrated that introducing both P-dopants and plasma-engineered defects in graphene could synergistically improve the activity toward electrocatalytic oxidation of DA by increasing the accessible active sites and promoting the electron transport capability. The resulting PG-E modified electrode showed exceptional DA sensing performances with low detection limit, high selectivity and good stability. These results suggested that the synergistic effect of dopants and defects might be an important factor for developing the advanced graphene-based metal-free catalysts for electrochemical sensing.

  8. Separation and recovery of heavy metals from waste water using synergistic solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yang, Limei; Xu, Zheng; Sun, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal wastewater pollution is one of the three major water pollutions in the world. The zinc hydrometallurgy smelting process usually discharge large quantities of heavy metal wastewater into the environment. In this paper, a synergistic solvent extraction process has been developed to recover copper, nickel, zinc and cadmium respectively from calcium and magnesium. The synergistic organic system contained 0.50 M Versatic 10 and 0.5 M Mextral 984H in DT100. Adjusting pH to 2.0 at 40 °C, the copper will be extracted preferentially with the extraction rate more than 99%. Continuing to adjust pH to 4.2 at 40 °C, the nickel will be extracted secondly with an extraction rate more than 98%; the zinc and cadmium in raffinate could be extracted separately while pH is about 6.5.

  9. Synergistic effects in radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Noriaki

    1990-01-01

    A description is given on radiation-induced particle ejection from solid surfaces, emphasizing synergistic effects arising from multi-species particle irradiation and from irradiation under complex environments. First, it is pointed out that synergisms can be treated by introducing the effects of material modification on radiation-induced particle ejection. As examples of the effects of surface modification on the sputtering induced by elastic encounters, sputtering of alloys and chemical sputtering of graphite are briefly discussed. Then the particle ejection induced by electronic encounters is explained emphasizing the difference in the behaviors from materials to materials. The possible synergistic effects of electronic and elastic encounters are also described. Lastly, we point out the importance of understanding the elementary processes of material-particle interaction and of developing computer codes describing material behaviors under irradiation. (author)

  10. Synergistic extraction of trivalent lanthanoids with 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone and various sulphoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Chakravortty, V.; Reddy, M.L.P.; Ramamohan, T.R.

    1999-01-01

    Synergistic extraction of trivalent lanthanoids Nd, Tb and Tm with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (HPBI) and dioctyl sulphoxide (DOSO), bis-2-ethylhexyl sulphoxide (B2EHSO) or diphenyl sulphoxide (DPhSO) in xylene from perchlorate solution was investigated. Lanthanoids were found to be extracted as Ln(PBI) 3 with HPBI alone. In the presence of sulphoxides, Nd(III) was found to be extracted as Nd(PBI) 3 . S and Nd(PBI) 3 . 2 S (where S = sulphoxide). On the other hand, Tb(III) and Tm(III) were extracted as Tb(PBI) 3 . S and Tm(PBI) 3 . S respectively. The equilibrium constants of the synergistic species were found to increase monotonically with decreasing ionic radii of these metal ions. The addition of a sulphoxide to the metal chelate system not only enhances the extraction efficiency but also improves the selectivities among these trivalent lanthanoids. (orig.)

  11. Nanomedicine of synergistic drug combinations for cancer therapy - Strategies and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui Xue; Wong, Ho Lun; Xue, Hui Yi; Eoh, June Young; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2016-10-28

    Nanomedicine of synergistic drug combinations has shown increasing significance in cancer therapy due to its promise in providing superior therapeutic benefits to the current drug combination therapy used in clinical practice. In this article, we will examine the rationale, principles, and advantages of applying nanocarriers to improve anticancer drug combination therapy, review the use of nanocarriers for delivery of a variety of combinations of different classes of anticancer agents including small molecule drugs and biologics, and discuss the challenges and future perspectives of the nanocarrier-based combination therapy. The goal of this review is to provide better understanding of this increasingly important new paradigm of cancer treatment and key considerations for rational design of nanomedicine of synergistic drug combinations for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Forskolin and the meiosis inducing substance synergistically initiate meiosis in fetal male germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, A G; Fenger, M; Westergaard, L

    1993-01-01

    are fixed, squashed, and DNA-stained. In these preparations germ cells and somatic cells can be distinguished, and the number of germ cells in the different stages of meiosis is counted as is the number of somatic cells in mitosis. MIS activity is defined to be present in a medium when meiosis is induced......We have shown that Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) and forskolin synergistically and dose dependently induce meiosis in germ cells of cultured fetal mouse testes. We used a bioassay which consists of fetal mouse testes and ovaries cultured for 6 days. In this study MIS media are spent culture...... in male germ cells during culture. We found that MIS media as well as forskolin induced meiosis in fetal male germ cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MIS media and forskolin acted synergistically by inducing meiosis. Female germ cells seem to be unaffected by the various culture media...

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A and autophagy inhibitor chloroquine synergistically exert anti-tumor activity in H-ras transformed breast epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Xiaochen; Zhao, Tongwei; Lu, Liqing; Zhang, Jianbin; Hong, Yupeng

    2018-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) cause oncogene-transformed mammalian cell death. Our previous study indicated that HDACIs activate forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) and induce autophagy in liver and colon cancer cells. However, whether FOXO1 is involved in HDACI-mediated oncogene-transformed mammalian cell death remains unclear. In the present study, H-ras transformed MCF10A cells were used to investigate the role of FOXO1 in this pathway. Results showed that trichostatin A (TSA), a HDACI, activated apoptosis in MCF10A-ras cells, but not in MCF10A cells. Furthermore, TSA activated FOXO1 via P21 upregulation, whereas the knockdown of FOXO1 reduced TSA-induced cell death. In addition, TSA induced autophagy in MCF10A and MCF10A-ras cells by blocking the mammailian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Furthermore, autophagy inhibition lead to higher MCF10A-ras cell death by TSA, thus indicating that autophagy is essential in cell survival. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that TSA causes oncogene-transformed cell apoptosis via activation of FOXO1 and HDACI-mediated autophagy induction, which served as important cell survival mechanisms. Notably, the present findings imply that a combination of HDACIs and autophagy inhibitors produce a synergistic anticancer effect. PMID:29344672

  14. Evaluation of the synergistic effect of Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Psidium guajav on hepatic and intestinal drug metabolizing enzymes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Background: Present study investigated the synergistic effect of polyherbal formulations (PHF of Allium sativum L Eugenia jambolana Lam., Momordica charantia L., Ocimum sanctum Linn and Psidium guajava L. in the inhibition/induction of hepatic and intestinal CYPs and Phase-II conjugated drug metabolizing enzymes. Consumption of these herbal remedy has been extensively documented for diabetes treatment in Auyureda. Methodology: PHF of these five herbs was prepared and different doses were orally administered to Sprague Dawley rats of different groups except control group. Expression of mRNA and activity of drug metabolizing enzymes were examined by RT-PCR and HPLC in isolated liver and intestine microsomes in PHF pretreated rats. Results: Activities of hepatic and intestinal Phase-II enzyme levels increased along with mRNA levels except CYP3A mRNA level. PHF administration increases the activity of hepatic and intestinal UDPGT and GST in response to dose and time; however, activity of hepatic SULT increased at higher doses. Conclusions: CYPs and Phase-II conjugated enzymes levels can be modulated in dose and time dependent manner. Observations suggest that poly herbal formulation might be a possible cause of herb-drug interaction, due to changes in pharmacokinetic of crucial CYPs and Phase-II substrate drug. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(4.000: 372-382

  15. Synergistic interaction between the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor ST2782 and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in platinum-sensitive and resistant ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Laura; Benedetti, Valentina; De Cesare, Michelandrea; Corna, Elisabetta; Cincinelli, Raffaella; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Zunino, Franco; Perego, Paola

    2012-08-01

    The ability of histone deacetylase inhibitors to modulate the expression of genes relevant for growth or apoptotis regulation supports their interest in combination treatments of resistant tumors. We explored the effect of the combination of the histone deacetylase inhibitor ST2782 and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in ovarian carcinoma cell lines, including the IGROV-1 cell line and two p53 mutant platinum-resistant sublines (IGROV-1/OHP and IGROV-1/Pt1). We found a synergistic interaction between the two drugs, more evident in the p53-mutant resistant sublines, which was associated with increa sed apoptosis. The treatment with ST2782 resulted in early induction of Bax as well as in cleavage of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase only in the resistant cell lines. The inhibition of p53-transcriptional transactivation by pifithrin alpha in IGROV-1 cells enhanced the synergism. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 in IGROV-1 cells determined synergism reduction. These opposite effects support the relevance of the transactivation-deficient mutant p53 as a synergism determinant. Moreover, in vivo studies indicated that tumor growth inhibition tended to be more evident in mice receiving the drug combination than in those treated with bortezomib alone. Overall, our study supports the potential effectiveness of the combination in platinum drug-resistant ovarian cancer carrying mutant p53. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Synergistic Effect of Combined Immunization with a DNA Vaccine and Chimeric Yellow Fever/Dengue Virus Leads to Strong Protection against Dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Adriana S.; Gonçalves, Antônio J. S.; Archer, Marcia; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Alves, Ada M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E) is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2) and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2). The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes. PMID:23472186

  17. The synergistic effect of combined immunization with a DNA vaccine and chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus leads to strong protection against dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Adriana S; Gonçalves, Antônio J S; Archer, Marcia; Freire, Marcos S; Galler, Ricardo; Alves, Ada M B

    2013-01-01

    The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E) is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2) and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2). The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes.

  18. Ebf1 heterozygosity results in increased DNA damage in pro-B cells and their synergistic transformation by Pax5 haploinsufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Mahadesh A J; Ungerbäck, Jonas; Åhsberg, Josefine; Somasundaram, Rajesh; Strid, Tobias; Larsson, Malin; Månsson, Robert; De Paepe, Ayla; Lilljebjörn, Henrik; Fioretos, Thoas; Hagman, James; Sigvardsson, Mikael

    2015-06-25

    Early B-cell factor 1 (Ebf1) is a transcription factor with documented dose-dependent functions in normal and malignant B-lymphocyte development. To understand more about the roles of Ebf1 in malignant transformation, we investigated the impact of reduced functional Ebf1 dosage on mouse B-cell progenitors. Gene expression analysis suggested that Ebf1 was involved in the regulation of genes important for DNA repair and cell survival. Investigation of the DNA damage in steady state, as well as after induction of DNA damage by UV light, confirmed that pro-B cells lacking 1 functional allele of Ebf1 display signs of increased DNA damage. This correlated to reduced expression of DNA repair genes including Rad51, and chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggested that Rad51 is a direct target for Ebf1. Although reduced dosage of Ebf1 did not significantly increase tumor formation in mice, a dramatic increase in the frequency of pro-B cell leukemia was observed in mice with combined heterozygous mutations in the Ebf1 and Pax5 genes, revealing a synergistic effect of combined dose reduction of these proteins. Our data suggest that Ebf1 controls DNA repair in a dose-dependent manner providing a possible explanation to the frequent involvement of EBF1 gene loss in human leukemia. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Evaluation of the Synergistic Effect of Erosion-Corrosion on AISI 4330 Steel in Saline-Sand Multiphase Flow by Electrochemical and Gravimetric Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Yesid Peña Ballesteros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effects of fluid flow, sand particles, and solution pH on erosion-corrosion of AISI 4330 steel alloy in saline-sand medium were studied through a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE system by weight-loss and electrochemical measurements. The worn surface was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results show that, under all the test conditions assessed, the passivity of the steel alloy could not be maintained; as a result, an activation mechanism dominates the corrosion process of steel alloy. Furthermore, the potentiodynamic curves show that, with the increasing of the electrode flow rate and particle size, the anodic current density increased, which is due to deterioration of the electrode by the impacting slurry. Although the increase of particle size affects the anodic current density, the effect of particle size does not cause a significant change in the polarization behavior of the steel electrode. The electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic curves suggest that erosion-corrosion phenomenon of the ASISI 4330 steel is under mixed control of mass transport and charge transfer. The inductive loops formed in the impedance plots are representative of an increase in roughness of the electrode caused by the particles impacting at the surface. The change in the passivity of the steel alloy as the pH is altered plays an important role in the corrosion rate.

  20. Synergistic suppression effect on tumor growth of ovarian cancer by combining cisplatin with a manganese superoxide dismutase-armed oncolytic adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibing; Shu, Jing; Chen, Li; Chen, Xiaopan; Zhao, Jianhong; Li, Shuangshuang; Mou, Xiaozhou; Tong, Xiangmin

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy on the basis of oncolytic adenovirus is a novel approach for human cancer therapeutics. We aim to investigate whether it will synergistically reinforce their antiovarian cancer activities when the combined use of ZD55-manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and cisplatin was performed. The experiments in vitro showed that ZD55-MnSOD enhances cisplatin-induced apoptosis and causes remarkable ovarian cancer cell death. Apoptosis induction by treatment with ZD55-MnSOD and/or cisplatin was detected in SKOV-3 by apoptotic cell staining, flow cytometry, and western blot analysis. In addition, the cytotoxicity caused by ZD55-MnSOD to normal cells was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay and western blot analysis. Animal experiment further confirmed that combination of ZD55-MnSOD and cisplatin achieved significant inhibition of SKOV-3 ovarian tumor xenografted growth. In summary, we have demonstrated that ZD55-MnSOD can sensitize human ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cell death and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. These findings indicate that the combined treatment with ZD55-MnSOD and cisplatin could represent a rational approach for antiovarian cancer therapy.

  1. The synergistic effect of combined immunization with a DNA vaccine and chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus leads to strong protection against dengue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana S Azevedo

    Full Text Available The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2 and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2. The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes.

  2. Evaluation of synergistic antimicrobial activity of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum

    OpenAIRE

    R.Reji; Maheswari Rajasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial assay of acetone and ethanol extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum was performed using agar well diffusion method against bacterial culture. (E.coli, P.mirabilis and K.pneumoniae) the acetone extract of Cinnamomum zeylancium, ethanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi and acetone extract of Syzygium aromaticum were selected to evaluate the synergistic activity. The activities were combined in the ratio of 1:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 (Trachyspermum am...

  3. Synergistic effect of eugenol with Colistin against clinical isolated Colistin-resistant Escherichia coli strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ming Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial infections have become more challenging to treat due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Combined antibiotics prove to be a relatively effective method to control such resistant strains. This study aim to investigate synergistic activity of eugenol combined with colistin against a collection of clinical isolated Escherichia coli (E.coli strains, and to evaluate potential interaction. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI of the bacteria were determined by disk diffusion assay, broth microdilution method and checkerboard assay, respectively. The mcr-1 mRNA expression was measured by Real-time PCR. To predict possible interactions between eugenol and MCR-1, molecular docking assay was taken. Results For total fourteen strains including eight colistin-resistant strains, eugenol was determined with MIC values of 4 to 8 μg/mL. Checkerboard dilution test suggested that eugenol exhibited synergistic activity when combined with colistin (FICI ranging from 0.375 to 0.625. Comparison analysis of Real-time PCR showed that synergy could significantly down-regulate expression of mcr-1 gene. A metal ion coordination bond with catalytic zinc atom and a hydrogen bond with crucial amino acid residue Ser284 of MCR-1 were observed after molecular docking, indicating antibacterial activity and direct molecular interactions of eugenol with MCR-1 protein. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that eugenol exhibited synergistic effect with colistin and enhanced its antimicrobial activity. This might further contribute to the antibacterial actions against colistin-resistant E.coli strains. Graphical abstract Synergistic effect of eugenol with colistin against colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates.

  4. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, Benjamin A; Liu, Jun O

    2011-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50) dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  5. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Nacev

    Full Text Available Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50 dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  6. The Synergistic Effects of Probiotic Microorganisms on the Microbial Production of Butyrate In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Khadija A.

    2009-01-01

    Butyrate producing microbiota perform a number of activities important in supporting the normal function of the human gastrointestinal tract. The goal of this study was to determine the synergistic effects of lactate- and butyrate-producing bacteria on butyrate production in vitro co-culture. PCR was used to detect the genes butyrate kinase and butyryl-CoA transferase that contribute to butyrate production, in a panel of representative gut microbiota. Preliminary data suggested that two Clost...

  7. Digital Inverter Amine Sensing via Synergistic Responses by n and p Organic Semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Noah J.; Jung, Byung Jun; Breysse, Patrick; Katz, Howard E.

    2011-01-01

    Chemiresistors and sensitive OFETs have been substantially developed as cheap, scalable, and versatile sensing platforms. While new materials are expanding OFET sensing capabilities, the device architectures have changed little. Here we report higher order logic circuits utilizing OFETs sensitive to amine vapors. The circuits depend on the synergistic responses of paired p- and n-channel organic semiconductors, including an unprecedented analyte-induced current increase by the n-channel semic...

  8. Synergistic Activity of Colistin plus Rifampin against Colistin-Resistant KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Tascini, Carlo; Tagliaferri, Enrico; Giani, Tommaso; Leonildi, Alessandro; Flammini, Sarah; Casini, Beatrice; Lewis, Russell; Ferranti, Simone; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Menichetti, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae are responsible for high rates of mortality and represent a major therapeutic challenge, especially when the isolates are also resistant to colistin. We used the checkerboard method to evaluate the synergistic activity of 10 antibiotic combinations against 13 colistin-resistant KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates (colistin MIC range of 8 to 128 mg/liter). Colistin plus rifampin was the only combination that demonst...

  9. Synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation in highly efficient photovoltaic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Maojie; Guo, Xia; Zhang, Shaoqing; Hou, Jianhui

    2014-02-01

    The synergistic effect of fluorination on molecular energy level modulation is realized by introducing fluorine atoms onto both the donor and the acceptor moieties in a D-A polymer, and as a result, the polymer solar cell device based on the trifluorinated polymer, PBT-3F, shows a high efficiency of 8.6%, under illumination of AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm(-) (2) . © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A PAH growth mechanism and synergistic effect on PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yu

    2013-09-01

    A reaction mechanism having molecular growth up to benzene for hydrocarbon fuels with up to four carbon-atoms was extended to include the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) up to coronene (C24H12). The new mechanism was tested for ethylene premixed flames at low (20torr) and atmospheric pressures by comparing experimentally observed species concentrations with those of the computed ones for small chemical species and PAHs. As compared to several existing mechanisms in the literature, the newly developed mechanism showed an appreciable improvement in the predicted profiles of PAHs. The new mechanism was also used to simulate PAH formation in counterflow diffusion flames of ethylene to study the effects of mixing propane and benzene in the fuel stream. In the ethylene-propane flames, existing experimental results showed a synergistic effect in PAH concentrations, i.e. PAH concentrations first increased and then decreased with increasing propane mixing. This PAH behavior was successfully captured by the new mechanism. The synergistic effect was predicted to be more pronounced for larger PAH molecules as compared to the smaller ones, which is in agreement with experimental observations. In the experimental study in which the fuel stream of ethylene-propane flames was doped with benzene, a synergistic effect was mitigated for benzene, but was observed for large PAHs. This effect was also predicted in the computed PAH profiles for these flames. To explain these responses of PAHs in the flames of mixture fuels, a pathway analysis has been conducted, which show that several resonantly stabilized species as well as C4H4 and H atom contribute to the enhanced synergistic behaviors of larger PAHs as compared to the small ones in the flames of mixture fuels. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  11. Synergistic Effect of Elicitors in Enhancement of Ganoderic Acid Production: Optimization and Gene Expression Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Motaharehsadat Heydarian; Ashrafalsadat Hatamian-Zarmi; Ghassem Amoabediny; Fatemeh Yazdian; Ali Doryab

    2015-01-01

    AbstractGanoderma lucidum is one of the most well-known fungi, and has many applications in medicine. Ganoderic acid is among the valuable secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, and responsible for the inhibition of the tumor cell growth and cancer treatment. Application of ganoderic acid has been limited because of low yields of its production from Ganoderma lucidum. The present study aims to investigate the synergistic effect of elicitors including methyl jasmonate and aspirin on the p...

  12. Mechanism of Synergistic Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes Growth by Lactic Acid, Monolaurin, and Nisin▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tokarskyy, Oleksandr; Marshall, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    The combined lactic acid, monolaurin, and nisin effects on time-to-detection (optical density at 600 nm) extension were greater (P < 0.05) than any single or paired combination effect, which demonstrates a synergistic interaction among the antimicrobials. Monolaurin exposure caused C12:0 cell membrane incorporation. Lactic acid caused increased monolaurin C12:0 membrane incorporation, while nisin had no influence. We postulate that lactic acid-enhanced monolaurin C12:0 incorporation into the ...

  13. Enantioselective α-Vinylation of Aldehydes Via the Synergistic Combination of Copper and Amine Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucas, Eduardas; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective α-vinylation of aldehydes using vinyl iodonium triflate salts has been accomplished via the synergistic combination of copper and chiral amine catalysis. These mild catalytic conditions provide a direct route for the enantioselective construction of enolizable α-formyl vinylic stereocenters without racemization or olefin transposition. These high-value coupling adducts are readily converted into a variety of useful olefin synthons. PMID:22616631

  14. Colorimetric Detection of Creatinine Based on Plasmonic Nanoparticles via Synergistic Coordination Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianjun; Zhu, Bowen; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Shi; Sum, Tze Chien; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-09-02

    A simple and portable colorimetric assay for creatinine detection is fabricated based on the synergistic coordination of creatinine and uric acid with Hg(2+) on the surface of gold nanoparticles, which exhibits good selectivity and sensitivity. Point-of-care clinical creatinine monitoring can be supported for monitoring renal function and diagnosing corresponding renal diseases at home. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Synergistic antifungal activity of berberine derivative B-7b and fluconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Li

    Full Text Available Our previous study demonstrated berberine (BBR and fluconazole (FLC used concomitantly exhibited a synergism against FLC-resistant Candida albicans in vitro. We also suggested BBR played a major antifungal role in the synergism of FLC and BBR, while FLC increased intracellular BBR concentrations. Our following systematic structural modification and reconstruction of BBR core identified the novel scaffold of N-(2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-ylethyl-2-(substituted phenylacet-amide derivatives 7a-i, including B-7b and B-7d exhibiting remarkable synergistic antifungal activity and low cytotoxicity. Here, the study mainly investigated the synergistic activity of FLC and B-7b and the underlying mechanism. In vitro interaction of FLC and B-7b was investigated against 30 FLC-resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans and non-C. albicans species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans. The potent synergistic activity of B-7b in combination with FLC against FLC-resistant C. albicans was found through the checkerboard microdilution assay. The findings of agar diffusion tests and time-kill curves confirmed its better synergism with FLC. And as expected, B-7b exhibited much lower cytotoxicity than BBR to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In contrast to BBR, we found that endogenous ROS augmentation was not involved in the synergism of FLC and B-7b. According to the results from our present comparative proteomic study, it seemed that the disruption of protein folding and processing and the weakening of cells' self-defensive ability contributed to the synergism of FLC and B-7b. Together, these results suggested novel scaffold BBR derivative B-7b could be a promising synergist in combination with FLC for the treatment of invasive fungal infections.

  16. Combining BET and HDAC inhibitors synergistically induces apoptosis of melanoma and suppresses AKT and YAP signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Anja; Cullinane, Carleen; De Paoli-Iseppi, Ricardo; Wilmott, James S.; Gunatilake, Dilini; Madore, Jason; Strbenac, Dario; Yang, Jean Y.; Gowrishankar, Kavitha; Tiffen, Jessamy C.; Prinjha, Rab K.; Smithers, Nicholas; McArthur, Grant A.; Hersey, Peter; Gallagher, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation marks have an important role in controlling gene expression and are removed by histone deacetylases (HDACs). These marks are read by bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins and novel inhibitiors of these proteins are currently in clinical development. Inhibitors of HDAC and BET proteins have individually been shown to cause apoptosis and reduce growth of melanoma cells. Here we show that combining the HDAC inhibitor LBH589 and BET inhibitor I-BET151 synergistically i...

  17. [Mathematical modeling of synergistic interaction of sequential thermoradiation action on mammalian cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, S V; Semkina, M A; Kritskiĭ, R O; Petin, V G

    2010-01-01

    Data obtained by other authors for mammalian cells treated by sequential action of ionizing radiation and hyperthermia were used to estimate the dependence of synergistic enhancement ratio on the ratio of damages induced by these agents. Experimental results were described and interpreted by means of the mathematical model of synergism in accordance with which the synergism is expected to result from the additional lethal damage arising from the interaction of sublesions induced by both agents.

  18. Soy Phytochemicals and Tea Bioactive Components Synergistically Inhibit Androgen-Sensitive Human Prostate Tumors in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jin-Rong; Yu, Lunyin; Zhong, Ying; Blackburn, George L.

    2003-01-01

    Although high doses of single bioactive agents may have potent anticancer effects, the chemopreventive properties of the Asian diet may result from interactions among several components that potentiate the activities of any single constituent. In Asia, where intake of soy products and tea consumption are very high, aggressive prostate cancer is significantly less prevalent in Asian men. The objective of the present study was to identify possible synergistic effects between soy and tea compone...

  19. Synergistic catalysis: highly diastereoselective benzoxazole addition to Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceban, Victor; Putaj, Piotr; Meazza, Marta; Pitak, Mateusz B; Coles, Simon J; Vesely, Jan; Rios, Ramon

    2014-07-18

    An expedited method has been developed for the diastereoselective synthesis of highly functionalized alkyl-azaarene systems with good yields and high diastereoselectivities (>15 : 1 dr). The methodology includes a synergistic catalysis event involving organometallic (10 mol% AgOAc) activation of an alkyl azaarene and Lewis base (10 mol% DABCO) activation of a Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonate. The structure and relative configuration of a representative product were confirmed by X-ray analysis.

  20. Nanoparticle-enhanced synergistic HIFU ablation and transarterial chemoembolization for efficient cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yufeng; Wang, Zhigang; Ran, Haitao; Zheng, Yuanyi; Wang, Dong; Xu, Jinshun; Wang, Zhibiao; Chen, Yu; Li, Pan

    2016-02-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is being generally explored as a non-invasive therapeutic modality to treat solid tumors. However, the clinical use of HIFU for large and deep tumor-ablation applications such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently entangled with long treatment duration and high operating energy. This critical issue can be potentially resolved by the introduction of HIFU synergistic agents (SAs). Traditional SAs such as microbubbles and microparticles face the problem of large size, short cycle time, damage to mononuclear phagocytic system and unsatisfactory targeting efficiency. In this work, we have developed a facile and versatile nanoparticle-based HIFU synergistic cancer surgery enhanced by transarterial chemoembolization for high-efficiency HCC treatment based on elaborately designed Fe3O4-PFH/PLGA nanocapsules. Multifunctional Fe3O4-PFH/PLGA nanocapsules were administrated into tumor tissues via transarterial injection combined with Lipiodol to achieve high tumor accumulation because transarterial chemoembolization by Lipiodol could block the blood vessels. The high synergistic HIFU ablation effect was successfully achieved against HCC tumors based on the phase-transformation performance of the perfluorohexane (PFH) inner core in the composite nanocapsules, as systematically demonstrated in VX2 liver tumor xenograft in rabbits. Multifunctional Fe3O4-PFH/PLGA nanocapsules were also demonstrated as efficient contrast agents for ultrasound, magnetic resonance and photoacoustic tri-modality imagings, potentially applicable for imaging-guided HIFU synergistic surgery. Therefore, the elaborate integration of traditional transarterial chemoembolization with recently developed nanoparticle-enhanced HIFU cancer surgery could efficiently enhance the HCC cancer treatment outcome, initiating a new and efficient therapeutic protocol/modality for clinic cancer treatment.

  1. In vitro synergistic antioxidant activity and identification of antioxidant components from Astragalus membranaceus and Paeonia lactiflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Xu

    Full Text Available Many traditionally used herbs demonstrate significantly better pharmacological effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the mechanism underlying this synergism is still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic antioxidant activity of Astragalus membranaceus (AME and Paeonia Lactiflora (PL, and identify the potential antioxidant components by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH radical spiking test followed by a high performance liquid chromatography separation combined with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (DPPH-HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Eight AME-PL combined extracts (E1-E8 were prepared based on bioactivity-guided fractionation. Among them, E1 exhibited the strongest synergistic effect in scavenging DPPH radicals and reducing ferric ions (P<0.05. Moreover, E1 presented strong cytoprotection against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in MRC-5 cells by suppressing the decrease of the superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and catalase (CAT activities. A strong correlation between the increment of total phenolic/flavonoid and synergistic antioxidant activity, especially between the increment of total flavonoid and the increase in ferric reducing power was observed. Finally, seven antioxidant substances were identified in E1 as oxypaeoniflora, catechin, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, fomononetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 9,10-dimethoxy-pterocarpan-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin and 2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethyl-isoflavan-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  2. A residue-free green synergistic antifungal nanotechnology for pesticide thiram by ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingzhe; Luo, Zhihui; Li, Ping; Ding, Yaping; Cui, Yi; Wu, Qingsheng

    2014-07-01

    Here we reported a residue-free green nanotechnology which synergistically enhance the pesticides efficiency and successively eliminate its residue. We built up a composite antifungal system by a simple pre-treating and assembling procedure for investigating synergy. Investigations showed 0.25 g/L ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with 0.01 g/L thiram could inhibit the fungal growth in a synergistic mode. More importantly, the 0.25 g/L ZnO NPs completely degraded 0.01 g/L thiram under simulated sunlight irradiation within 6 hours. It was demonstrated that the formation of ZnO-thiram antifungal system, electrostatic adsorption of ZnO NPs to fungi cells and the cellular internalization of ZnO-thiram composites played important roles in synergy. Oxidative stress test indicated ZnO-induced oxidative damage was enhanced by thiram that finally result in synergistic antifungal effect. By reducing the pesticides usage, this nanotechnology could control the plant disease economically, more significantly, the following photocatalytic degradation of pesticide greatly benefit the human social by avoiding negative influence of pesticide residue on public health and environment.

  3. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasim, Vivi; Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Huizhen; Wang, Yunxia; Yang, Li; Miyagishi, Makoto; Wu, Shourong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. We further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73

  4. Seasonal variation of Brazilian red propolis: Antibacterial activity, synergistic effect and phytochemical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueira, M S; Tintino, Saulo Relison; da Silva, Ana Raquel Pereira; Costa, Maria do Socorro; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Matias, Edinardo F F; de Queiroz Balbino, Valdir; Menezes, Irwin R A; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the dry and rainy season on the antibacterial activity and chemical composition of the Brazilian red propolis. The samples were collected in rainy (RP-PER) and dry (RP-PED) seasons and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The extracts were tested alone and in association with antibiotics against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The HPLC analysis identified luteolin and quercetin as the main compounds. Seasonal variation was observed according to concentrations of the compounds. The MIC values against E. coli ranged from 128 μg/mL to 512 μg/mL (EC 06 and EC ATCC). The red propolis showed MIC values of 512 μg/mL against both strains of P. aeruginosa used in our study (PA03 and PA24) and against strains of Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus the MICs ranged from 64 μg/mL to ≥1024 μg/mL (SA10). A synergistic effect was observed when we combined the RP-PED with gentamicin against all the strains tested. When we combined the RP-PED with Imipenem, we only observed synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa. According to our synergistic activity results, the utilization of red propolis collected in the drier periods can be used as an adjuvant against multiresistant bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergistic interaction of Smac mimetic and IFNα to trigger apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bake, Vanessa; Roesler, Stefanie; Eckhardt, Ines; Belz, Katharina; Fulda, Simone

    2014-12-28

    Therapeutic targeting of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins by small-molecule inhibitors such as Smac mimetic is considered as a promising anticancer strategy to elicit apoptosis. Recent advances have renewed the interest in exploiting the antileukemic activity of interferon (IFN)α for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we identify a novel synergistic interaction of the Smac mimetic BV6 and IFNα to trigger cell death in AML cells. Calculation of combination index (CI) confirms the synergism of BV6 and IFNα. In contrast to AML cells, no synergistic toxicity of BV6 and IFNα at equimolar concentrations is found against normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. BV6 and IFNα act in concert to stimulate expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and its secretion into the supernatant, thereby initiating an autocrine/paracrine TNFα/TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) loop that drives cell death by BV6 and IFNα. Consistently, pharmacological inhibition of TNFα by the TNFα-blocking antibody Enbrel or genetic silencing of TNFR1 significantly reduces BV6/IFNα-induced cell death. In addition, BV6/IFNα-induced cell death depends on interferon regulatory factor (IRF)1, since RNA interference-imposed knockdown of IRF1 significantly rescues cell death. In conclusion, the identification of a novel synergistic antileukemic combination of Smac mimetic and IFNα has important implications for the development of innovative treatment strategies in AML. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Muscle force compensation among synergistic muscles after fatigue of a single muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzig, Norman; Siebert, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine control strategies among synergistic muscles after fatigue of a single muscle. It was hypothesized that the compensating mechanism is specific for each fatigued muscle. The soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and medialis (GM) were fatigued in separate sessions on different days. In each experiment, subjects (n = 11) performed maximal voluntary contractions prior to and after fatiguing a single muscle (SOL, GL or GM) while the voluntary muscle activity and torque were measured. Additionally, the maximal single twitch torque of the plantarflexors and the maximal spinal reflex activity (H-reflex) of the SOL, GL and GM were determined. Fatigue was evoked using neuromuscular stimulation. Following fatigue the single twitch torque decreased by -20.1%, -19.5%, and -23.0% when the SOL, GL, or GM, have been fatigued. The maximal voluntary torque did not decrease in any session but the synergistic voluntary muscle activity increased significantly. Moreover, we found no alterations in spinal reflex activity. It is concluded that synergistic muscles compensate each other. Furthermore, it seems that self-compensating mechanism of the fatigued muscles occurred additionally. The force compensation does not depend on the function of the fatigued muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synergistic Activation of Latent HIV-1 Expression by Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors and Bryostatin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Clemente, Maria Isabel; Serramía, Maria Jesús; Muñoz, Eduardo; Moreno, Santiago; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Ángeles

    2015-11-13

    Viral reactivation from latently infected cells has become a promising therapeutic approach to eradicate HIV. Due to the complexity of the viral latency, combinations of efficient and available drugs targeting different pathways of latency are needed. In this work, we evaluated the effect of various combinations of bryostatin-1 (BRY) and novel histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) on HIV-reactivation and on cellular phenotype. The lymphocyte (J89GFP) or monocyte/macrophage (THP89GFP) latently infected cell lines were treated with BRY, panobinostat (PNB) and romidepsin (RMD) either alone or in combination. Thus, the effect on the viral reactivation was evaluated. We calculated the combination index for each drug combination; the BRY/HDACIs showed a synergistic HIV-reactivation profile in the majority of the combinations tested, whereas non-synergistic effects were observed when PNB was mixed with RMD. Indeed, the 75% effective concentrations of BRY, PNB and RMD were reduced in these combinations. Moreover, primary CD4 T cells treated with such drug combinations presented similar activation and proliferation profiles in comparison with single drug treated cells. Summing up, combinations between BRY, PNB and/or RMD presented a synergistic profile by inducing virus expression in HIV-latently infected cells, rendering these combinations an attractive novel and safe option for future clinical trials.

  8. Synergistic effect of lidocaine with pingyangmycin for treatment of venous malformation using a mouse spleen model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Nan; Chen, Yuan-Zheng; Mao, Kai-Ping; Fu, Yanjie; Lin, Qiang; Xue, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To explore whether lidocaine has the synergistic effect with pingyangmycin (PYM) in the venous malformations (VMs) treatment. Methods: The mouse spleen was chosen as a VM model and injected with different concentration of lidocaine or PYM or jointly treated with lidocaine and PYM. After 2, 5, 8 or 14 days, the mouse spleen tissues were acquired for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, TUNEL assay and quantitative RT-PCR analysis to examine the toxicological effects of lidocaine and PYM on splenic vascular endothelial cells. Results: 0.4% of lidocaine mildly promoted the apoptosis of endothelial cells, while 2 mg/ml PYM significantly elevated the apoptotic ratios. However, the combination of 0.2% lidocaine and 0.5 mg/ml PYM notably elevated the apoptotic ratios of splenic cells and severely destroyed the configuration of spleen, compared to those of treatment with 0.5 mg/ml PYM alone. Conclusion: Lidocaine exerts synergistic effects with PYM in promoting the apoptosis of mouse splenic endothelial cells, indicating that lidocaine possibly promotes the therapeutic effects of PYM in VMs treatment via synergistically enhancing the apoptosis of endothelial cells of malformed venous lesions. PMID:24966943

  9. In vitro synergistic effects of fisetin and norfloxacin against aquatic isolates of Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Ruan, Jing; Xu, Ning; Yang, Yibin; Ai, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common pathogenic bacterium that can cause infections in both humans and animals. It can cause a range of diseases, from slight wound infections to life-threatening bacteraemia and pneumonia. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance has limited the treatment of the diseases caused by the bacterium to a great extent. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial strategies against this pathogen. Synergistic strategy is a new approach to treat the infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. In this paper, we isolated and identified the first multi-resistant pathogenic Serratia marcescens strain from diseased soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) in China. We then performed a checkerboard assay; the results showed that out of 10 tested natural products fisetin had synergistic effects against S. marcescens when combined with norfloxacin. The time-kill curve assay further confirmed the results of the checkerboard assay. We found that this novel synergistic effect could significantly reduce the dosage of norfloxacin against S. marcescens. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Synergistic interactions of ecosystem services: florivorous pest control boosts crop yield increase through insect pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Insect pollination and pest control are pivotal functions sustaining global food production. However, they have mostly been studied in isolation and how they interactively shape crop yield remains largely unexplored. Using controlled field experiments, we found strong synergistic effects of insect pollination and simulated pest control on yield quantity and quality. Their joint effect increased yield by 23%, with synergistic effects contributing 10%, while their single contributions were 7% and 6%, respectively. The potential economic benefit for a farmer from the synergistic effects (12%) was 1.8 times greater than their individual contributions (7% each). We show that the principal underlying mechanism was a pronounced pest-induced reduction in flower lifetime, resulting in a strong reduction in the number of pollinator visits a flower receives during its lifetime. Our findings highlight the importance of non-additive interactions among ecosystem services (ES) when valuating, mapping or predicting them and reveal fundamental implications for ecosystem management and policy aimed at maximizing ES for sustainable agriculture. PMID:26865304

  11. Synergistic inhibition of cancer cell proliferation with a combination of δ-tocotrienol and ferulic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitsuka, Takahiro, E-mail: eitsuka@nupals.ac.jp [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Tatewaki, Naoto; Nishida, Hiroshi; Kurata, Tadao [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo [Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • δ-Tocotrienol (δ-T3) and ferulic acid (FA) synergistically inhibit cancer cell growth. • The combination of δ-T3 and FA induces G1 arrest by up-regulating p21. • The synergy is attributed to an increase in the cellular concentration of δ-T3 by FA. - Abstract: Rice bran consists of many functional compounds and thus much attention has been focused on the health benefits of its components. Here, we investigated the synergistic inhibitory effects of its components, particularly δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3) and ferulic acid (FA), against the proliferation of an array of cancer cells, including DU-145 (prostate cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and PANC-1 (pancreatic cancer) cells. The combination of δ-T3 and FA markedly reduced cell proliferation relative to δ-T3 alone, and FA had no effect when used alone. Although δ-T3 induced G1 arrest by up-regulating p21 in PANC-1 cells, more cells accumulated in G1 phase with the combination of δ-T3 and FA. This synergistic effect was attributed to an increase in the cellular concentration of δ-T3 by FA. Our results suggest that the combination of δ-T3 and FA may present a new strategy for cancer prevention and therapy.

  12. Robot- and computer-assisted craniotomy (CRANIO): from active systems to synergistic man-machine interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Cruz, V; Follmann, A; Popovic, A; Bast, P; Wu, T; Heger, S; Engelhardt, M; Schmieder, K; Radermacher, K

    2010-01-01

    Computer and robot assistance in craniotomy/craniectomy procedures is intended to increase precision and efficiency of the removal of calvarial tumours, enabling the preoperative design and manufacturing of the corresponding implant. In the framework of the CRANIO project, an active robotic system was developed to automate the milling processes based on a predefined resection planning. This approach allows for a very efficient milling process, but lacks feedback of the intra-operative process to the surgeon. To better integrate the surgeon into the process, a new teleoperated synergistic architecture was designed. This enables the surgeon to realize changes during the procedure and use their human cognitive capabilities. The preoperative planning information is used as guidance for the user interacting with the system through a master-slave architecture. In this article, the CRANIO system is presented together with this new synergistic approach. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the accuracy of the system in active and synergistic modes for the bone milling procedure. The laboratory studies showed the general feasibility of the new concept for the selected medical procedure and determined the accuracy of the system. Although the integration of the surgeon partially reduces the efficiency of the milling process compared with a purely active (automatic) milling, it provides more feedback and flexibility to the user during the intra-operative procedure.

  13. Synergistic modulation by chloride and organic phosphates of hemoglobin from bear (Ursus arctos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, M; Condo, S G; Scatena, R; Clementi, M E; Baroni, S; Sletten, S N; Brix, O; Giardina, B

    1994-03-11

    The oxygen binding properties of hemoglobin (Hb) from brown bear (Ursus arctos) have been studied focussing on the effect of heterotropic ligands, and the behaviour has been compared with that of human HbA, taken as a prototype of mammalian Hbs. It has been observed that in bear Hb chloride ions and 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid (Gri(2,3)P2) can modulate the oxygen affinity in a synergistic way such that their individual effect is enhanced whenever they are both present in saturating amounts. The thermodynamic analysis of such a feature indicates that in bear Hb there are two classes of chloride binding sites, one acting synergistically with Gri(2,3)P2 and another one, which likely overlaps with the organic phosphate interaction cleft, and is therefore fully operative only in the absence of Gri(2,3)P2. The behaviour of the last site is similar to that observed in human HbA, where the effect of Cl- and Gri(2,3)P2 is mutually exclusive. The interaction energy between chloride and Gri(2,3)P2 synergistic binding sites appears to be O2-linked so that the interplay may have a relevant physiological role in modulating the oxygen transport in brown bear. This behaviour is associated with a marked pH-dependence of the oxygenation enthalpy in bear Hb, such that under acidotic and hypercloruremic conditions, oxygen supply to peripheral tissues could be maintained essentially unaltered even under low temperature conditions.

  14. Synergistic action of fatty acids, sulphides and stilbene against acaricide-resistant Rhipicephalus microplus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceo-Medina, G N; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Borges-Argaez, R

    2016-09-15

    Six compounds in a methanolic extract of Petiveria alliacea stem (cis-stilbene; benzyl disulphide; benzyl trisulphide; and methyl esters of hexadecanoic acid, octadecadienoic acid and octadecenoic acid) are known to exercise acaricide activity against cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus larvae and adults. The synergistic effect of 57 combinations of these six compounds on acaricide activity against R. microplus was evaluated. Larvae immersion tests produced the lethal concentrations needed to kill 50% (LC 50 ) and 99% (LC 99 ) of the population. Adult immersion tests produced rates (%) for mortality, oviposition inhibition and eclosion inhibition. Individually, none of the compounds (1% concentration) exhibited acaricide activity (mortality ≤2.3%). When combined, however, nine mixtures exhibited a synergistic increase in activity, with high mortality rates (≥92%) in larvae. Values for LC 50 ranged from 0.07 to 0.51% and those for LC 99 from 0.66 to 5.16%. Thirty six compound mixtures had no significant activity (mortality ≤30%) against larvae. Two mixtures exhibited synergism against adults, with high rates (≥92%) of oviposition inhibition. The mixtures based on the benzyl disulphide+benzyl trisulphide pairing produced a synergistic effect against acaricide-resistant R. microplus larva and adults, and are therefore the most promising combination for controlling this ubiquitous ectoparasite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Room temperature phosphorescence of five PAHs in a synergistic mesoporous silica nanoparticle-deoxycholate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jun; Li, Xiaomei; Feng, Feng; Pan, Qiliang; Bai, Yunfeng; Zhao, Jianguo

    2017-05-01

    A synergistic mesoporous silica nanoparticle-sodium deoxycholate (mPS-NaDC) substrate was developed for room temperature phosphorimetry. The synergistic substrate exhibited rapid and strong RTP-inducing ability against temperature variation. NaDC might adsorb on the inner surface of mPS pore by possible hydrogen bonding and protected the triplet state of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with different molecular sizes. Two mPSs named LPMS1 and LPMS2 with pore size of 3.05 and 3.83 nm were synthesized and optimized in inducing RTP, and the latter, LPMS2, was selected as an ideal substrate because of its stronger protection ability to the triplet and good stability. Dibromopropane and cyclohexane were also used as assistant phosphorescence-inducers. All results demonstrated the feasibility and application potential of synergistic mPS-NaDC substrate in phosphorimetry. The interaction detail of NaDC and inner surface of selected mPS still needs to be explored in future.

  16. Sliding Mode Control of Induction Motor Phase Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, R.B.; Hattel, T.; Bork, J

    1995-01-01

    Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts.......Sliding mode control of induction motor phase currents are investigated through development of two control concepts....

  17. Recent Declines in Induction of Labor by Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... induction rates at 35–38 weeks varied by race and Hispanic origin. The largest changes for all ... 4 ). Induction rates were down for all three race and ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic white (down 19%), ...

  18. Factors influencing callus induction and plant regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2012-01-12

    ). Effect of basal medium on callus induction and plant regeneration. Three different kinds of basal mediums (MS, N6 and SH) were used to investigate their effects on callus induction and regeneration. Significant differences ...

  19. Self-Tuning Speed Regulator for CVC Induction Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, N.; Rasmussen, Henrik; Knudsen, Torben

    1994-01-01

    A self-tuning speed regulator for a current vector controlled induction motor drive has been designed.......A self-tuning speed regulator for a current vector controlled induction motor drive has been designed....

  20. Co-administration of morphine and gabapentin leads to dose dependent synergistic effects in a rat model of postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    dose combinations and investigate whether co-administration leads to synergistic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The pharmacodynamic effects of morphine (1, 3 and 7 mg/kg), gabapentin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or their combination (9 combinations in total) were evaluated in the rat...... plantar incision model using an electronic von Frey device. The percentage of maximum possible effect (%MPE) and the area under the response curve (AUC) were used for evaluation of the antihyperalgesic effects of the drugs. Identification of synergistic interactions was based on Loewe additivity response...... surface analyses. The combination of morphine and gabapentin resulted in synergistic antihyperalgesic effects in a preclinical model of postoperative pain. The synergistic interactions were found to be dose dependent and the increase in observed response compared to the theoretical additive response...

  1. Response surface analysis of synergistic interactions of morphine and gabapentin in a rat model of postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Theodoros; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    on the AIC criterion. Result The combination of morphine and gabapentin resulted in synergistic antihyperalgesic effects. The synergistic interactions were found to be dose dependent and the increase in observed response compared to the theoretical additive response ranged between 26 and 58...... % for the synergistic doses. Conclusions The finding of dose-dependent synergistic interactions might indicate that there is a high potential for gabapentin and morphine to be used in combination in the clinic, in order to optimize postoperative pain management and minimize side effects of morphine. 1. Brennan TJ......, Vandermeulen EP, Gebhart GF. Characterization of a rat model of incisional pain. Pain [Internet]. 1996 Mar;64(3):493–501. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8783314 2. Greco W, Bravo G, Parsons J. The search for synergy: A critical review from a responce surface perspective. Pharmacol Rev...

  2. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonists as induction therapy after heart transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Gustafsson, Finn; Gluud, Christian

    2008-01-01

    About half of the transplantation centers use induction therapy after heart transplantation. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (IL-2Ras) are used increasingly for induction therapy. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials assessing IL-2Ras.......About half of the transplantation centers use induction therapy after heart transplantation. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (IL-2Ras) are used increasingly for induction therapy. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials assessing IL-2Ras....

  3. Pulsed Inductive Plasma Acceleration: Performance Optimization Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization criteria for pulsed inductive plasma acceleration are developed using an acceleration model consisting of a set of coupled circuit equations describing the time-varying current in the thruster and a one-dimensional momentum equation. The model is nondimensionalized, resulting in the identification of several scaling parameters that are varied to optimize the performance of the thruster. The analysis reveals the benefits of underdamped current waveforms and leads to a performance optimization criterion that requires the matching of the natural period of the discharge and the acceleration timescale imposed by the inertia of the working gas. In addition, the performance increases when a greater fraction of the propellant is initially located nearer to the inductive acceleration coil. While the dimensionless model uses a constant temperature formulation in calculating performance, the scaling parameters that yield the optimum performance are shown to be relatively invariant if a self-consistent description of energy in the plasma is instead used.

  4. Multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Matthias; Leonhardt, Steffen; Heimann, Konrad; Bernstein, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Non-contact heart and lung activity monitoring would be a desirable supplement to conventional monitoring techniques. Based on the potential of non-contact magnetic induction measurements, requirements for an adequate monitoring system were estimated. This formed the basis for the development of the presented extendable multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS). Special focus was given to the dynamic behaviour and simultaneous multichannel measurements, so that the system allows for up to 14 receiver coils working simultaneously at 6 excitation frequencies. Moreover, a real-time software concept for online signal processing visualization in combination with a fast software demodulation is presented. Finally, first steps towards a clinical application are pointed out and technical performance as well as first in vivo measurements are presented. This paper covers some aspects previously presented in Steffen and Leonhardt (2007 Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Electrical Bioimpedance and the 8th Conf. on Electrical Impedance Tomography, Graz 2007)

  5. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  6. Meta-learning in decision tree induction

    CERN Document Server

    Grąbczewski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on different variants of decision tree induction but also describes  the meta-learning approach in general which is applicable to other types of machine learning algorithms. The book discusses different variants of decision tree induction and represents a useful source of information to readers wishing to review some of the techniques used in decision tree learning, as well as different ensemble methods that involve decision trees. It is shown that the knowledge of different components used within decision tree learning needs to be systematized to enable the system to generate and evaluate different variants of machine learning algorithms with the aim of identifying the top-most performers or potentially the best one. A unified view of decision tree learning enables to emulate different decision tree algorithms simply by setting certain parameters. As meta-learning requires running many different processes with the aim of obtaining performance results, a detailed description of the experimen...

  7. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Kessler, Olaf; Hoffmann, Franz

    1999-01-01

    after the deposition of TiN hard coatings on steel substrates. Influences of both the coating properties and the substrate properties are discussed in dependence on the parameters of induction heating. Thereby the heating time, heating atmosphere and the power input into the specimen are changed......The deposition of hard coatings with CVD-processes is commonly used to improve the wear resistance e.g. of tool steels in forming. The advantages of CVD are undisputed (high deposition rates with simple equipment, excellent coating properties). Nevertheless, the disadvantage of the CVD....... The effect of induction surface hardening on the properties of the coating-substrate-systems is mainly characterized using investigations of microstructure and chemical composition as well as measurements of hardness and residual stresses in dependence on the distance from the surface. Furthermore...

  8. Induction soldering of photovoltaic system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaria, Shashwat; de Leon, Briccio

    2015-11-17

    A method comprises positioning a pair of photovoltaic wafers in a side-by-side arrangement. An interconnect is placed on the pair of wafers such that the interconnect overlaps both wafers of the pair, solder material being provided between the interconnect and the respective wafers. A solder head is then located adjacent the interconnect, and the coil is energized to effect inductive heating of the solder material. The solder head comprises an induction coil shaped to define an eye, and a magnetic field concentrator located at least partially in the eye of the coil. The magnetic field concentrator defines a passage extending axially through the eye of the coil, and may be of a material with a high magnetic permeability.

  9. Backstepping Strategy for Induction Motor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.; Børsting, H.

    2000-01-01

    Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping with a s......Using backstepping, which is a recursive nonlinear design method, a novel approach to control of induction motors is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear controller for the torque and the amplitude of the field. A combination of nonlinear damping and observer backstepping...... with a simple flux observer is used in the design. Assuming known motor parameters the design achieves stability with guaranteed region of attraction. It is also shown how a conventional field oriented controller may be obtained by omitting parts of the nonlinear controller....

  10. Linear induction accelerators for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.; Bayless, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Electron beams and x-rays have a variety of industrial and commercial applications including the sterilization of food, medical products and sludge, the detoxification of pollutant gases, the crosslinking and polymerization of plastics, the alteration of gemstone color, oil well logging, and cancer therapy. These requirements are presently met by chemical techniques, radioisotopes, electrostatic accelerators, or RF accelerators. Induction accelerators can be used in a number of these applications, with significant advantages in cost, efficiency, reliability and power handling capability. In this paper, the authors briefly discuss the principles of the induction accelerator and describe the development program. The goals of their program are to improve system reliability and to reduce system cost. An accelerator presently under construction which embodies a number of industrial improvements will be described. Unique features are a low cost accelerator design, and an SCR switched, tubeless pulsed power system

  11. Comparative Study on the Synergistic Action of Differentially Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles with β-Cephem Antibiotics and Chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari, N.; Thomas, T.K.; Nair, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic activity of cephem antibiotics with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was investigated. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized through biological and chemical method. The combined action of β-lactam cephem antibiotics with both green and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles enhances the antibacterial activity against wide range of antibiotic resistant pathogens and making them applicable to medical devices and microbial control systems. Synergistic activity of chloramphenicol with silver nanoparticles was also studied.

  12. Use of sulfoxides as novel synergists in the solvent extraction of uranium (VI) by various substituted diketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, J.P.; Kedari, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    The role of symmetric long chain dialkyl sulfoxides as synergists in the solvent extraction of uranyl ion into toluene with heptafluoro dimethyl octanedione (HFOD) from nitric acid solutions has been investigated. The synergistic reactivity of different sulfoxides follows the order : DPSO < DBSO < DISO < DHSO < BESO. Five β-diketones namely HTFA, HTTA, HFOD, HPMBP, HPMTFP are studied in combination with bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfoxide (BESO) to reveal their extraction ability. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Induction of Labour at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Induction of labour is always a therapeutic challenge in obstetrics. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence, indications and outcome of induction of labour in our obstetric unit. Study Design and Setting: Descriptive study involving 205 patients admitted for induction of labour between January ...

  14. Calculation of Leakage Inductance for High Frequency Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Jun, Zhang; Hurley, William Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Frequency dependent leakage inductance is often observed. High frequency eddy current effects cause a reduction in leakage inductance. The proximity effect between adjacent layers is responsible for the reduction of leakage inductance. This paper gives a detailed analysis of high frequency leakag...

  15. 14 CFR 125.181 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.181 Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 125.181...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1107 Induction system filters. If an air filter is used to protect the engine against foreign... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system filters. 23.1107 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 121.283 - Induction system ice prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Induction system ice prevention. A means for preventing the malfunctioning of each engine due to ice accumulation in the engine air induction system must be provided for each airplane. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ice prevention. 121.283...

  18. Prophage Induction by Ultraviolet Light in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berenstein, D.

    1986-01-01

    UV-induction of prophage P78 of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus increased with the UV-dose given to the lysogenic strain from the spontaneous induction frequency of about 0.8% to a maximal frequency of 10%. This 10- to 20-fold increase of induction frequency, as measured by the number of infective ce...

  19. Is spacing really the "friend of induction"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Inductive learning takes place when people learn a new concept or category by observing a variety of exemplars. Kornell and Bjork (2008) asked participants to learn new painting styles either by presenting different paintings of the same artist consecutively (massed presentation) or by mixing paintings of different artists (spaced presentation). In their second experiment, Kornell and Bjork (2008) showed with a final style recognition test, that spacing resulted in better inductive learning than massing. Also, by using this style recognition test, they ruled out the possibility that spacing merely resulted in a better memory for the labels of the newly learned painting styles. The findings from Kornell and Bjork's (2008) second experiment are important because they show that the benefit of spaced learning generalizes to complex learning tasks and outcomes, and that it is not confined to rote memory learning. However, the findings from Kornell and Bjork's (2008) second experiment have never been replicated. In the present study we performed an exact and high-powered replication of Kornell and Bjork's (2008) second experiment with a Web-based sample. Such a replication contributes to establish the reliability of the original finding and hence to more conclusive evidence of the spacing effect in inductive learning. The findings from the present replication attempt revealed a medium-sized advantage of spacing over massing in inductive learning, which was comparable to the original effect in the experiment by Kornell and Bjork (2008). Also, the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the effect sizes from both experiments overlapped considerably. Hence, the findings from the present replication experiment and the original experiment clearly reinforce each other.

  20. Is spacing really the friend of induction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eVerkoeijen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inductive learning takes place when people learn a new concept or category by observing a variety of exemplars. Kornell and Bjork (2008 asked participants to learn new painting styles either by presenting different paintings of the same artist consecutively (massed presentation or by mixing paintings of different artists (spaced presentation. In their second experiment, Kornell and Bjork showed with a final style recognition test, that spacing resulted in better inductive learning than massing. Also, by using this style recognition test, they ruled out the possibility that spacing merely resulted in a better memory for the labels of the newly learned painting styles. The findings from Kornell and Bjork’s second experiment are important because they show that the benefit of spaced learning generalizes to complex learning tasks and outcomes, and that it is not confined to rote memory learning. However, the findings from Kornell and Bjork’s second experiment have never been replicated. In the present study we performed an exact and high-powered replication of Kornell and Bjork’s second experiment with a Web-based sample. Such a replication contributes to establish the reliability of the original finding and hence to more conclusive evidence of the spacing effect in inductive learning. The findings from the present replication attempt revealed a medium-sized advantage of spacing over massing in inductive learning, which was comparable to the original effect in the experiment by Kornell and Bjork. Also, the 95% confidence intervals of the effect sizes from both experiments overlapped considerably. Hence, the findings from the present replication experiment and the original experiment clearly reinforce each other.