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Sample records for syndrome-like features reveals

  1. 1p13.2 deletion displays clinical features overlapping Noonan syndrome, likely related to NRAS gene haploinsufficiency

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    Natália Duarte Linhares

    Full Text Available Abstract Deletion-induced hemizygosity may unmask deleterious autosomal recessive variants and be a cause of the phenotypic variability observed in microdeletion syndromes. We performed complete exome sequencing (WES analysis to examine this possibility in a patient with 1p13.2 microdeletion. Since the patient displayed clinical features suggestive of Noonan Syndrome (NS, we also used WES to rule out the presence of pathogenic variants in any of the genes associated with the different types of NS. We concluded that the clinical findings could be attributed solely to the 1p13.2 haploinsufficiency. Retrospective analysis of other nine reported patients with 1p13.2 microdeletions showed that six of them also presented some characteristics of NS. In all these cases, the deleted segment included the NRAS gene. Gain-of-function mutations of NRAS gene are causally related to NS type 6. Thus, it is conceivable that NRAS haploinsufficiency and gain-of-function mutations may have similar clinical consequences. The same phenomenon has been described for two other genes belonging to the Ras/MAPK pathway: MAP2K2 and SHOC2. In conclusion, we here report genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with chromosome 1p13.2 microdeletions and we propose that NRAS may be a critical gene for the NS characteristics in the patients.

  2. TBX1 mutation identified by exome sequencing in a Japanese family with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome-like craniofacial features and hypocalcemia.

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    Tsutomu Ogata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although TBX1 mutations have been identified in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS-like phenotypes including characteristic craniofacial features, cardiovascular anomalies, hypoparathyroidism, and thymic hypoplasia, the frequency of TBX1 mutations remains rare in deletion-negative patients. Thus, it would be reasonable to perform a comprehensive genetic analysis in deletion-negative patients with 22q11.2DS-like phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied three subjects with craniofacial features and hypocalcemia (group 1, two subjects with craniofacial features alone (group 2, and three subjects with normal phenotype within a single Japanese family. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis excluded chromosome 22q11.2 deletion, and genomewide array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed no copy number change specific to group 1 or groups 1+2. However, exome sequencing identified a heterozygous TBX1 frameshift mutation (c.1253delA, p.Y418fsX459 specific to groups 1+2, as well as six missense variants and two in-frame microdeletions specific to groups 1+2 and two missense variants specific to group 1. The TBX1 mutation resided at exon 9C and was predicted to produce a non-functional truncated protein missing the nuclear localization signal and most of the transactivation domain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical features in groups 1+2 are well explained by the TBX1 mutation, while the clinical effects of the remaining variants are largely unknown. Thus, the results exemplify the usefulness of exome sequencing in the identification of disease-causing mutations in familial disorders. Furthermore, the results, in conjunction with the previous data, imply that TBX1 isoform C is the biologically essential variant and that TBX1 mutations are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum, including most of 22q11.2DS phenotypes.

  3. A ring D chromosome in association with Down's syndrome-like phenotype

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    A. Wajntal

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available The case of a ten-years-old mentally retarded girl with Down's syndrome-like features whose chromosome analysis revealed an unusual mosaicism including 10% mitosis with a ring chromosome replacing a D chromosome is reported. The clinical features of the patient were considered similar to those described by Jacobsen (1966 and Emberger et al. (1971 who interpreted the ring chromosome present in their patients as being chromosome 15.

  4. Discriminative topological features reveal biological network mechanisms

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    Levovitz Chaya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent genomic and bioinformatic advances have motivated the development of numerous network models intending to describe graphs of biological, technological, and sociological origin. In most cases the success of a model has been evaluated by how well it reproduces a few key features of the real-world data, such as degree distributions, mean geodesic lengths, and clustering coefficients. Often pairs of models can reproduce these features with indistinguishable fidelity despite being generated by vastly different mechanisms. In such cases, these few target features are insufficient to distinguish which of the different models best describes real world networks of interest; moreover, it is not clear a priori that any of the presently-existing algorithms for network generation offers a predictive description of the networks inspiring them. Results We present a method to assess systematically which of a set of proposed network generation algorithms gives the most accurate description of a given biological network. To derive discriminative classifiers, we construct a mapping from the set of all graphs to a high-dimensional (in principle infinite-dimensional "word space". This map defines an input space for classification schemes which allow us to state unambiguously which models are most descriptive of a given network of interest. Our training sets include networks generated from 17 models either drawn from the literature or introduced in this work. We show that different duplication-mutation schemes best describe the E. coli genetic network, the S. cerevisiae protein interaction network, and the C. elegans neuronal network, out of a set of network models including a linear preferential attachment model and a small-world model. Conclusions Our method is a first step towards systematizing network models and assessing their predictability, and we anticipate its usefulness for a number of communities.

  5. Featured Image: Revealing Hidden Objects with Color

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    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    Stunning color astronomical images can often be the motivation for astronomers to continue slogging through countless data files, calculations, and simulations as we seek to understand the mysteries of the universe. But sometimes the stunning images can, themselves, be the source of scientific discovery. This is the case with the below image of Lynds Dark Nebula 673, located in the Aquila constellation, that was captured with the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory by a team of scientists led by Travis Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage). After creating the image with a novel color-composite imaging method that reveals faint H emission (visible in red in both images here), Rector and collaborators identified the presence of a dozen new Herbig-Haro objects small cloud patches that are caused when material is energetically flung out from newly born stars. The image adapted above shows three of the new objects, HH 118789, aligned with two previously known objects, HH 32 and 332 suggesting they are driven by the same source. For more beautiful images and insight into the authors discoveries, check out the article linked below!Full view of Lynds Dark Nebula 673. Click for the larger view this beautiful composite image deserves! [T.A. Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage) and H. Schweiker (WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF)]CitationT. A. Rector et al 2018 ApJ 852 13. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9ce1

  6. Germline mutation of CBL is associated with moyamoya disease in a child with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Noonan syndrome-like disorder.

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    Hyakuna, Nobuyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Higa, Takeshi; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Wang, Xinan; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Germline mutations in CBL have been identified in patients with Noonan syndrome-like phenotypes, while juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) harbors duplication of a germline CBL, resulting in acquired isodisomy. The association between moyamoya disease and Noonan syndrome carrying a PTPN11 mutation has recently been reported. We present a patient with JMML who developed moyamoya disease and neovascular glaucoma. Our patient exhibited a Noonan syndrome-like phenotype. Genetic analysis revealed acquired isodisomy and a germline heterozygous mutation in CBL. This is a rare case of CBL mutation associated with moyamoya disease. Prolonged RAS pathway signaling may cause disruption of cerebrovascular development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The structure of Lactococcus lactis thioredoxin reductase reveals molecular features of photo-oxidative damage

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    Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bang, Maria Blanner; Rykær, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent homodimeric flavoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) provides reducing equivalents to thioredoxin, a key regulator of various cellular redox processes. Crystal structures of photo-inactivated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis have...... been determined. These structures reveal novel molecular features that provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the sensitivity of this enzyme toward visible light. We propose that a pocket on the si-face of the isoalloxazine ring accommodates oxygen that reacts with photo-excited FAD...... thus be a widespread feature among bacterial TrxR with the described characteristics, which affords applications in clinical photo-therapy of drug-resistant bacteria....

  8. Imaging-genomics reveals driving pathways of MRI derived volumetric tumor phenotype features in Glioblastoma

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    Grossmann, Patrick; Gutman, David A.; Dunn, William D. Jr; Holder, Chad A.; Aerts, Hugo J. W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) tumors exhibit strong phenotypic differences that can be quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but the underlying biological drivers of these imaging phenotypes remain largely unknown. An Imaging-Genomics analysis was performed to reveal the mechanistic associations between MRI derived quantitative volumetric tumor phenotype features and molecular pathways. One hundred fourty one patients with presurgery MRI and survival data were included in our analysis. Volumetric features were defined, including the necrotic core (NE), contrast-enhancement (CE), abnormal tumor volume assessed by post-contrast T1w (tumor bulk or TB), tumor-associated edema based on T2-FLAIR (ED), and total tumor volume (TV), as well as ratios of these tumor components. Based on gene expression where available (n = 91), pathway associations were assessed using a preranked gene set enrichment analysis. These results were put into context of molecular subtypes in GBM and prognostication. Volumetric features were significantly associated with diverse sets of biological processes (FDR < 0.05). While NE and TB were enriched for immune response pathways and apoptosis, CE was associated with signal transduction and protein folding processes. ED was mainly enriched for homeostasis and cell cycling pathways. ED was also the strongest predictor of molecular GBM subtypes (AUC = 0.61). CE was the strongest predictor of overall survival (C-index = 0.6; Noether test, p = 4x10 −4 ). GBM volumetric features extracted from MRI are significantly enriched for information about the biological state of a tumor that impacts patient outcomes. Clinical decision-support systems could exploit this information to develop personalized treatment strategies on the basis of noninvasive imaging. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2659-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  9. Revealing metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment by linear programming based feature selection.

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    Wang, Yong; Wu, Qiao-Feng; Chen, Chen; Wu, Ling-Yun; Yan, Xian-Zhong; Yu, Shu-Guang; Zhang, Xiang-Sun; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture has been practiced in China for thousands of years as part of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and has gradually accepted in western countries as an alternative or complementary treatment. However, the underlying mechanism of acupuncture, especially whether there exists any difference between varies acupoints, remains largely unknown, which hinders its widespread use. In this study, we develop a novel Linear Programming based Feature Selection method (LPFS) to understand the mechanism of acupuncture effect, at molecular level, by revealing the metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment. Specifically, we generate and investigate the high-throughput metabolic profiles of acupuncture treatment at several acupoints in human. To select the subsets of metabolites that best characterize the acupuncture effect for each meridian point, an optimization model is proposed to identify biomarkers from high-dimensional metabolic data from case and control samples. Importantly, we use nearest centroid as the prototype to simultaneously minimize the number of selected features and the leave-one-out cross validation error of classifier. We compared the performance of LPFS to several state-of-the-art methods, such as SVM recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) and sparse multinomial logistic regression approach (SMLR). We find that our LPFS method tends to reveal a small set of metabolites with small standard deviation and large shifts, which exactly serves our requirement for good biomarker. Biologically, several metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment are revealed and serve as the candidates for further mechanism investigation. Also biomakers derived from five meridian points, Zusanli (ST36), Liangmen (ST21), Juliao (ST3), Yanglingquan (GB34), and Weizhong (BL40), are compared for their similarity and difference, which provide evidence for the specificity of acupoints. Our result demonstrates that metabolic profiling might be a promising method to

  10. Risk Factors for the Development of Refeeding Syndrome-Like Hypophosphatemia in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

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    Igarashi, Aiko; Okuno, Takashi; Ohta, Genrei; Tokuriki, Shuko; Ohshima, Yusei

    2017-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbance including hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia upon reinstitution of nutrition in severely malnourished patients. The present study sought to identify the risk factors for the development of refeeding syndrome-like metabolic disturbance in very low birth weight infants. The correlations of severe hypophosphatemia with the serum levels of potassium and ionized calcium, daily calorie and phosphate intake, and umbilical cord blood flow on ultrasonography were analyzed in 49 very low birth weight infants. Fifteen infants (36%) presented with hypophosphatemia during the first postnatal week. Hypophosphatemia was significantly associated with birth weight z score (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.47; p = 0.034) and umbilical artery resistance index (odds ratio, 7.72 E -04; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 E -06-0.523; p = 0.031). Multiple regression analysis revealed that umbilical artery resistance index was independently associated with hypophosphatemia. Umbilical artery resistance index may serve as a useful marker for future development of refeeding syndrome-like hypophosphatemia in very low birth weight infants. Close monitoring of serum phosphorus and potassium levels and early intervention are important for the management of very low birth weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction due to placental dysfunction.

  11. Risk Factors for the Development of Refeeding Syndrome-Like Hypophosphatemia in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Aiko Igarashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Refeeding syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbance including hypophosphatemia and hypokalemia upon reinstitution of nutrition in severely malnourished patients. Objective. The present study sought to identify the risk factors for the development of refeeding syndrome-like metabolic disturbance in very low birth weight infants. Methods. The correlations of severe hypophosphatemia with the serum levels of potassium and ionized calcium, daily calorie and phosphate intake, and umbilical cord blood flow on ultrasonography were analyzed in 49 very low birth weight infants. Results. Fifteen infants (36% presented with hypophosphatemia during the first postnatal week. Hypophosphatemia was significantly associated with birth weight z score (odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–2.47; p=0.034 and umbilical artery resistance index (odds ratio, 7.72E−04; 95% confidence interval, 1.14E−06–0.523; p=0.031. Multiple regression analysis revealed that umbilical artery resistance index was independently associated with hypophosphatemia. Conclusions. Umbilical artery resistance index may serve as a useful marker for future development of refeeding syndrome-like hypophosphatemia in very low birth weight infants. Close monitoring of serum phosphorus and potassium levels and early intervention are important for the management of very low birth weight infants with intrauterine growth restriction due to placental dysfunction.

  12. The construction of a library of synthetic promoters revealed some specific features of strong Streptomyces promoters

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    Seghezzi, Nicolas; Amar, Patrick; Købmann, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces are bacteria of industrial interest whose genome contains more than 73% of bases GC. In order to define, in these GC-rich bacteria, specific sequence features of strong promoters, a library of synthetic promoters of various sequence composition was constructed in Streptomyces. To do so...... cloned into the promoter-probe plasmid pIJ487 just upstream of the promoter-less aphII gene that confers resistance to neomycin. This synthetic promoter library was transformed into Streptomyces lividans, and the resulting transformants were screened for their ability to grow in the presence of different...... projects. Thirty-eight promoters were sequenced, and the sequences of the 14 weakest and 14 strongest promoters were compared using the WebLogo software with small sample correction. This comparison revealed that the −10 box, the −10 extended motif as well as the spacer of the strong Streptomyces promoters...

  13. Characterization of the autophagy marker protein Atg8 reveals atypical features of autophagy in Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Rahul Navale

    Full Text Available Conventional autophagy is a lysosome-dependent degradation process that has crucial homeostatic and regulatory functions in eukaryotic organisms. As malaria parasites must dispose a number of self and host cellular contents, we investigated if autophagy in malaria parasites is similar to the conventional autophagy. Genome wide analysis revealed a partial autophagy repertoire in Plasmodium, as homologs for only 15 of the 33 yeast autophagy proteins could be identified, including the autophagy marker Atg8. To gain insights into autophagy in malaria parasites, we investigated Plasmodium falciparum Atg8 (PfAtg8 employing techniques and conditions that are routinely used to study autophagy. Atg8 was similarly expressed and showed punctate localization throughout the parasite in both asexual and sexual stages; it was exclusively found in the pellet fraction as an integral membrane protein, which is in contrast to the yeast or mammalian Atg8 that is distributed among cytosolic and membrane fractions, and suggests for a constitutive autophagy. Starvation, the best known autophagy inducer, decreased PfAtg8 level by almost 3-fold compared to the normally growing parasites. Neither the Atg8-associated puncta nor the Atg8 expression level was significantly altered by treatment of parasites with routinely used autophagy inhibitors (cysteine (E64 and aspartic (pepstatin protease inhibitors, the kinase inhibitor 3-methyladenine, and the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine, indicating an atypical feature of autophagy. Furthermore, prolonged inhibition of the major food vacuole protease activity by E64 and pepstatin did not cause accumulation of the Atg8-associated puncta in the food vacuole, suggesting that autophagy is primarily not meant for degradative function in malaria parasites. Atg8 showed partial colocalization with the apicoplast; doxycycline treatment, which disrupts apicoplast, did not affect Atg8 localization, suggesting a role, but not exclusive, in

  14. In vivo genome-wide profiling of RNA secondary structure reveals novel regulatory features.

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    Ding, Yiliang; Tang, Yin; Kwok, Chun Kit; Zhang, Yu; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Assmann, Sarah M

    2014-01-30

    RNA structure has critical roles in processes ranging from ligand sensing to the regulation of translation, polyadenylation and splicing. However, a lack of genome-wide in vivo RNA structural data has limited our understanding of how RNA structure regulates gene expression in living cells. Here we present a high-throughput, genome-wide in vivo RNA structure probing method, structure-seq, in which dimethyl sulphate methylation of unprotected adenines and cytosines is identified by next-generation sequencing. Application of this method to Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings yielded the first in vivo genome-wide RNA structure map at nucleotide resolution for any organism, with quantitative structural information across more than 10,000 transcripts. Our analysis reveals a three-nucleotide periodic repeat pattern in the structure of coding regions, as well as a less-structured region immediately upstream of the start codon, and shows that these features are strongly correlated with translation efficiency. We also find patterns of strong and weak secondary structure at sites of alternative polyadenylation, as well as strong secondary structure at 5' splice sites that correlates with unspliced events. Notably, in vivo structures of messenger RNAs annotated for stress responses are poorly predicted in silico, whereas mRNA structures of genes related to cell function maintenance are well predicted. Global comparison of several structural features between these two categories shows that the mRNAs associated with stress responses tend to have more single-strandedness, longer maximal loop length and higher free energy per nucleotide, features that may allow these RNAs to undergo conformational changes in response to environmental conditions. Structure-seq allows the RNA structurome and its biological roles to be interrogated on a genome-wide scale and should be applicable to any organism.

  15. Comprehensive profiling of DNA methylation in colorectal cancer reveals subgroups with distinct clinicopathological and molecular features

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    Ang, Pei Woon; Soong, Richie; Loh, Marie; Liem, Natalia; Lim, Pei Li; Grieu, Fabienne; Vaithilingam, Aparna; Platell, Cameron; Yong, Wei Peng; Iacopetta, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Most previous studies of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC) have been conducted on a relatively small numbers of CpG sites. In the present study we performed comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of CRC with the aim of characterizing CIMP subgroups. DNA methylation at 1,505 CpG sites in 807 cancer-related genes was evaluated using the Illumina GoldenGate ® methylation array in 28 normal colonic mucosa and 91 consecutive CRC samples. Methylation data was analyzed using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. CIMP subgroups were compared for various clinicopathological and molecular features including patient age, tumor site, microsatellite instability (MSI), methylation at a consensus panel of CpG islands and mutations in BRAF and KRAS. A total of 202 CpG sites were differentially methylated between tumor and normal tissue. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of methylation data from these sites revealed the existence of three CRC subgroups referred to as CIMP-low (CIMP-L, 21% of cases), CIMP-mid (CIMP-M, 14%) and CIMP-high (CIMP-H, 65%). In comparison to CIMP-L tumors, CIMP-H tumors were more often located in the proximal colon and showed more frequent mutation of KRAS and BRAF (P < 0.001). Comprehensive DNA methylation profiling identified three CRC subgroups with distinctive clinicopathological and molecular features. This study suggests that both KRAS and BRAF mutations are involved with the CIMP-H pathway of CRC rather than with distinct CIMP subgroups

  16. Comprehensive profiling of DNA methylation in colorectal cancer reveals subgroups with distinct clinicopathological and molecular features

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    Vaithilingam Aparna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most previous studies of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP in colorectal cancer (CRC have been conducted on a relatively small numbers of CpG sites. In the present study we performed comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of CRC with the aim of characterizing CIMP subgroups. Methods DNA methylation at 1,505 CpG sites in 807 cancer-related genes was evaluated using the Illumina GoldenGate® methylation array in 28 normal colonic mucosa and 91 consecutive CRC samples. Methylation data was analyzed using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. CIMP subgroups were compared for various clinicopathological and molecular features including patient age, tumor site, microsatellite instability (MSI, methylation at a consensus panel of CpG islands and mutations in BRAF and KRAS. Results A total of 202 CpG sites were differentially methylated between tumor and normal tissue. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of methylation data from these sites revealed the existence of three CRC subgroups referred to as CIMP-low (CIMP-L, 21% of cases, CIMP-mid (CIMP-M, 14% and CIMP-high (CIMP-H, 65%. In comparison to CIMP-L tumors, CIMP-H tumors were more often located in the proximal colon and showed more frequent mutation of KRAS and BRAF (P Conclusions Comprehensive DNA methylation profiling identified three CRC subgroups with distinctive clinicopathological and molecular features. This study suggests that both KRAS and BRAF mutations are involved with the CIMP-H pathway of CRC rather than with distinct CIMP subgroups.

  17. Autonomous gliders reveal features of the water column associated with foraging by adelie penguins.

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    Kahl, L Alex; Schofield, Oscar; Fraser, William R

    2010-12-01

    Despite their strong dependence on the pelagic environment, seabirds and other top predators in polar marine ecosystems are generally studied during their reproductive phases in terrestrial environments. As a result, a significant portion of their life history is understudied which in turn has led to limited understanding. Recent advances in autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) technologies have allowed satellite-tagged Adélie penguins to guide AUV surveys of the marine environment at the Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site on the western Antarctic Peninsula. Near real-time data sent via Iridium satellites from the AUVs to a centralized control center thousands of miles away allowed scientists to adapt AUV sampling strategies to meet the changing conditions of the subsurface. Such AUV data revealed the water masses and fine-scale features associated with Adélie penguin foraging trips. During this study, the maximum concentration of chlorophyll was between 30 and 50 m deep. Encompassing this peak in the chlorophyll concentration, within the water-column, was a mixture of nutrient-laden Upper Circumpolar Deep (UCDW) and western Antarctic Peninsula winter water (WW). Together, data from the AUV survey and penguin dives reveal that 54% of foraging by Adélie penguins occurs immediately below the chlorophyll maximum. These data demonstrate how bringing together emerging technologies, such as AUVs, with established methods such as the radio-tagging of penguins can provide powerful tools for monitoring and hypothesis testing of previously inaccessible ecological processes. Ocean and atmosphere temperatures are expected to continue increasing along the western Antarctic Peninsula, which will undoubtedly affect regional marine ecosystems. New and emerging technologies such as unmanned underwater vehicles and individually mounted satellite tracking devices will provide the tools critical to documenting and understanding the widespread ecological change

  18. The Structure of Neurexin 1[alpha] Reveals Features Promoting a Role as Synaptic Organizer

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    Chen, Fang; Venugopal, Vandavasi; Murray, Beverly; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)

    2014-10-02

    {alpha}-Neurexins are essential synaptic adhesion molecules implicated in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The {alpha}-neurexin extracellular domain consists of six LNS domains interspersed by three EGF-like repeats and interacts with many different proteins in the synaptic cleft. To understand how {alpha}-neurexins might function as synaptic organizers, we solved the structure of the neurexin 1{alpha} extracellular domain (n1{alpha}) to 2.65 {angstrom}. The L-shaped molecule can be divided into a flexible repeat I (LNS1-EGF-A-LNS2), a rigid horseshoe-shaped repeat II (LNS3-EGF-B-LNS4) with structural similarity to so-called reelin repeats, and an extended repeat III (LNS5-EGF-B-LNS6) with controlled flexibility. A 2.95 {angstrom} structure of n1{alpha} carrying splice insert SS3 in LNS4 reveals that SS3 protrudes as a loop and does not alter the rigid arrangement of repeat II. The global architecture imposed by conserved structural features enables {alpha}-neurexins to recruit and organize proteins in distinct and variable ways, influenced by splicing, thereby promoting synaptic function.

  19. Hierarchical Neural Representation of Dreamed Objects Revealed by Brain Decoding with Deep Neural Network Features.

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    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2017-01-01

    Dreaming is generally thought to be generated by spontaneous brain activity during sleep with patterns common to waking experience. This view is supported by a recent study demonstrating that dreamed objects can be predicted from brain activity during sleep using statistical decoders trained with stimulus-induced brain activity. However, it remains unclear whether and how visual image features associated with dreamed objects are represented in the brain. In this study, we used a deep neural network (DNN) model for object recognition as a proxy for hierarchical visual feature representation, and DNN features for dreamed objects were analyzed with brain decoding of fMRI data collected during dreaming. The decoders were first trained with stimulus-induced brain activity labeled with the feature values of the stimulus image from multiple DNN layers. The decoders were then used to decode DNN features from the dream fMRI data, and the decoded features were compared with the averaged features of each object category calculated from a large-scale image database. We found that the feature values decoded from the dream fMRI data positively correlated with those associated with dreamed object categories at mid- to high-level DNN layers. Using the decoded features, the dreamed object category could be identified at above-chance levels by matching them to the averaged features for candidate categories. The results suggest that dreaming recruits hierarchical visual feature representations associated with objects, which may support phenomenal aspects of dream experience.

  20. Cell array-based intracellular localization screening reveals novel functional features of human chromosome 21 proteins

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    Kahlem Pascal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Chr21 results in Down's syndrome, a complex developmental and neurodegenerative disease. Molecular analysis of Down's syndrome, however, poses a particular challenge, because the aneuploid region of Chr21 contains many genes of unknown function. Subcellular localization of human Chr21 proteins may contribute to further understanding of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of the genes that code for these proteins. Following this idea, we used a transfected-cell array technique to perform a rapid and cost-effective analysis of the intracellular distribution of Chr 21 proteins. Results We chose 89 genes that were distributed over the majority of 21q, ranging from RBM11 (14.5 Mb to MCM3AP (46.6 Mb, with part of them expressed aberrantly in the Down's syndrome mouse model. Open reading frames of these genes were cloned into a mammalian expression vector with an amino-terminal His6 tag. All of the constructs were arrayed on glass slides and reverse transfected into HEK293T cells for protein expression. Co-localization detection using a set of organelle markers was carried out for each Chr21 protein. Here, we report the subcellular localization properties of 52 proteins. For 34 of these proteins, their localization is described for the first time. Furthermore, the alteration in cell morphology and growth as a result of protein over-expression for claudin-8 and claudin-14 genes has been characterized. Conclusion The cell array-based protein expression and detection approach is a cost-effective platform for large-scale functional analyses, including protein subcellular localization and cell phenotype screening. The results from this study reveal novel functional features of human Chr21 proteins, which should contribute to further understanding of the molecular pathology of Down's syndrome.

  1. Event-related potentials reveal the relations between feature representations at different levels of abstraction.

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    Hannah, Samuel D; Shedden, Judith M; Brooks, Lee R; Grundy, John G

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we use behavioural methods and event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the relations between informational and instantiated features, as well as the relation between feature abstraction and rule type. Participants are trained to categorize two species of fictitious animals and then identify perceptually novel exemplars. Critically, two groups are given a perfectly predictive counting rule that, according to Hannah and Brooks (2009. Featuring familiarity: How a familiar feature instantiation influences categorization. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 63, 263-275. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.1037/a0017919), should orient them to using abstract informational features when categorizing the novel transfer items. A third group is taught a feature list rule, which should orient them to using detailed instantiated features. One counting-rule group were taught their rule before any exposure to the actual stimuli, and the other immediately after training, having learned the instantiations first. The feature-list group were also taught their rule after training. The ERP results suggest that at test, the two counting-rule groups processed items differently, despite their identical rule. This not only supports the distinction that informational and instantiated features are qualitatively different feature representations, but also implies that rules can readily operate over concrete inputs, in contradiction to traditional approaches that assume that rules necessarily act on abstract inputs.

  2. Ignoring versus updating in working memory reveal differential roles of attention and feature binding

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    Fallon, SJ; Mattiesing, RM; Dolfen, N; Manohar, SGM; Husain, M

    2017-01-01

    Ignoring distracting information and updating current contents are essential components of working memory (WM). Yet, although both require controlling irrelevant information, it is unclear whether they have the same effects on recall and produce the same level of misbinding errors (incorrectly joining the features of different memoranda). Moreover, the likelihood of misbinding may be affected by the feature similarity between the items already encoded into memory and the information that has ...

  3. Human listening studies reveal insights into object features extracted by echolocating dolphins

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    Delong, Caroline M.; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    2004-05-01

    Echolocating dolphins extract object feature information from the acoustic parameters of object echoes. However, little is known about which object features are salient to dolphins or how they extract those features. To gain insight into how dolphins might be extracting feature information, human listeners were presented with echoes from objects used in a dolphin echoic-visual cross-modal matching task. Human participants performed a task similar to the one the dolphin had performed; however, echoic samples consisting of 23-echo trains were presented via headphones. The participants listened to the echoic sample and then visually selected the correct object from among three alternatives. The participants performed as well as or better than the dolphin (M=88.0% correct), and reported using a combination of acoustic cues to extract object features (e.g., loudness, pitch, timbre). Participants frequently reported using the pattern of aural changes in the echoes across the echo train to identify the shape and structure of the objects (e.g., peaks in loudness or pitch). It is likely that dolphins also attend to the pattern of changes across echoes as objects are echolocated from different angles.

  4. Stream/Bounce Event Perception Reveals a Temporal Limit of Motion Correspondence Based on Surface Feature over Space and Time

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    Yousuke Kawachi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2 or luminance (Experiment 3 were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a–4c showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments.

  5. Dynamic and structural features of a case of compulsive neurosis as revealed in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, H L

    Several examples of the manifest dreams reported by a patient with a compulsive neurosis are presented. An outstanding feature of the dreams was the sudden shift of the dreamer's self-representation from the role of criminal to the role of policeman. This shift is thought to parallel the oscillation between unconscious instinctual gratification and conscious attempts at reparation which is the main dynamic feature of the compulsive neurosis in waking life. The shift of orientation of the self reflects the operation of early defense mechanisms against the sadistic impulse. It also portrays graphically an early stage in the internalization process which leads ultimately to the creation of the superego. The repetitive nature of the dreams indicated that the patient had become fixated at this particular point in the course of his psychic development. It is interesting to note that like the Rat Man this patient suffered from a chronically undescended testicle. The real defect in the sexual apparatus in both patients may have been a factor which favored regression of the libido from the genital stage to the anal-sadistic stage.

  6. Sequencing of bovine herpesvirus 4 v.test strain reveals important genome features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillet Laurent

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a useful model for the human pathogenic gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus. Although genome manipulations of this virus have been greatly facilitated by the cloning of the BoHV-4 V.test strain as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC, the lack of a complete genome sequence for this strain limits its experimental use. Methods In this study, we have determined the complete sequence of BoHV-4 V.test strain by a pyrosequencing approach. Results The long unique coding region (LUR consists of 108,241 bp encoding at least 79 open reading frames and is flanked by several polyrepetitive DNA units (prDNA. As previously suggested, we showed that the prDNA unit located at the left prDNA-LUR junction (prDNA-G differs from the other prDNA units (prDNA-inner. Namely, the prDNA-G unit lacks the conserved pac-2 cleavage and packaging signal in its right terminal region. Based on the mechanisms of cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes, this feature implies that only genomes bearing left and right end prDNA units are encapsulated into virions. Conclusions In this study, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the BAC-cloned BoHV-4 V.test strain and identified genome organization features that could be important in other herpesviruses.

  7. Comparison of Cytotoxic Activity in Leukemic Lineages Reveals Important Features of β-Hairpin Antimicrobial Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Marcus V; Torquato, Heron F Vieira; Barros, Carlos Castilho; Ide, Jaime S; Miranda, Antonio; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J

    2017-07-01

    Several reports described different modes of cell death triggered by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) due to direct effects on membrane disruption, and more recently by apoptosis and necrosis-like patterns. Cytotoxic curves of four β-hairpin AMPs (gomesin, protegrin, tachyplesin, and polyphemusin) were obtained from several human leukemic lineages and normal monocytes and Two cell lines were then selected based on their cytotoxic sensitivity. One was sensitive to AMPs (K562) and the other resistant (KG-1) and their effect compared between these lineages. Thus, these lineages were chosen to further investigate biological features related with their cytotoxicities to AMPs. Stimulation with AMPs produced cell death, with activation of caspase-3, in K562 lineage. Increase on the fluidity of plasmatic membrane by reducing cholesterol potentiated cytotoxicity of AMPs in both lineages. Quantification of internal and external gomesin binding to the cellular membrane of both K562 and KG-1 cells showed that more peptide is accumulated inside of K562 cells. Additionally, evaluation of multi-drug resistant pumps activity showed that KG-1 has more activity than K562 lineage. A comparison of intrinsic gene patterns showed great differences between K562 and KG-1, but stimulation with gomesin promoted few changes in gene expression patterns. Differences in internalization process through the plasma membrane, multidrug resistance pumps activity, and gene expression pattern are important features to AMPs regulated cell death. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1764-1773, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. MR diffusion histology and micro-tractography reveal mesoscale features of the human cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Bodi, Istvan; Slater, David; Catani, Marco; Modo, Michel

    2013-12-01

    After 140 years from the discovery of Golgi's black reaction, the study of connectivity of the cerebellum remains a fascinating yet challenging task. Current histological techniques provide powerful methods for unravelling local axonal architecture, but the relatively low volume of data that can be acquired in a reasonable amount of time limits their application to small samples. State-of-the-art in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, such as diffusion tractography techniques, can reveal trajectories of the major white matter pathways, but their correspondence with underlying anatomy is yet to be established. Hence, a significant gap exists between these two approaches as neither of them can adequately describe the three-dimensional complexity of fibre architecture at the level of the mesoscale (from a few millimetres to micrometres). In this study, we report the application of MR diffusion histology and micro-tractography methods to reveal the combined cytoarchitectural organisation and connectivity of the human cerebellum at a resolution of 100-μm (2 nl/voxel volume). Results show that the diffusion characteristics for each layer of the cerebellar cortex correctly reflect the known cellular composition and its architectural pattern. Micro-tractography also reveals details of the axonal connectivity of individual cerebellar folia and the intra-cortical organisation of the different cerebellar layers. The direct correspondence between MR diffusion histology and micro-tractography with immunohistochemistry indicates that these approaches have the potential to complement traditional histology techniques by providing a non-destructive, quantitative and three-dimensional description of the microstructural organisation of the healthy and pathological tissue.

  9. Dual dimensionality reduction reveals independent encoding of motor features in a muscle synergy for insect flight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponberg, Simon; Daniel, Thomas L; Fairhall, Adrienne L

    2015-04-01

    What are the features of movement encoded by changing motor commands? Do motor commands encode movement independently or can they be represented in a reduced set of signals (i.e. synergies)? Motor encoding poses a computational and practical challenge because many muscles typically drive movement, and simultaneous electrophysiology recordings of all motor commands are typically not available. Moreover, during a single locomotor period (a stride or wingstroke) the variation in movement may have high dimensionality, even if only a few discrete signals activate the muscles. Here, we apply the method of partial least squares (PLS) to extract the encoded features of movement based on the cross-covariance of motor signals and movement. PLS simultaneously decomposes both datasets and identifies only the variation in movement that relates to the specific muscles of interest. We use this approach to explore how the main downstroke flight muscles of an insect, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, encode torque during yaw turns. We simultaneously record muscle activity and turning torque in tethered flying moths experiencing wide-field visual stimuli. We ask whether this pair of muscles acts as a muscle synergy (a single linear combination of activity) consistent with their hypothesized function of producing a left-right power differential. Alternatively, each muscle might individually encode variation in movement. We show that PLS feature analysis produces an efficient reduction of dimensionality in torque variation within a wingstroke. At first, the two muscles appear to behave as a synergy when we consider only their wingstroke-averaged torque. However, when we consider the PLS features, the muscles reveal independent encoding of torque. Using these features we can predictably reconstruct the variation in torque corresponding to changes in muscle activation. PLS-based feature analysis provides a general two-sided dimensionality reduction that reveals encoding in high dimensional

  10. Dual dimensionality reduction reveals independent encoding of motor features in a muscle synergy for insect flight control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sponberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available What are the features of movement encoded by changing motor commands? Do motor commands encode movement independently or can they be represented in a reduced set of signals (i.e. synergies? Motor encoding poses a computational and practical challenge because many muscles typically drive movement, and simultaneous electrophysiology recordings of all motor commands are typically not available. Moreover, during a single locomotor period (a stride or wingstroke the variation in movement may have high dimensionality, even if only a few discrete signals activate the muscles. Here, we apply the method of partial least squares (PLS to extract the encoded features of movement based on the cross-covariance of motor signals and movement. PLS simultaneously decomposes both datasets and identifies only the variation in movement that relates to the specific muscles of interest. We use this approach to explore how the main downstroke flight muscles of an insect, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, encode torque during yaw turns. We simultaneously record muscle activity and turning torque in tethered flying moths experiencing wide-field visual stimuli. We ask whether this pair of muscles acts as a muscle synergy (a single linear combination of activity consistent with their hypothesized function of producing a left-right power differential. Alternatively, each muscle might individually encode variation in movement. We show that PLS feature analysis produces an efficient reduction of dimensionality in torque variation within a wingstroke. At first, the two muscles appear to behave as a synergy when we consider only their wingstroke-averaged torque. However, when we consider the PLS features, the muscles reveal independent encoding of torque. Using these features we can predictably reconstruct the variation in torque corresponding to changes in muscle activation. PLS-based feature analysis provides a general two-sided dimensionality reduction that reveals encoding in

  11. Dual Dimensionality Reduction Reveals Independent Encoding of Motor Features in a Muscle Synergy for Insect Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponberg, Simon; Daniel, Thomas L.; Fairhall, Adrienne L.

    2015-01-01

    What are the features of movement encoded by changing motor commands? Do motor commands encode movement independently or can they be represented in a reduced set of signals (i.e. synergies)? Motor encoding poses a computational and practical challenge because many muscles typically drive movement, and simultaneous electrophysiology recordings of all motor commands are typically not available. Moreover, during a single locomotor period (a stride or wingstroke) the variation in movement may have high dimensionality, even if only a few discrete signals activate the muscles. Here, we apply the method of partial least squares (PLS) to extract the encoded features of movement based on the cross-covariance of motor signals and movement. PLS simultaneously decomposes both datasets and identifies only the variation in movement that relates to the specific muscles of interest. We use this approach to explore how the main downstroke flight muscles of an insect, the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, encode torque during yaw turns. We simultaneously record muscle activity and turning torque in tethered flying moths experiencing wide-field visual stimuli. We ask whether this pair of muscles acts as a muscle synergy (a single linear combination of activity) consistent with their hypothesized function of producing a left-right power differential. Alternatively, each muscle might individually encode variation in movement. We show that PLS feature analysis produces an efficient reduction of dimensionality in torque variation within a wingstroke. At first, the two muscles appear to behave as a synergy when we consider only their wingstroke-averaged torque. However, when we consider the PLS features, the muscles reveal independent encoding of torque. Using these features we can predictably reconstruct the variation in torque corresponding to changes in muscle activation. PLS-based feature analysis provides a general two-sided dimensionality reduction that reveals encoding in high dimensional

  12. Subsurface geologic features of the 2011 central Virginia earthquakes revealed by airborne geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anjana K.; Horton, J. Wright; Burton, William C.; Spears, David B; Gilmer, Amy K

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing geologic features associated with major earthquakes provides insights into mechanisms contributing to fault slip and assists evaluation of seismic hazard. We use high-resolution airborne geophysical data combined with ground sample measurements to image subsurface geologic features associated with the 2011 moment magnitude (Mw) 5.8 central Virginia (USA) intraplate earthquake and its aftershocks. Geologic mapping and magnetic data analyses suggest that the earthquake occurred near a complex juncture of geologic contacts. These contacts also intersect a >60-km-long linear gravity gradient. Distal aftershocks occurred in tight, ~1-km-wide clusters near other obliquely oriented contacts that intersect gravity gradients, in contrast to more linearly distributed seismicity observed at other seismic zones. These data and corresponding models suggest that local density contrasts (manifested as gravity gradients) modified the nearby stress regime in a manner favoring failure. However, along those gradients seismic activity is localized near structural complexities, suggesting a significant contribution from variations in associated rock characteristics such as rheological weakness and/or rock permeability, which may be enhanced in those areas. Regional magnetic data show a broader bend in geologic structures within the Central Virginia seismic zone, suggesting that seismic activity may also be enhanced in other nearby areas with locally increased rheological weaknesses and/or rock permeability. In contrast, away from the Mw5.8 epicenter, geophysical lineaments are nearly continuous for tens of kilometers, especially toward the northeast. Continuity of associated geologic structures probably contributed to efficient propagation of seismic energy in that direction, consistent with moderate to high levels of damage from Louisa County to Washington, D.C., and neighboring communities.

  13. The genome of Pelobacter carbinolicus reveals surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aklujkar, Muktak [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Haveman, Shelley [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; DiDonatoJr, Raymond [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Brown, Peter [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Lovley, Derek [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2012-01-01

    Background: The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species. Results: Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate: ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires. Conclusions: Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated.

  14. Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics Analyses Reveal Divergent Lifestyle Features of Nematode Endoparasitic Fungus Hirsutella minnesotensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yiling; Liu, Keke; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Li, Kuan; Wang, Niuniu; Shu, Chi; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Chengshu; Bushley, Kathryn E.; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Hirsutella minnesotensis [Ophiocordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)] is a dominant endoparasitic fungus by using conidia that adhere to and penetrate the secondary stage juveniles of soybean cyst nematode. Its genome was de novo sequenced and compared with five entomopathogenic fungi in the Hypocreales and three nematode-trapping fungi in the Orbiliales (Ascomycota). The genome of H. minnesotensis is 51.4 Mb and encodes 12,702 genes enriched with transposable elements up to 32%. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that H. minnesotensis was diverged from entomopathogenic fungi in Hypocreales. Genome of H. minnesotensis is similar to those of entomopathogenic fungi to have fewer genes encoding lectins for adhesion and glycoside hydrolases for cellulose degradation, but is different from those of nematode-trapping fungi to possess more genes for protein degradation, signal transduction, and secondary metabolism. Those results indicate that H. minnesotensis has evolved different mechanism for nematode endoparasitism compared with nematode-trapping fungi. Transcriptomics analyses for the time-scale parasitism revealed the upregulations of lectins, secreted proteases and the genes for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites that could be putatively involved in host surface adhesion, cuticle degradation, and host manipulation. Genome and transcriptome analyses provided comprehensive understanding of the evolution and lifestyle of nematode endoparasitism. PMID:25359922

  15. Melodic multi-feature paradigm reveals auditory profiles in music-sound encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Musical expertise modulates preattentive neural sound discrimination. However, this evidence up to great extent originates from paradigms using very simple stimulation. Here we use a novel melody paradigm (revealing the auditory profile for six sound parameters in parallel) to compare memory......-related mismatch negativity (MMN) and attention-related P3a responses recorded from non-musicians and Finnish Folk musicians. MMN emerged in both groups of participants for all sound changes (except for rhythmic changes in non-musicians). In Folk musicians, the MMN was enlarged for mistuned sounds when compared...... with non-musicians. This is taken to reflect their familiarity with pitch information which is in key position in Finnish folk music when compared with e.g., rhythmic information. The MMN was followed by P3a after timbre changes, rhythm changes, and melody transposition. The MMN and P3a topographies...

  16. High Pressure ZZ-Exchange NMR Reveals Key Features of Protein Folding Transition States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Kitazawa, Soichiro; Peran, Ivan; Stenzoski, Natalie; McCallum, Scott A; Raleigh, Daniel P; Royer, Catherine A

    2016-11-23

    Understanding protein folding mechanisms and their sequence dependence requires the determination of residue-specific apparent kinetic rate constants for the folding and unfolding reactions. Conventional two-dimensional NMR, such as HSQC experiments, can provide residue-specific information for proteins. However, folding is generally too fast for such experiments. ZZ-exchange NMR spectroscopy allows determination of folding and unfolding rates on much faster time scales, yet even this regime is not fast enough for many protein folding reactions. The application of high hydrostatic pressure slows folding by orders of magnitude due to positive activation volumes for the folding reaction. We combined high pressure perturbation with ZZ-exchange spectroscopy on two autonomously folding protein domains derived from the ribosomal protein, L9. We obtained residue-specific apparent rates at 2500 bar for the N-terminal domain of L9 (NTL9), and rates at atmospheric pressure for a mutant of the C-terminal domain (CTL9) from pressure dependent ZZ-exchange measurements. Our results revealed that NTL9 folding is almost perfectly two-state, while small deviations from two-state behavior were observed for CTL9. Both domains exhibited large positive activation volumes for folding. The volumetric properties of these domains reveal that their transition states contain most of the internal solvent excluded voids that are found in the hydrophobic cores of the respective native states. These results demonstrate that by coupling it with high pressure, ZZ-exchange can be extended to investigate a large number of protein conformational transitions.

  17. Analysis of metagenomic data reveals common features of halophilic viral communities across continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Simon; Enault, Francois; Ravet, Viviane; Colombet, Jonathan; Bettarel, Yvan; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Bouvier, Thierry; Lucas-Staat, Soizick; Vellet, Agnès; Prangishvili, David; Forterre, Patrick; Debroas, Didier; Sime-Ngando, Telesphore

    2016-03-01

    Microbial communities from hypersaline ponds, dominated by halophilic archaea, are considered specific of such extreme conditions. The associated viral communities have accordingly been shown to display specific features, such as similar morphologies among different sites. However, little is known about the genetic diversity of these halophilic viral communities across the Earth. Here, we studied viral communities in hypersaline ponds sampled on the coast of Senegal (8-36% of salinity) using metagenomics approach, and compared them with hypersaline viromes from Australia and Spain. The specificity of hyperhalophilic viruses could first be demonstrated at a community scale, salinity being a strong discriminating factor between communities. For the major viral group detected in all samples (Caudovirales), only a limited number of halophilic Caudovirales clades were highlighted. These clades gather viruses from different continents and display consistent genetic composition, indicating that they represent related lineages with a worldwide distribution. Non-tailed hyperhalophilic viruses display a greater rate of gene transfer and recombination, with uncharacterized genes conserved across different kind of viruses and plasmids. Thus, hypersaline viral communities around the world appear to form a genetically consistent community that are likely to harbour new genes coding for enzymes specifically adapted to these environments. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Light-harvesting features revealed by the structure of plant Photosystem I

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Shem, A; Nelson, N; 10.1023/B:PRES.0000036881.23512.42

    2004-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is driven by two multi-subunit membrane protein complexes, Photosystem I and Photosystem II. In plants and green algae, both complexes are composed of two moieties: a reaction center (RC), where light-induced charge translocation occurs, and a peripheral antenna that absorbs light and funnels its energy to the reaction center. The peripheral antenna of PS I (LHC I) is composed of four gene products (Lhca 1-4) that are unique among the chlorophyll a/b binding proteins in their pronounced long-wavelength absorbance and in their assembly into dimers. The recently determined structure of plant Photosystem I provides the first relatively high- resolution structural model of a super-complex containing a reaction center and its peripheral antenna. We describe some of the structural features responsible for the unique properties of LHC I and discuss the advantages of the particular LHC I dimerization mode over monomeric or trimeric forms. In addition, we delineate some of the interactions betw...

  19. Inherent safety features of the HTTR revealed in the accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, K.; Shinozaki, M.; Baba, O.; Saito, S.

    1992-01-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) being constructed by JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) is a graphite-moderated and helium-cooled reactor with an outlet gas temperature of 950degC. The inherent safety characteristics in the HTTR prevent temperature increase of reactor fuels and fission product release from the reactor core in postulated accident conditions. The reactor core can be cooled by a Vessel Cooling System (VCS) indirectly, even in the case that no forced cooling is expected during the accident such as primary pipe break. The VCS consists of independent water cooling loop and cooling panel around the reactor pressure vessel. The cooling panel whose temperature of 60-90degC cools the reactor pressure vessel by radiation and removes the decay heat from the core indirectly. Furthermore, even if failure of VCS is assumed during this accident as a severe accident, the reactor core is remained safe despite the temperature increase of biological concrete shield around the reactor pressure vessel. This paper describes the inherent safety features of the HTTR specially focused on the accident condition without forced cooling. The detailed analytical results of such an accident are described together with clarifying the role of the VCS. (author)

  20. Soil features in rookeries of Antarctic penguins reveal sea to land biotransport of chemical pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamans, Anna C.; Boluda, Rafael; Picazo, Antonio; Gil, Carlos; Ramos-Miras, Joaquín; Tejedo, Pablo; Pertierra, Luis R.; Benayas, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica). This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta. Overall, a higher penguin activity is associated with higher organic carbon content and with higher concentrations of certain pollutants in soils, especially cadmium, cooper and arsenic, as well as zinc and selenium. In contrast, in soils that are less affected by penguins’ faecal depositions, the concentrations of elements of geochemical origin, such as iron and cobalt, increase their relative weighted contribution, whereas the above-mentioned pollutants maintain very low levels. The concentrations of pollutants are far higher in those penguin rookeries that are more exposed to ship traffic. In addition, the soil microbiota of penguin-influenced soils was studied by molecular methods. Heavily penguin-affected soils have a massive presence of enteric bacteria, whose relative dominance can be taken as an indicator of penguin influence. Faecal bacteria are present in addition to typical soil taxa, the former becoming dominant in the microbiota of penguin-affected soils, whereas typical soil bacteria, such as Actinomycetales, co-dominate the microbiota of less affected soils. Results indicate that the continuous supply by penguin faeces, and not the selectivity by increased pollutant concentrations is the main factor shaping the soil bacterial community. Overall, massive penguin influence results in increased concentrations of certain pollutants and in a strong change in taxa dominance in the

  1. Molecular genetic features of polyploidization and aneuploidization reveal unique patterns for genome duplication in diploid Malus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Considine

    Full Text Available Polyploidization results in genome duplication and is an important step in evolution and speciation. The Malus genome confirmed that this genus was derived through auto-polyploidization, yet the genetic and meiotic mechanisms for polyploidization, particularly for aneuploidization, are unclear in this genus or other woody perennials. In fact the contribution of aneuploidization remains poorly understood throughout Plantae. We add to this knowledge by characterization of eupolyploidization and aneuploidization in 27,542 F₁ seedlings from seven diploid Malus populations using cytology and microsatellite markers. We provide the first evidence that aneuploidy exceeds eupolyploidy in the diploid crosses, suggesting aneuploidization is a leading cause of genome duplication. Gametes from diploid Malus had a unique combinational pattern; ova preserved euploidy exclusively, while spermatozoa presented both euploidy and aneuploidy. All non-reduced gametes were genetically heterozygous, indicating first-division restitution was the exclusive mode for Malus eupolyploidization and aneuploidization. Chromosome segregation pattern among aneuploids was non-uniform, however, certain chromosomes were associated for aneuploidization. This study is the first to provide molecular evidence for the contribution of heterozygous non-reduced gametes to fitness in polyploids and aneuploids. Aneuploidization can increase, while eupolyploidization may decrease genetic diversity in their newly established populations. Auto-triploidization is important for speciation in the extant Malus. The features of Malus polyploidization confer genetic stability and diversity, and present heterozygosity, heterosis and adaptability for evolutionary selection. A protocol using co-dominant markers was proposed for accelerating apple triploid breeding program. A path was postulated for evolution of numerically odd basic chromosomes. The model for Malus derivation was considerably revised

  2. Molecular genetic features of polyploidization and aneuploidization reveal unique patterns for genome duplication in diploid Malus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Wan, Yizhen; D'Antuono, Mario F; Zhou, Qian; Han, Mingyu; Gao, Hua; Wang, Man

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidization results in genome duplication and is an important step in evolution and speciation. The Malus genome confirmed that this genus was derived through auto-polyploidization, yet the genetic and meiotic mechanisms for polyploidization, particularly for aneuploidization, are unclear in this genus or other woody perennials. In fact the contribution of aneuploidization remains poorly understood throughout Plantae. We add to this knowledge by characterization of eupolyploidization and aneuploidization in 27,542 F₁ seedlings from seven diploid Malus populations using cytology and microsatellite markers. We provide the first evidence that aneuploidy exceeds eupolyploidy in the diploid crosses, suggesting aneuploidization is a leading cause of genome duplication. Gametes from diploid Malus had a unique combinational pattern; ova preserved euploidy exclusively, while spermatozoa presented both euploidy and aneuploidy. All non-reduced gametes were genetically heterozygous, indicating first-division restitution was the exclusive mode for Malus eupolyploidization and aneuploidization. Chromosome segregation pattern among aneuploids was non-uniform, however, certain chromosomes were associated for aneuploidization. This study is the first to provide molecular evidence for the contribution of heterozygous non-reduced gametes to fitness in polyploids and aneuploids. Aneuploidization can increase, while eupolyploidization may decrease genetic diversity in their newly established populations. Auto-triploidization is important for speciation in the extant Malus. The features of Malus polyploidization confer genetic stability and diversity, and present heterozygosity, heterosis and adaptability for evolutionary selection. A protocol using co-dominant markers was proposed for accelerating apple triploid breeding program. A path was postulated for evolution of numerically odd basic chromosomes. The model for Malus derivation was considerably revised. Impacts of

  3. Soil features in rookeries of Antarctic penguins reveal sea to land biotransport of chemical pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Santamans

    Full Text Available The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica. This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta. Overall, a higher penguin activity is associated with higher organic carbon content and with higher concentrations of certain pollutants in soils, especially cadmium, cooper and arsenic, as well as zinc and selenium. In contrast, in soils that are less affected by penguins' faecal depositions, the concentrations of elements of geochemical origin, such as iron and cobalt, increase their relative weighted contribution, whereas the above-mentioned pollutants maintain very low levels. The concentrations of pollutants are far higher in those penguin rookeries that are more exposed to ship traffic. In addition, the soil microbiota of penguin-influenced soils was studied by molecular methods. Heavily penguin-affected soils have a massive presence of enteric bacteria, whose relative dominance can be taken as an indicator of penguin influence. Faecal bacteria are present in addition to typical soil taxa, the former becoming dominant in the microbiota of penguin-affected soils, whereas typical soil bacteria, such as Actinomycetales, co-dominate the microbiota of less affected soils. Results indicate that the continuous supply by penguin faeces, and not the selectivity by increased pollutant concentrations is the main factor shaping the soil bacterial community. Overall, massive penguin influence results in increased concentrations of certain pollutants and in a strong change in taxa

  4. Feature-Based Change Detection Reveals Inconsistent Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Joseph P; Wijeakumar, Sobanawartiny; Buss, Aaron T; Spencer, John P

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is a key cognitive system that enables people to hold visual information in mind after a stimulus has been removed and compare past and present to detect changes that have occurred. VWM is severely capacity limited to around 3-4 items, although there are robust individual differences in this limit. Importantly, these individual differences are evident in neural measures of VWM capacity. Here, we capitalized on recent work showing that capacity is lower for more complex stimulus dimension. In particular, we asked whether individual differences in capacity remain consistent if capacity is shifted by a more demanding task, and, further, whether the correspondence between behavioral and neural measures holds across a shift in VWM capacity. Participants completed a change detection (CD) task with simple colors and complex shapes in an fMRI experiment. As expected, capacity was significantly lower for the shape dimension. Moreover, there were robust individual differences in behavioral estimates of VWM capacity across dimensions. Similarly, participants with a stronger BOLD response for color also showed a strong neural response for shape within the lateral occipital cortex, intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and superior IPS. Although there were robust individual differences in the behavioral and neural measures, we found little evidence of systematic brain-behavior correlations across feature dimensions. This suggests that behavioral and neural measures of capacity provide different views onto the processes that underlie VWM and CD. Recent theoretical approaches that attempt to bridge between behavioral and neural measures are well positioned to address these findings in future work.

  5. Melodic multi-feature paradigm reveals auditory profiles in music-sound encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari eTervaniemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Musical expertise modulates preattentive neural sound discrimination. However, this evidence up to great extent originates from paradigms using very simple stimulation. Here we use a novel melody paradigm (revealing the auditory profile for six sound parameters in parallel to compare memory-related MMN and attention-related P3a responses recorded from non-musicians and Finnish Folk musicians. MMN emerged in both groups of participants for all sound changes (except for rhythmic changes in non-musicians. In Folk musicians, the MMN was enlarged for mistuned sounds when compared with non-musicians. This is taken to reflect their familiarity with pitch information which is in key position in Finnish folk music when compared with e.g., rhythmic information. The MMN was followed by P3a after timbre changes, rhythm changes, and melody transposition. The MMN and P3a topographies differentiated the groups for all sound changes. Thus, the melody paradigm offers a fast and cost-effective means for determining the auditory profile for music-sound encoding and also, importantly, for probing the effects of musical expertise on it.

  6. Melodic multi-feature paradigm reveals auditory profiles in music-sound encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Musical expertise modulates preattentive neural sound discrimination. However, this evidence up to great extent originates from paradigms using very simple stimulation. Here we use a novel melody paradigm (revealing the auditory profile for six sound parameters in parallel) to compare memory-related mismatch negativity (MMN) and attention-related P3a responses recorded from non-musicians and Finnish Folk musicians. MMN emerged in both groups of participants for all sound changes (except for rhythmic changes in non-musicians). In Folk musicians, the MMN was enlarged for mistuned sounds when compared with non-musicians. This is taken to reflect their familiarity with pitch information which is in key position in Finnish folk music when compared with e.g., rhythmic information. The MMN was followed by P3a after timbre changes, rhythm changes, and melody transposition. The MMN and P3a topographies differentiated the groups for all sound changes. Thus, the melody paradigm offers a fast and cost-effective means for determining the auditory profile for music-sound encoding and also, importantly, for probing the effects of musical expertise on it.

  7. Mitogenomes from The 1000 Genome Project reveal new Near Eastern features in present-day Tuscans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Carballa

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses have recently been carried out on present-day Tuscans (Central Italy in order to investigate their presumable recent Near East ancestry in connection with the long-standing debate on the origins of the Etruscan civilization. We retrieved mitogenomes and genome-wide SNP data from 110 Tuscans analyzed within the context of The 1000 Genome Project. For phylogeographic and evolutionary analysis we made use of a large worldwide database of entire mitogenomes (>26,000 and partial control region sequences (>180,000.Different analyses reveal the presence of typical Near East haplotypes in Tuscans representing isolated members of various mtDNA phylogenetic branches. As a whole, the Near East component in Tuscan mitogenomes can be estimated at about 8%; a proportion that is comparable to previous estimates but significantly lower than admixture estimates obtained from autosomal SNP data (21%. Phylogeographic and evolutionary inter-population comparisons indicate that the main signal of Near Eastern Tuscan mitogenomes comes from Iran.Mitogenomes of recent Near East origin in present-day Tuscans do not show local or regional variation. This points to a demographic scenario that is compatible with a recent arrival of Near Easterners to this region in Italy with no founder events or bottlenecks.

  8. Polarized bow shocks reveal features of the winds and environments of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manisha

    2018-01-01

    Massive stars strongly affect their surroundings through their energetic stellar winds and deaths as supernovae. The bow shock structures created by fast-moving massive stars contain important information about the winds and ultimate fates of these stars as well as their local interstellar medium (ISM). Since bow shocks are aspherical, the light scattered in the dense shock material becomes polarized. Analyzing this polarization reveals details of the bow shock geometry as well as the composition, velocity, density, and albedo of the scattering material. With these quantities, we can constrain the properties of the stellar wind and thus the evolutionary state of the star, as well as the dust composition of the local ISM.In my dissertation research, I use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that I optimized to simulate the polarization signatures produced by both resolved and unresolved stellar wind bow shocks (SWBS) illuminated by a central star and by shock emission. I derive bow shock shapes and densities from published analytical calculations and smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) models. In the case of the analytical SWBS and electron scattering, I find that higher optical depths produce higher polarization and position angle rotations at specific viewing angles compared to theoretical predictions for low optical depths. This is due to the geometrical properties of the bow shock combined with multiple scattering effects. For dust scattering, the polarization signature is strongly affected by wavelength, dust grain properties, and viewing angle. The behavior of the polarization as a function of wavelength in these cases can distinguish among different dust models for the local ISM. In the case of SPH density structures, I investigate how the polarization changes as a function of the evolutionary phase of the SWBS. My dissertation compares these simulations with polarization data from Betelgeuse and other massive stars with bow shocks. I discuss the

  9. Visual guidance of forward flight in hummingbirds reveals control based on image features instead of pattern velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Roslyn; Fellows, Tyee K; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-08-02

    Information about self-motion and obstacles in the environment is encoded by optic flow, the movement of images on the eye. Decades of research have revealed that flying insects control speed, altitude, and trajectory by a simple strategy of maintaining or balancing the translational velocity of images on the eyes, known as pattern velocity. It has been proposed that birds may use a similar algorithm but this hypothesis has not been tested directly. We examined the influence of pattern velocity on avian flight by manipulating the motion of patterns on the walls of a tunnel traversed by Anna's hummingbirds. Contrary to prediction, we found that lateral course control is not based on regulating nasal-to-temporal pattern velocity. Instead, birds closely monitored feature height in the vertical axis, and steered away from taller features even in the absence of nasal-to-temporal pattern velocity cues. For vertical course control, we observed that birds adjusted their flight altitude in response to upward motion of the horizontal plane, which simulates vertical descent. Collectively, our results suggest that birds avoid collisions using visual cues in the vertical axis. Specifically, we propose that birds monitor the vertical extent of features in the lateral visual field to assess distances to the side, and vertical pattern velocity to avoid collisions with the ground. These distinct strategies may derive from greater need to avoid collisions in birds, compared with small insects.

  10. [Choice between probability and value of alimentary reinforcement as means for revealing individual typological features of dog behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, L I

    2005-01-01

    Individual typological features of behavior of dogs were investigated by the method of choice between the low-valuable food available constantly and food of high quality presented with low probability. Animals were subjected to instrumental conditioning with the same conditioned stimuli but different types of reinforcement. Depression of a white pedal was always reinforced with meat-bread-crumb mixture, depression of a black pedal was reinforced with two pieces of liver (with probabilities of 100, 40, 33, 20, or 0%). The choice of reinforcement depended on probability of valuable food and individual typological features of the nervous system of a dog. Decreasing the probability of the reinforcement value to 40-20% revealed differences in behavior of dogs. Dogs of the first group, presumably with the weak type of the nervous system, more frequently pressed the white pedal (always reinforced) than the black pedal thus "avoiding a situation of risk" to receive an empty cup. They displayed symptoms of neurosis: whimper, refusals of food or of the choice of reinforcement, and obtrusive movements. Dogs of the second group, presumably with the strong type of the nervous system, more frequently pressed the black pedal (more valuable food) for the low-probability reward until they obtained the valuable food. They did not show neurosis symptoms and were not afraid of "situation of risk". A decrease in probability of the valuable reinforcement increased a percentage of long-latency depressions of pedals. It can be probably suggested that this phenomenon was associated with increasing involvement of cognitive processes, when contributions of the assessments of probability and value of the reinforcement to decision making became approximately equal. Choice between the probability and value of alimentary reinforcement is a good method for revealing individual typological features of dogs.

  11. Ice Penetrating Radar Reveals Spatially Variable Features in Basal Channel under the Nansen Ice Shelf, Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, P. L.; Dow, C. F.; Mueller, D.; Lee, W. S.; Lindzey, L.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    The stability of Antarctic ice shelves is of great concern as their current thinning and future collapse will contribute to sea-level rise via the acceleration of grounded tributary glaciers into the ocean. The study of the sub-ice-shelf environment is essential for understanding ice-ocean interaction, where warming ocean temperatures have already begun to threaten the long-term viability of Antarctic ice shelves. Obtaining direct measurements of the sub-ice-shelf cavity remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that ground-based geophysical methods can deliver high resolution monitoring and mapping of the spatial and temporal changes in features, melt rates, and ice mass transport of this environment. In November 2016, 84 km of ground-based, low frequency, Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR) surveys were completed on three sites over the Nansen Ice Shelf in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. The surveys examined an ocean-sourced basal channel incised into the bottom of the shelf, originally detected from a large surface depression. Results reveal high resolution features of a several kilometre-wide, 100 m high channel, with 40 m high sub-channels, zones of significant marine ice accumulation, and basal crevasses penetrating large fractions of the ice shelf thickness. Data from multiple airborne geophysical surveys were compared to the November 2016 IPR data to calculate mass change both spatially and temporally. Many of the smaller scale features we detected are not represented through hydrostatic equilibrium as calculated from ice thicknesses, due to bridging stresses, and as such can not be detected with satellite based remote sensing methods. Our in-field geophysical methods produced high-resolution information of these features, which underscores the need for similar surveys over vulnerable ice shelves to better understand ice-ocean processes.

  12. Light and electron microscopy of the European beaver (Castor fiber) stomach reveal unique morphological features with possible general biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natalia; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Petryński, Wojciech; Palkowska, Katarzyna; Prusik, Magdalena; Targońska, Krystyna; Giżejewski, Zygmunt; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural studies of the European beaver stomach revealed several unique morphological features. The prominent attribute of its gross morphology was the cardiogastric gland (CGG), located near the oesophageal entrance. Light microscopy showed that the CGG was formed by invaginations of the mucosa into the submucosa, which contained densely packed proper gastric glands comprised primarily of parietal and chief cells. Mucous neck cells represented beaver stomach was the presence of specific mucus with a thickness up to 950 µm (in frozen, unfixed sections) that coated the mucosa. Our observations suggest that the formation of this mucus is complex and includes the secretory granule accumulation in the cytoplasm of pit cells, the granule aggregation inside cells, and the incorporation of degenerating cells into the mucus.

  13. Matriptase Deletion Initiates a Sjögren’s Syndrome-Like Disease in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xibao; Swaim, William D.; Lai, Zhennan; Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Di Pasquale, Giovanni; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Bugge, Thomas H.; Chiorini, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of epithelial barrier disruption, caused by deficiency of the membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, on salivary gland function and the induction of autoimmunity in an animal model. Methods Embryonic and acute ablation of matriptase expression in the salivary glands of mice was induced, leading to decreased epithelial barrier function. Mice were characterized for secretory epithelial function and the induction of autoimmunity including salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction, lymphocytic infiltration, serum anti-Ro/SSA, anti-La/SSB and antinuclear antibodies. Salivary glands immune activation/regulation, barrier function as well as tight junction proteins expression also were determined. Expression of matriptase in minor salivary gland biopsies was compared among pSS patients and healthy volunteers. Results Embryonic ablation of matriptase expression in mice resulted in the loss of secretory epithelial cell function and the induction of autoimmunity similar to that observed in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Phenotypic changes included exocrine gland dysfunction, lymphocytic infiltrates, production of Sjögren’s syndrome-specific autoantibodies, and overall activation of the immune system. Acute ablation of matriptase expression resulted in significant salivary gland dysfunction in the absence of overt immune activation. Analysis of the salivary glands indicates a loss of electrical potential across the epithelial layer as well as altered distribution of a tight junction protein. Moreover, a significant decrease in matriptase gene expression was detected in the minor salivary glands of pSS patients compared with healthy volunteers. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that local impairment of epithelial barrier function can lead to loss of exocrine gland dysfunction in the absence of inflammation while systemic deletion can induce a primary Sjögren’s syndrome like phenotype with

  14. Matriptase deletion initiates a Sjögren's syndrome-like disease in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongen Yin

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of epithelial barrier disruption, caused by deficiency of the membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, on salivary gland function and the induction of autoimmunity in an animal model.Embryonic and acute ablation of matriptase expression in the salivary glands of mice was induced, leading to decreased epithelial barrier function. Mice were characterized for secretory epithelial function and the induction of autoimmunity including salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction, lymphocytic infiltration, serum anti-Ro/SSA, anti-La/SSB and antinuclear antibodies. Salivary glands immune activation/regulation, barrier function as well as tight junction proteins expression also were determined. Expression of matriptase in minor salivary gland biopsies was compared among pSS patients and healthy volunteers.Embryonic ablation of matriptase expression in mice resulted in the loss of secretory epithelial cell function and the induction of autoimmunity similar to that observed in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Phenotypic changes included exocrine gland dysfunction, lymphocytic infiltrates, production of Sjögren's syndrome-specific autoantibodies, and overall activation of the immune system. Acute ablation of matriptase expression resulted in significant salivary gland dysfunction in the absence of overt immune activation. Analysis of the salivary glands indicates a loss of electrical potential across the epithelial layer as well as altered distribution of a tight junction protein. Moreover, a significant decrease in matriptase gene expression was detected in the minor salivary glands of pSS patients compared with healthy volunteers.Our findings demonstrate that local impairment of epithelial barrier function can lead to loss of exocrine gland function [corrected] in the absence of inflammation while systemic deletion can induce a primary Sjögren's syndrome like phenotype with autoimmunity and loss of

  15. Platyhelminth Venom Allergen-Like (VAL) proteins: revealing structural diversity, class-specific features and biological associations across the phylum

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHALMERS, IAIN W.; HOFFMANN, KARL F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY During platyhelminth infection, a cocktail of proteins is released by the parasite to aid invasion, initiate feeding, facilitate adaptation and mediate modulation of the host immune response. Included amongst these proteins is the Venom Allergen-Like (VAL) family, part of the larger sperm coating protein/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 (SCP/TAPS) superfamily. To explore the significance of this protein family during Platyhelminthes development and host interactions, we systematically summarize all published proteomic, genomic and immunological investigations of the VAL protein family to date. By conducting new genomic and transcriptomic interrogations to identify over 200 VAL proteins (228) from species in all 4 traditional taxonomic classes (Trematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Turbellaria), we further expand our knowledge related to platyhelminth VAL diversity across the phylum. Subsequent phylogenetic and tertiary structural analyses reveal several class-specific VAL features, which likely indicate a range of roles mediated by this protein family. Our comprehensive analysis of platyhelminth VALs represents a unifying synopsis for understanding diversity within this protein family and a firm context in which to initiate future functional characterization of these enigmatic members. PMID:22717097

  16. High-Resolution Imaging Reveals New Features of Nuclear Export of mRNA through the Nuclear Pore Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Kelich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear envelope (NE of eukaryotic cells provides a physical barrier for messenger RNA (mRNA and the associated proteins (mRNPs traveling from sites of transcription in the nucleus to locations of translation processing in the cytoplasm. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs embedded in the NE serve as a dominant gateway for nuclear export of mRNA. However, the fundamental characterization of export dynamics of mRNPs through the NPC has been hindered by several technical limits. First, the size of NPC that is barely below the diffraction limit of conventional light microscopy requires a super-resolution microscopy imaging approach. Next, the fast transit of mRNPs through the NPC further demands a high temporal resolution by the imaging approach. Finally, the inherent three-dimensional (3D movements of mRNPs through the NPC demand the method to provide a 3D mapping of both transport kinetics and transport pathways of mRNPs. This review will highlight the recently developed super-resolution imaging techniques advanced from 1D to 3D for nuclear export of mRNPs and summarize the new features in the dynamic nuclear export process of mRNPs revealed from these technical advances.

  17. "1"8F-FDG PET reveals unique features of large vessel inflammation in patients with Takayasu's arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incerti, Elena; Fallanca, Federico; Alongi, Pierpaolo; Gianolli, Luigi; Picchio, Maria; Tombetti, Enrico; Sartorelli, Silvia; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Baldissera, Elena M.; Tombolini, Elisabetta; Papa, Maurizio; De Cobelli, Francesco; Mason, Justin C.

    2017-01-01

    The object of this study was to assess whether "1"8F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) provides novel information in patients with Takayasu's arteritis (TA) in addition to that provided by current activity assessment, to analyse the effects of possible confounders, such as arterial grafts, and to verify whether PET/CT could be informative in lesions <4 mm thick. We studied 30 patients with TA, evaluated from October 2010 to April 2014 by both PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All arterial lesions were evaluated by PET both qualitatively (positive/negative) and semiquantitatively (maximum standardized uptake value, SUV_m_a_x), and the thickness of lesions in the MRI field of view was evaluated. In a per-patient analysis, the relationships between the PET data and acute-phase reactants and NIH criteria for active TA were evaluated. In a per-lesion analysis, the relationships between the PET features of each lesion and MRI morphological data were evaluated. The effects of the presence of arterial grafts were also evaluated. Increased FDG uptake was seen in 16 of 30 patients (53%) and in 46 of 177 vascular lesions (26%). Significant periprosthetic FDG uptake was seen in 6 of 7 patients (86%) with previous vascular surgery and in 10 of 11 of grafts (91%). Graft-associated uptake influenced the PET results in three patients (10%) and the SUV_m_a_x values in five patients (17%). Of 39 lesions with significant FDG uptake, 15 (38%) were <4 mm thick. Lesion thickness was correlated with lesion SUV_m_a_x in FDG-avid lesions only. FDG arterial uptake was not associated with systemic inflammation or NIH criteria. PET/CT reveals unique and fundamental features of arterial involvement in TA. PET/CT may be useful in the assessment of local inflammatory and vascular remodelling events independent of systemic inflammation during follow-up, even in lesions in which the arterial wall is <4 mm. The presence of arterial grafts is a potential confounder. Prospective

  18. Dynamic features of apo and bound HIV-Nef protein reveal the anti-HIV dimerization inhibition mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonsamy, Suri; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2015-01-01

    The first account on the dynamic features of Nef or negative factor, a small myristoylated protein located in the cytoplasm believes to increase HIV-1 viral titer level, is reported herein. Due to its major role in HIV-1 pathogenicity, Nef protein is considered an emerging target in anti-HIV drug design and discovery process. In this study, comparative long-range all-atom molecular dynamics simulations were employed for apo and bound protein to unveil molecular mechanism of HIV-Nef dimerization and inhibition. Results clearly revealed that B9, a newly discovered Nef inhibitor, binds at the dimeric interface of Nef protein and caused significant separation between orthogonally opposed residues, namely Asp108, Leu112 and Gln104. Large differences in magnitudes were observed in the radius of gyration (∼1.5 Å), per-residue fluctuation (∼2 Å), C-alpha deviations (∼2 Å) which confirm a comparatively more flexible nature of apo conformation due to rapid dimeric association. Compared to the bound conformer, a more globally correlated motion in case of apo structure of HIV-Nef confirms the process of dimeric association. This clearly highlights the process of inhibition as a result of ligand binding. The difference in principal component analysis (PCA) scatter plot and per-residue mobility plot across first two normal modes further justifies the same findings. The in-depth dynamic analyses of Nef protein presented in this report would serve crucial in understanding its function and inhibition mechanisms. Information on inhibitor binding mode would also assist in designing of potential inhibitors against this important HIV target.

  19. Gaze strategies can reveal the impact of source code features on the cognitive load of novice programmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Jensen, Andreas; Ruder, Kevin Vignola; Triantafyllou, Evangelia

    2018-01-01

    As shown by several studies, programmers’ readability of source code is influenced by its structural and the textual features. In order to assess the importance of these features, we conducted an eye-tracking experiment with programming students. To assess the readability and comprehensibility of...

  20. Dynamics of Soil Deflation Features in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland Revealed by Variations in Lichen Diameters on Exposed Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, R. C.; Kelly, M. A.; Virginia, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the pervasive soil deflation features in the Kangerlussuaq region, West Greenland, an area deglaciated between ~6,800 and 150 years ago. While the majority of the landscape is vegetated with low-lying shrubs and graminoids, wind erosion has removed loess and vegetation from distinct patches ranging in size from a few to tens of meters across, leaving the underlying glacial till or bedrock exposed. Although previous work has considered aeolian landforms and regional loess deposition along the Watson River Valley, these deflation features have not been investigated in detail. We aim to determine both the timing and mechanisms of formation of the deflation features and will examine whether these mechanisms were related to regional climatic conditions, such as increased aridity, to fluctuations in the Greenland Ice Sheet, or to other factors. Our ongoing research investigating these features includes geomorphic mapping using field observations and satellite imagery, lichenometry of the exposed surfaces, and cosmogenic nuclide dating of boulders and bedrock within and near the deflation features. Here we present initial results from our lichenometry studies. During the summer of 2013, we measured maximum lichen (Rhizocarpon sp.) diameters on boulder and bedrock surfaces in 15 soil deflation features located between Kangerlussuaq and the ice sheet margin. Lichen diameters vary from only a few millimeters at the outer margins of deflation features to multiple centimeters (maximum ~50 mm) in the centers of the unvegetated patches. This distinct pattern suggests that the outer margins of the soil deflation features are currently active. Based on a previously established lichen growth curve for Rhizocarpon sp. in West Greenland, our results indicate that the features are expanding at a rate of ~1.5 m per 100 yrs. In addition, the large lichen diameters (~40-50 mm) that occur in the centers of deflation features suggest that the formation mechanism has

  1. Distinct neural networks for target feature versus dimension changes in visual search, as revealed by EEG and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stefanie I; Grubert, Anna; Dux, Paul E

    2014-11-15

    In visual search, responses are slowed, from one trial to the next, both when the target dimension changes (e.g., from a color target to a size target) and when the target feature changes (e.g., from a red target to a green target) relative to being repeated across trials. The present study examined whether such feature and dimension switch costs can be attributed to the same underlying mechanism(s). Contrary to this contention, an EEG study showed that feature changes influenced visual selection of the target (i.e., delayed N2pc onset), whereas dimension changes influenced the later process of response selection (i.e., delayed s-LRP onset). An fMRI study provided convergent evidence for the two-system view: Compared with repetitions, feature changes led to increased activation in the occipital cortex, and superior and inferior parietal lobules, which have been implicated in spatial attention. By contrast, dimension changes led to activation of a fronto-posterior network that is primarily linked with response selection (i.e., pre-motor cortex, supplementary motor area and frontal areas). Taken together, the results suggest that feature and dimension switch costs are based on different processes. Specifically, whereas target feature changes delay attention shifts to the target, target dimension changes interfere with later response selection operations. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Systems Level Analysis of Histone H3 Post-translational Modifications (PTMs) Reveals Features of PTM Crosstalk in Chromatin Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwämmle, Veit; Sidoli, Simone; Ruminowicz, Chrystian

    2016-01-01

    molecules contain multiple coexisting PTMs, some of which exhibit crosstalk, i.e. coordinated or mutually exclusive activities. Here, we present an integrated experimental and computational systems level molecular characterization of histone PTMs and PTM crosstalk. Using wild type and engineered mouse....... We characterized combinatorial PTM features across the four mESC lines and then applied statistical data analysis to predict crosstalk between histone H3 PTMs. We detected an overrepresentation of positive crosstalk (codependent marks) between adjacent mono-methylated and acetylated marks......, and negative crosstalk (mutually exclusive marks) among most of the seven characterized di- and tri-methylated lysine residues in the H3 tails. We report novel features of PTM interplay involving hitherto poorly characterized arginine methylation and lysine methylation sites, including H3R2me, H3R8me and H3K37...

  3. The fast detection of rare auditory feature conjunctions in the human brain as revealed by cortical gamma-band electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruusuvirta, T; Huotilainen, M

    2005-01-01

    Natural environments typically contain temporal scatters of sounds emitted from multiple sources. The sounds may often physically stand out from one another in their conjoined rather than simple features. This poses a particular challenge for the brain to detect which of these sounds are rare and, therefore, potentially important for survival. We recorded gamma-band (32-40 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations from the scalp of adult humans who passively listened to a repeated tone carrying frequent and rare conjunctions of its frequency and intensity. EEG oscillations that this tone induced, rather than evoked, differed in amplitude between the two conjunction types within the 56-ms analysis window from tone onset. Our finding suggests that, perhaps with the support of its non-phase-locked synchrony in the gamma band, the human brain is able to detect rare sounds as feature conjunctions very rapidly.

  4. Electron tomography and cryo-SEM characterization reveals novel ultrastructural features of host-parasite interaction during Chlamydia abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkat, M; Herdoiza, E; Forsbach-Birk, V; Walther, P; Essig, A

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydia (C.) abortus is a widely spread pathogen among ruminants that can be transmitted to women during pregnancy leading to severe systemic infection with consecutive abortion. As a member of the Chlamydiaceae, C. abortus shares the characteristic feature of an obligate intracellular biphasic developmental cycle with two morphological forms including elementary bodies (EBs) and reticulate bodies (RBs). In contrast to other chlamydial species, C. abortus ultrastructure has not been investigated yet. To do so, samples were fixed by high-pressure freezing and processed by different electron microscopic methods. Freeze-substituted samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopical tomography and immuno-electron microscopy, and freeze-fractured samples were analysed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Here, we present three ultrastructural features of C. abortus that have not been reported up to now. Firstly, the morphological evidence that C. abortus is equipped with the type three secretion system. Secondly, the accumulation and even coating of whole inclusion bodies by membrane complexes consisting of multiple closely adjacent membranes which seems to be a C. abortus specific feature. Thirdly, the formation of small vesicles in the periplasmic space of RBs in the second half of the developmental cycle. Concerning the time point of their formation and the fact that they harbour chlamydial components, these vesicles might be morphological correlates of an intermediate step during the process of redifferentiation of RBs into EBs. As this feature has also been shown for C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, it might be a common characteristic of the family of Chlamydiaceae.

  5. Hypolocomotion, anxiety and serotonin syndrome-like behavior contribute to the complex phenotype of serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, A V; Fox, M A; Gallagher, P S; Murphy, D L

    2007-06-01

    Although mice with a targeted disruption of the serotonin transporter (SERT) have been studied extensively using various tests, their complex behavioral phenotype is not yet fully understood. Here we assess in detail the behavior of adult female SERT wild type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-) and knockout (-/-) mice on an isogenic C57BL/6J background subjected to a battery of behavioral paradigms. Overall, there were no differences in the ability to find food or a novel object, nest-building, self-grooming and its sequencing, and horizontal rod balancing, indicating unimpaired sensory functions, motor co-ordination and behavioral sequencing. In contrast, there were striking reductions in exploration and activity in novelty-based tests (novel object, sticky label and open field tests), accompanied by pronounced thigmotaxis, suggesting that combined hypolocomotion and anxiety (rather than purely anxiety) influence the SERT -/- behavioral phenotype. Social interaction behaviors were also markedly reduced. In addition, SERT -/- mice tended to move close to the ground, frequently displayed spontaneous Straub tail, tics, tremor and backward gait - a phenotype generally consistent with 'serotonin syndrome'-like behavior. In line with replicated evidence of much enhanced serotonin availability in SERT -/- mice, this serotonin syndrome-like state may represent a third factor contributing to their behavioral profile. An understanding of the emerging complexity of SERT -/- mouse behavior is crucial for a detailed dissection of their phenotype and for developing further neurobehavioral models using these mice.

  6. The importance of service-users' perspectives: A systematic review of qualitative evidence reveals overlooked critical features of weight management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Katy; Melendez-Torres, G J; Burchett, Helen E D; Richardson, Michelle; Rees, Rebecca; Thomas, James

    2018-03-14

    Extensive research effort shows that weight management programmes (WMPs) targeting both diet and exercise are broadly effective. However, the critical features of WMPs remain unclear. To develop a deeper understanding of WMPs critical features, we undertook a systematic review of qualitative evidence. We sought to understand from a service-user perspective how programmes are experienced, and may be effective, on the ground. We identified qualitative studies from existing reviews and updated the searches of one review. We included UK studies capturing the views of adult WMP users. Thematic analysis was used inductively to code and synthesize the evidence. Service users were emphatic that supportive relationships, with service providers or WMP peers, are the most critical aspect of WMPs. Supportive relationships were described as providing an extrinsic motivator or "hook" which helped to overcome barriers such as scepticism about dietary advice or a lack confidence to engage in physical activity. The evidence revealed that service-users' understandings of the critical features of WMPs differ from the focus of health promotion guidance or descriptions of evaluated programmes which largely emphasize educational or goal setting aspects of WMPs. Existing programme guidance may not therefore fully address the needs of service users. The study illustrates that the perspectives of service users can reveal unanticipated intervention mechanisms or underemphasized critical features and underscores the value of a holistic understanding about "what happens" in complex psychosocial interventions such as WMPs. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Embryonic stem cell-like features of testicular carcinoma in situ revealed by genome-wide gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Wirkner, Ute

    2004-01-01

    in their stoichiometry on progression into embryonic carcinoma. We compared the CIS expression profile with patterns reported in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which revealed a substantial overlap that may be as high as 50%. We also demonstrated an over-representation of expressed genes in regions of 17q and 12, reported......Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the common precursor of histologically heterogeneous testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), which in recent decades have markedly increased and now are the most common malignancy of young men. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we identified >200 genes highly...

  8. Embryonic stem cell-like features of testicular carcinoma in situ revealed by genome-wide gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Wirkner, Ute; Blake, Jonathon; Schwager, Christian; Ansorge, Wilhelm; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Leffers, Henrik

    2004-07-15

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the common precursor of histologically heterogeneous testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), which in recent decades have markedly increased and now are the most common malignancy of young men. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we identified >200 genes highly expressed in testicular CIS, including many never reported in testicular neoplasms. Expression was further verified by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization. Among the highest expressed genes were NANOG and POU5F1, and reverse transcription-PCR revealed possible changes in their stoichiometry on progression into embryonic carcinoma. We compared the CIS expression profile with patterns reported in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which revealed a substantial overlap that may be as high as 50%. We also demonstrated an over-representation of expressed genes in regions of 17q and 12, reported as unstable in cultured ESCs. The close similarity between CIS and ESCs explains the pluripotency of CIS. Moreover, the findings are consistent with an early prenatal origin of TGCTs and thus suggest that etiologic factors operating in utero are of primary importance for the incidence trends of TGCTs. Finally, some of the highly expressed genes identified in this study are promising candidates for new diagnostic markers for CIS and/or TGCTs.

  9. Personalized Proteome Profiles of Healthy and Tumor Human Colon Organoids Reveal Both Individual Diversity and Basic Features of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristobal, Alba; van den Toorn, Henk W P; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2017-01-03

    Diseases at the molecular level are complex and patient dependent, necessitating development of strategies that enable precision treatment to optimize clinical outcomes. Organoid technology has recently been shown to have the potential to recapitulate the in vivo characteristics of the original individual's tissue in a three-dimensional in vitro culture system. Here, we present a quantitative mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis and a comparative transcriptomic analysis of human colorectal tumor and healthy organoids derived, in parallel, from seven patients. Although gene and protein signatures can be derived to distinguish the tumor organoid population from healthy organoids, our data clearly reveal that each patient possesses a distinct organoid signature at the proteomic level. We demonstrate that a personalized patient-specific organoid proteome profile can be related to the diagnosis of a patient and with future development contribute to the generation of personalized therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. First Mitochondrial Genome from Nemouridae (Plecoptera) Reveals Novel Features of the Elongated Control Region and Phylogenetic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2017-05-05

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Nemoura nankinensis (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) was sequenced as the first reported mitogenome from the family Nemouridae. The N. nankinensis mitogenome was the longest (16,602 bp) among reported plecopteran mitogenomes, and it contains 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Most PCGs used standard ATN as start codons, and TAN as termination codons. All tRNA genes of N. nankinensis could fold into the cloverleaf secondary structures except for trnSer ( AGN ), whose dihydrouridine (DHU) arm was reduced to a small loop. There was also a large non-coding region (control region, CR) in the N. nankinensis mitogenome. The 1751 bp CR was the longest and had the highest A+T content (81.8%) among stoneflies. A large tandem repeat region, five potential stem-loop (SL) structures, four tRNA-like structures and four conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) were detected in the elongated CR. The presence of these tRNA-like structures in the CR has never been reported in other plecopteran mitogenomes. These novel features of the elongated CR in N. nankinensis may have functions associated with the process of replication and transcription. Finally, phylogenetic reconstruction suggested that Nemouridae was the sister-group of Capniidae.

  11. Plastome-Wide Nucleotide Substitution Rates Reveal Accelerated Rates in Papilionoideae and Correlations with Genome Features Across Legume Subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Erika N; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Khiyami, Mohammad A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Hajarah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Rabah, Samar O; Jansen, Robert K

    2017-04-01

    This study represents the most comprehensive plastome-wide comparison of nucleotide substitution rates across the three subfamilies of Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae. Caesalpinioid and mimosoid legumes have large, unrearranged plastomes compared with papilionoids, which exhibit varying levels of rearrangement including the loss of the inverted repeat (IR) in the IR-lacking clade (IRLC). Using 71 genes common to 39 legume taxa representing all the three subfamilies, we show that papilionoids consistently have higher nucleotide substitution rates than caesalpinioids and mimosoids, and rates in the IRLC papilionoids are generally higher than those in the IR-containing papilionoids. Unsurprisingly, this pattern was significantly correlated with growth habit as most papilionoids are herbaceous, whereas caesalpinioids and mimosoids are largely woody. Both nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) substitution rates were also correlated with several biological features including plastome size and plastomic rearrangements such as the number of inversions and indels. In agreement with previous reports, we found that genes in the IR exhibit between three and fourfold reductions in the substitution rates relative to genes within the large single-copy or small single-copy regions. Furthermore, former IR genes in IR-lacking taxa exhibit accelerated rates compared with genes contained in the IR.

  12. Gene expression in chicken reveals correlation with structural genomic features and conserved patterns of transcription in the terrestrial vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisheng Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chicken is an important agricultural and avian-model species. A survey of gene expression in a range of different tissues will provide a benchmark for understanding expression levels under normal physiological conditions in birds. With expression data for birds being very scant, this benchmark is of particular interest for comparative expression analysis among various terrestrial vertebrates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a gene expression survey in eight major chicken tissues using whole genome microarrays. A global picture of gene expression is presented for the eight tissues, and tissue specific as well as common gene expression were identified. A Gene Ontology (GO term enrichment analysis showed that tissue-specific genes are enriched with GO terms reflecting the physiological functions of the specific tissue, and housekeeping genes are enriched with GO terms related to essential biological functions. Comparisons of structural genomic features between tissue-specific genes and housekeeping genes show that housekeeping genes are more compact. Specifically, coding sequence and particularly introns are shorter than genes that display more variation in expression between tissues, and in addition intergenic space was also shorter. Meanwhile, housekeeping genes are more likely to co-localize with other abundantly or highly expressed genes on the same chromosomal regions. Furthermore, comparisons of gene expression in a panel of five common tissues between birds, mammals and amphibians showed that the expression patterns across tissues are highly similar for orthologous genes compared to random gene pairs within each pair-wise comparison, indicating a high degree of functional conservation in gene expression among terrestrial vertebrates. CONCLUSIONS: The housekeeping genes identified in this study have shorter gene length, shorter coding sequence length, shorter introns, and shorter intergenic regions, there seems

  13. Deep RNA sequencing reveals hidden features and dynamics of early gene transcription in Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1.

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    Guillaume Blanc

    Full Text Available Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1 is the prototype of the genus Chlorovirus (family Phycodnaviridae that infects the unicellular, eukaryotic green alga Chlorella variabilis NC64A. The 331-kb PBCV-1 genome contains 416 major open reading frames. A mRNA-seq approach was used to analyze PBCV-1 transcriptomes at 6 progressive times during the first hour of infection. The alignment of 17 million reads to the PBCV-1 genome allowed the construction of single-base transcriptome maps. Significant transcription was detected for a subset of 50 viral genes as soon as 7 min after infection. By 20 min post infection (p.i., transcripts were detected for most PBCV-1 genes and transcript levels continued to increase globally up to 60 min p.i., at which time 41% or the poly (A+-containing RNAs in the infected cells mapped to the PBCV-1 genome. For some viral genes, the number of transcripts in the latter time points (20 to 60 min p.i. was much higher than that of the most highly expressed host genes. RNA-seq data revealed putative polyadenylation signal sequences in PBCV-1 genes that were identical to the polyadenylation signal AAUAAA of green algae. Several transcripts have an RNA fragment excised. However, the frequency of excision and the resulting putative shortened protein products suggest that most of these excision events have no functional role but are probably the result of the activity of misled splicesomes.

  14. Cytogenetical and morphological features reveal significant differences among Venezuelan and Brazilian samples of Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    Full Text Available Karyotype of M. curema from the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil have been reported as possessing chromosome complement with 2n=28 and FN=48, whereas specimens from Venezuela has been reported as possessing a diploid number 2n=24 and a conserved FN (48. Although at first sight this variation suggests the presence of a chromosomal intraspecific (interpopulational variability, the possibility that we are dealing with two different species was examined. This work revisit the karyotypes of M. curema from Venezuela and Brazil, including new data on C-banding, and NOR localization, and compares morphologic characteristics of samples from both localities. Thus, besides diploid number, the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and NORs location, mark other differences between M. curema Cytotype 1 (2n=28; FN=48 and Cytotype 2 (2n=24; NF=48. Moreover, morphologic comparison revealed differences in the scale counts and pectoral fin rays: 35 scales in the middle body line and 15 pectoral fin rays in specimens possessing the karyotype 2n=28, compared with 37-39 scales in the middle body line and 17 pectoral fin rays in specimens with the karyotype 2n=24. These differences lead us to suggest that both cytotypes are not related merely to geographic polytipic variations but could correspond to different species.

  15. Feature tracking CMR reveals abnormal strain in preclinical arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/ cardiomyopathy: a multisoftware feasibility and clinical implementation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourfiss, Mimount; Vigneault, Davis M; Aliyari Ghasebeh, Mounes; Murray, Brittney; James, Cynthia A; Tichnell, Crystal; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A; Zimmerman, Stefan L; Kamel, Ihab R; Calkins, Hugh; Tandri, Harikrishna; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Bluemke, David A; Te Riele, Anneline S J M

    2017-09-01

    Regional right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is the hallmark of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C), but is currently only qualitatively evaluated in the clinical setting. Feature Tracking Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (FT-CMR) is a novel quantitative method that uses cine CMR to calculate strain values. However, most prior FT-CMR studies in ARVD/C have focused on global RV strain using different software methods, complicating implementation of FT-CMR in clinical practice. We aimed to assess the clinical value of global and regional strain using FT-CMR in ARVD/C and to determine differences between commercially available FT-CMR software packages. We analyzed cine CMR images of 110 subjects (39 overt ARVD/C [mutation+/phenotype+], 40 preclinical ARVD/C [mutation+/phenotype-] and 31 control) for global and regional (subtricuspid, anterior, apical) RV strain in the horizontal longitudinal axis using four FT-CMR software methods (Multimodality Tissue Tracking, TomTec, Medis and Circle Cardiovascular Imaging). Intersoftware agreement was assessed using Bland Altman plots. For global strain, all methods showed reduced strain in overt ARVD/C patients compared to control subjects (p  0.275). For regional strain, overt ARVD/C patients showed reduced strain compared to control subjects in all segments which reached statistical significance in the subtricuspid region for all software methods (p < 0.037), in the anterior wall for two methods (p < 0.005) and in the apex for one method (p = 0.012). Preclinical subjects showed abnormal subtricuspid strain compared to control subjects using one of the software methods (p = 0.009). Agreement between software methods for absolute strain values was low (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.373). Despite large intersoftware variability of FT-CMR derived strain values, all four software methods distinguished overt ARVD/C patients from control subjects by both global and subtricuspid

  16. Coronary Plaque Characterization in Psoriasis Reveals High-Risk Features That Improve After Treatment in a Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Joseph B; Joshi, Aditya A; Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Aberra, Tsion M; Dey, Amit K; Rodante, Justin A; Salahuddin, Taufiq; Chung, Jonathan H; Rana, Anshuma; Teague, Heather L; Wu, Jashin J; Playford, Martin P; Lockshin, Benjamin A; Chen, Marcus Y; Sandfort, Veit; Bluemke, David A; Mehta, Nehal N

    2017-07-18

    Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease associated with an accelerated risk of myocardial infarction, provides an ideal human model to study inflammatory atherogenesis in vivo. We hypothesized that the increased cardiovascular risk observed in psoriasis would be partially attributable to an elevated subclinical coronary artery disease burden composed of noncalcified plaques with high-risk features. However, inadequate efforts have been made to directly measure coronary artery disease in this vulnerable population. As such, we sought to compare total coronary plaque burden and noncalcified coronary plaque burden (NCB) and high-risk plaque (HRP) prevalence between patients with psoriasis (n=105), patients with hyperlipidemia eligible for statin therapy under National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines (n=100) who were ≈10 years older, and healthy volunteers without psoriasis (n=25). Patients underwent coronary computed-tomography angiography for total coronary plaque burden and NCB quantification and HRP identification, defined as low attenuation (1.10), and spotty calcification. A consecutive sample of the first 50 patients with psoriasis was scanned again 1 year after therapy. Despite being younger and at lower traditional risk than patients with hyperlipidemia, patients with psoriasis had increased NCB (mean±SD: 1.18±0.33 versus 1.11±0.32, P =0.02) and similar HRP prevalence ( P =0.58). Furthermore, compared to healthy volunteers, patients with psoriasis had increased total coronary plaque burden (1.22±0.31 versus 1.04±0.22, P =0.001), NCB (1.18±0.33 versus 1.03±0.21, P =0.004), and HRP prevalence beyond traditional risk (odds ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-31.7; P =0.03). Last, among patients with psoriasis followed for 1 year, improvement in psoriasis severity was associated with improvement in total coronary plaque burden (β=0.45, 0.23-0.67; P psoriasis had greater NCB and increased HRP prevalence than

  17. The organization structure and regulatory elements of Chlamydomonas histone genes reveal features linking plant and animal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, S; Müller, K; Lindauer, A; Park, P B; Cornelius, T; Schmitt, R

    1995-09-01

    (66% identity). Organization of the core histone gene in pairs, and non-polyadenylation of mRNAs are features shared with animals, whereas peptide sequences and enhancer elements are shared with higher plants, assigning the volvocalean histone genes a position intermediate between animals and plants.

  18. Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair: a second case with neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavelli, Livia; Cordeddu, Viviana; Errico, Stefania; Bertolini, Patrizia; Street, Maria Elisabeth; Rosato, Simonetta; Pollazzon, Marzia; Wischmeijer, Anita; Ivanovski, Ivan; Daniele, Paola; Bacchini, Ermanno; Lombardi, Alfonsa Anna; Izzi, Giancarlo; Biasucci, Giacomo; Del Rossi, Carmine; Corradi, Domenico; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Dominici, Carlo; Rossi, Cesare; De Luca, Alessandro; Bernasconi, Sergio; Riccardi, Riccardo; Legius, Eric; Tartaglia, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NSLH), also known as Mazzanti syndrome, is a RASopathy characterized by craniofacial features resembling Noonan syndrome, cardiac defects, cognitive deficits and behavioral issues, reduced growth generally associated with GH deficit, darkly pigmented skin, and an unique combination of ectodermal anomalies. Virtually all cases of NSLH are caused by an invariant and functionally unique mutation in SHOC2 (c.4A>G, p.Ser2Gly). Here, we report on a child with molecularly confirmed NSLH who developed a neuroblastoma, first suspected at the age 3 months by abdominal ultrasound examination. Based on this finding, scanning of the SHOC2 coding sequence encompassing the c.4A>G change was performed on selected pediatric cohorts of malignancies documented to occur in RASopathies (i.e., neuroblastoma, brain tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma, acute lymphoblastic, and myeloid leukemia), but failed to identify a functionally relevant cancer-associated variant. While these results do not support a major role of somatic SHOC2 mutations in these pediatric cancers, this second instance of neuroblastoma in NSLAH suggests a possible predisposition to this malignancy in subjects heterozygous for the c.4A>G SHOC2 mutation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The genome and proteome of a Campylobacter coli bacteriophage vB_CcoM-IBB_35 reveal unusual features

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    Carvalho Carla M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. Bacteriophages (phages are naturally occurring predators of bacteria, ubiquitous in the environment, with high host specificity and thus considered an appealing option to control bacterial pathogens. Nevertheless for an effective use of phages as antimicrobial agents, it is important to understand phage biology which renders crucial the analysis of phage genomes and proteomes. The lack of sequence data from Campylobacter phages adds further importance to these studies. Methods vB_CcoM-IBB_35 is a broad lytic spectrum Myoviridae Campylobacter phage with high potential for therapeutic use. The genome of this phage was obtained by pyrosequencing and the sequence data was further analyzed. The proteomic analysis was performed by SDS-PAGE and Mass spectrometry. Results and conclusions The DNA sequence data of vB_CcoM-IBB_35 consists of five contigs for a total of 172,065 bp with an average GC content of 27%. Attempts to close the gaps between contigs were unsuccessful since the DNA preparations appear to contain substances that inhibited Taq and ϕ29 polymerases. From the 210 identified ORFs, around 60% represent proteins that were not functionally assigned. Homology exists with members of the Teequatrovirinae namely for T4 proteins involved in morphogenesis, nucleotide metabolism, transcription, DNA replication and recombination. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis revealed 38 structural proteins as part of the mature phage particle. Conclusions Genes encoding proteins involved in the carbohydrate metabolism along with several incidences of gene duplications, split genes with inteins and introns have been rarely found in other phage genomes yet are found in this phage. We identified the genes encoding for tail fibres and for the lytic cassette, this later, expressing enzymes for bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPS degradation, which has not been reported

  20. PrP-C1 fragment in cattle brains reveals features of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy associated PrPsc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Fabienne; Müller, Joachim; Gray, John; Lüthi, Ramona; Dudas, Sandor; Czub, Stefanie; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2017-03-15

    Three different types of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are known and supposedly caused by distinct prion strains: the classical (C-) BSE type that was typically found during the BSE epidemic, and two relatively rare atypical BSE types, termed H-BSE and L-BSE. The three BSE types differ in the molecular phenotype of the disease associated prion protein, namely the N-terminally truncated proteinase K (PK) resistant prion protein fragment (PrP res ). In this study, we report and analyze yet another PrP res type (PrP res-2011 ), which was found in severely autolytic brain samples of two cows in the framework of disease surveillance in Switzerland in 2011. Analysis of brain tissues from these animals by PK titration and PK inhibitor assays ruled out the process of autolysis as the cause for the aberrant PrP res profile. Immunochemical characterization of the PrP fragments present in the 2011 cases by epitope mapping indicated that PrP res-2011 corresponds in its primary sequence to the physiologically occurring PrP-C1 fragment. However, high speed centrifugation, sucrose gradient assay and NaPTA precipitation revealed biochemical similarities between PrP res-2011 and the disease-associated prion protein found in BSE affected cattle in terms of detergent insolubility, PK resistance and PrP aggregation. Although it remains to be established whether PrP res-2011 is associated with a transmissible disease, our results point out the need of further research on the role the PrP-C1 aggregation and misfolding in health and disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Circular dichroism and site-directed spin labeling reveal structural and dynamical features of high-pressure states of myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Michael T.; Horwitz, Joseph; McCoy, John; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2013-01-01

    Excited states of proteins may play important roles in function, yet are difficult to study spectroscopically because of their sparse population. High hydrostatic pressure increases the equilibrium population of excited states, enabling their characterization [Akasaka K (2003) Biochemistry 42:10875–85]. High-pressure site-directed spin-labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR) was developed recently to map the site-specific structure and dynamics of excited states populated by pressure. To monitor global secondary structure content by circular dichroism (CD) at high pressure, a modified optical cell using a custom MgF2 window with a reduced aperture is introduced. Here, a combination of SDSL-EPR and CD is used to map reversible structural transitions in holomyoglobin and apomyoglobin (apoMb) as a function of applied pressure up to 2 kbar. CD shows that the high-pressure excited state of apoMb at pH 6 has helical content identical to that of native apoMb, but reversible changes reflecting the appearance of a conformational ensemble are observed by SDSL-EPR, suggesting a helical topology that fluctuates slowly on the EPR time scale. Although the high-pressure state of apoMb at pH 6 has been referred to as a molten globule, the data presented here reveal significant differences from the well-characterized pH 4.1 molten globule of apoMb. Pressure-populated states of both holomyoglobin and apoMb at pH 4.1 have significantly less helical structure, and for the latter, that may correspond to a transient folding intermediate. PMID:24248390

  2. Transcriptional Analysis and Subcellular Protein Localization Reveal Specific Features of the Essential WalKR System in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Poupel

    Full Text Available The WalKR two-component system, controlling cell wall metabolism, is highly conserved among Bacilli and essential for cell viability. In Staphylococcus aureus, walR and walK are followed by three genes of unknown function: walH, walI and walJ. Sequence analysis and transcript mapping revealed a unique genetic structure for this locus in S. aureus: the last gene of the locus, walJ, is transcribed independently, whereas transcription of the tetra-cistronic walRKHI operon occurred from two independent promoters located upstream from walR. Protein topology analysis and protein-protein interactions in E. coli as well as subcellular localization in S. aureus allowed us to show that WalH and WalI are membrane-bound proteins, which associate with WalK to form a complex at the cell division septum. While these interactions suggest that WalH and WalI play a role in activity of the WalKR regulatory pathway, deletion of walH and/or walI did not have a major effect on genes whose expression is strongly dependent on WalKR or on associated phenotypes. No effect of WalH or WalI was seen on tightly controlled WalKR regulon genes such as sle1 or saouhsc_00773, which encodes a CHAP-domain amidase. Of the genes encoding the two major S. aureus autolysins, AtlA and Sle1, only transcription of atlA was increased in the ΔwalH or ΔwalI mutants. Likewise, bacterial autolysis was not increased in the absence of WalH and/or WalI and biofilm formation was lowered rather than increased. Our results suggest that contrary to their major role as WalK inhibitors in B. subtilis, the WalH and WalI proteins have evolved a different function in S. aureus, where they are more accessory. A phylogenomic analysis shows a striking conservation of the 5 gene wal cluster along the evolutionary history of Bacilli, supporting the key importance of this signal transduction system, and indicating that the walH and walI genes were lost in the ancestor of Streptococcaceae, leading to their

  3. Transcriptional Analysis and Subcellular Protein Localization Reveal Specific Features of the Essential WalKR System in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupel, Olivier; Moyat, Mati; Groizeleau, Julie; Antunes, Luísa C S; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Msadek, Tarek; Dubrac, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The WalKR two-component system, controlling cell wall metabolism, is highly conserved among Bacilli and essential for cell viability. In Staphylococcus aureus, walR and walK are followed by three genes of unknown function: walH, walI and walJ. Sequence analysis and transcript mapping revealed a unique genetic structure for this locus in S. aureus: the last gene of the locus, walJ, is transcribed independently, whereas transcription of the tetra-cistronic walRKHI operon occurred from two independent promoters located upstream from walR. Protein topology analysis and protein-protein interactions in E. coli as well as subcellular localization in S. aureus allowed us to show that WalH and WalI are membrane-bound proteins, which associate with WalK to form a complex at the cell division septum. While these interactions suggest that WalH and WalI play a role in activity of the WalKR regulatory pathway, deletion of walH and/or walI did not have a major effect on genes whose expression is strongly dependent on WalKR or on associated phenotypes. No effect of WalH or WalI was seen on tightly controlled WalKR regulon genes such as sle1 or saouhsc_00773, which encodes a CHAP-domain amidase. Of the genes encoding the two major S. aureus autolysins, AtlA and Sle1, only transcription of atlA was increased in the ΔwalH or ΔwalI mutants. Likewise, bacterial autolysis was not increased in the absence of WalH and/or WalI and biofilm formation was lowered rather than increased. Our results suggest that contrary to their major role as WalK inhibitors in B. subtilis, the WalH and WalI proteins have evolved a different function in S. aureus, where they are more accessory. A phylogenomic analysis shows a striking conservation of the 5 gene wal cluster along the evolutionary history of Bacilli, supporting the key importance of this signal transduction system, and indicating that the walH and walI genes were lost in the ancestor of Streptococcaceae, leading to their atypical 3 wal gene

  4. Comparative genome analysis of Prevotella intermedia strain isolated from infected root canal reveals features related to pathogenicity and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yunfeng; Shen, Lu; Zou, Yan; Qi, Zhengnan; Yin, Jun; Jiang, Jie; Guo, Liang; He, Lin; Chen, Zijiang; Tang, Zisheng; Qin, Shengying

    2015-02-25

    Many species of the genus Prevotella are pathogens that cause oral diseases. Prevotella intermedia is known to cause various oral disorders e.g. periodontal disease, periapical periodontitis and noma as well as colonize in the respiratory tract and be associated with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis. It is of clinical significance to identify the main drive of its various adaptation and pathogenicity. In order to explore the intra-species genetic differences among strains of Prevotella intermedia of different niches, we isolated a strain Prevotella intermedia ZT from the infected root canal of a Chinese patient with periapical periodontitis and gained a draft genome sequence. We annotated the genome and compared it with the genomes of other taxa in the genus Prevotella. The raw data set, consisting of approximately 65X-coverage reads, was trimmed and assembled into contigs from which 2165 ORFs were predicted. The comparison of the Prevotella intermedia ZT genome sequence with the published genome sequence of Prevotella intermedia 17 and Prevotella intermedia ATCC25611 revealed that ~14% of the genes were strain-specific. The Preveotella intermedia strains share a set of conserved genes contributing to its adaptation and pathogenic and possess strain-specific genes especially those involved in adhesion and secreting bacteriocin. The Prevotella intermedia ZT shares similar gene content with other taxa of genus Prevotella. The genomes of the genus Prevotella is highly dynamic with relative conserved parts: on average, about half of the genes in one Prevotella genome were not included in another genome of the different Prevotella species. The degree of conservation varied with different pathways: the ability of amino acid biosynthesis varied greatly with species but the pathway of cell wall components biosynthesis were nearly constant. Phylogenetic tree shows that the taxa from different niches are scarcely distributed among clades. Prevotella intermedia ZT

  5. Heterozygous Germline Mutations in the CBL Tumor-Suppressor Gene Cause a Noonan Syndrome-like Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Simone; De Luca, Alessandro; Stellacci, Emilia; Rossi, Cesare; Checquolo, Saula; Lepri, Francesca; Caputo, Viviana; Silvano, Marianna; Buscherini, Francesco; Consoli, Federica; Ferrara, Grazia; Digilio, Maria C.; Cavaliere, Maria L.; van Hagen, Johanna M.; Zampino, Giuseppe; van der Burgt, Ineke; Ferrero, Giovanni B.; Mazzanti, Laura; Screpanti, Isabella; Yntema, Helger G.; Nillesen, Willy M.; Savarirayan, Ravi; Zenker, Martin; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gelb, Bruce D.; Tartaglia, Marco

    2010-01-01

    RAS signaling plays a key role in controlling appropriate cell responses to extracellular stimuli and participates in early and late developmental processes. Although enhanced flow through this pathway has been established as a major contributor to oncogenesis, recent discoveries have revealed that aberrant RAS activation causes a group of clinically related developmental disorders characterized by facial dysmorphism, a wide spectrum of cardiac disease, reduced growth, variable cognitive deficits, ectodermal and musculoskeletal anomalies, and increased risk for certain malignancies. Here, we report that heterozygous germline mutations in CBL, a tumor-suppressor gene that is mutated in myeloid malignancies and encodes a multivalent adaptor protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, can underlie a phenotype with clinical features fitting or partially overlapping Noonan syndrome (NS), the most common condition of this disease family. Independent CBL mutations were identified in two sporadic cases and two families from among 365 unrelated subjects who had NS or suggestive features and were negative for mutations in previously identified disease genes. Phenotypic heterogeneity and variable expressivity were documented. Mutations were missense changes altering evolutionarily conserved residues located in the RING finger domain or the linker connecting this domain to the N-terminal tyrosine kinase binding domain, a known mutational hot spot in myeloid malignancies. Mutations were shown to affect CBL-mediated receptor ubiquitylation and dysregulate signal flow through RAS. These findings document that germline mutations in CBL alter development to cause a clinically variable condition that resembles NS and that possibly predisposes to malignancies. PMID:20619386

  6. Chemical characterization of organic aerosol above a mid-latitude forest reveals a complex mixture of highly-functionalized chemical species and diverse structural features with temporal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, D. R.; Ditto, J.; Barnes, E.; Khare, P.

    2017-12-01

    Highly-functionalized organic compounds are known to be a major component of the complex mixture of the particle-phase compounds that comprise organic aerosol, yet little is known about the identity of many of these compounds, and their formation pathways and roles in atmospheric processes are poorly understood. We present results from the comprehensive chemical speciation of PM10 organic aerosols collected in July 2016 at the remote mid-latitude forest field site during PROPHET. Samples were analyzed via liquid and gas chromatography coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS×MS) following electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). 8 hr samples were collected during day- and night-time sampling periods rather than more typical 24-hour samples. This analysis of the organic aerosol yielded over 12,000 unique compounds for which we have high accuracy molecular masses, formulas, and additional information on structural features using MS×MS. O:C ratios were 0.3 on average, yet the top 10% of compounds ranged 0.7-2.3. 70% and 69% of day- and night-time samples were nitrogen-containing, whereas 26% and 24% contained sulfur, respectively. Within these broader molecular categories, we observed a wide variety of molecular features that reveal a diversity of functional groups and moieties. In this presentation, we present the results of our speciation, temporal variability, connections to air parcel back trajectories and other bulk properties, and potential formation pathways.

  7. Features of spatial and functional segregation and integration of the primate connectome revealed by trade-off between wiring cost and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhan; Wang, Shengjun; Hilgetag, Claus C; Zhou, Changsong

    2017-09-01

    The primate connectome, possessing a characteristic global topology and specific regional connectivity profiles, is well organized to support both segregated and integrated brain function. However, the organization mechanisms shaping the characteristic connectivity and its relationship to functional requirements remain unclear. The primate brain connectome is shaped by metabolic economy as well as functional values. Here, we explored the influence of two competing factors and additional advanced functional requirements on the primate connectome employing an optimal trade-off model between neural wiring cost and the representative functional requirement of processing efficiency. Moreover, we compared this model with a generative model combining spatial distance and topological similarity, with the objective of statistically reproducing multiple topological features of the network. The primate connectome indeed displays a cost-efficiency trade-off and that up to 67% of the connections were recovered by optimal combination of the two basic factors of wiring economy and processing efficiency, clearly higher than the proportion of connections (56%) explained by the generative model. While not explicitly aimed for, the trade-off model captured several key topological features of the real connectome as the generative model, yet better explained the connectivity of most regions. The majority of the remaining 33% of connections unexplained by the best trade-off model were long-distance links, which are concentrated on few cortical areas, termed long-distance connectors (LDCs). The LDCs are mainly non-hubs, but form a densely connected group overlapping on spatially segregated functional modalities. LDCs are crucial for both functional segregation and integration across different scales. These organization features revealed by the optimization analysis provide evidence that the demands of advanced functional segregation and integration among spatially distributed regions may

  8. Features of spatial and functional segregation and integration of the primate connectome revealed by trade-off between wiring cost and efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The primate connectome, possessing a characteristic global topology and specific regional connectivity profiles, is well organized to support both segregated and integrated brain function. However, the organization mechanisms shaping the characteristic connectivity and its relationship to functional requirements remain unclear. The primate brain connectome is shaped by metabolic economy as well as functional values. Here, we explored the influence of two competing factors and additional advanced functional requirements on the primate connectome employing an optimal trade-off model between neural wiring cost and the representative functional requirement of processing efficiency. Moreover, we compared this model with a generative model combining spatial distance and topological similarity, with the objective of statistically reproducing multiple topological features of the network. The primate connectome indeed displays a cost-efficiency trade-off and that up to 67% of the connections were recovered by optimal combination of the two basic factors of wiring economy and processing efficiency, clearly higher than the proportion of connections (56% explained by the generative model. While not explicitly aimed for, the trade-off model captured several key topological features of the real connectome as the generative model, yet better explained the connectivity of most regions. The majority of the remaining 33% of connections unexplained by the best trade-off model were long-distance links, which are concentrated on few cortical areas, termed long-distance connectors (LDCs. The LDCs are mainly non-hubs, but form a densely connected group overlapping on spatially segregated functional modalities. LDCs are crucial for both functional segregation and integration across different scales. These organization features revealed by the optimization analysis provide evidence that the demands of advanced functional segregation and integration among spatially

  9. Systematic analysis of phloem-feeding insect-induced transcriptional reprogramming in Arabidopsis highlights common features and reveals distinct responses to specialist and generalist insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Verrall, Susan R; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Phloem-feeding insects (PFIs), of which aphids are the largest group, are major agricultural pests causing extensive damage to crop plants. In contrast to chewing insects, the nature of the plant response to PFIs remains poorly characterized. Scrutiny of the literature concerning transcriptional responses of model and crop plant species to PFIs reveals surprisingly little consensus with respect to the transcripts showing altered abundance following infestation. Nevertheless, core features of the transcriptional response to PFIs can be defined in Arabidopsis thaliana. This comparison of the PFI-associated transcriptional response observed in A. thaliana infested by the generalists Myzus persicae and Bemisia tabaci with the specialist Brevicoryne brassicae highlights the importance of calcium-dependent and receptor kinase-associated signalling. We discuss these findings within the context of the complex cross-talk between the different hormones regulating basal immune response mechanisms in plants. We identify PFI-responsive genes, highlighting the importance of cell wall-associated kinases in plant-PFI interactions, as well as the significant role of kinases containing the domain of unknown function 26. A common feature of plant-PFI interaction is enhanced abundance of transcripts encoding WRKY transcription factors. However, significant divergence was observed with respect to secondary metabolism dependent upon the insect attacker. Transcripts encoding enzymes and proteins associated with glucosinolate metabolism were decreased following attack by the generalist M. persicae but not by the specialist B. brassicae. This analysis provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular patterns associated with the plant response to PFIs and suggests that plants recognize and respond to perturbations in the cell wall occurring during PFI infestation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights

  10. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies—one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  11. An expressive bodily movement repertoire for marimba performance, revealed through observers’ Laban effort-shape analyses, and allied musical features: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C Broughton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Musicians’ expressive bodily movements can influence observers’ perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers’ music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies – one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers’ perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players’ bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the

  12. An Expressive Bodily Movement Repertoire for Marimba Performance, Revealed through Observers' Laban Effort-Shape Analyses, and Allied Musical Features: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

    2016-01-01

    Musicians' expressive bodily movements can influence observers' perception of performance. Furthermore, individual differences in observers' music and motor expertise can shape how they perceive and respond to music performance. However, few studies have investigated the bodily movements that different observers of music performance perceive as expressive, in order to understand how they might relate to the music being produced, and the particular instrument type. In this paper, we focus on marimba performance through two case studies-one solo and one collaborative context. This study aims to investigate the existence of a core repertoire of marimba performance expressive bodily movements, identify key music-related features associated with the core repertoire, and explore how observers' perception of expressive bodily movements might vary according to individual differences in their music and motor expertise. Of the six professional musicians who observed and analyzed the marimba performances, three were percussionists and experienced marimba players. Following training, observers implemented the Laban effort-shape movement analysis system to analyze marimba players' bodily movements that they perceived as expressive in audio-visual recordings of performance. Observations that were agreed by all participants as being the same type of action at the same location in the performance recording were examined in each case study, then across the two studies. A small repertoire of bodily movements emerged that the observers perceived as being expressive. Movements were primarily allied to elements of the music structure, technique, and expressive interpretation, however, these elements appeared to be interactive. A type of body sway movement and more localized sound generating actions were perceived as expressive. These movements co-occurred and also appeared separately. Individual participant data revealed slightly more variety in the types and locations of actions

  13. Exome sequencing reveals a de novo POLD1 mutation causing phenotypic variability in mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome (MDPL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elouej, Sahar; Beleza-Meireles, Ana; Caswell, Richard; Colclough, Kevin; Ellard, Sian; Desvignes, Jean Pierre; Béroud, Christophe; Lévy, Nicolas; Mohammed, Shehla; De Sandre-Giovannoli, Annachiara

    2017-06-01

    of POLD1 exon 15 revealed the recurrent in-frame deletion (c.1812_1814del, p.S605del). Our work highlights that mutations in different POLD1 domains can lead to phenotypic variability, ranging from dominantly inherited cancer predisposition syndromes, to mild MDPL phenotypes without lifespan reduction, to very severe MDPL syndromes with major premature aging features. These results also suggest that POLD1 gene testing should be considered in patients presenting with severe progeroid features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. RNA-Seq reveals the dynamic and diverse features of digestive enzymes during early development of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-09-01

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), with high commercial value, has a typical metamorphosis pattern by going through embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae during early development. Its diets change continually in this period, and a high mortality of larvae also occurs in this period. Since there is a close relationship between diets and digestive enzymes, a comprehensive investigation about the types and expression patterns of all digestive enzyme genes during early development of L. vannamei is of considerable significance for shrimp diets and larvae culture. Using RNA-Seq data, the types and expression characteristics of the digestive enzyme genes were analyzed during five different development stages (embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae) in L. vannamei. Among the obtained 66,815 unigenes, 296 were annotated as 16 different digestive enzymes including five types of carbohydrase, seven types of peptidase and four types of lipase. Such a diverse suite of enzymes illustrated the capacity of L. vannamei to exploit varied diets to fit their nutritional requirements. The analysis of their dynamic expression patterns during development also indicated the importance of transcriptional regulation to adapt to the diet transition. Our study revealed the diverse and dynamic features of digestive enzymes during early development of L. vannamei. These results would provide support to better understand the physiological changes during diet transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. {sup 18}F-FDG PET reveals unique features of large vessel inflammation in patients with Takayasu's arteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incerti, Elena; Fallanca, Federico; Alongi, Pierpaolo; Gianolli, Luigi; Picchio, Maria [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Tombetti, Enrico; Sartorelli, Silvia; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Manfredi, Angelo A. [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Unit of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Milan (Italy); Baldissera, Elena M. [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Unit of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Milan (Italy); Tombolini, Elisabetta [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); Papa, Maurizio [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); De Cobelli, Francesco [Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan (Italy); IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Department of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Mason, Justin C. [Imperial College London and Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Vascular Science and Rheumatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    The object of this study was to assess whether {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) provides novel information in patients with Takayasu's arteritis (TA) in addition to that provided by current activity assessment, to analyse the effects of possible confounders, such as arterial grafts, and to verify whether PET/CT could be informative in lesions <4 mm thick. We studied 30 patients with TA, evaluated from October 2010 to April 2014 by both PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All arterial lesions were evaluated by PET both qualitatively (positive/negative) and semiquantitatively (maximum standardized uptake value, SUV{sub max}), and the thickness of lesions in the MRI field of view was evaluated. In a per-patient analysis, the relationships between the PET data and acute-phase reactants and NIH criteria for active TA were evaluated. In a per-lesion analysis, the relationships between the PET features of each lesion and MRI morphological data were evaluated. The effects of the presence of arterial grafts were also evaluated. Increased FDG uptake was seen in 16 of 30 patients (53%) and in 46 of 177 vascular lesions (26%). Significant periprosthetic FDG uptake was seen in 6 of 7 patients (86%) with previous vascular surgery and in 10 of 11 of grafts (91%). Graft-associated uptake influenced the PET results in three patients (10%) and the SUV{sub max} values in five patients (17%). Of 39 lesions with significant FDG uptake, 15 (38%) were <4 mm thick. Lesion thickness was correlated with lesion SUV{sub max} in FDG-avid lesions only. FDG arterial uptake was not associated with systemic inflammation or NIH criteria. PET/CT reveals unique and fundamental features of arterial involvement in TA. PET/CT may be useful in the assessment of local inflammatory and vascular remodelling events independent of systemic inflammation during follow-up, even in lesions in which the arterial wall is <4 mm. The presence of arterial grafts is a potential confounder

  16. Synchrotron soft X-ray imaging and fluorescence microscopy reveal novel features of asbestos body morphology and composition in human lung tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polentarutti Maurizio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational or environmental exposure to asbestos fibres is associated with pleural and parenchymal lung diseases. A histopathologic hallmark of exposure to asbestos is the presence in lung parenchyma of the so-called asbestos bodies. They are the final product of biomineralization processes resulting in deposition of endogenous iron and organic matter (mainly proteins around the inhaled asbestos fibres. For shedding light on the formation mechanisms of asbestos bodies it is of fundamental importance to characterize at the same length scales not only their structural morphology and chemical composition but also to correlate them to the possible alterations in the local composition of the surrounding tissues. Here we report the first correlative morphological and chemical characterization of untreated paraffinated histological lung tissue samples with asbestos bodies by means of soft X-ray imaging and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF microscopy, which reveals new features in the elemental lateral distribution. Results The X-ray absorption and phase contrast images and the simultaneously monitored XRF maps of tissue samples have revealed the location, distribution and elemental composition of asbestos bodies and associated nanometric structures. The observed specific morphology and differences in the local Si, Fe, O and Mg content provide distinct fingerprints characteristic for the core asbestos fibre and the ferruginous body. The highest Si content is found in the asbestos fibre, while the shell and ferruginous bodies are characterized by strongly increased content of Mg, Fe and O compared to the adjacent tissue. The XRF and SEM-EDX analyses of the extracted asbestos bodies confirmed an enhanced Mg deposition in the organic asbestos coating. Conclusions The present report demonstrates the potential of the advanced synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and microspectroscopy techniques for studying the response of the lung tissue to the

  17. Pan-cancer stratification of solid human epithelial tumors and cancer cell lines reveals commonalities and tissue-specific features of the CpG island methylator phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vega, Francisco; Gotea, Valer; Margolin, Gennady; Elnitski, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The term CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) has been used to describe widespread DNA hypermethylation at CpG-rich genomic regions affecting clinically distinct subsets of cancer patients. Even though there have been numerous studies of CIMP in individual cancer types, a uniform analysis across tissues is still lacking. We analyze genome-wide patterns of CpG island hypermethylation in 5,253 solid epithelial tumors from 15 cancer types from TCGA and 23 cancer cell lines from ENCODE. We identify differentially methylated loci that define CIMP+ and CIMP- samples, and we use unsupervised clustering to provide a robust molecular stratification of tumor methylomes for 12 cancer types and all cancer cell lines. With a minimal set of 89 discriminative loci, we demonstrate accurate pan-cancer separation of the 12 CIMP+/- subpopulations, based on their average levels of methylation. Tumor samples in different CIMP subclasses show distinctive correlations with gene expression profiles and recurrence of somatic mutations, copy number variations, and epigenetic silencing. Enrichment analyses indicate shared canonical pathways and upstream regulators for CIMP-targeted regions across cancer types. Furthermore, genomic alterations showing consistent associations with CIMP+/- status include genes involved in DNA repair, chromatin remodeling genes, and several histone methyltransferases. Associations of CIMP status with specific clinical features, including overall survival in several cancer types, highlight the importance of the CIMP+/- designation for individual tumor evaluation and personalized medicine. We present a comprehensive computational study of CIMP that reveals pan-cancer commonalities and tissue-specific differences underlying concurrent hypermethylation of CpG islands across tumors. Our stratification of solid tumors and cancer cell lines based on CIMP status is data-driven and agnostic to tumor type by design, which protects against known biases that have hindered

  18. Quantitative Analysis of the Association Angle between T-cell Receptor Vα/Vβ Domains Reveals Important Features for Epitope Recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoffmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available T-cell receptors (TCR play an important role in the adaptive immune system as they recognize pathogen- or cancer-based epitopes and thus initiate the cell-mediated immune response. Therefore there exists a growing interest in the optimization of TCRs for medical purposes like adoptive T-cell therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms behind T-cell signaling are still predominantly unknown. For small sets of TCRs it was observed that the angle between their Vα- and Vβ-domains, which bind the epitope, can vary and might be important for epitope recognition. Here we present a comprehensive, quantitative study of the variation in the Vα/Vβ interdomain-angle and its influence on epitope recognition, performing a systematic bioinformatics analysis based on a representative set of experimental TCR structures. For this purpose we developed a new, cuboid-based superpositioning method, which allows a unique, quantitative analysis of the Vα/Vβ-angles. Angle-based clustering led to six significantly different clusters. Analysis of these clusters revealed the unexpected result that the angle is predominantly influenced by the TCR-clonotype, whereas the bound epitope has only a minor influence. Furthermore we could identify a previously unknown center of rotation (CoR, which is shared by all TCRs. All TCR geometries can be obtained by rotation around this center, rendering it a new, common TCR feature with the potential of improving the accuracy of TCR structure prediction considerably. The importance of Vα/Vβ rotation for signaling was confirmed as we observed larger variances in the Vα/Vβ-angles in unbound TCRs compared to epitope-bound TCRs. Our results strongly support a two-step mechanism for TCR-epitope: First, preformation of a flexible TCR geometry in the unbound state and second, locking of the Vα/Vβ-angle in a TCR-type specific geometry upon epitope-MHC association, the latter being driven by rotation around the unique center of rotation.

  19. "Spacecraft Reveals Recent Geological Activity on the Moon": Exploring the Features of NASA Twitter Posts and Their Potential to Engage Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesley, Mellinee

    2014-01-01

    Through a content analysis of 200 "tweets," this study was an exploration into the distinct features of text posted to NASA's "Twitter" site and the potential for these posts to serve as more engaging scientific text than traditional textbooks for adolescents. Results of the content analysis indicated the tweets and linked…

  20. Comparative analysis of the 5S rRNA and its associated proteins reveals unique primitive rather than parasitic features in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin-Mei; Sun, Jun; Xin, De-Dong; Wen, Jian-Fan

    2012-01-01

    5S rRNA is a highly conserved ribosomal component. Eukaryotic 5S rRNA and its associated proteins (5S rRNA system) have become very well understood. Giardia lamblia was thought by some researchers to be the most primitive extant eukaryote while others considered it a highly evolved parasite. Previous reports have indicated that some aspects of its 5S rRNA system are simpler than that of common eukaryotes. We here explore whether this is true to its entire system, and whether this simplicity is a primitive or parasitic feature. By collecting and confirming pre-existing data and identifying new data, we obtained almost complete datasets of the system of three isolates of G. lamblia, two other parasitic excavates (Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma cruzi), and one free-living one (Naegleria gruberi). After comprehensively comparing each aspect of the system among these excavates and also with those of archaea and common eukaryotes, we found all the three Giardia isolates to harbor a same simplified 5S rRNA system, which is not only much simpler than that of common eukaryotes but also the simplest one among those of these excavates, and is surprisingly very similar to that of archaea; we also found among these excavates the system in parasitic species is not necessarily simpler than that in free-living species, conversely, the system of free-living species is even simpler in some respects than those of parasitic ones. The simplicity of Giardia 5S rRNA system should be considered a primitive rather than parasitically-degenerated feature. Therefore, Giardia 5S rRNA system might be a primitive system that is intermediate between that of archaea and the common eukaryotic model system, and it may reflect the evolutionary history of the eukaryotic 5S rRNA system from the archaeal form. Our results also imply G. lamblia might be a primitive eukaryote with secondary parasitically-degenerated features.

  1. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Sex-Biased Expressed Genes Reveals Discrete Biological and Physiological Features of Male and Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Cai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.

  2. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Sex-Biased Expressed Genes Reveals Discrete Biological and Physiological Features of Male and Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pengfei; Liu, Shuai; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P; Chen, Qijun

    2016-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.

  3. Array-based FMR1 sequencing and deletion analysis in patients with a fragile X syndrome-like phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C Collins

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is caused by loss of function mutations in the FMR1 gene. Trinucleotide CGG-repeat expansions, resulting in FMR1 gene silencing, are the most common mutations observed at this locus. Even though the repeat expansion mutation is a functional null mutation, few conventional mutations have been identified at this locus, largely due to the clinical laboratory focus on the repeat tract.To more thoroughly evaluate the frequency of conventional mutations in FXS-like patients, we used an array-based method to sequence FMR1 in 51 unrelated males exhibiting several features characteristic of FXS but with normal CGG-repeat tracts of FMR1. One patient was identified with a deletion in FMR1, but none of the patients were found to have other conventional mutations.These data suggest that missense mutations in FMR1 are not a common cause of the FXS phenotype in patients who have normal-length CGG-repeat tracts. However, screening for small deletions of FMR1 may be of clinically utility.

  4. Heterozygosity for ARID2 loss-of-function mutations in individuals with a Coffin-Siris syndrome-like phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramswig, Nuria C; Caluseriu, O; Lüdecke, H-J; Bolduc, F V; Noel, N C L; Wieland, T; Surowy, H M; Christen, H-J; Engels, H; Strom, T M; Wieczorek, D

    2017-03-01

    Chromatin remodeling is a complex process shaping the nucleosome landscape, thereby regulating the accessibility of transcription factors to regulatory regions of target genes and ultimately managing gene expression. The SWI/SNF (switch/sucrose nonfermentable) complex remodels the nucleosome landscape in an ATP-dependent manner and is divided into the two major subclasses Brahma-associated factor (BAF) and Polybromo Brahma-associated factor (PBAF) complex. Somatic mutations in subunits of the SWI/SNF complex have been associated with different cancers, while germline mutations have been associated with autism spectrum disorder and the neurodevelopmental disorders Coffin-Siris (CSS) and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes (NCBRS). CSS is characterized by intellectual disability (ID), coarsening of the face and hypoplasia or absence of the fifth finger- and/or toenails. So far, variants in five of the SWI/SNF subunit-encoding genes ARID1B, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, ARID1A, and SMARCE1 as well as variants in the transcription factor-encoding gene SOX11 have been identified in CSS-affected individuals. ARID2 is a member of the PBAF subcomplex, which until recently had not been linked to any neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In 2015, mutations in the ARID2 gene were associated with intellectual disability. In this study, we report on two individuals with private de novo ARID2 frameshift mutations. Both individuals present with a CSS-like phenotype including ID, coarsening of facial features, other recognizable facial dysmorphisms and hypoplasia of the fifth toenails. Hence, this study identifies mutations in the ARID2 gene as a novel and rare cause for a CSS-like phenotype and enlarges the list of CSS-like genes.

  5. Analysis of Metal-Binding Features of the Wild Type and Two Domain-Truncated Mutant Variants of Littorina littorea Metallothionein Reveals Its Cd-Specific Character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Òscar Palacios

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After the resolution of the 3D structure of the Cd9-aggregate of the Littorina littorea metallothionein (MT, we report here a detailed analysis of the metal binding capabilities of the wild type MT, LlwtMT, and of two truncated mutants lacking either the N-terminal domain, Lltr2MT, or both the N-terminal domain, plus four extra flanking residues (SSVF, Lltr1MT. The recombinant synthesis and in vitro studies of these three proteins revealed that LlwtMT forms unique M9-LlwtMT complexes with Zn(II and Cd(II, while yielding a complex mixture of heteronuclear Zn,Cu-LlwtMT species with Cu(I. As expected, the truncated mutants gave rise to unique M6-LltrMT complexes and Zn,Cu-LltrMT mixtures of lower stoichiometry with respect to LlwtMT, with the SSVF fragment having an influence on their metal binding performance. Our results also revealed a major specificity, and therefore a better metal-coordinating performance of the three proteins for Cd(II than for Zn(II, although the analysis of the Zn(II/Cd(II displacement reaction clearly demonstrates a lack of any type of cooperativity in Cd(II binding. Contrarily, the analysis of their Cu(I binding abilities revealed that every LlMT domain is prone to build Cu4-aggregates, the whole MT working by modules analogously to, as previously described, certain fungal MTs, like those of C. neoformans and T. mesenterica. It is concluded that the Littorina littorea MT is a Cd-specific protein that (beyond its extended binding capacity through an additional Cd-binding domain confers to Littorina littorea a particular adaptive advantage in its changeable marine habitat.

  6. Analysis of non-typeable Haemophilous influenzae VapC1 mutations reveals structural features required for toxicity and flexibility in the active site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Hamilton

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved mechanisms that allow them to survive in the face of a variety of stresses including nutrient deprivation, antibiotic challenge and engulfment by predator cells. A switch to dormancy represents one strategy that reduces energy utilization and can render cells resistant to compounds that kill growing bacteria. These persister cells pose a problem during treatment of infections with antibiotics, and dormancy mechanisms may contribute to latent infections. Many bacteria encode toxin-antitoxin (TA gene pairs that play an important role in dormancy and the formation of persisters. VapBC gene pairs comprise the largest of the Type II TA systems in bacteria and they produce a VapC ribonuclease toxin whose activity is inhibited by the VapB antitoxin. Despite the importance of VapBC TA pairs in dormancy and persister formation, little information exists on the structural features of VapC proteins required for their toxic function in vivo. Studies reported here identified 17 single mutations that disrupt the function of VapC1 from non-typeable H. influenzae in vivo. 3-D modeling suggests that side chains affected by many of these mutations sit near the active site of the toxin protein. Phylogenetic comparisons and secondary mutagenesis indicate that VapC1 toxicity requires an alternative active site motif found in many proteobacteria. Expression of the antitoxin VapB1 counteracts the activity of VapC1 mutants partially defective for toxicity, indicating that the antitoxin binds these mutant proteins in vivo. These findings identify critical chemical features required for the biological function of VapC toxins and PIN-domain proteins.

  7. Comparative live-cell imaging analyses of SPA-2, BUD-6 and BNI-1 in Neurospora crassa reveal novel features of the filamentous fungal polarisome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lichius

    Full Text Available A key multiprotein complex involved in regulating the actin cytoskeleton and secretory machinery required for polarized growth in fungi, is the polarisome. Recognized core constituents in budding yeast are the proteins Spa2, Pea2, Aip3/Bud6, and the key effector Bni1. Multicellular fungi display a more complex polarized morphogenesis than yeasts, suggesting that the filamentous fungal polarisome might fulfill additional functions. In this study, we compared the subcellular organization and dynamics of the putative polarisome components BUD-6 and BNI-1 with those of the bona fide polarisome marker SPA-2 at various developmental stages of Neurospora crassa. All three proteins exhibited a yeast-like polarisome configuration during polarized germ tube growth, cell fusion, septal pore plugging and tip repolarization. However, the localization patterns of all three proteins showed spatiotemporally distinct characteristics during the establishment of new polar axes, septum formation and cytokinesis, and maintained hyphal tip growth. Most notably, in vegetative hyphal tips BUD-6 accumulated as a subapical cloud excluded from the Spitzenkörper (Spk, whereas BNI-1 and SPA-2 partially colocalized with the Spk and the tip apex. Novel roles during septal plugging and cytokinesis, connected to the reinitiation of tip growth upon physical injury and conidial maturation, were identified for BUD-6 and BNI-1, respectively. Phenotypic analyses of gene deletion mutants revealed additional functions for BUD-6 and BNI-1 in cell fusion regulation, and the maintenance of Spk integrity. Considered together, our findings reveal novel polarisome-independent functions of BUD-6 and BNI-1 in Neurospora, but also suggest that all three proteins cooperate at plugged septal pores, and their complex arrangement within the apical dome of mature hypha might represent a novel aspect of filamentous fungal polarisome architecture.

  8. Angiofibroma of soft tissue with fibrohistiocytic features and intratumor genetic heterogeneity of NCOA2 gene rearrangement revealed by chromogenic in situ hybridization: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yumiko; Motoi, Toru; Kato, Ikuma; Ikegami, Masachika; Funata, Nobuaki; Ohtomo, Rie; Horiguchi, Shinichiro; Goto, Takahiro; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2014-05-01

    Angiofibroma of soft tissue is a recently described soft tissue tumor that is characterized by fibroblastic spindle tumor cells with arborizing capillary proliferation. Cytogenetically, it harbors a specific fusion gene involving the nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCOA2) gene. We report here additional new pathological and cytogenetic features. A soft tissue tumor in the left thigh of 73-year-old female was investigated. Microscopically, histiocytoid tumor cells were scattered in an edematous background with branching capillary proliferation. Immunohistochemically, we identified that the tumor cells were positive for histiocytic markers such as CD68 and CD163. Rearrangement of the NCOA2 gene was detected successfully by chromogenic in situ hybridization; however, abnormal signal patterns were observed in only a small subset of tumor cells. Unlike typical tumors with bland spindle cells, the present tumor needs to be distinguished from myxoid, dendritic and clear cell tumors. This case may suggest that angiofibroma of soft tissue is not in the center of the fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor group, but rather shows a fibrohistiocytic nature. We also found intratumor genetic heterogeneity, which is uncommon for a translocation-associated tumor. Therefore, careful evaluation is required to detect the gene rearrangement in this tumor entity. © 2014 The Authors. Pathology International © 2014 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs and putative cis-acting elements of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 reveals 'unique' features of gene expression strategy in the genus Ampelovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson William O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Closteroviridae comprises genera with monopartite genomes, Closterovirus and Ampelovirus, and with bipartite and tripartite genomes, Crinivirus. By contrast to closteroviruses in the genera Closterovirus and Crinivirus, much less is known about the molecular biology of viruses in the genus Ampelovirus, although they cause serious diseases in agriculturally important perennial crops like grapevines, pineapple, cherries and plums. Results The gene expression and cis-acting elements of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3; genus Ampelovirus was examined and compared to that of other members of the family Closteroviridae. Six putative 3'-coterminal subgenomic (sg RNAs were abundantly present in grapevine (Vitis vinifera infected with GLRaV-3. The sgRNAs for coat protein (CP, p21, p20A and p20B were confirmed using gene-specific riboprobes in Northern blot analysis. The 5'-termini of sgRNAs specific to CP, p21, p20A and p20B were mapped in the 18,498 nucleotide (nt virus genome and their leader sequences determined to be 48, 23, 95 and 125 nt, respectively. No conserved motifs were found around the transcription start site or in the leader sequence of these sgRNAs. The predicted secondary structure analysis of sequences around the start site failed to reveal any conserved motifs among the four sgRNAs. The GLRaV-3 isolate from Washington had a 737 nt long 5' nontranslated region (NTR with a tandem repeat of 65 nt sequence and differed in sequence and predicted secondary structure with a South Africa isolate. Comparison of the dissimilar sequences of the 5'NTRs did not reveal any common predicted structures. The 3'NTR was shorter and more conserved. The lack of similarity among the cis-acting elements of the diverse viruses in the family Closteroviridae is another measure of the complexity of their evolution. Conclusions The results indicate that transcription regulation of GLRaV-3 sgRNAs appears to be different

  10. Analysis of the type II-A CRISPR-Cas system of Streptococcus agalactiae reveals distinctive features according to genetic lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lier, Clément; Baticle, Elodie; Horvath, Philippe; Haguenoer, Eve; Valentin, Anne-Sophie; Glaser, Philippe; Mereghetti, Laurent; Lanotte, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated proteins) are found in 90% of archaea and about 40% of bacteria. In this original system, CRISPR arrays comprise short, almost unique sequences called spacers that are interspersed with conserved palindromic repeats. These systems play a role in adaptive immunity and participate to fight non-self DNA such as integrative and conjugative elements, plasmids, and phages. In Streptococcus agalactiae, a bacterium implicated in colonization and infections in humans since the 1960s, two CRISPR-Cas systems have been described. A type II-A system, characterized by proteins Cas9, Cas1, Cas2, and Csn2, is ubiquitous, and a type I–C system, with the Cas8c signature protein, is present in about 20% of the isolates. Unlike type I–C, which appears to be non-functional, type II-A appears fully functional. Here we studied type II-A CRISPR-cas loci from 126 human isolates of S. agalactiae belonging to different clonal complexes that represent the diversity of the species and that have been implicated in colonization or infection. The CRISPR-cas locus was analyzed both at spacer and repeat levels. Major distinctive features were identified according to the phylogenetic lineages previously defined by multilocus sequence typing, especially for the sequence type (ST) 17, which is considered hypervirulent. Among other idiosyncrasies, ST-17 shows a significantly lower number of spacers in comparison with other lineages. This characteristic could reflect the peculiar virulence or colonization specificities of this lineage. PMID:26124774

  11. Crystal Structure of Human Dual-Specificity Tyrosine-Regulated Kinase 3 Reveals New Structural Features and Insights into its Auto-phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kuglae; Cha, Jeong Seok; Cho, Yong-Soon; Kim, Hoyoung; Chang, Nienping; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2018-04-07

    Dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinases (DYRKs) auto-phosphorylate a critical tyrosine residue in their activation loop and phosphorylate their substrate on serine and threonine residues. The auto-phosphorylation occurs intramolecularly and is a one-off event. DYRK3 is selectively expressed at a high level in hematopoietic cells and attenuates erythroblast development, leading to anemia. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the mature form of human DYRK3 in complex with harmine, an ATP competitive inhibitor. The crystal structure revealed a phosphorylation site, residue S350, whose phosphorylation increases the stability of DYRK3 and enhances its kinase activity. In addition, our structural and biochemical assays suggest that the N-terminal auto-phosphorylation accessory domain stabilizes the DYRK3 protein, followed by auto-phosphorylation of the tyrosine of the activation loop, which is important for kinase activity. Finally, our docking analysis provides information for the design of novel and potent therapeutics to treat anemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-Precision, Continuous GPS Data Reveals Seasonal Groundwater Influence on the Deformation of the Salmon Falls Landslide, a Slow-Moving, Rotational Feature in Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, I. H.; Crosby, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    The development of predictive tools for landslide initiation and deformation serve both the natural hazard and geomorphic communities. Founded on both field observations and physical laws, these tools require a mechanistic understanding of the connection between forcing and response. Water has a well-documented influence on slope stability, impacting both soil plasticity and pore water pressure. High precision, high frequency GPS measurements of deformation paired with similar frequency water table measurements enable new insight into the lag and sensitivity present in the coupled hillslope-groundwater system, especially in the rotational domain, which is underrepresented in current literature. Our study explores the influence of groundwater on a slow-moving, deep-seated, rotational slide in southern Idaho using daily, mm precision GPS positions and contemporaneous groundwater levels measurements in adjacent wells, lakes, and streams. Seven semi-permanent GPS stations are spatially distributed across the slide and record three-dimensional velocities up to 11 cm/yr, which compare well with historical measurements from the early 2000's. Water level loggers are located in a rough cross-section through the study area and documents rises in water level during spring 2017 and a subsequent 1.5m drop in the following summer. We hypothesize a correlation of groundwater levels and landslide velocity, which varies seasonally and spatially across the body of the slide. We will present whether deformation is spatially contemporaneous or initiate in one region and propagates down-feature. We will also discuss whether temporal lag exists between water level change and deformation and if hysteresis complicates correlation between forcing and response. Results will bolster the breadth of case-studies available for this landslide morphology and provide regional land managers with predictors for increased landslide activity and associated hazards, such as rockfall or landslide dam

  13. Transcriptional analysis of the HeT-A retrotransposon in mutant and wild type stocks reveals high sequence variability at Drosophila telomeres and other unusual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piñeyro David

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomere replication in Drosophila depends on the transposition of a domesticated retroelement, the HeT-A retrotransposon. The sequence of the HeT-A retrotransposon changes rapidly resulting in differentiated subfamilies. This pattern of sequence change contrasts with the essential function with which the HeT-A is entrusted and brings about questions concerning the extent of sequence variability, the telomere contribution of different subfamilies, and whether wild type and mutant Drosophila stocks show different HeT-A scenarios. Results A detailed study on the variability of HeT-A reveals that both the level of variability and the number of subfamilies are higher than previously reported. Comparisons between GIII, a strain with longer telomeres, and its parental strain Oregon-R indicate that both strains have the same set of HeT-A subfamilies. Finally, the presence of a highly conserved splicing pattern only in its antisense transcripts indicates a putative regulatory, functional or structural role for the HeT-A RNA. Interestingly, our results also suggest that most HeT-A copies are actively expressed regardless of which telomere and where in the telomere they are located. Conclusions Our study demonstrates how the HeT-A sequence changes much faster than previously reported resulting in at least nine different subfamilies most of which could actively contribute to telomere extension in Drosophila. Interestingly, the only significant difference observed between Oregon-R and GIII resides in the nature and proportion of the antisense transcripts, suggesting a possible mechanism that would in part explain the longer telomeres of the GIII stock.

  14. MicroRNA-214-5p Inhibits the Invasion and Migration of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Targeting Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Like.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongdan; Wang, Haoqi; Ren, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of microRNA-214-5p (miR-214-5p) on the invasion and migration of Hepatocellular Carcinoma cells (HCC). Hepatocellular Carcinoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues from 44 hepatocellular carcinoma patients were prepared for this study. The HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells were transfected with miR-214-5p mimic and inhibitor. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expressions of miR-214-5p. Transwell assays were used to detect the invasion and migration assays in HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to examine the effect of miR-214-5p on Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Like (WASL/ N-WASP). Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to measure the expressions of the E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin proteins. Transwell chamber assays were performed to detect cell invasion and migration. Compared with normal tissues, HCC tissues demonstrated significantly lower expression of miR-214-5p. Overexpression of miR-214-5p significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of HCC cells and inhibition of miR-214-5p promoted the migration and invasion. Additionally, miR-214-5p suppressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further study showed WASL was a putative target gene of miR-214-5p. Up-regulating the expression of WASL could reverse the inhibition effect of miR-214-5p on invasion and migration. Our data suggested that miR-214-5p inhibited the invasion and migration of HepG2 and BEL-7402 by targeting WASL in Hepatocellular carcinoma. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Java programs called Featureous that addresses this issue. Featureous allows a programmer to easily establish feature-code traceability links and to analyze their characteristics using a number of visualizations. Featureous is an extension to the NetBeans IDE, and can itself be extended by third...

  16. A thiamin-bound, pre-decarboxylation reaction intermediate analogue in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 subunit induces large scale disorder-to-order transformations in the enzyme and reveals novel structural features in the covalently bound adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Palaniappa; Sax, Martin; Brunskill, Andrew; Chandrasekhar, Krishnamoorthy; Nemeria, Natalia; Zhang, Sheng; Jordan, Frank; Furey, William

    2006-06-02

    The crystal structure of the E1 component from the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex (PDHc) has been determined with phosphonolactylthiamin diphosphate (PLThDP) in its active site. PLThDP serves as a structural and electrostatic analogue of the natural intermediate alpha-lactylthiamin diphosphate (LThDP), in which the carboxylate from the natural substrate pyruvate is replaced by a phosphonate group. This represents the first example of an experimentally determined, three-dimensional structure of a thiamin diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme containing a covalently bound, pre-decarboxylation reaction intermediate analogue and should serve as a model for the corresponding intermediates in other ThDP-dependent decarboxylases. Regarding the PDHc-specific reaction, the presence of PLThDP induces large scale conformational changes in the enzyme. In conjunction with the E1-PLThDP and E1-ThDP structures, analysis of a H407A E1-PLThDP variant structure shows that an interaction between His-407 and PLThDP is essential for stabilization of two loop regions in the active site that are otherwise disordered in the absence of intermediate analogue. This ordering completes formation of the active site and creates a new ordered surface likely involved in interactions with the lipoyl domains of E2s within the PDHc complex. The tetrahedral intermediate analogue is tightly held in the active site through direct hydrogen bonds to residues His-407, Tyr-599, and His-640 and reveals a new, enzyme-induced, strain-related feature that appears to aid in the decarboxylation process. This feature is almost certainly present in all ThDP-dependent decarboxylases; thus its inclusion in our understanding of general thiamin catalysis is important.

  17. Feature Article

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Feature Article. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 80-85 Feature Article. What's New in Computers Windows 95 · Vijnan Shastri · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 86-89 Feature ...

  18. Combination of Metabolomic and Proteomic Analysis Revealed Different Features among Lactobacillus delbrueckii Subspecies bulgaricus and lactis Strains While In Vivo Testing in the Model Organism Caenorhabditis elegans Highlighted Probiotic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zanni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus delbrueckii represents a technologically relevant member of lactic acid bacteria, since the two subspecies bulgaricus and lactis are widely associated with fermented dairy products. In the present work, we report the characterization of two commercial strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus, lactis and a novel strain previously isolated from a traditional fermented fresh cheese. A phenomic approach was performed by combining metabolomic and proteomic analysis of the three strains, which were subsequently supplemented as food source to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, with the final aim to evaluate their possible probiotic effects. Restriction analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA revealed that the novel foodborne strain belonged to L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis. Proteomic and metabolomic approaches showed differences in folate, aminoacid and sugar metabolic pathways among the three strains. Moreover, evaluation of C. elegans lifespan, larval development, brood size, and bacterial colonization capacity demonstrated that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus diet exerted beneficial effects on nematodes. On the other hand, both L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains affected lifespan and larval development. We have characterized three strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus and lactis highlighting their divergent origin. In particular, the two closely related isolates L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis display different galactose metabolic capabilities. Moreover, the L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus strain demonstrated potential probiotic features. Combination of omic platforms coupled with in vivo screening in the simple model organism C. elegans is a powerful tool to characterize industrially relevant bacterial isolates.

  19. Combination of Metabolomic and Proteomic Analysis Revealed Different Features among Lactobacillus delbrueckii Subspecies bulgaricus and lactis Strains While In Vivo Testing in the Model Organism Caenorhabditis elegans Highlighted Probiotic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Elena; Schifano, Emily; Motta, Sara; Sciubba, Fabio; Palleschi, Claudio; Mauri, Pierluigi; Perozzi, Giuditta; Uccelletti, Daniela; Devirgiliis, Chiara; Miccheli, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii represents a technologically relevant member of lactic acid bacteria, since the two subspecies bulgaricus and lactis are widely associated with fermented dairy products. In the present work, we report the characterization of two commercial strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus , lactis and a novel strain previously isolated from a traditional fermented fresh cheese. A phenomic approach was performed by combining metabolomic and proteomic analysis of the three strains, which were subsequently supplemented as food source to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans , with the final aim to evaluate their possible probiotic effects. Restriction analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA revealed that the novel foodborne strain belonged to L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis . Proteomic and metabolomic approaches showed differences in folate, aminoacid and sugar metabolic pathways among the three strains. Moreover, evaluation of C. elegans lifespan, larval development, brood size, and bacterial colonization capacity demonstrated that L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus diet exerted beneficial effects on nematodes. On the other hand, both L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis strains affected lifespan and larval development. We have characterized three strains belonging to L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus and lactis highlighting their divergent origin. In particular, the two closely related isolates L. delbrueckii subspecies lactis display different galactose metabolic capabilities. Moreover, the L. delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus strain demonstrated potential probiotic features. Combination of omic platforms coupled with in vivo screening in the simple model organism C. elegans is a powerful tool to characterize industrially relevant bacterial isolates.

  20. N-(N-[2-(3,5-Difluorophenyl)acetyl]-(S)-alanyl)-(S)-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT): an inhibitor of γ-secretase, revealing fine electronic and hydrogen-bonding features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco [Peptides International Inc., 11621 Electron Drive, Louisville, KY 40299 (United States); Afonine, Pavel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dauter, Miroslawa, E-mail: dauter@anl.gov [Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick Inc., Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, MCL, NCI, Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division, Building 202, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dauter, Zbigniew [Synchrotron Radiation Research Section, MCL, NCI, Argonne National Laboratory, Biosciences Division, Building 202, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Peptides International Inc., 11621 Electron Drive, Louisville, KY 40299 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The title compound, C{sub 23}H{sub 26}F{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, is a dipeptidic inhibitor of γ-secretase, one of the enzymes involved in Alzheimer’s dis@@ease. The mol@@ecule adopts a compact conformation, without intra@@molecular hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, one of the amide N atoms forms the only inter@@molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond; the second amide N atom does not form hydrogen bonds. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction data permitted the unequivocal location and refinement without restraints of all H atoms, and the identification of the characteristic shift of the amide H atom engaged in the hydrogen bond from its ideal position, resulting in a more linear hydrogen bond. Significant residual densities for bonding electrons were revealed after the usual SHELXL refinement, and modeling of these features as additional inter@@atomic scatterers (IAS) using the program PHENIX led to a significant decrease in the R factor from 0.0411 to 0.0325 and diminished the r.m.s. deviation level of noise in the final difference Fourier map from 0.063 to 0.037 e Å{sup −3}.

  1. Feature Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Feature selection and reduction are key to robust multivariate analyses. In this talk I will focus on pros and cons of various variable selection methods and focus on those that are most relevant in the context of HEP.

  2. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  3. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  4. Sedimentological processes in a scarp-controlled rocky shoreline to upper continental slope environment, as revealed by unusual sedimentary features in the Neogene Coquimbo Formation, north-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. P.; Gómez, Carolina; Fenner, Juliane; Middleton, Heather

    2004-03-01

    Exceptionally good outcrops of Miocene to Pliocene deposits in the vicinity of submarine Paleozoic basement scarps at Carrizalillo, north of La Serena, reveal a wealth of sedimentary features not commonly observed. The most proximal facies consist of rock fall and coarse-grained debris flow deposits directly abutting the basement wall from which they originated. Angular basement clasts are mixed with well-rounded cobbles, which probably formed as a basal gravel on a wave-cut platform at the beginning of marine flooding, subsequently accumulated at the scarp edge and were incorporated into the debris when the latter collapsed. The poor sorting, inverse grading, and protruding cobbles and boulders are classical debris flow features, with good clast imbrication indicating a laminar shearing action. A medial facies is represented by secondary channels running parallel to the major scarp about 1 km downslope of the first locality. In the largest channel, megaflutes at the base indicate the passage of highly turbulent, nondepositing flows eroding the soft, silty substrate. In the deepest, central part of the channel, a pebbly coquina shows horizontal and trough cross-stratification, with most of the bivalves oriented convex side up. Meter-scale rip-up clasts of the underlying siltstone are also present, indicating turbulent flow with a density sufficiently high to retard settling. The coquina is interpreted as a detachment deposit resulting from a hydroplaning debris flow along the central part of the channel, where the velocity and rate of pore pressure decay were highest. This deposit is overlain by fining upward, massive to horizontally stratified sandstone very similar in texture and composition to the matrix of the debris flow, suggesting its formation by surface transformation and elutriation of the latter. Along the channel margin, a basal centimeter-scale sandstone layer is virtually unaffected by the megaflute topography and clearly represents a subsequent event

  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus in a patient with Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 1: More than a chance association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Tomoko; Hosogaya, Naoki; Matsuo, Nobutake; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2018-05-07

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been reported among patients with RASopathy. Five patients have been reported: three with SHOC2 variants, one with a PTPN11 variant, and one with a KRAS variant. SHOC2 variant might represent a relatively common predisposing factor for SLE among the RASopathy genes. However, the clinical details were only reported for two patients, while information on the remaining patient appeared only in a tabular format with minimal clinical description. Here, we report a patient with a SHOC2 variant and SLE. The proband was a 28-year-old male patient with intellectual disabilities, a short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and thin hair. He developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and afebrile generalized seizures at the ages of 7 and 18 years, respectively. At the age of 24 years, he presented with a 3-day history of intermittent fever accompanied by right chest pain and a malar butterfly rash. He fulfilled both the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria for SLE and was successfully treated with prednisolone. Medical exome sequencing identified a de novo SHOC2 variant (c.4A > G, p.S2G). The present report of a second patient who fulfills both the ACR criteria and the SLICC criteria of SLE. We suggest that the association between SHOC2 variant and SLE represents more than a chance association. In the event of fever of unknown origin in patients with constitutional SHOC2 pathogenic variant, SLE should be suspected. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Synergistic defects of novo FAS and homozygous UNC13D leading to autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease: A 10-year-old Chinese boy case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hao; Ma, Jie; Chen, Zhenping; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Runhui

    2018-06-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) usually presents in childhood with fever, nonmalignant splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy along with hemocytopenia. This case report describes a 10-year-old boy presenting with signs of autoimmune disease, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and resistant hemocytopenia. Sirolimus controlled the relapsed thrombocytopenia after splenectomy. Sequencing of the FAS gene identified two spontaneous heterozygous mutations (c.234 T > G, p.D78E) (c.236dupA, p.P80Tfs*26). The boy's homozygous missense variation (c.2588G > A, p.G863D) (rs140184929) in UNC13D gene had been identified as being related to familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). TCRαβ + CD4/CD8 double-negative T cells (markers of ALPS) were not significantly increased from the outset. Elevated cytokines, such as interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor α decreased to normal levels after splenectomy whereas IL-10 remained high. Immunological analysis of the patient revealed a marked depletion of forkhead-box P3 + expressing regulatory T cells (Treg) and Th17 cells. The obtained data demonstrate that mutations to FAS and UNC13D which result in overwhelming T-cell and macrophage activation, one associated with inhibited Treg cell development and a severe ALPS-like symptom. Therefore, we propose that variations of UND13D may be a risk factor of ALPS development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The rem mutations in the ATP-binding groove of the Rad3/XPD helicase lead to Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne syndrome-like phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Moyano, Emilia; Moriel-Carretero, María; Montelone, Beth A; Aguilera, Andrés

    2014-12-01

    The eukaryotic TFIIH complex is involved in Nucleotide Excision Repair and transcription initiation. We analyzed three yeast mutations of the Rad3/XPD helicase of TFIIH known as rem (recombination and mutation phenotypes). We found that, in these mutants, incomplete NER reactions lead to replication fork breaking and the subsequent engagement of the homologous recombination machinery to restore them. Nevertheless, the penetrance varies among mutants, giving rise to a phenotype gradient. Interestingly, the mutations analyzed reside at the ATP-binding groove of Rad3 and in vivo experiments reveal a gain of DNA affinity upon damage of the mutant Rad3 proteins. Since mutations at the ATP-binding groove of XPD in humans are present in the Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne Syndrome (XP-CS), we recreated rem mutations in human cells, and found that these are XP-CS-like. We propose that the balance between the loss of helicase activity and the gain of DNA affinity controls the capacity of TFIIH to open DNA during NER, and its persistence at both DNA lesions and promoters. This conditions NER efficiency and transcription resumption after damage, which in human cells would explain the XP-CS phenotype, opening new perspectives to understand the molecular basis of the role of XPD in human disease.

  8. Featuring animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ritter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Algonquian languages are famous for their animacy-based grammatical properties—an animacy based noun classification system and direct/inverse system which gives rise to animacy hierarchy effects in the determination of verb agreement. In this paper I provide new evidence for the proposal that the distinctive properties of these languages is due to the use of participant-based features, rather than spatio-temporal ones, for both nominal and verbal functional categories (Ritter & Wiltschko 2009, 2014. Building on Wiltschko (2012, I develop a formal treatment of the Blackfoot aspectual system that assumes a category Inner Aspect (cf. MacDonald 2008, Travis 1991, 2010. Focusing on lexical aspect in Blackfoot, I demonstrate that the classification of both nouns (Seinsarten and verbs (Aktionsarten is based on animacy, rather than boundedness, resulting in a strikingly different aspectual system for both categories. 

  9. Focus on the Involvement of the Nose and Paranasal Sinuses in Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome): Nasal Cytology Reveals Infiltration of Eosinophils as a Very Common Feature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccia, Veronica; Baldini, Chiara; Latorre, Manuela; Gelardi, Matteo; Dallan, Iacopo; Cristofani-Mencacci, Lodovica; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano; Bartoli, Maria Laura; Bacci, Elena; Paggiaro, Pierluigi

    2018-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a necrotizing vasculitis that predominantly affects small- to medium-sized vessels. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of extrapulmonary symptoms, including sinonasal and paranasal sinus abnormalities. These are the most common features of this disease, constituting diagnostic criteria for EGPA. However, the actual clinical features, cellular mechanisms and impact on patients' quality of life (QoL) are still a matter of study. Thirty-nine EGPA patients underwent multidimensional rhinological evaluations, including rhinofibroscopy, nasal cytology, and QoL questionnaires. This was coupled with respiratory and rheumatological assessments. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Of these, 18 had nasal polyposis (NP). Chronic rhinitis was diagnosed in 10 patients. Of these, 3 had allergic rhinitis (AR) and seven had non-AR (NAR). Overall, only 1 patient (2.6%) was normal. Nasal cytology showed that hypereosinophilia was present in 17/28 patients with CRS, 4/7 patients with NAR and all patients with AR. SNOT-22 and SF-36 showed a severe impact of nasal symptoms on QoL. No differences in asthma control or rheumatological patterns for EGPA were observed among patients with or without NP. Even when the rheumatological assessment scored EGPA "under control" according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score and Vasculitis Damage Index, sinonasal diseases and related nasal inflammatory processes were not controlled. Therefore, there is a need for clinical monitoring and targeted treatment to control the inflammatory processes and improve the QoL of EGPA patients. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  11. Evaluation of skin firmness by the DynaSKIN, a novel non-contact compression device, and its use in revealing the efficacy of a skincare regimen featuring a novel anti-ageing ingredient, acetyl aspartic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, E M; Messaraa, C; Grennan, G; Koeller, G; Mavon, A; Merinville, E

    2017-05-01

    One of the key strategies for anti-ageing in the cosmetics industry today is to target the structural changes responsible for ptosis of the skin, given its impact on age perception. Several objective and non-invasive methods are available to characterise the biomechanical properties of the skin, which are operator-dependent, involving skin contact and providing single-dimensional numerical descriptions of skin behaviour. The research introduces the DynaSKIN, a device using non-contact mechanical pressure in combination with fringe projection to quantify and visualise the skin response in 3-dimensions. We examine the age correlation of the measurements, how they compare with the Cutometer ® , and measure skin dynamics following application of a skincare regimen containing established anti-ageing ingredients. DynaSKIN and Cutometer ® measurements were made on the cheek of 80 Caucasian women (18-64 years). DynaSKIN volume, mean depth and maximum depth parameters were correlated with age and 15 Cutometer ® parameters. Subsequently, the firming efficacy of a skincare regimen featuring acetyl aspartic acid (AAA) and a peptide complex was examined in a cohort of 41 volunteers. DynaSKIN volume, mean depth and maximum depth parameters correlate with age and the Cutometer ® parameters that are associated with the skin relaxation phase (R1, R2, R4, R5, R7 and F3). Furthermore, the DynaSKIN captured significant improvements in skin firmness delivered by the skincare regimen. The DynaSKIN is a novel device capable of capturing skin biomechanics at a high level of specificity and successfully detected the firming properties of a skincare regimen. Its independent measuring principle, consumer relevance and skin firmness 3D visualisation capabilities bring objectivity and novelty to product efficacy substantiation evaluation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 5′ Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and Illumina MiSeq Reveals B Cell Receptor Features in Healthy Adults, Adults With Chronic HIV-1 Infection, Cord Blood, and Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Waltari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends, Illumina MiSeq, and basic flow cytometry, we systematically analyzed the expressed B cell receptor (BCR repertoire in 14 healthy adult PBMCs, 5 HIV-1+ adult PBMCs, 5 cord blood samples, and 3 HIS-CD4/B mice, examining the full-length variable region of μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains for V-gene usage, somatic hypermutation (SHM, and CDR3 length. Adding to the known repertoire of healthy adults, Illumina MiSeq consistently detected small fractions of reads with high mutation frequencies including hypermutated μ reads, and reads with long CDR3s. Additionally, the less studied IgA repertoire displayed similar characteristics to that of IgG. Compared to healthy adults, the five HIV-1 chronically infected adults displayed elevated mutation frequencies for all μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains examined and slightly longer CDR3 lengths for γ, α, and λ. To evaluate the reconstituted human BCR sequences in a humanized mouse model, we analyzed cord blood and HIS-CD4/B mice, which all lacked the typical SHM seen in the adult reference. Furthermore, MiSeq revealed identical unmutated IgM sequences derived from separate cell aliquots, thus for the first time demonstrating rare clonal members of unmutated IgM B cells by sequencing.

  13. 5' Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends and Illumina MiSeq Reveals B Cell Receptor Features in Healthy Adults, Adults With Chronic HIV-1 Infection, Cord Blood, and Humanized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltari, Eric; Jia, Manxue; Jiang, Caroline S; Lu, Hong; Huang, Jing; Fernandez, Cristina; Finzi, Andrés; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Markowitz, Martin; Tsuji, Moriya; Wu, Xueling

    2018-01-01

    Using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends, Illumina MiSeq, and basic flow cytometry, we systematically analyzed the expressed B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in 14 healthy adult PBMCs, 5 HIV-1+ adult PBMCs, 5 cord blood samples, and 3 HIS-CD4/B mice, examining the full-length variable region of μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains for V-gene usage, somatic hypermutation (SHM), and CDR3 length. Adding to the known repertoire of healthy adults, Illumina MiSeq consistently detected small fractions of reads with high mutation frequencies including hypermutated μ reads, and reads with long CDR3s. Additionally, the less studied IgA repertoire displayed similar characteristics to that of IgG. Compared to healthy adults, the five HIV-1 chronically infected adults displayed elevated mutation frequencies for all μ, γ, α, κ, and λ chains examined and slightly longer CDR3 lengths for γ, α, and λ. To evaluate the reconstituted human BCR sequences in a humanized mouse model, we analyzed cord blood and HIS-CD4/B mice, which all lacked the typical SHM seen in the adult reference. Furthermore, MiSeq revealed identical unmutated IgM sequences derived from separate cell aliquots, thus for the first time demonstrating rare clonal members of unmutated IgM B cells by sequencing.

  14. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  15. Online feature selection with streaming features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xindong; Yu, Kui; Ding, Wei; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xingquan

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new online feature selection framework for applications with streaming features where the knowledge of the full feature space is unknown in advance. We define streaming features as features that flow in one by one over time whereas the number of training examples remains fixed. This is in contrast with traditional online learning methods that only deal with sequentially added observations, with little attention being paid to streaming features. The critical challenges for Online Streaming Feature Selection (OSFS) include 1) the continuous growth of feature volumes over time, 2) a large feature space, possibly of unknown or infinite size, and 3) the unavailability of the entire feature set before learning starts. In the paper, we present a novel Online Streaming Feature Selection method to select strongly relevant and nonredundant features on the fly. An efficient Fast-OSFS algorithm is proposed to improve feature selection performance. The proposed algorithms are evaluated extensively on high-dimensional datasets and also with a real-world case study on impact crater detection. Experimental results demonstrate that the algorithms achieve better compactness and higher prediction accuracy than existing streaming feature selection algorithms.

  16. Localized scleroderma: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Uziel, Y.; Chuang, S.; Silverman, E.; Krafchik, B.; Laxer, R.

    1994-01-01

    Localized scleroderma is distinct from the diffuse form of scleroderma and does not show Raynaud's phenomenon and visceral involvement. The imaging features in 23 patients ranging from 2 to 17 years of age (mean 11.1 years) were reviewed. Leg length discrepancy and muscle atrophy were the most common findings (five patients), with two patients also showing modelling deformity of the fibula. One patient with lower extremity involvement showed abnormal bone marrow signals on MR. Disabling joint contracture requiring orthopedic intervention was noted in one patient. In two patients with ''en coup de sabre'' facial deformity, CT and MR scans revealed intracranial calcifications and white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral frontal lobes, with one also showing migrational abnormality. In a third patient, CT revealed white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral parietal lobe. In one patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy, CT and MR scans showed the underlying hypoplastic left maxillary antrum and cheek. Imaging studies of areas of clinical concern revealed positive findings in half our patients. (orig.)

  17. Localized scleroderma: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P. (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Uziel, Y. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Chuang, S. (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Silverman, E. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Krafchik, B. (Div. of Dermatology, Dept. of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Laxer, R. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1994-06-01

    Localized scleroderma is distinct from the diffuse form of scleroderma and does not show Raynaud's phenomenon and visceral involvement. The imaging features in 23 patients ranging from 2 to 17 years of age (mean 11.1 years) were reviewed. Leg length discrepancy and muscle atrophy were the most common findings (five patients), with two patients also showing modelling deformity of the fibula. One patient with lower extremity involvement showed abnormal bone marrow signals on MR. Disabling joint contracture requiring orthopedic intervention was noted in one patient. In two patients with ''en coup de sabre'' facial deformity, CT and MR scans revealed intracranial calcifications and white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral frontal lobes, with one also showing migrational abnormality. In a third patient, CT revealed white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral parietal lobe. In one patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy, CT and MR scans showed the underlying hypoplastic left maxillary antrum and cheek. Imaging studies of areas of clinical concern revealed positive findings in half our patients. (orig.)

  18. Identifying significant environmental features using feature recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Environmental Analysis at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has expressed an interest in feature-recognition capability because it may help analysts identify environmentally sensitive features in the landscape, : including those r...

  19. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao

    2015-02-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines several key ingredients, including feature detection, feature filtering, feature curve extension, patch subdivision and boundary smoothing. Our framework is able to compute patch layouts through concave features as previous approaches, but also able to generate nice layouts through smoothing regions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods.

  20. Patch layout generation by detecting feature networks

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yuanhao; Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The patch layout of 3D surfaces reveals the high-level geometric and topological structures. In this paper, we study the patch layout computation by detecting and enclosing feature loops on surfaces. We present a hybrid framework which combines

  1. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some ir...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  2. Learning Transferable Features with Deep Adaptation Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Mingsheng; Cao, Yue; Wang, Jianmin; Jordan, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that a deep neural network can learn transferable features which generalize well to novel tasks for domain adaptation. However, as deep features eventually transition from general to specific along the network, the feature transferability drops significantly in higher layers with increasing domain discrepancy. Hence, it is important to formally reduce the dataset bias and enhance the transferability in task-specific layers. In this paper, we propose a new Deep Adaptation...

  3. SIFT based algorithm for point feature tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian BURLACU

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a tracking algorithm for SIFT features in image sequences is developed. For each point feature extracted using SIFT algorithm a descriptor is computed using information from its neighborhood. Using an algorithm based on minimizing the distance between two descriptors tracking point features throughout image sequences is engaged. Experimental results, obtained from image sequences that capture scaling of different geometrical type object, reveal the performances of the tracking algorithm.

  4. Feature Selection by Reordering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2005), s. 155-161 ISSN 1738-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : feature selection * data reduction * ordering of features Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. Screening for Plant Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Polder, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, an overview of different plant features is given, from (sub)cellular to canopy level. A myriad of methods is available to measure these features using image analysis, and often, multiple methods can be used to measure the same feature. Several criteria are listed for choosing a

  6. Critical feature analysis of a radiotherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, Andrew; Jackson, Daniel; Ramanan, Prasad; Flanz, Jay; Leyman, Didier

    2005-01-01

    The software implementation of the emergency shutdown feature in a major radiotherapy system was analyzed, using a directed form of code review based on module dependences. Dependences between modules are labelled by particular assumptions; this allows one to trace through the code, and identify those fragments responsible for critical features. An 'assumption tree' is constructed in parallel, showing the assumptions which each module makes about others. The root of the assumption tree is the critical feature of interest, and its leaves represent assumptions which, if not valid, might cause the critical feature to fail. The analysis revealed some unexpected assumptions that motivated improvements to the code

  7. Volcanic features of Io

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, M.H.; Masursky, H.; Strom, R.G.; Terrile, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The volcanic features of Io as detected during the Voyager mission are discussed. The volcanic activity is apparently higher than on any other body in the Solar System. Its volcanic landforms are compared with features on Earth to indicate the type of volcanism present on Io. (U.K.)

  8. JCE Feature Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  9. A study on feature analysis for musical instrument classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jeremiah D; Simmermacher, Christian; Cranefield, Stephen

    2008-04-01

    In tackling data mining and pattern recognition tasks, finding a compact but effective set of features has often been found to be a crucial step in the overall problem-solving process. In this paper, we present an empirical study on feature analysis for recognition of classical instrument, using machine learning techniques to select and evaluate features extracted from a number of different feature schemes. It is revealed that there is significant redundancy between and within feature schemes commonly used in practice. Our results suggest that further feature analysis research is necessary in order to optimize feature selection and achieve better results for the instrument recognition problem.

  10. New features in MEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    MEDM, which is derived from Motif Editor and Display Manager, is the primary graphical interface to the EPICS control system. This paper describes new features that have been added to MEDM in the last two years. These features include new editing capabilities, a PV Info dialog box, a means of specifying limits and precision, a new implementation of the Cartesian Plot, new features for several objects, new capability for the Related Display, help, a user-configurable Execute Menu, reconfigured start-up options, and availability for Windows 95/98/NT. Over one hundred bugs have been fixed, and the program is quite stable and in extensive use

  11. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  12. Mesoblastic nephroma: Pathological features

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N.M. El-Badawy

    determined mainly by its histologic type, we found it worthwhile to elaborate more on the gross and microscopic features of ... behavior of mesoblastic nephroma is determined mainly by its his- .... However, it exhibits a nodular growth pattern at.

  13. 14 CFR 35.7 - Features and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Features and characteristics. 35.7 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS General § 35.7 Features and characteristics. (a) The propeller may not have features or characteristics, revealed by any test or analysis or known to the applicant, that make it...

  14. Feature Binding in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Neri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Binding operations are primarily ascribed to cortex or similarly complex avian structures. My experiments show that the zebrafish, a lower vertebrate lacking cortex, supports visual feature binding of form and motion for the purpose of social behavior. These results challenge the notion that feature binding may require highly evolved neural structures and demonstrate that the nervous system of lower vertebrates can afford unexpectedly complex computations.

  15. Reveal quantum correlation in complementary bases

    OpenAIRE

    Shengjun Wu; Zhihao Ma; Zhihua Chen; Sixia Yu

    2014-01-01

    An essential feature of genuine quantum correlation is the simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases. We reveal this feature of quantum correlation by defining measures based on invariance under a basis change. For a bipartite quantum state, the classical correlation is the maximal correlation present in a certain optimum basis, while the quantum correlation is characterized as a series of residual correlations in the mutually unbiased bases. Compared with other approaches ...

  16. Personality Features of Motorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Justinek tries to answer the question whether or not motorists have specific personality features which predispose them for safe and well-mannered driving. A good driver should have sensory abilities which enable psycho-motor coordiation of a vehicle, intellectual and cognitive features that are important for solving problems in new, unknown situations, and emotional and motivational trails defining a driver's maturity. Justmek advocates the belief that in training future drivers greater attention should be paid to developing these features which are vital for safe driving and appropriate behaviour of drivers in traffic. He also suggests certain learning methods leading to development of the above­ mentioned personality traits. Justinek introduces the notion of the 'philosophy of driving' as an essential educational category in training future drivers.

  17. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  18. Morphological features in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgen, Mihriban Heval

    2008-01-01

    The central research aim in the present thesis was to extend the insight in several aspects of the role of the morphological features in autism. Clinical morphology might be used as a biomarker for ASD to reveal insight into the complexity of the disorder. In Chapter 1 current terminology and

  19. Omics strategies for revealing Yersinia pestis virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yajun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Cui, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Omics has remarkably changed the way we investigate and understand life. Omics differs from traditional hypothesis-driven research because it is a discovery-driven approach. Mass datasets produced from omics-based studies require experts from different fields to reveal the salient features behind these data. In this review, we summarize omics-driven studies to reveal the virulence features of Yersinia pestis through genomics, trascriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, etc. These studies serve as foundations for further hypothesis-driven research and help us gain insight into Y. pestis pathogenesis. PMID:23248778

  20. Engineering features of ISX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lousteau, D.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Schaffer, M.J.; Hussung, R.O.

    1975-01-01

    ISX, an Impurity Study Experiment, is presently being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a joint scientific effort between ORNL and General Atomic Company. ISX is a moderate size tokamak dedicated to the study of impurity production, diffusion, and control. The significant engineering features of this device are discussed

  1. Aging, selective attention, and feature integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plude, D J; Doussard-Roosevelt, J A

    1989-03-01

    This study used feature-integration theory as a means of determining the point in processing at which selective attention deficits originate. The theory posits an initial stage of processing in which features are registered in parallel and then a serial process in which features are conjoined to form complex stimuli. Performance of young and older adults on feature versus conjunction search is compared. Analyses of reaction times and error rates suggest that elderly adults in addition to young adults, can capitalize on the early parallel processing stage of visual information processing, and that age decrements in visual search arise as a result of the later, serial stage of processing. Analyses of a third, unconfounded, conjunction search condition reveal qualitatively similar modes of conjunction search in young and older adults. The contribution of age-related data limitations is found to be secondary to the contribution of age decrements in selective attention.

  2. Crowding with conjunctions of simple features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põder, Endel; Wagemans, Johan

    2007-11-20

    Several recent studies have related crowding with the feature integration stage in visual processing. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in this stage, it is important to use stimuli that have several features to integrate, and these features should be clearly defined and measurable. In this study, Gabor patches were used as target and distractor stimuli. The stimuli differed in three dimensions: spatial frequency, orientation, and color. A group of 3, 5, or 7 objects was presented briefly at 4 deg eccentricity of the visual field. The observers' task was to identify the object located in the center of the group. A strong effect of the number of distractors was observed, consistent with various spatial pooling models. The analysis of incorrect responses revealed that these were a mix of feature errors and mislocalizations of the target object. Feature errors were not purely random, but biased by the features of distractors. We propose a simple feature integration model that predicts most of the observed regularities.

  3. MRI features of chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoguang; Liu Xia; Cheng Kebin; Liu Wei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MR imaging features of chondroblastoma. Methods: MRI examinations of 20 patients with histological proven chondmblastoma were reviewed retrospectively. The MRI findings of chondroblastoma including the signal intensity, the shape, the growth patterns, and the surrounding bone marrow edema and the adjacent soft tissue edema, the periosteal reaction, the adjacent joint effusion were analyzed. Results: All 20 cases demonstrated heterogeneous MR signal intensity on T 1 WI and T 2 WI images and showed lobular margins. Sixteen cases demonstrated expansive growth patterns. Surrounding bone marrow edema was found in 18 cases and adjacent soft tissue edema in 14 cases. Periosteal reaction was identified in 6 cases. In 7 cases the tumor extended to adjacent soft tissue. Adjacent joint effusion was visible on MRI in 6 cases. Conclusion: Heterogeneous signal intensity, lobular margins and expansive growth pattern, adjacent bone marrow and soft tissue edema were the common features of chondroblastoma on MRI. (authors)

  4. Imaging features of thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Acunas, G.; Acunas, B. [Dept. of Radiology, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey); Dincol, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Univ. (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    Thalassemia is a kind of chronic, inherited, microcytic anemia characterized by defective hemoglobin synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis. In all thalassemias clinical features that result from anemia, transfusional, and absorptive iron overload are similar but vary in severity. The radiographic features of {beta}-thalassemia are due in large part to marrow hyperplasia. Markedly expanded marrow space lead to various skeletal manifestations including spine, skull, facial bones, and ribs. Extramedullary hematopoiesis (ExmH), hemosiderosis, and cholelithiasis are among the non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia. The skeletal X-ray findings show characteristics of chronic overactivity of the marrow. In this article both skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia are discussed with an overview of X-ray findings, including MRI and CT findings. (orig.)

  5. Imaging features of thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Acunas, G.; Acunas, B.; Dincol, G.

    1999-01-01

    Thalassemia is a kind of chronic, inherited, microcytic anemia characterized by defective hemoglobin synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis. In all thalassemias clinical features that result from anemia, transfusional, and absorptive iron overload are similar but vary in severity. The radiographic features of β-thalassemia are due in large part to marrow hyperplasia. Markedly expanded marrow space lead to various skeletal manifestations including spine, skull, facial bones, and ribs. Extramedullary hematopoiesis (ExmH), hemosiderosis, and cholelithiasis are among the non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia. The skeletal X-ray findings show characteristics of chronic overactivity of the marrow. In this article both skeletal and non-skeletal manifestations of thalassemia are discussed with an overview of X-ray findings, including MRI and CT findings. (orig.)

  6. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  7. Features of MCNP6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goorley, T.; James, M.; Booth, T.; Brown, F.; Bull, J.; Cox, L.J.; Durkee, J.; Elson, J.; Fensin, M.; Forster, R.A.; Hendricks, J.; Hughes, H.G.; Johns, R.; Kiedrowski, B.; Martz, R.; Mashnik, S.; McKinney, G.; Pelowitz, D.; Prael, R.; Sweezy, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, but it is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. • MCNP6 is the result of six years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. • These groups of people, residing in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3) and Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Radiation Transport Modeling Team (NEN-5) respectively, have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. • While maintenance and major bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 1.60 and MCNPX 2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities only will be developed and released in MCNP6. • In fact, the initial release of MCNP6 contains numerous new features not previously found in either code. • These new features are summarized in this document. • Packaged with MCNP6 is also the new production release of the ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data files usable by MCNP. • The high quality of the overall merged code, usefulness of these new features, along with the desire in the user community to start using the merged code, have led us to make the first MCNP6 production release: MCNP6 version 1. • High confidence in the MCNP6 code is based on its performance with the verification and validation test suites, comparisons to its predecessor codes, our automated nightly software debugger tests, the underlying high quality nuclear and atomic databases, and significant testing by many beta testers. - Abstract: MCNP6 can be described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, but it is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of six years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3) and Nuclear Engineering and

  8. Pulmonary vasculitis: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Joon Beom; Im, Jung Gi; Chung, Jin Wook; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Song, Jae Woo

    1999-01-01

    Vasculitis is defined as an inflammatory process involving blood vessels, and can lead to destruction of the vascular wall and ischemic damage to the organs supplied by these vessels. The lung is commonly affected. A number of attempts have been made to classify and organize pulmonary vasculitis, but because the clinical manifestations and pathologic features of the condition overlap considerably, these afforts have failed to achieve a consensus. We classified pulmonary vasculitis as belonging to either the angitiis-granulomatosis group, the diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage with capillaritis group, or 'other'. Characteristic radiographic and CT findings of the different types of pulmonary vasculitis are illustrated, with a brief discussion of the respective disease entities

  9. Onychomatricoma with misleading features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, J; Baran, R; Perrin, C; Labrousse, F

    2000-01-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumour of the nail matrix with peculiar clinical and histological features and electron microscopic findings. We report on 5 cases with appearances which were misleading. Three presented as longitudinal melanonychia, a previously unreported observation. One case had the appearance of a cutaneous horn. In 3 of the 5 cases the tumour was associated with an onychomycosis and this may thus have been a predisposing factor in the secondary fungal infestation. Onychomatricoma appears as a multi-faceted tumour which can be mimicked by longitudinal melanonychia and/or onychomycosis.

  10. Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with anaplastic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ZHI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the clinical pathological characteristics, immunophenotyping, diagnosis and differential diagnosis and prognosis of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA with anaplastic features.  Methods  HE staining was used for histological observation. The expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, vimentin (Vim, CD34, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, progestrone receptor (PR, neurofilment protein (NF, neuronal nuclei (NeuN, synaptophysin (Syn, Nestin (Nes, S-100 protein (S-100, P53 and Ki-67 labeling index were detected by immunohistochemical method. BRAF mutation was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification.  Results  A 43-year-old male patient presented with repeatedly paroxysmal tic of limbs and disturbance of consciousness. Cranial MRI revealed multiple abnormal signals in left temporo-occipito-parietal lobe and posterior horn of lateral ventricle, with unclear borderline and cystic degeneration. Surgical removal of the lesion was performed. Histologically, the tumor was biphasic. One part was composed of spindle cells arranged in fascicles or as running water, with weird multinuclear giant cells. Abundant vacuolated lipidized cytoplasm could be seen. Mitosis and "map"-like necrosis were noted. Another part revealed the tumor cells were consistent in size and uniform in distribution, with loose background tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed tumor cells were diffusely positive for GFAP, Vim, S-100, Nes, CD34 and P53, and negative for EMA, Syn, NeuN and NF. Ki-67 labeling index was about 15%. Reticular fiber staining showed abundant reticular fibers in the tumor tissue. BRAF mutation detected by PCR amplification was not found.  Conclusions  Classified as grade Ⅱ in the World Health Organization (WHO classification, the prognosis of PXA is good. A diagnosis of PXA with anaplastic features should be considered when the tumor demonstrates mitotic activity > 5/10 high power field (HPF and/or areas of

  11. Mobius syndrome: MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markarian, Maria F.; Villarroel, Gonzalo M.; Nagel, Jorge R.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Mobius Syndrome or congenital facial diplegia is associated with paralysis of the lateral gaze movements. This syndrome may include other cranial nerve palsies and be associated to musculoskeletal anomalies. Our objective is to show the MRI findings in Mobius Syndrome. Material and methods: MRI study was performed in 3 patients with clinic diagnosis of Mobius Syndrome. RMI (1.5T); exams included axial FSE (T1 and T2), FLAIR, SE/EPI, GRE/20, sagittal FSE T2 , coronal T1, diffusion, angio MRI and Spectroscopy sequences. Results: The common features of this syndrome found in MRI were: depression or straightening of the floor of the fourth ventricle, brainstem anteroposterior diameter diminution, morphologic alteration of the pons and medulla oblongata and of the hypoglossal nuclei as well as severe micrognathia. Conclusion: The morphologic alterations of Mobius Syndrome can be clearly identified by MRI; this method has proved to be a useful diagnostic examination. (author)

  12. Odontogenic keratocyst radiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nartey, N. O.; Saini, T.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical features often patients with odontogenic keratocysts were studied. One patient had Gorlin-GoJtz syndrome. A total of fourteen radiolucent lesions were observed on radiographic examination. All the fourteen lesions were diagnosed as odontogenic keratocyst after histopathclogical examination of biopsied tissue from the patients. The age at diagnosis ranged from 25-72 years with a mean age of 37.6 years. The male : female ratio was 2.3:1. Thirteen of these lesions occurred in the mandible, nine involved the mandibular third molar region. Involvement of the ramus of the mandible produced a sausage-shaped radiolucency. Cystic lesions which have been present for long periods of time showed scalloped margins, due to the regional resorption of the surrounding bone. The bony ledges present on the cortical bones simulated multilocular appearance in such cases. It was also observed that the lesions in older individuals perforated the cortical plates rather than eliciting a periostally induced bony expansion. (author)

  13. Proctographic features of anismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halligan, S; Bartram, C I; Park, H J; Kamm, M A

    1995-12-01

    To document the proctographic features of anismus at evacuation proctography and determine the optimum radiologic measurements for diagnosis. Twenty-four patients with anismus according to clinical and multiple physiologic criteria were examined with evacuation proctography. Structural and functional measurements were compared with those of a group of 20 asymptomatic subjects. No significant difference between patients and control subjects was found with respect to pelvic descent, rectocele, or any anorectal angle measurement. In patients with anismus, initiation of evacuation was prolonged (median, 9 vs 3 seconds for control subjects; P anismus should be abandoned. Patients with anismus demonstrate delayed initiation of evacuation, which is also prolonged and incomplete. Incomplete evacuation after 30 seconds is highly suggestive of anismus.

  14. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  15. More features, greater connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  16. European Nuclear Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Gonzalez, E.; Diaz Diaz, J.L.; Jimenez, J.L.; Velarde, G.; Navarro, J.M.; Hittner, D.; Dominguez, M.T.; Bollini, G.; Martin, A.; Suarez, J.; Traini, E.; Lang-Lenton, J.

    2004-01-01

    ''European Nuclear Features - ENF'' is a joint publication of the three specialized technical journals, Nuclear Espana (Spain), Revue General Nucleaire (France), and atw - International Journal of Nuclear Power (Germany). The ENF support the international Europeen exchange of information and news about energy and nuclear power. News items, comments, and scientific and technical contributions will cover important aspects of the field. The second issue of ENF contains contributions about theses topics, among others: Institutional and Political Changes in the EU. - CIEMAT Department of Nuclear Fission: A General Overview. - Inertial Fusion Energy at DENIM. - High Temperature Reactors. European Research Programme. - On Site Assistance to Khmelnitsky NPP 1 and 2 (Ukraine). - Dismantling and Decommissioning of Vandellos I. (orig.)

  17. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  18. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose M.; Madureira, Antonio J.; Vieira, Alberto; Ramos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis

  19. Features of Internal Audit in Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetanova, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The review highlights the main features of internal audit by focus on distribution of medicinal products. Recent data suggest internal audit as an antidote to effects of economic recession. The present review reveals internal audit as a tool for competitiveness through implementation of good practices. The purpose of the review is to describe the advantages of internal audit in new institutional frame. The object of analysis is the distribution practice, and more concrete, the wholesale di...

  20. Dependency Parsing with Transformed Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependency parsing is an important subtask of natural language processing. In this paper, we propose an embedding feature transforming method for graph-based parsing, transform-based parsing, which directly utilizes the inner similarity of the features to extract information from all feature strings including the un-indexed strings and alleviate the feature sparse problem. The model transforms the extracted features to transformed features via applying a feature weight matrix, which consists of similarities between the feature strings. Since the matrix is usually rank-deficient because of similar feature strings, it would influence the strength of constraints. However, it is proven that the duplicate transformed features do not degrade the optimization algorithm: the margin infused relaxed algorithm. Moreover, this problem can be alleviated by reducing the number of the nearest transformed features of a feature. In addition, to further improve the parsing accuracy, a fusion parser is introduced to integrate transformed and original features. Our experiments verify that both transform-based and fusion parser improve the parsing accuracy compared to the corresponding feature-based parser.

  1. A prototype feature system for feature retrieval using relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Usery, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    Using a feature data model, geographic phenomena can be represented effectively by integrating space, theme, and time. This paper extends and implements a feature data model that supports query and visualization of geographic features using their non-spatial and temporal relationships. A prototype feature-oriented geographic information system (FOGIS) is then developed and storage of features named Feature Database is designed. Buildings from the U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina and subways in Chicago, Illinois are used to test the developed system. The results of the applications show the strength of the feature data model and the developed system 'FOGIS' when they utilize non-spatial and temporal relationships in order to retrieve and visualize individual features.

  2. A Comparative Study of Feature Selection and Classification Methods for Gene Expression Data

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Heba

    2013-01-01

    Different experiments have been applied to compare the performance of the classification methods with and without performing feature selection. Results revealed the important role of feature selection in classifying gene expression data. By performing feature selection, the classification accuracy can be significantly boosted by using a small number of genes. The relationship of features selected in different feature selection methods is investigated and the most frequent features selected in each fold among all methods for both datasets are evaluated.

  3. Rhabdomyolysis featuring muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoria, Rajat; Milone, Margherita

    2016-02-15

    Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening condition of various etiology. The association between rhabdomyolysis and muscular dystrophies is under-recognized in clinical practice. To identify muscular dystrophies presenting with rhabdomyolysis at onset or as predominant feature. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data of patients with a genetically confirmed muscular dystrophy in whom rhabdomyolysis was the presenting or main clinical manifestation. Thirteen unrelated patients (males=6; females=7) were identified. Median age at time of rhabdomyolysis was 18 years (range, 2-47) and median duration between the first episode of rhabdomyolysis and molecular diagnosis was 2 years. Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) muscular dystrophy (n=6) was the most common diagnosis, followed by anoctaminopathy-5 (n=3), calpainopathy-3 (n=2) and dystrophinopathy (n=2). Four patients experienced recurrent rhabdomyolysis. Eight patients were asymptomatic and 3 reported myalgia and exercise intolerance prior to the rhabdomyolysis. Exercise (n=6) and fever (n=4) were common triggers; rhabdomyolysis was unprovoked in 3 patients. Twelve patients required hospitalization. Baseline CK levels were elevated in all patients (median 1200 IU/L; range, 600-3600). Muscular dystrophies can present with rhabdomyolysis; FKRP mutations are particularly frequent in causing such complication. A persistently elevated CK level in patients with rhabdomyolysis warrants consideration for underlying muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Designing attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Chang, Jen-Wei; Lee, Chun-Chia

    2013-06-01

    Gamification design is considered as the predictor of collaborative storytelling websites' success. Although aforementioned studies have mentioned a broad range of factors that may influence gamification, they neither depicted the actual design features nor relative attractiveness among them. This study aims to identify attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites. We first constructed a hierarchical system structure of gamification design of collaborative storytelling websites and conducted a focus group interview with eighteen frequent users to identify 35gamification features. After that, this study determined the relative attractiveness of these gamification features by administrating an online survey to 6333 collaborative storytelling websites users. The results indicated that the top 10 most attractive gamification features could account for more than 50% of attractiveness among these 35 gamification features. The feature of unpredictable time pressure is important to website users, yet not revealed in previous relevant studies. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  5. Interactive music composition driven by feature evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakatsos-Papakostas, Maximos A; Floros, Andreas; Vrahatis, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary music composition is a prominent technique for automatic music generation. The immense adaptation potential of evolutionary algorithms has allowed the realisation of systems that automatically produce music through feature and interactive-based composition approaches. Feature-based composition employs qualitatively descriptive music features as fitness landmarks. Interactive composition systems on the other hand, derive fitness directly from human ratings and/or selection. The paper at hand introduces a methodological framework that combines the merits of both evolutionary composition methodologies. To this end, a system is presented that is organised in two levels: the higher level of interaction and the lower level of composition. The higher level incorporates the particle swarm optimisation algorithm, along with a proposed variant and evolves musical features according to user ratings. The lower level realizes feature-based music composition with a genetic algorithm, according to the top level features. The aim of this work is not to validate the efficiency of the currently utilised setup in each level, but to examine the convergence behaviour of such a two-level technique in an objective manner. Therefore, an additional novelty in this work concerns the utilisation of artificial raters that guide the system through the space of musical features, allowing the exploration of its convergence characteristics: does the system converge to optimal melodies, is this convergence fast enough for potential human listeners and is the trajectory to convergence "interesting' and "creative" enough? The experimental results reveal that the proposed methodological framework represents a fruitful and robust, novel approach to interactive music composition.

  6. Feature Inference Learning and Eyetracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob; Colner, Robert M.; Hoffman, Aaron B.

    2009-01-01

    Besides traditional supervised classification learning, people can learn categories by inferring the missing features of category members. It has been proposed that feature inference learning promotes learning a category's internal structure (e.g., its typical features and interfeature correlations) whereas classification promotes the learning of…

  7. Pharmacological features of osthole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jarząb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coumarins are a group of naturally occurring compounds common in the plant world. These substances and their derivatives exhibit a broad range of biological activities.One of the naturally occurring coumarins is osthole, which can most frequently be found in plants of the Apiaceae family. Cnidium monnieri (L. Cusson ex Juss. Angelica pubescens Maxim. and Peucedanum ostruthium (L.. It has anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, and antiallergic properties; apart from that, inhibition of platelet aggregation has also been proved. The impact of osthole on bone metabolism has been demonstrated; also its hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties have been confirmed. The inhibitory effect of this metokcompound on the development of neurodegenerative diseases has been proved in experimental models. Anticancer features of osthole have been also demonstrated both in vitro on different cell lines, and in vivo using animals xenografts. Osthole inhibited proliferation, motility and invasiveness of tumor cells, which may be associated with the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle slowdown. The exact molecular mechanism of osthole anti-cancer mode of action has not been fully elucidated. A synergistic effect of osthole with other anti-tumor substances has been also reported. Modification of its chemical structure led to the synthesis of many derivatives with significant anticancer effects.To sum up, osthole is an interesting therapeutic option, due to both its direct effect on tumor cells, as well as its neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, there is a chance to use osthole or its synthetic derivatives in the treatment of cancer.

  8. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  9. Stylistic Features of Comment in Arabic Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdulzyamil G. Zaynullin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues in the study of the functioning of the Internet language is the definition of the features of each Internet genre presented in online communication, taking into account the linguocultural features of the language in question. This paper studies the genre of the Internet comments of the Arabic-speaking blogosphere and reveals its stylistic features. The most common goal of the comment is gratitude, followed by praise. We created a corpus of comments from blogs of various subjects, and then conducted the tagging, having identified the group to which we attributed a comment, depending on the subject and the communicative goal. With the help of the Lexico 3 software, the most frequent lexical units were identified, the lexical features of the comments were described, the main one being the widespread use of religionyms, and the relationship between the blog subject and the stylistic characteristics of communication was revealed. The article traces the correlation between the literary and colloquial functional style in the comments, and also draws a conclusion that the comments are of a conversational, informal character. The main devices of expressiveness that are characteristic for both network and pre-network communication were revealed, and the tendency of the analysts to observe in the comments a stable three-part composition (greeting, message, final formula. The influence of traditional Arabic rhetoric, as well as the epistolary genre, was preserved. The results of the paper can be used when studying other genres of Internet communication in Arabic and in comparative studies to create the linguistic software.

  10. FEATURES OF MICROFINANCING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina B. Makarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business is the basis for the development of the modern economy of Russia. In modern conditions, small enterprises can be credited in various credit institutions, the most significant and popular among which are banks and microfinance organizations. The volume of the microfinance market is many times smaller than the banking one, although the number of registered microfinance organizations exceeds the number of banking credit institutions by more than 3 times. Microfinance institutions are actively developing, although in recent years, due to the economic and political situation, there has been a slowdown in their growth rates. To date, microfinance organizations are becoming a more significant element of the financial infrastructure that supports and stimulates the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises, which in turn serves as an effective tool for combating poverty and improving the living standards of the country’s population. Microfinance in the narrow interpretation is understood only as the provision of small monetary loans (loans, and in a broader context, “microfinance” includes, in addition to direct lending, operations to attract savings, payments, insurance, leasing and a number of other financial services. This article is devoted to the specifics of microfinance in Russia. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the domestic microfinance system with the systems of a developed and a developing country, namely, the USA and India, the features of providing microfinance services for small and medium businesses, as well as for nonprotected sections of the population, are revealed. The analysis of foreign experience is very important for Russia since the mechanisms of microfinance in this country are only being formed.

  11. Enhancing facial features by using clear facial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofoo, Fanar Fareed Hanna

    2017-09-01

    The similarity of features between individuals of same ethnicity motivated the idea of this project. The idea of this project is to extract features of clear facial image and impose them on blurred facial image of same ethnic origin as an approach to enhance a blurred facial image. A database of clear images containing 30 individuals equally divided to five different ethnicities which were Arab, African, Chines, European and Indian. Software was built to perform pre-processing on images in order to align the features of clear and blurred images. And the idea was to extract features of clear facial image or template built from clear facial images using wavelet transformation to impose them on blurred image by using reverse wavelet. The results of this approach did not come well as all the features did not align together as in most cases the eyes were aligned but the nose or mouth were not aligned. Then we decided in the next approach to deal with features separately but in the result in some cases a blocky effect was present on features due to not having close matching features. In general the available small database did not help to achieve the goal results, because of the number of available individuals. The color information and features similarity could be more investigated to achieve better results by having larger database as well as improving the process of enhancement by the availability of closer matches in each ethnicity.

  12. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  13. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  14. Selective Audiovisual Semantic Integration Enabled by Feature-Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Long, Jinyi; Huang, Biao; Yu, Tianyou; Wu, Wei; Li, Peijun; Fang, Fang; Sun, Pei

    2016-01-13

    An audiovisual object may contain multiple semantic features, such as the gender and emotional features of the speaker. Feature-selective attention and audiovisual semantic integration are two brain functions involved in the recognition of audiovisual objects. Humans often selectively attend to one or several features while ignoring the other features of an audiovisual object. Meanwhile, the human brain integrates semantic information from the visual and auditory modalities. However, how these two brain functions correlate with each other remains to be elucidated. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we explored the neural mechanism by which feature-selective attention modulates audiovisual semantic integration. During the fMRI experiment, the subjects were presented with visual-only, auditory-only, or audiovisual dynamical facial stimuli and performed several feature-selective attention tasks. Our results revealed that a distribution of areas, including heteromodal areas and brain areas encoding attended features, may be involved in audiovisual semantic integration. Through feature-selective attention, the human brain may selectively integrate audiovisual semantic information from attended features by enhancing functional connectivity and thus regulating information flows from heteromodal areas to brain areas encoding the attended features.

  15. Histological image classification using biologically interpretable shape-based features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Sonal; Phan, John H; Young, Andrew N; Wang, May D

    2013-01-01

    Automatic cancer diagnostic systems based on histological image classification are important for improving therapeutic decisions. Previous studies propose textural and morphological features for such systems. These features capture patterns in histological images that are useful for both cancer grading and subtyping. However, because many of these features lack a clear biological interpretation, pathologists may be reluctant to adopt these features for clinical diagnosis. We examine the utility of biologically interpretable shape-based features for classification of histological renal tumor images. Using Fourier shape descriptors, we extract shape-based features that capture the distribution of stain-enhanced cellular and tissue structures in each image and evaluate these features using a multi-class prediction model. We compare the predictive performance of the shape-based diagnostic model to that of traditional models, i.e., using textural, morphological and topological features. The shape-based model, with an average accuracy of 77%, outperforms or complements traditional models. We identify the most informative shapes for each renal tumor subtype from the top-selected features. Results suggest that these shapes are not only accurate diagnostic features, but also correlate with known biological characteristics of renal tumors. Shape-based analysis of histological renal tumor images accurately classifies disease subtypes and reveals biologically insightful discriminatory features. This method for shape-based analysis can be extended to other histological datasets to aid pathologists in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions

  16. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  17. Hong Kong English: phonological features

    OpenAIRE

    Irina-Ana Drobot

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present phonological features of Hong Kong English, which is a variety of New English. I examine features of the sound system (vowel and consonantal systems), characteristics of stress, rhythm, intonation, and phonological processes of the English spoken by Hongkongers. The way in which the accent and characteristics of the Hong Kong variety of English differs from standard, RP English is pointed out. Influences of Chinese and Cantonese on the phonological features ...

  18. Featured Image: Diamonds in a Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    This unique image which measures only 60 x 80 micrometers across reveals details in the Kapoeta meteorite, an 11-kg stone that fell in South Sudan in 1942. The sparkle in the image? A cluster of nanodiamonds discovered embedded in the stone in a recent study led by Yassir Abdu (University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates). Abdu and collaborators showed that these nanodiamonds have similar spectral features to the interiors of dense interstellar clouds and they dont show any signs of shock features. This may suggest that the nanodiamonds were formed by condensation of nebular gases early in the history of the solar system. The diamonds were trapped in the surface material of the Kapoeta meteorites parent body, thought to be the asteroid Vesta. To read more about the authors study, check out the original article below.CitationYassir A. Abdu et al 2018 ApJL 856 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aab433

  19. Emergent interfaces for feature modularization

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Márcio; Brabrand, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Developers frequently introduce errors into software systems when they fail to recognise module dependencies. Using forty-three software families and Software Product Lines (SPLs), where the majority are commonly used in industrial practice, the authors reports on the feature modularization problem and provides a study of how often it may occur in practice. To solve the problem they present the concept of emergent feature modularization which aims to establish contracts between features to prevent developers from breaking other features when performing a maintenance task.

  20. Features of High-Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities Development as Revealed by Ground-Based GPS Observations, Satellite-Borne GPS Observations and Satellite In Situ Measurements over the Territory of Russia during the Geomagnetic Storm on March 17-18, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharenkova, I. E.; Cherniak, Iu. V.; Shagimuratov, I. I.; Klimenko, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamic picture of the response of the high- and mid-latitude ionosphere to the strong geomagnetic disturbances on March 17-18, 2015, has been studied with ground-based and satellite observations, mainly, by transionospheric measurements of delays of GPS (Global Positioning System) signals. The advantages of the joint use of ground-based GPS measurements and GPS measurements on board of the Swarm Low-Earth-Orbit satellite mission for monitoring of the appearance of ionospheric irregularities over the territory of Russia are shown for the first time. The results of analysis of ground-based and space-borne GPS observations, as well as satellite, in situ measurements, revealed large-scale ionospheric plasma irregularities observed over the territory of Russia in the latitude range of 50°-85° N during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. The most intense ionospheric irregularities were detected in the auroral zone and in the region of the main ionospheric trough (MIT). It has been found that sharp changes in the phase of the carrier frequency of the navigation signal from all tracked satellites were recorded at all GPS stations located to the North from 55° MLAT. The development of a deep MIT was related to dynamic processes in the subauroral ionosphere, in particular, with electric fields of the intense subauroral polarization stream. Analysis of the electron and ion density values obtained by instruments on board of the Swarm and DMSP satellites showed that the zone of highly structured auroral ionosphere extended at least to heights of 850-900 km.

  1. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  2. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  3. Spatial features register: toward standardization of spatial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Janette

    1994-01-01

    As the need to share spatial data increases, more than agreement on a common format is needed to ensure that the data is meaningful to both the importer and the exporter. Effective data transfer also requires common definitions of spatial features. To achieve this, part 2 of the Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) provides a model for a spatial features data content specification and a glossary of features and attributes that fit this model. The model provides a foundation for standardizing spatial features. The glossary now contains only a limited subset of hydrographic and topographic features. For it to be useful, terms and definitions must be included for other categories, such as base cartographic, bathymetric, cadastral, cultural and demographic, geodetic, geologic, ground transportation, international boundaries, soils, vegetation, water, and wetlands, and the set of hydrographic and topographic features must be expanded. This paper will review the philosophy of the SDTS part 2 and the current plans for creating a national spatial features register as one mechanism for maintaining part 2.

  4. Feature extraction using fractal codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.M. Ben Schouten; Paul M. de Zeeuw

    1999-01-01

    Fast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can be seen as a

  5. Feature Extraction Using Fractal Codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.M. Schouten (Ben); P.M. de Zeeuw (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    htmlabstractFast and successful searching for an object in a multimedia database is a highly desirable functionality. Several approaches to content based retrieval for multimedia databases can be found in the literature [9,10,12,14,17]. The approach we consider is feature extraction. A feature can

  6. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  7. Tolerance-Based Feature Transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, Dennie; Telea, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance-based feature transforms (TFTs) assign to each pixel in an image not only the nearest feature pixels on the boundary (origins), but all origins from the minimum distance up to a user-defined tolerance. In this paper, we compare four simple-to-implement methods for computing TFTs on binary

  8. Language Features and Culture Features on Short Message

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone is regarded as“the fifth media”after newspaper,radio,TV and the Internet.The mobile phone short message further highlights the importance of written signs in communication.“The thumb revolution”is eagerly anticipating one kind of trend by the hand replace of mouth,sound substitute for the quiet around us. My paper will analyze the language features and the culture features of mobile phone short messages which are written in Chinese and English.

  9. Glacial Features (Point) - Quad 168 (EPPING, NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — The Glacial Features (Point) layer describes point features associated with surficial geology. These glacial features include, but are not limited to, delta forsets,...

  10. Hong Kong English: phonological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ana Drobot

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present phonological features of Hong Kong English, which is a variety of New English. I examine features of the sound system (vowel and consonantal systems, characteristics of stress, rhythm, intonation, and phonological processes of the English spoken by Hongkongers. The way in which the accent and characteristics of the Hong Kong variety of English differs from standard, RP English is pointed out. Influences of Chinese and Cantonese on the phonological features of Hong Kong English are noticeable

  11. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Prominences and filaments are two manifestations of the same phenomenon. Both prominences and filaments are features formed above the chromosphere by cool dense...

  12. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  13. Features of Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disabilities in FXS include a range from moderate learning disabilities to more severe intellectual disabilities. Physical features may ... intellectual disability. Others may have moderate or mild learning disabilities, emotional/mental health issues, general anxiety and/or ...

  14. Nonmotor Features in Atypical Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kailash P; Stamelou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Atypical parkinsonism (AP) comprises mainly multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), which are distinct pathological entities, presenting with a wide phenotypic spectrum. The classic syndromes are now called MSA-parkinsonism (MSA-P), MSA-cerebellar type (MSA-C), Richardson's syndrome, and corticobasal syndrome. Nonmotor features in AP have been recognized almost since the initial description of these disorders; however, research has been limited. Autonomic dysfunction is the most prominent nonmotor feature of MSA, but also gastrointestinal symptoms, sleep dysfunction, and pain, can be a feature. In PSP and CBD, the most prominent nonmotor symptoms comprise those deriving from the cognitive/neuropsychiatric domain. Apart from assisting the clinician in the differential diagnosis with Parkinson's disease, nonmotor features in AP have a big impact on quality of life and prognosis of AP and their treatment poses a major challenge for clinicians. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Finger vein recognition based on the hyperinformation feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Yang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    The finger vein is a promising biometric pattern for personal identification due to its advantages over other existing biometrics. In finger vein recognition, feature extraction is a critical step, and many feature extraction methods have been proposed to extract the gray, texture, or shape of the finger vein. We treat them as low-level features and present a high-level feature extraction framework. Under this framework, base attribute is first defined to represent the characteristics of a certain subcategory of a subject. Then, for an image, the correlation coefficient is used for constructing the high-level feature, which reflects the correlation between this image and all base attributes. Since the high-level feature can reveal characteristics of more subcategories and contain more discriminative information, we call it hyperinformation feature (HIF). Compared with low-level features, which only represent the characteristics of one subcategory, HIF is more powerful and robust. In order to demonstrate the potential of the proposed framework, we provide a case study to extract HIF. We conduct comprehensive experiments to show the generality of the proposed framework and the efficiency of HIF on our databases, respectively. Experimental results show that HIF significantly outperforms the low-level features.

  16. Organization Features and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Lois Major

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the odds of school organization features predicting schools meeting district or state performance goals. The school organization features were organizational complexity, shared decision making, and leadership behavior. The dependent variable was school performance, operationally defined as a principalâ s yes response or no response to the question, â did your school meet district or state performance goals.â The independent variables representing...

  17. Enhanced feature integration in musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Christian; Højlund, Andreas; Møller, Cecilie

    the classical oddball control paradigm which used identical sounds. This novel finding supports the dependent processing hypothesis suggesting that musicians recruit overlapping neural resources facilitating more holistic representations of domain-relevant stimuli. These specialised refinements in predictive......Distinguishing and integrating features of sensory input is essential to human survival and no less paramount in music perception and cognition. Yet, little is known about training-induced plasticity of neural mechanisms for auditory feature integration. This study aimed to contrast the two...

  18. Search features of digital libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional on-line search services such as Dialog, DataStar and Lexis provide a wide range of search features (boolean and proximity operators, truncation, etc. This paper discusses the use of these features for effective searching, and argues that these features are required, regardless of advances in search engine technology. The literature on on-line searching is reviewed, identifying features that searchers find desirable for effective searching. A selective survey of current digital libraries available on the Web was undertaken, identifying which search features are present. The survey indicates that current digital libraries do not implement a wide range of search features. For instance: under half of the examples included controlled vocabulary, under half had proximity searching, only one enabled browsing of term indexes, and none of the digital libraries enable searchers to refine an initial search. Suggestions are made for enhancing the search effectiveness of digital libraries, for instance by: providing a full range of search operators, enabling browsing of search terms, enhancement of records with controlled vocabulary, enabling the refining of initial searches, etc.

  19. A new karren feature: hummocky karren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plan Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Karren are small-scale landforms on karst surfaces and many types have been described so far. Here we present an apparently new feature which was found on the Hochschwab karst massive in the Northern Calcareous Alps of Austria. So far only few outcrops each having less than 1 m² within a very restricted area have been found. Morphometric analysis reveals that the karren consist of a randomly distributed, dispersed assemblage of small hummocks and depressions in between. The mean distance between neighbouring hummocks is 4 to 5 cm and the mean height is 0.85 cm. Longitudinal sections are gently sinuous. The occurrences are delimited by thin soil cover with grassy vegetation and the karren continue below that vegetation cover. Therefore, it is clear that the features have formed subcutaneously. Corroded fissures where water could infiltrate into the epikarst are absent. The bedrock lithology is Middle Triassic limestone of the Wetterstein Formation in lagoonal facies. Geological structures do not govern the feature. The surface is not a bedding plane and small joints and fractures do not govern the arrangement of the hummocks. Thin section analysis regarding rock texture and dolomite components show that there is no compositional difference between hummocks and depressions. Geochemical analyses show that the limestone is very pure with a very low content of Magnesia. Slightly higher Magnesia contents at the hummock surfaces are significant. The data obtained so far only indicate that some dissolution mechanism but not any rock property governs the irregular array. As there exist no descriptions of comparable features in literature, the name “hummocky karren” is suggested for that type of karren landform.

  20. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  1. Inflation and WMAP three year data. Features have a feature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covi, L.; Hamann, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Melchiorri, A. [INFN, Roma (Italy)]|[Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Slosar, A. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics; Sorbera, I. [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2006-06-15

    The new three year WMAP data seem to confirm the presence of non-standard large scale features in the Cosmic Microwave Anisotropies power spectrum. While these features may hint at uncorrected experimental systematics, it is also possible to generate, in a cosmological way, oscillations on large angular scales by introducing a sharp step in the inflaton potential. Using current cosmological data, we derive constraints on the position, magnitude and gradient of a possible step in the inflaton potential. We show that a step in the potential, while strongly constrained by current data, is still allowed and may provide an interesting explanation to the currently measured deviations from the standard featureless spectrum. (Orig.)

  2. Nascent-Seq reveals novel features of mouse circadian transcriptional regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menet, Jerome S; Rodriguez, Joseph; Abruzzi, Katharine C; Rosbash, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the metazoan transcriptome undergoes circadian oscillations in many cells and tissues. Based on the transcription feedback loops important for circadian timekeeping, it is commonly assumed that this mRNA cycling reflects widespread transcriptional regulation. To address this issue, we directly measured the circadian dynamics of mouse liver transcription using Nascent-Seq (genome-wide sequencing of nascent RNA). Although many genes are rhythmically transcribed, many rhythmic mRNAs manifest poor transcriptional rhythms, indicating a prominent contribution of post-transcriptional regulation to circadian mRNA expression. This analysis of rhythmic transcription also showed that the rhythmic DNA binding profile of the transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1 does not determine the transcriptional phase of most target genes. This likely reflects gene-specific collaborations of CLK:BMAL1 with other transcription factors. These insights from Nascent-Seq indicate that it should have broad applicability to many other gene expression regulatory issues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00011.001 PMID:23150795

  3. Unifying model of shoot gravitropism reveals proprioception as a central feature of posture control in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastien, Renaud; Bohr, Tomas; Moulia, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Gravitropism, the slow reorientation of plant growth in response to gravity, is a key determinant of the form and posture of land plants. Shoot gravitropism is triggered when statocysts sense the local angle of the growing organ relative to the gravitational field. Lateral transport of the hormone...... is thus as important as gravisensing in gravitropic control, and the B ratio can be measured as phenotype in genetic studies....

  4. A Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Conserved Features of Stem Cell Pluripotency in Planarians and Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé, Roselyne M.; Irimia, Manuel; Currie, Ko W.; Lin, Alexander; Zhu, Shu Jun; Brown, David D.R.; Ross, Eric J.; Voisin, Veronique; Bader, Gary D.; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Pearson, Bret J.

    2014-01-01

    Many long-lived species of animals require the function of adult stem cells throughout their lives. However, the transcriptomes of stem cells in invertebrates and vertebrates have not been compared, and consequently, ancestral regulatory circuits that control stem cell populations remain poorly defined. In this study, we have used data from high-throughput RNA sequencing to compare the transcriptomes of pluripotent adult stem cells from planarians with the transcriptomes of human and mouse pluripotent embryonic stem cells. From a stringently defined set of 4,432 orthologs shared between planarians, mice and humans, we identified 123 conserved genes that are ≥5-fold differentially expressed in stem cells from all three species. Guided by this gene set, we used RNAi screening in adult planarians to discover novel stem cell regulators, which we found to affect the stem cell-associated functions of tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and stem cell maintenance. Examples of genes that disrupted these processes included the orthologs of TBL3, PSD12, TTC27, and RACK1. From these analyses, we concluded that by comparing stem cell transcriptomes from diverse species, it is possible to uncover conserved factors that function in stem cell biology. These results provide insights into which genes comprised the ancestral circuitry underlying the control of stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency. PMID:22696458

  5. Structure of TSA2 reveals novel features of the active-site loop of peroxiredoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maja Holch; Kidmose, Rune Thomas; Jenner, Lasse Bohl

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae TSA2 belongs to the family of typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, a ubiquitously expressed family of redox-active enzymes that utilize a conserved peroxidatic cysteine to reduce peroxides. Typical 2-Cys peroxiredoxins have been shown to be involved in protection against oxidative...... stress and in hydrogen peroxide signalling. Furthermore, several 2-Cys peroxiredoxins, including S. cerevisiae TSA1 and TSA2, are able to switch to chaperone activity upon hyperoxidation of their peroxidatic cysteine. This makes the sensitivity to hyperoxidation of the peroxidatic cysteine a very....... This requires a local unfolding of the active site and the C-terminus. The balance between the fully folded and locally unfolded conformations is of key importance for the reactivity and sensitivity to hyperoxidation of the different peroxiredoxins. Here, the structure of a C48S mutant of TSA2 from S...

  6. Deep RNA-Seq analysis reveals unexpected features of human prostate basal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingxiao Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American men [1]. The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells, which are constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here, for the first time, we describe a whole-genome transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal populations by using deep RNA sequencing (GSE67070 [2]. Combined with comprehensive molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene expression profiles account for their distinct functional phenotypes. Strikingly, in contrast to luminal cells, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neural and neuronal development, and RNA processing. Of clinical relevance, the treatment failed castration-resistant and anaplastic prostate cancers molecularly resemble a basal-like phenotype. We also identified genes associated with patient clinical outcome. Therefore, we provide a gene expression resource for understanding human prostate epithelial lineages, and link the cell-type specific gene signatures to subtypes of prostate cancer development. Keywords: Prostate epithelial cells, Basal cells, Luminal cells, RNA-seq

  7. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Features Reveal That E. coli BCP Is an Unusually Versatile Peroxiredoxin†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Stacy A.; Parsonage, Derek; Nelson, Kimberly J.; Poole, Leslie B.

    2011-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, bacterioferritin-comigratory protein (BCP) is a peroxiredoxin (Prx) which catalyzes the reduction of H2O2 and organic hydroperoxides. This protein, along with plant PrxQ, is a founding member of one of the least studied subfamilies of Prxs. Recent structural data have suggested that proteins in the BCP/PrxQ group can exist as monomers or dimers; we report here that, by analytical ultracentrifugation, both oxidized and reduced E. coli BCP behave as monomers in solution at concentrations as high as 200 µM. Unexpectedly, thioredoxin (Trx1)-dependent peroxidase assays conducted by stopped flow spectroscopy demonstrated that Vmax,app increases with increasing Trx1 concentrations, indicating a nonsaturable interaction (Km > 100 µM). At a physiologically reasonable Trx1 concentration of 10 µM, the apparent Km value for H2O2 is ~80 µM, and overall Vmax/Km for H2O2, which remains constant over the various Trx1 concentrations (consistent with a ping-pong mechanism), is about 1.3 × 104 M−1 s−1. Our kinetic analyses demonstrated that BCP can utilize a variety of reducing substrates, including Trx1, Trx2, Grx1 and Grx3. BCP exhibited a high redox potential of −145.9 ± 3.2 mV, the highest to date observed for a Prx. Moreover, BCP exhibited a broad peroxide specificity, with comparable rates for H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide. We determined a pKa of ~5.8 for the peroxidatic cysteine (Cys45) using both spectroscopic and activity titration data. These findings support an important role for BCP in interacting with multiple substrates and remaining active under highly oxidizing cellular conditions, potentially serving as a defense enzyme of last resort. PMID:21910476

  8. Genome mining of Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 reveals symbiotic features including genes related to plant interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Luna, Stefany Daniela; Cruz Vázquez, Angélica Patricia; Jiménez Suárez, Verónica; Rodríguez-Sanoja, Romina; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Sánchez, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S. scabrisporus NF3 genome is larger than the average Streptomyces genome and not structured for an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle; this and the fact that can grow in R2YE media implies that it could include a soil-living stage. The genome displays an enrichment of genes associated with amino acid production, protein secretion, secondary metabolite and antioxidants production and xenobiotic degradation, indicating that S. scabrisporus NF3 could contribute to the metabolic enrichment of soil microbial communities and of its hosts. Importantly, besides its metabolic advantages, the genome showed evidence for differential functional specificity and diversification of plant interaction molecules, including genes for the production of plant hormones, stress resistance molecules, chitinases, antibiotics and siderophores. Given the diversity of S. scabrisporus mechanisms for host upkeep, we propose that these strategies were necessary for its adaptation to plant hosts and to face changes in environmental conditions. PMID:29447216

  9. Nanostructural features degrading the performance of superconducting radio frequency niobium cavities revealed by TEM and EELS

    OpenAIRE

    Trenikhina, Y.; Romanenko, A.; Kwon, J.; Zuo, J. -M.; Zasadzinski, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale defect structure within the magnetic penetration depth of ~100nm is key to the performance limitations of niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Using a unique combination of advanced thermometry during cavity RF measurements, and TEM structural and compositional characterization of the samples extracted from cavity walls, we discover the existence of nanoscale hydrides in electropolished cavities limited by the high field Q slope, and show the decreased hydride for...

  10. Foreign exchange market data analysis reveals statistical features that predict price movement acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Jose C; Ochiai, Tomoshiro

    2012-05-01

    Increasingly accessible financial data allow researchers to infer market-dynamics-based laws and to propose models that are able to reproduce them. In recent years, several stylized facts have been uncovered. Here we perform an extensive analysis of foreign exchange data that leads to the unveiling of a statistical financial law. First, our findings show that, on average, volatility increases more when the price exceeds the highest (or lowest) value, i.e., breaks the resistance line. We call this the breaking-acceleration effect. Second, our results show that the probability P(T) to break the resistance line in the past time T follows power law in both real data and theoretically simulated data. However, the probability calculated using real data is rather lower than the one obtained using a traditional Black-Scholes (BS) model. Taken together, the present analysis characterizes a different stylized fact of financial markets and shows that the market exceeds a past (historical) extreme price fewer times than expected by the BS model (the resistance effect). However, when the market does, we predict that the average volatility at that time point will be much higher. These findings indicate that any Markovian model does not faithfully capture the market dynamics.

  11. New insights into morphological features of Hadjelia truncata (Spirurida: Habronematidae), as revealed by SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naem, Soraya; Houston, Robin S; Sentíes-Cué, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Hadjelia truncata (Spirurida: Habronematidae) is a nematode found in the gizzard of several avian species. However, it has been reported pathogenic only in pigeons (Columba livia), in which it causes severe ventriculitis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphological aspects of adult worms of this nematode in detail. Males and females measured 6.5-9 and 12-16.5 mm, respectively. The bodies were straight with moderate uniform thickness in both males and females, narrowing at the anterior end. The cuticle was striated transversely. The mouth was surrounded by two lateral trilobed lips, and the dorsal and ventral interlabia were present. The two cephalic papillae were present on each side lodged just behind the upper and lower bases of each lip. Around the mouth, a large amphid was seen on each lip. At the anterior end of both male and female worms, an excretory pore on the ventral side and a pair of lateral cervical papillae were observed. In the female, the vulva was located at the anterior end of the body. The lips of the vulva protruded above the body surface, and the bluntly rounded posterior end showed an anal pore and two subterminal phasmids. The posterior end of the males curved ventrally, with large caudal alae supported by four pairs of stalked precloacal papillae, a single medial precloacal papilla, two pairs of postcloacal papillae, and a cluster of small papillae on the caudal extremity. Spicules were unequal and dissimilar.

  12. Genome mining of Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 reveals symbiotic features including genes related to plant interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Diana Ceapă

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria are wide-spread and associated with plant physiological benefits, yet their genomes and secondary metabolites remain largely unidentified. In this study, we explored the genome of the endophyte Streptomyces scabrisporus NF3 for discovery of potential novel molecules as well as genes and metabolites involved in host interactions. The complete genomes of seven Streptomyces and three other more distantly related bacteria were used to define the functional landscape of this unique microbe. The S. scabrisporus NF3 genome is larger than the average Streptomyces genome and not structured for an obligate endosymbiotic lifestyle; this and the fact that can grow in R2YE media implies that it could include a soil-living stage. The genome displays an enrichment of genes associated with amino acid production, protein secretion, secondary metabolite and antioxidants production and xenobiotic degradation, indicating that S. scabrisporus NF3 could contribute to the metabolic enrichment of soil microbial communities and of its hosts. Importantly, besides its metabolic advantages, the genome showed evidence for differential functional specificity and diversification of plant interaction molecules, including genes for the production of plant hormones, stress resistance molecules, chitinases, antibiotics and siderophores. Given the diversity of S. scabrisporus mechanisms for host upkeep, we propose that these strategies were necessary for its adaptation to plant hosts and to face changes in environmental conditions.

  13. Ribosome profiling reveals features of normal and disease-associated mitochondrial translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijers, K.; Loayza-Puch, F.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Agami, R.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential cellular organelles for generation of energy and their dysfunction may cause diabetes, Parkinson's disease and multi-systemic failure marked by failure to thrive, gastrointestinal problems, lactic acidosis and early lethality. Disease-associated mitochondrial mutations

  14. Ribosome profiling reveals features of normal and disease-associated mitochondrial translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rooijers (Koos); F. Loayza-Puch (Fabricio); L.G.J. Nijtmans (Leo); R. Agami (Reuven)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMitochondria are essential cellular organelles for generation of energy and their dysfunction may cause diabetes, Parkinson's disease and multi-systemic failure marked by failure to thrive, gastrointestinal problems, lactic acidosis and early lethality. Disease-associated mitochondrial

  15. The structure of Lactococcus lactis thioredoxin reductase reveals molecular features of photo-oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bang, Maria Blanner; Rykær, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent homodimeric flavoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) provides reducing equivalents to thioredoxin, a key regulator of various cellular redox processes. Crystal structures of photo-inactivated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis have...

  16. Distinctive anatomical and physiological features of migraine aura revealed by 18 years of recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Baca, Serapio Michael; Vanvalkenburgh, Paul

    2013-01-01

    insight into basic aura mechanisms. An individual made detailed drawings of his visual percept of migraine aura in real time during more than 1000 attacks of migraine aura without headache over 18 years. Drawings were made in a consistent fashion documenting the shape and location of the aura wavefront...... originated centrally (within 10° eccentricity), but there were also other distinct sites of initiation in the visual field. Auras beginning centrally preferentially propagated first through lower nasal field (69-77% of all auras) before travelling to upper and temporal fields, on both sides. Some auras...... propagated from peripheral to central regions of the visual field-these typically followed the reverse path of those travelling in the opposite direction. The mean velocity of the perceived visual phenomenon did not differ between attacks starting peripherally and centrally. The estimated speed...

  17. Cytological and Morphological Analyses Reveal Distinct Features of Intestinal Development during Xenopus tropicalis Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kazuo; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2012-01-01

    Background The formation and/or maturation of adult organs in vertebrates often takes place during postembryonic development, a period around birth in mammals when thyroid hormone (T3) levels are high. The T3-dependent anuran metamorphosis serves as a model to study postembryonic development. Studies on the remodeling of the intestine during Xenopus (X.) laevis metamorphosis have shown that the development of the adult intestine involves de novo formation of adult stem cells in a process controlled by T3. On the other hand, X. tropicalis, highly related to X. laevis, offers a number of advantages for studying developmental mechanisms, especially at genome-wide level, over X. laevis, largely due to its shorter life cycle and sequenced genome. To establish X. tropicalis intestinal metamorphosis as a model for adult organogenesis, we analyzed the morphological and cytological changes in X. tropicalis intestine during metamorphosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in X. tropicalis, the premetamorphic intestine was made of mainly a monolayer of larval epithelial cells surrounded by little connective tissue except in the single epithelial fold, the typhlosole. During metamorphosis, the larval epithelium degenerates and adult epithelium develops to form a multi-folded structure with elaborate connective tissue and muscles. Interestingly, typhlosole, which is likely critical for adult epithelial development, is present along the entire length of the small intestine in premetamorphic tadpoles, in contrast to X. laevis, where it is present only in the anterior 1/3. T3-treatment induces intestinal remodeling, including the shortening of the intestine and the typhlosole, just like in X. laevis. Conclusions/Significance Our observations indicate that the intestine undergoes similar metamorphic changes in X. laevis and X. tropicalis, making it possible to use the large amount of information available on X. laevis intestinal metamorphosis and the genome sequence information and genetic advantages of X. tropicalis to dissect the pathways governing adult intestinal development. PMID:23071801

  18. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  19. Decontaminate feature for tracking: adaptive tracking via evolutionary feature subset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoyuan; Wang, Yuru; Yin, Minghao; Ren, Jinchang; Li, Ruizhi

    2017-11-01

    Although various visual tracking algorithms have been proposed in the last 2-3 decades, it remains a challenging problem for effective tracking with fast motion, deformation, occlusion, etc. Under complex tracking conditions, most tracking models are not discriminative and adaptive enough. When the combined feature vectors are inputted to the visual models, this may lead to redundancy causing low efficiency and ambiguity causing poor performance. An effective tracking algorithm is proposed to decontaminate features for each video sequence adaptively, where the visual modeling is treated as an optimization problem from the perspective of evolution. Every feature vector is compared to a biological individual and then decontaminated via classical evolutionary algorithms. With the optimized subsets of features, the "curse of dimensionality" has been avoided while the accuracy of the visual model has been improved. The proposed algorithm has been tested on several publicly available datasets with various tracking challenges and benchmarked with a number of state-of-the-art approaches. The comprehensive experiments have demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed methodology.

  20. Feature-level domain adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouw, Wouter M.; Van Der Maaten, Laurens J P; Krijthe, Jesse H.

    2016-01-01

    -level domain adaptation (flda), that models the dependence between the two domains by means of a feature-level transfer model that is trained to describe the transfer from source to target domain. Subsequently, we train a domain-adapted classifier by minimizing the expected loss under the resulting transfer...... modeled via a dropout distribution, which allows the classiffier to adapt to differences in the marginal probability of features in the source and the target domain. Our experiments on several real-world problems show that flda performs on par with state-of-the-art domainadaptation techniques.......Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data are sampled from different distributions: training data is sampled from a source domain, whilst test data is sampled from a target domain. This paper proposes and studies an approach, called feature...

  1. Disruption of visual feature binding in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Taiji; Allen, Richard J; Baddeley, Alan D; Hitch, Graham J; Saito, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    In a series of five experiments, we studied the effect of a visual suffix on the retention in short-term visual memory of both individual visual features and objects involving the binding of two features. Experiments 1A, 1B, and 2 involved suffixes consisting of features external to the to-be-remembered set and revealed a modest but equivalent disruption on individual and bound feature conditions. Experiments 3A and 3B involved suffixes comprising features that could potentially have formed part of the to-be-remembered set (but did not on that trial). Both experiments showed greater disruption of retention for objects comprising bound features than for their individual features. The results are interpreted as differentiating two components of suffix interference, one affecting memory for features and bindings equally, the other affecting memory for bindings. The general component is tentatively identified with the attentional cost of operating a filter to prevent the suffix from entering visual working memory, whereas the specific component is attributed to the particular fragility of bound representations when the filter fails.

  2. Dynamic binding of visual features by neuronal/stimulus synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, A

    1998-05-01

    When people see a visual scene, certain parts of the visual scene are treated as belonging together and we regard them as a perceptual unit, which is called a "figure". People focus on figures, and the remaining parts of the scene are disregarded as "ground". In Gestalt psychology this process is called "figure-ground segregation". According to current perceptual psychology, a figure is formed by binding various visual features in a scene, and developments in neuroscience have revealed that there are many feature-encoding neurons, which respond to such features specifically. It is not known, however, how the brain binds different features of an object into a coherent visual object representation. Recently, the theory of binding by neuronal synchrony, which argues that feature binding is dynamically mediated by neuronal synchrony of feature-encoding neurons, has been proposed. This review article portrays the problem of figure-ground segregation and features binding, summarizes neurophysiological and psychophysical experiments and theory relevant to feature binding by neuronal/stimulus synchrony, and suggests possible directions for future research on this topic.

  3. Optical features associated with the quasar PKS 2135-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, M.R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The field surrounding the quasar PKS 2135-14 has been investigated from B and R photographs taken with the 3.8-m Anglo-Australian telescope. Isophotal plots of the plates, produced with the COSMOS measuring machine, have revealed a number of faint optical features apparently associated with the radio source. (author)

  4. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacelli, A; Lopez-Beltran, A; Egan, A J; Bostwick, D G

    1998-05-01

    A wide variety of architectural patterns of adenocarcinoma may be seen in the prostate. We have recently encountered a hitherto-undescribed pattern of growth characterized by intraluminal ball-like clusters of cancer cells reminiscent of renal glomeruli, which we refer to as prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features. To define the architectural features, frequency, and distribution of prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features, we reviewed 202 totally embedded radical prostatectomy specimens obtained between October 1992 and April 1994 from the files of the Mayo Clinic. This series was supplemented by 100 consecutive needle biopsies with prostatic cancer from January to February 1996. Prostatic adenocarcinoma with glomeruloid features was characterized by round to oval epithelial tufts growing within malignant acini, often supported by a fibrovascular core. The epithelial cells were sometimes arranged in semicircular concentric rows separated by clefted spaces. In the radical prostatectomy specimens, nine cases (4.5%) had glomeruloid features. The glomeruloid pattern constituted 5% to 20% of each cancer (mean, 8.33%) and was usually located at the apex or in the peripheral zone of the prostate. Seven cases were associated with a high Gleason score (7 or 8), one with a score of 6, and one with a score of 5. All cases were associated with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and extensive perineural invasion. Pathological stages included T2c (three cases), T3b (four cases), and T3c (two cases); one of the T3b cases had lymph node metastases (N1). Three (3%) of 100 consecutive routine needle biopsy specimens with cancer showed glomeruloid features, and this pattern constituted 5% to 10% of each cancer (mean, 6.7%). The Gleason score was 6 for two cases and 8 for one case. Two cases were associated with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and one case had perineural invasion. Glomeruloid features were not observed in any benign or

  5. Tunable features of magnetoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuxiang; Zhai, Junyi; Priya, Shashank; Li, Jie-Fang; Viehland, Dwight

    2009-06-01

    We have found that magnetostrictive FeBSiC alloy ribbons laminated with piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) fiber can act as a tunable transformer when driven under resonant conditions. These composites were also found to exhibit the strongest resonant magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of 750 V/cm-Oe. The tunable features were achieved by applying small dc magnetic biases of -5 transformer features can be attributed to large changes in the piezomagnetic coefficient and permeability of the magnetostrictive phase under H(dc).

  6. Clinical features of radiation retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Shoko; Oda, Itsuo; Okawa, Tomohiko

    1977-01-01

    The clinical features of 25 cases with radiation retinopathy are described. Retinopathy was induced following therapeutic irradiation of paraobital malignancies with megavoltage Linac x-ray of 3,000 rads or more. Retinal vessels, particularly the proximal portion of retinal arteries, seemed to be the primary site of damage due to radiation. According to the type of lesion and dosage, fundus features simulated papillitis, retinal angiosclerosis, or hard exudates due to capillary obliteration. Acute obstruction of the central retinal artery and ischemic optic neuropathy could result from heavy irradiation of over 5,000 rads. (Evans, J.)

  7. A Rare Case of Medulloblastoma with Excessive Nodularity: Imagistic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tascu A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant tumor of childhood. Neuroimaging can play a role in the diagnosis of medulloblastoma, however atypical features do exist [2]. We report the case of a 1 year and 10- month-old infant diagnosed with a medulloblastoma with what we term “excessive” nodularity based on neuroimaging features and confirmed by neuropathology. CT-scan (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination of the brain revealed a very large posterior fossa tumor attached to tentorium. On T2-weighted and post-gadolinium sequences, the tumor shows an extensive nodular grape-like appearance. Initial the patient was underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. The second operative procedure was tumour resection. Histology examen revealed a diagnosis of medulloblastoma desmoplastic with extensive nodularity. The neuroradiographic features of this medulloblastoma with what we describe as “excessive” nodularity are important to recognize as these children may be cured with chemotherapy alone.

  8. Automatic processing of unattended object features by functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Martina Mayer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Observers can selectively attend to object features that are relevant for a task. However, unattended task-irrelevant features may still be processed and possibly integrated with the attended features. This study investigated the neural mechanisms for processing both task-relevant (attended and task-irrelevant (unattended object features. The Garner paradigm was adapted for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test whether specific brain areas process the conjunction of features or whether multiple interacting areas are involved in this form of feature integration. Observers attended to shape, colour, or non-rigid motion of novel objects while unattended features changed from trial to trial (change blocks or remained constant (no-change blocks during a given block. This block manipulation allowed us to measure the extent to which unattended features affected neural responses which would reflect the extent to which multiple object features are automatically processed. We did not find Garner interference at the behavioural level. However, we designed the experiment to equate performance across block types so that any fMRI results could not be due solely to differences in task difficulty between change and no-change blocks. Attention to specific features localised several areas known to be involved in object processing. No area showed larger responses on change blocks compared to no-change blocks. However, psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that several functionally-localised areas showed significant positive interactions with areas in occipito-temporal and frontal areas that depended on block type. Overall, these findings suggest that both regional responses and functional connectivity are crucial for processing multi-featured objects.

  9. Chest computed tomography of a patient revealing severe hypoxia due to amniotic fluid embolism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui Daisuke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amniotic fluid embolism is one of the most severe complications in the peripartum period. Because its onset is abrupt and fulminant, it is unlikely that there will be time to examine the condition using thoracic computed tomography (CT. We report a case of life-threatening amniotic fluid embolism, where chest CT in the acute phase was obtained. Case presentation A 22-year-old Asian Japanese primiparous woman was suspected of having an amniotic fluid embolism. After a Cesarean section for cephalopelvic disproportion, her respiratory condition deteriorated. Her chest CT images were examined. CT findings revealed diffuse homogeneous ground-glass shadow in her bilateral peripheral lung fields. She was therefore transferred to our hospital. On admission to our hospital's intensive care unit, she was found to have severe hypoxemia, with SpO2 of 50% with a reservoir mask of 15 L/min oxygen. She was intubated with the support of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. She was successfully extubated on the sixth day, and discharged from the hospital on the twentieth day. Conclusion This is the first case report describing amniotic fluid embolism in which CT revealed an acute respiratory distress syndrome-like shadow.

  10. ANKRD11 variants cause variable clinical features associated with KBG syndrome and Coffin–Siris-like syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Satoko; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Stark, Zornitza; Nabetani, Makoto; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Miyake, Noriko; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Ohtake, Akira; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2017-01-01

    KBG syndrome (KBGS) is an autosomal dominant multiple congenital anomaly-intellectual disability syndrome, characterized by developmental delay with neurological involvements, macrodontia of the upper central incisors, characteristic facial dysmorphism and skeletal anomalies. Variants in ANKRD11 cause KBGS. We present five individuals from four families with ANKRD11 variants identified by whole-exome sequencing. Four of the five were clinically affected, and their diagnoses were varied. One was typical KBGS, two were Coffin–Siris syndrome-like (CSS), and one was intellectual disability with infantile spasms. One individual showed extremely mild phenotype. All individuals fulfilled the proposed diagnostic criteria for KBGS. Phenotypic features overlap between KBGS and CSS to some extent, and characteristic dental and fifth finger/toe findings can indicate differential diagnosis. These findings indicate that patients with ANKRD11 variants occupy a wide spectrum of intellectual disability, including clinically normal individuals. This is the first report highlighting the clinical overlap between KBGS and CSS and supporting the recently proposed clinical concept, in which transcriptional machineries are disrupted. PMID:28250421

  11. ANKRD11 variants cause variable clinical features associated with KBG syndrome and Coffin-Siris-like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Satoko; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Stark, Zornitza; Nabetani, Makoto; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Miyake, Noriko; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Ohtake, Akira; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2017-08-01

    KBG syndrome (KBGS) is an autosomal dominant multiple congenital anomaly-intellectual disability syndrome, characterized by developmental delay with neurological involvements, macrodontia of the upper central incisors, characteristic facial dysmorphism and skeletal anomalies. Variants in ANKRD11 cause KBGS. We present five individuals from four families with ANKRD11 variants identified by whole-exome sequencing. Four of the five were clinically affected, and their diagnoses were varied. One was typical KBGS, two were Coffin-Siris syndrome-like (CSS), and one was intellectual disability with infantile spasms. One individual showed extremely mild phenotype. All individuals fulfilled the proposed diagnostic criteria for KBGS. Phenotypic features overlap between KBGS and CSS to some extent, and characteristic dental and fifth finger/toe findings can indicate differential diagnosis. These findings indicate that patients with ANKRD11 variants occupy a wide spectrum of intellectual disability, including clinically normal individuals. This is the first report highlighting the clinical overlap between KBGS and CSS and supporting the recently proposed clinical concept, in which transcriptional machineries are disrupted.

  12. Characteristics of the tomato chromoplast revealed by proteomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barsan, Cristina; Sanchez-Bel, Paloma; Rombaldi, César Valmor; Egea, Isabel; Rossignol, Michel; Kuntz, Marcel; Zouine, Mohamed; Latché, Alain; Bouzayen, Mondher; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic specialized plastids that are important in ripening tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) since, among other functions, they are the site of accumulation of coloured compounds. Analysis of the proteome of red fruit chromoplasts revealed the presence of 988 proteins corresponding to 802 Arabidopsis unigenes, among which 209 had not been listed so far in plastidial databanks. These data revealed several features of the chromoplast. Proteins of lipid metabolism ...

  13. Various Landscapes and Features on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    These 15 frames show the great variety of surface features on Jupiter's icy moon, Europa, which have been revealed by the Galileo spacecraft Solid State Imaging (CCD) system during its first six orbits around Jupiter from June 1996 to February 1997. North is to the top of each of the images. The features seen on Europa's surface document both internal and external processes shaping the icy crust. Internal processes and the possible presence of liquid water beneath the ice are indicated by features such as 'dark spots', lobe-shaped flow features, 'puddles','mottled terrain', knobs, pits, and the darker areas along ridges and triple bands.Europa is subjected to constant tugging from the giant planet, Jupiter, as well as from its neighboring moons, Io and Ganymede. This causes 'tidal' forces that affect Europa's interior and surface. Evidence for such forces includes ridges, fractures, wedge-shaped bands, and areas of 'chaos'. Some of these features result from alternate extension and compression buckling and pulling apart Europa's icy shell.Impact craters document external effects on a planet's surface. Although present on Europa, impact craters are relatively scarce compared to the number seen on Ganymede, Callisto, and on the surfaces of most other 'rocky' planets and moons in our solar system. This scarcity of craters suggests that the surface of Europa is very young. 'Maculae' on Europa may be the scars from large impact events.These images have resolutions from 27 meters (89 feet) to 7 kilometers (4.3 miles) per picture element (pixel) and were taken by Galileo at ranges of 2,500 kilometers (1,525 miles) to 677,000 kilometers (413,000 miles) from Europa.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo

  14. Observed spectral features of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author concentrates on the observed properties of dust spectral features. Identifications, based on laboratory data, are given whenever plausible ones exist. There are a very large number of papers in the literature of even such a young field as infrared spectroscopy, and therefore the author refers only to the most recent paper on a topic or to another review. (Auth.)

  15. Universal features of multiplicity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A.B.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1994-01-01

    Universal features of multiplicity distributions are studied and combinants, certain linear combinations of ratios of probabilities, are introduced. It is argued that they can be a useful tool in analyzing multiplicity distributions of hadrons emitted in high energy collisions and large scale structure of galaxy distributions

  16. Imaging features of kaposiform lymphangiomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Pradeep; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Shaikh, Raja; Chaudry, Gulraiz; Kozakewich, Harry P.; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R.; Trenor, Cameron C.; Fishman, Steven J.; Greene, Arin K.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis is a rare, aggressive lymphatic disorder. The imaging and presenting features of kaposiform lymphangiomatosis can overlap with those of central conducting lymphatic anomaly and generalized lymphatic anomaly. To analyze the imaging findings of kaposiform lymphangiomatosis disorder and highlight features most suggestive of this diagnosis. We retrospectively identified and characterized 20 children and young adults with histopathological diagnosis of kaposiform lymphangiomatosis and radiologic imaging referred to the vascular anomalies center between 1995 and 2015. The median age at onset was 6.5 years (range 3 months to 27 years). The most common presenting features were respiratory compromise (dyspnea, cough, chest pain; 55.5%), swelling/mass (25%), bleeding (15%) and fracture (5%). The thoracic cavity was involved in all patients; all patients had mediastinal involvement followed by lung parenchymal disease (90%) and pleural (85%) and pericardial (50%) effusions. The most common extra-thoracic sites of disease were the retroperitoneum (80%), bone (60%), abdominal viscera (55%) and muscles (45%). There was characteristic enhancing and infiltrative soft-tissue thickening in the mediastinum and retroperitoneum extending along the lymphatic distribution. Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis has overlapping imaging features with central conducting lymphatic anomaly and generalized lymphatic anomaly. Presence of mediastinal or retroperitoneal enhancing and infiltrative soft-tissue disease along the lymphatic distribution, hemorrhagic effusions and moderate thrombocytopenia (50-100,000/μl) should favor diagnosis of kaposiform lymphangiomatosis. (orig.)

  17. Goldenhar syndrome with unusual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Bijal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the case of a 17 year-old girl with the classic signs of Goldenhar syndrome in the form of multiple accessory tragi, bilateral ocular dermoids, mandibular hypoplasia (micrognathia and cervical lordosis. She also had a high arched palate, gingival hypertrophy and malaligned teeth, features which are as yet unreported.

  18. Feature selection toolbox software package

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Novovičová, Jana; Somol, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2002), s. 487-492 ISSN 0167-8655 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/01/0981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : pattern recognition * feature selection * loating search algorithms Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.409, year: 2002

  19. Goldenhar syndrome with unusual features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bijal; Nayak, Chitra; Savant, Shankar; Amladi, Sangeeta

    2008-01-01

    We report here the case of a 17 year-old girl with the classic signs of Goldenhar syndrome in the form of multiple accessory tragi, bilateral ocular dermoids, mandibular hypoplasia (micrognathia) and cervical lordosis. She also had a high arched palate, gingival hypertrophy and malaligned teeth, features which are as yet unreported.

  20. Features of Diphtheria in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Koloskova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The lecture describes the etiology, epidemiology, classification and clinical features of diphtheria in children, taking into account various sites, covers the issues of diagnosis. Treatment for diphtheria in children is carried as per the order of Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine № 354 dated July 9, 2004 in accordance with the form and severity of the disease.

  1. Features Related to Faunal Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, M.J.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Soil fauna plays an important role in transporting and altering various soil components, in particular the decomposition of organic matter and the development of soil structure. Fauna-induced features are found in all types of soils and can be so abundant that they determine the nature and intensity

  2. Dynamic Features for Iris Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, R M; Gonzaga, A

    2012-08-01

    The human eye is sensitive to visible light. Increasing illumination on the eye causes the pupil of the eye to contract, while decreasing illumination causes the pupil to dilate. Visible light causes specular reflections inside the iris ring. On the other hand, the human retina is less sensitive to near infra-red (NIR) radiation in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1400 nm, but iris detail can still be imaged with NIR illumination. In order to measure the dynamic movement of the human pupil and iris while keeping the light-induced reflexes from affecting the quality of the digitalized image, this paper describes a device based on the consensual reflex. This biological phenomenon contracts and dilates the two pupils synchronously when illuminating one of the eyes by visible light. In this paper, we propose to capture images of the pupil of one eye using NIR illumination while illuminating the other eye using a visible-light pulse. This new approach extracts iris features called "dynamic features (DFs)." This innovative methodology proposes the extraction of information about the way the human eye reacts to light, and to use such information for biometric recognition purposes. The results demonstrate that these features are discriminating features, and, even using the Euclidean distance measure, an average accuracy of recognition of 99.1% was obtained. The proposed methodology has the potential to be "fraud-proof," because these DFs can only be extracted from living irises.

  3. Somatostatinoma: collision with neurofibroma and ultrastructural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varikatt, W; Yong, J L C; Killingsworth, M C

    2006-11-01

    The clinical presentation, histopathology and immunoelectron microscopic features of two cases of duodenal somatostatinoma are described, one of which is a hitherto unreported example of a collision tumour with a neurofibroma. Ultrastructural morphometric immunoelectron microscopy studies revealed the presence of four types of cells in both tumours, but there was no difference in the proportions of these cells between the collision tumour and the non-collision tumour. Neurosecretory granules ranging in size from 255-815 nm were generally larger than those previously reported for somatostatinomas and somatostatin was identified in granules of all sizes across this range. Neither tumour was associated with the somatostatinoma syndrome comprising associated diabetes mellitis, steatorrhoea and cholelithiasis.

  4. Esophageal trachealization: A feature of eosinophilic esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlHussaini, Abdulrahman A; Semaan, Toufic; ElHag, Imad A

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is an inflammatory condition characterized by intense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophagus. EE is frequently misdiagnosed as gastroesophageal reflux disease. Here, we present a child with EE and a characteristic endoscopic finding, r inged esophagus . An 11-year-old Saudi boy presented with dysphagia for 1 year. He had experienced an intermittent sensation of solid food sticking in his chest, which was relieved by drinking liquids. A barium swallow excluded anatomical causes of dysphagia, but revealed multiple-ringed esophagus. Endoscopy showed a furrowing and trachealizing appearance of the entire esophagus. Hisologically, extensive eosinophilic infiltration was a feature in biopsies obtained from the esophagus. The child responded well to a 2-month course of inhaled fluticasone. Symptoms recurred 3 months after discontinuation of therapy, which necessitated resumption of inhaled fluticasone. The endoscopic appearance of multiple esophageal rings should raise suspicion of EE and be confirmed by esophageal biopsies. (author)

  5. Aerodynamic features of flames in premixed gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of experimentally established flame phenomena in premixed gases are interpreted by relating them to basic aerodynamic properties of the flow field. On this basis the essential mechanism of some well known characteristic features of flames stabilized in the wake of a bluff-body or propagating in ducts are revealed. Elementary components of the flame propagation process are shown to be: rotary motion, self-advancement, and expansion. Their consequences are analyzed under a most strict set of idealizations that permit the flow field to be treated as potential in character, while the flame is modelled as a Stefan-like interface capable of exerting a feed-back effect upon the flow field. The results provide an insight into the fundamental fluid-mechanical reasons for the experimentally observed distortions of the flame front, rationalizing in particular its ability to sustain relatively high flow velocities at amazingly low normal burning speeds.

  6. MRI features of placenta accreta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Manrui; Du Mu; Huang Yi; Liu Bingguang; Zhang Fangjing; Guo Jimin; Zhu Zhijun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the MRI features of placenta accreta. Methods: From Apr 2009 to Jun 2011, 15 patients with placenta accrete received MRI examination. In them, placenta accreta was diagnosed based on clinical manifestations or postoperative histopathology. The MR features of placenta accreta in them (study group) were retrospectively analyzed and compared with those in 15 pregnant women without placenta accreta (control group) with Fisher exact test. Results: In the 15 patients with placenta accreta,uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge was detected in 14 patients; heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta was detected in 15 patients; dark intraplacental bands on T 2 -weighted images was detected in 15 patients; and increased subplacental vascularity was detected in 11 patients on T 1 - weighted images. In the study group, 14 patients showed at least three of the above four features, and in all of them uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge, heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta and dark intraplacental bands on T 2 -weighted images were detected; one patient showed heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta, dark intraplacental bands on T 2 -weighted images and increased subplacental vascularity. In the control group,none patient had three of the above features.Uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge, heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta, dark intraplacental bands on T 2 -weighted images and increased subplacental vascularity were detected in 3, 6, 3 and 4 patients (P=0.000, 0.001, 0.000 and 0.027), respectively. Conclusions: The main MRI features of placenta accreta are uterine bulging and (or) a focal outward contour bulge, heterogeneous signal intensity in the placenta and dark intraplacental bands on T 2 -weighted images Besides, increased subplacental vascularity also could provide useful information for the diagnosis of placenta accreta. (authors)

  7. Multimodal Ultrawide-Field Imaging Features in Waardenburg Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Netan; Rao, Rajesh C

    2015-06-01

    A 45-year-old woman was referred for bilateral irregular fundus pigmentation. Dilated fundus examination revealed irregular hypopigmentation posterior to the equator in both eyes, confirmed by fundus autofluorescence. A thickened choroid was seen on enhanced-depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI SD-OCT). Systemic evaluation revealed sensorineural deafness, telecanthus, and a white forelock. Further investigation revealed a first-degree relative with Waardenburg syndrome. Waardenburg syndrome is characterized by a group of features including telecanthus, a broad nasal root, synophrys of the eyebrows, piedbaldism, heterochromia irides, and deafness. Choroidal hypopigmentation is a unique feature that can be visualized with ultrawide-field fundus autofluorescence. The choroid may also be thickened and its thickness measured with EDI SD-OCT. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Feature singletons attract spatial attention independently of feature priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashar, Amit; White, Alex L; Fang, Wanghaoming; Carrasco, Marisa

    2017-08-01

    People perform better in visual search when the target feature repeats across trials (intertrial feature priming [IFP]). Here, we investigated whether repetition of a feature singleton's color modulates stimulus-driven shifts of spatial attention by presenting a probe stimulus immediately after each singleton display. The task alternated every two trials between a probe discrimination task and a singleton search task. We measured both stimulus-driven spatial attention (via the distance between the probe and singleton) and IFP (via repetition of the singleton's color). Color repetition facilitated search performance (IFP effect) when the set size was small. When the probe appeared at the singleton's location, performance was better than at the opposite location (stimulus-driven attention effect). The magnitude of this attention effect increased with the singleton's set size (which increases its saliency) but did not depend on whether the singleton's color repeated across trials, even when the previous singleton had been attended as a search target. Thus, our findings show that repetition of a salient singleton's color affects performance when the singleton is task relevant and voluntarily attended (as in search trials). However, color repetition does not affect performance when the singleton becomes irrelevant to the current task, even though the singleton does capture attention (as in probe trials). Therefore, color repetition per se does not make a singleton more salient for stimulus-driven attention. Rather, we suggest that IFP requires voluntary selection of color singletons in each consecutive trial.

  9. FEATURES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Busygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the value of preventive management in modern conditions. The global fi nancial and economic crisis of 2008-2010. sharpened interest in the problems of crisis management. This interest is manifested at the level of individual businesses, and at the level of the economy as a whole. At the same time revealed a signifi cant drawback: the development of crisis management theory lags behind practice. Non-compliance of the existing theory to modern requirements leads to the fact that the known approaches are not based on theoretical positions and empirical evidence and best practices, and, consequently, do not diff er systematically, because of this requires further research in this direction. The analysis shows that crisis management is a complex control system, which has its own specifi c features. Feature development solutions in crisis situations caused by the fact that they can only wear improving change with the obligatory account the limiting parameters of sustainable livelihoods enterprise (structure funds, personnel, activity profi le, the main products, and others.

  10. RETAIL BANKING BUSINESS: CURRENT STATE ANDSPECIFIC FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гузель Рефкадовна Фаизова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the retail banking business in the banking sector continueto grow. The current state of the retail banking business is considered and specific features of this area in the face of growing demand for banking products and services by the public and interest from lending institutions are identified by the article.Purpose: Research of current state of retail banking business and detection specific features of this area.Methodology: In the process of analysis and researchof the question the methods of economical and statistical analysis, methods of comparison and generalizationwereused.Results: The conclusion is that interest in the retail banking business continues to grow.There were revealed the role and the importance of standardized service processes and standardized products and services delivering as one of the main line of development in the segment of retail business.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-2

  11. Dome shaped features on Europa's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Solid State Imaging system aboard the spacecraft Galileo took this image of the surface of Europa on February 20, 1997 during its sixth orbit around Jupiter. The image is located near 16 North, 268 West; illumination is from the lower-right. The area covered is approximately 48 miles (80 kilometers) by 56 miles (95 kilometers) across. North is toward the top of the image.This image reveals that the icy surface of Europa has been disrupted by ridges and faults numerous times during its past. These ridges have themselves been disrupted by the localized formation of domes and other features that may be indicative of thermal upwelling of water from beneath the crust. These features provide strong evidence for the presence of subsurface liquid during Europa's recent past.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  12. Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested.

  13. Mid-Infrared Emission Features in the ISM: Feature-to-Features Flux Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, N. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Using a limited, but representative sample of sources in the ISM of our Galaxy with published spectra from the Infrared Space Observatory, we analyze flux ratios between the major mid-IR emission features (EFs) centered around 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 mu, respectively.

  14. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  15. 3-D FEATURE-BASED MATCHING BY RSTG APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Jaw

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available 3-D feature matching is the essential kernel in a fully automated feature-based LiDAR point cloud registration. After feasible procedures of feature acquisition, connecting corresponding features in different data frames is imperative to be solved. The objective addressed in this paper is developing an approach coined RSTG to retrieve corresponding counterparts of unsorted multiple 3-D features extracted from sets of LiDAR point clouds. RSTG stands for the four major processes, "Rotation alignment"; "Scale estimation"; "Translation alignment" and "Geometric check," strategically formulated towards finding out matching solution with high efficiency and leading to accomplishing the 3-D similarity transformation among all sets. The workable types of features to RSTG comprise points, lines, planes and clustered point groups. Each type of features can be employed exclusively or combined with others, if sufficiently supplied, throughout the matching scheme. The paper gives a detailed description of the matching methodology and discusses on the matching effects based on the statistical assessment which revealed that the RSTG approach reached an average matching rate of success up to 93% with around 6.6% of statistical type 1 error. Notably, statistical type 2 error, the critical indicator of matching reliability, was kept 0% throughout all the experiments.

  16. Mid-Infrared Silicate Dust Features in Seyfert 1 Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Grant D.; Levenson, N. A.; Sirocky, M. M.; Uddin, S.

    2007-12-01

    Silicate dust emission dominates the mid-infrared spectra of galaxies, and the dust produces two spectral features, at 10 and 18 μm. These features' strengths (in emission or absorption) and peak wavelengths reveal the geometry of the dust distribution, and they are sensitive to the dust composition. We examine mid-infrared spectra of 32 Seyfert 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN), observed with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. In the spectra, we typically find the shorter-wavelength feature in emission, at an average peak wavelength of 10.0 μm, although it is known historically as the "9.7 μm" feature. In addition, peak wavelength increases with feature strength. The 10 and 18 μm feature strengths together are sensitive to the dust geometry surrounding the central heating engine. Numerical calculations of radiative transfer distinguish between clumpy and smooth distributions, and we find that the surroundings of these AGN (the obscuring "tori" of unified AGN schemes) are clumpy. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features are associated with star formation, and we find strong PAH emission (luminosity ≥ 1042 erg/s) in only four sources, three of which show independent evidence for starbursts. We will explore the effects of luminosity on dust geometry and chemistry in a comparison sample of quasars. We acknowledge work supported by the NSF under grant number 0237291.

  17. Component Composition Using Feature Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Klose, Karl; Mitschke, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    interface description languages. If this variability is relevant when selecting a matching component then human interaction is required to decide which components can be bound. We propose to use feature models for making this variability explicit and (re-)enabling automatic component binding. In our...... approach, feature models are one part of service specifications. This enables to declaratively specify which service variant is provided by a component. By referring to a service's variation points, a component that requires a specific service can list the requirements on the desired variant. Using...... these specifications, a component environment can then determine if a binding of the components exists that satisfies all requirements. The prototypical environment Columbus demonstrates the feasibility of the approach....

  18. FEATURES OF STUDENT PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dorina PASCA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Student psychological counseling is one of the means to acknowledge student identity by employing counseling tools that allow the psychologist to make use of a set of skills essential in achieving envisaged outcomes. To act as counseling psychologist for students is to guide actions by the five wh- questions: who (the client is, why (the counselor is approached, who (the counselor talks to, what (problem the student has to tackle, how (the problem can be solved. Some of the most important features that contribute to solving student problems are the counselor’s deontology, trustworthiness and attitude that are to be relied on without impeding the client’s personality traits. Thus, developing awareness of the features underlying student psychological counseling and acting accordingly is the real test for any professional in the field. Therefore, the real challenge is not being in the lion’s den, but living with it.

  19. Clinical features of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    The descriptive aspects of all types of movement disorders and their related syndromes and terminologies used in the literature are reviewed and described. This comprises the features of (a) movement disorders secondary to neurological diseases affecting the extrapyramidal motor system, such as: athetosis, chorea, dystonia, hemiballismus, myoclonus, tremor, tics and spasm, (b) drug induced movement disorders, such as: akathisia, akinesia, hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, extrapyramidal syndrome, and tardive dyskinesia, and (c) abnormal movements in psychiatric disorders, such as: mannerism, stereotyped behaviour and psychomotor retardation. It is intended to bring about a more comprehensive overview of these movement disorders from a phenomenological perspective, so that clinicians can familiarize with these features for diagnosis. Some general statements are made in regard to some of the characteristics of movement disorders.

  20. Textural features for image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. M.; Dinstein, I.; Shanmugam, K.

    1973-01-01

    Description of some easily computable textural features based on gray-tone spatial dependances, and illustration of their application in category-identification tasks of three different kinds of image data - namely, photomicrographs of five kinds of sandstones, 1:20,000 panchromatic aerial photographs of eight land-use categories, and ERTS multispectral imagery containing several land-use categories. Two kinds of decision rules are used - one for which the decision regions are convex polyhedra (a piecewise-linear decision rule), and one for which the decision regions are rectangular parallelpipeds (a min-max decision rule). In each experiment the data set was divided into two parts, a training set and a test set. Test set identification accuracy is 89% for the photomicrographs, 82% for the aerial photographic imagery, and 83% for the satellite imagery. These results indicate that the easily computable textural features probably have a general applicability for a wide variety of image-classification applications.

  1. Elastofibroma dorsi: typical radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykir, R.; Karakose, S.; Karabacakoglu, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Elastofibroma dorsi is a rare benign and slow-growing fibro-proliferative lesion. It has a characteristic location (periscapular region) and a specific imaging appearance (sonography, CT, MRI) allowing accurate prospective diagnosis. The recognition of this benign lesion avoids unnecessary biopsy and/or surgery. We report two cases of bilateral elastofibroma dorsi illustrating characteristic imaging features on ultrasound, CT and MRI

  2. Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour: Imaging features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, V. Anik; Hirsch, Michelle S.; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2012-01-01

    Renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour is a rare, recently described neoplasm with a distinctive histological appearance. Although reported in the pathology literature, to our knowledge, no prior reports have described its imaging appearance. We describe the computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging features of an incidentally detected renal angiomyoadenomatous tumour that appeared as a well-marginated, solid T2-hypointense enhancing mass, in a 50-year-old woman. It is indistinguishable from a variety of benign and malignant renal neoplasms. PMID:23093565

  3. Cherubism: Clinicoradiographic Features and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Guimarães Cabral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cherubism is a congenital childhood disease of autosomal dominant inheritance. This disease is characterized by painless bilateral enlargement of the jaws, in which bone is replaced with fibrous tissue. The condition has sui generis clinical, radiographic and histological features, of which the clinician should be aware for a better differential diagnosis in the presence of a fibro-osseous lesion affecting the bones of the maxillomandibular complex. The purpose of present paper was to review the literature and to report the most important aspects of cherubism in order to facilitate the study of this disease.Material and Methods: Literature was reviewed about cherubism, emphasizing the relevant clinicoradiographic features and treatment. Literature was selected through a search of PubMed and Scielo electronic databases. The keywords used for search were adolescent, cherubism, cherubism/physiopathology, cherubism/treatment, cherubism/radiography. A manual search of the reference lists of the identified articles and the authors’ article files and recent reviews was conducted to identify additional publications. Those studies that described new features about cherubism were included in this review.Results: In total 44 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. Studies that described new features about cherubism physiopathology, diagnostics and treatment were reviewed.Conclusions: Despite the exceptions, cherubism is a clinically well-characterized disease. In cases of a suspicion of cherubism, radiographic examination is essential since the clinical presentation, the location and distribution of the lesions may define the diagnosis. Histopathological examination is complementary. Nowadays, genetic tests should be used for final diagnosis of cherubism.

  4. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  5. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162

  6. Sexual dimorphism in medulloblastoma features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannoni, Gian Franco; Ciucci, Alessandra; Marucci, Gianluca; Travaglia, Daniele; Stigliano, Egidio; Foschini, Maria Pia; Scambia, Giovanni; Gallo, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Male sex is a risk factor for medulloblastoma (MB), and is also a negative predictor for clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess sex differences in tumour biological features and hormone receptor profiles in a cohort of MB patients. Sixty-four MBs and five normal cerebella were included in the study. Cell proliferation (Ki67), apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) and microvessel density (CD31) were evaluated in tumours by immunohistochemistry. Tissues were analysed for oestrogen receptor (ER)α, ERβ1, ERβ2, ERβ5 and androgen receptor (AR) expression. The results demonstrated sex-specific features in MBs, with tumours from females showing a higher apoptosis/proliferation ratio and less tumour vascularization than tumours from males. MBs were negative for ERα and AR, but expressed ERβ isoforms at similar levels between the sexes. Altogether, these findings indicate that signalling mechanisms that control cell turnover and angiogenesis operate more efficiently in females than in males. The lack of sex differences in the hormone receptor profiles suggests that circulating oestrogens could be the major determinants of the sexual dimorphism observed in MB features. Here, we provide molecular support for epidemiological data showing sex differences in MB incidence and outcome, completely defining the hormone receptor profile of the tumours. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Guilt by Association: The 13 Micron Dust Emission Feature and Its Correlation to Other Gas and Dust Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, G. C.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Goebel, J. H.; Price, Stephan D.

    2003-09-01

    A study of all full-scan spectra of optically thin oxygen-rich circumstellar dust shells in the database produced by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on ISO reveals that the strength of several infrared spectral features correlates with the strength of the 13 μm dust feature. These correlated features include dust features at 19.8 and 28.1 μm and the bands produced by warm carbon dioxide molecules (the strongest of which are at 13.9, 15.0, and 16.2 μm). The database does not provide any evidence for a correlation of the 13 μm feature with a dust feature at 32 μm, and it is more likely that a weak emission feature at 16.8 μm arises from carbon dioxide gas rather than dust. The correlated dust features at 13, 20, and 28 μm tend to be stronger with respect to the total dust emission in semiregular and irregular variables associated with the asymptotic giant branch than in Mira variables or supergiants. This family of dust features also tends to be stronger in systems with lower infrared excesses and thus lower mass-loss rates. We hypothesize that the dust features arise from crystalline forms of alumina (13 μm) and silicates (20 and 28 μm). Based on observations with the ISO, a European Space Agency (ESA) project with instruments funded by ESA member states (especially the Principal Investigator countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  8. Computed Tomography Features of Incidentally Detected Diffuse Thyroid Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung Ho Rho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the CT features of incidentally detected DTD in the patients who underwent thyroidectomy and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CT diagnosis. Methods. We enrolled 209 consecutive patients who received preoperative neck CT and subsequent thyroid surgery. Neck CT in each case was retrospectively investigated by a single radiologist. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of individual CT features and the cut-off CT criteria for detecting DTD by comparing the CT features with histopathological results. Results. Histopathological examination of the 209 cases revealed normal thyroid (n=157, Hashimoto thyroiditis (n=17, non-Hashimoto lymphocytic thyroiditis (n=34, and diffuse hyperplasia (n=1. The CT features suggestive of DTD included low attenuation, inhomogeneous attenuation, increased glandular size, lobulated margin, and inhomogeneous enhancement. ROC curve analysis revealed that CT diagnosis of DTD based on the CT classification of “3 or more” abnormal CT features was superior. When the “3 or more” CT classification was selected, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of CT diagnosis for DTD were 55.8%, 95.5%, 80.6%, 86.7%, and 85.6%, respectively. Conclusion. Neck CT may be helpful for the detection of incidental DTD.

  9. Relevance of echo-structure and texture features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Mullick, Jhinuk Basu; KV, Dr. Rajagopal

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Echostructure is an essential parameter for the evaluation of circumscribed lesions and can be described as a texture feature on ultrasound images. Present study evaluates the possibility of distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tumors using various texture features. Materials...... and Methods: 58 cases of breast tumor (29 each from benign and malignant) were documented under standardized conditions using a linear array machine and 7.5 MHz transducer. In each sonographic image, ROI of tumor was marked and then subjected to the evaluation of tumor status using five parameters of second...... performance ROC= 0.78(pbenign and malignant tumors. It also reveals that when evaluating images of a breast tumor...

  10. Java 7 New Features Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Reese, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    Each recipe comprises step-by-step instructions followed by an analysis of what was done in each task and other useful information. The book is designed so that you can read it chapter by chapter, or look at the list of recipes and refer to them in no particular order. Each example comes with its expected output to make your learning even easier. This book is designed to bring those who are familiar with Java up-to-speed on the new features found in Java 7.

  11. Integrated reporting and board features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rares HURGHIS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades the concept of sustainability reporting gained more importance in the companies’ annual reports, a trend which is embedded also in integrated reporting. Issuing an integrated report became a necessity, because the report explains to the investors how the organization creates value over time. The governance structure, more exactly the board of directors, decides whether or not the company will issue an integrated report. Thus, are there certain features of the board that might influence the issue of an integrated report? Do the companies which issue an integrated report have certain features of the governance structure? Looking for an answer to these questions, we seek for any possible correlations between a disclosure index and the corporate governance structure characteristics, on a sample from the companies participating at the International Integrated Reporting Council Examples Database. The results highlight that only the size of the board influences the extent to which the issued integrated report is in accordance with the International Framework.

  12. MR features of ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Ken; Togashi, Kaori; Koyama, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP), in which a fertilized ovum implants outside the uterine cavity, is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the first trimester. EP is usually suspected by a positive pregnancy test and an empty uterus on transvaginal sonography (TVS). Although TVS is the initial modality of choice, it may occasionally fail to demonstrate the implantation site. When TVS findings are indeterminate, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide better delineation of the focus of EP owing to its excellent tissue contrast. The key MRI features of EP include gestational sac (GS)-like structures that typically appear as a cystic sac-like structure, frequently associated with surrounding acute hematoma of distinct low intensity on T2-weighted images. In tubal pregnancy, an enhanced tubal wall on postcontrast images may be another diagnostic finding. Ruptured EP is inevitably associated with acute hematoma outside these structures. In intrauterine EP, recognition of the relationship between GS-like structure and the myometrium can aid in differentiating from normal pregnancy. Diagnostic pitfalls include heterotopic pregnancy, decidual changes in endometrial cyst and theca lutein cysts mimicking GS-like structures. Knowledge of a spectrum of clinical and MRI features of EP is essential for establishing an accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate management. (orig.)

  13. Acromegaly: clinical features at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Lucio; Vilar, Clarice Freitas; Lyra, Ruy; Lyra, Raissa; Naves, Luciana A

    2017-02-01

    Acromegaly is a rare and underdiagnosed disorder caused, in more than 95% of cases, by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. The GH hypersecretion leads to overproduction of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) which results in a multisystem disease characterized by somatic overgrowth, multiple comorbidities, physical disfigurement, and increased mortality. This article aims to review the clinical features of acromegaly at diagnosis. Acromegaly affects both males and females equally and the average age at diagnosis ranges from 40 to 50 years (up to 5% of cases acromegaly is often diagnosed five to more than ten years after its onset. The typical coarsening of facial features include furrowing of fronthead, pronounced brow protrusion, enlargement of the nose and the ears, thickening of the lips, skin wrinkles and nasolabial folds, as well as mandibular prognathism that leads to dental malocclusion and increased interdental spacing. Excessive growth of hands and feet (predominantly due to soft tissue swelling) is present in the vast majority of acromegalic patients. Gigantism accounts for up to 5% of cases and occurs when the excess of GH becomes manifest in the young, before the epiphyseal fusion. The disease also has rheumatologic, cardiovascular, respiratory, neoplastic, neurological, and metabolic manifestations which negatively impact its prognosis and patients quality of life. Less than 15% of acromegalic patients actively seek medical attention for change in appearance or enlargement of the extremities. The presentation of acromegaly is more often related to its systemic comorbidities or to local tumor effects.

  14. Writer identification using curvature-free features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Sheng; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2017-01-01

    Feature engineering takes a very important role in writer identification which has been widely studied in the literature. Previous works have shown that the joint feature distribution of two properties can improve the performance. The joint feature distribution makes feature relationships explicit

  15. Consistency relations for sharp inflationary non-Gaussian features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Panotopoulos, Grigoris [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Soto, Alex, E-mail: sander.mooij@ing.uchile.cl, E-mail: gpalmaquilod@ing.uchile.cl, E-mail: gpanotop@ing.uchile.cl, E-mail: gatogeno@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-09-01

    If cosmic inflation suffered tiny time-dependent deviations from the slow-roll regime, these would induce the existence of small scale-dependent features imprinted in the primordial spectra, with their shapes and sizes revealing information about the physics that produced them. Small sharp features could be suppressed at the level of the two-point correlation function, making them undetectable in the power spectrum, but could be amplified at the level of the three-point correlation function, offering us a window of opportunity to uncover them in the non-Gaussian bispectrum. In this article, we show that sharp features may be analyzed using only data coming from the three point correlation function parametrizing primordial non-Gaussianity. More precisely, we show that if features appear in a particular non-Gaussian triangle configuration (e.g. equilateral, folded, squeezed), these must reappear in every other configuration according to a specific relation allowing us to correlate features across the non-Gaussian bispectrum. As a result, we offer a method to study scale-dependent features generated during inflation that depends only on data coming from measurements of non-Gaussianity, allowing us to omit data from the power spectrum.

  16. Consistency relations for sharp inflationary non-Gaussian features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.; Panotopoulos, Grigoris; Soto, Alex

    2016-01-01

    If cosmic inflation suffered tiny time-dependent deviations from the slow-roll regime, these would induce the existence of small scale-dependent features imprinted in the primordial spectra, with their shapes and sizes revealing information about the physics that produced them. Small sharp features could be suppressed at the level of the two-point correlation function, making them undetectable in the power spectrum, but could be amplified at the level of the three-point correlation function, offering us a window of opportunity to uncover them in the non-Gaussian bispectrum. In this article, we show that sharp features may be analyzed using only data coming from the three point correlation function parametrizing primordial non-Gaussianity. More precisely, we show that if features appear in a particular non-Gaussian triangle configuration (e.g. equilateral, folded, squeezed), these must reappear in every other configuration according to a specific relation allowing us to correlate features across the non-Gaussian bispectrum. As a result, we offer a method to study scale-dependent features generated during inflation that depends only on data coming from measurements of non-Gaussianity, allowing us to omit data from the power spectrum.

  17. Conversion Discriminative Analysis on Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Multiple Cortical Features from MR Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Shengwen; Lai, Chunren; Wu, Congling; Cen, Guiyin; Hariharan, A.; Vijayakumari, Anupa A.; Aarabi, Mohammad Hadi; Aballi, John; Nour, Abd Elazeim Abd Alla Mohamed; Abdelaziz, Mohammed; Abdolalizadeh, AmirHussein; Abdollahi, Mahsa; Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Salam, Amritha Abdul; Abdulaziz, Nidhal; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Abdullah, Sachal; Abdullah, Osama; Abrigo, Jill; Adachi, Noriaki; Adamson, Christopher; Adduru, Viraj; Adel, Tameem; Aderghal, Karim; Ades-Aron, Benjamin; Adeyosoye, Michael; Adlard, Paul; Srinivasa, Ag; Aganj, Iman; Agarwal, Ayush; Agarwal, Anupam; Agarwal, Anchit; Aguero, Cinthya; Aguiar, Pablo; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahmad, Fayyaz; Ahmad, Rziwan; Ahmadi, Hessam; Ahmed, Nisar; Sid, Farid Ahmed; Ai, Edward; Ai, Qing; Aicha, Benyahia; Aitharaju, Sai; Aiyer, Aditya; Akkus, Zeynettin; Akodad, Sanae; Akramifard, Hamid; Aksman, Leon; Aktas, Said; Al-Janabi, Omar; Al-Nuaimi, Ali; AlAila, BahaaEddin; Alakwaa, Fadhl; Alam, Saruar; Alam, Fakhre; Alam Zaidi, Syed Farhan; Alan, Wiener; Alansari, Mukhtar; Alareqi, Ebrahim; Alberdi, Ane; Albsoul, Mohammad; Alderson, Thomas; Aleem, Hassan; Alex, Aishwarya; Alexander, Jacob; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Alfoldi, Jessica; Ali, Ayesha; Ali, Imdad; Alimoradian, Shirin; Aljabar, Paul; Aljabbouli, Hasan; Aljovic, Almir; Allen, Genevera; Alliende, Luz Maria; Almaguel, Frankis; Almgren, Hannes; Montes, Carmen Alonso; Alowaisheq, Tasneem; Alryalat, Saif Aldeen; Alsado, Majd; Alsaedi, Abdalrahman; Alshehri, Haifa; Altaf, Tooba; Altendahl, Marie; Altmann, Andre; Alvand, Ashkan; Filho, Manoel Alves; Alzubi, Raid; Amaral, Robert; Ambatipudi, Mythri; Amernath, Remya; Amlien, Inge; Amoroso, Nicola; Amri, Hakima; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Anbarasi, Jani; Anbarjafari, Gholamreza; Anderson, Wes; Anderson, Jeff; Anderson, Valerie; Anderson, Loretta; Andonov, Jovan; Andova, Vesna; Andreopoulou, Irene; Andrews, K. Abigail; Andrews, Cameron; Angeles, Michel; Anne-Laure, Aziz; Ansari, Ghulam Jillani; Ansari, Sharaf; Anstey, Kaarin; Antunes, Augusto; Aoshuang, Zhang; Aouf, Mazin; Aow Yong, Li Yew; Aporntewan, Chatchawit; Apostolova, Liana; Appiah, Frank; Apsvalka, Dace; Arab, Abazar; Araque Caballero, Miguel Ángel; Arbabyazd, Mohammad; Arbelaez, Pablo; Archer, Kellie; Ardekani, Babak; Aretouli, Eleni; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arisi, Ivan; Armentrout, Steven; Arnold, Matthias; Arnold, Steven; Arslan, Salim; Artacho-Perula, Emilio; Arthofer, Christoph; Aruchamy, Srinivasan; Arya, Zobair; Pizarro, Carlos Asensio; Ashford, Wes; Ashraf, Azhaar; Askland, Kathleen; Aslaksen, Per; Aslakson, Eric; Aso, Toshihiko; Astphan, Michele; Ataloglou, Dimitrios; Atay, Meltem; Athanas, Argus; Atri, Roozbeh; Au, April; Aurich, Maike; Avants, Brian; Awasthi, Niharika; Awate, Suyash; Ayaz, Aymen; Son, Yesim Aydin; Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Ayhan, Murat; Ayton, Scott; Aziz, Adel; Azmi, Mohd Hafrizal; Ba, Maowen; Bach, Kevin; Badea, Alexandra; Bag, Asim; Bagewadi, Shweta; Bai, Xiangqi; Bai, Zilong; Bai, Haoli; Baird, Geoffrey; Baiwen, Zhang; Baker, Elizabeth; Baker, John; Bakker, Arnold; Ball, Erika; Ballén Galindo, Miguel Ángel; Banaei, Amin; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Bang, Ki Hun; Bangen, Katherine; Banks, Sarah; Banning, Leonie; Bao, Wan Yun; Barakat, Rita; Barbará, Eduardo; Barber, Philip; Barber, Robert; de Araujo, Flavia Roberta Barbosa; Barnes, Josephine; Barredo, Jennifer; Barret, Olivier; Barrett, Matthew; Barsamian, Barsam; Barsky, Andrey; Bartel, Fabian; Bartoszewicz, Jakub; Bartram-Shaw, David; Barwood, Caroline; Basavaraj, Suryakanth; Basavaraj, Arshitha; Basiouny, Ahmed; Baskaran, Bhuvaneshwari; Basu, Arindam; Baths, Veeky; Bathula, Deepti; Batmanghelich, Nematollah Kayhan; Bauer, Roman; Bauer, Corinna; Bawa, Vanshika; Bayley, Peter; Bayram, Ali; Bazi, Yakoub; Beach, Thomas; Beaudoin, Kristin; Beaulieu, Christian; Becker, Cassiano; Beckett, Laurel; Bedding, Alun; Beer, Simone; Beer, Joanne; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Behfar, Qumars; Behjat, Hamed; Behjat, Hamid; Behseta, Sam; Bekris, Lynn; Suresh, Mahanand Belathur; Belichenko, Nadia; Bellio, Maura; Belyaev, Mikhail; Bemiller, Shane; Ahmed, Olfa Ben; Ben Bouallègue, Fayçal; Benedikt, Michael; Benge, Jared; Benitez, Andreana; Benlloch, Jose María; Benn, Marianne; Benyoussef, El Mehdi; Bergeron, David; Bermudez, Elaine; Bessadok, Alaa; Betzel, Richard; Bezuidenhoudt, Mauritz; Bhagwat, Nikhil; Bhalerao, Shailesh; Bhandari, Anindya; Bhasin, Harsh; Bhati, Radhika; Bhatkoti, Pushkar; Bhatt, Priya; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Bi, Rui; Bi, Jinbo; Bi, Harvy; Biancardi, Alberto; Bidart, Rene; Bilgel, Murat; Billiet, Thibo; Binczyk, Franciszek; Bingsheng, Huang; Bird, Christopher; Bischof, Gérard; Bishnoi, Ram; Biswas, Shameek; Bjelke, David; Black, Sandra; Blackwood, Jennifer; Blaese, Elise; Blair, James; Blanchard, Gilles; Bloom, Toby; Blujus, Jenna; Blusztajn, Jan Krzysztof; Bo, Wu; Bo, Jun; Boda, Ravi; Boellaard, Ronald; Bogorodzki, Piotr; Bokde, Arun; Bolhasani, Ehsan; Bonakdarpour, Borna; Bonazzoli, Matthew; Bône, Alexandre; Borkowsky, Jennifer; Borrajo, Danielle; Bos, Isabelle; Bosco, Paolo; Bott, Nicholas; Rodrigues, Renato Botter Maio Lopes; Boughanmi, Amani; Bougias, Haralabos; Boulier, Thomas; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Bouyagoub, Samira; Bowes, Mike; Boyes, Richard; Bozoki, Andrea; Bradshaw, Tyler; Pereira, Joana Braga; Brahami, Yoann; Brambati, Simona Maria; Bras, Jose; Braskie, Meredith; Brecheisen, Ralph; Bregman, Noa; Brewer, James; Briassouli, Alexia; Brickman, Adam; Bridges, Robert; Brihmat, Nabila; Brinkmann, Benjamin; Britschgi, Markus; Broers, Thomas; Bron, Esther; Brown, Jesse; Brown, Matthew; Brown, Abel; Brown, Maria; Brunberg, James; Bu, Tao; Bubbico, Giovanna; Bubenik, Peter; Bubu, Omonigho; Buchanan, Daniel; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Buchsbaum, Bradley; Buck, Katharina; Buckley, Rachel; Budgeon, Charley; Buhl, Derek; Sánchez, Manuel Buitrago; Bundela, Saurabh; Burciu, Irina; Burgos, Ninon; Burke, Shanna; Burn, Katherine; Burns, Jeffrey; Burns, Gully; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Bush, Sammie; Buss, Stephanie; Butcher, Bradley; Butt, Victoria; Buxbaum, Joseph; Sandeep, C. S.; Cabrera, Cristóbal; Cahyaningrum, Winda; Cai, Zhen-Nao; Cai, Siqi; Cai, Erik; Cajka, Tomas; Calamia, Matthew; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Calixte, Christopher; Calon, Frederic; Cameron, Briana; Campbell, Roy; Lopez, Jose Antonio Campos; Cao, Hongliu; Cao, Jiguo; Cao, Guanqun; Cao, Bo; Capizzano, Aristides; Capon, Daniel; Carmasin, Jeremy; Carmichael, Owen; Carr, Sarah; Carrier, Jason; Carter, Greg; Carvalho, Luis; Carvalho, Janessa; Carvalho, Carolina; Casamitjana, Adrià; Casanova, Ramon; Casas, Josep R.; Cash, David; Castelluccio, Pete; Castiglioni, Isabella; Caswell, Carrie; Cattell, Liam; Cauda, Franco; Cepeda, Ileana; Çevik, Alper; Cha, Jungho; Chakrabarti, Shreya; Chakraborty, Shouvik; Chammam, Takwa; Chan, Christina; Chand, Ganesh; Chang, Catie; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chang, Rui; Chang, Hyunggi; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Chang, Ki Jung; Chang, Che-Wei; Chantrel, Steeve; Chao, Justin; Chao, Linda; Chapleau, Marianne; Charil, Arnaud; Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Chatterjee, Sambit; Chaudhry, Zainab; Chauhan, Harmanpreet; Chehade, Abdallah; Chekuri, Omkar; Cheloshkina, Kseniia; Chen, Jianhong; Chen, Gang; Chen, Geng; Chen, Ting-Huei; Chen, Yin Jie; Chen, Xi; Chen, Tzu-Chieh; Chen, Guojun; Chen, Shuzhong; Chen, Jerome; Chen, Fang; Chen, Kaifeng; Chen, Gennan; Chen, Jason; Chen, Guanhua; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Chen, Ming-Hui; Chen, Chenbingyao; Chen, S. Y.; Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Chen, Xing; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Yuhan; Chen, Hugo; Chen, Rong; Chen, Ing-jou; Chen, Jun; Chen, Jean; Chen, Bo; Cheng, Danni; Cheng, Hewei; Cheng, Yong; Cheng, Yang; Cheng, Zhang; Cheng, Wai Ho; Chenhall, Tanya; Chepkoech, Joy-Loi; Cherukuri, Venkateswararao; Chhibber, Aparna; Chi, Haoyuan; Chi, Chih-Lin; Chiang, Gloria; Chiesa, Patrizia; Childress, Daniel Micah; Chilukuri, Yogitha; Fatt, Cherise Chin; Chincarini, Andrea; Ching, Christopher; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Cho, Soo Hyun; Cho, Yongrae; Cho, Sooyun; Choi, Jun-Sik; Choi, Hongyoon; Choi, Yeoreum; Choi, Sophia; Choi, Jaesik; Choi, Euna; Choo, I. L. Han; Chopra, Vishal; Chougrad, Hiba; Chouraki, Vincent; Christini, Amanda; Chu, Yufang; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Chuanji, Luo; Chuanjian, Yu; Chun, Marvin; Chun, Sung; Chung, Ai; Chung, Yu-Min; Chung, Jung-Che; Chung, Ai Wern; Chung, Jaeeun; Chyzhyk, Darya; Ciarleglio, Adam; Cioli, Claudia; Cittanti, Corrado; Cives, Ana; Clark, Marissa; Clayton, David; Clement, Mark; Clifft, Daniel; Climer, Sharlee; Clouston, Sean; Clunie, David; Cohen, Phoebe; Cohen, Taco; Cole, Michael; Cole, James; Colletti, Patrick; Collingwood, Joanna; Comley, Robert; Conklin, Bryan; Conner, Lindsay; Conover, Joanne; Contardo-Berning, Ivona; Conway, Ronan; Copani, Agata; Coppola, Giovanni; Corbett, Syl; Corlier, Fabian; Correia, Rui; Cosman, Joshua; Costantino, Sebastian; Coubard, Olivier; Coulson, Elizabeth; Couser, Elizabeth; Cox, Kris; Coyle, Patrick; Cozzi, Brian; Craddock, Cameron; Crawford, Karen; Creese, Byron; Cribben, Ivor; Crisostomo-Wynne, Theodore; Crossley, Nicolas; Croteau, Etienne; Cruchaga, Carlos; Cuajungco, Math; Cui, Jing; Cui, Sue; Cullen, Nicholas; Cuneo, Daniel; Cutanda, Vicente; Cynader, Max; Binu, D.; D'Avossa, Giovanni; Dai, Tian; Dai, Peng; Dai, Hui; Davied Hong, Daivied Hong; Dakovic, Marko; Dalca, Adrian; Damiani, Stefano; Dammak, Mouna; Damoiseaux, Jessica; Dan, Zou; Dang, Xuan Hong; Dang, Shilpa; Daniel, Zinkert; Danjou, Fabrice; Darby, Eveleen; Darby, Ryan; Dardzinska, Agnieszka; Darst, Burcu; Darvesh, Sultan; Das, Kalyan; Das, Devsmita; Das, Sandhitsu; Das, Dulumani; Datta, Shounak; Dauvillier, Jérôme; Davatzikos, Christos; Davidson, Ian; de Boer, Renske; de Bruijne, Marleen; de Buhan, Maya; de Jager, Philip; de La Concha Vega, Nuño; de Lange, Siemon; de Luis Garcia, Rodrigo; de Marco, Matteo; de Sitter, Alexandra; Dean, Scott; Decarli, Charles; Decker, Summer; del Gaizo, John; Demir, Zeynep; Denby, Charles; Deng, Yanjia; Deng, Wanyu; Denisova, Kristina; Denney, William; Depue, Brendan; DeRamus, Thomas; Desikan, Rahul; Desplats, Paula; Desrosiers, Christian; Devadas, Vivek; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Devarajan, Sridharan; Devenyi, Gabriel; Dezhina, Zalina; Dhami, Devendra; Dharsee, Moyez; Dhillon, Permesh; Di, Xin; Di Mauro, Nicola; Diah, Kimberly; Diamond, Sara; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Diciotti, Stefano; Dickerson, Bradford; Dickie, David Alexander; Dickinson, Philip; Dicks, Ellen; Diedrich, Karl; Dieumegarde, Louis; Dill, Vanderson; Dilliott, Allison; Ding, Zhaohua; Ding, Shanshan; Ding, Yanhui; Ding, Xiuhua; Ding, Xuemei; Dinov, Ivo; Dinu, Valentin; Diouf, Ibrahima; Dmitriev, Phillip; Dobromyslin, Vitaly; Dodge, Hiroko; Dolui, Sudipto; Dona, Olga; Dondelinger, Frank; Dong, Wen; Dong, Hao-Ming; Kehoe, Patricio Donnelly; Donohue, Michael; Dore, Vincent; Dougherty, Chase; Doughty, Mitchell; Dowling, N. Maritza; Doyle, Senan; Doyle, Andrew; Dragan, Matthew; Draganski, Bogdan; Draghici, Sorin; Dragomir, Andrei; Drake, Derek; Drake, Erin; Drd, Shilpa; Dronkers, Nina; Drozdowski, Madelyn; Du, Changde; Du, Yuhui; Du, Lei; Du, Guangwei; Du, Xingqi; Duan, Fang; Duan, Yuzhuo; Duan, Kuaikuai; Duchesne, Simon; Duggento, Andrea; Dukart, Juergen; Dumont, Matthieu; Dunn, Ruth; Duong, Vu; Duraisamy, Baskar; Duran, Tugce; Durrleman, Stanley; Dutta, Joyita; Dyrba, Martin; Dyvorne, Hadrien; R, Amulya E.; Eads, Jennifer; Eastman, Jennifer; Eaton, Susan; Edlund, Christopher; Edmonds, Emily; Edmondson, Mackenzie; Ehsan, Fatima; El-Gabalawy, Fady; Elander, Annie; Elango, Vidhya E.; Eldeeb, Ghaidaa; Elgamal, Fatmaelzahraa; Rodrigues, Yuri Elias; Elman, Jeremy; Elrakaiby, Nada; Emahazion, Tesfai; Emami, Behnaz; Embrechts, Jurriën; Emran Khan Emon, Mohammad Asif; Emrani, Saba; Emrani, Asieh; Emri, Miklós; Engelhardt, Barbara; Engle, Bob; Epstein, Noam; Er, Fusun; Erhardt, Erik; Eriksson, Oscar; Omay, Zeynep Erson; Escudero, Javier; Eshleman, Jason; Eskildsen, Simon; Espinosa, Luis; Essex, Ryan; Esteban, Oscar; Estrada, Karol; Ethell, Douglas; Ethridge, Kimberly; Ettehadi, Seyedrohollah; Eva, Bouguen; Evenden, Dave; Evtikheeve, Rina; Ewert, Siobhan; Fague, Scot; Fahmi, Rachid; Faizal, Sherin; Falahati, Farshad; Fan, Li; Fan, Zhen; Fan, Yong; Fan, Maohua; Fan, Yonghui; Fan, Sili; Fan, Ruzong; Fang, Chen; Fang, Xiaoling; Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Fanti, Alessandro; Far, Bab; Farah, Martha; Farahani, Naemeh; Farahibozorg, Seyedehrezvan; Farahnak, Farhood; Farajpour, Maryam; Fardo, David; Farkhani, Sadaf; Farnsworth, Bryn; Farooq, Hamza; Farooq, Ammarah; Farouk, Yasmeen; Farrar, Danielle; Farrer, Lindsay; Fatemehh, Fatemeh; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Fatfat, Kim; Fatima, Shizza; Faux, Noel; Favan-Niven, Anne; Favary, Clélia; Fazlollahi, Amir; Fei, Gao; Feingold, Franklin; Feizi, Soheil; Félix, Eloy; Femminella, Grazia Daniela; Feng, Zijun; Feng, Ao; Feng, Brad; Feng, Xinyang; Feragen, Aasa; Fereidouni, Marzieh; Fernandes, Miguel; Fernández, Víctor; Ferrari, Ricardo; Ferraris, Sebastiano; Ferreira, Francisco; Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Ferreira, Hugo; Fiecas, Mark; Fieremans, Els; Fiford, Cassidy; Figurski, Michal; Filippi, Massimo; Filshtein, Teresa; Findley, Caleigh; Finger, Elizabeth; Firth, Nicholas; Fischer, Christopher; Fischer, Florian; Fitall, Simon; Fleet, Blair; Fleishman, Greg; Flokas, Lambros; Flores, Alberto; Focke, Niels; Fok, Wai Yan; Foldi, Nancy; Fôlego, Guilherme; Forero, Aura; Fornage, Myriam; Fos Guarinos, Belén; Founshtein, Gregory; Franc, Benjamin; Francois, Clement; Franke, Katja; Fraser, Mark; Frasier, Mark; Frederick, Blaise; Freitas, Fernandho; Escalin, Frency Jj; Freudenberg-Hua, Yun; Friedman, Brad; Friedmann, Theodore; Friedrich, Christoph M.; Frings, Lars; Frisoni, Giovanni; Fritzsche, Klaus; Frolov, Alexander; Frost, Robert; Fu, Ling; Fu, Zening; Fudao, Ke; Fuentes, Emmanuel; Fujishima, Motonobu; Fujiwara, Ken; Fukami, Tadanori; Funk, Cory; Furcila, Diana; Fuselier, Jessica; Nagarjuna Reddy, G.; Gaasterland, Terry; Gabelle, Audrey; Gahm, Jin; Gaiteri, Chris; Gajawelli, Niharika; Galantino, Alexis; Galarza Hernández, Javier; Galasko, Douglas; Galea, Liisa; Galisot, Gaetan; Sánchez, Antonio Javier Gallego; Gallins, Paul; Gamberger, Dragan; Gan, Hong Seng; Gan, Gavin; Ganapathi, Subha; Gancayco, Christina; Gangishetti, Umesh; Ganzetti, Marco; Gao, Fei; Gao, Jingjing; Gao, Linlin; Gao, Tianxiang; Gao, Yuanyuan; Gao, Xiaohong; Garani, Ranjini; Garbarino, Sara; Garcia, Ivan; Garcia, Xiadnai; Garcia, Jorge; Garcia, Tanya; Garcia Arias, Hernan Felipe; de La Garza, Angel Garcia; Gaig, Mireia Garcia; Novoa, Jorge Garcia; Valero, Mar Garcia; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jord; García-Polo, Pablo; Garg, Rahul; Garg, Gaurav; Garg, Divya; Garibotto, Valentina; Garvey, Matthew; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo; Gaubert, Malo; Gauthier, Serge; Gavett, Brandon; Gavidia, Giovana; Gavtash, Barzin; Gawryluk, Jodie; Gbah, Messon; Ge, Tian; Geerts, Hugo; Geisser, Niklaus; Geng, Junxian; Gentili, Claudio; Gess, Felix; Ghaderi, Halleh; Ghahari, Shabnam; Ghanbari, Yaghoob; Ghazi-Saidi, Ladan; Ghodrati, Mojgan; Ghorbani, Behnaz; Ghoreishiamiri, Reyhaneh; Ghosal, Sayan; Ghosh, Sukanta; Ghosh, Saheb; Ghosh, Sreya; Ghoshal, Ankur; Giannicola, Galetta; Gibert, Karina; Gibson, Gary; Gieschke, Ronald; Gil Valencia, Jorge Mario; Gillen, Daniel; Giordani, Alessandro; Giraldo, Diana; Gispert, Juan D.; Gitelman, Darren; Giuffrida, Mario Valerio; Madhu, G. K.; Glass, Jesse; Glazier, Brad; Gleason, Carey; Glerean, Enrico; Glozman, Tanya; Godbey, Michael; Goettlich, Martin; Gogoi, Minakshi; Gola, Kelly; Golbabaei, Soroosh; Golden, Daniel; Goldstein, Felicia; Gomes, Carlos; de Olivera, Ramon Gomes Durães; Gomez, Isabel; Gomez Gonzalez, Juan Pablo; Gomez-Verdejo, Vanessa; Gong, Weikang; Gong, Enhao; Gong, Kuang; Gonneaud, Julie; Gonzalez, Clio; Gonzalez, Evelio; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Moreira, Eduardo Gonzalez; Goodman, James; Gopinath, Srinath; Gopu, Anusharani; Gordon, Brian; Gordon, David; Gordon, Mark; Gorriz, Juan Manuel; Gors, Dorothy; Göttler, Jens; Gounari, Xanthippi; Goyal, Devendra; Graf, John; Graff, Ariel; Graham, Leah; Graham, Jinko; Grajski, Kamil; Grami, Maziyar; Grand'Maison, Marilyn; Grant, Kiran; Grassi, Elena; Gray, Katherine; Grecchi, Elisabetta; Green, Robert; Green, Elaine; Greenberg, Jonathan; Greening, Steven; Greenwood, Bryson; Gregori, Johannes; Gregory, Michael; Greicius, Michael; Greve, Douglas; Griffin, Jason; Grill, Joshua; Grodner, Kelsey; Grolmusz, Vince; Groot, Perry; Groothuis, Irme; Gross, Alden; Grundstad, Arne; Grundy, Edward; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz; Nandith, G. S.; Gu, David; Gu, Jiena; Gu, Yun; Gu, Ginam; Guan, Sheng; Guan, Yuanfang; Guennel, Tobias; Guerin, Laurent; Guerrero, Ricardo; Guerrier, Laura; Guevara, Pamela; Guggari, Shankru; Roy, Abhijit Guha; Guidotti, Roberto; Guillon, Jérémy; Gulcher, Jeff; Gulia, Sarita; Gumedze, Freedom; Gunawardena, Nishan; Gunn, Roger; Guo, Michael; Guo, Xiao; Guo, Xingzhi; Guo, Yi; Kai, Zhang Guo; Zhao, Ma Guo; Gupta, Navin; Gupta, Anubha; Gupta, Ishaan; Guren, Onan; Gurnani, Ashita; Gurol, Mahmut Edip; Guzman, Gloria; Gyy, Gyy; Rajanna, Vanamala H.; Ha, Seongwook; Haacke, Ewart; Haaksma, Miriam; Habadi, Maryam; Habeck, Christian; Habes, Mohamad; Hackspiel Zarate, Maria Mercedes; Hadimani, Ravi; Hahn, William; Hahn, Tim; Haight, Thaddeus; Hair, Nicole; Haixing, Wang; Hajarolasvadi, Noushin; Hajjar, Ihab; Hajjo, Rima; Halchenko, Yaroslav; Hall, Anette; Hallock, Kevin; Hamdi, Shah Muhammad; Hameed, Farhan; Hamidian, Hajar; Han, Dong; Han, Yang; Han, Hio-Been; Han, Qingchang; Han, Beomsoo; Han, Duke; Han, Shizhong; Han, Xiaoxia; Han, Peipei; Han, Joo Yoon; Han, Dong-Sig; Handsaker, Robert; Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Hansson, Björn; Hao, Yang; Hao, Jhon; Happ, Clara; Harischandra, Dilshan; Haritaoglu, Esin; Harris, Richard; Harris, Breanna; Hart, Brian; Hartzell, James; Harvey, Danielle; Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi; Hasooni, Hossein; Hassan, Moaied; Hassan, Mehdi; Hassanzadeh, Hamid Reza; Hassanzadeh, Oktie; Hatton, Sean; Hawchar, Jinan; Hayashi, Toshihiro; Hayashi, Norio; Hayes, Jasmeet; Hayete, Boris; Haynor, David; He, Linchen; He, Yan; He, Yao; He, Huiguang; Heegaard, Niels; Hefny, Mohamed; Heil, Julius; Heindel, William; Henderson, Samuel; Henf, Judith; Henriquez, Claudio; Herholz, Karl; Hermessi, Haithem; Hernandez, Monica; Herrera, Luis; Hibar, Derrek; Hidane, Moncef; Higuchi, Satomi; Hind, Jade; Hives, Florent; Hoang, Mimi; Hobel, Zachary; Hoffman, John; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Hohman, Timothy; Holder, Daniel; Holguin, Jess; Holmes, Robin; Hong, John; Hongliang, Zou; Hongyu, Guo; Hopkins, Paul; Hor, Soheil; Hornbeck, Russ; Horng, Andy; Horton, Wesley; Hosny, Khalid; Hosseini, Eghbal; Hosseini, Hadi; Hosseini, Zahra; Asl, Ehsan Hosseini; Hou, Beibei; Houghton, Richard; Houghton, Katherine; Householder, Erin; Howlett, James; Hsiao, John; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Hu, Xixi; Hu, Lingjing; Hu, Nan; Hu, Kun; Hu, Tao; Hu, Li; Hu, Xiaolan; Hua, Fei; Huang, Marissa; Huang, Qi; Huang, Michelle; Huang, Chao; Huang, JunMing; Huang, Xingyuan; Huang, Yuhan; Huang, Sing-Hang; Huang, Shuai; Huang, Peiyu; Huang, Chun-Chao; Huang, Zhiyue; Huang, Meiyan; Huang, Zhiwen; Hubrich, Markus; Huestis, Michael; Huey, Edward; Hufton, Andrew; Huijbers, Willem; Huisman, Sjoerd; Hung, Joe; Hunsaker, Naomi; Hunt, Fostor; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Huser, Vojtech; Hussain, Lal; Hutchison, R. Matthew; Hutton, Alexandre; Huyck, Els; Hwang, Jihye; Hyun, JungMoon; Iakovakis, Dimitris; Ibañez, Victoria; Ide, Kayoko; Igarashi, Takuma; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Muñoz, Laura Igual; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Ikhena, John; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Im, Hyung-Jun; Insausti, Ana; Insel, Philip; Invernizzi, Azzurra; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Ip, Nancy; Irizarry, Sierra; Irmak, Emrah; Irwin, David; Isaza, Mariano; Ishii, Makoto; Ishii, Kenji; Islam, Jyoti; Israel, Ariel; Isufi, Elvin; Ito, Kaori; Ito, Masato; Izquierdo, Walter; Alphin, J.; Akhila, J. A.; Jaberzadeh, Amir; Jackowiak, Edward; Jackson, Eric; Jackson, Chris; Jackson, Jonathan; Jacob, Samson; Jacobsen, Nina; Jacobsen, Jörn; Jacquemont, Thomas; Jacques, Nerline; Jaeger, Ralf; Jafari, Tahere; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Jagadish, Akshay Kumar; Jagtap, Priti; Jagust, William; Jahr, Joseph; Jain, Shubhankar; Jain, Shubham; Jaiswal, Ayush; Jaiswal, Akshay; Jait, Amine; Jakkoju, Chetan; Jakobsson, Andreas; James, Olga; James, Oliver; Jamlai, Maedeh; Jammeh, Emmanuel; Janardhana, Lajavanthi; Jang, Jinseong; Jang, Jae-Won; Jang, Jinhee; Jang, Hyesue; Janghel, Rekh Ram; Jawahar, Shasvat; Jean, Kharne; Jean-Baptiste, Schiratti; Jedynak, Bruno; Jefferson, Angela; Jennings, Danna; Jennings, Dominique; Jeon, Seun; Jeong, Yong; Jester, Charles; Jethwa, Ketan; Jha, Debesh; Ji, Gong-Jun; Ji, Chong; Ji, Jin; Jia, Bowen; Jiacheng, Lee; Jiajia, Guo; Jian, Weijian; Jiang, Shan; Jiang, Chunxiang; Jianhua, Gao; Jiao, Zhuqing; Jiao, Zeyu; Jiao, Du; Jimenez Alaniz, Juan Ramon; Gomez, Carolina Jimenez; Jiménez-Huete, Adolfo; Jimura, Koji; Jin, Yan; Jin, Zhu; Jogia, Jigar; Johansson, Per; John, Kimberley; Johnsen, Stian; Johnson, Leonard; Johnson, Sterling; Johnson, Kent; Johnston, Jane; Johnston, Stephen; Jomeiri, Alireza; Jonas, Katherine; Jones, Richard; Jones-Davis, Dorothy; Jönsson, Linus; Joseph, Jane; Joshi, Himanshu; Joshi, Shantanu; Joshi, Abhinay; Joyce, Katherine; Juengling, Freimut; Jung, Youngjin; Junker, Viv; Junwei, Ding; Jyothi, Singaraju; Jyotiyana, Monika; Sarthaj, K.; Kachouane, Mouloud; Kadian, Amit; Kaewaramsri, Yothin; Kaicheng, Li; Kaiser, Marcus; Kakinami, Lisa; Kalra, Sanjay; Kam, Hye Jin; Kamarudin, Nur Shazwani; Kaminker, Josh; Kandel, Benjamin; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Kaneko, Tomoki; Kang, Yun Seok; Kang, Ju Hee; Kang, Hakmook; Kang, Jian; Kansal, Anuraag; Kaouache, Mohammed; Kaplan, Adam; Kottaram, Akhil Karazhma; Karim, Faizan; Karimi-Mostowfi, Nicki; Karjoo, Mahboobe; Karlin, Daniel; Karp, Juliana; Karray, Chiheb; Kartsonis, Nick; Karu, Naama; Kasa, Jaya; Kasiri, Keyvan; Katako, Audrey; Kato, Ryo; Katsonis, Panagiotis; Katti, Hkkatti; Kaur, Prabhjot; Kauwe, John; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Kazemi, Samaneh; Kazemi, Yosra; Rijan, K. C.; Kechin, Andrey; Kelkhoff, Douglas; Kelleher, Thomas; Kellner-Weldon, Frauke; Kennion, Oliver; Kerr, Daniel; Kesler, Shelli; Kesselman, Carl; Kessler, Daniel; Keuken, Max; Keyvanfard, Farzaneh; Khademi, April; Khajehnejad, Moein; Khan, Wasim; Khan, Tabrej; Khan, Hikmat; Khan, Anzalee; Khan, Samreen; Khanmohammadi, Sina; Khasanova, Tatiana; Khazaee, Ali; Khazan, Lenny; Kherif, Ferath; Khl, Aym; KHlif, Mohamed Salah; Khondoker, Mizanur; Khoo, Sok Kean; Khosrowabadi, Reza; Khurshid, Kiran; Kianfard, Reihaneh; Kida, Satoshi; Kiddle, Steven; Kikuchi, Masashi; Killiany, Ron; Kim, Jeongchul; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jongin; Kim, Yeo Jin; Kim, Jung-Jae; Kim, Hang-Rai; Kim, Jaeyeol; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Joseph; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Mijung; Kim, Jeongsik; Kim, Bohyun; Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Seonjik; Kim, Nakyoung; Kim, Byeongnam; Kim, ChanMi; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Seong Yoon; Kim, Sunhee; Kingery, Lisle; Kinnunen, Kirsi; Kinomes, Marie; Kirchner, Jan Hendrik; Caldwell, Jessica Kirkland; Kirwan, Brock; Kitamura, Chiemi; Kitty, Kitty; Kiviat, David; Kiyasova, Vera; Klein, Richard; Klein, Alison; Klein, Gregory; Klein, Jan; Kleinman, Aaron; Kling, Mitchel; Klinger, Joern; Klinger, Rebecca; Klink, Katharina; Kocaturk, Mustafa; Koch, Philipp Johannes; Kochova, Elena; Koenig, Loren; Koh, Natalie; Köhler, Jens Erik; Koikkalainen, Juha; Koini, Marisa; Kolachalama, Vijaya; Koncz, Rebecca; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Kong, Vincent; Kong, Xiangzhen; Kong, Dehan; Kong, Linglong; Konukoglu, Ender; Kopeinigg, Daniel; Kopera, Krzysztof; Koppers, Simon; Korb, Matheus; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Korolev, Igor; Korolev, Sergey; Korostyshevskiy, Valeriy; Koshiya, Heena; Kost, James; Kotari, Vikas; Koutra, Danai; Koychev, Ivan; Kruthika, K. R.; Krahnke, Tillmann; Krause, Matthew; Kraybill, Matt; Kriebel, Martin; Hari Krishna, M.; Krohn, Stephan; Kruggel, Frithjof; Kuceyeski, Amy; Kuhl, Donald; Kulshreshtha, Devang; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Sambath; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, A.; Kumar, Saurabh; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Ambar; Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Rishab; Kumarasinghe, Janaka; Kundu, Suprateek; Kung, Te-Han; Kuo, Li-Wei; Kuo, Phillip; Channappa, Usha Kuppe; Kuriakose, Elmy; Kurian, P.; Kwan, Kenneth; Kwasigroch, Arkadiusz; Kwon, Young Hye; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Fleur, Claire La; Wungo, Supriyadi La; Labbe, Tomas; Lacombe, Daniel; Lad, Meher; Lahoti, Geet; Lai, Ying Liang; Lai, Catherine; Lai, Dongbing; Laird, Dillon; Lakatos, Anita; Lam, Alice; Lama, Ramesh; Lambert, Christian; Landau, Susan; Landman, Bennett; Landre, Victor; Lane, Elizabeth; Lange, Catharina; Langenieux, Alexandre; Lareau, Caleb; Larson, Katelyn; Latif, Ghazanfar; Lauber, Ross; Lawliet, Z. H.; Lawrence, Emma; Lazar, Anca; Le, Ngan; Le, Thi Khuyen; Le, Matthieu; Guen, Yann Le; Scouiller, Stephanie Le; Leandrou, Stephanos; Leatherday, Christopher; Leavitt, Mackenzie; Ledbetter, Christina; Lee, Hyekyoung; Lee, Wook; Lee, Annie; Lee, Jaehong; Lee, Dongyoung; Lee, Joel; Lee, Song-Ting; Lee, Kuo-Jung; Lee, Subin; Lee, Jaeho; Lee, Catherine; Lee, Gyungtae; Lee, Suzee; Lee, Erik; Lee, Yunseong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Lee, Seonjoo; Lee, Peng Jung; Lee, Hyunna; Lee, Cheng-Hsien; Lee, Hengtong; Lee, Mi Ri; Lee, Ilgu; Lee, Qixiang; Lefterov, Iliya; Leger, Charlie; Lehallier, Benoit; Lei, B.; Lei, Shi; Lei, Hongxing; Lei, Haoyun; Leong, Tze Yun; Leong, Sharlene; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Lepore, Natasha; Lerch, Ondrej; Leung, Yip Sang; Leung, Yuk Yee; Leung, Shuyu; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Leung, Ming-Ying; Levakov, Gidon; Levine, Abraham; Li, Chawn; Li, Miranda; Li, Huijie; Li, Junning; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Yi; Li, Jinchao; Li, Tianhong; Li, Yongming; Li, Xiangrui; Li, Tieqiang; Li, Yan; Li, Fuhai; Li, Feijiang; Li, Shuyang; Li, Zhi; Li, Xing; Li, Rongjian; Li, Rui; Li, Y. U.; Li, Kang; Li, Zhenzhen; Li, Qingqin; Li, Wenjun; Li, Yang; Li, Jialu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Michelle; Li, Yibai; Li, Yupeng; Li, Tao; Li, Zhujun; Li, Yafen; Li, Muwei; Li, Xuan; Li, Yi-Ju; Li, Cen Sing; Li, X. W.; Li, Yingjie; Li, Lin; Li, Yihan Jessie; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiantao; Li, Xingfeng; Li, Chenxi; Li, Chao; Li, Jicong; Li, Jiewei; Li, Tengfei; Li, Wei; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Nannan; Li, Chunfei; Li, Yeshu; Liang, Chen; Liang, Nanying; Liang, Jingjing; Liang, Shengxiang; Liang, Xiaoyun; Liang, Xia; Liang, Ying; Liberman, Sofia; Libon, David; Liébana, Sergio; Liedes, Hilkka; Lim, Wee Keong; Lim, Yen Ying; Lin, Yenching; Lin, Katherine; Lin, Ming; Lin, Ai-Ling; Lin, Ching-Heng; Lin, Bing; Lin, Lin; Lin, Jyh-Miin; Lin, W. M.; Lin, Chien-Tong; Lin, Liyan; Lin, Jing; Lindberg, Olof; Linesch, Paul; Linn, Kristin; Lippert, Christoph; Litovka, Nikita; Little, Graham; Liu, Man-Yun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chin-Fu; Liu, Zhaowen; Liu, Eulanca; Liu, Weixiang; Liu, K. E.; Liu, Hao Chen; Liu, Jia; Liu, Richann; Liu, Dongbo; Liu, Victor; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Tao; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Yong; Liu, Lin; Liu, Dan; Liu, Xiuwen; Liu, Mengmeng; Liu, Chia-Shang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yan; Liu, Xueqing; Liu, Han; Liu, Chien-Liang; Liu, Sidong; Liu, Jundong; Liu, Yang; Liu, Tianming; Liu, Tingshan; Liu, Ning; Liu, Lan; Liuyu, Liuyu; Lizarraga, Gabriel; Llido, Jerome; Lobach, Iryna; Lockhart, Samuel; Loft, Henrik; Lohr, Kelly; Lon, Hoi Kei; Lone, Kashif Javed; Long, Ziyi; Long, Xiaojing; Longo, Frank; Alves, Isadora Lopes; Lopez, Guadalupe; Lorenzi, Marco; Lotan, Eyal; Louie, Gregory; Louis, Maxime; Loukas, Andreas; Love, Seth; Lowe, Deborah; Lu, Bin; Lu, Chia-Feng; Lu, Zixiang; Lu, Lijun; Lu, Pascal; Lu, Shen; Lu, Qing; Lu, Zheshen; Lu, Chuan; Lu, Patty; Lu, Hangquan; Lu, Bo; Luktuke, Yadnyesh; Luo, Wei; Luo, Suhuai; Luo, Sheng; Luo, Shaojun; Luo, Peggy; Luo, Shan; Luo, Weidong; Luo, Liao; Luo, Xiao; Lupton, Michelle; Lutz, Michael; Lv, Eric; Lyu, Juan; Angshul, M.; Radha, M. R.; Dinesh, M. S.; Ma, Xiangyu; Ma, Chao; Ma, Li; Ma, Yu; Ma, Qianli; MacArthur, Daniel; Macey, Paul; Mach, Eric; MacPhee, Imola; Madadi, Mahboubeh; Madan, Christopher; Madan, Bharat; Madero, Giovanny; Madhavan, Radhika; Madhyastha, Tara; Maeno, Nobuhisa; Magsood, Hamzah; Mah, Linda; Mahdavi, Shirin; Mahdavi, Asef; Mahmoud, Abeer; Mahmoud, Hentati; Mahmoud, Kariman; Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Dehkordi, Siamak Mahmoudian; Mahor, Monika; Mahseredjian, Taleen; Mai, Cha; Maia, Rui; Maiti, Taps; Maj, Carlo; Maji, Pradipta; Majidpour, Jafar; Makhlouf, Laouchedi; Makino, Satoshi; Makrievski, Stefan; Makse, Hernan; Malagi, Archana; Malakhova, Katerina; Malamon, John; Malashenkova, Irina; Malchano, Zach; Maleki-Balajoo, Somayeh; Malik, Sadia; Malik, Tamoor; Mallik, Abhirup; Malm, Tarja; Malpas, Charles; Malpica, Norberto; Malviya, Meenakshi; Mamandi, A.; Manandhar, Abinash; Mandal, Pravat; Mandali, Alekhya; Mane, Prajakta; Manning, Emily; Manoufali, Mohamed; Manser, Paul; Mantini, Dante; Mantri, Ninad; Manyakov, Nikolay; Manzak, Dİlek; Mao, Shuai; Maoyu, Tian; Maple Grødem, Jodi; Maravilla, Kenneth; Marco, Simonetti; Marcus, Daniel; Margetis, John; Margolin, Richard; Mariano, Laura; Marinescu, Razvan Valentin; Markett, Sebastian; Markiewicz, Pawel; Marnane, Michael; Maroof, Asif; Marple, Laura; Marques, Cristiane; Marrakchi, Linda; Marshall, Gad; Märtens, Kaspar; Mårtensson, Gustav; Marti, Cristian; Martin, Harold; Martinaud, Olivier; Martinez, Victor; Martinez, Oliver; Martinez, Jesus; Martinez, Carlos; Abadías, Neus Martinez; Torteya, Antonio Martinez; Martini, Jean-Baptiste; Martins, Samuel; Masciotra, Viviane; Masmoudi, Ahmed; Masny, Aliaksandr; Shah, Pir Masoom; Massaro, Tyler; Masumoto, Jun; Matan, Cristy; Mate, Karen; Mateus, Pedro; Mather, Mara; Mather, Karen; Mathew, Jesia; Mathias, Samuel; Mathiyalagan, Tamilalaghan; Matloff, Will; Matsubara, Keisuke; Matsubara, Takashi; Matsuda, Yukihisa; Matthews, Dawn; Mattis, Paul; May, Patrick; Mayburd, Anatoly; Mayo, Chantel; Mayordomo, Elvira; Mbuyi, Gaylord; McCallum, Colleen; McCann, Bryony; McCollough, Todd; McCormick, Shannon; McCurdy, Sean; McDonald, Carrie; McEligot, Archana; McEvoy, Linda; McGeown, William; McGinnis, Scott; McHugh, Thomas; McIntosh, Elissa; McIntosh, Randy; McKenzie, Andrew; McLaren, Donald; McMillan, Corey; McMillan, Alan; McPherson, Brent; McRae-McKee, Kevin; Zaini, Muhammad Hafiz Md; Meadowcroft, Mark; Mecca, Adam; Meda, Shashwath; Medikonda, Venkata Srinu; Meeker, Karin; Megherbi, Thinhinane; Mehmood, Anum; Mehrtash, Alireza; Meiberth, Dix; Meier, Dominik; Meijerman, Antoine; Mejia, Jose; Mekkayil, Lasitha; Meles, Sanne; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Melo, Hans; Melrose, Rebecca; Melzer, Corina; Mendes, Aline; Leon, Ricardo Antonio Mendoza; Gonzalez, Manuel Menendez; Meng, Dewen; Meng, Xianglai; Meng, Guilin; Mengel, David; Menon, Ramesh; Menon, Ravi; Mercado, Flavio; Messick, Viviana; Meyer, Pierre-Francois; Meyer, Carsten; Mezher, Adam; Mi, Liang; Miao, Hongyu; Michailovich, Oleg; Michels, Lars; Mickael, Guedj; Mikhail, Mark; Mikhno, Arthur; Milana, Diletta; Miller, Rachel; Miller, Brendan; Millikin, Colleen; Min, Byung Wook; Minadakis, George; Minghui, Hu; Chinh, Truong Minh; Minkova, Lora; Miranda, Michelle; Misevic, Dusan; Mishra, Amit; Mishra, Chetan; Mishra, Shiwangi; Mishra, Ashutosh; Mishra, Krishna; Misquitta, Karen; Mitchell, Brian; Mithawala, Keyur; Mitnitski, Arnold; Mitra, Sinjini; Mittal, Gaurav; Mittner, Matthias; Miyapuram, Krishna Prasad; Mlalazi, Rebaone; Mo, Daojun; Moghekar, Abhay; Moguilner, Sebastian; Moh, Heba; Mohabir, Mark; Mohajer, Bahram; Mohamed, Moataz; Mohammadi, Sadeq; Mohammadi-Nejad, Ali-Reza; Mohammady, Saed; Taqi, Arwa Mohammed; Mohan, Kishore Kumar; Mohy-Ud-Din, Hassan; Moitra, Dipanjan; Mojaradi, Mehdi; Mojtabavi, Alireza; Molina, Helena; Mollon, Jennifer; Molteni, Erika; Montajabi, Mohaddeseh; Montal, Victor; Montazami, Aram; Monté-Rubio, Gemma; Montembeault, Maxime; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Montillo, Albert; Moon, Byung-Seung; Moon, Chan; Moon, Chooza; Moore, Archer; Morabito, Francesco C.; Moradi, Masoud; Moraes, Renato; Ballesteros, Orlando Morales; Morales-Henriquez, Daniela; Moratal, David; Moreno, Herman; Morihara, Ryuta; Mormino, Elizabeth; Morris, Jeffrey; Mortamet, Bénédicte; Morton, John; Moscato, Pablo; Rial, Alexis Moscoso; Mossa, Abdela Ahmed; Mottaghi, Setare; Mouelhi, Aymen; Moussavi, Arezou; Moustafa, Ahmed; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Mtetwa, Lungile; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Mueller, Susanne; Mueller-Sarnowski, Felix; Mufidah, Ratna; Mukherjee, Rik; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Müller, Christian; Müller, Hans-Peter; Mullins, Paul; Mullins, Roger; Muncy, Nathan; Munir, Akhtar; Munirathinam, Ramesh; Munoz, David; Munro, Catherine; Muranevici, Gabriela; Rendon, Santiago Murillo; Murilo, Robson; Murphy, Sonya; Muscio, Cristina; Musso, Gabriel; Mustafa, Yasser; Myall, Daniel; Gayathri, N.; Nabavi, Shahab; Nabeel, Eman; Nagele, Robert; Naghshbandi, Hane; Naik, Shruti; Najmitabrizi, Neda; Nakawah, Mohammad Obadah; Nalls, Mike; Namboori, Krishnan; Nancy, Annie; Napolitano, Giulio; Narayan, Manjari; Narkhede, Atul; Naseri, Mahsa; Nasrallah, Ilya; Nasrallah, Fatima; Nassif, Rana; Nath, Sruthi R.; Nathoo, Farouk; Nation, Daniel; Naughton, Brian; Nault, Larry; Nautiyal, Deeksha; Nayak, Deepak Ranjan; Naz, Mufassra; Nazemian, Shayan; Nazeri, Arash; Neckoska, Emilija; Neelamegam, Malinee; Nehary, Ebrahim; Nelson, Peter; Nelson, Linda; Nematzadeh, Hosein; Nerur, Shubha; Nesteruk, Thomas; Neu, Scott; Ng, Yen-Bee; Nguyen, Tin; Nguyen, Thanh; Nguyen, Harrison; Nguyen, Nghi; Trung, Hieu Nguyen; Ni, Lucy; Nian, Yongjian; Nichols, Thomas; Nicodemus, Kristin; Nie, Yunlong; Nielsen, Casper; Nikolov, Robert; Nila, Jessica; Nishioka, Christopher; Njeh, Ines; Njie, Emalick; Nobakht, Samaneh; Noble, Andrew; Noda, Art; Noroozi, Ali; Norton, Derek; Nosarti, Chiara; Nosheny, Rachel; Notsu, Akifumi; Novak, Gerald; Nozadi, Seyed Hossein; Nu, Fen; Nudelman, Kelly; Nunes, Adonay; Nunes, Ana; Núñez, Christian; Nuno, Michelle; Nuriel, Tal; Nygaard, Haakon; Nyquist, Paul; O'Bott, Jacob; O'Charoen, Sirimon; O'Neill, William; O'Rawe, Jonathan; Obrzut, Grzegorz; Och, Ganzorig; Odaibo, David; Odry, Benjamin; Oehmichen, Axel; Ofori, Edward; Ogunsanmi, Abdulfatai; Oguz, Kaya; Oh, Jungsu; Oh, Minyoung; Oh, Hwamee; Ohigashi, Hironori; Oishi, Kenichi; Oishi, Naoya; Okhravi, Hamid; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Okyay, Savaş; Oliveira, Cyrill; Oliveira, João; Oliveira, Francisco; Oliver, Ruth; Olmos, Salvador; Olszowy, Wiktor; Oltra-Cucarella, Javier; Önen, Zehra; Ong, Rowena; Onoda, Keiichi; Onyike, Chiadi; Operto, Grégory; Oppedal, Ketil; Orejuela, Juan; Orhon, Atila; Orozco, Max; Ortuño, Juan; Osadebey, Michael; Osborn, Joseph; Osoba, Osonde; Ostadrahimi, Hamid; Ostovari, Parisa; Otis, Sarah; Overgaard, Shauna; Owen, Catrin Elin; Oxtoby, Neil; Öziç, Muhammet Üsame; Ozkaya, Gorkem; Okur, Ozlem Ozmen; Ozsolak, Fatih; Ozyildirim, Melis; Pa, Judy; Pacheco, Joe; Pack, Gary; Padilla, Daniel; Cerezo, Berizohar Padilla; Padovese, Bruno; Pae, Chongwon; Pagano, Gennaro; Pahuja, Gunjan; Pai, Shraddha; Pajavand, Shahryar; Pajula, Juha; Pak, Kyoungjune; Pakzad, Ashkan; Palaniappan, Mathiyalagan; Palanisamy, Sindhu; Palmqvist, Sebastian; Palsson, Frosti; Pan, Dan; Pan, Tiffany; Pan, Yuqing; Pan, Wei; Pan, Sun; Pan, Hongliang; Pan, Xiaoxi; Pandey, Lokesh; Pang, Qiaoyu; Pangilinan, Erin; Pannetier, Nicolas; Panpan, Xu; Panyavaraporn, Jantana; Pardini, Matteo; Paredes, José; Parikh, Jignesh; Park, Seongbeom; Park, Young Ho; Park, Min Tae; Park, Hyunjin; Park, Sejin; Park, JongSeong; Park, DooHyun; Park, Ji Eun; Park, Yuhyun; Park, Jiyong; Parker, Jason; Parker, Richard; Parodi, Alice; Bautista, Yohn Jairo Parra; Parrish, Marcus; Parthiban, Preethy; Pascariello, Guido; Pascual, Belen; Paskov, Hristo; Pasquini, Lorenzo; Tantaleán, Julio Sergio Eduardo Pastor; Pastur, Lucas; Patel, Raihaan; Patel, Sejal; Paterson, Ross; Paton, Bryan; Patriarche, Julia; Patriat, Rémi; Pattichis, Constantinos; Paul, Debashis; Pawar, Kuldeep; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Paz, Rotem; Pedroto, Maria; Pelekanos, Matthew; Péléraux, Annick; Peng, Dan; Peng, Jing; Pengfei, Tian; Perani, Daniela; Peraza, Luis; Pereira, Fabricio; Pereira, Francisco; Perkins, Diana; Perneczky, Robert; Persad, Umesh; Peter, Jessica; Peters, Mette; Peters, Ruth; Pether, Mark; Petrella, Jeffrey; Petrenko, Roman; Petrone, Paula; Petrov, Dmitry; Pezzatini, Daniele; Pfenning, Andreas; Pham, Chi-Tuan; Philipson, Pete; Phillips, Jeffrey; Phillips, Nicole; Phophalia, Ashish; Phuah, Chia-Ling; Pichai, Shanthi; Pichardo, Cesar; Binette, Alexa Pichet; Pietras, Olga; Pietrzyk, Mariusz; Pike, Kerryn; Pillai, Jagan; Piludu, Francesca; Pineda, Joanna; Ping, He; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Pither, Richard; Piyush, Ranjan; Pizzi, Nick; Gonzalez, Luis Fernando Planella; Plassard, Andrew; Platero, Carlos; Plocharski, Maciej; Podhorski, Adam; Poggiali, Davide; Poghosyan, Mher; Pohl, Kilian; Poirier, Judes; Polakow, Jean Jacques; Politis, Marios; Poljak, Anne; Poloni, Katia Maria; Poole, Victoria; Poppenk, Jordan; Porsteinsson, Anton; Portelius, Erik; Posta, Filippo; Posthuma, Danielle; Potashman, Michele; Poulin, Stephane; Pourmennati, Bahar; Prahlad, Tejas; Pranav, Lee; Prasanth, Isaac; Prashar, Ajay; Prescott, Jeff; Prevedello, Luciano; Previtali, Fabio; Pricer, James; Prichard, James; Prince, Jerry; Prins, Samantha; Pritchard, Christopher; Priya, Priya; Priya, Anandh; Priyanka, Ahana; Properzi, Michael; Prosser, Angus; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Pruessner, Jens; Pu, Jian; Punjabi, Arjun; Punugu, Venkatapavani Pallavi; Puri, Dilip; Renjini, Anurenjan Purushothaman; Pyeon, DoYeong; Qader, Abu; Qi, Zeyao; Qi, Baihong; Qian, Xiaoning; Qian, Long; Qiao, Ju; Qiao, Jocelin; Qiaoli, Zhang; Qin, Hongsen; Qin, Wang; Qin, Tian; Qin, Yuanyuan; Qin, Qinxiaotie; Qin, Qiao; Qing, Zhao; Qiongling, Li; Qiu, Yu; Qiu, Wendy; Qiu, Deqiang; Qiu, Yingwei; Quadrelli, Scott; Qualls, Jake; Quan, Li; Quarg, Peter; Qureshi, Adnan; Anand, R.; Chitra, R.; Balaji, R.; Madhusudhan, R. N.; Raamana, Pradeep Reddy; Rabbia, Michael; Rabin, Laura; Radke, David; Pc, Muhammed Raees; Rafeiean, Mahsa; Raha, Oindrila; Rahimi, Amir; Arashloo, Shervin Rahimzadeh; Rai, Vipin; Rajamanickam, Karunanithi; Rajan, Surya; Rajapakse, Jagath; Rajaram, Sampath; Rajendran, Rajeswari; Rakovski, Cyril; Ramalhosa, Ivo; Raman, Fabio; Ramasamy, Ellankavi; Ramasangu, Hariharan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Ramos Pérez, Ana Victoria; Rana, Rahul; Rane, Swati; Rao, Anil; Rao, Vikram; Rashidi, Arash; Rasoanaivo, Oly; Rassem, Taha; Rastgoo, Hossein; Rath, Daniel; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Ravikirthi, Prabhasa; Ravipati, Kaushik; RaviPrakash, Harish; Rawdha, Bousseta; Ray, Meredith; Ray, Debashree; Ray, Nilanjan; Ray, Dipankar; Ray, Soumi; Rebbah, Sana; Redding, Morgan; Regnerus, Bouke; Rehn, Patrick; Rehouma, Rokaya; Reid, Robert; Reimer, Alyssa; Reiss, Philip; Reitz, Christiane; Rekabi, Maryam; Rekik, Islem; Ren, Xuhua; Ren, Fujia; Ren, Xiaowei; Ren, Weijie; Renehan, William; Rennert, Lior; Rey, Samuel; Reyes, Pablo; Reza, Rifat; Rezaee, Khosro; Rhinn, Herve; Lorenzo, Pablo Ribalta; Ribeiro, Adèle Helena; Richards, John; Richards, Burt; Richards, Todd; Richardson, Hamish; Richiardi, Jonas; Richter, Nils; Ridge, Perry; Ridgway, Gerard; Ridha, Basil; Ried, Janina; Riedel, Brandalyn; Riphagen, Joost; Ritter, Kerstin; Rivaz, Hassan; Rivers-Auty, Jack; Allah, Mina Rizk; Rizzi, Massimo; Roalf, David; Robb, Catherine; Roberson, Erik; Robieson, Weining; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Rodrigues, Marcos Antonio; Rodriguez, Alain; Aguiar, Güise Lorenzo Rodríguez; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Antonio; Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena; Roes, Meighen; Rogalski, Emily; Rogers, James; Rogers, Baxter; Rohani, Hosna; Rollins, Carin; Rollo, Jenny; Romanillos, Adrian; Romero, Marcelo; Romero, Klaus; Rominger, Axel; Rondina, Jane; Ronquillo, Jeremiah; Roohparvar, Sanaz; Rosand, Jonathan; Rose, Gregory; Roshchupkin, Gennady; Rosoce, Jeremy; Ross, David; Ross, Joel; Ross, Owen; Rossi, Stephanie; Roussarie, Jean-Pierre; Roy, Arkaprava; Roy, Snehashis; Ruble, Cara; Rubright, Jonathan; Rudovic, Ognjen; Ruggiero, Denise; Rui, Qiao; Ruiz, Pablo; Rullmann, Michael; Rusmevichientong, Pimbucha; Russell, Rolf; Rutten, Julie; Saadatmand-Tarzjan, Mahdi; Saba, Valiallah; Sabuncu, Mert; Sacuiu, Simona; Sampathkumar, Srihari Sadhu; Sadikhov, Shamil; Saeedi, Sarah; Saf, Naz; Safapur, Alireza; Safi, Asad; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Saito, Noboru; Saito, Naomi; Sakata, Muneyuki; Frigerio, Carlo Sala; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Salah, Zainab; Salamanca, Luis; Salat, David; Salehzade, Mahdi; Salter, Hugh; Samatova, Nagiza; Sampat, Mehul; Gonzalez, Jorge Samper; Samtani, Mahesh; Samuel, Pearl; Bohorquez, Sandra Sanabria; Sanbao, Cheng; Sanchez, Iñigo; Sánchez, Irina; Sandella, Nick; Sanderlin, Ashley Hannah; Sanders, Elizabeth; Sankar, Tejas; Sanroma, Gerard; Sanson, Horacio; Santamaria, Mar; de Lourdes, Daniella; de Andrade, Luna Santana; Santhanam, Prasanna; Ribeiro, Andre Santos; Sardi, Pablo; Sardina, Davide; Saremi, Arvin; Sarica, Alessia; Sarnowski, Chloé; Sarraf, Saman; Saslow, Adam; Sato, Takayuki; Sato, Joao; Sattler, Sophia; Savic, Milos; Saxon, Jillian; Saya, Boson; Saykin, Andrew; Sbeiti, Elia; Scarapicchia, Vanessa; Scelsi, Marzia Antonella; Schaerer, Joel; Scharre, Douglas; Scherr, Martin; Schevenels, Klara; Schibler, Tony; Schiller, Florian; Schirmer, Markus; Schmansky, Nick; Schmidt, Marco; Schmidt, Paul; Schmitz, Taylor; Schmuker, Michael; Schneider, Anja; Schneider, Reinhard; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Schöll, Michael; Schouten, Tijn; Schramm, Hauke; Schreiber, Frank; Schultz, Timothy; Schultz, Aaron; Schürmann, Heike; Schwab, Patrick; Schwartz, Pamela; Schwarz, Adam; Schwarz, Christopher; Schwarzbauer, Christian; Scott, Julia; Scott, F. Jeffrey; Scott, David; Scussel, Artur; Seale, William; Seamons, John; Seemiller, Joseph; Sekine, Tetsuro; Selnes, Per; Sembritzki, Klaus; Senanayake, Vijitha; Seneca, Nicholas; Senjem, Matthew; Filho, Antonio Carlos Senra; Sensi, Stefano; Seo, Eun Hyun; Seo, Kangwon; Seong, Sibaek; Sepeta, Leigh; Seraji-Bozorgzad, Navid; Serra-Cayuela, Arnau; Seshadri, Sudha; Sgouros, Nicholas; Sha, Miao; Shackman, Alexander; Shafee, Rebecca; Shah, Rupali; Shah, Hitul; Shahid, Mohammad; Shahparian, Nastaran; Shakeri, Mahsa; Shams, Sara; Shams, Ali; Baboli, Aref Shams; Shamul, Naomi; Shan, Guogen; Shang, Yuan; Shao, Rui; Shao, Hanyu; Shao, Xiaozhe; Shaoxun, Yuan; Noghabi, Hossein Sharifi; Sharlene, Newman; Sharma, Avinash; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Aman; Shaw, Leslie; Shaw, Saurabh; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Sheline, Yvette; Shen, Li; Shen, Yanhe; Shen, Qian; Sherriff, Ian; Shi, Xin; Shi, Lei; Shi, Yonggang; Shi, Yue; Shi, Yupan; Shi, Jie; Shi, Feng; Shiban, Nisreen; Shields, Trevor; Shiiba, Takuro; Shiino, Akihiko; 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Taswell, Koby; Taswell, Carl; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Taylan, Pakize; Taylor, Jonathan; Taylor, Brad; Tayubi, Iftikhar; Tchistiakova, Ekaterina; tee, Yee Kai; Teipel, Stefan; Temizer, Leyla; Kate, Mara Ten; Tenbergen, Carlijn; Tenenbaum, Jessica; Teng, Zi; Teng, Yuan-Ching; Teng, Edmond; Termenon, Maite; Terry, Eloise; Thaker, Ashesh; Theobald, Chuck; Thiel, Taylor; Thiele, Ines; Thiele, Frank; Thierry, Jean Pierre; Thirunavu, Vineeth; Thomas, Chris; Thomas, Kelsey; Thomas, Anoop Jacob; Thomas, Benjamin; Thomas, Ronald; Thomas, Adam; Thomopoulos, Sophia; Thompson, Gerard; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Will; Thompson, Paul; Thung, Kimhan; Tian, Sijia; Tierney, Mary; Tilquin, Florian; Tingay, Karen; Tirrell, Lee; Tirumalai, Sindhuja; Tobis, Jonathan; Todkari, Suhasini; Tohka, Jussi; Tokuda, Takahiko; Toledo, Juan B.; Toledo, Jon; Tolonen, Antti; Tombari, Federico; Tomiyama, Tetsuro; Tomola, Lauren; Tong, Yunjie; Tong, Liz; Tong, Li; Tong, Xiaoran; Torgerson, Carinna; Toro, Roberto; Torok, Levente; Toschi, Nicola; Tosto, Giuseppe; Tosun, Duygu; Tourandaz, Morteza; Toussaint, Paule; Towhidi, Sasan Maximilian; Towler, Stephen; Toyama, Teruhide; Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Tran, Thao; Tran, Daniel; Trapani, Benjamin; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Tripathi, Shashi; Trittschuh, Emily; Trivedi, Ashish; Trojacanec, Katarina; Truong, Dennis; Tsanas, Athanasios; Tse, Kai-Hei; Tsoy, Elena; Tu, Yanshuai; Tubeleviciute-Aydin, Agne; Tubi, Meral; Tucholka, Alan; Tufail, Ahsan; Tumati, Shankar; Tuo, Shouheng; Tuovinen, Timo; Tustison, Nicholas; Tutunji, Rayyan; Tward, Daniel; Tyagi, Gaurav; Tzioras, Nikolaos; Raghavendra, U.; Uberti, Daniela; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Ueki, Masao; Ulug, Aziz; Umek, Robert; University, Northwestern; de Almeida, Sofia Urioste Y. Nunes; Urrutia, Leandro; Usama, Ahmed; Ustun, Ali Alp; Uus, Alena; Uyar, Muharrem Umit; Visalatchi, V.; Rajinikanth, V.; Vafaei, Amin; Vairre, Darlene; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev; Vaithinathan, Krishnakumar; Vakorin, Vasily; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van Bokhoven, Pieter; Deerlin, Vivianna Van; van der Brug, Marcel; Dijk, Koene Van; van Duijn, Cornelia; van Erp, Theo; van Hooren, Roy; Leemput, Koen Van; van Loenhoud, Anita; Schependom, Jeroen Van; van Velden, Floris; van Westen, Danielle; Vandekar, Simon; Vandijck, Manu; Vanhoutte, Matthieu; Vannini, Patrizia; Vansteenkiste, Elias; Varatharajah, Yogatheesan; Vardarajan, Badri; Varey, Stephen; Vargas, Hernan; Varkey, Julia; Varma, Susheel; Varma, Vijay; Varma, Sudhr; Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Vashi, Tejal; Vasilchuk, Kseniia; Vassileva, Albena; Vatsalan, Dinusha; Vb, Nastaran; Veeramacheneni, Teja; Veeranah, Darvesh; Vejdani, Kaveh; Veldsman, Michele; Velgos, Stefanie; Veloso, Adriano; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Venero, Cesar; Venkataraman, Ashwin; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai; Venkatraghavan, Vikram; Venugopal, Vinisha; Venugopalan, Janani; Verbeeck, Rudi; Verbel, David; Verbist, Bie; Verdoliva, Luisa; Verma, Ajay Kumar; Verma, Tarun; Verma, Ishan; Veronese, Mattia; Grabovetsky, Alejandro Vicente; Victor, Jonathan; Vieira, Domingos; Vijayaraj, Vinesh Raja; Vikas, Vinutha; Vilaplana, Veronica; Vilaplana, Eduard; Villar, José Ramón; Vincent, Fabrice; Vinkler, Mojmir; Viswanath, Satish; Viswanathan, Srikrishnan; Vitek, Michael; Viti, Mario; Vladutu, Liviu; Vlock, Daniel; Voineskos, Aristotle; Vora, Anvi; Vos, Stephanie; Voyle, Nicola; Vrenken, Hugo; Vu, Tien Duong; Vucetic, Zivjena; Vuksanovic, Vesna; Wachinger, Christian; Wada, Masataka; Wade, Sara; Wagstyl, Konrad; Wahba, Grace; Waldorf, Johannes; Walker, Douglas; Moore, Kim Poki Walker; Walsh, Dominic; Wan, Lin; Wang, Di; Wang, Jane-Ling; Wang, Yongmao; Wang, Huaming; Wang, Miao; Wang, Zi-Rui; Wang, Zheyu; Wang, Z. E.; Wang, Lucy; Wang, Bin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jason; Wang, Cathy; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiuyuan; Wang, Dai; Wang, Lingyu; Wang, Jianjia; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yujiang; Wang, Ming-Liang; Wang, De; Wang, Ling; Wang, Liangliang; Wang, Jianxin; Wang, Zhanyu; Wang, William Shi-Yuan; Wang, HuiFu; Wang, Weixin; Wang, Zhenxun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junwen; Wang, Yipei; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yinying; Wang, Chengjia; Wang, Yuanjia; Wang, Kerry; Wang, Li-San; Wang, Kangcheng; Wang, Rui; Wang, Kai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Xinying; Wang, Xinglong; Wang, Jeff; Wang, Tianyi; Wang, Honglang; Wang, Xuekuan; Wang, Yongxiang; Wang, Hong; Wang, Silun; Waring, Stephen; Warren, David; Wasule, Vijay; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Wearn, Alfie; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Wegmayr, Viktor; Wehenkel, Marie; Wei, Rizhen; Wei, Zheng; Wei, Penghu; Wei, Yongbin; Wei, Guohui; Wei, Changshuai; Weichart, Emily; Weiler, Marina; Weise, Christopher; Weisong, Zhong; Weisshuhn, Philip; Weizheng, Yan; Wen, Canhong; Wen, Junhao; Wen, Wei; Wen, Zhenfu; Wen, Hao; Wenzel, Fabian; Werhane, Madeleine; Westaway, Shawn; Westlye, Lars T.; Westman, Eric; Whardana, Adithya; Whitcher, Brandon; Whittington, Alexander; Wicks, Stephen; Wiens, Jenna; Wildsmith, Kristin; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Wilkinson, Andrea; Willette, Auriel; Williams, Kristin; Williams, Robert; Williams, Rebecca; Wilman, Alan; Wilmot, Beth; Wilson, Lorraine; Win, Juliet; Windpass, F. C.; Wink, Alle Meije; Winter, Nils; Winzeck, Stefan; Wirth, Miranka; Wishart, Heather; Wisniewski, Gary; Wiste, Heather; Wolpe, Noham; Wolz, Robin; Wong, Stephen; Wong, Swee Seong; Wong, Tak-Lam; Woo, Jongwook; Woo, Taekang; Woo, Young; Wood, Levi; Worth, Andrew; Wrenn, Jesse; Wright, Paul; Wu, Guorong; Wu, Lynn; Wu, Shawn; Wu, Menglin; Wu, Ruige; Wu, Shaoju; Wu, Chong; Wu, Juhao; Wu, Liyun; Wu, Yu-Te; Wu, Yuankai; Wu, Helen; Xia, Weiming; Xiang, Xu; Xiangmao, Kong; Xiao, Yiming; Xiao, Jie; Xiao, Y. U.; Xiaoxi, Ji; Xiaoya, Zhu; Xiaoying, Qi; Xie, Yuchen; Xie, Zhiyong; Xie, Lei; Xie, Xiancheng; Xin, Huang; Xingyi, Huang; Xiong, Yuanpeng; Xiong, Momiao; Xu, Yongchao; Xu, XiaoYing; Xu, Qiqi; Xu, Lijun; Xu, Hewen; Xu, Yunlong; Xu, Zhilei; Xu, Ziliang; Xu, Jiayuan; Xu, Yadong; Xu, Lu; Xu, Shuoyu; Xue, Fei; Xuesong, Yang; Xz, Zarric; Yadav, Rishi; Yaish, Aviv; Yakushev, Igor; Yamada, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Utako; Yamashita, Alexandre; Yamashita, Fumio; Yan, Li; Yan, Yu; Yan, Jianhua; Yan, Shiju; Yan, Chao-Gan; Yan, Qingyu; Yan, Jingwen; Yan, Chen; Yan, Meng; Yang, Meng; Yang, Bin; Yang, Jiarui; Yang, Zhi; Yang, Xianfeng; Yang, Sli; Yang, Liang; Yang, Robert; Yang, Aleex; Yang, Hyungjeong; Yang, ChengHao; Yang, Haiwei; Yang, Jhih-Ying; Yang, Xu; Yangyang, Xia; Yao, Xufeng; Yaping, Wang; Yaqiong, Bi; Yared, Surafael; Yashin, Anatoliy; Yassine, Hussein; Yau, Tat; Yavorsky, Christian; Ye, Chang; Ye, Byoung Seok; Ye, Joy; Ye, Yongkai; Ye, Yuting; Ye, Wu; Yelampalli, Praveen Kumar Reddy; Thomas Yeo, B. T.; Yi, Zhao; Yi, Wang; Yi, Yuan; Yijing, Ruan; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Yin, Baocai; Yin, Tang-Kai; Ying, Li; Yingjiang, Wu; Yiyun, Yu; Yoichiro, Sato; Yokoyama, Jennifer; Yong, Zhang; Yonghong, Shi; Yonghu, Guo; Yongqi, Huang; Yoo, Inwan; Yoon, So Hoon; Yoon, Jee Seok; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Yoshida, Hisako; Yoshio, Kiyofumi; You, Jia; You, You; You, Xiaozhen; Young, Alexandra; Yu, Peng; Yu, Jaemin; Yu, Lin; Yu, Sui; Yu, Philip S.; Yu, Guan; Yu, Fengli; Yu, Jiaxin; Yu, Shaode; Yu, Suizhi; Yu, Donghyeon; Yuan, Yue; Yuan, Shaofeng; Yuan, Shuai; Yuanyuan, Chen; Yue, Ye; Yue, Cynthia; Yunaiyama, Daisuke; YushaoChen, YushaoChen; Yushkevich, Paul; Yx, W.; Zafeiris, Dimitrios; Zagorchev, Lyubomir; Zalocusky, Kelly; Zamorano, Francisco; Zandifar, Azar; Zanella, Laura; Zang, Yufeng; Zanke, Brent; Zaranek, Alexander Wait; Zawaideh, Mazen; Zawawi, Nour; Zee, Jarcy; Zeighami, Yashar; Zeitzer, Jamie; Zemla, Jeffrey; Zeng, Qi; Zeng, Fan; Zeng, Donglin; Zeng, Wei; Zeng, Yingying; Ženko, Bernard; Zereshki, Ehsan; Zeskind, Benjamin; Zhan, Justin; Zhang, Chenghui; Zhang, Yixuan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Jianlun; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianwei; Zhang, Yufei; Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Changle; Zhang, Qingtian; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiangliang; Zhang, Linda; Zhang, Yingteng; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Ziwei; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Zhan; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, ChengZhi; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhengjun; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Guishan; Zhang, Xixue; Zhang, Tianhao; Zhangyi, Zhangyi; Zhao, Wenting; Zhao, Xuewu; Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Yifei; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Zhao, Di; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Lu; Zheng, Lijuan; Zheng, Kaiping; Zheng, Weihao; Zheng, Du; Zheng, Muhua; Zheng, Qiang; Zheng, Bichen; Zheng, Lihong; Zhong, Wenxuan; Zhong, Yujia; Zhou, Tian; Zhou, Jiayin; Zhou, Zhen; Zhou, Yongxia; Zhou, Lixin; Zhou, Bowei; Zhou, Juan; Zhou, Qixin; Zhou, Levi; Zhou, Fengfeng; Zhou, Jiayu; Zhou, Luping; Zhou, Yun; Zhou, Yingjie; Zhou, Ying; Zhou, Frankie; Zhu, Zonghai; Zhu, Xiaoya; Zhu, Xiaolu; Zhu, Shanfeng; Zhu, David; Zhu, Hongxiao; Zhu, Lida; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhuxin, Jin; Zigon, Robert; Zille, Pascal; Zimmer, Eduardo; Zimmer, Jennifer; Zimmerman, Earl; Zimmerman, Karl; Zimmermann, Joelle; Zipperer, Erin; Zito, Giancarlo; Zou, Yang; Zuo, Maria; Zywiec, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging measurements derived from magnetic resonance imaging provide important information required for detecting changes related to the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical features and changes play a crucial role in revealing unique anatomical patterns of brain regions,

  18. Object feature extraction and recognition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Min; Xiang Rujian; Wan Yongxing

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of objects, especially flying objects, are analyzed, which include characteristics of spectrum, image and motion. Feature extraction is also achieved. To improve the speed of object recognition, a feature database is used to simplify the data in the source database. The feature vs. object relationship maps are stored in the feature database. An object recognition model based on the feature database is presented, and the way to achieve object recognition is also explained

  19. Psychopathological features in Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Francesca; Licchelli, Serena; Serra, Giulia; Piccini, Giorgia; Caciolo, Cristina; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Cirillo, Flavia; Leoni, Chiara; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Zampino, Giuseppe; Tartaglia, Marco; Alfieri, Paolo; Vicari, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by short stature, skeletal and haematological/lymphatic defects, distinctive facies, cryptorchidism, and a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects. Recurrent features also include variable cognitive deficits and behavioural problems. Recent research has been focused on the assessment of prevalence, age of onset and characterization of psychiatric features in this disorder. Herein, we evaluated the prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depressive symptoms and syndromes in a cohort of individuals with clinical and molecular diagnosis of NS. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS PL) has been used for the assessment of psychiatric disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) have been assessed for the evaluation of anxiety and depressive symptoms and syndromes, whereas Conners Teacher and Parent Rating Scales-long version (CRS-R) have been used to evaluate ADHD. The study included 27 individuals (67% males) with an average age of 10.4 years (range 6-18 years) receiving molecular diagnosis of NS or a clinically related condition, evaluated and treated at the Neuropsychiatric Unit of Children's Hospital Bambino Gesù and at the Center for Rare Diseases of Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, in Rome. Twenty individuals showed mutations in PTPN11, five in SOS1 and two in SHOC2. The mean IQ was 94 (Standard Deviation = 17, min = 56, max = 130). Seventy percent of the individuals (n = 19; 95% Confidence Interval = 52-85%) showed ADHD features, with six individuals reaching DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD disorder, and thirteen showing subsyndromal traits. Symptoms or syndrome of anxiety were present in 37% of the cohort

  20. TOLERANCE: FEATURES AND PROBLEMS OF EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Karmanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the media and in specialized literature, publications related to attempts to assess the place and role of tolerance in the life of modern society are increasingly encountered. In this connection, a comprehensive scientific analysis of tolerance as an independent and distinctive object of applied research is of great scientific and practical interest. Considering the points of view on the category of "tolerance" gave grounds to believe that there are a number of "white spots" and gaps of methodological nature that do not allow collecting reliable information and identify the main indicators characterizing the state and features of the transformation of tolerance as a social norm reflecting changes in society's value orientations . Tolerance as a characteristic of the moral state of society is a "medal with two sides": on the one hand, it is positive that it promotes mutual understanding, taking into account the recognition of rights and freedoms, with the coordination of different motives, attitudes and orientations without violence and suppression of human dignity, allows to smooth existing irreconcilable interethnic, interethnic, racial contradictions; on the other negative, because it can be perceived as permissiveness, and instill indifference to values. All of the above was justification for the need to present in the article a critical analysis of approaches to the definition and directions of the study of tolerance, which made it possible to reveal its principal features as a complex and multifaceted object of statistical research. In order to implement the principle of objectivity of conclusions, the study was conducted using the following methods: analysis and synthesis, comparison and comparison, generalization, the method of scientific abstraction. The article presents a substantiation of the possibilities of making a quantitative assessment of changes in tolerance in time, taking into account the analysis of information sources

  1. FEATURES DIGESTION OF STURGEON SPECIES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources are about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the digestive system and proper digestion process in the sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. Outline the common anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Consider the activity of digestive enzymes and the influence of various factors. Findings. Review of scientific papers reveals that although the digestion of sturgeon are broadly similar to those of the cartilaginous and bony fish, there are a number of species specificity. In particular, sturgeon enzymes have a wider temperature and hydrogen ranges. It is confirmed that temperature adaptations of digestive system poikilothermic organ-isms are realised mainly thanks to reorganisations of fermental systems. It is shown that enzymes in sturgeons are adjustable, as their activity level significantly changes under the influence of divalent metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+. The assumption that evolutionary adaptation of hydrolytic function of intestines of fishes to temperature conditions of an inhabitancy takes place, apparently, is made. The paper describes the effect of sex and age factors on the level of activity of enzymes of sturgeons. Set out the regularities of circadian rhythms of the fish of this family. Showed specific features of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. Practical value. The knowledge of hydrolysis characteristics of a diet of sturgeon species is important for the efficiency estimation of feeding and understanding of evolutionary and ecological aspects of digestion physiology. Systematized data on the digestive system of fish sturgeon species are of interest a wide range of research in two main areas. Firstly, although the sturgeon are relict species, but the adaptation of their digestive system is still going on, allowing you to analyze the evolutionary development of the

  2. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  3. Integral fast reactor safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Mueller, C.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Wade, D.C.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: (1) a pool-type primary system, (2) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (3) an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by (1) the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and (2) a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents

  4. New learning resource features CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    A new educational website, STEM Works, has been launched this month, presenting science and technology in an industrial context for students aged 11-14. Developed with contributions from CERN, the site highlights the Laboratory as a “real-world” example of the opportunities available to science graduates. While the site was developed in Northern Ireland, STEM Works addresses issues of global relevance.   Students share their projects with Steve Myers, Richard Hanna (CCEA), and Catriona Ruane (Education Minister). STEM stands for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics – the four cornerstones of the curriculum featured on the STEM Works website. It is part of a nationwide push in Northern Ireland to highlight how important STEM subjects are to both academia and industry. CERN worked closely with the Northern Ireland Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment (CCEA) to develop educational content for the site. “The CCEA STEM Works site i...

  5. The Machine / Job Features Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alef, M. [KIT, Karlsruhe; Cass, T. [CERN; Keijser, J. J. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam; McNab, A. [Manchester U.; Roiser, S. [CERN; Schwickerath, U. [CERN; Sfiligoi, I. [Fermilab

    2017-11-22

    Within the HEPiX virtualization group and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid’s Machine/Job Features Task Force, a mechanism has been developed which provides access to detailed information about the current host and the current job to the job itself. This allows user payloads to access meta information, independent of the current batch system or virtual machine model. The information can be accessed either locally via the filesystem on a worker node, or remotely via HTTP(S) from a webserver. This paper describes the final version of the specification from 2016 which was published as an HEP Software Foundation technical note, and the design of the implementations of this version for batch and virtual machine platforms. We discuss early experiences with these implementations and how they can be exploited by experiment frameworks.

  6. Integral fast reactor safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Mueller, C.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Wade, D.C.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The integral fast reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: a pool-type primary system, and advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents

  7. PERPETUAL LEASE: FEATURES OF ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Yurchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article namely deals with the peculiarities of legal regulation of the right to use someone else's land for agricultural purposes under the perpetual lease contract. Recognition of the legitimacy of perpetual lease as an intangible asset and, therefore, the object of accounting was justified. The features of the primary account perpetual lease rights were analyzed. It was found that for documenting transactions receipt, commissioning, de-recognition perpetual lease specialized forms of primary documents is not installed. The main aspects of accounting reflection of land under perpetual lease contracts were identified and ways of their improving were developed. The period on which the land is transferred for use under perpetual lease contract was proposed. During the study, general scientific methods – induction, deduction, synthesis, analysis, dialectical, historical, generalizations and specific methods of accounting – documentation, evaluation, accounting records were used. Keywords: accounting, land, perpetual lease, intangible assets, the right to use.

  8. Investigating the influence of product perception and geometric features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez Mata, Marta; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2017-01-01

    . Surveys were conducted with 71 participants to gather their perceptions of 11 vase concepts. Advanced statistical analyses, including mixed models, were applied to allow generalisation of the results beyond the data sample. Significant relations between the desire to own a product and how the product......Research in emotional design and Kansei Engineering has shown that aesthetics play a significant role in the appeal of a product. This paper contributes to establishing a methodology to identify the relationships between perceptions, aesthetic features, desire to own and background of consumers...... and was simple and tall). An automated mixed model analysis was conducted and revealed that general rules can be found between aesthetic features, perceptions and ownership, which can apply across gender and culture. The findings include design rules that link aesthetic features with perceptions...

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF CONFLICT BEHAVIOUR AMONG FEMALE INMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leonidovna Plotnikova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of the research concerning the special features of behaviour in the conflicts among the female inmates are given, psychological features of the female inmates are analysed, their psychological typology is presented, inmates gender differences are characterized as well as psychological reasons of interpersonal conflicts among the female inmates in the correctional facilities, the most conflict categories of female inmates are distinguished. Purpose: revealing of dominant strategies of behaviour in the conflict of the female inmates, specific features of female inmates conflict behaviour according to age and type of committed crime. Method: ascertaining experiment Results: dominant strategies of female inmates conflict behaviour are compromise and adjustment. Areas of use: the penitentiary system.

  10. Metallacyclopentadienes: structural features and coordination in transition metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgushin, Fedor M; Yanovsky, Aleksandr I; Antipin, Mikhail Yu

    2004-01-01

    Results of structural studies of polynuclear transition metal complexes containing the metallacyclopentadiene fragment are overviewed. The structural features of the complexes in relation to the nature of the substituents in the organic moiety of the metallacycles, the nature of the transition metals and their ligand environment are analysed. The main structural characteristics corresponding to different modes of coordination of metallacyclopentadienes to one or two additional metal centres are revealed.

  11. Specific features of early post-stroke seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Valeryevna Danilova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examining 101 patients (68 men and 33 women aged 48 to 89 years with seizures in the first 7 days of stroke. A control group comprised 97 patients who had experienced ischemic stroke without seizures. Early seizures more frequently occurred in the cardioembolic subtype of stroke as simple partial seizures. The neuroimaging features of ischemic foci were revealed and the cerebrovascular responsiveness was evaluated in different vascular basins in these patients.

  12. A Study of Various Feature Extraction Methods on a Motor Imagery Based Brain Computer Interface System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Navid Resalat

    2016-01-01

    Discussion: These features were selected for the designed real-time navigation. The corresponding results revealed the subject-specific nature of the MI-based BCI system however, the Power Spectral Density (PSD based &alpha-BP feature had the highest averaged accuracy.

  13. Opening the Learning Process: The Potential Role of Feature Film in Teaching Employment Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, George

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of feature film to encourage more inclusive, participatory and open learning in the area of employment relations. Evaluations of student responses in a single postgraduate course over a five-year period revealed how feature film could encourage participatory learning processes in which students reexamined their…

  14. Usefulness and preference for tablet personal computers by medical students: are the features worth the money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Dawn; Atreja, Ashish; Mehta, Neil

    2008-11-06

    Tablet Personal Computers (PCs) have a huge potential in medical education due to their interactive human- computer interface and the need for anatomical diagrams, annotations, biochemistry flow charts etc. We conducted an online survey of medical students to determine their pattern of usage of the tablet features. The results revealed that the majority of medical students use the tablet features infrequently and most do not place a high value on the tablet features.

  15. Temporal feature integration for music genre classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    , but they capture neither the temporal dynamics nor dependencies among the individual feature dimensions. Here, a multivariate autoregressive feature model is proposed to solve this problem for music genre classification. This model gives two different feature sets, the diagonal autoregressive (DAR......) and multivariate autoregressive (MAR) features which are compared against the baseline mean-variance as well as two other temporal feature integration techniques. Reproducibility in performance ranking of temporal feature integration methods were demonstrated using two data sets with five and eleven music genres...

  16. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  17. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  18. New Features about Tau Function and Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Medina

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tau is a brain microtubule-associated protein that directly binds to a microtubule and dynamically regulates its structure and function. Under pathological conditions, tau self-assembles into filamentous structures that end up forming neurofibrillary tangles. Prominent tau neurofibrillary pathology is a common feature in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, collectively referred to as tauopathies, the most common of which is Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Beyond its classical role as a microtubule-associated protein, recent advances in our understanding of tau cellular functions have revealed novel insights into their important role during pathogenesis and provided potential novel therapeutic targets. Regulation of tau behavior and function under physiological and pathological conditions is mainly achieved through post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, and truncation, among others, indicating the complexity and variability of factors influencing regulation of tau toxicity, all of which have significant implications for the development of novel therapeutic approaches in various neurodegenerative disorders. A more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating tau function and dysfunction will provide us with a better outline of tau cellular networking and, hopefully, offer new clues for designing more efficient approaches to tackle tauopathies in the near future.

  19. Psychological features and teenage sexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbatova T.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an empirical study on the personality traits of sexually active teenagers. The research identified the personality traits of teenagers who are inclined to look for sexual relations. The research focused on the following: motivation and values, implicit representations about sexual contacts, parent-child relations, and self-concept. The study comprised 465 individuals including 405 school students aged 14-16 and 60 mothers of the teenagers examined. The results demonstrate that teenagers' refusal to begin sexual life, provided they have this opportunity (i.e. a partner, is linked to their subjective perception of the basic values reflected in their consciousness. The research also focused on the features of teenagers' implicit representations with regard to sexual intercourse. This allowed to identify the role of sexual intercourse in teenagers' life. The factors regulating sexual relations in the age under study have been revealed. The research shows that teenage sexual intercourse is mainly driven by cognitive motives combined with the hedonistic (boys and communicational/social ones (girls. Emotionally distant parents are another factor triggering sexual relations. The negatively critical attitude to sexual partners was also displayed, especially by girls. The attitude was expressed by teenagers even where they initiated sexual intercourse themselves, without been pressured into it by their partners. The study has an applied character and enables effective preventive and corrective work with sexually active teenagers.

  20. New Features about Tau Function and Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Miguel; Hernández, Félix; Avila, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Tau is a brain microtubule-associated protein that directly binds to a microtubule and dynamically regulates its structure and function. Under pathological conditions, tau self-assembles into filamentous structures that end up forming neurofibrillary tangles. Prominent tau neurofibrillary pathology is a common feature in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, collectively referred to as tauopathies, the most common of which is Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Beyond its classical role as a microtubule-associated protein, recent advances in our understanding of tau cellular functions have revealed novel insights into their important role during pathogenesis and provided potential novel therapeutic targets. Regulation of tau behavior and function under physiological and pathological conditions is mainly achieved through post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, and truncation, among others, indicating the complexity and variability of factors influencing regulation of tau toxicity, all of which have significant implications for the development of novel therapeutic approaches in various neurodegenerative disorders. A more comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating tau function and dysfunction will provide us with a better outline of tau cellular networking and, hopefully, offer new clues for designing more efficient approaches to tackle tauopathies in the near future. PMID:27104579

  1. Operational features of decorative concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenova, Olga; Kotelnikov, Maxim

    2018-03-01

    This article deals with the questions of creation and use of decorative and finishing concrete and mortar. It has been revealed that the most effective artificial rock-imitating stone materials are those made of decorative concrete with the opened internal structure of material. At the same time it is important that the particles of decorative aggregate should be distributed evenly in the concrete volume. It can be reached only at a continuous grain-size analysis of the aggregate from the given rock. The article tackles the necessity of natural stone materials imitation for the cement stone color to correspond to the color of the rock. The possibility of creation of the decorative concrete imitating rocks in the high-speed turbulent mixer is considered. Dependences of durability and frost resistance of the studied concrete on the pore size and character and also parameters characterizing crack resistance of concrete are received.

  2. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, A.R.; Smith, P.J.; Oglesby, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Several climatological studies have been previously performed using large observational data sets (i.e., 10 years or longer) in order to determine the predominant characteristics of blocking anticyclones, including favored development regions, duration, preferred seasonal occurrence, and frequency of occurrence. These studies have shown that blocking anticyclones occur most frequently from October to April over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific oceans downstream from both the North American and Asian continental regions and the storm track regions to the east of these continents. Some studies have also revealed the presence of a third region block formation in western Russia near 40 degrees E which is associated with another storm track region over the Mediterranean and western Asia

  3. Clinical features of paralytic strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ling Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical features of paralytic strabismus and analyze its etiology.METHODS: Eighty-nine cases(97 eyeswere diagnosed with paralytic strabismus and recruited in this study in the Department of Ophthalmology, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University between July 2008 and February 2013. The clinical data were recorded including the general and ophthalmic history, symptom, visual acuity, fundus, pupil, eyelid, visual field, eye movement, synoptophore, acting countervail head, ultrasound of eyeball and ocular muscle, color Doppler ultrasonography of the carotid artery, orbital computed tomography(CT, brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRI, blood biochemistry and immunologic tests.RESULTS: The medical history disclosed that among these cases, hypertension in 36 cases, diabetic mellitus in 28 cases, hyperlipidemia in 19 cases, heart diseases in 17 cases, ischemic cerebrovascular disease in 12 cases and hyperthyroidism in 3 cases. Symptoms included vertigo in 47 cases and binocular temporal amaurosis in 36 cases. The horizontal restriction was manifested in 38 cases 45 eyes, vertical restriction in 42 cases with 42 eyes, and horizontal-and-vertical restriction in 9 cases with 10 eyes. CONCLUSION: Brain vascular ischemic disease is one of the top reasons causing paralytic strabismus. Systemic disease history was found in a high proportion of the cases. It is of great essence to detect the life-threatening ischemia of vertebrobasilar artery system and take priority for treatment.

  4. The features of Saint Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Le Pogam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent ninth centenary of the birth of Saint Louis, in 2014, gave the possibility to renew the study of the man and his reign, so important for French history, not in a nationalistic agenda or for a mere celebration, but in order to shed new light on a figure indeed profoundly studied but deserving a repeated attention, so much Louis IX lends to many-sided, even contradictory explanations. In the past, one has paid an almost maniacal attention to the point of the physical appearance of the king, looking in some images for a reflection of, or indeed a portrait of Saint Louis. Or, on the contrary and more recently, one has denied any validity to this trend of studies. In line with the essay I devoted on this question in the catalogue of the recent exhibition on Saint Louis in Paris, I would like here to go further in the analysis, especially regarding the meaning of details of the dress and bodily features of the saint king.

  5. Novel features of nuclear chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J. [Stanford University, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    I review a number of QCD topics where the nuclear environment provides new insights into fundamental aspects of the strong interactions. The topics include novel perspectives for nuclear physics, such as the hidden color of nuclear form factors, the relation of the nuclear force at short distances to quark interchange interactions, the effects of ''color transparency'' on the baryon-to-meson anomaly in hard heavy-ion collisions, flavor-dependent antishadowing, novel exotic multiquark states, the anomalous nuclear dependence of quarkonium hadroproduction, flavor-dependent antishadowing, and the breakdown of sum rules for nuclear structure functions. I also briefly discuss the insights into hadron physics and color confinement that one obtains from light-front holography, including supersymmetric features of the hadron spectrum. I also note that the virtual Compton amplitude on a proton (or nucleus) can be measured for two spacelike photons q{sup 2}{sub 1}, q{sup 2}{sub 2} < 0 using positronium-proton scattering [e{sup +}e{sup -}]p → e{sup +}e{sup -}p{sup '}. (orig.)

  6. Contextual cueing by global features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen J.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2008-01-01

    In visual search tasks, attention can be guided to a target item, appearing amidst distractors, on the basis of simple features (e.g. find the red letter among green). Chun and Jiang’s (1998) “contextual cueing” effect shows that RTs are also speeded if the spatial configuration of items in a scene is repeated over time. In these studies we ask if global properties of the scene can speed search (e.g. if the display is mostly red, then the target is at location X). In Experiment 1a, the overall background color of the display predicted the target location. Here the predictive color could appear 0, 400 or 800 msec in advance of the search array. Mean RTs are faster in predictive than in non-predictive conditions. However, there is little improvement in search slopes. The global color cue did not improve search efficiency. Experiments 1b-1f replicate this effect using different predictive properties (e.g. background orientation/texture, stimuli color etc.). The results show a strong RT effect of predictive background but (at best) only a weak improvement in search efficiency. A strong improvement in efficiency was found, however, when the informative background was presented 1500 msec prior to the onset of the search stimuli and when observers were given explicit instructions to use the cue (Experiment 2). PMID:17355043

  7. Shielding features of quarry stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez V, C.; Contreras S, H.; Hernandez A, L.; Baltazar R, A.; Escareno J, E.; Mares E, C. A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2010-10-01

    Quarry stone lineal attenuation coefficient for gamma-rays has been obtained. In Zacatecas, quarry stone is widely utilized as a decorative item in buildings, however its shielding features against gamma-rays unknown. The aim of this work is to determine the shielding properties of quarry stone against γ-rays using Monte Carlo calculations where a detailed model of a good geometry experimental setup was carried out. In the calculations 10 pieces 10 X 10 cm 2 of different thickness were utilized to evaluate the photons transmission as the quarry stone thickness is increased. It was noticed that transmitted photons decay away as the shield thickness is increased, these results were fitted to an exponential function were the linear attenuation coefficient was estimated. Also, using XCOM code the linear attenuation coefficient from several keV up to 100 MeV was estimated. From the comparison between Monte Carlo results and XCOM calculations a good agreement was found. For 0.662 MeV γ-rays the attenuation coefficient of quarry stone, whose density is 2.413 g-cm -3 , is 0.1798 cm -1 , this mean a X 1/2 = 3.9 cm, X 1/4 = 7.7 cm, X 1/10 = 12.8 cm, and X 1/100 = 25.6 cm. Having the information of quarry stone performance as shielding give the chance to use this material to shield X and γ-ray facilities. (Author)

  8. features using RBF-SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael do Espírito Santo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present in this work a new type of classes discriminator based upon nonlinear and combinational optimization techniques: radial basis functions-simulated annealing (RBF-SA. The combinational optimization method is used here as a preestimation of some parameters of the network classifier. We compare the classifier performance with and without pre-estimation. For training the classifiers, adopting the leave-one-out procedure, we have used case examples such as mammographic masses (malignant and benign. The classifier is trained with shape factors and edge-sharpness measures extracted from 57 regions of interest (ROI (37 malignant and 20 benign, manually delineated, that describe mammographic masses and tumor features in terms of polygonal models for shape factors (compactness [CC], Fourier description [FF], fractional concavity [FCC] and speculated index [SI] and edge sharpness-acutance (A . The classifier performance is compared in terms of the area under the receive operating characteristic (ROC curve – (A. Higher values of A correspond to a better performance of classifier. Experiments with mammographic tumor and masses show that the best result of 0.9776 is obtained with RBF-SA when RBF parameters such as centers and spread matrix are pre-estimated, which is significantly better than the results obtained with no pre-estimation or only pre-estimation of the RBF centers, which are, 0.7071 and 0.9552 respectively.

  9. Imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuyst, Dimitri De; Vanhoenacker, Filip; Bernaerts, Anja; Gielen, Jan; Schepper, Arthur M. de

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the imaging characteristics of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Skeletal tuberculosis represents one-third of all cases of tuberculosis occurring in extrapulmonary sites. Hematogenous spread from a distant focus elsewhere in the body is the cornerstone in the understanding of imaging features of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. The most common presentations are tuberculous spondylitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and soft tissue involvement. The diagnostic value of the different imaging techniques, which include conventional radiography, CT, and MR imaging, are emphasized. Whereas conventional radiography is the mainstay in the diagnosis of tuberculous arthritis and osteomyelitis, MR imaging may detect associated bone marrow and soft tissue abnormalities. MR imaging is generally accepted as the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis, demonstration of the extent of the disease of tuberculous spondylitis, and soft tissue tuberculosis. Moreover, it may be very helpful in the differential diagnosis with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, as it may easily demonstrate anterior corner destruction, the relative preservation of the intervertebral disk, multilevel involvement with or without skip lesions, and a large soft tissue abscess, as these are all arguments in favor of a tuberculous spondylitis. On the other hand, CT is still superior in the demonstration of calcifications, which are found in chronic tuberculous abscesses. (orig.)

  10. CT features of appendiceal mucocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Won Jong; Byun, Jae Young; Jung, Jung Im; Lee, Hae Gyu; Park, Young Ha; Shin, Kyung Sub [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT features of appendiceal mucocele in the diagnosis and evaluation of complications. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings and compared with operative findings in 7 cases of pathologically proven appendiceal mucocele. CT findings such as location and extent of the lesion, tissue density, thickness or calcification of the wall, presence of adjacent inflammatory infiltration, and visualization of normal vermiform appendix were analyzed. Appendiceal mucocele was found as homogeneous low density cystic mass adjacent to the cecum, which has no surrounding inflammatory infiltration except in one case of perforation and one case of intussusception. Mean CT number measured in 4 cases was 21 Hounsfield unit. Thin curvilinear calcifications were noted along the cystic wall in 2 cases. Normal vermiform appendix couldn't be demonstrated in all cases. Appendiceal mucocele is characterized by homogeneously low density and thin walled cystic tumor adjacent to cecum without surrounding inflammatory infiltration, and absence of normal vermiform appendix on CT. Therefore, CT is valuable in preventing operative complications of appendiceal mucocele.

  11. Features and development of Coot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emsley, P.; Lohkamp, B.; Scott, W. G.; Cowtan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Coot is a molecular-graphics program designed to assist in the building of protein and other macromolecular models. The current state of development and available features are presented. Coot is a molecular-graphics application for model building and validation of biological macromolecules. The program displays electron-density maps and atomic models and allows model manipulations such as idealization, real-space refinement, manual rotation/translation, rigid-body fitting, ligand search, solvation, mutations, rotamers and Ramachandran idealization. Furthermore, tools are provided for model validation as well as interfaces to external programs for refinement, validation and graphics. The software is designed to be easy to learn for novice users, which is achieved by ensuring that tools for common tasks are ‘discoverable’ through familiar user-interface elements (menus and toolbars) or by intuitive behaviour (mouse controls). Recent developments have focused on providing tools for expert users, with customisable key bindings, extensions and an extensive scripting interface. The software is under rapid development, but has already achieved very widespread use within the crystallographic community. The current state of the software is presented, with a description of the facilities available and of some of the underlying methods employed

  12. PHISICS: New Features and Advancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Rabiti; Y. Wang; G. Palmiotti; H. Hiruta; J. Cogliati; A. Alfonsi; A. EPiney; T. Grimmett

    2011-06-01

    The PHISICS (Parallel and Highly Innovative Simulation for INL Code System) software is under an intensive development at INL. In the last months new features have been added and improvements of the previously existing one performed. The modular approach has created a friendly development environment that allows a quick expansion of the capabilities. In the last months a little amount of work has been dedicated to the improvement of the spherical harmonics based nodal transport solver while the implementation of a solver based on the self adjoint formulation of the discrete ordinate is in the test phase on structured mesh. PHISICS now include a depletion solver with the option to use two different algorithms for the solution of the Bateman equation: the Taylor development of the exponential matrix and the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method. The coupling with RELAP5 is also available at least in the steady state search mode. The coupling between RELAP5 and PHISICS can also take advantage of the new cross section interpolation module so that the coupling could be performed using an arbitrary number of energy groups.

  13. Divided spatial attention and feature-mixing errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Julie D

    2015-11-01

    Spatial attention is thought to play a critical role in feature binding. However, often multiple objects or locations are of interest in our environment, and we need to shift or split attention between them. Recent evidence has demonstrated that shifting and splitting spatial attention results in different types of feature-binding errors. In particular, when two locations are simultaneously sharing attentional resources, subjects are susceptible to feature-mixing errors; that is, they tend to report a color that is a subtle blend of the target color and the color at the other attended location. The present study was designed to test whether these feature-mixing errors are influenced by target-distractor similarity. Subjects were cued to split attention across two different spatial locations, and were subsequently presented with an array of colored stimuli, followed by a postcue indicating which color to report. Target-distractor similarity was manipulated by varying the distance in color space between the two attended stimuli. Probabilistic modeling in all cases revealed shifts in the response distribution consistent with feature-mixing errors; however, the patterns differed considerably across target-distractor color distances. With large differences in color, the findings replicated the mixing result, but with small color differences, repulsion was instead observed, with the reported target color shifted away from the other attended color.

  14. Hypothesis testing for differentially correlated features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Elisa; Witten, Daniela; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2016-10-01

    In a multivariate setting, we consider the task of identifying features whose correlations with the other features differ across conditions. Such correlation shifts may occur independently of mean shifts, or differences in the means of the individual features across conditions. Previous approaches for detecting correlation shifts consider features simultaneously, by computing a correlation-based test statistic for each feature. However, since correlations involve two features, such approaches do not lend themselves to identifying which feature is the culprit. In this article, we instead consider a serial testing approach, by comparing columns of the sample correlation matrix across two conditions, and removing one feature at a time. Our method provides a novel perspective and favorable empirical results compared with competing approaches. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Does Attention Serve to Integrate Features?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, David; Treisman, Anne

    1990-01-01

    An article and two commentaries consider the attentional feature-integration theory proposed by A. Treisman and colleagues. Hypotheses about the encoding of conjunctions are reviewed. Whether or not data support perceptual feature-integration is argued. (SLD)

  16. Cascaded face alignment via intimacy definition feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailiang; Lam, Kin-Man; Chiu, Man-Yau; Wu, Kangheng; Lei, Zhibin

    2017-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emerging popularity of regression-based face aligners, which directly learn mappings between facial appearance and shape-increment manifolds. We propose a random-forest based, cascaded regression model for face alignment by using a locally lightweight feature, namely intimacy definition feature. This feature is more discriminative than the pose-indexed feature, more efficient than the histogram of oriented gradients feature and the scale-invariant feature transform feature, and more compact than the local binary feature (LBF). Experimental validation of our algorithm shows that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance when testing on some challenging datasets. Compared with the LBF-based algorithm, our method achieves about twice the speed, 20% improvement in terms of alignment accuracy and saves an order of magnitude on memory requirement.

  17. Temporal Feature Integration for Music Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis focuses on temporal feature integration for music organisation. Temporal feature integration is the process of combining all the feature vectors of a given time-frame into a single new feature vector in order to capture relevant information in the frame. Several existing methods...... for handling sequences of features are formulated in the temporal feature integration framework. Two datasets for music genre classification have been considered as valid test-beds for music organisation. Human evaluations of these, have been obtained to access the subjectivity on the datasets. Temporal...... ranking' approach is proposed for ranking the short-time features at larger time-scales according to their discriminative power in a music genre classification task. The multivariate AR (MAR) model has been proposed for temporal feature integration. It effectively models local dynamical structure...

  18. Reversible paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis as the presenting feature of ovarian teratoma: A clinicopathological correlate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajappa Senthil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM is a well-characterized neurological syndrome. Its association with ovarian teratoma is rare. A young lady presented with features suggestive of encephalomyelitis with predominant cerebellar syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging brain was normal. Cerebrospinal fluid showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. Computerized tomography scan of the pelvis revealed a complex left ovarian cyst. With a clinical diagnosis of PEM she underwent a left salpingo-oopherectomy. This was followed by total recovery of the PEM in two weeks. The histopathology revealed immature teratoma. The interesting feature was the clinicopathological correlation between the finding of fetal cerebellar tissue in the tumor and the PEM with predominant cerebellar features.

  19. Analysis of wheezes using wavelet higher order spectral features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplidou, Styliani A; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J

    2010-07-01

    Wheezes are musical breath sounds, which usually imply an existing pulmonary obstruction, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although many studies have addressed the problem of wheeze detection, a limited number of scientific works has focused in the analysis of wheeze characteristics, and in particular, their time-varying nonlinear characteristics. In this study, an effort is made to reveal and statistically analyze the nonlinear characteristics of wheezes and their evolution over time, as they are reflected in the quadratic phase coupling of their harmonics. To this end, the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is used in combination with third-order spectra to define the analysis domain, where the nonlinear interactions of the harmonics of wheezes and their time variations are revealed by incorporating instantaneous wavelet bispectrum and bicoherence, which provide with the instantaneous biamplitude and biphase curves. Based on this nonlinear information pool, a set of 23 features is proposed for the nonlinear analysis of wheezes. Two complementary perspectives, i.e., general and detailed, related to average performance and to localities, respectively, were used in the construction of the feature set, in order to embed trends and local behaviors, respectively, seen in the nonlinear interaction of the harmonic elements of wheezes over time. The proposed feature set was evaluated on a dataset of wheezes, acquired from adult patients with diagnosed asthma and COPD from a lung sound database. The statistical evaluation of the feature set revealed discrimination ability between the two pathologies for all data subgroupings. In particular, when the total breathing cycle was examined, all 23 features, but one, showed statistically significant difference between the COPD and asthma pathologies, whereas for the subgroupings of inspiratory and expiratory phases, 18 out of 23 and 22 out of 23 features exhibited discrimination power, respectively

  20. Effective Feature Preprocessing for Time Series Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Junhua; Dong, Zhaoyang; Xu, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Time series forecasting is an important area in data mining research. Feature preprocessing techniques have significant influence on forecasting accuracy, therefore are essential in a forecasting model. Although several feature preprocessing techniques have been applied in time series forecasting...... performance in time series forecasting. It is demonstrated in our experiment that, effective feature preprocessing can significantly enhance forecasting accuracy. This research can be a useful guidance for researchers on effectively selecting feature preprocessing techniques and integrating them with time...... series forecasting models....

  1. Textural features for radar image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugan, K. S.; Narayanan, V.; Frost, V. S.; Stiles, J. A.; Holtzman, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Texture is seen as an important spatial feature useful for identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. While textural features have been widely used in analyzing a variety of photographic images, they have not been used in processing radar images. A procedure for extracting a set of textural features for characterizing small areas in radar images is presented, and it is shown that these features can be used in classifying segments of radar images corresponding to different geological formations.

  2. Double trisomy (48,XXX,+18) with features of Roberts syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descartes, M.; Longshore, J.W.; Crawford, E. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report an infant with double trisomy 48,XXX,+18, who also displayed features of Roberts syndrome. All previously published cases with similar double trisomy have presented with features of trisomy 18 syndrome. The chromosome analysis done at birth revealed the double trisomy; parental chromosomes were normal. The proband presented with microbrachycephaly, unilateral cleft lip and palate, choanal atresia, midfacial capillary hemanioma, thin nares, shallow orbits, malformed ears, sparse hair, hypomelia of the upper limbs, rocker-bottom feet, auricular septal defect and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Characteristic features of Roberts syndrome included hypomelia, midfacial defects, and severe growth deficiency. Among the many different features reported in the literature for patients with trisomy 18 syndrome, the most consistent were growth deficiency, clenched fingers and congenital heart defects (e.g. VSD, ASD, PDA). Although some of our patient`s features such as cleft lip and cleft palate, low-set malformed ears, ASD, defects of the corpus callosum, choanal atresia, radial aplasia could also be seen in trisomy 18 syndrome (in 10-50% of the cases), her phenotype was more typical of Roberts syndrome because of symmetrical hypomelia and midfacial defects. Our patient`s chromosomes did not show premature separation of centromeric heterochromatin, a feature reported to occur in approximately one-half of individuals with Roberts syndrome. Sporadic aneuploidy involving different chromosomes has been found in lymphocyte cultures from some Roberts syndrome patients and is considered by some authors as a mitotic mutant. This aneuploidy is most likely to be chromosome gain. The simultaneous occurrence of trisomy X and 18 is extremely rare with only 11 cases having been reported in the literature. Our patient is unique since she has the double trisomy in addition to the characteristic features of Roberts syndrome.

  3. FEATURE SELECTION METHODS BASED ON MUTUAL INFORMATION FOR CLASSIFYING HETEROGENEOUS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratri Enggar Pawening

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Datasets with heterogeneous features can affect feature selection results that are not appropriate because it is difficult to evaluate heterogeneous features concurrently. Feature transformation (FT is another way to handle heterogeneous features subset selection. The results of transformation from non-numerical into numerical features may produce redundancy to the original numerical features. In this paper, we propose a method to select feature subset based on mutual information (MI for classifying heterogeneous features. We use unsupervised feature transformation (UFT methods and joint mutual information maximation (JMIM methods. UFT methods is used to transform non-numerical features into numerical features. JMIM methods is used to select feature subset with a consideration of the class label. The transformed and the original features are combined entirely, then determine features subset by using JMIM methods, and classify them using support vector machine (SVM algorithm. The classification accuracy are measured for any number of selected feature subset and compared between UFT-JMIM methods and Dummy-JMIM methods. The average classification accuracy for all experiments in this study that can be achieved by UFT-JMIM methods is about 84.47% and Dummy-JMIM methods is about 84.24%. This result shows that UFT-JMIM methods can minimize information loss between transformed and original features, and select feature subset to avoid redundant and irrelevant features.

  4. Novel Features for Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, W. L.; Cichocki, A.

    2007-01-01

    While conventional approaches of BCI feature extraction are based on the power spectrum, we have tried using nonlinear features for classifying BCI data. In this paper, we report our test results and findings, which indicate that the proposed method is a potentially useful addition to current feature extraction techniques. PMID:18364991

  5. Patterns of Dysmorphic Features in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, L.E.; Chow, E.W.C.; Weksberg, R.; Honer, W.G.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital dysmorphic features are prevalent in schizophrenia and may reflect underlying neurodevelopmental abnormalities. A cluster analysis approach delineating patterns of dysmorphic features has been used in genetics to classify individuals into more etiologically homogeneous subgroups. In the present study, this approach was applied to schizophrenia, using a sample with a suspected genetic syndrome as a testable model. Subjects (n = 159) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were ascertained from chronic patient populations (random, n=123) or referred with possible 22q11 deletion syndrome (referred, n = 36). All subjects were evaluated for presence or absence of 70 reliably assessed dysmorphic features, which were used in a three-step cluster analysis. The analysis produced four major clusters with different patterns of dysmorphic features. Significant between-cluster differences were found for rates of 37 dysmorphic features (P dysmorphic features (P = 0.0001), and validating features not used in the cluster analysis: mild mental retardation (P = 0.001) and congenital heart defects (P = 0.002). Two clusters (1 and 4) appeared to represent more developmental subgroups of schizophrenia with elevated rates of dysmorphic features and validating features. Cluster 1 (n = 27) comprised mostly referred subjects. Cluster 4 (n= 18) had a different pattern of dysmorphic features; one subject had a mosaic Turner syndrome variant. Two other clusters had lower rates and patterns of features consistent with those found in previous studies of schizophrenia. Delineating patterns of dysmorphic features may help identify subgroups that could represent neurodevelopmental forms of schizophrenia with more homogeneous origins. PMID:11803519

  6. Review of research in feature based design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, O.W.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Research in feature-based design is reviewed. Feature-based design is regarded as a key factor towards CAD/CAPP integration from a process planning point of view. From a design point of view, feature-based design offers possibilities for supporting the design process better than current CAD systems

  7. MRI features associated with acute appendicitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, Marjolein M. N.; Jensch, Sebastiaan; Gratama, Jan W. C.; Spilt, Aart; Wiarda, Bart M.; van Es, H. Wouter; Cobben, Lodewijk P. J.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Stoker, Jaap; Bouma, Wim H.; Houdijk, Alexander P. J.; Richir, Milan C.; Stockmann, Hein B. A. C.; Wiezer, Marinus J.; Verhagen, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    To identify MRI features associated with appendicitis. Features expected to be associated with appendicitis were recorded in consensus by two expert radiologists on 223 abdominal MRIs in patients with suspected appendicitis. Nine MRI features were studied: appendix diameter >7 mm, appendicolith,

  8. SOME ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES OF PHYTOPLANKTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha A. Al-Tayyar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Todefine the biological features of phytoplankton in Mosul  Dam  Lake, monthly samples were collectedalong a year from September 2003 to August 2004. Consisting thermalstratification and turn over periods from four locations in the main lake andanother location in the regulating lake. Total numbers of algae  reached 2300 cell/ml in the main lake and 1100cell/ml in the regulating lake.Bacillariophyta were dominant with a maximum number of 1400 cell/ml in autumn. Chlorophytawere dominant in autumn also with 550 cell/ml. Ten genus of Chlorophyta wereappeared in this water body: Cosmarium, Chlorella, Spirogyra, Scendesmus, Pediastrum, Tetraedron, Quadrigula, Ankiseradosm, Pandorina, and Straurastrum.Seven genus of Bacillariophyta were noticeable. Some genus of Cyanophyta was recorded as Aphanocapsa. In addition someEuglenophyta spp. were occurred in the main lake and the regulating lake also. On thebasis of these algae abundance, the lake is undergoing cultural Eutrophication.It has passed in mesotrophic state (the middle trophic state ofEutrophication. Some genera which were appeared are the indication ofeutrophic state.Totalplate count bacteria ranged from 400-1700 cell/ ml in the main lake and 200-950 cell/ml in the regulating lakewere also recorded. Coliform bacteria were founded with most probablenumber  reached 460 cell/100ml in themain lake and 150 cell/100ml in the regulating lake. Therefore, the lake wateris classified as moderate pure and considering a good source of raw water supplywith all treatment units and safe for swimming and recreational uses.

  9. Clinicopathologic Features of Pediatric Oligodendrogliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Tihan, Tarik; Lin, Doris; McDonald, William; Nigro, Janice; Feuerstein, Burt; Jackson, Sadhana; Cohen, Kenneth; Burger, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrogliomas are an important adult form of diffuse gliomas with a distinctive clinical and genetic profile. Histologically similar tumors occurring rarely in children are incompletely characterized. We studied 50 patients with oligodendrogliomas (median age at diagnosis 8 y, range 7mo to 20 y). Tumors resembling dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors or pilocytic astrocytomas or those having a “mixed” histology were excluded. Tumors at first diagnosis were low grade (n=38) or anaplastic (n=12). Histologic features included uniform round cells with perinuclear halos (100%), secondary structures (predominantly perineuronal satellitosis) (90%), calcifications (46%), and microcysts (44%). Sequential surgical specimens were obtained in 8 low-grade oligodendroglioma patients, with only 1 progressing to anaplasia. Studies for 1p19q performed in 40 cases demonstrated intact 1p19q loci in 29 (73%), 1p19q codeletion in 10 (25%), and 1p deletion with intact 19q in 1 (2%). Except for 2 young patients (3 and 11 y of age), patients with 1p19q codeletion were older than 16 years at diagnosis. Mutant IDH1 (R132H) protein immunohistochemistry was positive in 4 (of 22) (18%) cases, 3 of which also had 1p19q codeletion, whereas 1p19q status was not available on the fourth case. There was a nonsignificant trend for worse overall survival in grade III tumors, but no significant association with age, extent of resection, or 1p19q status. In summary, oligodendrogliomas with classic histology occur in the pediatric population but lack 1p19q codeletion and IDH1 (R132H) mutations in most instances. They are predominantly low grade, recur/clinically progress in a subset, but demonstrate a relatively low frequency of histologic progression. PMID:24805856

  10. Clinical Features of Fatal Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Zuei Chen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the clinical features of fatal asthma, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who died of an acute asthma attack in our hospital during a 15-year period from 1989 to 2003. Twelve patients had fatal asthma during this period, including eight who were dead on arrival in the emergency room (ER and three who died within 1 hour of admission to the ER. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the clinical presentations during the fatal attack: (1 rapid (< 3 hours decompensation in four patients; (2 gradual development of respiratory failure over several days in two patients; and (3 acute deterioration after unstable asthma lasting several days in six patients. All patients in groups 1 and 2 had reported previous near-fatal attacks. The proportion of young patients was highest in group 3, with half of them (3/6 younger than 35 years of age. Only one patient in group 3 had had a previous near-fatal attack. Five of the seven patients, with previous near-fatal attacks, had a pattern of decompensation during their fatal attack that was similar to their previous attacks. In conclusion, nearly all patients with fatal asthma in this study died outside of the hospital or within 1 hour after admission to the ER. Patients had patterns of decompensation during the fatal attack that were similar to those of their previous attacks. Early detection of warning signs, early admission to the ER, adequate treatment, and extremely close observation of patients, especially within 1 hour after ER arrival, may prevent or decrease the incidence of fatal asthmatic attack.

  11. Imaging features of cardiac myxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Youyou; Zheng Lili; Li Xiangmin; Zhou Xuhui; Kuang Jianyi; Zhang Wenzhao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging features of cardiac myxoma and their diagnostic values. Methods: Twenty-two patrents with cardiac myxoma were reviewed retrospectively for the clinical, pathologic, and radiologic findings. Posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs, American Imatron C-150 XP Electron Beam CT examination, and Germany Siemens 1.5T Magnetom Vision MR scan were performed on every patient. Results: (1) Radiographs of 17 patients with left atrial myxoma showed evidence of mitral valve obstruction in 14(82.3%), radiographs of 5 patients with right atrial myxoma demonstrated right atrium enlargement in 3(60%) respectively. (2) CT scans of 22 myxomas demonstrated 18 (81.8%) lesions were hypoattenuated and 4 (19.1%) were isoattenuated relative to the myocardium. Calcification or ossification was seen in 3 patients. All myxomas apart from massive one were found attaching to the atrial septum. Movie mode could dis- play the movement of myxoma across the atrioventicular valves. (3) MRI studies of 22 myxomas showed 19 (86.3%) heterogeneous signal intensity and 3 (13.7%) homogeneous. They exhibited slight high or homogeneous signal intensity with both T 1 - and T 2 -weighted sequences, and low signal intensity with cine gradient recalled echo sequences. Point of attachment was visible in 21 (95.4%) cases. Conclusion: The typical radiograph sign of cardiac myxomas is mitral valve obstruction, CT and MR can demonstrate intracavitary lobular masses attacthing to artrial spetum. The latter two kinds of examinations not only provide accurate assessment of the size, location, and attachment point of these lesions, but also have important qualitative diagnostic advantage. (authors)

  12. Featured Image: Simulating Planetary Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    The authors model of howthe above disk would look as we observe it in a scattered-light image. The morphology of the gap can be used to estimate the mass of the planet that caused it. [Dong Fung 2017]The above image from a computer simulation reveals the dust structure of a protoplanetary disk (with the star obscured in the center) as a newly formed planet orbits within it. A recent study by Ruobing Dong (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona) and Jeffrey Fung (University of California, Berkeley) examines how we can determine mass of such a planet based on our observations of the gap that the planet opens in the disk as it orbits. The authors models help us to better understand how our observations of gaps might change if the disk is inclined relative to our line of sight, and how we can still constrain the mass of the gap-opening planet and the viscosity of the disk from the scattered-light images we have recently begun to obtain of distant protoplanetary disks. For more information, check out the paper below!CitationRuobing Dong () and Jeffrey Fung () 2017 ApJ 835 146. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/146

  13. Feature selection and nearest centroid classification for protein mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levner Ilya

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of mass spectrometry as a proteomics tool is poised to revolutionize early disease diagnosis and biomarker identification. Unfortunately, before standard supervised classification algorithms can be employed, the "curse of dimensionality" needs to be solved. Due to the sheer amount of information contained within the mass spectra, most standard machine learning techniques cannot be directly applied. Instead, feature selection techniques are used to first reduce the dimensionality of the input space and thus enable the subsequent use of classification algorithms. This paper examines feature selection techniques for proteomic mass spectrometry. Results This study examines the performance of the nearest centroid classifier coupled with the following feature selection algorithms. Student-t test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the P-test are univariate statistics used for filter-based feature ranking. From the wrapper approaches we tested sequential forward selection and a modified version of sequential backward selection. Embedded approaches included shrunken nearest centroid and a novel version of boosting based feature selection we developed. In addition, we tested several dimensionality reduction approaches, namely principal component analysis and principal component analysis coupled with linear discriminant analysis. To fairly assess each algorithm, evaluation was done using stratified cross validation with an internal leave-one-out cross-validation loop for automated feature selection. Comprehensive experiments, conducted on five popular cancer data sets, revealed that the less advocated sequential forward selection and boosted feature selection algorithms produce the most consistent results across all data sets. In contrast, the state-of-the-art performance reported on isolated data sets for several of the studied algorithms, does not hold across all data sets. Conclusion This study tested a number of popular feature

  14. Sequence features responsible for intron retention in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakabe Noboru

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the least common types of alternative splicing is the complete retention of an intron in a mature transcript. Intron retention (IR is believed to be the result of intron, rather than exon, definition associated with failure of the recognition of weak splice sites flanking short introns. Although studies on individual retained introns have been published, few systematic surveys of large amounts of data have been conducted on the mechanisms that lead to IR. Results TTo understand how sequence features are associated with or control IR, and to produce a generalized model that could reveal previously unknown signals that regulate this type of alternative splicing, we partitioned intron retention events observed in human cDNAs into two groups based on the relative abundance of both isoforms and compared relevant features. We found that a higher frequency of IR in human is associated with individual introns that have weaker splice sites, genes with shorter intron lengths, higher expression levels and lower density of both a set of exon splicing silencers (ESSs and the intronic splicing enhancer GGG. Both groups of retained introns presented events conserved in mouse, in which the retained introns were also short and presented weaker splice sites. Conclusion Although our results confirmed that weaker splice sites are associated with IR, they showed that this feature alone cannot explain a non-negligible fraction of events. Our analysis suggests that cis-regulatory elements are likely to play a crucial role in regulating IR and also reveals previously unknown features that seem to influence its occurrence. These results highlight the importance of considering the interplay among these features in the regulation of the relative frequency of IR.

  15. The way of professional identity: gender features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Kodatska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of formation of the professional identity on the level of personality and during the further development of the individual has been described in the article. Main gender differences of the process of self-determination which is not limited only by the choice of profession, but continues during the professional development have been described. The concept of socialization as a process of identity formation in contemporary social conditions and career building process has been studied. This concept is a multifunctional social-psychological phenomenon. Moreover, it has been proven during the research that the problem of professional identity has very big practical importance as it is one of the key social, psychological and educational processes in human activity during a career building. Cultural, historical, political, legal, individual psychological and socio-demographic barriers to women’s professional realisation have been studied. The conclusions has been made that in order to maintain the gender parity in society, the opportunity to balance successfully between work and family responsibilities is extremely important both for women and men. It has been emphasized that support of equal rights and opportunities for both sexes requires special governmental mechanism. Basic gender features of a professional career have been revealed in the article and their impact on personal career has been analyzed. Also the features of the role in socialization and the formation of gender identity have been defined. In addition, the necessity to ensure equal opportunities for professional and individual self-determination regardless gender, age, nationality or social origin has been grounded. Also it has been noted that the introduction of gender parity in educational institutions and enterprises of all forms of ownership provides a number of advantages, among which the main are: improvement of the quality of selection for employment; provision

  16. Features of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This montage features activity in the turbulent region of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Four sets of images of the GRS were taken through various filters of the Galileo imaging system over an 11.5 hour period on 26 June, 1996 Universal Time. The sequence was designed to reveal cloud motions. The top and bottom frames on the left are of the same area, northeast of the GRS, viewed through the methane (732 nm) filter but about 70 minutes apart. The top left and top middle frames are of the same area and at the same time, but the top middle frame is taken at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane absorbs more strongly. (Only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength.) Brightness differences are caused by the different depths of features in the two images. The bottom middle frame shows reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere. The white spot is to the northwest of the GRS; its appearance at different wavelengths suggests that the brightest elements are 30 km higher than the surrounding clouds. The top and bottom frames on the right, taken nine hours apart and in the violet (415 nm) filter, show the time evolution of an atmospheric wave northeast of the GRS. Visible crests in the top right frame are much less apparent 9 hours later in the bottom right frame. The misalignment of the north-south wave crests with the observed northwestward local wind may indicate a shift in wind direction (wind shear) with height. The areas within the dark lines are 'truth windows' or sections of the images which were transmitted to Earth using less data compression. Each of the six squares covers 4.8 degrees of latitude and longitude (about 6000 square kilometers). North is at the top of each frame.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The

  17. Remodularizing Java programs for comprehension of features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2009-01-01

    . In absence of these mechanisms, feature implementations tend to be scattered and tangled in terms of object-oriented abstractions, making the code implementing features difficult to locate and comprehend. In this paper we present a semi-automatic method for feature-oriented remodularization of Java programs....... Our method uses execution traces to locate implementations of features, and Java packages to establish explicit feature modules. To evaluate usefulness of the approach, we present a case study where we apply our method to two real-world software systems. The obtained results indicate a significant...

  18. Feature coding for image representation and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yongzhen

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents a comprehensive introduction to feature coding, which serves as a key module for the typical object recognition pipeline. The text offers a rich blend of theory and practice while reflects the recent developments on feature coding, covering the following five aspects: (1) Review the state-of-the-art, analyzing the motivations and mathematical representations of various feature coding methods; (2) Explore how various feature coding algorithms evolve along years; (3) Summarize the main characteristics of typical feature coding algorithms and categorize them accordingly; (4) D

  19. Spinoff 2001: Special Millennium Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Research and Processing Laboratory. The new laboratory is the first step toward the development of a proposed 400-acre Space Commerce Park, located at Kennedy Space Center. Spinoff, once again, successfully showcases the variety of commercial successes and benefits resulting from the transfer of NASA technology to private industry. It is with great pride and pleasure that we present Spinoff 2001 with a Special Millennium Feature. With help from U.S. industry and commercial technology programs, NASA will continue to assist in the presentation of innovative new products to our nation.

  20. Controllable edge feature sharpening for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ran; Jin, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry.

  1. Controllable Edge Feature Sharpening for Dental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to sharpen blurred edge features in scanned tooth preparation surfaces generated by structured-light scanners. It aims to efficiently enhance the edge features so that the embedded feature lines can be easily identified in dental CAD systems, and to avoid unnatural oversharpening geometry. We first separate the feature regions using graph-cut segmentation, which does not require a user-defined threshold. Then, we filter the face normal vectors to propagate the geometry from the smooth region to the feature region. In order to control the degree of the sharpness, we propose a feature distance measure which is based on normal tensor voting. Finally, the vertex positions are updated according to the modified face normal vectors. We have applied the approach to scanned tooth preparation models. The results show that the blurred edge features are enhanced without unnatural oversharpening geometry.

  2. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  3. [Clinical and pathogenetic features of esophageal spasm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsova, L D; Pichugina, I M; Yanova, O B; Berezina, O I; Bordin, D S

    2015-01-01

    To comparatively analyze clinical manifestations in patients with primary esophageal spasm (ES) and its concurrence with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the results of their instrumental examinations and psychodiagnostic tests. A total of 104 patients with the clinical and manometric signs of ES were examined and divided into two groups: 1) 42 patients with primary ES; 2) 62 patients with ES concurrent with GERD. The examination encompassed esophageal manometry, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, 24-hour pH metry, and an interview using a questionnaire to identify autonomic disorders, and the Mini-Mult test. The patients with primary ES compared to those with ES concurrent with GERD significantly more frequently showed severe pain syndrome (p = 0.009) and a paradoxical dysphagia pattern (p = 0.03); manometry revealed an incoordination in the motility of the entire esophagus (p = 0.001). Comparison of the statistical series of values for contraction amplitude and duration in the distal esophagus found no significant difference in the patients of both groups. Autonomic disturbances were detected in 76.0% of the patients with ES; but the intergroup differences were insignificant. Mental maladaptation was observed in 81.7% of the patients in the absence of intergroup differences. The etiopathogenetic factor of ES is a psychoautonomic response to chronic stress in both primary ES and its concurrence with GERD. The reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus does not appear to be one of the leading causes of ES. In primary ES, esophageal motor function is generally impaired to a much greater extent than that in ES concurrent with GERD. The degree of motor disorders is embodied in the specific clinical features of the disease.

  4. Features of the content of corporate contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Petrovna Gladneva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the legal nature to reveal the peculiarities of the subject and other essential terms of corporate contracts as a technique and means of legal regulation of corporate relations. Methods general and specific methods of cognition dialectical formal logic analysis synthesis modeling structural and systemicfunctional methods as well as comparative legal logical legal historical legal grammatical methods and systemic interpretation. Results it is concluded that the object of corporate contracts includes terms about the features of implementation of corporate rights for shares and share in capital assets conditions order of the implementation of corporate rights and approval of other actions related to company management activity reorganization and liquidation the passive duty of corporate organizations to refrain from committing any action authority arising from the nature of corporate agreements as well as the active responsibilities associated with the certain implementation of corporate rights certified by stocks shares rights to stocks shares. In addition to the subject the content of corporate contractsincludes other essential necessary conditions stipulated by the corporate legislation norms and the agreement of the participants of economic entity. Scientific novelty for the first time taking into account modern achievements of civilistic jurisprudence and practice the authors investigate the relationship between the concepts of a civil contract and corporate contract give the definition of corporate contract show the specificity of the subject and other material terms of corporate contracts. Practical significance the findings can be taken into account in the further research of corporate law issues as subbranch of civil law used in law making and enforcement activities in the educational process as a teaching material in civil law. nbsp

  5. Morphological features in a Xhosa schizophrenia population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Jacqueline E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demonstrating an association between physical malformation and schizophrenia could be considered supportive of a neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia and may offer insights into a critical period for the development of this illness. The aim of our study was to investigate whether differences in the presence of minor physical anomalies could be demonstrated between schizophrenia sufferers and normal controls in a Xhosa population with a view to identifying a means of subtyping schizophrenia for use in future genetic studies. Methods Sixty-three subjects with schizophrenia (21 sibling pairs, 1 sibship of four and a group of probands with an affected non-participating sibling (n = 17, 81 normal controls (37 singletons and 22 sibling pairs of Xhosa ethnicity were recruited. Each participant was then examined for minor physical anomalies using the Modified Waldrop scale. The relationship between each of the morphological features and the presence of an affected sib was examined using the Chi-squared test, followed by an intra-pair concordance analysis in the sibling pairs. Results Gap between first and second toes was significantly more common in the affected sib pair group when compared to the non-affected sib pair group (p = 0.019 and non-affected singleton control group (p = 0.013. Concordance analysis also revealed increased concordance for this item in the affected sib pair group. Conclusion These findings offer an intriguing possibility that in the Xhosa population, affected sib pair status may be linked to a neurodevelopmental insult during a specific period of the fetal developmental.

  6. Craniofacial features of children with spinal deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Végh András

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this epidemiological study is to map the dentofacial anomalies that can be correlated to the two most frequent spinal diseases responsible for postural abnormalities and that can be clinically identified by the orthodontic examination. Methods Twenty-three children with Scheuermann's disease participated in the study (mean age: 14Y8M; SD: 1Y8M, 28 with Scoliosis (mean age: 14Y7M; SD: 2Y3M and a control group of 68 orthopedically healthy children (mean age: 14Y8M; SD: 0Y11M. Standardized orthodontic screening protocols were used to map the occlusal relations in the sagittal, vertical, and transversal dimensions, space relations of the maxillary and mandibular frontal segment, and the TMJ status and function. The examinations for the children with orthopedic disorders were supplemented by the evaluation of routine orthodontic radiograms – lateral cephalograms and panoramic X-rays. Results The majority of the dentofacial features examined revealed more and greater abnormalities among patients in the Scheuermann's disease group than in the scoliosis group. In the latter group the proportion of the TMJ symptoms and the consecutive functional deviations were greater. When comparing the values of the two spinal-disorder groups and the control group, statistically significant differences (p p Conclusion The more extended treatment of the malocclusions closely correlated to postural disorders draws attention to the indicators of a higher frequency and severity occurring in the case of the dentofacial deviations in the patients of the MSCH group who had previously been less examined.

  7. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM REVEALING ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebbi Wafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of panniculitis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to various etiologies. However, the occurrence of erythema nodosum in malignant hemopathy had rarely been reported. Case report: A 42 year-old woman presented with a four week history of recurrent multiple painful erythematous nodules developed on the lower limbs associated with arthralgia of the ankles and fever. The clinical features of skin lesions with contusiform color evolution allowed establishing the diagnosis of EN. No underlying cause was found. The skin lesions were improved with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. Three months later, the patient consulted for recurrence of EN associated with fever, inflammatory polyarthralgia and hepatosplenomegaly. The peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia. A bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia type 2. Initiation of chemotherapy was followed by the complete disappearance of skin lesions of EN. Conclusion: Paraneoplastic erythema nodosum is a rare entity. In the literature, a few cases of association with leukemia have been reported. Exploration for solid neoplasms or hemopathy in case of recurrent EN or resistance to conventional treatment should be systematic

  8. [Polymyalgia rheumatica revealing a lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Defuentes, G; Duron-Martineau, S; Berets, O; Vaylet, F; Margery, J

    2013-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory condition belonging to the connective tissue diseases, which occurs quite frequently in the elderly. Previously, cases have been reported in association with malignant tumours, in a synchronous fashion or prior to the appearance of the cancer. In these cases, the polymyalgia rheumatica is considered to be a paraneoplastic syndrome. We report the cases of a 63-year-old woman and a 58-year-old man with severe proximal girdle pain associated to a high-level of systemic inflammatory markers and a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica was made. In the face of a lack of ineffectiveness of analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatments, an intensive investigation was undertaken which in both cases revealed an adenocarcinoma of the lung. The rheumatic manifestations responded well to chemotherapy targeting the lung tumour. We present here a review of the literature to give prominence to the diagnostic pitfalls that can occur around paraneoplastic polymyalgia rheumatica. The presence of therapeutic resistance at the onset of treatment and other atypical features may suggest the presence of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Features for detecting smoke in laparoscopic videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Nour Aldeen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Video-based smoke detection in laparoscopic surgery has different potential applications, such as the automatic addressing of surgical events associated with the electrocauterization task and the development of automatic smoke removal. In the literature, video-based smoke detection has been studied widely for fire surveillance systems. Nevertheless, the proposed methods are insufficient for smoke detection in laparoscopic videos because they often depend on assumptions which rarely hold in laparoscopic surgery such as static camera. In this paper, ten visual features based on motion, texture and colour of smoke are proposed and evaluated for smoke detection in laparoscopic videos. These features are RGB channels, energy-based feature, texture features based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM, HSV colour space feature, features based on the detection of moving regions using optical flow and the smoke colour in HSV colour space. These features were tested on four laparoscopic cholecystectomy videos. Experimental observations show that each feature can provide valuable information in performing the smoke detection task. However, each feature has weaknesses to detect the presence of smoke in some cases. By combining all proposed features smoke with high and even low density can be identified robustly and the classification accuracy increases significantly.

  10. Light field morphing using 2D features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lifeng; Lin, Stephen; Lee, Seungyong; Guo, Baining; Shum, Heung-Yeung

    2005-01-01

    We present a 2D feature-based technique for morphing 3D objects represented by light fields. Existing light field morphing methods require the user to specify corresponding 3D feature elements to guide morph computation. Since slight errors in 3D specification can lead to significant morphing artifacts, we propose a scheme based on 2D feature elements that is less sensitive to imprecise marking of features. First, 2D features are specified by the user in a number of key views in the source and target light fields. Then the two light fields are warped view by view as guided by the corresponding 2D features. Finally, the two warped light fields are blended together to yield the desired light field morph. Two key issues in light field morphing are feature specification and warping of light field rays. For feature specification, we introduce a user interface for delineating 2D features in key views of a light field, which are automatically interpolated to other views. For ray warping, we describe a 2D technique that accounts for visibility changes and present a comparison to the ideal morphing of light fields. Light field morphing based on 2D features makes it simple to incorporate previous image morphing techniques such as nonuniform blending, as well as to morph between an image and a light field.

  11. Annotation-based feature extraction from sets of SBML models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Rebekka; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wolfien, Markus; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Henkel, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Model repositories such as BioModels Database provide computational models of biological systems for the scientific community. These models contain rich semantic annotations that link model entities to concepts in well-established bio-ontologies such as Gene Ontology. Consequently, thematically similar models are likely to share similar annotations. Based on this assumption, we argue that semantic annotations are a suitable tool to characterize sets of models. These characteristics improve model classification, allow to identify additional features for model retrieval tasks, and enable the comparison of sets of models. In this paper we discuss four methods for annotation-based feature extraction from model sets. We tested all methods on sets of models in SBML format which were composed from BioModels Database. To characterize each of these sets, we analyzed and extracted concepts from three frequently used ontologies, namely Gene Ontology, ChEBI and SBO. We find that three out of the methods are suitable to determine characteristic features for arbitrary sets of models: The selected features vary depending on the underlying model set, and they are also specific to the chosen model set. We show that the identified features map on concepts that are higher up in the hierarchy of the ontologies than the concepts used for model annotations. Our analysis also reveals that the information content of concepts in ontologies and their usage for model annotation do not correlate. Annotation-based feature extraction enables the comparison of model sets, as opposed to existing methods for model-to-keyword comparison, or model-to-model comparison.

  12. Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

    2014-10-21

    Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments.

  13. Classification Influence of Features on Given Emotions and Its Application in Feature Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yin; Chen, Chuang; Liu, Li-Long

    2018-04-01

    In order to solve the problem that there is a large amount of redundant data in high-dimensional speech emotion features, we analyze deeply the extracted speech emotion features and select better features. Firstly, a given emotion is classified by each feature. Secondly, the recognition rate is ranked in descending order. Then, the optimal threshold of features is determined by rate criterion. Finally, the better features are obtained. When applied in Berlin and Chinese emotional data set, the experimental results show that the feature selection method outperforms the other traditional methods.

  14. Definitions of engineered safety features and related features for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In light water moderated, light water cooled nuclear power plants, definitions are given of engineered safety features which are designed to suppress or prevent dispersion of radioactive materials due to damage etc. of fuel at the times of power plant failures, and of related features which are designed to actuate or operate the engineered safety features. Contents are the following: scope of engineered safety features and of related features; classification of engineered safety features (direct systems and indirect systems) and of related features (auxiliaries, emergency power supply, and protective means). (Mori, K.)

  15. Rapid Online Analysis of Local Feature Detectors and Their Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ehsan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A vision system that can assess its own performance and take appropriate actions online to maximize its effectiveness would be a step towards achieving the long-cherished goal of imitating humans. This paper proposes a method for performing an online performance analysis of local feature detectors, the primary stage of many practical vision systems. It advocates the spatial distribution of local image features as a good performance indicator and presents a metric that can be calculated rapidly, concurs with human visual assessments and is complementary to existing offline measures such as repeatability. The metric is shown to provide a measure of complementarity for combinations of detectors, correctly reflecting the underlying principles of individual detectors. Qualitative results on well-established datasets for several state-of-the-art detectors are presented based on the proposed measure. Using a hypothesis testing approach and a newly-acquired, larger image database, statistically-significant performance differences are identified. Different detector pairs and triplets are examined quantitatively and the results provide a useful guideline for combining detectors in applications that require a reasonable spatial distribution of image features. A principled framework for combining feature detectors in these applications is also presented. Timing results reveal the potential of the metric for online applications.

  16. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: correlation between MSCT features and pathological classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yanji; Dong, Zhi; Li, Zi-Ping; Feng, Shi-Ting [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Radiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chen, Jie [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chan, Tao; Chen, Minhu [Union Hospital, Hong Kong, Medical Imaging Department, Shatin, N.T. (China); Lin, Yuan [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Pathology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2014-11-15

    We aimed to evaluate the multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) features of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (P-NENs) and analyse the correlation between the MSCT features and pathological classification of P-NENs. Forty-one patients, preoperatively investigated by MSCT and subsequently operated on with a histological diagnosis of P-NENs, were included. Various MSCT features of the primary tumour, lymph node, and distant metastasis were analysed. The relationship between MSCT features and pathologic classification of P-NENs was analysed with univariate and multivariate models. Contrast-enhanced images showed significant differences among the three grades of tumours in the absolute enhancement (P = 0.013) and relative enhancement (P = 0.025) at the arterial phase. Univariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences among the tumours of different grades (based on World Health Organization [WHO] 2010 classification) in tumour size (P = 0.001), tumour contour (P < 0.001), cystic necrosis (P = 0.001), tumour boundary (P = 0.003), dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (P = 0.001), peripancreatic tissue or vascular invasion (P < 0.001), lymphadenopathy (P = 0.011), and distant metastasis (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis suggested that only peripancreatic tissue or vascular invasion (HR 3.934, 95 % CI, 0.426-7.442, P = 0.028) was significantly associated with WHO 2010 pathological classification. MSCT is helpful in evaluating the pathological classification of P-NENs. (orig.)

  17. Video genre classification using multimodal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sung Ho; Bae, Tae Meon; Choo, Jin Ho; Ro, Yong Man

    2003-12-01

    We propose a video genre classification method using multimodal features. The proposed method is applied for the preprocessing of automatic video summarization or the retrieval and classification of broadcasting video contents. Through a statistical analysis of low-level and middle-level audio-visual features in video, the proposed method can achieve good performance in classifying several broadcasting genres such as cartoon, drama, music video, news, and sports. In this paper, we adopt MPEG-7 audio-visual descriptors as multimodal features of video contents and evaluate the performance of the classification by feeding the features into a decision tree-based classifier which is trained by CART. The experimental results show that the proposed method can recognize several broadcasting video genres with a high accuracy and the classification performance with multimodal features is superior to the one with unimodal features in the genre classification.

  18. Conjunctive Coding of Complex Object Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Jonathan; Cusack, Rhodri; Kendall, William; Barense, Morgan D.

    2016-01-01

    Critical to perceiving an object is the ability to bind its constituent features into a cohesive representation, yet the manner by which the visual system integrates object features to yield a unified percept remains unknown. Here, we present a novel application of multivoxel pattern analysis of neuroimaging data that allows a direct investigation of whether neural representations integrate object features into a whole that is different from the sum of its parts. We found that patterns of activity throughout the ventral visual stream (VVS), extending anteriorly into the perirhinal cortex (PRC), discriminated between the same features combined into different objects. Despite this sensitivity to the unique conjunctions of features comprising objects, activity in regions of the VVS, again extending into the PRC, was invariant to the viewpoints from which the conjunctions were presented. These results suggest that the manner in which our visual system processes complex objects depends on the explicit coding of the conjunctions of features comprising them. PMID:25921583

  19. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  20. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  1. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  2. Features of upbringing children in civil law

    OpenAIRE

    Лобжанідзе, Давид

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the features of upbringing children in civil law, in particular under the Civil Code of Georgia. The author examines the concept of the family as a social phenomenon and its underlying principles. Attention is paid also to the court practice of upbringing children and determining the place of their residence. English abstract D. Lobzhanidze Features of upbringing children in civil law. The paper analyzes the features of upbringing children in civil law, in particular u...

  3. Video Scene Parsing with Predictive Feature Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xiaojie; Li, Xin; Xiao, Huaxin; Shen, Xiaohui; Lin, Zhe; Yang, Jimei; Chen, Yunpeng; Dong, Jian; Liu, Luoqi; Jie, Zequn; Feng, Jiashi; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we address the challenging video scene parsing problem by developing effective representation learning methods given limited parsing annotations. In particular, we contribute two novel methods that constitute a unified parsing framework. (1) \\textbf{Predictive feature learning}} from nearly unlimited unlabeled video data. Different from existing methods learning features from single frame parsing, we learn spatiotemporal discriminative features by enforcing a parsing network to ...

  4. Mining Videos for Features that Drive Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    that can be added or removed from the final saliency computation. Examples of these features include intensity contrast, motion energy , color opponent...corresponding to the image. Each pixel in the feature map indicates the energy that the feature in question contributes at that location. In the standard...eye and head animation using a neurobio - logical model of visual attention. In: Bosacchi B, Fogel DB, Bezdek JC (eds) Proceedings of SPIE 48th annual

  5. Flexible feature interface for multimedia sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffland, Douglas R [Livermore, CA

    2009-06-09

    A flexible feature interface for multimedia sources system that includes a single interface for the addition of features and functions to multimedia sources and for accessing those features and functions from remote hosts. The interface utilizes the export statement: export "C" D11Export void FunctionName(int argc, char ** argv,char * result, SecureSession *ctrl) or the binary equivalent of the export statement.

  6. PROBLEMATIC FEATURES OF THE POLITICAL DECISION MAKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksey Sergeevih Voynov

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: identify the most important features in the process of making political decisions that affect the effectiveness of problem-solving situationsScientific novelty: as a result of the analysis identified the problematic features of major importance for the efficiency of the development and adoption of the most rational solution to a problem situation.Results: the analysis of the most significant features affecting the quality of decisions among them the interest of the person making deci...

  7. Radiographic features of periapical cysts and granulomas

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, R. B.; Roswati, N.; Ismail, K.

    1989-01-01

    Many studies have been reported on radiographic lesion sizes of periapical lesions. However no studies have been reported on prevalences of subjective radiographic features in these lesions except for the early assumption that a periapical cyst usually exhibit a radiopaque cortex. This study is conducted to evaluate the prevalences of several subjective radiographic features of periapical cysts and granulomas in the hope to identify features that maybe suggestive of either diagnosis. The resu...

  8. Less common CT features of medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, C.S; Segall, H.D.; Miller, C.; Ahmad, J.; McComb, J.G.; Han, J.S.; Park, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    While many medulloblastomas have characteristic features on computed tomography (CT), a significant number have atypical features, including a cystic or necrotic component, calcification, hemorrhage, lack of contrast enhancement, and eccentric location, and/or direct supratentorial extension. Of 30 consecutive untreated cases reviewed by the authors, 14 (47%) had such findings. Failure to make the proper diagnosis will result in some cases if these features are not recognized as possible signs of medulloblastoma

  9. Feature Binding and the Hebb Repetition Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Maeve

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have found no evidence that long-term learning of integrated objects and individual features benefit visual short term memory tasks (Logie, Brockmole, & Vandenbroucke, in press; Olson & Jiang, 2004; Treisman, 2006). These findings may have been due to stimulus interference as a restricted number of features were utilised in these studies to form objects in the stimulus arrays. In these studies, participants would have needed to break apart the features of several objects in a...

  10. A Novel Approach for Automatic Machining Feature Recognition with Edge Blend Feature

    OpenAIRE

    Keong Chen Wong; Yusof Yusri

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for efficiently recognizing and determining the convexity of an edge blend feature. The algorithm first recognizes all of the edge blend features from the Boundary Representation of a part; then a series of convexity test have been run on the recognized edge blend features. The novelty of the presented algorithm lies in, instead of each recognized blend feature is suppressed as most of researchers did, the recognized blend features of this research are gone th...

  11. [MRI semiotics features of experimental acute intracerebral hematomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenchev, D V; Skvortsova, V I; Tvorogova, T V; Guseva, O I; Gubskiĭ, L V; Kupriianov, D A; Pirogov, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of revealing intracerebral hematomas (ICH), using MRI, within the first hours after onset and to determine their MRI semiotics features. Thirty animals with experimental ICH were studied. A method of two-stage introduction of autologous blood was used to develop ICH as human spontaneous intracranial hematomas. Within 3-5h after blood introduction to the rat brain. The control MRI was performed in the 3rd and 7th days after blood injections. ICH were definitely identified in the first MRI scans. The MRI semiotics features of acute ICH and their transformations were assessed. The high sensitivity of MRI to ICH as well as the uniform manifestations in all animals were shown. In conclusion, the method has high specificity for acute ICH detection.

  12. An opinion formation based binary optimization approach for feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedmoghadam, Homayoun; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposed a novel optimization method based on opinion formation in complex network systems. The proposed optimization technique mimics human-human interaction mechanism based on a mathematical model derived from social sciences. Our method encodes a subset of selected features to the opinion of an artificial agent and simulates the opinion formation process among a population of agents to solve the feature selection problem. The agents interact using an underlying interaction network structure and get into consensus in their opinions, while finding better solutions to the problem. A number of mechanisms are employed to avoid getting trapped in local minima. We compare the performance of the proposed method with a number of classical population-based optimization methods and a state-of-the-art opinion formation based method. Our experiments on a number of high dimensional datasets reveal outperformance of the proposed algorithm over others.

  13. Inverted follicular keratosis: dermoscopic and reflectance confocal microscopic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengot-Carbo, M; Abrego, A; Gonzalez, T; Alarcon, I; Alos, L; Carrera, C; Malvehy, J; Puig, S

    2013-01-01

    Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is a rare benign tumor which usually appears as a firm papule on the face. The diagnosis is generally made by histopathology because the clinical appearance is difficult to differentiate from other lesions. Dermoscopic features of IFK have not been established to date. Herein we describe the dermoscopic findings of 4 cases of IFK. Radial peripheral hairpin vessels surrounded by a whitish halo arranged around a central white-yellowish amorphous area were observed in 3 cases, and glomerular vessels were present in the central area of one of them. The fourth case also presented a central white amorphous area but showed arborizing vessels. Reflectance confocal microscopy (available in 1 case) revealed a broadened honeycomb pattern, epidermal projections and hairpin and glomerular vessels. To our knowledge this is the first case series describing the dermoscopic features of inverted follicular keratosis and the first confocal microscopy description of this entity.

  14. SIMS analysis of extended impact features on LDEF experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Foote, J.; Jessberger, E. K.; Simon, C.; Stadermann, F. J.; Swan, P.; Walker, R.; Zinner, E.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed here are the first Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis of projectile material deposited in extended impact features on Ge wafers from the trailing edge. Although most capture cells lost their plastic film covers, they contain extended impact features that apparently were produced by high velocity impacts when the plastic foils were still intact. Detailed optical scanning of all bare capture cells from the trailing edge revealed more than 100 impacts. Fifty-eight were selected by scanning electron microscope (SEM) inspection as prime candidates for SIMS analysis. Preliminary SIMS measurements were made on 15 impacts. More than half showed substantial enhancements of Mg, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe in the impact region, indicating micrometeorites as the projectiles.

  15. Ontology patterns for complex topographic feature yypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    Complex feature types are defined as integrated relations between basic features for a shared meaning or concept. The shared semantic concept is difficult to define in commonly used geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies. The role of spatial relations between complex feature parts was recognized in early GIS literature, but had limited representation in the feature or coverage data models of GIS. Spatial relations are more explicitly specified in semantic technology. In this paper, semantics for topographic feature ontology design patterns (ODP) are developed as data models for the representation of complex features. In the context of topographic processes, component assemblages are supported by resource systems and are found on local landscapes. The topographic ontology is organized across six thematic modules that can account for basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Types of complex feature attributes include location, generative processes and physical description. Node/edge networks model standard spatial relations and relations specific to topographic science to represent complex features. To demonstrate these concepts, data from The National Map of the U. S. Geological Survey was converted and assembled into ODP.

  16. Spectral features in the cosmic ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipari, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic ray energy distributions contain spectral features, that is narrow energy regions where the slope of the spectrum changes rapidly. The identification and study of these features is of great importance to understand the astrophysical mechanisms of acceleration and propagation that form the spectra. In first approximation a spectral feature is often described as a discontinuous change in slope, however very valuable information is also contained in its width, that is the length of the energy interval where the change in spectral index develops. In this work we discuss the best way to define and parameterize the width a spectral feature, and for illustration discuss some of the most prominent known structures.

  17. Vehicle barriers: emphasis on natural features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, K.G.; Roscoe, B.J.

    1985-07-01

    The recent increase in the use of car and truck bombs by terrorist organizations has led NRC to evaluate the adequacy of licensee security against such threats. As part of this evaluation, one of the factors is the effectiveness of terrain and vegetation in providing barriers against the vehicle entry. The effectiveness of natural features is presented in two contexts. First, certain natural features are presented. Second, the effectiveness of combinations of features is presented. In addition to the discussion of natural features, this report provides a discussion of methods to slow vehicles. Also included is an overview of man-made barrier systems, with particular attention to ditches. 17 refs., 49 figs

  18. Genetic search feature selection for affective modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, Héctor P.; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic feature selection is a critical step towards the generation of successful computational models of affect. This paper presents a genetic search-based feature selection method which is developed as a global-search algorithm for improving the accuracy of the affective models built....... The method is tested and compared against sequential forward feature selection and random search in a dataset derived from a game survey experiment which contains bimodal input features (physiological and gameplay) and expressed pairwise preferences of affect. Results suggest that the proposed method...

  19. Wilson’s disease: Atypical imaging features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopalan Y Vishnu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wilson’s disease is a genetic movement disorder with characteristic clinical and imaging features. We report a 17- year-old boy who presented with sialorrhea, hypophonic speech, paraparesis with repeated falls and recurrent seizures along with cognitive decline. He had bilateral Kayser Flescher rings. Other than the typical features of Wilson’s disease in cranial MRI, there were extensive white matter signal abnormalities (T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities and gyriform contrast enhancement which are rare imaging features in Wilson's disease. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose Wilson’s disease when atypical imaging features are present.

  20. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  1. Radiological features of Lemierre's syndrome: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia-Vine, M. M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, B.; Bustos, A.; Cabello, J.

    2001-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is a type of sepsis caused by anaerobes that is secondary to a pharyngotonsillar infection complicated by suppurative thrombophlebitis of ipsilateral jugular vein and septic emboli. Imaging studies are valuable tools for confirming the diagnosis. Chest x-ray reveals poorly defined cavitated, peripheral, nodular lesions. computed tomography (CT) is useful in confirming the pulmonary lesions, which are suggestive of septic emboli. Doppler ultrasound of the neck plays and indispensable role in demonstrating the internal jugular vein thrombosis. We report the case of patient who presented the characteristic clinical and radiological features of Lemierre's syndrome. (Author) 17 refs

  2. Discrimination Features of Chromatic Figures in Various Background Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y A Chudina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual recognition features of images with different figure-ground segregation have been considered in the article. The research was carried out within the framework of Sokolov and Izmaylov’s spherical model and was based on the construction of color objects discrimination models depending on the changes of background characteristics. The research has revealed the specific influence of the background on figure discrimination. The derived models reflect the mechanisms of the all-in-one perception of the visual space.

  3. Principal Feature Analysis: A Multivariate Feature Selection Method for fMRI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain decoding with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI requires analysis of complex, multivariate data. Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA has been widely used in recent years. MVPA treats the activation of multiple voxels from fMRI data as a pattern and decodes brain states using pattern classification methods. Feature selection is a critical procedure of MVPA because it decides which features will be included in the classification analysis of fMRI data, thereby improving the performance of the classifier. Features can be selected by limiting the analysis to specific anatomical regions or by computing univariate (voxel-wise or multivariate statistics. However, these methods either discard some informative features or select features with redundant information. This paper introduces the principal feature analysis as a novel multivariate feature selection method for fMRI data processing. This multivariate approach aims to remove features with redundant information, thereby selecting fewer features, while retaining the most information.

  4. Featureous: an Integrated Approach to Location, Analysis and Modularization of Features in Java Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej

    , it is essential that features are properly modularized within the structural organization of software systems. Nevertheless, in many object-oriented applications, features are not represented explicitly. Consequently, features typically end up scattered and tangled over multiple source code units......, such as architectural layers, packages and classes. This lack of modularization is known to make application features difficult to locate, to comprehend and to modify in isolation from one another. To overcome these problems, this thesis proposes Featureous, a novel approach to location, analysis and modularization...... quantitative and qualitative results suggest that Featureous succeeds at efficiently locating features in unfamiliar codebases, at aiding feature-oriented comprehension and modification, and at improving modularization of features using Java packages....

  5. Internal versus external features in triggering the brain waveforms for conjunction and feature faces in recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Aiqing; Jiang, Jingguo; Fu, Qiao

    2014-08-20

    Previous research has found that conjunction faces (whose internal features, e.g. eyes, nose, and mouth, and external features, e.g. hairstyle and ears, are from separate studied faces) and feature faces (partial features of these are studied) can produce higher false alarms than both old and new faces (i.e. those that are exactly the same as the studied faces and those that have not been previously presented) in recognition. The event-related potentials (ERPs) that relate to conjunction and feature faces at recognition, however, have not been described as yet; in addition, the contributions of different facial features toward ERPs have not been differentiated. To address these issues, the present study compared the ERPs elicited by old faces, conjunction faces (the internal and the external features were from two studied faces), old internal feature faces (whose internal features were studied), and old external feature faces (whose external features were studied) with those of new faces separately. The results showed that old faces not only elicited an early familiarity-related FN400, but a more anterior distributed late old/new effect that reflected recollection. Conjunction faces evoked similar late brain waveforms as old internal feature faces, but not to old external feature faces. These results suggest that, at recognition, old faces hold higher familiarity than compound faces in the profiles of ERPs and internal facial features are more crucial than external ones in triggering the brain waveforms that are characterized as reflecting the result of familiarity.

  6. Clinical and radiological features of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-qiu LI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the diagnosis and treatment of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. Methods  The clinical and imaging data of 3 cases of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy were summarized and analyzed for the purpose of improving the acumen in diagnosis and treatment. Results All the 3 patients showed relatively mild clinical symptoms, and they were misdiagnosed in different degrees during the treatment, but their clinical symptoms were improved by rapid and effective antihypertensive therapy. Cerebral CT and MRI scans revealed extensive abnormal signals in brain stem, with or without supratentorial lesions and brain stem hemorrhage. The lesions as revealed by imaging were improved significantly after treatment. Conclusions Clinical-radiographic dissociation is the classic feature of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. The clinical symptoms and lesions as shown by imaging could be improved after active treatment. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.06.03

  7. A performance evaluation of point pair features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiforenko, Lilita; Drost, Bertram; Tombari, Federico

    2018-01-01

    have low resolution data, where local histogram features show a higher performance than PPFs. We also found that PPFs compared to most local histogram features degrade faster under disturbances such as occlusion and clutter, however, PPFs still remain more descriptive on an absolute scale. The main...

  8. Embedded Incremental Feature Selection for Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Prior to this work, feature selection for reinforce- ment learning has focused on linear value function ap- proximation ( Kolter and Ng, 2009; Parr et al...InProceed- ings of the the 23rd International Conference on Ma- chine Learning, pages 449–456. Kolter , J. Z. and Ng, A. Y. (2009). Regularization and feature

  9. CT features of intussusception through an Ileostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Mi Ran; Park, Mi Hyun; Jee, Keum Nahn; Namgung, Hwan [Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Intussusception of the small bowel through an ileostomy is very rare; when it causes necrosis of the bowel, immediate surgery is required. Computed tomography (CT) features of intussusception through an ileostomy have not been reported in the literature. Herein, we report the typical CT features of intussusception through an ileostomy, followed by a brief literature review.

  10. Multistage feature extraction for accurate face alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, F.; With, de P.H.N.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel multistage facial feature extraction approach using a combination of 'global' and 'local' techniques. At the first stage, we use template matching, based on an Edge-Orientation-Map for fast feature position estimation. Using this result, a statistical framework applying the Active

  11. Solving jigsaw puzzles using image features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ture R.; Drewsen, Peter; Hansen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a method for automatic solving of the jigsaw puzzle problem based on using image features instead of the shape of the pieces. The image features are used for obtaining an accurate measure for edge similarity to be used in a new edge matching algorithm. The algorithm i...

  12. A new approach for detecting local features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Local features up to now are often mentioned in the meaning of interest points. A patch around each point is formed to compute descriptors or feature vectors. Therefore, in order to satisfy different invariant imaging conditions such as scales and viewpoints, an input image is often represented i...

  13. Teaching World Music through Feature Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2009-01-01

    When used effectively, feature films can bring a plethora of visual and aural stimulation to students and enhance their learning about world cultures. Feature films can take students to places, sights, and sounds that they have yet to experience. After watching these films, students might become new admirers or even keen followers of the subject…

  14. Constraint solving for direct manipulation of features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, D.; Oliveira, P.; Noort, A.; Bidarra, R.

    2006-01-01

    In current commercial feature modeling systems, support for direct manipulation of features is not commonly available. This is partly due to the strong reliance of such systems on constraints, but also to the lack of speed of current constraint solvers. In this paper, an approach to the optimization

  15. Probabilistic Slow Features for Behavior Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Lazaros; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Nikitidis, Symeon; Pantic, Maja

    A recently introduced latent feature learning technique for time-varying dynamic phenomena analysis is the so-called slow feature analysis (SFA). SFA is a deterministic component analysis technique for multidimensional sequences that, by minimizing the variance of the first-order time derivative

  16. Learning slow features for behavior analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Lazaros; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Nikitids, Symeon; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    A recently introduced latent feature learning technique for time varying dynamic phenomena analysis is the socalled Slow Feature Analysis (SFA). SFA is a deterministic component analysis technique for multi-dimensional sequences that by minimizing the variance of the first order time derivative

  17. Cuticular features as indicators of environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. K. Sharma

    1976-01-01

    Several leaf cuticular features such as stomatal frequency, stomatal size, trichome length, type, and frequency, and subsidiary cell complex respond to environmental pollution in different ways and hence can be used as indicators of environmental pollution in an area. Several modifications in cuticular features under polluted environments seem to indicate ecotypic or...

  18. Analysing Feature Model Changes using FMDiff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dintzner, N.J.R.; Van Deursen, A.; Pinzger, M.

    2015-01-01

    Evolving a large scale, highly variable sys- tems is a challenging task. For such a system, evolution operations often require to update consistently both their implementation and its feature model. In this con- text, the evolution of the feature model closely follows the evolution of the system.

  19. Feature-Oriented Programming with Object Algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C.d.S. Oliveira (Bruno); T. van der Storm (Tijs); A. Loh; W.R. Cook

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractObject algebras are a new programming technique that enables a simple solution to basic extensibility and modularity issues in programming languages. While object algebras excel at defining modular features, the composition mechanisms for object algebras (and features) are still

  20. SPOKEN-LANGUAGE FEATURES IN CASUAL CONVERSATION A Case of EFL Learners‘ Casual Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Novi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoken text differs from written one in its features of context dependency, turn-taking organization, and dynamic structure. EFL learners; however, sometime find it difficult to produce typical characteristics of spoken language, particularly in casual talk. When they are asked to conduct a conversation, some of them tend to be script-based which is considered unnatural. Using the theory of Thornburry (2005, this paper aims to analyze characteristics of spoken language in casual conversation which cover spontaneity, interactivity, interpersonality, and coherence. This study used discourse analysis to reveal four features in turns and moves of three casual conversations. The findings indicate that not all sub-features used in the conversation. In this case, the spontaneity features were used 132 times; the interactivity features were used 1081 times; the interpersonality features were used 257 times; while the coherence features (negotiation features were used 526 times. Besides, the results also present that some participants seem to dominantly produce some sub-features naturally and vice versa. Therefore, this finding is expected to be beneficial to provide a model of how spoken interaction should be carried out. More importantly, it could raise English teachers or lecturers‘ awareness in teaching features of spoken language, so that, the students could develop their communicative competence as the native speakers of English do.

  1. Finding an optimum immuno-histochemical feature set to distinguish benign phyllodes from fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Priti Prasanna; Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Das, Raunak Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Subhalaxmi; Maity, Ashok; Maulik, Dhrubajyoti; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Dhara, Santanu; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2013-05-01

    Benign phyllodes and fibroadenoma are two well-known breast tumors with remarkable diagnostic ambiguity. The present study is aimed at determining an optimum set of immuno-histochemical features to distinguish them by analyzing important observations on expressions of important genes in fibro-glandular tissue. Immuno-histochemically, the expressions of p63 and α-SMA in myoepithelial cells and collagen I, III and CD105 in stroma of tumors and their normal counterpart were studied. Semi-quantified features were analyzed primarily by ANOVA and ranked through F-scores for understanding relative importance of group of features in discriminating three classes followed by reduction in F-score arranged feature space dimension and application of inter-class Bhattacharyya distances to distinguish tumors with an optimum set of features. Among thirteen studied features except one all differed significantly in three study classes. F-Ranking of features revealed highest discriminative potential of collagen III (initial region). F-Score arranged feature space dimension and application of Bhattacharyya distance gave rise to a feature set of lower dimension which can discriminate benign phyllodes and fibroadenoma effectively. The work definitely separated normal breast, fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes, through an optimal set of immuno-histochemical features which are not only useful to address diagnostic ambiguity of the tumors but also to spell about malignant potentiality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving Classification of Protein Interaction Articles Using Context Similarity-Based Feature Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yifei; Sun, Yuxing; Han, Bing-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Protein interaction article classification is a text classification task in the biological domain to determine which articles describe protein-protein interactions. Since the feature space in text classification is high-dimensional, feature selection is widely used for reducing the dimensionality of features to speed up computation without sacrificing classification performance. Many existing feature selection methods are based on the statistical measure of document frequency and term frequency. One potential drawback of these methods is that they treat features separately. Hence, first we design a similarity measure between the context information to take word cooccurrences and phrase chunks around the features into account. Then we introduce the similarity of context information to the importance measure of the features to substitute the document and term frequency. Hence we propose new context similarity-based feature selection methods. Their performance is evaluated on two protein interaction article collections and compared against the frequency-based methods. The experimental results reveal that the context similarity-based methods perform better in terms of the F1 measure and the dimension reduction rate. Benefiting from the context information surrounding the features, the proposed methods can select distinctive features effectively for protein interaction article classification.

  3. Multimodal Feature Learning for Video Captioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Video captioning refers to the task of generating a natural language sentence that explains the content of the input video clips. This study proposes a deep neural network model for effective video captioning. Apart from visual features, the proposed model learns additionally semantic features that describe the video content effectively. In our model, visual features of the input video are extracted using convolutional neural networks such as C3D and ResNet, while semantic features are obtained using recurrent neural networks such as LSTM. In addition, our model includes an attention-based caption generation network to generate the correct natural language captions based on the multimodal video feature sequences. Various experiments, conducted with the two large benchmark datasets, Microsoft Video Description (MSVD and Microsoft Research Video-to-Text (MSR-VTT, demonstrate the performance of the proposed model.

  4. Fall Detection Using Smartphone Audio Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheffena, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An automated fall detection system based on smartphone audio features is developed. The spectrogram, mel frequency cepstral coefficents (MFCCs), linear predictive coding (LPC), and matching pursuit (MP) features of different fall and no-fall sound events are extracted from experimental data. Based on the extracted audio features, four different machine learning classifiers: k-nearest neighbor classifier (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), least squares method (LSM), and artificial neural network (ANN) are investigated for distinguishing between fall and no-fall events. For each audio feature, the performance of each classifier in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and computational complexity is evaluated. The best performance is achieved using spectrogram features with ANN classifier with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all above 98%. The classifier also has acceptable computational requirement for training and testing. The system is applicable in home environments where the phone is placed in the vicinity of the user.

  5. The radiographic features of familial expansile osteolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crone, M.D.; Wallace, R.G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The radiographic features of a unique autosomal dominant bone dysplasia are presented. The features are classified as generalised and/or focal. Generalised features are either altered trabecular pattern or modelling abnormalities. Focal features comprise lytic areas which progressively enlarge, producing expansion of the bone and eventual disintegration due to fibrous and finally fatty replacement of the normal medulla. Almost 90% of these lesions occur in the appendicular skeleton. Clinically, hearing loss is the earliest manifestation of the disease, presenting sometimes as early as 4 years of age. Apical and cervical resorption of teeth is extremely common, resulting in premature loss of teeth. Radiologically, the differential diagnosis refers to Paget's disease, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, and osteofibrous dysplasia. The progressive destruction of the bone is similar to massive osteolysis (Gorham's disease). The radiographic features in combination with the histopathology render the condition unique. (orig.)

  6. Classification Using Markov Blanket for Feature Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Luo, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Selecting relevant features is in demand when a large data set is of interest in a classification task. It produces a tractable number of features that are sufficient and possibly improve the classification performance. This paper studies a statistical method of Markov blanket induction algorithm...... for filtering features and then applies a classifier using the Markov blanket predictors. The Markov blanket contains a minimal subset of relevant features that yields optimal classification performance. We experimentally demonstrate the improved performance of several classifiers using a Markov blanket...... induction as a feature selection method. In addition, we point out an important assumption behind the Markov blanket induction algorithm and show its effect on the classification performance....

  7. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  8. Language identification using excitation source features

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses the contribution of excitation source information in discriminating language. The authors focus on the excitation source component of speech for enhancement of language identification (LID) performance. Language specific features are extracted using two different modes: (i) Implicit processing of linear prediction (LP) residual and (ii) Explicit parameterization of linear prediction residual. The book discusses how in implicit processing approach, excitation source features are derived from LP residual, Hilbert envelope (magnitude) of LP residual and Phase of LP residual; and in explicit parameterization approach, LP residual signal is processed in spectral domain to extract the relevant language specific features. The authors further extract source features from these modes, which are combined for enhancing the performance of LID systems. The proposed excitation source features are also investigated for LID in background noisy environments. Each chapter of this book provides the motivatio...

  9. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandan eRamakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2 and V3. However BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  10. Comparing infants' use of featural and spatiotemporal information when individuating objects in an event monitoring design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    . The results obtained using this design reveal that infants are more successful using spatiotemporal object information than when using featural information. However, recent studies using the less cognitively demanding event monitoring design have revealed that even younger infants are capable of object...... in the present series of experiments in which infants' use of spatiotemporal and featural information is compared directly using the less demanding event monitoring design. The results are discussed in relation to existing empirical evidence......., to what extent infants rely on spatiotemporal or featural object information when individuating objects is currently under debate. Hitherto, infants' use of spatiotemporal and featural object information has only been compared directly using the rather cognitively demanding event mapping design...

  11. Feature Detection Systems Enhance Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    -resolution satellites, which provide the benefit of images detailed enough to reveal large features like highways while still broad enough for global coverage, continue to scan the entirety of the Earth s surface. In 2012, NASA plans to launch the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), or Landsat 8, to extend the Landsat program s contributions to cartography, water management, natural disaster relief planning, and more.

  12. Feature diagnosticity and task context shape activity in human scene-selective cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew X; Gallivan, Jason P; Ferber, Susanne; Cant, Jonathan S

    2016-01-15

    Scenes are constructed from multiple visual features, yet previous research investigating scene processing has often focused on the contributions of single features in isolation. In the real world, features rarely exist independently of one another and likely converge to inform scene identity in unique ways. Here, we utilize fMRI and pattern classification techniques to examine the interactions between task context (i.e., attend to diagnostic global scene features; texture or layout) and high-level scene attributes (content and spatial boundary) to test the novel hypothesis that scene-selective cortex represents multiple visual features, the importance of which varies according to their diagnostic relevance across scene categories and task demands. Our results show for the first time that scene representations are driven by interactions between multiple visual features and high-level scene attributes. Specifically, univariate analysis of scene-selective cortex revealed that task context and feature diagnosticity shape activity differentially across scene categories. Examination using multivariate decoding methods revealed results consistent with univariate findings, but also evidence for an interaction between high-level scene attributes and diagnostic visual features within scene categories. Critically, these findings suggest visual feature representations are not distributed uniformly across scene categories but are shaped by task context and feature diagnosticity. Thus, we propose that scene-selective cortex constructs a flexible representation of the environment by integrating multiple diagnostically relevant visual features, the nature of which varies according to the particular scene being perceived and the goals of the observer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pseudomembranous aspergillus bronchitis in a double-lung transplanted patient: unusual radiographic and CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducreux, D.; Chevallier, P.; Raffaelli, C.; Padovani, B.; Perrin, C.; Jourdan, J.; Hofman, P.

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomembranous aspergillus bronchitis is considered as an early form of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, a well-known airway infection in immunocompromised patients. Radiologic features concerning invasive aspergillosis of the airways have been reported. However, we describe here an unusual feature of invasive aspergillus bronchitis, never reported to date, observed in a double-lung transplanted patient. Chest radiograph and CT revealed significant peribronchial thickening without any parenchymal involvement. (orig.)

  14. Statistical universals reveal the structures and functions of human music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Patrick E; Brown, Steven; Sakai, Emi; Currie, Thomas E

    2015-07-21

    Music has been called "the universal language of mankind." Although contemporary theories of music evolution often invoke various musical universals, the existence of such universals has been disputed for decades and has never been empirically demonstrated. Here we combine a music-classification scheme with statistical analyses, including phylogenetic comparative methods, to examine a well-sampled global set of 304 music recordings. Our analyses reveal no absolute universals but strong support for many statistical universals that are consistent across all nine geographic regions sampled. These universals include 18 musical features that are common individually as well as a network of 10 features that are commonly associated with one another. They span not only features related to pitch and rhythm that are often cited as putative universals but also rarely cited domains including performance style and social context. These cross-cultural structural regularities of human music may relate to roles in facilitating group coordination and cohesion, as exemplified by the universal tendency to sing, play percussion instruments, and dance to simple, repetitive music in groups. Our findings highlight the need for scientists studying music evolution to expand the range of musical cultures and musical features under consideration. The statistical universals we identified represent important candidates for future investigation.

  15. Innovations in individual feature history management - The significance of feature-based temporal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Seong, J.C.; Kim, B.; Usery, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    A feature relies on three dimensions (space, theme, and time) for its representation. Even though spatiotemporal models have been proposed, they have principally focused on the spatial changes of a feature. In this paper, a feature-based temporal model is proposed to represent the changes of both space and theme independently. The proposed model modifies the ISO's temporal schema and adds new explicit temporal relationship structure that stores temporal topological relationship with the ISO's temporal primitives of a feature in order to keep track feature history. The explicit temporal relationship can enhance query performance on feature history by removing topological comparison during query process. Further, a prototype system has been developed to test a proposed feature-based temporal model by querying land parcel history in Athens, Georgia. The result of temporal query on individual feature history shows the efficiency of the explicit temporal relationship structure. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  16. Passive Safety Features for Small Modular Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingersoll, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in the size and complexity of commercial nuclear power plants in the 1970s spawned an interest in smaller, simpler designs that are inherently or intrinsically safe through the use of passive design features. Several designs were developed, but none were ever built, although some of their passive safety features were incorporated into large commercial plant designs that are being planned or built today. In recent years, several reactor vendors are actively redeveloping small modular reactor (SMR) designs with even greater use of passive features. Several designs incorporate the ultimate in passive safety they completely eliminate specific accident initiators from the design. Other design features help to reduce the likelihood of an accident or help to mitigate the accidents consequences, should one occur. While some passive safety features are common to most SMR designs, irrespective of the coolant technology, other features are specific to water, gas, or liquid-metal cooled SMR designs. The extensive use of passive safety features in SMRs promise to make these plants highly robust, protecting both the general public and the owner/investor. Once demonstrated, these plants should allow nuclear power to be used confidently for a broader range of customers and applications than will be possible with large plants alone.

  17. Hierarchical feature selection for erythema severity estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Shi, Chenbo; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    At present PASI system of scoring is used for evaluating erythema severity, which can help doctors to diagnose psoriasis [1-3]. The system relies on the subjective judge of doctors, where the accuracy and stability cannot be guaranteed [4]. This paper proposes a stable and precise algorithm for erythema severity estimation. Our contributions are twofold. On one hand, in order to extract the multi-scale redness of erythema, we design the hierarchical feature. Different from traditional methods, we not only utilize the color statistical features, but also divide the detect window into small window and extract hierarchical features. Further, a feature re-ranking step is introduced, which can guarantee that extracted features are irrelevant to each other. On the other hand, an adaptive boosting classifier is applied for further feature selection. During the step of training, the classifier will seek out the most valuable feature for evaluating erythema severity, due to its strong learning ability. Experimental results demonstrate the high precision and robustness of our algorithm. The accuracy is 80.1% on the dataset which comprise 116 patients' images with various kinds of erythema. Now our system has been applied for erythema medical efficacy evaluation in Union Hosp, China.

  18. MRI features associated with acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwenburgh, Marjolein M.N. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (G1-223.1), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jensch, Sebastiaan [Sint Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gratama, Jan W.C. [Gelre Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Spilt, Aart [Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Wiarda, Bart M. [Alkmaar Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Es, H.W. van [Sint Antonius Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Cobben, Lodewijk P.J. [Haaglanden Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leidschendam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boermeester, Marja A. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the OPTIMAP study group

    2014-01-15

    To identify MRI features associated with appendicitis. Features expected to be associated with appendicitis were recorded in consensus by two expert radiologists on 223 abdominal MRIs in patients with suspected appendicitis. Nine MRI features were studied: appendix diameter >7 mm, appendicolith, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration, peri-appendiceal fluid, absence of gas in the appendix, appendiceal wall destruction, restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall, lumen or focal fluid collections. Appendicitis was assigned as the final diagnosis in 117/223 patients. Associations between imaging features and appendicitis were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. All investigated features were significantly associated with appendicitis in univariate analysis. Combinations of two and three features were associated with a probability of appendicitis of 88 % and 92 %, respectively. In patients without any of the nine features, appendicitis was present in 2 % of cases. After multivariate analysis, only an appendix diameter >7 mm, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration and restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall were significantly associated with appendicitis. The probability of appendicitis was 96 % in their presence and 2 % in their absence. An appendix diameter >7 mm, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration and restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall have the strongest association with appendicitis on MRI. (orig.)

  19. MRI features associated with acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuwenburgh, Marjolein M.N.; Jensch, Sebastiaan; Gratama, Jan W.C.; Spilt, Aart; Wiarda, Bart M.; Es, H.W. van; Cobben, Lodewijk P.J.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Stoker, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    To identify MRI features associated with appendicitis. Features expected to be associated with appendicitis were recorded in consensus by two expert radiologists on 223 abdominal MRIs in patients with suspected appendicitis. Nine MRI features were studied: appendix diameter >7 mm, appendicolith, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration, peri-appendiceal fluid, absence of gas in the appendix, appendiceal wall destruction, restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall, lumen or focal fluid collections. Appendicitis was assigned as the final diagnosis in 117/223 patients. Associations between imaging features and appendicitis were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. All investigated features were significantly associated with appendicitis in univariate analysis. Combinations of two and three features were associated with a probability of appendicitis of 88 % and 92 %, respectively. In patients without any of the nine features, appendicitis was present in 2 % of cases. After multivariate analysis, only an appendix diameter >7 mm, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration and restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall were significantly associated with appendicitis. The probability of appendicitis was 96 % in their presence and 2 % in their absence. An appendix diameter >7 mm, peri-appendiceal fat infiltration and restricted diffusion of the appendiceal wall have the strongest association with appendicitis on MRI. (orig.)

  20. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  1. Image fusion using sparse overcomplete feature dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, Steven P.; Bettencourt, Luis; Kenyon, Garrett T.; Chartrand, Rick; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2015-10-06

    Approaches for deciding what individuals in a population of visual system "neurons" are looking for using sparse overcomplete feature dictionaries are provided. A sparse overcomplete feature dictionary may be learned for an image dataset and a local sparse representation of the image dataset may be built using the learned feature dictionary. A local maximum pooling operation may be applied on the local sparse representation to produce a translation-tolerant representation of the image dataset. An object may then be classified and/or clustered within the translation-tolerant representation of the image dataset using a supervised classification algorithm and/or an unsupervised clustering algorithm.

  2. Discrete Feature Model (DFM) User Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, Joel

    2008-06-01

    This manual describes the Discrete-Feature Model (DFM) software package for modelling groundwater flow and solute transport in networks of discrete features. A discrete-feature conceptual model represents fractures and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which is usually treated as impermeable. This approximation may be valid for crystalline rocks such as granite or basalt, which have very low permeability if macroscopic fractures are excluded. A discrete feature is any entity that can conduct water and permit solute transport through bedrock, and can be reasonably represented as a piecewise-planar conductor. Examples of such entities may include individual natural fractures (joints or faults), fracture zones, and disturbed-zone features around tunnels (e.g. blasting-induced fractures or stress-concentration induced 'onion skin' fractures around underground openings). In a more abstract sense, the effectively discontinuous nature of pathways through fractured crystalline bedrock may be idealized as discrete, equivalent transmissive features that reproduce large-scale observations, even if the details of connective paths (and unconnected domains) are not precisely known. A discrete-feature model explicitly represents the fundamentally discontinuous and irregularly connected nature of systems of such systems, by constraining flow and transport to occur only within such features and their intersections. Pathways for flow and solute transport in this conceptualization are a consequence not just of the boundary conditions and hydrologic properties (as with continuum models), but also the irregularity of connections between conductive/transmissive features. The DFM software package described here is an extensible code for investigating problems of flow and transport in geological (natural or human-altered) systems that can be characterized effectively in terms of discrete features. With this software, the

  3. Discrete Feature Model (DFM) User Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, Joel (Clearwater Hardrock Consulting, Corvallis, OR (United States))

    2008-06-15

    This manual describes the Discrete-Feature Model (DFM) software package for modelling groundwater flow and solute transport in networks of discrete features. A discrete-feature conceptual model represents fractures and other water-conducting features around a repository as discrete conductors surrounded by a rock matrix which is usually treated as impermeable. This approximation may be valid for crystalline rocks such as granite or basalt, which have very low permeability if macroscopic fractures are excluded. A discrete feature is any entity that can conduct water and permit solute transport through bedrock, and can be reasonably represented as a piecewise-planar conductor. Examples of such entities may include individual natural fractures (joints or faults), fracture zones, and disturbed-zone features around tunnels (e.g. blasting-induced fractures or stress-concentration induced 'onion skin' fractures around underground openings). In a more abstract sense, the effectively discontinuous nature of pathways through fractured crystalline bedrock may be idealized as discrete, equivalent transmissive features that reproduce large-scale observations, even if the details of connective paths (and unconnected domains) are not precisely known. A discrete-feature model explicitly represents the fundamentally discontinuous and irregularly connected nature of systems of such systems, by constraining flow and transport to occur only within such features and their intersections. Pathways for flow and solute transport in this conceptualization are a consequence not just of the boundary conditions and hydrologic properties (as with continuum models), but also the irregularity of connections between conductive/transmissive features. The DFM software package described here is an extensible code for investigating problems of flow and transport in geological (natural or human-altered) systems that can be characterized effectively in terms of discrete features. With this

  4. [The specific microbiological and clinical features of acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, A V; Levina, Yu V; Guseva, A L; Elchueva, Z G; Efimova, S P; Gordienko, M V

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the clinical course of acute otitis media as well as the peculiarities of the vestibular function and the microbial paysage associated with this pathological condition under the present-day conditions. The study included 135 patients presenting with acute otitis media (AOM) at different stages of the disease. The discharge obtained from the tympanic cavity of all the patients was examined with the use of polymerase chain reaction in real time, audiological and vestibulogical methods. The distinctive features of acute otitis medium associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection were found to be the intense pain syndrome with the symptoms of intoxication, well apparent inflammatory changes in the tympanic membrane as revealed by otoscopy, the increased frequency of sensorineural impairment of hearing, and the characteristic type B tympanometric curve. Typical of AOM associated with Haemophilus influenza infection are the mild pain syndrome, weak changes in the tympanic membrane as revealed by otoscopy, conductive hearing loss, and the type C tympanometric curve.

  5. Ultrasound and MRI features of pyomyositis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trusen, Andreas; Beissert, Matthias; Schultz, Georg; Darge, Kassa [Department of Pediatric Radiology, Institute of Radiodiagnostics, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Chittka, Bernd [University Children' s Hospital, University of Wuerzburg, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    Pyomyositis (PM) is an infectious disease of the skeletal muscle with a wide range of symptoms such as pain, fever or swelling, and is predominantly found in the tropics. In recent years PM has increasingly been diagnosed in Europe and in the U.S. Our objective is to describe the ultrasound and MRI features of PM in children. A retrospective analysis of 12 children with PM (2 girls and 10 boys; age range 1-13 years) admitted to our hospital between 1998 and 2002 was carried out. All children had a US exam and 8 children underwent MRI. Children with osteomyelitis and accompanying myositis were excluded from this study. In all patients who had MRI (n=8) the infected muscles were found to have the following features: hyperintensity on the T2-weighted images, diffuse borders and contrast enhancement. In the pelvis (n=4), only one PM could be detected with US, in the other 3 cases only US of the hip joint was performed based on the clinical symptoms. In the extremities (n=8) US always revealed an altered echogenicity of the affected muscles as well as fluid collection in 5 cases. Both US and MRI reveal characteristic changes of the PM. Ultrasound should be the first imaging modality in the extremities. In the pelvis MRI is the imaging modality of choice. The MRI is needed to differentiate pyomyositis from osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  6. Detecting Structural Features in Metallic Glass via Synchrotron Radiation Experiments Combined with Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the essential structural features of metallic glasses (MGs will enhance the understanding of glass-forming mechanisms. In this work, a feasible scheme is provided where we performed the state-of-the-art synchrotron-radiation based experiments combined with simulations to investigate the microstructures of ZrCu amorphous compositions. It is revealed that in order to stabilize the amorphous state and optimize the topological and chemical distribution, besides the icosahedral or icosahedral-like clusters, other types of clusters also participate in the formation of the microstructure in MGs. This cluster-level co-existing feature may be popular in this class of glassy materials.

  7. Dissociation between Features and Feature Relations in Infant Memory: Effects of Memory Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Four experiments examined effects of the number of features and feature relations on learning and long-term memory in 3-month olds. Findings suggested that memory load size selectively constrained infants' long-term memory for relational information, suggesting that in infants, features and relations are psychologically distinct and that memory…

  8. Estimating perception of scene layout properties from global image features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Michael G; Oliva, Aude

    2010-01-08

    The relationship between image features and scene structure is central to the study of human visual perception and computer vision, but many of the specifics of real-world layout perception remain unknown. We do not know which image features are relevant to perceiving layout properties, or whether those features provide the same information for every type of image. Furthermore, we do not know the spatial resolutions required for perceiving different properties. This paper describes an experiment and a computational model that provides new insights on these issues. Humans perceive the global spatial layout properties such as dominant depth, openness, and perspective, from a single image. This work describes an algorithm that reliably predicts human layout judgments. This model's predictions are general, not specific to the observers it trained on. Analysis reveals that the optimal spatial resolutions for determining layout vary with the content of the space and the property being estimated. Openness is best estimated at high resolution, depth is best estimated at medium resolution, and perspective is best estimated at low resolution. Given the reliability and simplicity of estimating the global layout of real-world environments, this model could help resolve perceptual ambiguities encountered by more detailed scene reconstruction schemas.

  9. Parabolic Dunes Landform Features of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A landscape is a collection of land shapes or land forms. Landform Regions are a grouping of individual landscape features that have a common geomophology. In Iowa,...

  10. Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    predominance in adolescence and adulthood. The true incidence of ... Conclusion. There is a diverse array of presenting features in childhood SLE. There has .... difficult by the psychological problems associated with coping with a chronic ...

  11. Schizophrenia classification using functional network features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rish, Irina; Cecchi, Guillermo A.; Heuton, Kyle

    2012-03-01

    This paper focuses on discovering statistical biomarkers (features) that are predictive of schizophrenia, with a particular focus on topological properties of fMRI functional networks. We consider several network properties, such as node (voxel) strength, clustering coefficients, local efficiency, as well as just a subset of pairwise correlations. While all types of features demonstrate highly significant statistical differences in several brain areas, and close to 80% classification accuracy, the most remarkable results of 93% accuracy are achieved by using a small subset of only a dozen of most-informative (lowest p-value) correlation features. Our results suggest that voxel-level correlations and functional network features derived from them are highly informative about schizophrenia and can be used as statistical biomarkers for the disease.

  12. CT Features of pseudo tumoral bronchopulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidi, A.; Hantoux, S.; Mestiri, I.; Ben Miled-Mrad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis may at times simulate lung carcinoma on bronchoscopic examination or imaging studies. Diagnosis can be delayed and lead to surgical resection. Based on review of 25 cases, the different CT features are reviewed. (author)

  13. Lineated Inliers Landform Features of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A landscape is a collection of land shapes or land forms. Landform regions are a grouping of individual landscape features that have a common geomophology. In Iowa,...

  14. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  15. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  16. Shapes and features of the primordial bispectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Cheongam-ro 67, Pohang, 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Palma, Gonzalo A.; Sypsas, Spyros, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@apctp.org, E-mail: gpalmaquilod@ing.uchile.cl, E-mail: s.sypsas@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago, 837.0415 Chile (Chile)

    2017-05-01

    If time-dependent disruptions from slow-roll occur during inflation, the correlation functions of the primordial curvature perturbation should have scale-dependent features, a case which is marginally supported from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We offer a new approach to analyze the appearance of such features in the primordial bispectrum that yields new consistency relations and justifies the search of oscillating patterns modulated by orthogonal and local templates. Under the assumption of sharp features, we find that the cubic couplings of the curvature perturbation can be expressed in terms of the bispectrum in two specific momentum configurations, for example local and equilateral. This allows us to derive consistency relations among different bispectrum shapes, which in principle could be tested in future CMB surveys. Furthermore, based on the form of the consistency relations, we construct new two-parameter templates for features that include all the known shapes.

  17. CT features of renal epithelioid angiomyolipomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaoyun; Fang Xiangming; Hu Chunhong; Chen Hongwei; Cui Lei; Bao Jian; Yao Xuanjun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the CT and pathological features of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML). Methods: Clinical data and CT images from ten cases with EAML proved by surgery and pathology were retrospectively analyzed. All cases were performed with plain and contrast enhanced CT scans. Results: CT features: higher pre-contrasted density than kidney, bulging from kidney, absent of fat, markedly heterogeneous enhancement (quick wash-in and slow wash-out), big size without lobular sign, complete capsule with clear margin and mild necrostic area. Pathological features: diffuse sheets of epithelioid cells were found under microscopy with immunohistochemistrical findings including positivity for HMB-45 and negativity for EMA. Conclusion: Some specific CT features, which is correlated well with the pathological findings, provide helpful information in the primary diagnosis of EAML. (authors)

  18. MCNP4A: Features and philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes MCNP, states its philosophy, introduces a number of new features becoming available with version MCNP4A, and answers a number of questions asked by participants in the workshop. MCNP is a general-purpose three-dimensional neutron, photon and electron transport code. Its philosophy is ''Quality, Value and New Features.'' Quality is exemplified by new software quality assurance practices and a program of benchmarking against experiments. Value includes a strong emphasis on documentation and code portability. New features are the third priority. MCNP4A is now available at Los Alamos. New features in MCNP4A include enhanced statistical analysis, distributed processor multitasking, new photon libraries, ENDF/B-VI capabilities, X-Windows graphics, dynamic memory allocation, expanded criticality output, periodic boundaries, plotting of particle tracks via SABRINA, and many other improvements. 23 refs

  19. Feature Extraction in Radar Target Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kus

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of extracting features in the Radar Target Classification process using the J frequency band pulse radar. The feature extraction is based on frequency analysis methods, the discrete-time Fourier Transform (DFT and Multiple Signal Characterisation (MUSIC, based on the detection of Doppler effect. The analysis has turned to the preference of DFT with implemented Hanning windowing function. We assumed to classify targets-vehicles into two classes, the wheeled vehicle and tracked vehicle. The results show that it is possible to classify them only while moving. The feature of the class results from a movement of moving parts of the vehicle. However, we have not found any feature to classify the wheeled and tracked vehicles while non-moving, although their engines are on.

  20. Paha Ridges Landform Features of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A landscape is a collection of land shapes or land forms. Landform regions are a grouping of individual landscape features that have a common geomophology. In Iowa,...

  1. Lineated Ridges Landform Features of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A landscape is a collection of land shapes or land forms. Landform Regions are a grouping of individual landscape features that have a common geomophology. In Iowa,...

  2. Integrative and distinctive coding of visual and conceptual object features in the ventral visual stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Danielle; Newsome, Rachel N; Man, Louisa LY

    2018-01-01

    A significant body of research in cognitive neuroscience is aimed at understanding how object concepts are represented in the human brain. However, it remains unknown whether and where the visual and abstract conceptual features that define an object concept are integrated. We addressed this issue by comparing the neural pattern similarities among object-evoked fMRI responses with behavior-based models that independently captured the visual and conceptual similarities among these stimuli. Our results revealed evidence for distinctive coding of visual features in lateral occipital cortex, and conceptual features in the temporal pole and parahippocampal cortex. By contrast, we found evidence for integrative coding of visual and conceptual object features in perirhinal cortex. The neuroanatomical specificity of this effect was highlighted by results from a searchlight analysis. Taken together, our findings suggest that perirhinal cortex uniquely supports the representation of fully specified object concepts through the integration of their visual and conceptual features. PMID:29393853

  3. Integrative and distinctive coding of visual and conceptual object features in the ventral visual stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chris B; Douglas, Danielle; Newsome, Rachel N; Man, Louisa Ly; Barense, Morgan D

    2018-02-02

    A significant body of research in cognitive neuroscience is aimed at understanding how object concepts are represented in the human brain. However, it remains unknown whether and where the visual and abstract conceptual features that define an object concept are integrated. We addressed this issue by comparing the neural pattern similarities among object-evoked fMRI responses with behavior-based models that independently captured the visual and conceptual similarities among these stimuli. Our results revealed evidence for distinctive coding of visual features in lateral occipital cortex, and conceptual features in the temporal pole and parahippocampal cortex. By contrast, we found evidence for integrative coding of visual and conceptual object features in perirhinal cortex. The neuroanatomical specificity of this effect was highlighted by results from a searchlight analysis. Taken together, our findings suggest that perirhinal cortex uniquely supports the representation of fully specified object concepts through the integration of their visual and conceptual features. © 2018, Martin et al.

  4. A study of metaheuristic algorithms for high dimensional feature selection on microarray data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankolo, Muhammad Nasiru; Radzi, Nor Haizan Mohamed; Sallehuddin, Roselina; Mustaffa, Noorfa Haszlinna

    2017-11-01

    Microarray systems enable experts to examine gene profile at molecular level using machine learning algorithms. It increases the potentials of classification and diagnosis of many diseases at gene expression level. Though, numerous difficulties may affect the efficiency of machine learning algorithms which includes vast number of genes features comprised in the original data. Many of these features may be unrelated to the intended analysis. Therefore, feature selection is necessary to be performed in the data pre-processing. Many feature selection algorithms are developed and applied on microarray which including the metaheuristic optimization algorithms. This paper discusses the application of the metaheuristics algorithms for feature selection in microarray dataset. This study reveals that, the algorithms have yield an interesting result with limited resources thereby saving computational expenses of machine learning algorithms.

  5. Contingent attentional capture across multiple feature dimensions in a temporal search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Motohiro; Kawahara, Jun I

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined whether attention can be flexibly controlled to monitor two different feature dimensions (shape and color) in a temporal search task. Specifically, we investigated the occurrence of contingent attentional capture (i.e., interference from task-relevant distractors) and resulting set reconfiguration (i.e., enhancement of single task-relevant set). If observers can restrict searches to a specific value for each relevant feature dimension independently, the capture and reconfiguration effect should only occur when the single relevant distractor in each dimension appears. Participants identified a target letter surrounded by a non-green square or a non-square green frame. The results revealed contingent attentional capture, as target identification accuracy was lower when the distractor contained a target-defining feature than when it contained a nontarget feature. Resulting set reconfiguration was also obtained in that accuracy was superior when the current target's feature (e.g., shape) corresponded to the defining feature of the present distractor (shape) than when the current target's feature did not match the distractor's feature (color). This enhancement was not due to perceptual priming. The present study demonstrated that the principles of contingent attentional capture and resulting set reconfiguration held even when multiple target feature dimensions were monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....

  7. Feature Selection with the Boruta Package

    OpenAIRE

    Kursa, Miron B.; Rudnicki, Witold R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a R package Boruta, implementing a novel feature selection algorithm for finding emph{all relevant variables}. The algorithm is designed as a wrapper around a Random Forest classification algorithm. It iteratively removes the features which are proved by a statistical test to be less relevant than random probes. The Boruta package provides a convenient interface to the algorithm. The short description of the algorithm and examples of its application are presented.

  8. Penalized feature selection and classification in bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shuangge; Huang, Jian

    2008-01-01

    In bioinformatics studies, supervised classification with high-dimensional input variables is frequently encountered. Examples routinely arise in genomic, epigenetic and proteomic studies. Feature selection can be employed along with classifier construction to avoid over-fitting, to generate more reliable classifier and to provide more insights into the underlying causal relationships. In this article, we provide a review of several recently developed penalized feature selection and classific...

  9. Feature Selection with the Boruta Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miron B. Kursa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a R package Boruta, implementing a novel feature selection algorithm for finding emph{all relevant variables}. The algorithm is designed as a wrapper around a Random Forest classification algorithm. It iteratively removes the features which are proved by a statistical test to be less relevant than random probes. The Boruta package provides a convenient interface to the algorithm. The short description of the algorithm and examples of its application are presented.

  10. Predictive Feature Selection for Genetic Policy Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    limited manual intervention are becoming increasingly desirable as more complex tasks in dynamic and high- tempo environments are explored. Reinforcement...states in many domains causes features relevant to the reward variations to be overlooked, which hinders the policy search. 3.4 Parameter Selection PFS...the current feature subset. This local minimum may be “deceptive,” meaning that it does not clearly lead to the global optimal policy ( Goldberg and

  11. Featureous: A Tool for Feature-Centric Analysis of Java Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2010-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is necessary for incorporating user-requested modifications during software evolution and maintenance. However, such comprehension is difficult to achieve in case of large object-oriented programs due to the size, complexity, and implicit character...... of mappings between features and source code. To support programmers in overcoming these difficulties, we present a feature-centric analysis tool, Featureous. Our tool extends the NetBeans IDE with mechanisms for efficient location of feature implementations in legacy source code, and an extensive analysis...

  12. An object-oriented feature-based design system face-based detection of feature interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariffin Abdul Razak

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an object-oriented, feature-based design system which supports the integration of design and manufacture by ensuring that part descriptions fully account for any feature interactions. Manufacturing information is extracted from the feature descriptions in the form of volumes and Tool Access Directions, TADs. When features interact, both volumes and TADs are updated. This methodology has been demonstrated by developing a prototype system in which ACIS attributes are used to record feature information within the data structure of the solid model. The system implemented in the C++ programming language and embedded in a menu-driven X-windows user interface to the ACIS 3D Toolkit. (author)

  13. Currency features for visually impaired people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Sandra L.; Legge, Gordon E.; Shannon, Robert R.; Baer, Norbert S.

    1996-03-01

    The estimated 3.7 million Americans with low vision experience a uniquely difficult task in identifying the denominations of U.S. banknotes because the notes are remarkably uniform in size, color, and general design. The National Research Council's Committee on Currency Features Usable by the Visually Impaired assessed features that could be used by people who are visually disabled to distinguish currency from other documents and to denominate and authenticate banknotes using available technology. Variation of length and height, introduction of large numerals on a uniform, high-contrast background, use of different colors for each of the six denominations printed, and the introduction of overt denomination codes that could lead to development of effective, low-cost devices for examining banknotes were all deemed features available now. Issues affecting performance, including the science of visual and tactile perception, were addressed for these features, as well as for those features requiring additional research and development. In this group the committee included durable tactile features such as those printed with transparent ink, and the production of currency with holes to indicate denomination. Among long-range approaches considered were the development of technologically advanced devices and smart money.

  14. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 – 4.9 % and 1.9 – 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 – 0.006 % and 0.002 – 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respectively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclusion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  15. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 - 4.9 % and 1.9 - 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 - 0.006 % and 0.002 - 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respec-tively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclu-sion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  16. Interplay of a multiplicity of security features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jean-Frederic

    2000-04-01

    The great variety of existing security features can cause difficulty in choosing the adequate set for a particular security document. Considering the cost/benefit aspects with respect to the overall protection performance requested, a choice has to be made, for example, between either few features of high-security value or numerous many, less- resistant features. Another choice is the high versus low complexity of one particular features. A study aimed at providing a decision basis is a challenging matter because it involves human factors. Attention, perception, physiology of seeing and habits - to name some of the factors - are intangibles and are subject to evaluations involving normally a great number of experiments, if they are to be representative. The opportunity was given for a case study with the introduction of new Swiss banknotes between 1995 and 1998, because the new banknotes represent a novelty in the sense of the multiplicity and interplay of its optical security features. We have analyzed 652 articles which appeared in the press media concerning the new banknotes, seeking especially for peoples' reaction towards the security features.

  17. Feature Vector Construction Method for IRIS Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokikh, G.; Fartukov, A.; Korobkin, M.; Yoo, J.

    2017-05-01

    One of the basic stages of iris recognition pipeline is iris feature vector construction procedure. The procedure represents the extraction of iris texture information relevant to its subsequent comparison. Thorough investigation of feature vectors obtained from iris showed that not all the vector elements are equally relevant. There are two characteristics which determine the vector element utility: fragility and discriminability. Conventional iris feature extraction methods consider the concept of fragility as the feature vector instability without respect to the nature of such instability appearance. This work separates sources of the instability into natural and encodinginduced which helps deeply investigate each source of instability independently. According to the separation concept, a novel approach of iris feature vector construction is proposed. The approach consists of two steps: iris feature extraction using Gabor filtering with optimal parameters and quantization with separated preliminary optimized fragility thresholds. The proposed method has been tested on two different datasets of iris images captured under changing environmental conditions. The testing results show that the proposed method surpasses all the methods considered as a prior art by recognition accuracy on both datasets.

  18. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sue Ashley; Dr. Harmen Schaap; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  19. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference Survey Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  20. Intracranial Hemorrhage Revealing Pseudohypoparathyroidism as a Cause of Fahr Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Swami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudohypoparathyroidism is an infrequently encountered disease. It is one of the causes of Fahr syndrome which also is a rare clinical entity caused by multiple diseases. A 4-year-old man hospitalized for sudden onset left hemiparesis and hypertension was diagnosed to have right thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage on plain CT scan of the head which also revealed co-existent extensive intracranial calcifications involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum bilaterally. General physical examination revealed features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, goitre, hypertension, left hemiparesis, and signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Laboratory findings suggested hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia along with high TSH, low FT4, low FT3, and high anti-TPO antibody. Though bilateral intracranial calcifications are usually encountered as an incidental radiological finding in the CT scan of brain, in this case, the patient admitted for thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage was on investigation for associated intracranial calcification, and goitre was also found to have coexisting pseudohypoparathyroidism and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  1. Obscure pulmonary masses: bronchial impaction revealed by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugatch, R.D.; Gale, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Dilated bronchi impacted with mucus or tumor are recognized on standard chest radiographs because they are surrounded by aerated pulmonary parenchyma. When imaged in different projections, these lesions produce a variety of appearances that are generally familiar. This report characterizes less familiar computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight patients with pathologic bronchial distension of congenital, neoplastic, or infectious etiologies and correlates them with chest films. In seven patients, CT readily revealed dilated bronchi and/or regional lung hypodensity. In four of these cases, CT led to the initial suspicion of dilated bronchi. CT should be used early in the evaluation of atypical pulmonary mass lesions or to confirm suspected bronchial impaction because of the high probability it will reveal diagnostic features

  2. Acting without seeing: eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. Here, we review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movement. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Feature selection for splice site prediction: A new method using EDA-based feature ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzé Pierre

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of relevant biological features in large and complex datasets is an important step towards gaining insight in the processes underlying the data. Other advantages of feature selection include the ability of the classification system to attain good or even better solutions using a restricted subset of features, and a faster classification. Thus, robust methods for fast feature selection are of key importance in extracting knowledge from complex biological data. Results In this paper we present a novel method for feature subset selection applied to splice site prediction, based on estimation of distribution algorithms, a more general framework of genetic algorithms. From the estimated distribution of the algorithm, a feature ranking is derived. Afterwards this ranking is used to iteratively discard features. We apply this technique to the problem of splice site prediction, and show how it can be used to gain insight into the underlying biological process of splicing. Conclusion We show that this technique proves to be more robust than the traditional use of estimation of distribution algorithms for feature selection: instead of returning a single best subset of features (as they normally do this method provides a dynamical view of the feature selection process, like the traditional sequential wrapper methods. However, the method is faster than the traditional techniques, and scales better to datasets described by a large number of features.

  4. Simultaneous Channel and Feature Selection of Fused EEG Features Based on Sparse Group Lasso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction and classification of EEG signals are core parts of brain computer interfaces (BCIs. Due to the high dimension of the EEG feature vector, an effective feature selection algorithm has become an integral part of research studies. In this paper, we present a new method based on a wrapped Sparse Group Lasso for channel and feature selection of fused EEG signals. The high-dimensional fused features are firstly obtained, which include the power spectrum, time-domain statistics, AR model, and the wavelet coefficient features extracted from the preprocessed EEG signals. The wrapped channel and feature selection method is then applied, which uses the logistical regression model with Sparse Group Lasso penalized function. The model is fitted on the training data, and parameter estimation is obtained by modified blockwise coordinate descent and coordinate gradient descent method. The best parameters and feature subset are selected by using a 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, the test data is classified using the trained model. Compared with existing channel and feature selection methods, results show that the proposed method is more suitable, more stable, and faster for high-dimensional feature fusion. It can simultaneously achieve channel and feature selection with a lower error rate. The test accuracy on the data used from international BCI Competition IV reached 84.72%.

  5. Featureous: infrastructure for feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2010-01-01

    The decentralized nature of collaborations between objects in object-oriented software makes it difficult to understand how user-observable program features are implemented and how their implementations relate to each other. It is worthwhile to improve this situation, since feature-centric program...... understanding and modification are essential during software evolution and maintenance. In this paper, we present an infrastructure built on top of the NetBeans IDE called Featureous that allows for rapid construction of tools for feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software. Our infrastructure...... encompasses a lightweight feature location mechanism, a number of analytical views and an API allowing for addition of third-party extensions. To form a common conceptual framework for future feature-centric extensions, we propose to structure feature centric analysis along three dimensions: perspective...

  6. RESEARCH ON FEATURE POINTS EXTRACTION METHOD FOR BINARY MULTISCALE AND ROTATION INVARIANT LOCAL FEATURE DESCRIPTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ying

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An extreme point of scale space extraction method for binary multiscale and rotation invariant local feature descriptor is studied in this paper in order to obtain a robust and fast method for local image feature descriptor. Classic local feature description algorithms often select neighborhood information of feature points which are extremes of image scale space, obtained by constructing the image pyramid using certain signal transform method. But build the image pyramid always consumes a large amount of computing and storage resources, is not conducive to the actual applications development. This paper presents a dual multiscale FAST algorithm, it does not need to build the image pyramid, but can extract feature points of scale extreme quickly. Feature points extracted by proposed method have the characteristic of multiscale and rotation Invariant and are fit to construct the local feature descriptor.

  7. Analytical Features: A Knowledge-Based Approach to Audio Feature Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachet François

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a feature generation system designed to create audio features for supervised classification tasks. The main contribution to feature generation studies is the notion of analytical features (AFs, a construct designed to support the representation of knowledge about audio signal processing. We describe the most important aspects of AFs, in particular their dimensional type system, on which are based pattern-based random generators, heuristics, and rewriting rules. We show how AFs generalize or improve previous approaches used in feature generation. We report on several projects using AFs for difficult audio classification tasks, demonstrating their advantage over standard audio features. More generally, we propose analytical features as a paradigm to bring raw signals into the world of symbolic computation.

  8. Guilt by Association: The 13 micron Dust Feature in Circumstellar Shells and Related Spectral Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, G. C.; Kraemer, K. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Price, S. D.

    A study of spectra from the SWS on ISO of optically thin oxygen-rich dust shells shows that the strength of the 13 micron dust emission feature is correlated with the CO2 bands (13--17 microns) and dust emission features at 19.8 and 28.1 microns. SRb variables tend to show stronger 13 micron features than Mira variables, suggesting that the presence of the 13 micron and related features depends on pulsation mode and mass-loss rate. The absence of any correlation to dust emission features at 16.8 and 32 microns makes spinel an unlikely carrier. The most plausible carrier of the 13 micron feature remains crystalline alumina, and we suggest that the related dust features may be crystalline silicates. When dust forms in regions of low density, it may condense into crystalline grain structures.

  9. Young Debris Disks With Newly Discovered Emission Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballering, N.

    2014-04-01

    We analyzed the Spitzer/IRS spectra of young A and F stars that host debris disks with previously unidentified silicate emission features. Such features probe small, warm dust grains in the inner regions of these young systems where terrestrial planet formation may be proceeding (Lisse et al. 2009). For most systems, these regions are too near their host star to be directly seen with high-contrast imaging and too warm to be imaged with submillimeter interferometers. Mid-infrared excess spectra - originating from the thermal emission of the debris disk dust - remain the best data to constrain the properties of the debris in these regions. For each target, we fit physically-motivated model spectra to the data. Typical spectra of unresolved debris disks are featureless and suffer severe degeneracies between the dust location and the grain properties; however, spectra with solid-state emission features provide significantly more information, allowing for a more accurate determination of the dust size, composition, and location (e.g. Chen et al. 2006; Olofsson et al. 2012). Our results shed light on the dynamic properties occurring in the terrestrial regions of these systems. For instance, the sizes of the smallest grains and the nature of the grain size distribution reveal whether the dust originates from steady-state collisional cascades or from stochastic collisions. The properties of the dust grains - such as their crystalline or amorphous structure - can inform us of grain processing mechanisms in the disk. The location of this debris illuminates where terrestrial planet forming activity is occurring. We used results from the Beta Pictoris - which has a well-resolved debris disk with emission features (Li et al. 2012) - to place our results in context. References: Chen et al. 2006, ApJS, 166, 351 Li et al. 2012, ApJ, 759, 81 Lisse et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 2019 Olofsson et al. 2012, A&A, 542, A90

  10. Analysis of a cryolava flow-like feature on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Corre L.; Le, Mouelic S.; Sotin, Christophe; Combe, J.-P.; Rodriguez, S.; Barnes, J.W.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Jaumann, R.; Soderblom, J.; Soderblom, L.A.; Clark, R.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the analysis of the highest spatial resolution hyperspectral images acquired by the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft during its prime mission. A bright area matches a flow-like feature coming out of a caldera-like feature observed in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data recorded by the Cassini radar experiment [Lopes et al., 2007. Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper. Icarus 186, 395-412, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.09.006]. In this SAR image, the flow extends about 160 km east of the caldera. The contrast in brightness between the flow and the surroundings progressively vanishes, suggesting alteration or evolution of the composition of the cryolava during the lifetime of the eruptions. Dunes seem to cover part of this flow on its eastern end. We analyze the different terrains using the Spectral Mixing Analysis (SMA) approach of the Multiple-Endmember Linear Unmixing Model (MELSUM, Combe et al., 2008). The study area can be fully modeled by using only two types of terrains. Then, the VIMS spectra are compared with laboratory spectra of known materials in the relevant atmospheric windows (from 1 to 2.78 ??m). We considered simple molecules that could be produced during cryovolcanic events, including H2O, CO2 (using two different grain sizes), CH4 and NH3. We find that the mean spectrum of the cryoflow-like feature is not consistent with pure water ice. It can be best fitted by linear combinations of spectra of the candidate materials, showing that its composition is compatible with a mixture of H2O, CH4 and CO2.. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Whole-genome phylogeny of Escherichia coli/Shigella group by feature frequency profiles (FFPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Gregory E.; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2011-01-01

    A whole-genome phylogeny of the Escherichia coli/Shigella group was constructed by using the feature frequency profile (FFP) method. This alignment-free approach uses the frequencies of l-mer features of whole genomes to infer phylogenic distances. We present two phylogenies that accentuate different aspects of E. coli/Shigella genomic evolution: (i) one based on the compositions of all possible features of length l = 24 (∼8.4 million features), which are likely to reveal the phenetic grouping and relationship among the organisms and (ii) the other based on the compositions of core features with low frequency and low variability (∼0.56 million features), which account for ∼69% of all commonly shared features among 38 taxa examined and are likely to have genome-wide lineal evolutionary signal. Shigella appears as a single clade when all possible features are used without filtering of noncore features. However, results using core features show that Shigella consists of at least two distantly related subclades, implying that the subclades evolved into a single clade because of a high degree of convergence influenced by mobile genetic elements and niche adaptation. In both FFP trees, the basal group of the E. coli/Shigella phylogeny is the B2 phylogroup, which contains primarily uropathogenic strains, suggesting that the E. coli/Shigella ancestor was likely a facultative or opportunistic pathogen. The extant commensal strains diverged relatively late and appear to be the result of reductive evolution of genomes. We also identify clade distinguishing features and their associated genomic regions within each phylogroup. Such features may provide useful information for understanding evolution of the groups and for quick diagnostic identification of each phylogroup. PMID:21536867

  12. Cloud field classification based on textural features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sailes Kumar

    1989-01-01

    An essential component in global climate research is accurate cloud cover and type determination. Of the two approaches to texture-based classification (statistical and textural), only the former is effective in the classification of natural scenes such as land, ocean, and atmosphere. In the statistical approach that was adopted, parameters characterizing the stochastic properties of the spatial distribution of grey levels in an image are estimated and then used as features for cloud classification. Two types of textural measures were used. One is based on the distribution of the grey level difference vector (GLDV), and the other on a set of textural features derived from the MaxMin cooccurrence matrix (MMCM). The GLDV method looks at the difference D of grey levels at pixels separated by a horizontal distance d and computes several statistics based on this distribution. These are then used as features in subsequent classification. The MaxMin tectural features on the other hand are based on the MMCM, a matrix whose (I,J)th entry give the relative frequency of occurrences of the grey level pair (I,J) that are consecutive and thresholded local extremes separated by a given pixel distance d. Textural measures are then computed based on this matrix in much the same manner as is done in texture computation using the grey level cooccurrence matrix. The database consists of 37 cloud field scenes from LANDSAT imagery using a near IR visible channel. The classification algorithm used is the well known Stepwise Discriminant Analysis. The overall accuracy was estimated by the percentage or correct classifications in each case. It turns out that both types of classifiers, at their best combination of features, and at any given spatial resolution give approximately the same classification accuracy. A neural network based classifier with a feed forward architecture and a back propagation training algorithm is used to increase the classification accuracy, using these two classes

  13. Flow-like Features On Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows features on Jupiter's moon Europa that may be 'flows' from ice volcanoes. It was taken by the Galileo spacecraft solid state imaging (CCD) system during its seventh orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image. The sun illuminates the scene from the left, showing features with shapes similar to lava flows on Earth. Two such features can be seen in the northwest corner of the image. The southern feature appears to have flowed over a ridge along its western edge. Scientists use these types of relationships to determine which feature formed first. In this case, the ridge probably formed before the flow-like feature that covers it.The image, centered at 22.6 degrees north latitude and 106.7 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 180 by 215 kilometers (112 by 134 miles). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) across. This image was obtained on April 28, 1997, when Galileo was 27,590 kilometers (16,830 miles) from Europa.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  14. Single-cell genomics reveals features of a Colwellia species that was dominant during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia eMason

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume developed resulting in a rapid succession of bacteria. Colwellia eventually supplanted Oceanospirillales, which dominated the plume early in the spill. These successional changes may have resulted, in part, from the changing composition and abundance of hydrocarbons over time. Colwellia abundance peaked when gaseous and simple aromatic hydrocarbons increased, yet the metabolic pathway used by Colwellia in hydrocarbon disposition is unknown. Here we used single-cell genomics to gain insights into the genome properties of a Colwellia enriched during the DWH deep-sea plume. A single amplified genome (SAG of a Colwellia cell isolated from a DWH plume, closely related (avg. 98% 16S rRNA gene similarity to other plume Colwellia, was sequenced and annotated. The SAG was similar to the sequenced isolate Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H (84% avg. nucleotide identity. Both had genes for denitrification, chemotaxis and motility, adaptations to cold environments, and a suite of nutrient acquisition genes. The Colwellia SAG may be capable of gaseous and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, which contrasts with a DWH plume Oceanospirillales SAG genome which encoded non-gaseous n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. The disparate hydrocarbon degradation pathways are consistent with hydrocarbons that were abundant at different times in the deep-sea plume; first, non-gaseous n-alkanes and cycloalkanes that could be degraded by Oceanospirillales, followed by gaseous, and simple aromatic hydrocarbons that may have been degraded by Colwellia. These insights into the genomic properties of a Colwellia species, which were supported by existing metagenomic sequence data from the plume and DWH contaminated sediments, help further our understanding of the successional changes in the dominant microbial players in the plume over the course of the DWH spill.

  15. Complete genome sequence of Brachyspira intermedia reveals unique genomic features in Brachyspira species and phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Brachyspira spp. colonize the intestines of some mammalian and avian species and show different degrees of enteropathogenicity. Brachyspira intermedia can cause production losses in chickens and strain PWS/AT now becomes the fourth genome to be completed in the genus Brachyspira. Results 15 classes of unique and shared genes were analyzed in B. intermedia, B. murdochii, B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. The largest number of unique genes was found in B. intermedia and B. murdochii. This indicates the presence of larger pan-genomes. In general, hypothetical protein annotations are overrepresented among the unique genes. A 3.2 kb plasmid was found in B. intermedia strain PWS/AT. The plasmid was also present in the B. murdochii strain but not in nine other Brachyspira isolates. Within the Brachyspira genomes, genes had been translocated and also frequently switched between leading and lagging strands, a process that can be followed by different AT-skews in the third positions of synonymous codons. We also found evidence that bacteriophages were being remodeled and genes incorporated into them. Conclusions The accessory gene pool shapes species-specific traits. It is also influenced by reductive genome evolution and horizontal gene transfer. Gene-transfer events can cross both species and genus boundaries and bacteriophages appear to play an important role in this process. A mechanism for horizontal gene transfer appears to be gene translocations leading to remodeling of bacteriophages in combination with broad tropism. PMID:21816042

  16. Complete avian malaria parasite genomes reveal features associated with lineage-specific evolution in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Ulrike; Otto, Thomas D.; Cotton, James A.; Steinbiss, Sascha; Sanders, Mandy; Oyola, Samuel O.; Nicot, Antoine; Gandon, Sylvain; Patra, Kailash P.; Herd, Colin; Bushell, Ellen; Modrzynska, Katarzyna K.; Billker, Oliver; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Rivero, Ana; Newbold, Chris I.; Berriman, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites are prevalent around the world and infect a wide diversity of bird species. Here, we report the sequencing and analysis of high-quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum. We identify 50 genes that are specific to avian malaria, located in an otherwise conserved core of the genome that shares gene synteny with all other sequenced malaria genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the avian malaria species form an outgroup to the mammalian Plasmodium species, and using amino acid divergence between species, we estimate the avian- and mammalian-infective lineages diverged in the order of 10 million years ago. Consistent with their phylogenetic position, we identify orthologs of genes that had previously appeared to be restricted to the clades of parasites containing Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, the species with the greatest impact on human health. From these orthologs, we explore differential diversifying selection across the genus and show that the avian lineage is remarkable in the extent to which invasion-related genes are evolving. The subtelomeres of the P. relictum and P. gallinaceum genomes contain several novel gene families, including an expanded surf multigene family. We also identify an expansion of reticulocyte binding protein homologs in P. relictum, and within these proteins, we detect distinct regions that are specific to nonhuman primate, humans, rodent, and avian hosts. For the first time in the Plasmodium lineage, we find evidence of transposable elements, including several hundred fragments of LTR-retrotransposons in both species and an apparently complete LTR-retrotransposon in the genome of P. gallinaceum. PMID:29500236

  17. Personalized Proteome Profiles of Healthy and Tumor Human Colon Organoids Reveal Both Individual Diversity and Basic Features of Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristobal, Alba; van den Toorn, Henk W.P.; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans; Heck, Albert J R; Mohammed, Shabaz

    2017-01-01

    Diseases at the molecular level are complex and patient dependent, necessitating development of strategies that enable precision treatment to optimize clinical outcomes. Organoid technology has recently been shown to have the potential to recapitulate the in vivo characteristics of the original

  18. Personalized Proteome Profiles of Healthy and Tumor Human Colon Organoids Reveal Both Individual Diversity and Basic Features of Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cristobal Gonzalez de Durana, Alba|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338769706; van den Toorn, Henk W P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31093205X; van de Wetering, Marc; Clevers, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07164282X; Heck, Albert J R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Mohammed, Shabaz|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483632X

    2017-01-01

    Diseases at the molecular level are complex and patient dependent, necessitating development of strategies that enable precision treatment to optimize clinical outcomes. Organoid technology has recently been shown to have the potential to recapitulate the in vivo characteristics of the original

  19. 18F-FDG PET radiomics approaches: comparing and clustering features in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Rahman, Tasmiah; Yamamoto, Makoto; Yamada, Shizuka; Tsuyoshi, Hideaki; Kiyono, Yasushi; Kimura, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Yoshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2017-11-01

    differences in histological architecture between cervical cancer subtypes. PET radiomics approaches reveal the association between PET features and will be useful for finding a single feature or a combination of features leading to precise diagnoses, potential prognostic models, and effective therapeutic strategies.

  20. Feature and Region Selection for Visual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ji; Wang, Liantao; Cabral, Ricardo; De la Torre, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Visual learning problems, such as object classification and action recognition, are typically approached using extensions of the popular bag-of-words (BoWs) model. Despite its great success, it is unclear what visual features the BoW model is learning. Which regions in the image or video are used to discriminate among classes? Which are the most discriminative visual words? Answering these questions is fundamental for understanding existing BoW models and inspiring better models for visual recognition. To answer these questions, this paper presents a method for feature selection and region selection in the visual BoW model. This allows for an intermediate visualization of the features and regions that are important for visual learning. The main idea is to assign latent weights to the features or regions, and jointly optimize these latent variables with the parameters of a classifier (e.g., support vector machine). There are four main benefits of our approach: 1) our approach accommodates non-linear additive kernels, such as the popular χ(2) and intersection kernel; 2) our approach is able to handle both regions in images and spatio-temporal regions in videos in a unified way; 3) the feature selection problem is convex, and both problems can be solved using a scalable reduced gradient method; and 4) we point out strong connections with multiple kernel learning and multiple instance learning approaches. Experimental results in the PASCAL VOC 2007, MSR Action Dataset II and YouTube illustrate the benefits of our approach.